WorldWideScience

Sample records for ccs-enabled unconventional fossil

  1. The future of oil: unconventional fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Kenneth J

    2014-01-13

    Unconventional fossil hydrocarbons fall into two categories: resource plays and conversion-sourced hydrocarbons. Resource plays involve the production of accumulations of solid, liquid or gaseous hydro-carbons that have been generated over geological time from organic matter in source rocks. The character of these hydrocarbons may have been modified subsequently, especially in the case of solids and extra-heavy liquids. These unconventional hydrocarbons therefore comprise accumulations of hydrocarbons that are trapped in an unconventional manner and/or whose economic exploitation requires complex and technically advanced production methods. This review focuses primarily on unconventional liquid hydro-carbons. The future potential of unconventional gas, especially shale gas, is also discussed, as it is revolutionizing the energy outlook in North America and elsewhere.

  2. Field Observations of Methane Emissions from Unconventional and Conventional Fossil Fuel Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M.; Lindenmaier, R.; Arata, C.; Costigan, K. R.; Frankenberg, C.; Kort, E. A.; Rahn, T. A.; Henderson, B. G.; Love, S. P.; Aubrey, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Energy from methane (CH4) has lower carbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions per unit energy produced than coal or oil making it a desirable fossil fuel. Hydraulic fracturing is allowing United States to harvest the nation's abundant domestic shale gas reservoirs to achieve energy independence. However, CH4 is a gas that is hard to contain during mining, processing, transport and end-use. Therefore fugitive CH4 leaks occur that are reported in bottom up inventories by the EPA. Recent targeted field observations at selected plays have provided top down CH4 leak estimates that are larger than the reported EPA inventories. Furthermore, no long-term regional baselines are available to delineate leaks from unconventional mining operations from historical conventional mining. We will report and compare observations of fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional and unconventional mining to understand changes from technology shifts. We will report in situ and regional column measurements of CH4, its isotopologue 13CH4 and ethane (C2H6) at our Four Corners site near Farmington, NM. The region has substantial coal bed methane, conventional oil and gas production, processing and distribution with minimal hydraulic fracturing activity. We observe large enhancements in in situ and regional column CH4 with distinct time dependence. Our in situ 13CH4 observations and remote C2H6/CH4 provide strong evidence of thermogenic sources. Comparisons of WRF-simulations with emissions inventory (Edgar) with our observations show that the fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional mining are 3 times greater than reported. We also compare in situ mobile surveys of fugitive CH4 and 13CH4 leak signals in basins with conventional (San Juan) mining and unconventional (Permian and Powder River) mining. A large number of active and closed wells were sampled in these regions. Furthermore, play scale surveys on public roads allowed us to gain a regional perspective. The composition of atmospheric 13CH4

  3. Multiregional environmental comparison of fossil fuel power generation-Assessment of the contribution of fugitive emissions from conventional and unconventional fossil resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Evert A.; Ramirez, Andrea; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of fugitive methane emissions from coal, natural gas, and shale gas extraction on the greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of fossil fuel power generation through its life cycle. A multiregional hybridized life cycle assessment (LCA) model is used to evaluate sever

  4. Unconventional Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marinescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of leadership change symbolizes the existence of the organization.Most assuredly, this is not a matter of change at all costs, but rather of increasing organizational performance and training people. As leadership is a creative activity, in this paper, we aim to show that the unconventional is closely connected to creativity. From the perspective of interpersonal relationships the leader has to continually create contexts in which people can express themselves. On the one hand, the success of leaders is contingent on the moment the development of their personal career starts. On the other hand, the team is thus given the opportunity to develop. In order for people in an organization to acknowledge a leader’s point of view, it is essential that the latter be compelling. From our point of view, most unconventional leaders possess an informal educational component which allows them to reveal their true potential without any constraints. When we talk about potential we have the native constituent in mind, whence we can adduce a few terms that define realities such as: multiple intelligence, emotional intelligence, social intelligence,adaptive intelligence, spiritual intelligence. The examples that we share in this paper, regarding the development of projects and organizational systems, state the ways in which unconventional leadership can occur. The unconventional leader will be ingenious, innovative, creative, charismatic, a finalizer and an example in the eyes of the team.

  5. Unconventional natural gas. Worldwide resources and developments of a ''Hope for the future'' amongst the fossil energy resources; Nicht-konventionelles Erdgas. Weltweite Ressourcen und Entwicklungen eines >>Hoffnungstraegers<< unter den fossilen Energierohstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andruleit, H.; Rempel, H.; Messner, J.; Babies, H.G.; Schmidt, S.; Cramer, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Schloemer, S.

    2010-07-15

    Unconventional natural gas has led to a paradigm shift in the USA. Instead of increasing LNG imports, domestic resources now supply the national markets. Outside North America present activities exploring unconventional natural gas resources are mostly still in their infancy. Nevertheless, in Europe expectations in shale gas are high, too. Worldwide resources of unconventional gas are large and exceed the known potential of conventional gas. However, the development of these new resource needs greater efforts and the application of new technologies. While tight and shale gas already contribute significantly to gas production, an economic use of natural gas from aquifers is presently not in sight. Production of coalbed natural gas is partly subsidised, whereas gas hydrates are still lacking the proof of sustained economic profitability. Altogether, due to the widespread occurrence of unconventional natural gas in countries with low domestic gas resources, the world map of gas may change in the future. (orig.)

  6. Unconventional Quantum Computing Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Seth

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates a variety of unconventional quantum computation devices, including fermionic quantum computers and computers that exploit nonlinear quantum mechanics. It is shown that unconventional quantum computing devices can in principle compute some quantities more rapidly than `conventional' quantum computers.

  7. UNCONVENTIONAL MONETARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIACONESCU DIANA RALUCA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Central banks in advanced economies have deployed a variety of unconventional policies during the crisis. It can be seen that the central banks have been mostly successful at achieving their objectives and that spillover to other countries have—thus far at least—been benign overall. Also it can be considered that using unconventional measures may be appropriate in some circumstances, but also they can have disadvantages and all the benefits for using such measures need to be balanced against potential costs. Prior to the crisis the monetary policy was implemented by central banks in a predictable and systematic way, and its transmission mechanism was understood by the economic agents. A transparent central bank reaction function (or broad rule guided market expectations of future interest rates. After the crisis appeared, the central banks from developed countries applied unconventional tools1 to address two important objectives: first one is to restore the proper functioning of financial markets and intermediation, and second one is to provide further monetary policy accommodation. Both these objectives need to support financial stability, including the diminishing big risks in acute phases of the crisis (collapse of the financial system, depression, and deflation. This paper reviews recent experience with these policies and considers issues related to their continued use in the future in the Romanian economy. It will be a tentative to explain how to avoid liquidity trap2 or get out of it – these also can be seen in the Romanian economy in the last few years.

  8. Unconventional, High-Efficiency Propulsors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    The development of ship propellers has generally been characterized by search for propellers with as high efficiency as possible and at the same time low noise and vibration levels and little or no cavitation. This search has lead to unconventional propulsors, like vane-wheel propulsors, contra......-rotating propellers, propeller-and-stator-blade propulsors, and also to propellers with unconventional geometry, like propellers with end plates and tip-fin or Kappel propellers. The paper starts with a short overview of the different unconventional, high-efficiency propulsors. The emphasis is laid on the background......, development and current state of development of tip-fin propellers....

  9. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  10. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2015 Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper includes 10 summaries for energy resource commodities including coal and unconventional resources, and an analysis of energy economics and technology prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. Such resources include coalbed methane, oil shale, U and Th deposits and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest, geothermal, gas shale and liquids, tight gas sands, gas hydrates, and bitumen and heavy oil. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy resource commodity in the topical sections of this report, followed by analysis of unconventional energy economics and technology

  11. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2015 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2015-12-15

    This paper includes 10 summaries for energy resource commodities including coal and unconventional resources, and an analysis of energy economics and technology prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. Such resources include coalbed methane, oil shale, U and Th deposits and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest, geothermal, gas shale and liquids, tight gas sands, gas hydrates, and bitumen and heavy oil. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy resource commodity in the topical sections of this report, followed by analysis of unconventional energy economics and technology.

  12. Annual Report: Unconventional Fossil Energy Resource Program (30 September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Yee; Guthrie, George

    2014-03-11

    Yee Soong, Technical Coordinator, George Guthrie, Focus Area Lead, UFER Annual Report, NETL-TRS-UFER-2013, NETL Technical Report Series, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, 2013, p 14.

  13. Unconventional Commodities – Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Schileru

    2005-01-01

    The author of this work reveals a few of the processes from contemporary economy which require the reorganization of commodities offer. The globalism, the free trade, the buyer’s emancipation and other processes, they all generate conditions for the unconventional’s affirmation within the reality - „commodities”. Situations where unconventional appears are presented along with implications and exemplifications. The research of the unconventional regarding the trade-commodity presents a large ...

  14. Fossil fuels and clean, plentiful energy in the 21st century: the example of coal

    OpenAIRE

    Jaccard, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Many people believe we must quickly wean ourselves from fossil fuels to save the planet from environmental catastrophe, wars and economic collapse. However, we have the technological capability to use fossil fuels without emitting climate-threatening greenhouse gases or other pollutants. The natural transition from conventional oil and gas to unconventional oil, unconventional gas and coal for producing electricity, hydrogen and cleaner-burning fuels will decrease energy dependence on politic...

  15. Proceedings of the 8. annual unconventional gas conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issues related to the state of the oil and gas industry in Canada were discussed at this conference, with particular reference to the importance of unconventional gas to the industry. The trend to substitute fossil fuels with alternatives that do not threaten the environment has resulted in a transition from conventional fossil fuels to unconventional oil, gas and coal for producing electricity, hydrogen and cleaner burning fuels. As new technologies emerge for evaluating the resource potential of coalbed methane, unconventional gas is quickly becoming a major new source of energy in Canada. Strategies for commercial CBM production in Canada were also presented along with the role of technology to achieve synergies and maintain growth. The dependence of natural gas in oil sands development was emphasized. Investment in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation in central Alberta was shown to have an economic impact in terms of government revenues, employment and gross domestic product. The sessions of the conference dealt with topical issues such as industry challenges; shale gas; understanding the land and community engagement; technology resources; best management practices; and, case studies. The conference featured 30 presentations, of which 14 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

    2014-08-01

    The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety. PMID:24816999

  17. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2013 Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains nine unconventional energy resource commodity summaries and an analysis of energy economics prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. These resources include coal, coalbed methane, gas hydrates, tight-gas sands, gas shale and shale oil, geothermal resources, oil sands, oil shale, and U and Th resources and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy commodity in the topical sections of this report

  18. Theory of disordered unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keles, A.; Andreev, A. V.; Spivak, B. Z., E-mail: spivak@uw.edu [University of Washington, Department of Physics (United States); Kivelson, S. A. [Stanford University, Department of Physics (United States)

    2014-12-15

    In contrast to conventional s-wave superconductivity, unconventional (e.g., p- or d-wave) superconductivity is strongly suppressed even by relatively weak disorder. Upon approaching the superconductormetal transition, the order parameter amplitude becomes increasingly inhomogeneous, leading to effective granularity and a phase ordering transition described by the Mattis model of spin glasses. One consequence of this is that at sufficiently low temperatures, between the clean unconventional superconducting and the diffusive metallic phases, there is necessarily an intermediate superconducting phase that exhibits s-wave symmetry on macroscopic scales.

  19. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2011 Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains nine unconventional energy resource commodity summaries prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. These resources include coal, coalbed methane, gas hydrates, tight gas sands, gas shale and shale oil, geothermal resources, oil sands, oil shale, and uranium resources. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy commodity in the topical sections of this report. Coal and uranium are expected to supply a significant portion of the world’s energy mix in coming years. Coalbed methane continues to supply about 9% of the U.S. gas production and exploration is expanding in other countries. Recently, natural gas produced from shale and low-permeability (tight) sandstone has made a significant contribution to the energy supply of the United States and is an increasing target for exploration around the world. In addition, oil from shale and heavy oil from sandstone are a new exploration focus in many areas (including the Green River area of Wyoming and northern Alberta). In recent years, research in the areas of geothermal energy sources and gas hydrates has continued to advance. Reviews of the current research and the stages of development of these unconventional energy resources are described in the various sections of this report.

  20. Unconventional neurotransmitters, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection

    OpenAIRE

    M. Leonelli; A.S. Torrão; L.R.G. Britto

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are also involved in functions other than conventional signal transfer between nerve cells, such as development, plasticity, neurodegeneration, and neuroprotection. For example, there is a considerable amount of data indicating developmental roles for the glutamatergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABA-ergic, and ATP/adenosine systems. In this review, we discuss the existing literature on these "new" functions of neurotransmitters in relation to some unconventional neurotrans...

  1. Unconventional secretion by autophagosome exocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2010-01-01

    In this issue, Duran et al. (2010. J. Cell Biol. doi: 10.1083/jcb.200911154) and Manjithaya et al. (2010. J. Cell Biol. doi: 10.1083/jcb.200911149) use yeast genetics to reveal a role for autophagosome intermediates in the unconventional secretion of an acyl coenzyme A (CoA)–binding protein that lacks an endoplasmic reticulum signal sequence. Medium-chain acyl CoAs are also required and may be important for substrate routing to this pathway.

  2. Conventional and Unconventional World Natural Gas Resources. Proceedings of the Fifth IIASA Conference on Energy Resources

    OpenAIRE

    DELAHAYE, C.; M. Grenon

    1983-01-01

    Against a background of increasing energy demands and diminishing reserves of fossil fuels there is a clear need to intensify the search for conventional fuels and also to identify and develop new and unconventional energy technologies. But when trying to obtain a relatively complete picture of the level and distribution of energy resources around the world, information on petroleum reserves (oil and gas) is particularly difficult to obtain. The Fifth IIASA Conference on Energy Resources fo...

  3. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  4. Electronic transport in unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, M.J.

    1998-12-31

    The author investigates the electron transport coefficients in unconventional superconductors at low temperatures, where charge and heat transport are dominated by electron scattering from random lattice defects. He discusses the features of the pairing symmetry, Fermi surface, and excitation spectrum which are reflected in the low temperature heat transport. For temperatures {kappa}{sub B}T {approx_lt} {gamma} {much_lt} {Delta}{sub 0}, where {gamma} is the bandwidth of impurity induced Andreev states, certain eigenvalues become universal, i.e., independent of the impurity concentration and phase shift. Deep in the superconducting phase ({kappa}{sub B}T {approx_lt} {gamma}) the Wiedemann-Franz law, with Sommerfeld`s value of the Lorenz number, is recovered. He compares the results for theoretical models of unconventional superconductivity in high-{Tc} and heavy fermion superconductors with experiment. The findings show that impurities are a sensitive probe of the low-energy excitation spectrum, and that the zero-temperature limit of the transport coefficients provides an important test of the order parameter symmetry.

  5. Dynamical properties of unconventional magnetic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helgesen, G. [ed.

    1997-05-01

    The Advanced Study Institute addressed the current experimental and theoretical knowledge of the dynamical properties of unconventional magnetic systems including low-dimensional and mesoscopic magnetism, unconventional ground state, quantum magnets and soft matter. The main approach in this Advanced Study Institute was to obtain basic understanding of co-operative phenomena, fluctuations and excitations in the wide range unconventional magnetic systems now being fabricated or envisioned. The report contains abstracts for lectures, invited seminars and posters, together with a list of the 95 participants from 24 countries with e-mail addresses

  6. Heat conduction in unconventional superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Benoit

    Thermal conductivity is an excellent probe of quasiparticle excitations in superconductors both in the normal and superconducting state. We have applied this technique to the study of two unconventional superconductors, namely the heavy fermion superconductor UPtsb3 and the high-Tsb{c} cuprate YBasb2Cusb3Osb{7-delta}. In the case of UPtsb3, after reviewing previous low temperature thermal conductivity measurements, we show that, for our high quality single crystals, the thermal conductivity is totally dominated by electrons and therefore provides a direct probe of the superconducting gap structure. We demonstrate that our measurements of the anisotropy of heat conduction between b-axis and c-axis in this hexagonal crystal provide strong constraints with respect to the possible gap structures inferred by group theoretical arguments. By comparing our results with recent theoretical calculations, we show that a hybrid II gap structure provides good agreement between theory and experiments favoring an order parameter of Esb{2u} (strong spin-orbit coupling) or Asb{2u} (weak spin-orbit coupling) symmetry. For YBasb2Cusb3Osb{7-delta}, the thermal conductivity typically consists of both a phononic and an electronic contribution. After reviewing low temperature thermal conductivity measurements that address this question, we demonstrate the presence of electronic quasiparticles even at temperatures of {˜}Tsb{c}/1000, a clear indication of an unconventional gap structure. We then proceed to discuss zinc doping studies in YBasb2Cusb3Osb{7-delta} and show that we find a universal residual linear term at T=0 of a magnitude very close in value to that predicted by recent theories. These results validate the approach of resonant impurity scattering in the high-Tsb{c}, and our excellent agreement with theory reinforces the view that the gap structure in YBasb2Cusb3Osb{7-delta} is of dsb{xsp2-ysp2} symmetry. Finally, we present neutron scattering results in UPtsb3. In this chapter

  7. Dynamical contents of unconventional supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Alfredo; Pais, Pablo; Zanelli, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    The Dirac Hamiltonian formalism is applied to a system in (2 + 1)-dimensions consisting of a Dirac field ψ minimally coupled to Chern-Simons U(1) and SO(2, 1) connections, A and ω, respectively. This theory is connected to a supersymmetric Chern-Simons form in which the gravitino has been projected out (unconventional supersymmetry) and, in the case of a flat background, corresponds to the low energy limit of graphene. The separation between first-class and second-class constraints is performed explicitly, and both the field equations and gauge symmetries of the Lagrangian formalism are fully recovered. The degrees of freedom of the theory in generic sectors shows that the propagating states correspond to fermionic modes in the background determined by the geometry of the graphene sheet and the nondynamical electromagnetic field. This is shown for the following canonical sectors: i) a conformally invariant generic description where the spinor field and the dreibein are locally rescaled; ii) a specific configuration for the Dirac fermion consistent with its spin, where Weyl symmetry is exchanged by time reparametrizations; iii) the vacuum sector ψ = 0, which is of interest for perturbation theory. For the latter the analysis is adapted to the case of manifolds with boundary, and the corresponding Dirac brackets together with the centrally extended charge algebra are found. Finally, the SU(2) generalization of the gauge group is briefly treated, yielding analogous conclusions for the degrees of freedom.

  8. Dynamical Contents of Unconventional Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Guevara, Alfredo; Zanelli, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The Dirac Hamiltonian formalism is applied to a system in $(2+1)$-dimensions consisting of a Dirac field $\\psi$ minimally coupled to Chern-Simons $U(1)$ and $SO(2,1)$ connections, $A$ and $\\omega$, respectively. This theory is connected to a supersymmetric Chern-Simons form in which the gravitino has been projected out (unconventional supersymmetry) and, in the case of a flat background, corresponds to the low energy limit of graphene. The separation between first-class and second-class constraints is performed explicitly, and both the field equations and gauge symmetries of the Lagrangian formalism are fully recovered. The degrees of freedom of the theory in generic sectors shows that the propagating states correspond to fermionic modes in the background determined by the geometry of the graphene sheet and the nondynamical electromagnetic field. This is shown for the following canonical sectors: i) a conformally invariant generic description where the spinor field and the dreibein are locally rescaled; ii) a...

  9. Theoretical studies of unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groensleth, Martin Sigurd

    2008-07-01

    This thesis presents four research papers. In the first three papers we have derived analytical results for the transport properties in unconventional superconductors and ferromagnetic systems with multiple broken symmetries. In Paper I and parts of Paper II we have studied tunneling transport between two non-unitary ferromagnetic spin-triplet superconductors, and found a novel interplay between ferromagnetism and superconductivity manifested in the Josephson effect as a spin- and charge-current in the absence of an applied voltage across the junction. The critical amplitudes of these currents can be adjusted by the relative magnetization direction on each side of the junction. Furthermore, in Paper II, we have found a way of controlling a spin-current between two ferromagnets with spin-orbit coupling. Paper III considers a junction consisting of a ferromagnet and a non-unitary ferromagnetic superconductor, and we show that the conductance spectra contains detailed information about the superconducting gaps and pairing symmetry of the Cooper-pairs. In the last paper we present a Monte Carlo study of an effective Hamiltonian describing orbital currents in the CuO2 layers of high-temperature superconductive cuprates. The model features two intrinsically anisotropic Ising models, coupled through an anisotropic next-nearest neighbor interaction, and an Ashkin-Teller nearest neighbor fourth order coupling. We have studied the specific heat anomaly, as well as the anomaly in the staggered magnetization associated with the orbital currents and its susceptibility. We have found that in a limited parameter regime, the specific heat anomaly is substantially suppressed, while the susceptibility has a non-analytical peak across the order-disorder transition. The model is therefore a candidate for describing the breakup of hidden order when crossing the pseudo-gap line on the under-doped side in the phase diagram of high-temperature superconductors. (Author) 64 refs., figs

  10. Development of unconventional forming methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rusz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Paper presents results of progress ECAP processing method for UFG structure reached (gained.The properties and microstructure are influenced by technological factors during application ECAP method.Design/methodology/approach: Summary of methods studied on Department of technology at Machining faculty of VŠB-TU Ostrava through of co-operation with Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology is presented.Findings: Achievement of ultra-fine grained structure in initial material leads to substantial increase of plasticity and makes it possible to form materials in conditions of „superplastic state“. Achievement of the required structure depends namely of the tool geometry, number of passes through the matrix, obtained deformation magnitude and strain rate, process temperature and lubrication conditions. High deformation at comparatively low homologous temperatures is an efficient method of production of ultra-fine grained solid materials.The new technologies, which use severe plastic deformation, comprise namely these techniques: High Pressure Torsion, Equal Channel Angular Pressing = ECAP, Cyclic Channel Die Compression = CCDC, Cyclic Extrusion Compression = CEC, Continuous Extrusion Forming = CONFORM, Accumulative Roll Bonding, Constrained Groove Pressing.Research limitations/implications: Achieved hardness and microstructure characteristics will be determined by new research.Practical implications: The results may be utilized for a relation between structure and properties of the investigated materials in future process of manufacturing.Originality/value: These results contribute to complex evaluation of properties new metals after application unconventional forming methods. The results of this paper are determined for research workers deal by the process severe plastic deformation.

  11. Management of fossil natural resources: the impossible challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of articles addresses various issues related to fossil energies and resources. A first set addresses the general context of fossil resources: the forced wedding between fossil energies and the environment (discussion of an annual report by the IEA on coal reserves), the availability of fossil fuels (discussion about the high share of fossil fuel in an always more renewable world). A second set addresses how to transform resources into reserves: discussion of the annual IEA report on conventional oil and gas reserves, on unconventional oil and gas reserves, and on coal reserves. The next set is a prospective one, and addresses the question of a scenario by 2040: the extremely high tension between fossil resources and geopolitical reality, and the question of the possibility of a world energy transition (discussions of the World Energy Outlook published by the IEA). Other issues are addressed by the last set of articles: the abundance of fossil energies obscures the potential of renewable energies, the evolution of the chemical industry towards alternative solutions in order to limit the use of hydrocarbons, and the territorial claims by Russia in the Arctic region

  12. Unconventional Monetary Policy and Money Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Dreger, Christian; Wolters, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the usefulness of the money demand relationship in times of unconventional monetary policies by cointegration methods. In contrast to the bulk of the literature, evidence in favour of a stable long run money demand function is presented both for the US and the euro area. Results are based on standard monetary aggregates, i.e. MZM for the US and M3 in case of the euro area. The recent monetary policy shifts towards unconventional measures did not introduce instability i...

  13. Unconventional Resources Lure Chinese Oil Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yong; Song Chengli

    2010-01-01

    @@ Development of section fits with the nation's move to use clean energy China has also commenced the exploration and development of flammable gas both onshore and offshore.The country is currently at the preliminary stage in the use of these unconventional gases, but these clean energies will become "effective substitutes" for natural gas.

  14. Intergas `95: International unconventional gas symposium. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The International Unconventional Gas Symposium was held on May 14--20, 1995 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama where 52 reports were presented. These reports are grouped in this proceedings under: geology and resources; mine degasification and safety; international developments; reservoir characterization/coal science; and environmental/legal and regulatory. Each report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. GRAVITATIONAL LENSES AND UNCONVENTIONAL GRAVITY THEORIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEKENSTEIN, JD; SANDERS, RH

    1994-01-01

    We study gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies in the context of the generic class of unconventional gravity theories which describe gravity in terms of a metric and one or more scalar fields (called here scalar-tensor theories). We conclude that, if the scalar fields have positive energy, t

  16. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  17. Microbial Biotechnology 2020; microbiology of fossil fuel resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

    2016-09-01

    This roadmap examines the future of microbiology research and technology in fossil fuel energy recovery. Globally, the human population will be reliant on fossil fuels for energy and chemical feedstocks for at least the medium term. Microbiology is already important in many areas relevant to both upstream and downstream activities in the oil industry. However, the discipline has struggled for recognition in a world dominated by geophysicists and engineers despite widely known but still poorly understood microbially mediated processes e.g. reservoir biodegradation, reservoir souring and control, microbial enhanced oil recovery. The role of microbiology is even less understood in developing industries such as shale gas recovery by fracking or carbon capture by geological storage. In the future, innovative biotechnologies may offer new routes to reduced emissions pathways especially when applied to the vast unconventional heavy oil resources formed, paradoxically, from microbial activities in the geological past. However, despite this potential, recent low oil prices may make industry funding hard to come by and recruitment of microbiologists by the oil and gas industry may not be a high priority. With regards to public funded research and the imperative for cheap secure energy for economic growth in a growing world population, there are signs of inherent conflicts between policies aimed at a low carbon future using renewable technologies and policies which encourage technologies which maximize recovery from our conventional and unconventional fossil fuel assets. PMID:27506422

  18. Unconventional energy resources: 2007-2008 review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes five 2007-2008 resource commodity committee reports prepared by the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Current United States and global research and development activities related to gas hydrates, gas shales, geothermal resources, oil sands, and uranium resources are included in this review. These commodity reports were written to advise EMD leadership and membership of the current status of research and development of unconventional energy resources. Unconventional energy resources are defined as those resources other than conventional oil and natural gas that typically occur in sandstone and carbonate rocks. Gas hydrate resources are potentially enormous; however, production technologies are still under development. Gas shale, geothermal, oil sand, and uranium resources are now increasing targets of exploration and development, and are rapidly becoming important energy resources that will continue to be developed in the future. ?? 2009 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  19. Comparison of unconventional aero engine architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Noppel, F. G.

    2011-01-01

    In the light of global warming, the associated socio economical consequences, and the projected shortage of natural energy resources and ever rising oil prices, this thesis examines the potential for unconventional aero engine architectures to reduce fuel consumption of passenger aircraft. Current aircraft engines are based on the Brayton cycle, where the working fluid successively experiences isentropic compression, isobaric combustion, and isentropic expansion. Deviations fro...

  20. Neutron scattering study of unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seunghun

    2014-06-30

    My group’s primary activity at the University of Virginia supported by DOE is to study novel electronic, magnetic, and structural phenomena that emerge out of strong interactions between electrons. Some of these phenomena are unconventional superconductivity, exotic states in frustrated magnets, quantum spin liquid states, and magneto-electricity. The outcome of our research funded by the grant advanced microscopic understanding of the emergence of the collective states in the systems.

  1. Unconventional techniques of fundus imaging: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh P Shanmugam; Divyansh Kailash Chandra Mishra; R. Rajesh; Madhukumar, R

    2015-01-01

    The methods of fundus examination include direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and imaging with a fundus camera are an essential part of ophthalmic practice. The usage of unconventional equipment such as a hand-held video camera, smartphone, and a nasal endoscope allows one to image the fundus with advantages and some disadvantages. The advantages of these instruments are the cost-effectiveness, ultra portability and ability to obtain images in a remote setting and share the same electronically...

  2. Unconventional high-Tc superconductivity in fullerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Yasuhiro; Prassides, Kosmas

    2016-09-13

    A3C60 molecular superconductors share a common electronic phase diagram with unconventional high-temperature superconductors such as the cuprates: superconductivity emerges from an antiferromagnetic strongly correlated Mott-insulating state upon tuning a parameter such as pressure (bandwidth control) accompanied by a dome-shaped dependence of the critical temperature, Tc However, unlike atom-based superconductors, the parent state from which superconductivity emerges solely by changing an electronic parameter-the overlap between the outer wave functions of the constituent molecules-is controlled by the C60 (3-) molecular electronic structure via the on-molecule Jahn-Teller effect influence of molecular geometry and spin state. Destruction of the parent Mott-Jahn-Teller state through chemical or physical pressurization yields an unconventional Jahn-Teller metal, where quasi-localized and itinerant electron behaviours coexist. Localized features gradually disappear with lattice contraction and conventional Fermi liquid behaviour is recovered. The nature of the underlying (correlated versus weak-coupling Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory) s-wave superconducting states mirrors the unconventional/conventional metal dichotomy: the highest superconducting critical temperature occurs at the crossover between Jahn-Teller and Fermi liquid metal when the Jahn-Teller distortion melts.This article is part of the themed issue 'Fullerenes: past, present and future, celebrating the 30th anniversary of Buckminster Fullerene'. PMID:27501971

  3. Fossil turbulence revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    1999-01-01

    A theory of fossil turbulence presented in the 11th Liege Colloquium on Marine turbulence is "revisited" in the 29th Liege Colloquium "Marine Turbulence Revisited". The Gibson (1980) theory applied universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as it is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Towed oceanic microstructure measurements of Schedvin (1979) confirmed the predicted universal constants. Universal constants, spectra, hydrodynamic phase diagrams (HPDs) and other predictions of the theory have been reconfirmed by a wide variety of field and laboratory observations. Fossil turbulence theory has many applications; for example, in marine biology, laboratory and field measurements suggest phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies differently by pattern recognition of several days of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times above thres...

  4. Unconventional wisdom: an economic analysis of US shale gas and implications for the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite very low and ultimately unsustainable short-term prices of natural gas, the unconventional oil and gas revolution has had a minimal impact on the US macro-economy. We provide an upper-optimistic-estimate of its long-term effect on the level of US GDP (not its long-term annual growth rate) at about 0.84% between 2012 and 2035. Compared to an annual growth rate of 1.4%, this long-term increase is small. And we estimate its short-term stimulus effects at 0.88% of GDP during the 2007/8 to 2012 downturn. The unconventional oil and gas revolution has also had a minimal impact on US manufacturing, confined to gas-intensive sectors, which we calculate as making up about 1.2% of US GDP. There is thus no evidence that shale gas is driving an overall manufacturing renaissance in the US. Absent further policies, the US shale revolution will not lead to a significant, sustained decarbonization of the US energy mix nor will it assure US energy security. A reference scenario based on current policies sees US emissions stagnant at current levels out to 2040, clearly insufficient for a reasonable US contribution to global climate change mitigation. Oil imports continue to rise in monetary terms. While it can promote some coal to gas switching in the short term if additional policies are enacted, there is also the risk that the unconventional oil and gas revolution further locks the US into an energy- and emissions-intensive capital stock. It is unlikely that the EU will repeat the US experience in terms of the scale of unconventional oil and gas production. Uncertainty exists around the exact size of exploitable EU shale gas reserves; a median scenario would see the EU producing about 3-10% of its gas demand from shale gas by 2030-2035. The EU's fossil fuel import dependency will therefore continue to increase and its fossil fuel prices will remain largely determined by international markets. Shale production would not have significant macro-economic or competitiveness

  5. Unconventional techniques of fundus imaging: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh P Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods of fundus examination include direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and imaging with a fundus camera are an essential part of ophthalmic practice. The usage of unconventional equipment such as a hand-held video camera, smartphone, and a nasal endoscope allows one to image the fundus with advantages and some disadvantages. The advantages of these instruments are the cost-effectiveness, ultra portability and ability to obtain images in a remote setting and share the same electronically. These instruments, however, are unlikely to replace the fundus camera but then would always be an additional arsenal in an ophthalmologist's armamentarium.

  6. Amplification Effects and Unconventional Monetary Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile BASTIDON GILLES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Global financial crises trigger off amplification effects, which allow relatively small shocks to propagate through the whole financial system. For this reason, the range of Central banks policies is now widening beyond conventional monetary policies and lending of last resort. The aim of this paper is to establish a rule for this practice. The model is based on the formalization of funding conditions in various types of markets. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “unconventional monetary policies”, and especially quantify government bonds purchases by the Central bank.

  7. Panorama 2011: Unconventional gas and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a number of years now, the rapid development of unconventional gas use in North America has been revolutionising the natural gas market. This generic term refers to several production types, such as tight gas, shale gas and coal bed methane. What they have in common is that the rock needs to be 'stimulated' in order to extract gas from it that can be commercially produced. These methods (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing) all involve sensible management of the water needed for gas production. (author)

  8. Collective excitations in unconventional superconductors and superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Brusov, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This is the first monograph that strives to give a complete and detailed description of the collective modes (CMs) in unconventional superfluids and superconductors (UCSF&SC). Using the most powerful method of modern theoretical physics - the path (functional) integral technique - authors build the three- and two-dimensional models for s -, p - and d -wave pairing in neutral as well as in charged Fermi-systems, models of superfluid Bose-systems and Fermi-Bose-mixtures. Within these models they study the collective properties of such systems as superfluid 3 He, superfluid 4 He, superfluid 3 He-

  9. Tapping methane hydrates for unconventional natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Methane hydrate is an icelike form of concentrated methane and water found in the sediments of permafrost regions and marine continental margins at depths far shallower than conventional oil and gas. Despite their relative accessibility and widespread occurrence, methane hydrates have never been tapped to meet increasing global energy demands. With rising natural gas prices, production from these unconventional gas deposits is becoming economically viable, particularly in permafrost areas already being exploited for conventional oil and gas. This article provides an overview of gas hydrate occurrence, resource assessment, exploration, production technologies, renewability, and future challenges.

  10. The age of unconventional gas: tight gas reservoirs; the potential economic impact and local industry reality check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the decline of production and increase in demand of fossil-fuel, economically producing gas from unconventional sources is a great challenge today. The large volume and long-term potential, attractive gas prices and unprecedented interest in world markets, brings the unconventional gas into the forefront of our energy future. An unconventional reservoir is one that cannot be produced as economic flow rates or that does not produce economic volumes of oil and gas without assistance from massive simulation treatments or special recovery processes and technologies, such as steam injection. Typical unconventional reservoirs are tight-gas sands, coal-bed methane, heavy oil and gas shales. Law and Curtis (2002) defined low-permeability (tight) reservoirs as having permeabilities less than 0.1 milidarcies. With a dimming possibility of economically viable alternative sources of energy in near future, ever widening gap between the energy demand and supply and the decline of production of conventional fossil-fuel, the thrust on unconventional sources of gas (tight Gas etc) is glowingly increasing world-over. With the successful marketing of natural gas as an environmentally-friendly fuel, demand of gas has increased sharply in the opening years of the 21st century. Some experts believe that gas consumption may exceed that of the oil by the year 2025. Tight reservoirs contain no natural fractures, and cannot be produced economically without hydraulic fracturing fractured, tight and unconventional reservoirs are often perceived as entailing higher costs and risks than conventional reservoirs. However, new technologies developed in recent years are making more and more of these accumulations economical. The U.S. currently produces substantial volumes of natural from tight sands, gas shales, and coalbed-methane reservoirs. The tight gas reservoirs till date have been greatly ignored as gas sources in South Asia(196 Trillion cu.ft of discovered reserves compared to 1371

  11. The International Impact of US Unconventional Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Chandler

    2015-01-01

    Using a structural factor-augmented vector autoregression model and a large data set of daily time series, we study the impact of US unconventional monetary policy on British and German financial markets. Our findings indicate that a surprise US unconventional monetary policy easing leads...

  12. Multiscale properties of unconventional reservoir rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, W. F.

    A multidisciplinary study of unconventional reservoir rocks is presented, providing the theory, forward modeling and Bayesian inverse modeling approaches, and laboratory protocols to characterize clay-rich, low porosity and permeability shales and mudstones within an anisotropic framework. Several physical models characterizing oil and gas shales are developed across multiple length scales, ranging from microscale phenomena, e.g. the effect of the cation exchange capacity of reactive clay mineral surfaces on water adsorption isotherms, and the effects of infinitesimal porosity compaction on elastic and electrical properties, to meso-scale phenomena, e.g. the role of mineral foliations, tortuosity of conduction pathways and the effects of organic matter (kerogen and hydrocarbon fractions) on complex conductivity and their connections to intrinsic electrical anisotropy, as well as the macro-scale electrical and elastic properties including formulations for the complex conductivity tensor and undrained stiffness tensor within the context of effective stress and poroelasticity. Detailed laboratory protocols are described for sample preparation and measurement of these properties using spectral induced polarization (SIP) and ultrasonics for the anisotropic characterization of shales for both unjacketed samples under benchtop conditions and jacketed samples under differential loading. An ongoing study of the effects of kerogen maturation through hydrous pyrolysis on the complex conductivity is also provided in review. Experimental results are catalogued and presented for various unconventional formations in North America including the Haynesville, Bakken, and Woodford shales.

  13. Geomechanical Properties of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad O. Eshkalak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production from unconventional reservoirs has gained an increased attention among operators in North America during past years and is believed to secure the energy demand for next decades. Economic production from unconventional reservoirs is mainly attributed to realizing the complexities and key fundamentals of reservoir formation properties. Geomechanical well logs (including well logs such as total minimum horizontal stress, Poisson’s ratio, and Young, shear, and bulk modulus are secured source to obtain these substantial shale rock properties. However, running these geomechanical well logs for the entire asset is not a common practice that is associated with the cost of obtaining these well logs. In this study, synthetic geomechanical well logs for a Marcellus shale asset located in southern Pennsylvania are generated using data-driven modeling. Full-field geomechanical distributions (map and volumes of this asset for five geomechanical properties are also created using general geostatistical methods coupled with data-driven modeling. The results showed that synthetic geomechanical well logs and real field logs fall into each other when the input dataset has not seen the real field well logs. Geomechanical distributions of the Marcellus shale improved significantly when full-field data is incorporated in the geostatistical calculations.

  14. Unconventional Protein Secretion in Animal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Fanny; Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells secrete a range of proteins in a constitutive or regulated manner through the conventional or canonical exocytic/secretory pathway characterized by vesicular traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum, through the Golgi apparatus, and towards the plasma membrane. However, a number of proteins are secreted in an unconventional manner, which are insensitive to inhibitors of conventional exocytosis and use a route that bypasses the Golgi apparatus. These include cytosolic proteins such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and membrane proteins that are known to also traverse to the plasma membrane by a conventional process of exocytosis, such as α integrin and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductor (CFTR). Mechanisms underlying unconventional protein secretion (UPS) are actively being analyzed and deciphered, and these range from an unusual form of plasma membrane translocation to vesicular processes involving the generation of exosomes and other extracellular microvesicles. In this chapter, we provide an overview on what is currently known about UPS in animal cells. PMID:27665549

  15. Fossils and decapod phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Frederick R.; Dixon, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    An expanded series of morphological characters developed for a cladistic analysis of extant decapods has yielded a new hypothesis for the phylogeny of the group. Application of this database to selected fossil genera produces some interesting results and demonstrates the feasibility of treating foss

  16. Fossil nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurette, M.

    1976-01-01

    The discussion of fossil nuclear reactors (the Oklo phenomenon) covers the earth science background, neutron-induced isotopes and reactor operating conditions, radiation-damage studies, and reactor modeling. In conclusion possible future studies are suggested and the significance of the data obtained in past studies is summarized. (JSR)

  17. Mineralization of fossil wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.

    1972-01-01

    Several pieces of fossil wood have been analyzed with X-ray diffraction and were grouped on the basis of mineralogical composition. Various mineralizations were studied in thin sections and by means of the scanning electron microscope. Wood-opals appear to show a structure preservation that points t

  18. Fossil energy research meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropschot, R. H.; Phillips, G. C.

    1977-12-01

    U.S. ERDA's research programs in fossil energy are reviewed with brief descriptions, budgets, etc. Of general interest are discussions related to the capabilities for such research of national laboratories, universities, energy centers, etc. Of necessity many items are treated briefly, but a general overview of the whole program is provided. (LTN)

  19. Unconventional superconductors anisotropy and multiband effects

    CERN Document Server

    Askerzade, Iman

    2012-01-01

    This book deals with the new class of materials unconventional superconductors, cuprate compounds, borocarbides, magnesium-diboride and oxypnictides. It gives a systematical review of physical properties of novel  superconductors. There is an increasing number of fundamental properties of these compounds which are relevant to future applications, opening new possibilities. The theoretical explanation is presented as generalization of Ginzburg-Landau phenomenology and microscopical Eliashberg theory for multiband and anisotropic superconductors. Various applications of this approachs and time dependent version of two-band Ginzburg-Landau theory are considered. An important topic are fluctuations in two-band and anisotropic superconductors. Significant  new results on current problems are presented to stimulate further research. Numerous illustrations, diagrams and tables make this book useful as a reference for students and researchers.

  20. Unconventional Fermi surface in an insulating state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tan, B. S. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hsu, Y. -T. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Zeng, B. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hatnean, M. Ciomaga [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Zhu, Z. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hartstein, M. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kiourlappou, M. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Srivastava, A. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Johannes, M. D. [Center for Computational Materials Science, Washington, DC (United States); Murphy, T. P. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Park, J. -H. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Balicas, L. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Lonzarich, G. G. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Balakrishnan, G. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Sebastian, Suchitra E. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-17

    Insulators occur in more than one guise; a recent finding was a class of topological insulators, which host a conducting surface juxtaposed with an insulating bulk. Here, we report the observation of an unusual insulating state with an electrically insulating bulk that simultaneously yields bulk quantum oscillations with characteristics of an unconventional Fermi liquid. We present quantum oscillation measurements of magnetic torque in high-purity single crystals of the Kondo insulator SmB6, which reveal quantum oscillation frequencies characteristic of a large three-dimensional conduction electron Fermi surface similar to the metallic rare earth hexaborides such as PrB6 and LaB6. As a result, the quantum oscillation amplitude strongly increases at low temperatures, appearing strikingly at variance with conventional metallic behavior.

  1. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental

  2. The Review of Interlanguage Fossilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霄露

    2011-01-01

    Interlanguage fossilization is a common phenomenon in second language acquisition. This paper reyiews the important achievements in the study of interlanguage fossilization, analyzing its definition, types and causes. And then find some ways to re- duce the interference of interlanguage fossilization in second language learning.

  3. Study of unconventional aircraft engines designed for low energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, R. E.; Hirschkron, R.; Johnston, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    A study of unconventional engine cycle concepts, which may offer significantly lower energy consumption than conventional subsonic transport turbofans, is described herein. A number of unconventional engine concepts were identified and parametrically studied to determine their relative fuel-saving potential. Based on results from these studies, regenerative, geared, and variable-boost turbofans, and combinations thereof, were selected along with advanced turboprop cycles for further evaluation and refinement. Preliminary aerodynamic and mechanical designs of these unconventional engine configurations were conducted and mission performance was compared to a conventional, direct-drive turofan reference engine. Consideration is given to the unconventional concepts, and their state of readiness for application. Areas of needed technology advancement are identified.

  4. Should We Ban Unconventional Oil Extraction to Reduce Global Warming?

    OpenAIRE

    CARRARA, SAMUEL; Massetti, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and processing of unconventional oil is more energy intensive and has larger negative environmental impacts than the extraction of conventional oil. The European Union (EU) estimates that oil sands lead to 22% more emissions than conventional oil. The EU is very concerned by the potential climate and environmental impacts and has considered introducing a tax on imported unconventional oil in order to discourage its production. This study shows that a global ban on the use of un...

  5. Unconventional Liquids, Peak Oil and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil is the largest source of primary energy in the world, at 32% of 2014 consumption. Forecasts by the International Energy Agency suggest oil will continue to provide the largest share of global energy through 2040, even with new policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios indicate that between 1.5 and 3.8 trillion barrels of oil will be burnt between 2015 and 2100. Various sources suggest that the world has 5 to 6 trillion barrels of remaining recoverable oil, more than half of which are in low grade deposits. Although oil sands and extra heavy oil are claimed to hold 1.5 trillion barrels, assessments of major deposits in the Canadian oil sands and the Venezuela Orinoco Belt, which hold the bulk of these resources, total less than 500 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Kerogen oil (oil shale), which has never been produced in anything but miniscule volumes, comprises an additional trillion barrels of these estimates. These unconventional deposits are very different from the conventional oil of the past as: - they are rate constrained, as they require massive upfront capital investments and lengthy construction periods, and therefore cannot be scaled up quickly in response to declines in conventional production. - they are expensive, both in terms of cost per barrel and the large energy inputs required for production. The best in situ oil sands deposits may yield an energy return of 3:1 and kerogen oil even less if it ever becomes commercially viable. This compares to 10:1 or more for conventional oil. Shale oil (light tight oil), may yield another 300 billion barrels worldwide, but suffers from high decline rates, expensive wells and limited availability of high quality deposits. The most productive and economically viable portions of these unconventional deposits tend to be exploited first, leaving the less productive, higher cost oil for later. As a result, increasing global oil consumption

  6. Unconventional Use of Intense Pulsed Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Piccolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature, intense pulsed light (IPL represents a versatile tool in the treatment of some dermatological conditions (i.e., pigmentation disorders, hair removal, and acne, due to its wide range of wavelengths. The authors herein report on 58 unconventional but effective uses of IPL in several cutaneous diseases, such as rosacea (10 cases, port-wine stain (PWS (10 cases, disseminated porokeratosis (10 cases, pilonidal cyst (3 cases, seborrheic keratosis (10 cases, hypertrophic scar (5 cases and keloid scar (5 cases, Becker’s nevus (2 cases, hidradenitis suppurativa (2 cases, and sarcoidosis (1 case. Our results should suggest that IPL could represent a valid therapeutic support and option by providing excellent outcomes and low side effects, even though it should be underlined that the use and the effectiveness of IPL are strongly related to the operator’s experience (acquired by attempting at least one specific course on the use of IPL and one-year experience in a specialized centre. Moreover, the daily use of these devices will surely increase clinical experience and provide new information, thus enhancing long-term results and improving IPL effectiveness.

  7. "Unconventional" Neutralizing Activity of Antibodies Against HIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies are recognized to be one of the essential elements of the adaptive immune response that must be induced by an effective vaccine against HIV. However, only a limited number of antibodies have been identified to neutralize a broad range of primary isolates of HIV-1 and attempts to induce such antibodies by immunization were unsuccessful. The difficulties to generate such antibodies are mainly due to intrinsic properties of HIV-1 envelope spikes, such as high sequence diversity, heavy glycosylation, and inducible and transient nature of certain epitopes. In vitro neutralizing antibodies are identified using "conventional" neutralization assay which uses phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human PBMCs as target cells. Thus, in essence the assay evaluates HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells. Recently, several laboratories including us demonstrated that some monoclonal antibodies and HIV-1-specific polyclonal IgG purified from patient sera, although they do not have neutralizing activity when tested by the "conventional" neutralization assay, do exhibit potent and broad neutralizing activity in "unconventional" ways. The neutralizing activity of these antibodies and IgG fractions is acquired through post-translational modifications, through opsonization of virus particles into macrophages and immature dendritic cells (iDCs), or through expression of antibodies on the surface of HIV-1-susceptible cells. This review will focus on recent findings of this area and point out their potential applications in the development of preventive strategies against HIV.

  8. Nanoarchitectonic atomic switch networks for unconventional computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demis, Eleanor C.; Aguilera, Renato; Scharnhorst, Kelsey; Aono, Masakazu; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2016-11-01

    Developments in computing hardware are constrained by the operating principles of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, fabrication limits of nanometer scaled features, and difficulties in effective utilization of high density interconnects. This set of obstacles has promulgated a search for alternative, energy efficient approaches to computing inspired by natural systems including the mammalian brain. Atomic switch network (ASN) devices are a unique platform specifically developed to overcome these current barriers to realize adaptive neuromorphic technology. ASNs are composed of a massively interconnected network of atomic switches with a density of ∼109 units/cm2 and are structurally reminiscent of the neocortex of the brain. ASNs possess both the intrinsic capabilities of individual memristive switches, such as memory capacity and multi-state switching, and the characteristics of large-scale complex systems, such as power-law dynamics and non-linear transformations of input signals. Here we describe the successful nanoarchitectonic fabrication of next-generation ASN devices using combined top-down and bottom-up processing and experimentally demonstrate their utility as reservoir computing hardware. Leveraging their intrinsic dynamics and transformative input/output (I/O) behavior enabled waveform regression of periodic signals in the absence of embedded algorithms, further supporting the potential utility of ASN technology as a platform for unconventional approaches to computing.

  9. Resonant impurity scattering in the unconventional superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Yunkyu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this pedagogical review, I provide comparative studies of the impurity scattering effects on the two typical types of the unconventional superconductors: d-wave and ±s-wave superconductors. For the d-wave superconductor, the main effect of impurity scattering is the formation of the zero energy resonant state by the unitary scatters below Tc. Similarly, in the case of the ±s-wave superconductor, I show that impurity scattering of the unitary limit also forms a resonant bound state, however, not a zero energy but an off-centered bound state inside the superconducting (SC gap, which modifies the density of states (DOS of a fully opened gap to a V-shaped one mimicking the pure d-wave DOS. On the contrary, in the d-wave case, the zero energy bound state modifies the original V-shape DOS into a flat constant one near zero frequency. This contrasting behavior of the impurity effect can be useful to distinguish the gap symmetry of the newly discovered Fe-based superconductors. This contrasting behavior of two SC states with respect to the impurity scattering is demonstrated by numerical calculations of the density of states (DOS, NMR 1/T1 rate and Knight shift K(T.

  10. Cycles in fossil diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  11. Biodesulfurization of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin A; Mrachko, Gregory T; Squires, Charles H

    2003-06-01

    Biotechnological techniques enabling the specific removal of sulfur from fossil fuels have been developed. In the past three years there have been important advances in the elucidation of the mechanisms of biodesulfurization; some of the most significant relate to the role of a flavin reductase, DszD, in the enzymology of desulfurization, and to the use of new tools that enable enzyme enhancement via DNA manipulation to influence both the rate and the substrate range of Dsz. Also, a clearer understanding of the unique desulfinase step in the pathway has begun to emerge.

  12. Can renewable and unconventional energy sources bridge the global energy gap in the 21st century?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy experts project that global oil supplies will only meet demand until global oil production has peaked sometime between 2013 and 2020. Declining oil production after peak production will cause a global energy gap to develop, which will have to be bridged by unconventional and renewable energy sources. Nuclear, solar and hydrogen are destined to become major energy sources during the 21st century, but only if their enabling technologies improve significantly to ensure affordability and convenience of use. This paper will argue that global oil production will probably peak between 2004 and 2005, causing a serious energy gap to develop sometime between 2008 and 2010 rather than 2013-2020 as the energy experts projected. It will also argue that a transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is inevitable. The paper will conclude, however, that fossil fuels with a growing contribution from nuclear energy, will still be supplying the major part of the global energy needs for most, perhaps all, of the 21st century. (author)

  13. Fossil turbulence and fossil turbulence waves can be dangerous

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. By this definition, turbulence always cascades from small scales where vorticity is created to larger scales where turbulence fossilizes. Fossil turbulence is any perturbation in a hydrophysical field produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid is no longer turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Fossil turbu...

  14. Comparative environmental assessment of unconventional power installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnina, E. N.; Masleeva, O. V.; Kryukov, E. V.

    2015-08-01

    Procedure of the strategic environmental assessment of the power installations operating on the basis of renewable energy sources (RES) was developed and described. This procedure takes into account not only the operational process of the power installation but also the whole life cycles: from the production and distribution of power resources for manufacturing of the power installations to the process of their recovery. Such an approach gives an opportunity to make a more comprehensive assessment of the influence of the power installations on environments and may be used during adaptation of the current regulations and development of new regulations for application of different types of unconventional power installations with due account of the ecological factor. Application of the procedure of the integrated environmental assessment in the context of mini-HPP (Hydro Power Plant); wind, solar, and biogas power installations; and traditional power installation operating natural gas was considered. Comparison of environmental influence revealed advantages of new energy technologies compared to traditional ones. It is shown that solar energy installations hardly pollute the environment during operation, but the negative influence of the mining operations and manufacturing and utilization of the materials used for solar modules is maximum. Biogas power installations are on the second place as concerns the impact on the environment due to the considerable mass of the biogas installation and gas reciprocating engine. The minimum impact on the environment is exerted by the mini-HPP. Consumption of material and energy resources for the production of the traditional power installation is less compared to power installations on RES; however, this factor incomparably increases when taking into account the fuel extraction and transfer. The greatest impact on the environment is exerted by the operational process of the traditional power installations.

  15. The greenhouse impact of unconventional gas for electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Nathan; Rebois, Dylan; Scholten, Michael; Ramig, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    New techniques to extract natural gas from unconventional resources have become economically competitive over the past several years, leading to a rapid and largely unanticipated expansion in natural gas production. The US Energy Information Administration projects that unconventional gas will supply nearly half of US gas production by 2035. In addition, by significantly expanding and diversifying the gas supply internationally, the exploitation of new unconventional gas resources has the potential to reshape energy policy at national and international levels—altering geopolitics and energy security, recasting the economics of energy technology investment decisions, and shifting trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In anticipation of this expansion, one of the perceived core advantages of unconventional gas—its relatively moderate GHG impact compared to coal—has recently come under scrutiny. In this paper, we compare the GHG footprints of conventional natural gas, unconventional natural gas (i.e. shale gas that has been produced using the process of hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking'), and coal in a transparent and consistent way, focusing primarily on the electricity generation sector. We show that for electricity generation the GHG impacts of shale gas are 11% higher than those of conventional gas, and only 56% that of coal for standard assumptions.

  16. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C Neal; Kathren, Ronald L; Christensen, Craig

    2008-08-01

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  17. Metallothioneins, unconventional proteins from unconventional animals: a long journey from nematodes to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isani, Gloria; Carpenè, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are ubiquitous low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins characterized by high affinity for d10 electron configuration metals, including essential (Zn and Cu) and non-essential (Cd and Hg) trace elements. The biological role of these ancient and well-conserved multifunctional proteins has been debated since MTs were first discovered in 1957. Their main hypothesized functions are: (1) homeostasis of Zn and Cu; (2) detoxification of Cd, and Hg; and (3) free radical scavenging. This review will focus on MTs in unconventional animals, those not traditionally studied in veterinary medicine but of increasing interest in this field of research. Living in different environments, these animals represent an incredible source of physiological and biochemical adaptations still partly unexplored. The study of metal-MT interactions is of great interest for clinicians and researchers working in veterinary medicine, food quality and endangered species conservation. PMID:24970224

  18. Metallothioneins, Unconventional Proteins from Unconventional Animals: A Long Journey from Nematodes to Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Isani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs are ubiquitous low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins characterized by high affinity for d10 electron configuration metals, including essential (Zn and Cu and non-essential (Cd and Hg trace elements. The biological role of these ancient and well-conserved multifunctional proteins has been debated since MTs were first discovered in 1957. Their main hypothesized functions are: (1 homeostasis of Zn and Cu; (2 detoxification of Cd, and Hg; and (3 free radical scavenging. This review will focus on MTs in unconventional animals, those not traditionally studied in veterinary medicine but of increasing interest in this field of research. Living in different environments, these animals represent an incredible source of physiological and biochemical adaptations still partly unexplored. The study of metal-MT interactions is of great interest for clinicians and researchers working in veterinary medicine, food quality and endangered species conservation.

  19. Mixing in three-phase systems: Implications for enhanced oil recovery and unconventional gas extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Porter, M. L.; Hyman, J.; Carey, J. W.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Although the mixing of fluids within a porous media is a common process in natural and industrial systems, how the degree of mixing depends on the miscibility of multiple phases is poorly characterized. Often, the direct consequence of miscible mixing is the modification of the resident fluid (brine and hydrocarbons) rheological properties. We investigate supercritical (sc)CO2 displacement and mixing processes in a three-phase system (scCO2, oil, and H2O) using a microfluidics experimental system that accommodates the high pressures and temperatures encountered in fossil fuel extraction operations. The miscibility of scCO2 with the resident fluids, low with aqueous solutions and high with hydrocarbons, impacts the mixing processes that control sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the unlocking of the system in unconventional oil and gas extraction. Using standard volume-averaging techniques we upscale the aqueous phase saturation to the field-scale (i.e., Darcy scale) and interpret the results as a simpler two-phase system. This process allows us to perform a statistical analysis to quantify i) the degree of heterogeneity in the system resulting from the immiscible H2O and ii) how that heterogeneity impacts mixing between scCO2 and oil and their displacement. Our results show that when scCO2 is used for miscible displacement, the presence of an aqueous solution, which is common in secondary and tertiary EOR and unconventional oil and gas extraction, strongly impacts the mixing of scCO2 with the hydrocarbons due to low scCO2-H2O miscibility. H2O, which must be displaced advectively by the injected scCO2, introduces spatio-temporal variability into the system that acts as a barrier between the two miscibile fluids. This coupled with the effect of viscosity contrast, i.e., viscous fingering, has an impact on the mixing of the more miscible pair.

  20. Final report on unconventional gas in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The main purpose of the study on the title subject is to analyse how the relevant applicable European legal framework, including environmental law, is applied to the licensing/authorisation and operational permitting for prospection, exploration and production/exploitation of shale gas based on a sample of four Member States, i.e. Poland, France, Germany and Sweden. It is, however, not purpose of the study to assess whether Member State legislation based on EU legislation has been properly transposed. This study focuses on shale gas exploration, because shale gas is the type of unconventional gas most discussed and contentious currently. Also, compared to tight gas and coal bed methane, relatively less experience exists in Europe for shale formations as new source of natural gas. The focus on exploration is due to the stage of projects in Europe. No commercial scale shale gas exploitation has taken place yet and it is only expected in a few years time. Nevertheless, this study also takes into account a possible future production phase and especially analyses legal issues especially related to the transfer from exploration to production stage. As regards areas of law to be studied, the focus is the 'core' licensing and permitting process. Given the importance of environmental law in the area of shale gas exploration and production, it is included as an integral part of the study. However, within the scope of this study it is not possible to perform a thorough assessment of the appropriateness of the EU environmental legislation. Nevertheless, the present report describes and analyses EU environmental legislation which was assumed to be of most relevance for shale gas projects, especially as regards its interface with the 'core' licensing and permitting processes. Thereby it contributes to further efforts to assess the appropriateness of the EU legal framework especially with a view to a future production phase and the challenge to ensure a high

  1. First fossil insectivores from Flores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Berch, van der G.; Awe Due, R.

    2006-01-01

    The hominid bearing strata from the Liang Bua cave on Flores have yielded a large amount of microvertebrate remains. Among these are three mandibles of shrews, the first record of fossil insectivores from the island. The fossils, representing two different species, are not referable to any of the kn

  2. 76 FR 56412 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program 2011...-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program on... Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research Program, reflects an important shift...

  3. 75 FR 11147 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ...-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program 2010...-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program on... Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources...

  4. 77 FR 51021 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources, Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ...-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources, Research and Development Program... Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development... Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research Program since the launch of the program in...

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Dissipation in Unconventional Environments FOCUS ON QUANTUM DISSIPATION IN UNCONVENTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Milena; Paladino, Elisabetta

    2008-11-01

    Quantum dissipation has been the object of study within the physics and chemistry communities for many years. Despite this, the field is in constant evolution, largely due to the fact that novel systems where the understanding of dissipation and dephasing processes is of crucial importance have become experimentally accessible in recent years. Among the ongoing research themes, we mention the defeat of decoherence in solid state-based quantum bits (qubits) (e.g. superconducting qubits or quantum dot based qubits), or dissipation due to non-equilibrium Fermi reservoirs, as is the case for quantum transport through meso- and nanoscale structures. A close inspection of dissipation in such systems reveals that one has to deal with 'unconventional' environments, where common assumptions of, for example, linearity of the bath and/or equilibrium reservoir have to be abandoned. Even for linear baths at equilibrium it might occur that the bath presents some internal structure, due, for example, to the presence of localized bath modes. A large part of this focus issue is devoted to topics related to the rapidly developing fields of quantum computation and information with solid state nanodevices. In these implementations, single and two-qubit gates as well as quantum information transmission takes place in the presence of broadband noise that is typically non-Markovian and nonlinear. On both the experimental and theory side, understanding and defeating such noise sources has become a crucial step towards the implementation of efficient nanodevices. On a more fundamental level, electron and spin transport through quantum dot nanostructures may suffer from 'unconventional' dissipation mechanisms such as the simultaneous presence of spin relaxation and fermionic dissipation, or may represent themselves out of equilibrium baths for nearby mesoscopic systems. Finally, although not expected from the outset, the present collection of articles has revealed that different

  6. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume III lists the model equations and a one line definition for equations, in a short, readable format.

  7. Programming Unconventional Computers: Dynamics, Development, Self-Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Stepney

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical computing has well-established formalisms for specifying, refining, composing, proving, and otherwise reasoning about computations. These formalisms have matured over the past 70 years or so. Unconventional Computing includes the use of novel kinds of substrates–from black holes and quantum effects, through to chemicals, biomolecules, even slime moulds–to perform computations that do not conform to the classical model. Although many of these unconventional substrates can be coerced into performing classical computation, this is not how they “naturally” compute. Our ability to exploit unconventional computing is partly hampered by a lack of corresponding programming formalisms: we need models for building, composing, and reasoning about programs that execute in these substrates. What might, say, a slime mould programming language look like? Here I outline some of the issues and properties of these unconventional substrates that need to be addressed to find “natural” approaches to programming them. Important concepts include embodied real values, processes and dynamical systems, generative systems and their meta-dynamics, and embodied self-reference.

  8. Effects of New Fossil Fuel Developments on the Possibilities of Meeting 2C Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meindertsma, W.; Blok, K.

    2012-12-15

    Recent years have seen an increasing activity in developing new fossil fuel production capacity. This includes unconventional fossil fuels, such as tar sands and shale gas, fossil fuels from remote locations, and fossil fuels with a very large increase in production in the near future. In this report, the impact of such developments on our ability to mitigate climate change is investigated. Our inventory shows that the new fossil fuel developments currently underway consist of 29,400 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 260,000 million barrels of oil and 49,600 million tonnes of coal. The development of these new fossil fuels would result in emissions of 300 billion tonnes of CO2 -equivalent (CO2e) from 2012 until 2050. Until 2050, a 'carbon budget' of 1550 billion tonnes CO2e is still available if we want to of keep global warming below 2C with a 50% probability. For a 75% probability to stay below 2C this budget is only 1050 billion tonnes CO2e. So, the new fossil fuel developments identified in this report consume 20-33% of the remaining carbon budget until 2050. In a scenario where the new fossil fuels are developed, we need to embark on a rapid emission reductions pathway at the latest in 2019 in order to meet the 50% probability carbon budget. Avoiding the development of new fossil fuels will give us until 2025 to start further rapid emission reductions. These calculations are based on the assumption that the maximum emission reduction rate is 4% per year and that the maximum change in emission trend is 0.5 percentage point per year. The starting year for rapid emission reductions depends on the choice of these parameters. A sensitivity analysis shows that, in all cases, refraining from new fossil fuel development allows for a delay of 5 to 8 years before we should embark on a rapid emission reduction pathway. The high investments required for developing new fossil fuels lead to a lock in effect; once developed, these fossil fuels need to be

  9. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production.

  10. Processing of unconventional stimuli requires the recruitment of the non-specialized hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoed Nissan Kenett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional visual stimuli in the context of visual and verbal creative ability. In Experiment 1, we studied two unconventional visual recognition tasks – Mooney face and objects' silhouette recognition – and found a significant relationship between measures of verbal creativity and unconventional face recognition. In Experiment 2 we used the split visual field paradigm to investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional faces and its relation to verbal and visual characteristics of creativity. Results showed that while conventional faces were better processed by the specialized right hemisphere, unconventional faces were better processed by the non-specialized left hemisphere. In addition, only unconventional face processing by the non-specialized left hemisphere was related to verbal and visual measures of creative ability. Our findings demonstrate the role of the non-specialized hemisphere in processing unconventional stimuli and how it relates to creativity.

  11. Processing of unconventional stimuli requires the recruitment of the non-specialized hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenett, Yoed N; Anaki, David; Faust, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional visual stimuli in the context of visual and verbal creative ability. In Experiment 1, we studied two unconventional visual recognition tasks-Mooney face and objects' silhouette recognition-and found a significant relationship between measures of verbal creativity and unconventional face recognition. In Experiment 2 we used the split visual field (SVF) paradigm to investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional faces and its relation to verbal and visual characteristics of creativity. Results showed that while conventional faces were better processed by the specialized right hemisphere (RH), unconventional faces were better processed by the non-specialized left hemisphere (LH). In addition, only unconventional face processing by the non-specialized LH was related to verbal and visual measures of creative ability. Our findings demonstrate the role of the non-specialized hemisphere in processing unconventional stimuli and how it relates to creativity.

  12. Unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles for electromagnetic elastodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified new way proposed by Luo, the unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles for electromagnetic elastodynamics can be established systematically. This new variational principles can fully characterize the initial-boundary-value problem of this dynamics. In this paper, the expression of the generalized principle of virtual work for electromagnetic dynamics is given. Based on this equation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work in electromagnetic dynamics, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for eleven-field, nine-field and six-field unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles for electromagnetic elastodynamics, and the potential energy functionals for four-field and three-field ones by the generalized Legendre transformation given in this paper. Furthermore, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

  13. Unconventional phase field simulations of transforming materials with evolving microstructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Yu Li; Chi-Hou Lei; Liang-Jun Li; Yi-Chung Shu; Yun-Ya Liu

    2012-01-01

    Transforming materials with evolving microstructures is one of the most important classes of smart materials that have many potential technological applications,and an unconventional phase field approach based on the characteristic functions of transforming variants has been developed to simulate the formation and evolution of their microstructures.This approach is advantageous in its explicit material symmetry and energy well structure,minimal number of material coefficients,and easiness in coupling multiple physical processes and order parameters,and has been applied successfully to study the microstructures and macroscopic properties of shape memory alloys,ferroelectrics,ferromagnetic shape memory alloys,and multiferroic magnetoelectric crystals and films with increased complexity.In this topical review,the formulation of this unconventional phase field approach will be introduced in details,and its applications to various transforming materials will be discussed.Some examples of specific microstructures will also be presented.

  14. Pore-scale studies of unconventional reservoir rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silin, D.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Cabrini, S.; Kneafsey, T. J.; MacDowell, A.; Nico, P. S.; Tomutsa, L.

    2009-12-01

    Our overall objective is the development of a technique for predicting reservoir behavior from the pore structure of low-permeability rock. Gas shale and tight sands are examples of low-permeability formations containing enormous quantities of natural gas. As the availability of energy resources in conventional reservoirs is declining, the importance of these unconventional reservoirs is increasing. Our approach is based on acquiring micro- and nanometer-scale images of the pore structure of natural rocks using synchrotron X-ray microtomography (Advanced Light Source) and Focused Ion Beam milling (Molecular Foundry), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These techniques provide three dimensional images of the rich diversity of pore structures present in so called “unconventional resources.” Using these images as input data, Maximal Inscribed Spheres simulations are used to evaluate the two-phase flow properties of the rock.

  15. A Review of Conventional and Unconventional Feeds in Fish Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.N. Abowei

    Full Text Available A review of conventional and unconventional feeds in fish nutrition was carried out to provide information on supplemental feed and its formulation for effective culture fisheries management. Foods for fry and fingerlings frequently exceed 50% crude protein. As growth rate decreases and fish age, protein levels in diets are decreased accordingly. Technology associated with rearing of live foods is improving rapidly. This is having a positive impact on larval rearing, a frequent bottleneck for commercialization of “new” species. This article reviews live feed for fish larvae, fish foods, fish feed ingredients, some common conventional feed stuff, animal and plant sources of unconventional feeds for culture fish, fish feed formulation and feeding methods to provide more information for the effective management of fish farming.

  16. Unconventional hydrocarbons: opportunities, risks and impact on global resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper takes a look at unconventional hydrocarbons as an alternative to today's natural gas and oil. The decline in the discovery rate of conventional accumulations has prompted renewed interest in less conventional forms of oil and gas production. Production methods such as steam-assisted gravity drainage [SAGD]; cyclic steam stimulation [CSS]) and cold production with sand (CHOPS) are discussed. Ongoing investment in advanced technology is discussed and the mitigation of the negative aspects of production from oil sands and oil shale are discussed. Bitumen and extra-heavy oil sources and their usage are examined, as are questions around coal-bed gas and other unconventional sources of natural gas such as deep-sea gas hydrates

  17. THE FORMS OF UNCONVENTIONAL ADVERTISING – A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alina JURCA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The large number of advertisements that the consumers are bombarded with every day has made them virtually immune to commercial messages. This is why advertisers are trying to find new, alternative ways to reach the customers, which are comprised by economic literature in the concept of unconventional advertising. Based on a thorough documentary research, this study identifies the existing forms of unconventional advertising by presenting them in the order of their frequency of use and it tries to group the ones with similar characteristics into somewhat larger categories. A better understanding and knowledge of these new forms of advertising can provide marketing and advertising specialists with new strategies to convey the brand message that can grab the attention of any prospect customer.

  18. ANALYTICAL WEIGHT ESTIMATION OF UNCONVENTIONAL LANDING GEAR DESIGNS

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Prat, Andreu; Borhani Coca, Dario; Munjulury, Raghu Chaitanya; Berry, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Landing gear weight calculations can be carried out using statistical or analytical methods. Statistical methods were used in the past and offered quick group weights, however, they are not capable of computing with accuracy the weight of unconventional landing gears which have special geometries and performances. In this work, landing gear weight is computed using analytical methods. The procedure established by Kraus and Wille is acquired as a baseline so as to create a program able to deal...

  19. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Thacker; Doug D. Carlton; Zacariah L. Hildenbrand; Kadjo, Akinde F.; Schug, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Trillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO), such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify ...

  20. Searching for zeroes: unconventional superconductors in a magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Vekhter, I; Vorontsov, A. B.

    2008-01-01

    We review the results of the microscopic approach to the calculation of the anisotropy in the specific heat in unconventional superconductors under rotated field. Treating vortex scattering on equal footing with the energy shift we find that the electronic specific heat may have minima or maxima when the field is aligned with the nodes, depending on the temperature and field range. We discuss the influence of the paramagnetic limiting and Fermi surface shape on the location of the inversion l...

  1. Conventional and Unconventional Pairing and Condensates in Dilute Nuclear Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, John W; Sedrakian, Armen; Stein, Martin; Huang, Xu-Guang; Khodel, Victor A; Shaginyan, Vasily R.; Zverev, Mikhail V

    2016-01-01

    This contribution will survey recent progress toward an understanding of diverse pairing phenomena in dilute nuclear matter at small and moderate isospin asymmetry, with results of potential relevance to supernova envelopes and proto-neutron stars. Application of {\\it ab initio} many-body techniques has revealed a rich array of temperature-density phase diagrams, indexed by isospin asymmetry, which feature both conventional and unconventional superfluid phases. At low density there exist a ho...

  2. Functional meat and meat products from unconventional meat species

    OpenAIRE

    Cullere, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The present thesis, which includes four main researches, aimed to study functional meat and meat products obtained from unconventional meat species, namely the rabbit and the ostrich. The first research tested the single and combined dietary supplementation with 5% Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and 3% Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) to growing rabbits for 3 and 6 weeks, and it is articulated in four different subchapters. The first subchapter considered the effect on total tract apparent ...

  3. [Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: neuroinfections with unconventional immune reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrová, E

    1997-04-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) as well as the properties of the major component of the infectious agent-prion, and the most important human and animal prion diseases are characterized. Considering the recent biochemical and molecular biological data, possible explanations of natural resistance, species barrier and lack of the immune response to the unconventional infectious particles are presented. Finally the importance of immunoblotting and immunostaining as the most specific confirmation of TSE diagnosis is underlined. (Ref. 11.)

  4. Effects of Unconventional Monetary Policy on Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Chodorow-Reich

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy affects the real economy in part through its effects on financial institutions. High frequency event studies show the introduction of unconventional monetary policy in the winter of 2008-09 had a strong, beneficial impact on banks and especially on life insurance companies. I interpret the positive effects on life insurers as expansionary policy recapitalizing the sector by raising the value of legacy assets. Expansionary policy had small positive or neutral effects on banks a...

  5. Input-output theory of the unconventional photon blockade

    OpenAIRE

    Flayac, H.; Savona, V.

    2013-01-01

    We study the unconventional photon blockade, recently proposed for a coupled-cavity system, in the presence of input and output quantum fields. Mixing of the input or output channels still allows strong photon antibunching of the output field, but for optimal values of the system parameters that differ substantially from those that maximize antibunching of the intracavity field. This result shows that the specific input-output geometry in a photonic system determines the optimal design in vie...

  6. A Galactic Fossil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    How old are the oldest stars? Using ESO's VLT, astronomers recently measured the age of a star located in our Galaxy. The star, a real fossil, is found to be 13.2 billion years old, not very far from the 13.7 billion years age of the Universe. The star, HE 1523-0901, was clearly born at the dawn of time. "Surprisingly, it is very hard to pin down the age of a star", the lead author of the paper reporting the results, Anna Frebel, explains. "This requires measuring very precisely the abundance of the radioactive elements thorium or uranium, a feat only the largest telescopes such as ESO's VLT can achieve." ESO PR Photo 23a/07 ESO PR Photo 23a/07 The 'Cosmic Clock' This technique is analogous to the carbon-14 dating method that has been so successful in archaeology over time spans of up to a few tens of thousands of years. In astronomy, however, this technique must obviously be applied to vastly longer timescales. For the method to work well, the right choice of radioactive isotope is critical. Unlike other, stable elements that formed at the same time, the abundance of a radioactive (unstable) isotope decreases all the time. The faster the decay, the less there will be left of the radioactive isotope after a certain time, so the greater will be the abundance difference when compared to a stable isotope, and the more accurate is the resulting age. Yet, for the clock to remain useful, the radioactive element must not decay too fast - there must still be enough left of it to allow an accurate measurement, even after several billion years. "Actual age measurements are restricted to the very rare objects that display huge amounts of the radioactive elements thorium or uranium," says Norbert Christlieb, co-author of the report. ESO PR Photo 23b/07 ESO PR Photo 23b/07 Uranium Line in the Spectrum of an Old Star Large amounts of these elements have been found in the star HE 1523-0901, an old, relatively bright star that was discovered within the Hamburg/ESO survey [1]. The

  7. Quantitative mass spectrometry of unconventional human biological matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Ewelina P.; Urban, Pawel L.

    2016-10-01

    The development of sensitive and versatile mass spectrometric methodology has fuelled interest in the analysis of metabolites and drugs in unconventional biological specimens. Here, we discuss the analysis of eight human matrices-hair, nail, breath, saliva, tears, meibum, nasal mucus and skin excretions (including sweat)-by mass spectrometry (MS). The use of such specimens brings a number of advantages, the most important being non-invasive sampling, the limited risk of adulteration and the ability to obtain information that complements blood and urine tests. The most often studied matrices are hair, breath and saliva. This review primarily focuses on endogenous (e.g. potential biomarkers, hormones) and exogenous (e.g. drugs, environmental contaminants) small molecules. The majority of analytical methods used chromatographic separation prior to MS; however, such a hyphenated methodology greatly limits analytical throughput. On the other hand, the mass spectrometric methods that exclude chromatographic separation are fast but suffer from matrix interferences. To enable development of quantitative assays for unconventional matrices, it is desirable to standardize the protocols for the analysis of each specimen and create appropriate certified reference materials. Overcoming these challenges will make analysis of unconventional human biological matrices more common in a clinical setting. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  8. Unconventional spin distributions in thick Ni80Fe20 nanodisks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Lupo, P.; Haldar, A.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2016-05-01

    We study the spin distributions in permalloy (Py: Ni80Fe20) nanodisks as a function of diameter D (300 nm ≤ D ≤ 1 μm) and thickness L (30 nm ≤ L ≤ 100 nm). We observed that beyond a certain thickness, for a fixed disk diameter, an unconventional spin topology precipitates which is marked by the presence of a divergence field within the magnetic vortex curl. The strength of this divergence changes anti-symmetrically from negative to positive—depending on the core polarity—along the axis of the cylindrical nanodisk. This is also accompanied by a skyrmion-like out-of-plane bending of the spin vectors farther away from the disk center. Additionally, the vortex core dilates significantly when compared to its typical size. This has been directly observed using magnetic force microscopy. We determined from the ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements that the unconventional topology in the thicker nanodisks gyrated at a frequency, which is significantly lower than what is predicted by a magnetic vortex based analytical model. Micromagnetic simulations involving dipolar and exchange interactions appear to satisfactorily reproduce the experimentally observed static and dynamic behaviors. Besides providing a physical example of an unconventional topology, these results can also aid the design of topologically protected memory elements.

  9. Production costs of global conventional and unconventional petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns about the costs of developing oil and gas from conventional and unconventional formations have led many commentators to assume that increasing prices are in the offing and may be a limiting factor for economic growth. Historically, production costs have fluctuated as influenced by the cost-increasing effects of depletion versus the cost-reducing effects of technological progress. This paper aims to review several methods for assessing current and long-term costs. Despite the uncertainty of such estimation, evidence shows that production costs in the foreseeable future might not increase dramatically and actually could decrease as petroleum development methods improve and additional supplies come online. Recent examples include the commercially viable production of unconventional oil and gas resources that has kept energy prices contained. - Highlights: • Examination of petroleum (oil and gas) production costs. • Methodologies and sources are discussed. • Methods for future cost estimation assessed. • Supply cost curves are estimated for conventional and unconventional petroleum. • Costs may decrease as development methods improve and supplies come online

  10. Conventional vs. unconventional enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzebisashvili, K.; Breede, K.; Liu, X.; Falcone, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    Enhanced (or Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS) have evolved from the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept, implemented for the first time at Fenton Hill in 1977, and subsequently through the Stimulated Geothermal System, the Deep Heat Mining and finally the Deep Earth Geothermal. All of these systems usually imply petro-thermal processes. The term EGS has evolved to include conduction dominated, low permeability resources in sedimentary and basement formations, as well as geopressured, magma, and low-grade, unproductive hydrothermal resources. Co-produced hot water from hydrocarbon wells has also been included by some in the definition of EGS, which constitutes a considerable divergence from the original concept. Four decades on from the first EGS implementation, this paper highlights the lessons learned from 'conventional' systems and contrasts the 'unconventional' solutions that have been proposed. Examples of unconventional EGS include single-well solutions, downhole heat exchangers, engineered well profiles and using circulation fluids other than water. Perhaps some of the ideas proposed in the past, which would be considered unconventional, have remained dormant or never made it to a commercial stage for field implementation, but they may yet open doors to the future generations of EGS. (orig.)

  11. Unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles for nonlinear coupled thermoelastodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗恩; 邝君尚; 黄伟江; 罗志国

    2002-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modem dual-com plementarity, in a simple and unified new way proposed by Luo, the unconventional Hamilton-type vari ational principles for geometrically nonlinear coupled thermoelastodynamics can be established system atically. The new unconventional Hamilton-type variational principle can fully characterize the initia boundary-value problem of this dynamics. In this paper, an important integral relation is given, which can be considered as the expression of the generalized principle of virtual work for geometrically nonlin ear coupled thermodynamics. Based on this relation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of vir tual work in geometrically nonlinear coupled thermodynamics, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for eight-field, six-field, four-field and two-field unconventional Hamilton type variational principles by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Further more, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

  12. Magnetic flux periodicities and finite momentum pairing in unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loder, Florian

    2009-12-22

    This work contains a thorough study of the magnetic flux periodicity of loops of conventional and unconventional, especially d-wave, superconductors. Although already in 1961, several independent works showed that the flux period of a conventional superconducting loop is the superconducting flux quantum hc/2e, this question has never been investigated deeply for unconventional superconductors. And indeed, we show here that d-wave superconducting loops show a basic flux period of the normal flux quantum hc/e, a property originating from the nodal quasi-particle states. This doubling of the flux periodicity is best visible in the persistent current circulating in the loop, and it affects other properties of the superconductor such as the periodicity of d-wave Josephson junctions. In the second part of this work, the theory of electron pairing with finite center-of-mass momentum, necessary for the description of superconducting loops, is extended to systems in zero magnetic field. We show that even in the field free case, an unconventional pairing symmetry can lead to a superconducting ground state with finite-momentum electron pairs. Such a state has an inhomogeneous charge density and therefore is a basis for the description of coexistence of superconductivity and stripe order. (orig.)

  13. Fossil Group Origins VII. Galaxy substructures in fossil systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zarattini, S; Aguerri, J A L; Boschin, W; Barrena, R; del Burgo, C; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Corsini, E M; D'Onghia, E; Kundert, A; Méndez-Abreu, J; Sánchez-Janssen, R

    2016-01-01

    Fossil groups are expected to be the final product of galaxy merging within galaxy groups. In simulations, they are predicted to assemble their mass at high redshift. This early formation allows for the innermost $M^\\ast$ galaxies to merge into a massive central galaxy. Then, they are expected to maintain their fossil status because of the few interactions with the large-scale structure. In this context, the magnitude gap between the two brightest galaxies of the system is considered a good indicator of its dynamical status. As a consequence, the systems with the largest gaps should be dynamically relaxed. In order to examine the dynamical status of these systems, we systematically analyze, for the first time, the presence of galaxy substructures in a sample of 12 spectroscopically-confirmed fossil systems with redshift $z \\le 0.25$. We apply a number of tests in order to investigate the substructure in fossil systems in the two-dimensional space of projected positions out to $R_{200}$. Moreover, for a subsam...

  14. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume II provides the model equations with each of their variables defined, while Volume III lists the equations, and a one line definition for equations, in a shorter, more readable format.

  15. Hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs - Identification of hazards and strategies for a quantitative risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, R.; Kissinger, A.; Class, H.; Ebigbo, A.

    2012-12-01

    The production of unconventional gas resources, which require a fracking process to be released, such as shale gas, tight gas and coal bed methane, has become an economically attractive technology for a continued supply of fossil-fuel energy sources in many countries. Just recently, a major focus of interest has been directed to hydraulic fracking in Germany. The technology is controversial since it involves severe risks. The main difference in risk with respect to other technologies in the subsurface such as carbon sequestration is that fracking is remunerative, and it is important to distinguish between economical and environmental issues. The hydrofracking process may pose a threat to groundwater resources if fracking fluid or brine can migrate through fault zones into shallow aquifers. Diffuse methane emissions from the gas reservoir may not only contaminate shallow groundwater aquifers but also escape into the atmosphere where methane acts as a greenhouse gas. The working group "Risks in the Geological System" as part of ExxonMobil's hydrofracking dialogue and information dissemination processes was tasked with the assessment of possible hazards posed by migrating fluids as a result of hydrofracking activities. In this work several flow paths for fracking fluid, brine and methane are identified and scenarios are set up to qualitatively estimate under what circumstances these fluids would leak into shallower layers. The parametrization for potential fracking sites in North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony (both in Germany) is derived from literature using upper and lower bounds of hydraulic parameters. The results show that a significant fluid migration is only possible if a combination of several conservative assumptions are met by a scenario. Another outcome of this work is the demand for further research, as many of the involved processes in the hydrofracking process have yet not been fully understood (e.g. quantification of source terms for methane in the

  16. Pipeline transport of fossile fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with hydraulic pipeline transport of fossil fuels. A general analysis of coal and heavy viscous oil pipelining systems is introduced and pipeline transport of concentrated coal-water slurry, coal-water fuel, coal pipelining in other than water carrier liquid (e.g. methanol) and capsule pipeline transport (coal-log pipelining) is described.

  17. Characterization of the Unconventional Secretion of the Ebola Matrix Protein VP40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Olivier; Mateo, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    While most secreted proteins use the classical endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi secretion pathway to reach the extracellular medium, a few proteins are secreted through unconventional secretary pathways. Viral proteins can be secreted through unconventional secretion pathways. Here, we describe how we have recently demonstrated that the Ebola virus (EBOV) matrix protein VP40 is released from transfected and infected cells in a soluble form through an unconventional secretion pathway. PMID:27665561

  18. Producing Gas-Oil Ratio Performance of Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Guowen

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a detailed analysis of producing gas-oil ratio performance characteristics from conventional reservoir to unconventional reservoir. Numerical simulations of various reservoir fluid systems are included for comparison. In a wide sense of the word, the term of unconventional reservoir is including tight gas sand, coal bed methane, gas hydrate deposits, heavy oil gas shale and etc. In this study we specify the unconventional reservoir to only mean the low and ultra low permea...

  19. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  20. Analysis of Fossil Fuel Subsidies in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Nugumanova, Lyazzat

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades the topic of fossil fuel subsidies has been gaining importance in the policy discussion. International Energy Agency (IEA) (2011) estimates that the total global fossil fuel subsidies in 2010 amounted to $409 billion. Kazakhstan is energy-rich country with significantly high subsidies on fossil fuels. Fossil fuel subsidies are a distortion which causes inefficient use of energy and natural resources, high CO2 emissions, distort the energy markets, put pressure on the s...

  1. Hybrid slime mould-based system for unconventional computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, T.; Dimonte, A.; Cifarelli, A.; Erokhin, V.

    2015-04-01

    Physarum polycephalum is considered to be promising for the realization of unconventional computational systems. In this work, we present results of three slime mould-based systems. We have demonstrated the possibility of transporting biocompatible microparticles using attractors, repellents and a DEFLECTOR. The latter is an external tool that enables to conduct Physarum motion. We also present interactions between slime mould and conducting polymers, resulting in a variation of their colour and conductivity. Finally, incorporation of the Physarum into the organic memristive device resulted in a variation of its electrical characteristics due to the slime mould internal activity.

  2. STATIC TESTS OF UNCONVENTIONAL PROPULSION UNITS FOR ULTRALIGHT AIRPLANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Helmich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents static tests of a new unconventional propulsion unit for small aviation airplanes. Our laboratory stand – a fan drive demonstrator – enables us to compare various design options. We performed experiments to verify the propulsion functionality and a measurement procedure to determine the available thrust of the propulsion unit and its dependence on engine speed. The results used for subsequent optimization include the operating parameters of the propulsion unit, and the temperature and velocity fields in parts of the air duct.

  3. Ultrafast non-equilibrium dynamics in conventional and unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, Andreas; Manske, Dirk [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We present simulations of the ultrafast dynamics of conventional and unconventional superconductors using density-matrix theory. In particular, we study how the optical conductivity evolves in response to ultrashort optical pulses in the frequency range of the superconducting gap, i.e., in the terahertz regime. The dominant relaxation process is assumed to be due to electron-phonon collisions. Employing a second order cluster expansion and assuming that the phonons remain equilibrated, Boltzmann type equations for the dynamics of the quasiparticle occupations and coherences are derived. We apply our theoretical model to the study of non-equilibrium dynamics in the two-gap superconductor MgB{sub 2}.

  4. Operating regimes of an unconventional radial pump stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantar, T. [Turbomachinery Div., Envita d.o.o., Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sekavcnik, M. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-06-15

    This paper presents some phenomena concerning the stability problem of the basic flow direction observed within the CFD analyses of an unconventional radial pump stage (RPS). In order to preclude defining the flow direction as a boundary condition, a closed hydraulic system was modelled to investigate the operating behaviour of the RPS and its energy characteristics. It was shown that the basic flow direction through the RPS is determined by the level of hydraulic losses within the closed hydraulic system. Combining the closed and open hydraulic system calculations, all possible operating regimes of the analysed RPS are presented by means of 4-quadrant chart. (orig.)

  5. Unconventional research in USSR and Russia: short overview

    CERN Document Server

    Kernbach, Serge

    2013-01-01

    This work briefly surveys unconventional research in Russia from the end of the 19th until the beginning of the 20th centuries in areas related to generation and detection of a 'high-penetrating' emission of non-biological origin. The overview is based on open scientific and journalistic materials. The unique character of this research and its history, originating from governmental programs of the USSR, is shown. Relations to modern studies on biological effects of weak electromagnetic emission, several areas of bioinformatics and theories of physical vacuum are discussed.

  6. CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL MONETARY POLICY. THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Plescau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is to analyze the conventional and unconventional monetary policy in Romania, in the context of the recent financial crisis. We study the relationship between interest rates and credit risk, but also the non-standard monetary measures that were adopted by the National Bank of Romania and their impact on the banking system. Our results point to a decrease of interest rates in the years after the crisis, which is in line with the majority of central banks that have reduced monetary rates in order to sustain the economy and the credit activity.

  7. Searches for dark matter and new physics with unconventional signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Wulz, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Selected results on searches for dark matter and unconventional signatures with the CMS detector are presented. Dark matter searches in channels with one or two jets, single photons, vector bosons, or top and bottom quarks combined with missing momentum in the final states are described. Unusual signatures such as displaced objects, disappearing or kinked tracks, delayed or stopped particles have also been explored. The analyses were performed with proton-proton data recorded at LHC centre-of-mass energies up to 13 TeV.

  8. Ising nanowire with random field at surface; its unconventional effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneyoshi, T.

    2016-10-01

    The phase diagrams and temperature dependences of total magnetization mT in an Ising nanowire with a random magnetic field at the surface are studied by the uses of the effective-field theory with correlations. Many unconventional and novel phenomena have been obtained in them, although one section of the system is consisted of one spin-1/2 surface shell atom and one spin-1/2 core atom and they are coupled with a positive or a negative shell-core exchange interaction.

  9. Unconventional Hall effect in pnictides from interband interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanfarillo, L; Cappelluti, E; Castellani, C; Benfatto, L

    2012-08-31

    We calculate the Hall transport in a multiband system with a dominant interband interaction between carriers having electron and hole character. We show that this situation gives rise to an unconventional scenario, beyond the Boltzmann theory, where the quasiparticle currents dressed by vertex corrections acquire the character of the majority carriers. This leads to a larger (positive or negative) Hall coefficient than what may be expected on the basis of the carrier balance, with a marked temperature dependence. Our results explain the puzzling measurements in pnictides and provide a more general framework for transport properties in multiband materials.

  10. Extinction and the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, ,. J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The author examines evidence of mass extinctions in the fossil record and searches for reasons for such large extinctions. Five major mass extinctions eliminated at least 40 percent of animal genera in the oceans and from 65 to 95 percent of ocean species. Questions include the occurrence of gradual or catastrophic extinctions, causes, environment, the capacity of a perturbation to cause extinctions each time it happens, and the possibility and identification of complex events leading to a mass extinction.

  11. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  12. Unconventional Word Segmentation in Emerging Bilingual Students' Writing: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores cross-language and longitudinal patterns in unconventional word segmentation in 25 emerging bilingual students' (Spanish/English) writing from first through third grade. Spanish and English writing samples were collected annually and analyzed for two basic types of unconventional word segmentation: hyposegmentation, in…

  13. 78 FR 41047 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program 2013...-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program on.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elena Melchert, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Oil and...

  14. 77 FR 23105 - Supporting Safe and Responsible Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0... Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources By the authority vested in me as President by the... gas resources, while giving American families and communities confidence that natural and...

  15. Upgrading Unconventional Oil Resources with the EST Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbianco, Alberto; Meli, Salvatori; Panariti, Nicolleta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2007-07-01

    We strongly believe that unconventional oils will play a much larger role in the growth of supply than is currently recognized. As a matter of fact, whereas the earth's conventional proven world oil reserves are 1.3 trillion barrels, extra-heavy plus bitumen resources amount to about 4 trillion barrels. The unconventional oils are characterized by low API gravity (<10), high viscosity and high concentration of poisons such as sulphur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltenes. For this reason, a key role for the full exploitation of these hydrocarbon resources is played by the downstream processes that are required to upgrade and convert them into valuable products. In this scenario, Eni has developed a novel hydrocracking process (EST: Eni Slurry Technology) which is particularly well-suited for the conversion and upgrading of heavy feedstocks (conventional vacuum residues, extra-heavy oils and bitumen). EST employs nano-sized hydrogenation catalysts and an original process scheme that allow complete feedstock conversion to an upgraded synthetic crude oil (SCO) with an API gravity gain greater than 20 and avoid the production of residual by-products, such as pet-coke or heavy fuel oil. A Commercial Demonstration Unit (CDP) of 1200 bbl/d capacity is successfully operating in the Eni's Taranto refinery since November 2005. (auth)

  16. Preparation of environmental analyses for synfuel and unconventional gas technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, R.M. (ed.)

    1982-09-01

    Government agencies that offer financial incentives to stimulate the commercialization of synfuel and unconventional gas technologies usually require an analysis of environmental impacts resulting from proposed projects. This report reviews potentially significant environmental issues associated with a selection of these technologies and presents guidance for developing information and preparing analyses to address these issues. The technologies considered are western oil shale, tar sand, coal liquefaction and gasification, peat, unconventional gas (western tight gas sands, eastern Devonian gas shales, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers), and fuel ethanol. Potentially significant issues are discussed under the general categories of land use, air quality, water use, water quality, biota, solid waste disposal, socioeconomics, and health and safety. The guidance provided in this report can be applied to preparation and/or review of proposals, environmental reports, environmental assessments, environmental impact statements, and other types of environmental analyses. The amount of detail required for any issue discussed must, by necessity, be determined on a case-by-case basis.

  17. An unconventional form of actin in protozoan hemoflagellate, Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Prabodh; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Kumar, Ashutosh; Mitra, Kalyan; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Gupta, Chhitar M

    2008-08-15

    Leishmania actin was cloned, overexpressed in baculovirus-insect cell system, and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein polymerized optimally in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP, but differed from conventional actins in its following properties: (i) it did not polymerize in the presence of Mg2+ alone, (ii) it polymerized in a restricted range of pH 7.0-8.5, (iii) its critical concentration for polymerization was found to be 3-4-fold lower than of muscle actin, (iv) it predominantly formed bundles rather than single filaments at pH 8.0, (v) it displayed considerably higher ATPase activity during polymerization, (vi) it did not inhibit DNase-I activity, and (vii) it did not bind the F-actin-binding toxin phalloidin or the actin polymerization disrupting agent Latrunculin B. Computational and molecular modeling studies revealed that the observed unconventional behavior of Leishmania actin is related to the diverged amino acid stretches in its sequence, which may lead to changes in the overall charge distribution on its solvent-exposed surface, ATP binding cleft, Mg2+ binding sites, and the hydrophobic loop that is involved in monomer-monomer interactions. Phylogenetically, it is related to ciliate actins, but to the best of our knowledge, no other actin with such unconventional properties has been reported to date. It is therefore suggested that actin in Leishmania may serve as a novel target for design of new antileishmanial drugs. PMID:18539603

  18. The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Christophe; Ekins, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers have generally agreed that the average global temperature rise caused by greenhouse gas emissions should not exceed 2 °C above the average global temperature of pre-industrial times. It has been estimated that to have at least a 50 per cent chance of keeping warming below 2 °C throughout the twenty-first century, the cumulative carbon emissions between 2011 and 2050 need to be limited to around 1,100 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (Gt CO2). However, the greenhouse gas emissions contained in present estimates of global fossil fuel reserves are around three times higher than this, and so the unabated use of all current fossil fuel reserves is incompatible with a warming limit of 2 °C. Here we use a single integrated assessment model that contains estimates of the quantities, locations and nature of the world's oil, gas and coal reserves and resources, and which is shown to be consistent with a wide variety of modelling approaches with different assumptions, to explore the implications of this emissions limit for fossil fuel production in different regions. Our results suggest that, globally, a third of oil reserves, half of gas reserves and over 80 per cent of current coal reserves should remain unused from 2010 to 2050 in order to meet the target of 2 °C. We show that development of resources in the Arctic and any increase in unconventional oil production are incommensurate with efforts to limit average global warming to 2 °C. Our results show that policy makers' instincts to exploit rapidly and completely their territorial fossil fuels are, in aggregate, inconsistent with their commitments to this temperature limit. Implementation of this policy commitment would also render unnecessary continued substantial expenditure on fossil fuel exploration, because any new discoveries could not lead to increased aggregate production.

  19. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of

  20. The Noble Gas Fingerprint in a UK Unconventional Gas Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKavney, Rory; Gilfillan, Stuart; Györe, Domokos; Stuart, Fin

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, there has been an unprecedented expansion in the development of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Concerns have arisen about the effect of this new industry on groundwater quality, particularly focussing on hydraulic fracturing, the technique used to increase the permeability of the targeted tight shale formations. Methane contamination of groundwater has been documented in areas of gas production1 but conclusively linking this to fugitive emissions from unconventional hydrocarbon production has been controversial2. A lack of baseline measurements taken before drilling, and the equivocal interpretation of geochemical data hamper the determination of possible contamination. Common techniques for "fingerprinting" gas from discrete sources rely on gas composition and isotopic ratios of elements within hydrocarbons (e.g. δ13CCH4), but the original signatures can be masked by biological and gas transport processes. The noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) are inert and controlled only by their physical properties. They exist in trace quantities in natural gases and are sourced from 3 isotopically distinct environments (atmosphere, crust and mantle)3. They are decoupled from the biosphere, and provide a separate toolbox to investigate the numerous sources and migration pathways of natural gases, and have found recent utility in the CCS4 and unconventional gas5 industries. Here we present a brief overview of noble gas data obtained from a new coal bed methane (CBM) field, Central Scotland. We show that the high concentration of helium is an ideal fingerprint for tracing fugitive gas migration to a shallow groundwater. The wells show variation in the noble gas signatures that can be attributed to differences in formation water pumping from the coal seams as the field has been explored for future commercial development. Dewatering the seams alters the gas/water ratio and the degree to which noble gases degas from the formation water. Additionally the

  1. Fossil energy program. Summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This program summary document presents a comprehensive overview of the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities that will be performed in FY 1981 by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (ASFE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The ASFE technology programs for the fossil resources of coal, petroleum (including oil shale) and gas have been established with the goal of making substantive contributions to the nation's future supply and efficienty use of energy. On April 29, 1977, the Administration submitted to Congress the National Energy Plan (NEP) and accompanying legislative proposals designed to establish a coherent energy policy structure for the United States. Congress passed the National Energy Act (NEA) on October 15, 1978, which allows implementation of the vital parts of the NEP. The NEP was supplemented by additional energy policy statements culminating in the President's address on July 15, 1979, presenting a program to further reduce dependence on imported petroleum. The passage of the NEA-related energy programs represent specific steps by the Administration and Congress to reorganize, redirect, and clarify the role of the Federal Government in the formulation and execution of national energy policy and programs. The energy technology RD and D prog4rams carried out by ASFE are an important part of the Federal Government's effort to provide the combination and amounts of energy resources needed to ensure national security and continued economic growth.

  2. Conventional and Unconventional Pairing and Condensates in Dilute Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, John W; Stein, Martin; Huang, Xu-Guang; Khodel, Victor A; Shaginyan, Vasily R; Zverev, Mikhail V

    2016-01-01

    This contribution will survey recent progress toward an understanding of diverse pairing phenomena in dilute nuclear matter at small and moderate isospin asymmetry, with results of potential relevance to supernova envelopes and proto-neutron stars. Application of {\\it ab initio} many-body techniques has revealed a rich array of temperature-density phase diagrams, indexed by isospin asymmetry, which feature both conventional and unconventional superfluid phases. At low density there exist a homogeneous translationally invariant BCS phase, a homogeneous LOFF phase violating translational invariance, and an inhomogeneous translationally invariant phase-separated BCS phase. The transition from the BCS to the BEC phases is characterized in terms of the evolution, from weak to strong coupling, of the pairing gap, condensate wave function, and quasiparticle occupation numbers and spectra. Additionally, a schematic formal analysis of pairing in neutron matter at low to moderate densities is presented that establishes...

  3. Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M; Vasilopoulos, P; Schwingenschlögl, U

    2016-09-28

    We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the light's polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity [Formula: see text] at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with [Formula: see text]. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at [Formula: see text]. PMID:27460419

  4. Unconventional spin texture in a noncentrosymmetric quantum spin Hall insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera Acosta, C.; Babilonia, O.; Abdalla, L.; Fazzio, A.

    2016-07-01

    We propose that the simultaneous presence of both Rashba and band inversion can lead to a Rashba-like spin splitting formed by two bands with the same in-plane helical spin texture. Because of this unconventional spin texture, the backscattering is forbidden in edge and bulk conductivity channels. We propose a noncentrosymmetric honeycomb-lattice quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator family formed by the IV, V, and VII elements with this property. The system formed by Bi, Pb, and I atoms is mechanically stable and has both a large Rashba spin splitting of 60 meV and a large nontrivial band gap of 0.14 eV. Since the edge and the bulk states are protected by the time-reversal (TR) symmetry, contrary to what happens in most doped QSH insulators, the bulk states do not contribute to the backscattering in the electronic transport, allowing the construction of a spintronic device with less energy loss.

  5. Searches for New Physics in Unconventional Signatures at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Otono, Hidetoshi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Various physics models predict new long-lived particles to be generated at the Large Hadron Collider, which leave unconventional signatures in the detectors. In order to maximise our discovery potential for new physics, the ATLAS experiment has developed novel analysis techniques for the long-lived particles. In these proceedings, a new result with $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt s = 13~\\rm{TeV}$ in LHC Run 2 is presented, which exploits the ionisation energy loss measurements in the Pixel subsystem in the ATLAS detector to search for a massive charged long-lived particle with a velocity significantly below the speed of light. Several other characteristic searches performed with $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt s = 7 - 8~\\rm{TeV}$ in LHC Run 1 are briefly summarised.

  6. Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M.; Vasilopoulos, P.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-09-01

    We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the light’s polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity {σyx}=0 at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with {σyx}={{e}2}/2h . These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at (+/- 1/2,+/- 3/2,+/- 5/2,...){{e}2}/h .

  7. What Geological, Economic, or Policy Forces Might Limit Fossil Fuel Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinberg, R.

    2015-12-01

    In order to ensure a 50% chance of keeping global temperatures from exceeding 2°C above pre-industrial levels, it has been estimated that total carbon dioxide emissions between 2011-2050 must be capped at roughly 1,100 gigatons.[1] However, some estimates calculate that global fossil fuel reserves—including unconventional oil and gas—hold at least three times this amount of potential greenhouse gas emissions.[2]What socio-political, technological, or economic forces are most likely to keep these energy resources from being burned? While it is difficult to predict with specificity what combination of technological, geological, or human factors will significantly minimize global fossil fuel production, there are at least four key potential drivers: 1. Under-investment and the economics of unconventional oil and natural gas; 2. International policy, driven by citizen demand and leadership from key nations; 3. Massive deployment of renewable energy sources and other technological solutions; and 4. Large-scale energy curtailment resulting from global economic contraction. We will explore the implications, viability, and consequences of each of these potential factors. [1] [1]United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Fifteenth Session, held in Copenhagen from 7 to 19 December 2009. Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its Fifteenth Session. United Nations Climate Change Conf. Report 43 http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/cop15/eng/11a01.pdf (UNFCC, 2009) [2] Raupach, M. R. et al. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions. Nature Clim. Chang. 4, 873-879 (2014)

  8. An AFM Observation on Fossil Cytoplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; YU Junping; FANG Xiaohong

    2008-01-01

    Fossil cytoplasm is a new research topic of interest in paleobotany. Atomic force microscope (AFM) is a new technology applied widely in physics and biology; however, it is rarely used in paleontology. Here we applied AFM for the first time to study fossil cytoplasm. The results indicate that the fossil cytoplasm is heterogeneous and full of ultrastructures, just like extant cytoplasm, and that the application of AFM, especially in combination with other techniques, can reveal the subcellular details of fossil plants with more confidence.

  9. The Impact of Conventional and Unconventional Monetary Policy on Investor Sentiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Chandler

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between monetary policy and investor sentiment across conventional and unconventional monetary policy regimes. During conventional times, we find that a surprise decrease in the fed funds rate leads to a large increase in investor sentiment. Similarly, when...... the fed funds rate is at its zero lower bound, research results indicate that expansionary unconventional monetary policy shocks also have a large and positive impact on investor mood. Together, our findings highlight the importance of both conventional and unconventional monetary policy...

  10. Paleoradiology. Imaging mummies and fossils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhem, Rethy K. [Western Ontario Univ. London Health Sciences Centre, ON (Canada). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Brothwell, Don R. [York Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Archaeology

    2008-07-01

    This is an important work on a topic of huge interest to archaeologists and related scientists, since the use of imaging techniques in the field has been expanding rapidly in recent decades. Paleoradiology involves the use of X-rays and advanced medical imaging modalities to evaluate ancient human and animal skeletons as well as biological materials from archaeological sites. Paleoradiological studies have been performed on mummies, skeletal remains and fossils to determine their sex and age at death. Diagnostic paleoradiology is the use of X-ray studies to detect ancient diseases. The broad range of themes and imaging techniques in this volume reflects four decades of research undertaken by Don Brothwell in the fields of anthropology, human paleopathology, and zooarchaeology, combined with two decades of skeletal radiology experience during which Rethy Chhem read over 150,000 skeletal X-ray and CT studies. (orig.)

  11. On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey Jin Pin; Nora Muda

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of fossil fuel w...

  12. Fossil energy. Program report, 1 October 1977-30 September 1978. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    The Fossil Energy program is now in its second year under the Department of Energy. This document describes the Fossil Energy-supported contract and project activity for FY 1978. The primary thrust of the Program is on coal - especially direct coal combustion and what can be done to increase the environmental acceptability of coal. We are concerned with developing cleaner technologies, and we are working on precombustion cleanup, fluidized-bed combustion, and post-combustion cleanup. Longer range technologies are being developed to use coal more efficiently; for example, magnetohydrodynamics, fuel cells, and high-temperature turbine utilization. Another Fossil Energy priority is the development of a capability to produce synthetic fuels from coal. We are also engaged in a coal mining research and development program that focuses on increased mine productivity and workers' safety through the development of improved technologies. Our activity in the petroleum and gas research areas is intended to complement efforts in the private sector, which are to be further stimulated by new pricing or Federal incentives. Our present enhanced oil recovery efforts represent a shift in emphasis toward longer range, high-technology development projects instead of numerous field demonstrations and tests. The enhanced gas program emphasis activities to increase our knowledge of the size and economic productivity of the unconventional gas resources. We are also involved in oil shale development. We are continually assessing our program. Total annual funding has increased from $58 million in FY 1973 to $881 million in FY 1979.Fossil Energy is working closely with all parts of the Department of Energy, other appropriate Federal agencies, industry, and universities to insure that we maintain a balanced, aggressive, and responsive program suited to our national needs.

  13. Unconventional metaphors and emotional-cognitive regulation in a metacognitive interpersonal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelo, Omar Carlo Gioacchino; Mergenthaler, Erhard

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between unconventional (i.e., creative) metaphors and emotional-cognitive regulation in a metacognitive interpersonal therapy (MIT). The occurrence of unconventional metaphor was identified using the Metaphor Analysis in Psychotherapy (MAP) model, and emotional-cognitive regulation was assessed by the Therapeutic Cycles Model (TCM). The results showed that the dyad's frequency of unconventional metaphors is significantly related to emotional-cognitive integration, reflective processes and moments of therapeutic engagement based on the quality of such regulation. More specifically, client metaphors were associated with emotional-cognitive integration and moments of therapeutic engagement, while therapist metaphors were associated with reflective processes. The results suggest that unconventional metaphors may be considered markers for different cognitive-emotional regulatory processes and moments of heightened therapeutic work and change in MIT.

  14. Variable-Fidelity Conceptual Design System for Advanced Unconventional Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ongoing work in unconventional air-vehicles, i.e. deformable mold-lines and bio-mimetics, is beginning to provide the insight necessary to exploit performance...

  15. Assessment of unconventional tight-gas resources of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2016-01-20

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed a technically recoverable mean resource of 8.3 trillion cubic feet of unconventional tight gas in the Zona Glauconitica of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile.

  16. Structural Basis of Cargo Recognition by Unconventional Myosins in Cellular Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianchao; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-08-01

    Unconventional myosins are a superfamily of actin-based molecular motors playing diverse roles including cellular trafficking, mechanical supports, force sensing and transmission, etc. The variable neck and tail domains of unconventional myosins function to bind to specific cargoes including proteins and lipid vesicles and thus are largely responsible for the diverse cellular functions of myosins in vivo. In addition, the tail regions, together with their cognate cargoes, can regulate activities of the motor heads. This review outlines the advances made in recent years on cargo recognition and cargo binding-induced regulation of the activity of several unconventional myosins including myosin-I, V, VI and X in cellular trafficking. We approach this topic by describing a series of high-resolution structures of the neck and tail domains of these unconventional myosins either alone or in complex with their specific cargoes, and by discussing potential implications of these structural studies on cellular trafficking of these myosin motors. PMID:26842936

  17. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James; McLay, Emma;

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  18. Crustacean biodiversity through the marine fossil record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepkoski Jr., J. John

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 2,600 genera of marine crustaceans have been recognized in the fossil record, and crustaceans constitute the major component of marine arthropod diversity from the mid-Paleozoic to the Recent. Despite problems of sporadic fossil preservation and/or taxonomic ambiguity, some general sta

  19. Fossil evidence of the zygomycetous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krings, M.; Taylor, T.N.; Dotzler, N.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular clock data indicate that the first zygomycetous fungi occurred on Earth during the Precambrian, however, fossil evidence of these organisms has been slow to accumulate. In this paper, the fossil record of the zygomycetous fungi is compiled, with a focus on structurally preserved Carbonifer

  20. USE OF POLYMERS TO RECOVER VISCOUS OIL FROM UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall Seright

    2011-09-30

    This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be

  1. U.S. Unconventional Monetary Policy and Transmission to Emerging Market Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, David; Juan M. Londono; Sapriza, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effects of U.S. unconventional monetary policies on sovereign yields, foreign exchange rates, and stock prices in emerging market economies (EMEs), and we analyze how these effects depend on country-specifc characteristics. We find that, although EME asset prices, mainly those of sovereign bonds, responded strongly to unconventional monetary policy announcements, these responses were not outsized with respect to a model that takes into account each country's time-varying vu...

  2. Interactions of Unconventional Monetary Policy Measures with the Euro Area Yield Curve

    OpenAIRE

    Lubomira Gertler

    2015-01-01

    We study how unconventional monetary policy affects the shape of the yield curve and, conversely, the predictive power of short-run yield curve dynamics for the policy event. Two types of unconventional monetary policy measures are analysed: i) announcements and actions related to extension of central bank liquidity and ii) secondary market purchases. We find that ex-post effects on the shape of the yield curve differ substantially both in size and direction. Specifically, sovereign debt purc...

  3. Radio properties of fossil galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.

    2016-09-01

    We study 1.4 GHz radio properties of a sample of fossil galaxy groups using GMRT radio observations and the FIRST survey catalog. Fossil galaxy groups, having no recent major mergers in their dominant galaxies and also group scale mergers, give us the opportunity to investigate the effect of galaxy merger on AGN activity. In this work, we compare the radio properties of a rich sample of fossil groups with a sample of normal galaxy groups and clusters and show that the brightest group galaxies in fossil groups are under luminous at 1.4 GHz, relative to the general population of the brightest group galaxies, indicating that the dynamically relaxed nature of fossil groups has influenced the AGN activity in their dominant galaxy.

  4. Forecasting unconventional resource productivity - A spatial Bayesian model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J.; O'sullivan, F.

    2015-12-01

    Today's low prices mean that unconventional oil and gas development requires ever greater efficiency and better development decision-making. Inter and intra-field variability in well productivity, which is a major contemporary driver of uncertainty regarding resource size and its economics is driven by factors including geological conditions, well and completion design (which companies vary as they seek to optimize their performance), and uncertainty about the nature of fracture propagation. Geological conditions are often not be well understood early on in development campaigns, but nevertheless critical assessments and decisions must be made regarding the value of drilling an area and the placement of wells. In these situations, location provides a reasonable proxy for geology and the "rock quality." We propose a spatial Bayesian model for forecasting acreage quality, which improves decision-making by leveraging available production data and provides a framework for statistically studying the influence of different parameters on well productivity. Our approach consists of subdividing a field into sections and forming prior distributions for productivity in each section based on knowledge about the overall field. Production data from wells is used to update these estimates in a Bayesian fashion, improving model accuracy far more rapidly and with less sensitivity to outliers than a model that simply establishes an "average" productivity in each section. Additionally, forecasts using this model capture the importance of uncertainty—either due to a lack of information or for areas that demonstrate greater geological risk. We demonstrate the forecasting utility of this method using public data and also provide examples of how information from this model can be combined with knowledge about a field's geology or changes in technology to better quantify development risk. This approach represents an important shift in the way that production data is used to guide

  5. Hybrid gate dielectric materials for unconventional electronic circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Young-Geun; Everaerts, Ken; Hersam, Mark C; Marks, Tobin J

    2014-04-15

    Recent advances in semiconductor performance made possible by organic π-electron molecules, carbon-based nanomaterials, and metal oxides have been a central scientific and technological research focus over the past decade in the quest for flexible and transparent electronic products. However, advances in semiconductor materials require corresponding advances in compatible gate dielectric materials, which must exhibit excellent electrical properties such as large capacitance, high breakdown strength, low leakage current density, and mechanical flexibility on arbitrary substrates. Historically, conventional silicon dioxide (SiO2) has dominated electronics as the preferred gate dielectric material in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated transistor circuitry. However, it does not satisfy many of the performance requirements for the aforementioned semiconductors due to its relatively low dielectric constant and intransigent processability. High-k inorganics such as hafnium dioxide (HfO2) or zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) offer some increases in performance, but scientists have great difficulty depositing these materials as smooth films at temperatures compatible with flexible plastic substrates. While various organic polymers are accessible via chemical synthesis and readily form films from solution, they typically exhibit low capacitances, and the corresponding transistors operate at unacceptably high voltages. More recently, researchers have combined the favorable properties of high-k metal oxides and π-electron organics to form processable, structurally well-defined, and robust self-assembled multilayer nanodielectrics, which enable high-performance transistors with a wide variety of unconventional semiconductors. In this Account, we review recent advances in organic-inorganic hybrid gate dielectrics, fabricated by multilayer self-assembly, and their remarkable synergy with unconventional semiconductors. We first discuss the principals and functional

  6. Unconventional Gas. A Game Changer for Transport Too?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technology trend, the development of natural gas vehicles, is emerging in the transport sector. While not new this technology is now being simultaneously revived by the discovery of significant amounts of unconventional gas, by the rise of oil prices, and by the decreased confidence in the sustainability of nuclear technology (and subsequent rising electricity prices in Europe). Natural gas could provide a path to a lower carbon intensive transport sector in both developed and developing countries. Gas is cheaper and less polluting than oil. It emits significantly less local pollutants than diesel and less CO2 than gasoline. Historically present in Italy, South America, Iran and Pakistan natural gas vehicles are emerging in other countries: in some European countries, in the United States, in the Chinese provinces of Shaanxi and Henan, and in India. Asia and developing countries are expected to be responsible for a large share of the car market growth in the next years and consequently for a significant share of transport CO2 emissions. The adoption of a given technology there could impact global markets and global CO2 emissions significantly. While the trend is still loose, this paper responds to the possibility that this technology will expand: what would it imply? would it compete with the development of the electric vehicle? is it desirable? It appears that the advantages of natural gas vehicles are not as clear cut as they seem. Environmentally, they are beneficial only to countries with little -if no- CO2 emissions standards. Several issues including the development of costly infrastructures are likely to raise costs. Natural gas vehicles development could also slow down the roll out of electric vehicles, hence delaying hopes of smoothing the integration of renewables into the power grid through the use of car batteries' storage capacity. But the main concern is the availability of cheap gas itself, on the basis of which this technology shift could take

  7. Unconventional Bose-Einstein Condensations from Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiang-Fa; WU Cong-Jun; Ian Mondragon-Shem

    2011-01-01

    According to the "no-node" theorem, the many-body ground state wavefunctions of conventional Bose-Einstein condensations (BEC) are positive-definite, thus time-reversal symmetry cannot be spontaneously broken. We find that multi-component bosons with spin-orbit coupling provide an unconventional type of BECs beyond this paradigm. We focus on a subtle case ofisotropic Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the spin-independent interaction. In the limit of the weak confining potential, the condensate wavefunctions are frustrated at the Hartree-Fock level due to the degeneracy of the Rashba ring. Quantum zero-point energy selects the spin-spiral type condensate through the "order-from-disorder" mechanism. In a strong harmonic confining trap, the condensate spontaneously generates a half-quantum vortex combined with the skyrmion type of spin texture. In both cases, time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken. These phenomena can be realized in both cold atom systems with artificial spin-orbit couplings generated from atom-laser interactions and exciton condensates in semi-conductor systems.%@@ According to the"no-node"theorem,the many-body ground state wavefunctions of conventional Bose-Einstein condensations(BEC)are positive-definite,thus time-reversal symmetry cannot be spontaneously broken.We find that multi-component bosons with spin-orbit coupling provide an unconventional type of BECs beyond this paradigm.We focus on a subtle case of isotropic Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the spin-independent interaction.In the limit of the weak confining potential,the condensate wavefunctions are frustrated at the Hartree-Fork level due to the degeneracy of the Rashba ring.Quantum zero-point energy selects the spin-spiral type condensate through the"order-from-disorder"mechanism.In a strong harmonic confining trap,the condensate spontaneously generates a half-quantum vortex combined with the skyrmion type of spin texture.In both cases,time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken

  8. STUDY OF UNCONVENTIONAL TEXTILES USED AS INSERTION FOR CLOTHES IN TERMS OF ITS DYNAMIC TENSILE STREGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Dorina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional textiles are manufactured different from those obtained by the classic spinning weaving and knitting. They are obtained by mechanical or chemical consolidation of a textile backing up of fibrous layers or combinations of layers of fiber and yarn, fabrics and yarns, fabrics or knitted fabrics and fibers. For the apparel industry has expanded the use of unconventional fabrics especially in auxiliary materials they replace traditional materials such as woven tassel and buckram. Application of reinforcement layers have very important role in increasing the stability of form and material exploitation basic characteristics. Using unconventional fabrics used as insertions for clothing presents a desosibit advantage in terms of possible replacement joints bonded by heat sealed seam, thus saving time and using technology more accessible. For unconventional fabrics used as auxiliaries in the apparel industry is usually determined flexural stiffness, tensile strength, resistance to repeated stretches but more efficient in terms of proximity to the real conditions of the clothing is dynamic tensile resistance. Unconventional textile materials have a certain anisotropy in terms of the performed measurements. So, we followed the conducted research to highlight the anisotropy of several samples and characterization of best of unconventional materials in this regard, to be used under conditions effective as clothing industry.

  9. Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) containment and mitigation subtask.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wente, William Baker

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this subtask of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Design project was to demonstrate mitigation technologies for radiological material dispersal and to assist planners with incorporation of the technologies into a concept of operations. The High Consequence Assessment and Technology department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has studied aqueous foam's ability to mitigate the effects of an explosively disseminated radiological dispersal device (RDD). These benefits include particle capture of respirable radiological particles, attenuation of blast overpressure, and reduction of plume buoyancy. To better convey the aqueous foam attributes, SNL conducted a study using the Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion model, comparing the effects of a mitigated and unmitigated explosive RDD release. Results from this study compared health effects and land contamination between the two scenarios in terms of distances of effect, population exposure, and remediation costs. Incorporating aqueous foam technology, SNL created a conceptual design for a stationary containment area to be located at a facility entrance with equipment that could minimize the effects from the detonation of a vehicle transported RDD. The containment design was evaluated against several criteria, including mitigation ability (both respirable and large fragment particle capture as well as blast overpressure suppression), speed of implementation, cost, simplicity, and required space. A mock-up of the conceptual idea was constructed at SNL's 9920 explosive test site to demonstrate the containment design.

  10. Unconventional sources of plant information for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential element to accident management is having as clear a picture as is practical of the plant status and thus of the accident and its progress. Effective, appropriate decisions to control and mitigate an accident are dependent on making this assessment of the accident. The objective of this paper is to stimulate consideration of unconventional plant information sources through discussion of specific examples. A plant's condition during an accident can be characterized by plant parameters such as temperatures and pressures and by plant system operational status. For example, core damage is associated with increasing temperatures, pressures, and radiation levels in many different systems and plant areas. Reg. Guide 1.97 instrumentation exists to provide information to allow operators to take specified manual actions (Type A), to indicate whether plant safety functions are being accomplished (Type B), to indicate the potential for breach of barriers to fission product release (Type C), to indicate operability of individual safety systems (Type D), and to indicate the magnitude of radioactive material releases (Type E). Reg. Guide 1.97 instrument range requirements, with the exception of pressure instruments, address conditions up to design basis conditions. Pressure instrument range requirements exceed design basis conditions. During a severe accident, some instruments may not see conditions beyond their design basis. Effective accident management includes the ability to establish a consistent picture of the accident by accumulating information from as many sources as is practical. Operability of systems and components, and non-safety related temperature, radiation, pressure, and water-level indication can be used to directly indicate, measure, or infer plant parameters which confirm, augment or replace those otherwise available. Innovative uses of information sources thus serve to increase the diversity and flexibility of accident data available. Both the

  11. Unconventional protein secretion in plants: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David G; Ding, Yu; Jiang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional protein secretion (UPS) is a collective term for mechanisms by which cytosolic proteins that lack a signal peptide ("leaderless secretory proteins" (LSPs)) can gain access to the cell exterior. Numerous examples of UPS have been well documented in animal and yeast cells. In contrast, our understanding of the mechanism(s) and function of UPS in plants is very limited. This review evaluates the available literature on this subject. The apparent large numbers of LSPs in the plant secretome suggest that UPS also occurs in plants but is not a proof. Although the direct transport of LSPs across the plant plasma membrane (PM) has not yet been described, it is possible that as in other eukaryotes, exosomes may be released from plant cells through fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the PM. In this way, LSPs, but also small RNAs (sRNAs), that are passively taken up from the cytosol into the intraluminal vesicles of MVBs, could reach the apoplast. Another possible mechanism is the recently discovered exocyst-positive organelle (EXPO), a double-membrane-bound compartment, distinct from autophagosomes, which appears to sequester LSPs.

  12. Unconventional methods of reclamation of used moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the literature provides information on a constant search for new ways of regenerating of moulding sand deprived disadvantagesof existing solutions, especially in the case of low efficiency of regeneration of a mixture of used masses of certain technologies, and high energy intensity of the high temperature heat recovery. In the advanced stage of the research are both attempts to apply a very hightemperature (about 22000C for short-term impact on the surface of regenerated moulding sand, as well as support of thermal regenerationof oxygen addition in order to increase the temperature and direct combustion of organic components. At the second end of the scale areattempts to apply the extremely low temperatures to changes in physical properties of used binding material to reduce the work of crushing and recycling of other waste (eg. bentonite.The article presents the results of author’s own investigation of the regeneration process of mechanical and thermal carried out with thenew, unconventional treatments which improve the reclaimability of used moulding sands.

  13. Wavelength and energy dependent absorption of unconventional fuel mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N.; Saleem, Z.; Mirza, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    Economic considerations of laser induced ignition over the normal electrical ignition of direct injected Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engines has motivated automobile industry to go for extensive research on basic characteristics of leaner unconventional fuel mixtures to evaluate practical possibility of switching over to the emerging technologies. This paper briefly reviews the ongoing research activities on minimum ignition energy and power requirements of natural gas fuels and reports results of present laser air/CNG mixture absorption coefficient study. This study was arranged to determine the thermo-optical characteristics of high air/fuel ratio mixtures using laser techniques. We measured the absorption coefficient using four lasers of multiple wavelengths over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The absorption coefficient of mixture was found to vary significantly over change of mixture temperature and probe laser wavelengths. The absorption coefficients of air/CNG mixtures were measured using 20 watts CW/pulsed CO2 laser at 10.6μm, Pulsed Nd:Yag laser at 1.06μm, 532 nm (2nd harmonic) and 4 mW CW HeNe laser at 645 nm and 580 nm for temperatures varying from 290 to 1000K using optical transmission loss technique.

  14. [Unconventional treatment procedures of the bladder in paraplegia and myelomeningocele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, K-D; Kessler, T M; Amend, B; Kiss, G; Pannek, J

    2012-12-01

    The established treatment of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) or meningomyelocele (MMC) is mainly conservative and is aimed at the lower urinary tract. For example, oral antimuscarinic medication is the standard treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Recently, however, treatment aiming directly or indirectly at the innervation of the urinary tract has gained increasing attention. Current evidence does not justify the use of nerve rerouting but the existing preliminary data are more promising for MMC patients than for those with SCI. Sacral neuromodulation is already a therapeutic option for incomplete SCI patients. Initial data from a pilot study indicate that in patients with complete SCI implementation in the spinal shock phase may prevent the development of NLUTD. Licensing of onabotulinum toxin A (Botox®) facilitated its clinical use for treating NLUTD but it is limited to the indication of neurogenic detrusor overactivity incontinence with a dosage of 200 IU. The mentioned unconventional treatments, although discussed controversially, are promising future treatment options for NLUTD. PMID:23160608

  15. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Thacker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO, such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify its source in cases of environmental contamination. In this study, one wastewater sample each from direct effluent, a disposal well, and a waste pit, all in West Texas, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, high performance ion chromatography, total organic carbon/total nitrogen analysis, and pH and conductivity analysis. Several compounds known to compose hydraulic fracturing fluid were detected among two of the wastewater samples including 2-butoxyethanol, alkyl amines, and cocamide diethanolamines, toluene, and o-xylene. Due both to its quantity and quality, proper management of wastewater from UDO will be essential.

  16. Ambipolar organic field-effect transistors on unconventional substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosseddu, P.; Mattana, G.; Orgiu, E.; Bonfiglio, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we report on the realization of flexible all-organic ambipolar field-effect transistors (FETs) realized on unconventional substrates, such as plastic films and textile yarns. A double layer pentacene-C60 heterojunction was used as the semiconductor layer. The contacts were made with poly(ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and patterned by means of soft lithography microcontact printing (μCP). Very interestingly growing C60 on a predeposited pentacene buffer layer leads to a clear improvement in the morphology and crystallinity of the film so it obtains n-type conduction despite the very high electron injection barrier at the interface between PEDOT:PSS and C60. As a result, it was possible to obtain all-organic ambipolar FETs and to optimize their electrical properties by tuning the thicknesses of the two employed active layers. Moreover, it will be shown that modifying the triple interface between dielectric/semiconductor/electrodes is a crucial point for optimizing and balancing injection and transport of both kinds of charge carriers. In particular, we demonstrate that using a middle contact configuration in which source and drain electrodes are sandwiched between pentacene and C60 layers allows significantly improving the electrical performance in planar ambipolar devices. These findings are very important because they pave the way for the realization of low-cost, fully flexible and stretchable organic complementary circuits for smart wearable and textile electronics applications.

  17. Conventional vs unconventional assisted reproductive technologies: opinions of young physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostiuc, S

    2013-01-01

    In the last three and a half decades, an increasing number of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have been developed, some of them already being used in clinical practice, while others will probably remain purely theoretical due to their associated ethical issues. The purpose of this study was to analyse the opinions of medical residents regarding various ARTs, both classical and unconventional. We conducted a multi-institutional survey among 142 medical residents in order to assess the views of young physicians of regarding ARTs. Most responders were in favour of medical procedures like gamete donation and surrogacy. When asked about more controversial procedures such as posthumous sperm procurement or reproductive cloning, most were against. Progress in reproductive medicine is made at a fast pace, as more and more couples are found infertile and as the birth rate in developed countries becomes smaller and smaller. If not carefully followed and regulated, this can easily lead to the development of highly controversial procedures, which can significantly alter the way we see human reproduction. As the law has a very traditional approach, it is often left behind by progress in this field, leaving potentially controversial procedures unregulated for long periods of time. During these periods, physicians have the very important role of analysing what is good and what is not and when to recognise procedures that go against general ethical and medical principles. PMID:23259883

  18. Unconventional Political Participation in a Middle-Income Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Andrew Bourne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In many inner city communities in Jamaica, there is the perception that the dons (ad hoc communityleaders are able to provide security, financial assistance and a social safety network, which w as once the roleof the state. The failure of successive governments to provide those important services, in particular securitymeans that there is a high degree of mistrust of the state in rightfully carrying out its roles. The dons have filledthe void created by the state, and people have come to rely on them precisely because of the repeated failuresof successive governments. The mistrust has become so pervasive, that such a low level of trust for governmentleads to a rise in unorthodox political participation. This study examines the role that mistrust in governmentplays in unconventional political participation, and it revealed that Jamaicans who mistrust government are 2.4times more likely to become involved in unorthodox activities compared to those who do trust government.Those activities now include protests, demonstrations, barricading a community, firing at the security forces,blogging, and using the social commentaries on talk radio. While firing at the security forces extends beyondunconventional political participation - and this aspect is not covered in the present manuscript - it is clearlyan unorthodox method employed by some groups within a society.

  19. Brine Spills Associated with Unconventional Oil Development in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Nancy E; Harkness, Jennifer S; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-05-17

    The rapid rise of unconventional oil production during the past decade in the Bakken region of North Dakota raises concerns related to water contamination associated with the accidental release of oil and gas wastewater to the environment. Here, we characterize the major and trace element chemistry and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of surface waters (n = 29) in areas impacted by oil and gas wastewater spills in the Bakken region of North Dakota. We establish geochemical and isotopic tracers that can identify Bakken brine spills in the environment. In addition to elevated concentrations of dissolved salts (Na, Cl, Br), spill waters also consisted of elevated concentrations of other contaminants (Se, V, Pb, NH4) compared to background waters, and soil and sediment in spill sites had elevated total radium activities ((228)Ra + (226)Ra) relative to background, indicating accumulation of Ra in impacted soil and sediment. We observed that inorganic contamination associated with brine spills in North Dakota is remarkably persistent, with elevated levels of contaminants observed in spills sites up to 4 years following the spill events. PMID:27119384

  20. Animal cryptochromes mediate magnetoreception by an unconventional photochemical mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegear, Robert J; Foley, Lauren E; Casselman, Amy; Reppert, Steven M

    2010-02-11

    Understanding the biophysical basis of animal magnetoreception has been one of the greatest challenges in sensory biology. Recently it was discovered that the light-dependent magnetic sense of Drosophila melanogaster is mediated by the ultraviolet (UV)-A/blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome (Cry). Here we show, using a transgenic approach, that the photoreceptive, Drosophila-like type 1 Cry and the transcriptionally repressive, vertebrate-like type 2 Cry of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) can both function in the magnetoreception system of Drosophila and require UV-A/blue light (wavelength below 420 nm) to do so. The lack of magnetic responses for both Cry types at wavelengths above 420 nm does not fit the widely held view that tryptophan triad-generated radical pairs mediate the ability of Cry to sense a magnetic field. We bolster this assessment by using a mutant form of Drosophila and monarch type 1 Cry and confirm that the tryptophan triad pathway is not crucial in magnetic transduction. Together, these results suggest that animal Crys mediate light-dependent magnetoreception through an unconventional photochemical mechanism. This work emphasizes the utility of Drosophila transgenesis for elucidating the precise mechanisms of Cry-mediated magnetosensitivity in insects and also in vertebrates such as migrating birds. PMID:20098414

  1. Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Tepic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012 for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions.

  2. Bogoliubov-de Gennes soliton dynamics in unconventional Fermi superfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daisuke A.

    2016-01-01

    Exact self-consistent soliton dynamics based on the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) formalism in unconventional Fermi superfluids/superconductors possessing an SU(d ) -symmetric two-body interaction is presented. The derivation is based on the ansatz having the similar form as the Gelfand-Levitan-Marchenko equation in the inverse scattering theory. Our solutions can be regarded as a multicomponent generalization of the solutions recently derived by Dunne and Thies [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 121602 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.121602]. We also propose superpositions of occupation states, which make it possible to realize various filling rates even in one-flavor systems, and include Dirac and Majorana fermions. The soliton solutions in the d =2 systems, which describe the mixture of singlet s -wave and triplet p -wave superfluids, exhibit a variety of phenomena such as rotating polar phases by soliton spins, SU(2)-DHN breathers, Majorana triplet states, s -p mixed dynamics, and so on. These solutions are illustrated by animations, where order parameters are visualized by spherical harmonic functions. The full formulation of the BdG theory is also supported, and the double-counting problem of BdG eigenstates and N -flavor generalization are discussed.

  3. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina L Stacy

    Full Text Available Unconventional gas drilling (UGD has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA and prematurity regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63. While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD.

  4. Mechanism of unconventional aerodynamic characteristics of an elliptic airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamic characteristics of elliptic airfoil are quite different from the case of conventional airfoil for Reynolds number varying from about 104 to 106. In order to reveal the fundamental mechanism, the unsteady flow around a stationary two-dimensional elliptic airfoil with 16% relative thickness has been simulated using unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations and the γ-Reθt‾ transition turbulence model at different angles of attack for flow Reynolds number of 5 × 105. The aerodynamic coefficients and the pressure distribution obtained by computation are in good agreement with experimental data, which indicates that the numerical method works well. Through this study, the mechanism of the unconventional aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil is analyzed and discussed based on the computational predictions coupled with the wind tunnel results. It is considered that the boundary layer transition at the leading edge and the unsteady flow separation vortices at the trailing edge are the causes of the case. Furthermore, a valuable insight into the physics of how the flow behavior affects the elliptic airfoil’s aerodynamics is provided.

  5. Capabilities of Unconventional Processing of Multiphase AHSS Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkova, H.; Masek, B.; Stadler, C.; Jenicek, S.

    2016-03-01

    Today, new types of materials and procedures are sought continuously in order to achieve lower manufacturing costs, reduced energy consumption, shorter production times and other savings. In terms of the materials, TRIP steels are an attractive choice, as they provide an excellent combination of strength and ductility. They also offer good energy absorption in crash scenarios. Their main use is in the production of automotive body parts. One can expect that well-chosen processing parameters and unconventional forming routes would enable a wider range of thin-walled products to be made of these steels. Those could include thin-walled hollow products with excellent mechanical properties imparted by effective manufacturing routes at relatively low costs. If these materials are to be employed in real-world forming processes, an appropriate forming route must be chosen, integrated into an appropriate production chain and then optimized in terms of its parameters. This article describes a study of a rotary spin extrusion process. In the first stage, the impact of strain magnitude on microstructural evolution was studied in CMnSi steel using physical modelling of thermomechanical treatment. Subsequently, trials of a real-life technology chain, which efficiently combined incremental forming and heat treatment, were carried out on low-alloy CMnSi and CMnSiNb steels. The resulting products were stepped hollow parts of various diameters. Their strength was close to 1000 MPa and their elongation level exceeded 20%.

  6. Computation of the Added Masses of an Unconventional Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoufel Azouz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modelling of an unmanned airship. We are studying a quadrotor flying wing. The modelling of this airship includes an aerodynamic study. A special focus is done on the computation of the added masses. Considering that the velocity potential of the air surrounding the airship obeys the Laplace's equation, the added masses matrix will be determined by means of the velocity potential flow theory. Typically, when the shape of the careen is quite different from that of an ellipsoid, designers in preprocessing prefer to avoid complications arising from mathematical analysis of the velocity potential. They use either complete numerical studies, or geometric approximation methods, although these methods can give relatively large differences compared to experimental measurements performed on the airship at the time of its completion. We tried to develop here as far as possible the mathematical analysis of the velocity potential flow of this unconventional shape using certain assumptions. The shape of the careen is assumed to be an elliptic cone. To retrieve the velocity potential shapes, we use the spheroconal coordinates. This leads to the Lamé's equations. The whole system of equations governing the interaction air-structure, including the boundary conditions, is solved in an analytical setting.

  7. Summary statistics for fossil spider species taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Penney

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Spiders (Araneae are one of the most species-rich orders on Earth today, and also have one of the longest geological records of any terrestrial animal groups, as demonstrated by their extensive fossil record. There are currently around 1150 described fossil spider species, representing 2.6% of all described spiders (i.e. extinct and extant. Data for numbers of fossil and living spider taxa described annually (and various other metrics for the fossil taxa were compiled from current taxonomic catalogues. Data for extant taxa showed a steady linear increase of approximately 500 new species per year over the last decade, reflecting a rather constant research activity in this area by a large number of scientists, which can be expected to continue. The results for fossil species were very different, with peaks of new species descriptions followed by long troughs, indicating minimal new published research activity for most years. This pattern is indicative of short bursts of research by a limited number of authors. Given the frequent discovery of new fossil deposits containing spiders, a wealth of new material coming to light from previously worked deposits, and the application of new imaging techniques in palaeoarachnology that allow us to extract additional data from historical specimens, e.g. X-ray computed tomography, it is important not only to ensure a sustained research activity on fossil spiders (and other arachnids through training and enthusing the next generation of palaeoarachnologists, but preferably to promote increased research and expertise in this field.

  8. Fossil fuel support mechanisms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2013-10-15

    Fossil fuel subsidies and other state support for fossil fuels are forbidden by the Kyoto Protocol and other international treaties. However, they are still commonly used. This publication presents and analyses diverse state support mechanisms for fossil fuels in Finland in 2003-2010. Total of 38 support mechanisms are covered in quantitative analysis and some other mechanisms are mentioned qualitatively only. For some mechanisms the study includes a longer historical perspective. This is the case for tax subsidies for crude oil based traffic fuels that have been maintained in Finland since 1965.

  9. Carbon Sequestration in Unconventional Reservoirs: Geophysical, Geochemical and Geomechanical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Natalia V.

    In the face of the environmental challenges presented by the acceleration of global warming, carbon capture and storage, also called carbon sequestration, may provide a vital option to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, while meeting the world's energy demands. To operate on a global scale, carbon sequestration would require thousands of geologic repositories that could accommodate billions of tons of carbon dioxide per year. In order to reach such capacity, various types of geologic reservoirs should be considered, including unconventional reservoirs such as volcanic rocks, fractured formations, and moderate-permeability aquifers. Unconventional reservoirs, however, are characterized by complex pore structure, high heterogeneity, and intricate feedbacks between physical, chemical and mechanical processes, and their capacity to securely store carbon emissions needs to be confirmed. In this dissertation, I present my contribution toward the understanding of geophysical, geochemical, hydraulic, and geomechanical properties of continental basalts and fractured sedimentary formations in the context of their carbon storage capacity. The data come from two characterization projects, in the Columbia River Flood Basalt in Washington and the Newark Rift Basin in New York, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnerships and TriCarb Consortium for Carbon Sequestration. My work focuses on in situ analysis using borehole geophysical measurements that allow for detailed characterization of formation properties on the reservoir scale and under nearly unaltered subsurface conditions. The immobilization of injected CO2 by mineralization in basaltic rocks offers a critical advantage over sedimentary reservoirs for long-term CO2 storage. Continental flood basalts, such as the Columbia River Basalt Group, possess a suitable structure for CO2 storage, with extensive reservoirs in the interflow zones separated by massive impermeable

  10. Trace fossils in coal-bearing sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, J.E.

    1988-03-01

    In the past decade trace fossils have been recorded extensively from coal-bearing sediments, differing widely in facies, age and location. Westphalian or Stephanian 'coal-measures' in Britain, Europe and Eastern Canada contain an ichnofauna produced by invertebrates and/or vertebrates in upper delta plain sediments. This contrasts with the marine-related lower delta plain ichnofaunas known from Pennsylvanian rocks of the United States and Permian Gondwana 'coal-measures' of South Africa. Deltaic complexes of Middle Jurassic age in the North Sea basin and Upper Cretaceous age in North America contain marine trace fossils and dinosaur footprints in coastal coal- bearing facies. These case histories illustrate the importance of trace fossils both in facies analysis of coal-bearing sequences and in recording the presence of animals rarely known as body fossils in such clastic sediments. 80 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Evolution: Fossil Ears and Underwater Sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier

    2016-08-22

    A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability.

  12. Repopulation response of mouse oral mucosa during unconventional radiotherapy protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repopulation in mouse tongue epithelium was determined during unconventional fractionation schedules, i.e., hyperfractionation (2 x 1.5 and 2 x 1.75 Gy/day) and accelerated treatment (2 x 3 Gy/day). The residual tolerance of the epithelium at defined days of the fractionated treatment was tested by graded single test doses (top-up design). The dose required to induce complete epithelial denudation in 50% of the animals (ED50) was used to calculate the number of fractions repopulated during the preceding treatment. After the first week of hyperfractionation, tolerance was reduced compared to untreated epithelium. However, subsequently no further change was observed, indicating complete compensation of the weekly dose with all doses per fraction used. Epithelial cell density, defined by histological examination in additional experiments, in all fractionation arms decreased similarly by ∼40% during the first week and remained constant at 60-80% in the subsequent 2 weeks. During accelerated fractionation, the residual mucosal tolerance decreased continuously with treatment time and resulted in epithelial denudation after 12 fractions. However, a substantial repopulation effect was observed, compensating 1.5 fractions by day 2, and 5 fractions by day 5, respectively. After cessation of the therapy the repopulation rate clearly decelerated to compensate a dose equivalent to about 0.5 fractions per day. Cell density decreased linearly during the treatment with 5, 10 or 12 fractions at a rate close to normal cell loss. Marked cell production, dependent on the total fractionated dose, was seen from one day after the last fraction in each experimental arm. These results indicate that maximum stem cell repopulation occurs predominantly during treatment, while major production of differentiating cells takes place in treatment splits

  13. The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Christophe; Ekins, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers have generally agreed that the average global temperature rise caused by greenhouse gas emissions should not exceed 2 °C above the average global temperature of pre-industrial times. It has been estimated that to have at least a 50 per cent chance of keeping warming below 2 °C throughout the twenty-first century, the cumulative carbon emissions between 2011 and 2050 need to be limited to around 1,100 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (Gt CO2). However, the greenhouse gas emissions contained in present estimates of global fossil fuel reserves are around three times higher than this, and so the unabated use of all current fossil fuel reserves is incompatible with a warming limit of 2 °C. Here we use a single integrated assessment model that contains estimates of the quantities, locations and nature of the world's oil, gas and coal reserves and resources, and which is shown to be consistent with a wide variety of modelling approaches with different assumptions, to explore the implications of this emissions limit for fossil fuel production in different regions. Our results suggest that, globally, a third of oil reserves, half of gas reserves and over 80 per cent of current coal reserves should remain unused from 2010 to 2050 in order to meet the target of 2 °C. We show that development of resources in the Arctic and any increase in unconventional oil production are incommensurate with efforts to limit average global warming to 2 °C. Our results show that policy makers' instincts to exploit rapidly and completely their territorial fossil fuels are, in aggregate, inconsistent with their commitments to this temperature limit. Implementation of this policy commitment would also render unnecessary continued substantial expenditure on fossil fuel exploration, because any new discoveries could not lead to increased aggregate production.

  14. Fossil Fuels, Alternative Energy and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Barreto

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework that incorporates energy within an endogenous growth model. The model explicitly allows for the interaction and substitution between fossil fuels, defined as a non-renewable resource derived from some fixed initial stock, and alternative energy, defined as renewable resource whose production requires capital input. The dynamics of the model depict a unique balance growth to a saddle point. The consumption path temporarily peaks, when fossil fuels are plentif...

  15. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  16. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Scott

    2016-01-01

    This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sou...

  17. Fossil group origins. IV. Characterization of the sample and observational properties of fossil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarattini, S.; Barrena, R.; Girardi, M.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Boschin, W.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Corsini, E. M.; del Burgo, C.; D'Onghia, E.; Herrera-Ruiz, N.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Jimenez Bailon, E.; Lozada Muoz, M.; Napolitano, N.; Vilchez, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Virialized halos grow by the accretion of smaller ones in the cold dark matter scenario. The rate of accretion depends on the different properties of the host halo. Those halos for which this accretion rate was very fast and efficient resulted in systems dominated by a central galaxy surrounded by smaller galaxies that were at least two magnitudes fainter. These galaxy systems are called fossil systems, and they can be the fossil relics of ancient galaxy structures. Aims: We started an extensive observational program to characterize a sample of 34 fossil group candidates spanning a broad range of physical properties. Methods: Deep r-band images were obtained with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and Nordic Optic Telescope. Optical spectroscopic observations were performed at the 3.5-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo for ~1200 galaxies. This new dataset was completed with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 archival data to obtain robust cluster membership and global properties of each fossil group candidate. For each system, we recomputed the magnitude gaps between the two brightest galaxies (Δm12) and the first and fourth ranked galaxies (Δm14) within 0.5 R200. We consider fossil systems to be those with Δm12 ≥ 2 mag or Δm14 ≥ 2.5 mag within the errors. Results: We find that 15 candidates turned out to be fossil systems. Their observational properties agree with those of non-fossil systems. Both follow the same correlations, but the fossil systems are always extreme cases. In particular, they host the brightest central galaxies, and the fraction of total galaxy light enclosed in the brightest group galaxy is larger in fossil than in non-fossil systems. Finally, we confirm the existence of genuine fossil clusters. Conclusions: Combining our results with others in the literature, we favor the merging scenario in which fossil systems formed from mergers of L∗ galaxies. The large magnitude gap is a consequence of the extreme merger ratio within

  18. African fossil tali: further multivariate morphometric studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, F P; Albrecht, G H

    1976-07-01

    Analysis of measurements from the tali of 21 individual fossil primates from Africa shows that the specimens fall into five clearly defined groups. Accordingly, these specimens have been included as groups along with extant species in a subsequent canonical analysis thus allowing the fossils to play their part in the determination of the canonical separations. The results of this procedure show that the five fossil groups lie in a part of the canonical space not occupied by any extant African primate. Their positions are between the envelope of Asiatic apes (Hylobates and Pongo) and the envelope of African forms near the edge which contains Pan and Papio. One fossil group is so similar to Hylobates that its talus may have functioned in locomotion in a parallel manner. Others lie near to Pongo in directions proceeding towards Pan and Papio and it is possible that this similarity may indicate remnants of morphological adaptation for climbing in these fossils. At the same time, however, individual specimens are closer to one or another of the extant groups and this considerable spread suggests that the locomotor adaptations as evidenced by talar morphology, of the primate fauna in Africa, may have been very different from those of the present day. This would not the inconsistent with the different habitats, floras and non-primate faunas that may have characterized the East African scene at these earlier times. Particular fossils from Olduvai and Kromdraai that are supposed to be australopithecine and therefore bipeds, are confirmed (Oxnard, '72; Lisowski et al., '74) as being totally different from man in their talar morphology and essentially rather similar to the majority of the other fossil tali examined. PMID:961834

  19. Unconventional Participation in Time of Crisis: How Ideology Shapes Citizens’ Political Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Memoli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since democracy requires the involvement of citizens, the topic of political participation has attracted great attention from both practitioners and scholars. During the current financial and economic crisis, there have been various protest movements in many European countries. In this paper, which employs data from the European Social Survey and analyzes some European countries using a longitudinal study (2002-2012, I measure unconventional political participation considering three types of action - signed a petition, participated in a lawful demonstration and joined a boycott. By linking citizens to government ideology and vote for party government to political action through a multilevel model, this paper argues that both ideology and citizens’ electoral choices have a bearing on unconventional political participation. In times of crisis, government choices do not feed the level of unconventional political participation. However, differences emerge in terms of political behavior when I consider citizens’ ideology, loser status and government ideology.

  20. Decorated defect condensate, a window to unconventional quantum phase transitions in Weyl semimetals

    CERN Document Server

    You, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the unconventional quantum phase transitions in Weyl semimetals. The emergent boson fields, coupling with the Weyl fermion bilinears, contain a Wess-Zumino-Witten term or topological $\\Theta$ term inherited from the momentum space monopoles carried by Weyl points. Three types of unconventional quantum critical points will be studied in order: (1) The transition between two distinct symmetry breaking phases whose criticality is beyond Landau's paradigm. (2) The transition between a symmetry breaking state to a topological ordered state. (3) The transition between $3d$ topological order phase to trivial disordered phase whose criticality could be traced back to a $Z_2$ symmetry breaking transition in $4d$. The essence of these unconventional critical points lies in the fact that the topological defect of an order parameter carries either a nontrivial quantum number or a topological term so the condensation of the defects would either break some symmetry or give rise to a topological order phase w...

  1. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Installation Effects for Conventional and Unconventional Airframes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2013-01-01

    As extensive experimental campaign was performed to study the aeroacoustic installation effects of an open rotor with respect to both a conventional tube and wing type airframe and an unconventional hybrid wing body airframe. The open rotor rig had two counter rotating rows of blades each with eight blades of a design originally flight tested in the 1980s. The aeroacoustic installation effects measured in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel included those from flow effects due to inflow distortion or wake interaction and acoustic propagation effects such as shielding and reflection. The objective of the test campaign was to quantify the installation effects for a wide range of parameters and configurations derived from the two airframe types. For the conventional airframe, the open rotor was positioned in increments in front of and then over the main wing and then in positions representative of tail mounted aircraft with a conventional tail, a T-tail and a U-tail. The interaction of the wake of the open rotor as well as acoustic scattering results in an increase of about 10 dB when the rotor is positioned in front of the main wing. When positioned over the main wing a substantial amount of noise reduction is obtained and this is also observed for tail-mounted installations with a large U-tail. For the hybrid wing body airframe, the open rotor was positioned over the airframe along the centerline as well as off-center representing a twin engine location. A primary result was the documentation of the noise reduction from shielding as a function of the location of the open rotor upstream of the trailing edge of the hybrid wing body. The effects from vertical surfaces and elevon deflection were also measured. Acoustic lining was specially designed and inserted flush with the elevon and airframe surface, the result was an additional reduction in open rotor noise propagating to the far field microphones. Even with the older blade design used, the experiment provided

  2. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  3. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical

  4. Just fracking: a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Emily; Bell, Derek

    2016-02-01

    This letter presents a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in the area of Pennsylvania lying over the Marcellus Shale, the largest shale gas formation in play in the United States. The extraction of shale gas using unconventional wells, which are hydraulically fractured (fracking), has increased dramatically since 2005. As the number of wells has grown, so have concerns about the potential public health effects on nearby communities. These concerns make shale gas development an environmental justice issue. This letter examines whether the hazards associated with proximity to wells and the economic benefits of shale gas production are fairly distributed. We distinguish two types of distributive environmental justice: traditional and benefit sharing. We ask the traditional question: are there a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells in Pennsylvania? However, we extend this analysis in two ways: we examine income distribution and level of education; and we compare before and after shale gas development. This contributes to discussions of benefit sharing by showing how the income distribution of the population has changed. We use a binary dasymetric technique to remap the data from the 2000 US Census and the 2009-2013 American Communities Survey and combine that data with a buffer containment analysis of unconventional wells to compare the characteristics of the population living nearer to unconventional wells with those further away before and after shale gas development. Our analysis indicates that there is no evidence of traditional distributive environmental injustice: there is not a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells. However, our analysis is consistent with the claim that there is benefit sharing distributive environmental injustice: the income distribution of the population nearer to shale gas wells

  5. Avoidance of unconventional oil wells and roads exacerbates habitat loss for grassland birds in the North American great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Nieumuth, Neal; Ribic, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Oil development in the Bakken shale region has increased rapidly as a result of new technologies and strong demand for fossil fuel. This region also supports a particularly high density and diversity of grassland bird species, which are declining across North America. We examined grassland bird response to unconventional oil extraction sites (i.e. developed with hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques) and associated roads in North Dakota. Our goal was to quantify the amount of habitat that was indirectly degraded by oil development, as evidenced by patterns of avoidance by birds. Grassland birds avoided areas within 150 m of roads (95% CI: 87–214 m), 267 m of single-bore well pads (95% CI: 157–378 m), and 150 m of multi-bore well pads (95% CI: 67–233 m). Individual species demonstrated variable tolerance of well pads. Clay-colored sparrows (Spizella pallida) were tolerant of oil-related infrastructure, whereas Sprague's pipit (Anthus spragueii) avoided areas within 350 m (95% CI: 215–485 m) of single-bore well pads. Given these density patterns around oil wells, the potential footprint of any individual oil well, and oil development across the region, is greatly multiplied for sensitive species. Efforts to reduce new road construction, concentrate wells along developed corridors, combine numerous wells on multi-bore pads rather than build many single-bore wells, and to place well pads near existing roads will serve to minimize loss of suitable habitat for birds. Quantifying environmental degradation caused by oil development is a critical step in understanding how to better mitigate harm to wildlife populations.

  6. Light-induced unconventional Landau levels of ultracold fermions in a trilayer honeycomb lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of cold fermionic atoms is studied in a trilayer honeycomb optical lattice subjected to a perpendicular effective magnetic field,which is created with optical means. In the low energy approximation,the spectrum shows unconventional Landau levels,which are proportional to the 3/2 power of integer numbers. The zoro modes exist and the quasiparticles are chiral. It is also proposed to identify the unconventional Landau levels via probing the dynamic structure factor of the system with Bragg spectroscopy.

  7. The Fossil Starburst in M82

    CERN Document Server

    De Grijs, R; Gallagher, J S; Grijs, Richard de; Connell, Robert W. O'; III, John S. Gallagher

    1999-01-01

    We present high-resolution optical and near-infrared HST observations of two adjacent regions in the fossil starburst region in M82, M82 B1 and B2. The presence of both the active and the fossil starburst in M82 provides a unique physical environment to study the stellar and dynamical evolution of star cluster systems. The cluster population in B2 is more heavily affected by internal extinction than that in B1, amounting to an excess extinction in B2 of A_(V,excess) = 1.1 +/- 0.3 mag. Preliminary age estimates date the cluster population in the fossil starburst between ~2 x 10^8 and ~10^9 years. The radial luminosity profiles of the brightest clusters are more closely approximated by power laws than by a Gaussian model, in particular in their wings, which favors a slow star formation scenario.

  8. Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008 and 2009 two papers by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper examined possible fossil energy availability and energy consumption scenarios and consequences for future climate. The papers yield somewhat similar results regarding atmospheric CO2 levels, but they reach substantially different conclusions regarding future climate change. Here, we compare their methods and results. Our work shows that Nel and Cooper's paper significantly underestimates future warming. Nel and Cooper conclude that even if all the available fossil fuels would be burned at the maximum possible rate during this century, the consequent warming would cap at less than 1 deg. C above the 2000 level. We find that - under Nel and Cooper's assumption of an intensive exploitation of fossil fuels - the global temperature in 2100 will likely reach levels which would lead to severely damaging long-term impacts.

  9. Insect diversity in the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandeira, C. C.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Insects possess a surprisingly extensive fossil record. Compilation of the geochronologic ranges of insect families demonstrates that their diversity exceeds that of preserved vertebrate tetrapods through 91 percent of their evolutionary history. The great diversity of insects was achieved not by high origination rates but rather by low extinction rates comparable to the low rates of slowly evolving marine invertebrate groups. The great radiation of modern insects began 245 million years ago and was not accelerated by the expansion of angiosperms during the Cretaceous period. The basic trophic machinery of insects was in place nearly 100 million years before angiosperms appeared in the fossil record.

  10. Fossil generation restructuring in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Ukrainian electrical system as it was in 1991, defines the need for restructuring, outlines the restructuring process, identifies a number of major obstacles that are hindering the implementation of the fossil generation, restructuring process, and points out major problems in the coal procurement system. It describes the visits to several Ukrainian power plants, defines restructuring success to date, makes suggestions for improved restructuring progress, highlights lessons learned, and enlightens the audience on the opportunities of investing in the Ukrainian power generation industry. The primary focus is on the Fossil Generator Advisor task, which was carried out under the direction of Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc. (Hagler Bailly)

  11. Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Recently,a Chinese-German science fieldwork investigation team,composed of staff from the SinoGerman Paleontology and Geography Joint Lab and the Xinjiang Geological Work Station,announced that they discovered a batch of dinosaur footprint fossils in the dessert 20 kilometers to the east of Shanshan County in the Turpan Basin,Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.These fossils spread around an area of 100 square meters and scientists believed that these footprints were left behind by carnivore dinosaurs.This major discovery has been published in Global Geology,an English journal published by the NorthEast Asia Geology Center.

  12. Aquatic ape theory and fossil hominids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, M J

    1991-06-01

    While most older palaeo-anthropological studies emphasise the similarities of the fossil hominids with modern man, recent studies often stress the unique and the apelike features of the australopithecine dentitions, skulls and postcranial bones. It is worth reconsidering the features of Australopithecus, Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis in the light of the so-called Aquatic Ape Theory (AAT) of Hardy and Morgan, and to compare the skeletal parts of our fossil relatives with those of (semi)aquatic animals. Possible convergences are observed with proboscis monkeys, beavers, sea-otters, hippopotamuses, seals, sea-lions, walruses, sea-cows, whales, dolphins, porpoises, penguins and crocodiles. PMID:1909768

  13. The potential for unconventional oil resources: Between expediency and wishful thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unconventional oil resources such as Canada's tar sand oil, Venezuela's extra heavy oil and gas-to-liquid (GTL) oil, known collectively as synfuels, have been promoted as a major source of energy that could offset the projected decline in conventional crude oil production and possibly reduce dependence on Middle East oil. While some unconventional oil will continue to be produced out of expediency, it is wishful thinking to believe, on the basis of evidence available at present, that there will be enough to replace future shortfalls in conventional oil. This paper will argue that unconventional oil potential is very overrated and that its viability will always depend on high oil prices. It will also argue that apart from the limited size of production, unconventional oil is costlier to produce, more pollutant, more voracious user of energy and is of poorer quality than conventional crude oil. The paper will maintain that it is one thing having huge reserves of tar sands and extra heavy oil and quite another turning them into a meaningful production capacity. (Author)

  14. "Total Physical Response": Un apprentissage non conventionnel ("Total Physical Response": An Unconventional Way to Learn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafayette, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the Total Physical Response method of second language instruction places the concept within the context of other unconventional language learning methods, reviews the rationale behind the approach, and outlines the classroom procedures used. A sampling of useful commands for classroom use is included. (19 references) (MSE)

  15. Environmental flows in the context of unconventional natural gas development in the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative flow-ecology relationships are needed to evaluate the threat of water withdrawals associated with unconventional natural gas development to aquatic ecosystems. Addressing this need, we assessed current patterns of hydrologic alteration in the Marcellus Shale region by comparing observed...

  16. Unconventional Employer Branding: a strategy to win the talents attraction and retention war

    OpenAIRE

    Zamparelli, Giuseppina

    2011-01-01

    Present research aims at analysing unconventional employer branding strategies in order to retain talented human capital towards sustainable competitive advantage. In the current job market, talents represent a fundamental asset in the competitive advantage gaining. So, the research starts creating a theoretical bridging between Brand Management, Organisational Behaviour and Iternal Marketing, using employer branding as theoretical pivot. Practical implications of this perspective consist of ...

  17. Investigating the Effects of Uncertainties Associated with the Unconventional Gas Development in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eker, S.; Van Daalen, C.

    2012-01-01

    The natural gas production in the Netherlands is estimated to decline significantly in the coming 25 years. This situation has led producers to consider alternatives such as unconventional gas resources which are successfully utilized in the US and debated all over the world. However, despite the su

  18. Deflagration products from emulsion explosive unconventional nano-powders from ion reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Xinghua [Xinghua Xie, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Zhu Jing; Zhou Huisheng [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China)], E-mail: xxh1963@163.com

    2009-09-01

    The present situation of detonation synthesis and emulsion explosives is summarized. To solve the problems in research for lithium ion batteries, we suggested that zinc and lithium oxides should be used as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. So, we design unconventional emulsion explosives, and synthesize zinc and lithium oxides by means of deflagration firstly. Also, microstructures and morphology of nanometer thin sheets in the deflagration soot of emulsion explosives are measured in our experiments; namely, we surveyed and analyzed products with the implement of XRD, TEM and FTIR. It is concluded that nanoparticles of lithium and zinc oxides can be synthesized through deflagration of the unconventional emulsion explosive. Main contents and research results are as follows: First, unconventional emulsion explosives for synthesis of zinc and lithium oxides are designed firstly, and we also discuss mechanics of deflagration. In the final analysis, we succeeded in synthesizing nano-sheets of zinc and lithium oxides by deflagrating at the fist time. Second, we tested microstructures of nanometer thin sheets of lithium and zinc composite oxides. Third, by contrast to industrial emulsion explosives, we analyzed the deflagration mechanics of the unconventional emulsion explosives. Last, zinc and lithium nanooxides are successfully collected and validated by XRD, TEM and FTIR exactly.

  19. Applying unconventional secretion of the endochitinase Cts1 to export heterologous proteins in Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Janpeter; Sarkari, Parveen; Kreibich, Saskia; Brefort, Thomas; Feldbrügge, Michael; Schipper, Kerstin

    2012-10-15

    The demand on the biotechnological production of proteins for pharmaceutical, medical and industrial applications is steadily growing. For the production of challenging proteins, we aim to establish a novel expression platform in the well characterized eukaryotic microorganism Ustilago maydis. In filaments of this fungus, secretion of the endochitinase Cts1 depends on mRNA transport along microtubules, which is mediated by the key RNA-binding protein Rrm4. Here, we report two important findings: (i) Cts1 secretion occurs via a novel unconventional route and (ii) this secretory mechanism can be exploited for the export of active heterologous proteins. Initially, we used β-glucuronidase (Gus) as a reporter for unconventional secretion. This bacterial enzyme is inactivated by N-glycosylation during its passage through the conventional eukaryotic secretory pathway. By contrast, in our system Gus was exported in its active form by fusion to Cts1 confirming its secretion by an unconventional route. As a proof-of-principle for economically important biopharmaceuticals we expressed an active single-chain antibody. Importantly, the novel protein export pathway circumvents N-glycosylation which is advantageous in many applications, e.g., to avoid undesired immune reactions in humans. Thus, the unconventional Cts1 secretion machinery has a high potential for the production of biotechnologically relevant proteins.

  20. Integrated reservoir and decision modeling to optimize spacing in unconventional gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkarslan, G.; McVay, D.A.; Ortiz, R.R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Bickel, J.E.; Montiel, L.V. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Unconventional gas plays are risky and operators must balance the need to conserve capital and protect the environment by avoiding over drilling with the desire to increase profitability. The purpose of this study was to develop technology and tools to help operators determine optimal well spacing in highly uncertain and risky unconventional gas reservoirs as quickly as possible. The paper presented a study that developed an integrated reservoir and decision modeling system that incorporated uncertainty. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to match and predict production performance in unconventional gas reservoirs. Simulation results were integrated with a Bayesian decision model that accounted for the risk facing operators. In order to determine optimal development strategies, these integrated tools were applied to a hypothetical case based on data from Deep Basin tight gas sands in Alberta. The paper provided background information on the Deep Basin Sands and the reservoir model. The Monte Carlo simulation and geostatistical analysis were presented. It was concluded that it is important to incorporate the lessons learned between development stages in unconventional gas reservoirs. 23 refs., 9 tabs., 16 figs.

  1. Unconventional monetary policies:How effective have been the ECB measures against the financial crisis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟航; 张浩

    2014-01-01

    In the latest financial crisis, apart from standard practice, ECB conducted a series of unconventional practice, which were ef ective in money market. However, because of the impaired monetary policy transmission mechanism and political independence in Eurozone, the recovery of the real economy is delayed.

  2. A Conceptual Design and Analysis Method for Conventional and Unconventional Airplanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmendorp, R.J.M.; Vos, R.; La Rocca, G.

    2014-01-01

    A design method is presented that has been implemented in a software program to investigate the merits of conventional and unconventional transport airplanes. Design and analysis methods are implemented in a design tool capable of creating a conceptual design based on a set of toplevel requirements.

  3. PROCESS AND UNCONVENTIONAL METHOD OF MARKING OR STAMPING OF HARD METAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors present in this work a new unconventional technological way of marking or stamping ofvery hard metals from tempered steel with help of explosives. Even this method is in experimental stage, it canbecame an object for study in another related domains.

  4. Unconventional gas recovery program. Semi-annual report for the period ending September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manilla, R.D. (ed.)

    1980-04-01

    This document is the third semi-annual report describing the technical progress of the US DOE projects directed at gas recovery from unconventional sources. Currently the program includes Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project, Eastern Gas Shales Project, Western Gas Sands Project, and Geopressured Aquifers Project.

  5. Fossil Energy Materials Program conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R. (comp.)

    1987-08-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy has recognized the need for materials research and development to assure the adequacy of materials of construction for advanced fossil energy systems. The principal responsibility for identifying needed materials research and for establishing a program to address these needs resides within the Office of Technical Coordination. That office has established the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Fossil Energy Materials Program to fulfill that responsibility. In addition to the AR and TD Materials Program, which is designed to address in a generic way the materials needs of fossil energy systems, specific materials support activities are also sponsored by the various line organizations such as the Office of Coal Gasification. A conference was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee on May 19-21, 1987, to present and discuss the results of program activities during the past year. The conference program was organized in accordance with the research thrust areas we have established. These research thrust areas include structural ceramics (particularly fiber-reinforced ceramic composites), corrosion and erosion, and alloy development and mechanical properties. Eighty-six people attended the conference. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  6. The Fascinating Story of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1973-01-01

    How this energy source was created, its meaning to mankind, our drastically reduced supply, and why we cannot wait for nature to make more are considered. Today fossil fuels supply 96 percent of the energy used but we must find alternate energy options if we are to combat the energy crisis. (BL)

  7. Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

  8. Groundwater protection and unconventional gas extraction: the critical need for field-based hydrogeological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R E; Gorody, A W; Mayer, B; Roy, J W; Ryan, M C; Van Stempvoort, D R

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas extraction from tight sandstones, shales, and some coal-beds is typically accomplished by horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing that is necessary for economic development of these new hydrocarbon resources. Concerns have been raised regarding the potential for contamination of shallow groundwater by stray gases, formation waters, and fracturing chemicals associated with unconventional gas exploration. A lack of sound scientific hydrogeological field observations and a scarcity of published peer-reviewed articles on the effects of both conventional and unconventional oil and gas activities on shallow groundwater make it difficult to address these issues. Here, we discuss several case studies related to both conventional and unconventional oil and gas activities illustrating how under some circumstances stray or fugitive gas from deep gas-rich formations has migrated from the subsurface into shallow aquifers and how it has affected groundwater quality. Examples include impacts of uncemented well annuli in areas of historic drilling operations, effects related to poor cement bonding in both new and old hydrocarbon wells, and ineffective cementing practices. We also summarize studies describing how structural features influence the role of natural and induced fractures as contaminant fluid migration pathways. On the basis of these studies, we identify two areas where field-focused research is urgently needed to fill current science gaps related to unconventional gas extraction: (1) baseline geochemical mapping (with time series sampling from a sufficient network of groundwater monitoring wells) and (2) field testing of potential mechanisms and pathways by which hydrocarbon gases, reservoir fluids, and fracturing chemicals might potentially invade and contaminate useable groundwater. PMID:23745972

  9. The framing of unconventional natural gas resources in the foreign energy policy discourse of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of unconventional resources of natural gas has altered the order on global as well as continental gas markets. With rising liquidity, the position of established dominant suppliers is eroding. We focus on the initial response of Russia, the leading supplier of natural gas to Europe, to the new situation, building the research on unit-level constructivism and discourse analysis. We use frame analysis to reveal what image of unconventional resources was constructed in Russian foreign energy policy discourse (FEPD) in the period between 2009 and 2011, when the “unconventional revolution” did not yet have any sharp contours. We conclude that in Russian FEPD the unconventionals are considered as a distinctive and inferior source of energy compared to conventional natural gas. Emphasis is put on their economic irrationality and environmental hazards. The bottom line of the discourse is the idea that there is a choice between conventional and unconventional sources, with this choice being framed as one between good and bad, or right and wrong. - Highlights: • We examine the image of “unconventional gas” in Russian foreign energy policy discourse. • Two main frames (reliable supplier and triumphant natural gas) were identified. • Two main argumentation schemes (economic and environmental) were identified. • The “unconventional gas” is defined as a mistaken and inferior source of energy

  10. Status of fossil fuel reserves; Etat des reserves des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laherrere, J

    2005-07-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  11. Too much petroleum. Fossil fuels and climatic change; Trop de petrole. Energie fossile et rechauffement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, H

    2007-01-15

    In the framework of the global warming, the author forecasts on the consequences of fossil fuels use, taking into account that the problem of the fossil energies is not a problem of shortage but a problem of environmental pollution. He proposes then radical and original solutions where a change of life attitudes, the necessity of the nuclear energy and a beginning of actions even without a world cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  12. Fossil Energy Program report. University activities, 1 October 1977-30 September 1978. [US DOE supported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    This document describes the Fossil Energy-supported contract and project activity for FY 1978. The primary thrust of the Program is on coal - especially direct coal combustion and what can be done to increase the environmental acceptability of coal. We are concerned with developing cleaner technologies, and we are working on precombustion cleanup, fluidized-bed combustion, and post-combustion cleanup. Longer range technologies are being developed that will use coal more efficiently; for example, magnetohydrodynamics, fuel cells, and high-temperature turbine utilization. Another priority is the development of a capability to produce synthetic fuels from coal. We are also engaged in a coal mining research and development program that focuses on increased mine productivity and workers' safety through the development of improved technologies. Our activity in the petroleum and gas research areas is intended to complement efforts in the private sector, which are to be further stimulated by new pricing or Federal incentives. Our present enhanced oil recovery efforts represent a shift in emphasis toward longer range, high-technology development projects instead of numerous field demonstrations and tests. The enhanced gas program emphasizes activities to increase our knowledge of the size and economic productivity of the unconventional gas resources. We are also involved in oil shale development, with the major research concentration on in situ retorting. We are continually assessing our program. Total annual funding has increased from $58 million in FY 1973 to $881 million in FY 1979. Fossil Energy is working closely with all parts of the Department of Energy, other appropriate Federal agencies, industry, and universities to insure that we maintain a balanced, aggressive, and responsive program suited to our national needs.

  13. Low-frequency RF Coupling To Unconventional (Fat Unbalanced) Dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Perkins, M P; Speer, R D; Javedani, J B

    2010-12-07

    The report explains radio frequency (RF) coupling to unconventional dipole antennas. Normal dipoles have thin equal length arms that operate at maximum efficiency around resonance frequencies. In some applications like high-explosive (HE) safety analysis, structures similar to dipoles with ''fat'' unequal length arms must be evaluated for indirect-lightning effects. An example is shown where a metal drum-shaped container with HE forms one arm and the detonator cable acts as the other. Even if the HE is in a facility converted into a ''Faraday cage'', a lightning strike to the facility could still produce electric fields inside. The detonator cable concentrates the electric field and carries the energy into the detonator, potentially creating a hazard. This electromagnetic (EM) field coupling of lightning energy is the indirect effect of a lightning strike. In practice, ''Faraday cages'' are formed by the rebar of the concrete facilities. The individual rebar rods in the roof, walls and floor are normally electrically connected because of the construction technique of using metal wire to tie the pieces together. There are two additional requirements for a good cage. (1) The roof-wall joint and the wall-floor joint must be electrically attached. (2) All metallic penetrations into the facility must also be electrically connected to the rebar. In this report, it is assumed that these conditions have been met, and there is no arcing in the facility structure. Many types of detonators have metal ''cups'' that contain the explosives and thin electrical initiating wires, called bridge wires mounted between two pins. The pins are connected to the detonator cable. The area of concern is between the pins supporting the bridge wire and the metal cup forming the outside of the detonator. Detonator cables usually have two wires, and in this example, both wires generated the same voltage at the

  14. Unconventional Implant Placement IV. Implant Placement through Impacted Teeth to Avoid Invasive Surgery. Long-term Results of 3 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Mithridade, Davarpanah; Serge, Szmukler-Moncler; Keyvan, Davarpanah; Nedjoua, Capelle-Ouadah; Georgy, Demurashvili; Philippe, Rajzbaum

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the long-term data of patients that have been treated with an unconventional implant placement protocol to avoid an invasive surgery when edentulism was caused by an impacted tooth. In 2009, the follow-up of this unconven-tional protocol was 2 to 3.5 years; this article documents now the long-term 5- to 8-year follow-up of 3 patients and 5 im-plants. Over this period of time, implant stability was maintained without complications. This unconventional protocol opens intrigu...

  15. The First Observation on Plant Cell Fossils in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; CUI Jinzhong

    2007-01-01

    For a long time, paleontologists have been focusing on hard parts of organisms during different geological periods while soft parts are rarely reported. Well-preserved plant cells, if found in fossils, are treated only as a rarity. Recent progress in research on fossil cytoplasm indicates that plant cytoplasm not only has excellent ultrastructures preserved but also may be a quite commonly seen fossil in strata. However, up to now there is no report of plant cell fossils in China yet. Here plant cell fossils are reported from Huolinhe Coal Mine (the early Cretaceous), Inner Mongolia, China. The presence of plant cytoplasm fossils in two cones on the same specimen not only provides further support for the recently proposed hypothesis on plant cytoplasm fossilization but also marks the first record of plant cytoplasm fossils in China, which suggests a great research potential in this new area.

  16. Seeking Inflation Fossils in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Liang; Jeong, Donghui; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2013-01-01

    If during inflation the inflaton couples to a "fossil" field, some new scalar, vector, or tensor field, it typically induces a scalar-scalar-fossil bispectrum. Even if the fossil field leaves no direct physical trace after inflation, it gives rise to correlations between different Fourier modes of the curvature or, equivalently, a nonzero curvature trispectrum, but without a curvature bispectrum. Here we quantify the effects of a fossil field on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperatu...

  17. Unconventional oil and gas development and its stresses on water resources in the context of Water-Energy-Food Nexus: The case of Weld County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, P. D.; Waskom, R.; Boone, K.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas resources in Colorado started to rapidly increase since the early 2000's. The recent oil price plunge resulted in a decline of well starts' rate in the US, but in Weld County, Colorado, it is currently at the 2013-levels. The additional water demand, despite its insignificant percentage in overall state's demand (0.1% in 2012), it competes with traditional ones, since Colorado's water is almost fully appropriated. Presently, the state has 53,597 active producing oil and gas wells. More than 40% of these are located in Weld County, which happens also to be one of top food production U.S. counties. The competition for land and water resources between the energy and agricultural sectors in water stressed areas, like the western U.S., is further intensified if recycle and reuse practices are not preferred to water disposal by the energy industry. Satisfying the multiple objectives of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in order to achieve sustainable economic development requires balanced management of these resources. Identifying pressures on key areas that food and energy sectors are competing for water, is essential for prudent water management and developing appropriate policies. Weld County, as a water stressed and fossil fuel producing area, was selected for investigating current stresses on local water resources alongside with future climatic and water demand scenarios for exploring probable long-term effects.

  18. Probe into the Internal Mechanism of Interlanguage Fossilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Interlanguage fossilization is normal for second language acquisition. It is also a hotspot for studies on theory of foreign language acquisition. Many reasons cause the interlanguage fossilization. This paper probes into the internal mechanism of interlanguage fossilization from five aspects, namely the physiological aspect, the psychological…

  19. Cassini State Transitions with a Fossil Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Isamu; Tuttle Keane, James

    2016-10-01

    The Moon has experienced large obliquity variations during Cassini state transitions which greatly impact tidal heating, and the long-term stability of polar volatiles. It has been known for centuries that the lunar rotational and tidal bulges are much larger than expected. The South Pole-Aitken basin can explain a large fraction of the excess deformation. Accounting for the contribution of this basin (and other large basins), the remaining excess deformation arises due to a fossil figure established when the Moon orbited much closer to Earth than it does today. Previous studies assume that the present, excess deformation is entirely preserved throughout Cassini state transitions. This ignores basin contributions to the excess deformation, and requires an interior with infinite rigidity. We consider Cassini state transition models that take into account basin contributions to the excess deformation, and the effect of finite rigidity on the fossil figure.

  20. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon;

    2014-01-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from...... to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition......, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens...

  1. Decarbonisation of fossil energy via methane pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreysa, G.; Agar, D.W.; Schultz, I. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Despite the rising consumption of energy over the last few decades, the proven reserves of fossil fuels have steadily increased. Additionally, there are potentially tremendous reserves of methane hydrates available, which remain to be exploited. The use of fossil energy sources is thus increasingly being dictated less by supply than by the environmental concerns raised by climate change. In the context of the decarbonisation of the global energy system that this has stimulated, new means must be explored for using methane as energy source. Noncatalytic thermal pyrolysis of methane is proposed here as a promising concept for utilising methane with low to zero carbon dioxide emissions. Following cracking, only the energy content of the hydrogen is used, while the carbon can be stored safely and retrievably in disused coal mines. The thermodynamics and different process engineering concepts for the technical realisation of such a carbon moratorium technology are discussed. The possible contribution of methane pyrolysis to carbon negative geoengineering is also addressed. (orig.)

  2. Fossil Biodiversity: Red Noise Plus Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Melott, A L; Melott, Adrian L.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the Fourier power spectrum as well as the Hurst exponent of extinction, origination, and total biodiversity in the marine fossil record, using a recently improved geologic timescale. We find all of them strongly inconsistent with past claims of self-similarity as well as inconsistent with random walk behavior. Instead, they are dominated by low-frequency power, with approximate f^-2 power over one decade in frequency. The spectrum turns over at about 10^5 y, lending plausibility to connections with galactic dynamics. Even in the background of this low-frequency dominance, a previously noted 62 My biodiversity cycle stands out with better than 99% confidence above the noise level, accounting for about 35% of the total variance in the fossil biodiversity record.

  3. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  4. Diatoms: a fossil fuel of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Orly; Dinamarca, Jorge; Hochman, Gal; Falkowski, Paul G

    2014-03-01

    Long-term global climate change, caused by burning petroleum and other fossil fuels, has motivated an urgent need to develop renewable, carbon-neutral, economically viable alternatives to displace petroleum using existing infrastructure. Algal feedstocks are promising candidate replacements as a 'drop-in' fuel. Here, we focus on a specific algal taxon, diatoms, to become the fossil fuel of the future. We summarize past attempts to obtain suitable diatom strains, propose future directions for their genetic manipulation, and offer biotechnological pathways to improve yield. We calculate that the yields obtained by using diatoms as a production platform are theoretically sufficient to satisfy the total oil consumption of the US, using between 3 and 5% of its land area.

  5. Topological Defects: Fossils from the Early Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Vachaspati, Tanmay

    1998-01-01

    In the context of current particle physics theories, it is quite likely that topological defects may be present in our universe. An observation of these fossils from the early universe would lead to invaluable insight into cosmology and particle physics, while their absence provides important constraints on particle-cosmology model building. I describe recent efforts to address cosmological issues in condensed matter systems such as He-3 and a possible solution to the magnetic monopole proble...

  6. Tool making, hand morphology and fossil hominins

    OpenAIRE

    Marzke, Mary W.

    2013-01-01

    Was stone tool making a factor in the evolution of human hand morphology? Is it possible to find evidence in fossil hominin hands for this capability? These questions are being addressed with increasingly sophisticated studies that are testing two hypotheses; (i) that humans have unique patterns of grip and hand movement capabilities compatible with effective stone tool making and use of the tools and, if this is the case, (ii) that there exist unique patterns of morphology in human hands tha...

  7. Adaptation, plant evolution, and the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Niklas, K. J.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of adaptation in determining patterns of evolution has become an important focus of debate in evolutionary biology. As it pertains to paleobotany, the issue is whether or not adaptive evolution mediated by natural selection is sufficient to explain the stratigraphic distributions of taxa and character states observed in the plant fossil record. One means of addressing this question is the functional evaluation of stratigraphic series of plant organs set in the context of paleoenvironmental change and temporal patterns of floral composition within environments. For certain organ systems, quantitative estimates of biophysical performance can be made on the basis of structures preserved in the fossil record. Performance estimates for plants separated in time or space can be compared directly. Implicit in different hypotheses of the forces that shape the evolutionary record (e.g. adaptation, mass extinction, rapid environmental change, chance) are predictions about stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental trends in the efficacy of functional performance. Existing data suggest that following the evolution of a significant structural innovation, adaptation for improved functional performance can be a major determinant of evolutionary changes in plants; however, there are structural and development limits to functional improvement, and once these are reached, the structure in question may no longer figure strongly in selection until and unless a new innovation evolves. The Silurian-Devonian paleobotanical record is consistent with the hypothesis that the succession of lowland floodplain dominants preserved in the fossil record of this interval was determined principally by the repeated evolution of new taxa that rose to ecological importance because of competitive advantages conferred by improved biophysical performance. This does not seem to be equally true for Carboniferous-Jurassic dominants of swamp and lowland floodplain environments. In these cases

  8. Decarbonised Polygeneration from Fossil and Biomass Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Kok Siew

    2011-01-01

    Utilisation of biomass resources and CO2 abatement systems in currentlyexploited fossil resource based energy systems are the key strategies in resolving energysustainability issue and combating against global climate change. These strategies areaffected by high energy penalty and high investment. Therefore, it is imperative toassess the viability of these energy systems and further identify niche problem areasassociated with energy efficiency and economic performance improvement. Th...

  9. Tool making, hand morphology and fossil hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, Mary W

    2013-11-19

    Was stone tool making a factor in the evolution of human hand morphology? Is it possible to find evidence in fossil hominin hands for this capability? These questions are being addressed with increasingly sophisticated studies that are testing two hypotheses; (i) that humans have unique patterns of grip and hand movement capabilities compatible with effective stone tool making and use of the tools and, if this is the case, (ii) that there exist unique patterns of morphology in human hands that are consistent with these capabilities. Comparative analyses of human stone tool behaviours and chimpanzee feeding behaviours have revealed a distinctive set of forceful pinch grips by humans that are effective in the control of stones by one hand during manufacture and use of the tools. Comparative dissections, kinematic analyses and biomechanical studies indicate that humans do have a unique pattern of muscle architecture and joint surface form and functions consistent with the derived capabilities. A major remaining challenge is to identify skeletal features that reflect the full morphological pattern, and therefore may serve as clues to fossil hominin manipulative capabilities. Hominin fossils are evaluated for evidence of patterns of derived human grip and stress-accommodation features. PMID:24101624

  10. The Properties of Fossil Groups of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Eigenthaler, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulations as well as optical and X-ray observations over the last few years have shown that poor groups of galaxies can evolve to what is called a fossil group. Dynamical friction as the driving process leads to the coalescence of individual galaxies in ordinary poor groups leaving behind nothing more than a central, massive elliptical galaxy supposed to contain the merger history of the whole group. Due to merging timescales for less-massive galaxies and gas cooling timescales of the X-ray intragroup medium exceeding a Hubble time, a surrounding faint-galaxy population having survived this galactic cannibalism as well as an extended X-ray halo similar to that found in ordinary groups, is expected. Recent studies suggest that fossil groups are very abundant and could be the progenitors of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the centers of rich galaxy clusters. However, only a few objects are known to the literature. This article aims to summarize the results of observational fossil group research...

  11. The Bakken - An Unconventional Petroleum and Reservoir System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarg, J.

    2011-12-31

    An integrated geologic and geophysical study of the Bakken Petroleum System, in the Williston basin of North Dakota and Montana indicates that: (1) dolomite is needed for good reservoir performance in the Middle Bakken; (2) regional and local fractures play a significant role in enhancing permeability and well production, and it is important to recognize both because local fractures will dominate in on-structure locations; and (3) the organic-rich Bakken shale serves as both a source and reservoir rock. The Middle Bakken Member of the Bakken Formation is the target for horizontal drilling. The mineralogy across all the Middle Bakken lithofacies is very similar and is dominated by dolomite, calcite, and quartz. This Member is comprised of six lithofacies: (A) muddy lime wackestone, (B) bioturbated, argillaceous, calcareous, very fine-grained siltstone/sandstone, (C) planar to symmetrically ripple to undulose laminated, shaly, very fine-grained siltstone/sandstone, (D) contorted to massive fine-grained sandstone, to low angle, planar cross-laminated sandstone with thin discontinuous shale laminations, (E) finely inter-laminated, bioturbated, dolomitic mudstone and dolomitic siltstone/sandstone to calcitic, whole fossil, dolomitic lime wackestone, and (F) bioturbated, shaly, dolomitic siltstone. Lithofacies B, C, D, and E can all be reservoirs, if quartz and dolomite-rich (facies D) or dolomitized (facies B, C, E). Porosity averages 4-8%, permeability averages 0.001-0.01 mD or less. Dolomitic facies porosity is intercrystalline and tends to be greater than 6%. Permeability may reach values of 0.15 mD or greater. This appears to be a determinant of high productive wells in Elm Coulee, Parshall, and Sanish fields. Lithofacies G is organic-rich, pyritic brown/black mudstone and comprises the Bakken shales. These shales are siliceous, which increases brittleness and enhances fracture potential. Mechanical properties of the Bakken reveal that the shales have similar

  12. Did you really save so little for your retirement? An analysis of retirement savings and unconventional retirement accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Mastrogiacomo; Rob Alessie

    2011-01-01

    We use a confirmatory factor analysis to study the relation between the importance of a broad spectrum of saving motives, such as saving for retirement, and saving behavior. Survey data show that many respondents save for retirement in unconventional retirement accounts, such as investments in real estate. We show that finding the retirement motive important does not directly translate in additional retirement savings. We show that the annuity stream generated by conventional and unconvention...

  13. 'Beautiful' unconventional synthesis and processing technologies of superconductors and some other materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Badica, Adrian Crisan, Gheorghe Aldica, Kazuhiro Endo, Hanna Borodianska, Kazumasa Togano, Satoshi Awaji, Kazuo Watanabe, Yoshio Sakka and Oleg Vasylkiv

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting materials have contributed significantly to the development of modern materials science and engineering. Specific technological solutions for their synthesis and processing helped in understanding the principles and approaches to the design, fabrication and application of many other materials. In this review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between the general and particular synthesis concepts. The analysis is mostly based on our studies where some unconventional technologies were applied to different superconductors and some other materials. These technologies include spray-frozen freeze-drying, fast pyrolysis, field-assisted sintering (or spark plasma sintering, nanoblasting, processing in high magnetic fields, methods of control of supersaturation and migration during film growth, and mechanical treatments of composite wires. The analysis provides future research directions and some key elements to define the concept of 'beautiful' technology in materials science. It also reconfirms the key position and importance of superconductors in the development of new materials and unconventional synthesis approaches.

  14. Fracton pairing mechanism for unconventional superconductors: Self-assembling organic polymers and copper-oxide compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milovanov, A.V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Self-assembling organic polymers and copper-oxide compounds are two classes of unconventional superconductors, whose challenging behavior does not comply with the traditional picture of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductivity in regular crystals. In this paper, we propose a theoretical...... or holes) exchange fracton excitations, quantum oscillations of fractal lattices that mimic the complex microscopic organization of the unconventional superconductors. For the copper oxides, the superconducting transition temperature T-c as predicted by the fracton mechanism is of the order of similar to......-induced superconducting phase in the electron-doped polymers, we simultaneously find a rather modest transition temperature of similar to2-3 K owing to the limitations imposed by the electron tunneling processes on a fractal geometry. We speculate that the hole-type superconductivity shows a larger onset temperature when...

  15. 'Beautiful' unconventional synthesis and processing technologies of superconductors and some other materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badica, Petre; Crisan, Adrian; Aldica, Gheorghe [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105bis, Magurele, Ilfov 077125 (Romania); Endo, Kazuhiro [Research Laboratory for Integrated Technological Systems, Kanazawa Institute of Technology (KIT), 3-1 Yatsukaho, Hakusan, Ishikawa 924-0838 (Japan); Borodianska, Hanna [Institute for Materials Science, NASU, 3, Krzhizhanivsky, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Togano, Kazumasa; Sakka, Yoshio; Vasylkiv, Oleg [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo, E-mail: badica2003@yahoo.com [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Superconducting materials have contributed significantly to the development of modern materials science and engineering. Specific technological solutions for their synthesis and processing helped in understanding the principles and approaches to the design, fabrication and application of many other materials. In this review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between the general and particular synthesis concepts. The analysis is mostly based on our studies where some unconventional technologies were applied to different superconductors and some other materials. These technologies include spray-frozen freeze-drying, fast pyrolysis, field-assisted sintering (or spark plasma sintering), nanoblasting, processing in high magnetic fields, methods of control of supersaturation and migration during film growth, and mechanical treatments of composite wires. The analysis provides future research directions and some key elements to define the concept of 'beautiful' technology in materials science. It also reconfirms the key position and importance of superconductors in the development of new materials and unconventional synthesis approaches. (topical review)

  16. Unconventional Fano effect and off-resonance field enhancement in plasmonic coated spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Arruda, Tiago J; Pinheiro, Felipe A

    2013-01-01

    We investigate light scattering by coated spheres composed of a dispersive plasmonic core and a dielectric shell. By writing the absorption cross-section in terms of the internal electromagnetic fields, we demonstrate it is an observable sensitive to interferences that ultimately lead to the Fano effect. Specially, we show that unconventional Fano resonances, recently discovered for homogeneous spheres with large dielectric permittivities, can also occur for metallic spheres coated with single dielectric layers. These resonances arise from the interference between two electromagnetic modes with the same multipole moment inside the shell and not from interactions between various plasmon modes of different layers of the particle. In contrast to the case of homogeneous spheres, unconventional Fano resonances in coated spheres exist even in the Rayleigh limit. These resonances can induce an off-resonance field enhancement, which is approximately one order of magnitude larger than the one achieved with conventiona...

  17. Interpreting the Unconventional U.S. Monetary Policy of 2007-09

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Reis

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the unconventional U.S. monetary policy responses to the financial and real crises of 2007-09, divided into three groups: interest rate policy, quantitative policy, and credit policy. To interpret interest rate policy, it compares the Federal Reserve's actions with the literature on optimal policy in a liquidity trap. The theory suggests that, to minimize the length and severity of the recession, would require a stronger commitment to low interest rates for an extended peri...

  18. CHARACTERISTICS STUDY OF UNCONVENTIONAL TEXTILE FIBERS RECOVERED FROM RECYCLABLE MATERIALS - PART II

    OpenAIRE

    OANA Ioan-Pavel; OANA Dorina; ŞUTEU Marius

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional textiles can be obtained by strengthening the fibrous layer using wires, thereby achieving auxiliary materials for clothing, apparel linings, carpets. The fiber layers can be reinforced backing fabric using mechanical or mixed methods. The products are designed as filter materials, basic clothing. The global market for raw materials there is a continuing concern for material recovery specialists and their reintroduction into the economic cycle. Reconsideration materials as tech...

  19. An Unconventional Inchworm Actuator Based on PZT/ERFs Control Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Guojun Liu; Yanyan Zhang; Jianfang Liu; Jianqiao Li; Chunxiu Tang; Tengfei Wang; Xuhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    An unconventional inchworm actuator for precision positioning based on piezoelectric (PZT) actuation and electrorheological fluids (ERFs) control technology is presented. The actuator consists of actuation unit (PZT stack pump), fluid control unit (ERFs valve), and execution unit (hydraulic actuator). In view of smaller deformation of PZT stack, a new structure is designed for actuation unit, which integrates the advantages of two modes (namely, diaphragm type and piston type) of the volume c...

  20. Unconventional supercapacitors from nanocarbon-based electrode materials to device configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Niu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-25

    As energy storage devices, supercapacitors that are also called electrochemical capacitors possess high power density, excellent reversibility and long cycle life. The recent boom in electronic devices with different functions in transparent LED displays, stretchable electronic systems and artificial skin has increased the demand for supercapacitors to move towards light, thin, integrated macro- and micro-devices with transparent, flexible, stretchable, compressible and/or wearable abilities. The successful fabrication of such supercapacitors depends mainly on the preparation of innovative electrode materials and the design of unconventional supercapacitor configurations. Tremendous research efforts have been recently made to design and construct innovative nanocarbon-based electrode materials and supercapacitors with unconventional configurations. We review here recent developments in supercapacitors from nanocarbon-based electrode materials to device configurations. The advances in nanocarbon-based electrode materials mainly include the assembly technologies of macroscopic nanostructured electrodes with different dimensions of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers, graphene, mesoporous carbon, activated carbon, and their composites. The electrodes with macroscopic nanostructured carbon-based materials overcome the issues of low conductivity, poor mechanical properties, and limited dimensions that are faced by conventional methods. The configurational design of advanced supercapacitor devices is presented with six types of unconventional supercapacitor devices: flexible, micro-, stretchable, compressible, transparent and fiber supercapacitors. Such supercapacitors display unique configurations and excellent electrochemical performance at different states such as bending, stretching, compressing and/or folding. For example, all-solid-state simplified supercapacitors that are based on nanostructured graphene composite paper are able to maintain 95% of the original capacity at

  1. U.S. Geological Survey assessments of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources, 2000 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-10-20

    From 2000 to 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted 139 quantitative assessments of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations within the United States. This report documents those assessments more fully than previously done by providing detailed documentation of both the assessment input and output. This report also compiles the data into spreadsheet tables that can be more readily used to provide analogs for future assessments, especially for hypothetical continuous accumulations.

  2. The effects of unconventional and conventional U.S. monetary policy on the dollar

    OpenAIRE

    Reuven Glick; Sylvain Leduc

    2013-01-01

    We examine the effects of unconventional and conventional monetary policy announcements on the value of the dollar using high-frequency intraday data. Identifying monetary policy surprises from changes in interest rate futures prices in narrow windows around policy announcements, we find that surprise easings in monetary policy since the crisis began have had significant effects on the value of the dollar. We document that these changes are comparable to the effects of conventional policy cha...

  3. Final manufacturing process of front side metallisation on silicon solar cells using conventional and unconventional techniques:

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrzański, Leszek Adam; Drygała, Aleksandra; Musztyfaga, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the investigation of the front electrode manufactured using two silver pastes (PV 145 manufactured by Du Pont and another based on nanopowder experimentally prepared) on monocrystalline silicon solar cells in order to reduce contact resistance. The aim of the paper was a comparison between a conventional and an unconventional method to improve the quality of forming electrodes of silicon solar cells. The Screen Printing (SP) method is the most widely used con...

  4. Final manufacturing process of front side metallisation on silicon solar cells using conventional and unconventional techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrzański, Leszek A.; Musztyfaga, Małgorzata; Drygała, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the investigation of the front electrode manufactured using two silver pastes (PV 145 manufactured by Du Pont and another based on nanopowder experimentally prepared) on monocrystalline silicon solar cells in order to reduce contact resistance. The aim of the paper was a comparison between a conventional and an unconventional method to improve the quality of forming electrodes of silicon solar cells. The Screen Printing (SP) method is the most widely used con...

  5. Application of unconventional techniques in constructing an integrated reservoir simulation model for the Troll Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kydland, T.; Haugan, P.M.; Bousquet, G.; Havig, S.O.

    1986-01-01

    A number of unconventional techniques were used for constructing an integrated 3-dimensional 3-phase numerical reservoir model of the huge Troll Field. The selected techniques included: corner point geometry, non-neighbour connections between grid cells, local grid refinement, an improved vertical equilibrium description and oil well coning functions. By combining these techniques an efficient model, capable of handling several complex reservoir problems simultaneously, was developed. This model became a flexible tool for reservoir management planning.

  6. Application of unconventional techniques in constructing an integrated reservoir simulation model for troll field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kydland, T.; Haugan, P.M.; Bousquet, G.; Havig, S.O.

    1988-08-01

    A number of unconventional techniques were used for constructing an integrated three-dimensional (3D), three-phase numerical reservoir model of the huge Troll field. The selected techniques included corner-point geometry (CPG), non-neighbor connections between grid cells, local grid refinement, improved vertical equilibrium (VE) description, and oilwell coning functions. By combining these techniques, an efficient model, capable of handling several complex reservoir problems simultaneously, was developed. This model became a flexible tool for reservoir management planning.

  7. Searches for dark matter and new physics with unconventional signatures at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    De Cosa, Annapaola

    2016-01-01

    A selection of results on searches for Dark Matter candidates and new physics with unconventional signatures with the CMS experiment is presented. The analyses are performed using proton-proton collision data recorded with the CMS detector at a center-of-mass energy of 8 and 13~TeV.No deviation from standard model background expectation is found and exclusion limits on new physics production are set.

  8. Unconventional gas recovery program. Semi-annual report for the period ending March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, R.L. (ed.)

    1979-08-01

    This document is the second semi-annual report describing the technical progress of the US DOE projects directed at gas recovery from unconventional sources. Currently the program includes: Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project, Eastern Gas Shales Project, Western Gas Sand Project, and Geopressured Aquifers Project. This report is divided into five parts: a summary (Section 1), and a section devoted to each resource (Sections 2 through 5). Each resource section presents information which serves as an introduction to that project.

  9. Usage of Unconventional Energy Sources against Reducing Impact on Environment. Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rubnicu, Alin

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyse the building reducing environmental impact by using unconventional energy sources (in this case solar energy) will calculate the annual energy necesary for the studied building (annual energy needs for heating and will add one for hot water and household electric consumers). Then it is calculated the energy consumption and CO2 emissions when using conventional energy sources (solid fuel boiler and the national energy system). Due to excessive amount of produced surplus ene...

  10. Unconventional supercapacitors from nanocarbon-based electrode materials to device configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Niu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-25

    As energy storage devices, supercapacitors that are also called electrochemical capacitors possess high power density, excellent reversibility and long cycle life. The recent boom in electronic devices with different functions in transparent LED displays, stretchable electronic systems and artificial skin has increased the demand for supercapacitors to move towards light, thin, integrated macro- and micro-devices with transparent, flexible, stretchable, compressible and/or wearable abilities. The successful fabrication of such supercapacitors depends mainly on the preparation of innovative electrode materials and the design of unconventional supercapacitor configurations. Tremendous research efforts have been recently made to design and construct innovative nanocarbon-based electrode materials and supercapacitors with unconventional configurations. We review here recent developments in supercapacitors from nanocarbon-based electrode materials to device configurations. The advances in nanocarbon-based electrode materials mainly include the assembly technologies of macroscopic nanostructured electrodes with different dimensions of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers, graphene, mesoporous carbon, activated carbon, and their composites. The electrodes with macroscopic nanostructured carbon-based materials overcome the issues of low conductivity, poor mechanical properties, and limited dimensions that are faced by conventional methods. The configurational design of advanced supercapacitor devices is presented with six types of unconventional supercapacitor devices: flexible, micro-, stretchable, compressible, transparent and fiber supercapacitors. Such supercapacitors display unique configurations and excellent electrochemical performance at different states such as bending, stretching, compressing and/or folding. For example, all-solid-state simplified supercapacitors that are based on nanostructured graphene composite paper are able to maintain 95% of the original capacity at

  11. Physarum Polycephalum Syllogistic L-Systems and Judaic Roots of Unconventional Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We show that in Kabbalah, the esoteric teaching of Judaism, there were developed ideas of unconventional automata in which operations over characters of the Hebrew alphabet can simulate all real processes producing appropriate strings in accordance with some algorithms. These ideas may be used now in a syllogistic extension of Lindenmayer systems (L-systems), where we deal also with strings in the Kabbalistic-Leibnizean meaning. This extension is illustrated by the behavior of Physarum polyce...

  12. Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Richard

    2009-10-27

    During the past century, fossil fuels--petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal--were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85-93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and rising per capita production again after 2000. During the past half century, growth in fossil fuel production was essentially limited by energy demand. During the next half century, fossil fuel production will be limited primarily by the amount and characteristics of remaining fossil fuel resources. Three possible scenarios--low, medium and high--are developed for the production of each of the fossil fuels to 2050. These scenarios differ primarily by the amount of ultimate resources estimated for each fossil fuel. Total fossil fuel production will continue to grow, but only slowly for the next 15-30 years. The subsequent peak plateau will last for 10-15 years. These production peaks are robust; none of the fossil fuels, even with highly optimistic resource estimates, is projected to keep growing beyond 2050. World fossil fuel production per capita will thus begin an irreversible decline between 2020 and 2030.

  13. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging for the study of fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Guerrini, Andrea; Salvadori, Piero A

    2016-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has long been used for investigating palaeontological specimens, as it is a nondestructive technique which avoids the need to dissolve or ionize the fossil sample. However, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have recently gained ground as analytical tools for examination of palaeontological samples, by nondestructively providing information about the structure and composition of fossils. While MRI techniques are able to reveal the three-dimensional geometry of the trace fossil, MRS can provide information on the chemical composition of the samples. The multidimensional nature of MR (magnetic resonance) signals has potential to provide rich three-dimensional data on the palaeontological specimens and also to help in elucidating paleopathological and paleoecological questions. In this work the verified applications and the emerging uses of MRI and MRS in paleontology are reviewed, with particular attention to fossil spores, fossil plants, ambers, fossil invertebrates, and fossil vertebrate studies. PMID:26979538

  14. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, October 1990--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-07-01

    This report covers progress made during the period October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, the DOE Fossil Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The Fossil, Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Topics include: alloys, ceramics and composite research and development; corrosion and erosion research; environmental analysis and information systems; coal conversion development; mild gasification product characterization; coal combustion research; strategic petroleum reserve planning and modeling; and coal structure and chemistry.

  15. A Reporter System to Study Unconventional Secretion of Proteins Avoiding N-Glycosylation in Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Janpeter; Terfrüchte, Marius; Schipper, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional secretion of proteins in eukaryotes is characterized by the circumvention of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). As a consequence proteins exported by unconventional pathways lack N-glycosylation, a post-transcriptional modification that is initiated in the ER during classical secretion. We are exploiting the well-established enzyme β-glucuronidase (GUS) to assay unconventional protein secretion (UPS). This bacterial protein is perfectly suited for this purpose because it carries a eukaryotic N-glycosylation motif. Modification of this residue by attachment of sugar moieties during the passage of the ER apparently causes a very strong reduction in GUS activity. Hence, this enzyme can only be secreted in an active state, if the export mechanism does not involve ER passage. Here, we describe a reporter system applied in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis that is based on this observation and can be used to test if candidate proteins are secreted to the culture supernatant via alternative pathways avoiding N-glycosylation. Importantly, this system is the basis for the establishment of genetic screens providing mechanistic insights into unknown UPS pathways in the future. PMID:27665557

  16. Unconventional Monetary Policies in the Eurozone: Considering Theoretical Backgrounds and Policy Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Yılmaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global Financial Crisis erupted as a sub-prime mortgage market crisis in US and became a full-fledged global crisis after the fall of Lehman Brothers. Thus, the effects of financial crisis spread to all over the world. In the Eurozone, the financial crisis became more challenging as it provoked the sovereign debt problems of some countries and triggered a sovereign debt crisis. Sovereign Debt Crisis was the first crisis in the Eurozone after forming a monetary union and put the viability of the union under risk. In this tranquil environment, European Central Bank (ECB responded the crisis with set of monetary policy tools- conventional and unconventional. ECB pursued unconventional monetary policy parallel to its conventional monetary policy tool- policy rate. It provided liquidity support to markets, purchase public and private assets and guide markets about future short-term interest rates in the context of unconventional monetary policy. The aims of using these policies are similar for all central banks: alleviating the financial market tensions and stimulating aggregate demand. This study evaluated the effectiveness of these policies on the basis of these aims. The study finds out that ECB has been effective on depressing the financial market stress but ECB has not been effective on stimulating the aggregate demand.

  17. Unconventional exchange bias in CoCr2O4/Cr2O3 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; Liu, X. H.; Cui, W. B.; Liu, W.; Zhao, X. G.; Li, D.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2009-03-01

    Unconventional exchange bias (EB) has been studied in CoCr2O4/Cr2O3 nanocomposites, in which the Curie temperature of the ferrimagnetic CoCr2O4 is much lower than the Néel temperature of the antiferromagnetic Cr2O3. A negative EB field of about 2.5 kOe at 5 K is achieved upon cooling in a field of 30 kOe. Meanwhile, the coercivity of the CoCr2O4 nanoparticles has been enhanced significantly by coupling with Cr2O3. The effect of the cooling field on the EB field and coercivity at 10 K has also been investigated. The domain-state model is used to interpret the unconventional EB. Cooling field may play a decisive role in the creation of the interfacial spin configuration for the unconventional EB, not only by exchange interaction between the induced magnetization of a polarized paramagnet and interfacial spins of an antiferromagnet but also by Zeeman interaction between the domain-state surplus magnetization and the external field.

  18. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  19. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 4: Energy from fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The conversion of fossil-fired power plants now burning oil or gas to burn coal is discussed along with the relaxation of air quality standards and the development of coal gasification processes to insure a continued supply of gas from coal. The location of oil fields, refining areas, natural gas fields, and pipelines in the U.S. is shown. The technologies of modern fossil-fired boilers and gas turbines are defined along with the new technologies of fluid-bed boilers and MHD generators.

  20. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Scott

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sources. To consider the comparative literatures of energy as they relate to transportation, we will begin with wind, then consider muscle-driven biomass giving way to coal locomotion, and conclude with the highest octane fuel, petroleum. The central interest is in how the fuel depicted in literature illuminates historical moments in which the interfaces between self, society, and nature are configured by specific energy regimes. By using literature as a source text, we may arrive at an emotionally and philosophically more robust synthesis of energy history than the social and natural sciences, relying upon objective accounts and statistics, are able to provide. By re-reading literature through the lens of the Anthropocene, we gain perspective on how earlier insights into the relationship between energy and experience can inform our explorations of today’s ontological reality. Energy literature instructs us out of the fossil fuel mindset of world domination and back to a physical realm in which we are small actors in a world guided by capricious forces. Such a reality requires hard muscular work and emotional immersion to restore an ethic of care and sustainability.

  1. Biomarkers and Microbial Fossils In Antarctic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchos, J.; Ascaso, C.

    Lithobiontic microbial communities living within Antarctic rocks are an example of survival in an extremely cold and dry environment. Any unfavourable change in ex- ternal conditions can result in the death and disappearance of microscopic organisms, and this may be followed by the appearance of trace biomarkers and microbial fossils. The extinction of these microorganisms in some zones of the Ross Desert, probably provoked by the hostile environment, might be considered a good terrestrial analogue of the first stage of the disappearance of possible life on early Mars. Granite samples from maritime Antarctica (Granite Harbour) and sandstone rocks from the continental Ross Desert were collected with the aim of searching for biomarkers and microbial fossils at the microscopic level of observation. To this end, a novel in situ applica- tion of scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron imaging was com- bined with the simultaneous use of X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques. Our findings confirm the existence of inorganic biomarkers in the form of physico- chemically bioweathered minerals within the granitic rocks. The presence of Fe-rich diagenetic minerals, such as iron hydroxide nanocrystals and biogenic clays around chasmoendolithic hyphae and bacterial cells was also observed. Others biomarkers, including inorganic deposits such as calcium oxalates and silica accumulations, are clear signs of endolithic microorganism activity. The interior of the sandstone rocks (Ross Desert, Mt. Fleming) reveal the presence of microbial fossils of algae and other endolithic microorganisms. These microbial fossils, detected for the first time within Antarctic rocks, contain well preserved and morphologically distinguishable relics of ultrastructural cytoplasm elements, such as cell walls, chloroplast membranes, and oc- casionally, pyrenoids and traces of organic matter. These structures are similar to those observed in live cells also found in Antarctic

  2. Central heating: fossil-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Baker, N.R.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-05-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for fossil-fuel-fired steam boilers, hot-water generators, and thermal fluid generators currently available from manufacturers. Advanced-technology fluidized-bed boilers also are covered. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiencies, turndown capacity, and pollution requirements. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of both field-erected and packaged units. The information compiled in this evaluation will assist in the process of selecting energy-conversion units required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  3. Molecules, fossils, and the origin of tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Dolven, S I

    1992-08-01

    Since the discovery of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae, more than 50 years ago, paleontologists and comparative morphologists have debated whether coelacanths or lungfishes, two groups of lobe-finned fishes, are the closest living relatives of land vertebrates (Tetrapoda). Previously, Meyer and Wilson (1990) determined partial DNA sequences from two conservative mitochondrial genes and found support for a close relationship of lungfishes to tetrapods. We present additional DNA sequences from the 12S rRNA mitochondrial gene for three species of the two lineages of lungfishes that were not represented in the first study: Protopterus annectens and Protopterus aethiopicus from Africa and Neoceratodus forsteri (kindly provided by B. Hedges and L. Maxson) from Australia. This extended data set tends to group the two lepidosirenid lungfish lineages (Lepidosiren and Protopterus) with Neoceratodus as their sister group. All lungfishes seem to be more closely related to tetrapods than the coelacanth is. This result appears to rule out the possibility that the coelacanth lineage gave rise to land vertebrates. The common ancestor of lungfishes and tetrapods might have possessed multiple morphological traits that are shared by lungfishes and tetrapods [Meyer and Wilson (1990) listed 14 such traits]. Those traits that seem to link Latimeria and tetrapods are arguably due to convergent evolution or reversals and not to common descent. In this way, the molecular tree facilitates an evolutionary interpretation of the morphological differences among the living forms. We recommended that the extinct groups of lobe-finned fishes be placed onto the molecular tree that has lungfishes and not the coelacanth more closely related to tetrapods. The placement of fossils would help to further interpret the sequence of morphological events and innovations associated with the origin of tetrapods but appears to be problematic because the quality of fossils is not always high enough, and

  4. Recent developments in biodesulfurization of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Feng, Jinhui; Yu, Bo; Li, Fuli; Ma, Cuiqing

    2009-01-01

    The emission of sulfur oxides can have adverse effects on the environment. Biodesulfurization of fossil fuels is attracting more and more attention because such a bioprocess is environmentally friendly. Some techniques of desulfurization have been used or studied to meet the stricter limitation on sulfur content in China. Recent advances have demonstrated the mechanism and developments for biodesulfurization of gasoline, diesel and crude oils by free cells or immobilized cells. Genetic technology was also used to improve sulfur removal efficiencies. In this review, we summarize recent progress mainly in China on petroleum biodesulfurization.

  5. Modeling of advanced fossil fuel power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihian, Farshid

    The first part of this thesis deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired power stations. The GHG emission estimation from fossil fuel power generation industry signifies that emissions from this industry can be significantly reduced by fuel switching and adaption of advanced power generation technologies. In the second part of the thesis, steady-state models of some of the advanced fossil fuel power generation technologies are presented. The impacts of various parameters on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) overpotentials and outputs are investigated. The detail analyses of operation of the hybrid SOFC-gas turbine (GT) cycle when fuelled with methane and syngas demonstrate that the efficiencies of the cycles with and without anode exhaust recirculation are close, but the specific power of the former is much higher. The parametric analysis of the performance of the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle indicates that increasing the system operating pressure and SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization factor improves cycle efficiency, but the effects of the increasing SOFC current density and turbine inlet temperature are not favourable. The analysis of the operation of the system when fuelled with a wide range of fuel types demonstrates that the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle efficiency can be between 59% and 75%, depending on the inlet fuel type. Then, the system performance is investigated when methane as a reference fuel is replaced with various species that can be found in the fuel, i.e., H2, CO2, CO, and N 2. The results point out that influence of various species can be significant and different for each case. The experimental and numerical analyses of a biodiesel fuelled micro gas turbine indicate that fuel switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel can influence operational parameters of the system. The modeling results of gas turbine-based power plants signify that relatively simple models can predict plant performance with acceptable accuracy. The unique

  6. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: generic structures of the FOSSIL2 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. In Volume I, an overview of the basic structures, assumptions, and behavior of the FOSSIL2 model is presented so that the reader can understand the results of various policy tests. The discussion covers the three major building blocks, or generic structures, used to construct the model: supply/demand balance; finance and capital formation; and energy production. These structures reflect the components and interactions of the major processes within each energy industry that directly affect the dynamics of fuel supply, demand, and price within the energy system as a whole.

  7. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated.

  8. The environmental dilemma of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide poses an environmental dilemma for fossil fuel energy generation that, unlike other related emissions, cannot be resolved by control technologies alone. Although fossil fuels presently provide the most cost-effective global energy source, and model projections suggest that their use is initiating climatic changes which, while quite uncertain, may induce significant, counter-balancing impacts to water resources, coastal resources, ecological systems, and possibly agricultural production. The climate model indicate that the warming should have begun, and there is some evidence for this occurring, but at a less rapid and more uneven rate than projected. In addition, different climate models are not yet in agreement in their latitudinal or regional predictions, and it will likely require a decade or more for such agreement to develop as high performance computers become available for addressing this ''grand challenge'' problem. Thus, in addition to the prospect for climatic change, the uncertainties of the changes and associated impacts contribute to the dilemma of dealing with the issue. Further, the problem is pervasive and international scope, with different countries and peoples having differing perspectives of technology, development, and environmental responsibility. Dealing with this issue will thus require creativity, commitment, and flexibility

  9. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. PMID:25236413

  10. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  11. A Study of Interlanguage Fossilization in College Students' English writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茹

    2014-01-01

    English writing is the college students’synthetical application about the knowledge of English. English writing, how-ever, is the weak segment of the college students' English learning all the time. Based on the researches home and abroad, the pa-per makes an implicational study on interlanguage fossilization in English writing of Chinese college students. Though probing the causes of fossilization in English writing, the paper proposes some measures to reduce the fossilization. In the chapter one, the paper introduces simply the interlanguage fossilization. In the chapter two, the paper analyzes college students English writing and get the causal factors of fossilization:unfavorite learning motivation of students, ineffective feedback to errors, interference of the mother tongue. Then , at the last chapter, the paper put up some measures to overcome and avoid the fossilization in college stu-dents' English writing:promoting students' motivation, providing right feedback, avoiding mother tongue interference.

  12. Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Nehring, Richard

    2009-01-01

    During the past century, fossil fuels—petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal—were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85–93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and rising per ...

  13. Tracking consolidant penetration into fossil bone using neutron radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Schulp, Anne S.; Schouten, R.; METTEN L.; VAN DE SANDE Alan; BONTENBAL A.

    2013-01-01

    In the conservation of fragile fossil bone material, impregnation by solvent-borne consolidant is often required. Understanding the mode of penetration of consolidants into fossil bone is of crucial importance. It is governed by a variety of factors; neutron imaging is a powerful tool to monitor and visualise this penetration (non-destructively). The consolidation of a vertebrate fossil from the Maastrichtian of the southeast Netherlands was imaged at the High Flux Reactor facility at Pett...

  14. The earliest fossil record of the animals and its significance

    OpenAIRE

    Graham E. Budd

    2008-01-01

    The fossil record of the earliest animals has been enlivened in recent years by a series of spectacular discoveries, including embryos, from the Ediacaran to the Cambrian, but many issues, not least of dating and interpretation, remain controversial. In particular, aspects of taphonomy of the earliest fossils require careful consideration before pronouncements about their affinities. Nevertheless, a reasonable case can now be made for the extension of the fossil record of at least basal anima...

  15. Investigating the cores of fossil systems with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, V; Sanders, J S; Schellenberger, G

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cores of fossil galaxy groups and clusters (`fossil systems') using archival Chandra data for a sample of 17 fossil systems. We determined the cool-core fraction for fossils via three observable diagnostics, the central cooling time, cuspiness, and concentration parameter. We quantified the dynamical state of the fossils by the X-ray peak/brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and the X-ray peak/emission weighted centre separations. We studied the X-ray emission coincident with the BCG to detect the presence of potential thermal coronae. A deprojection analysis was performed for z < 0.05 fossils to obtain cooling time and entropy profiles, and to resolve subtle temperature structures. We investigated the Lx-T relation for fossils from the 400d catalogue to see if the scaling relation deviates from that of other groups. Most fossils are identified as cool-core objects via at least two cool-core diagnostics. All fossils have their dominant elliptical galaxy within 50 kpc of the X-ray peak, and mo...

  16. Reconstructing Carotenoid-Based and Structural Coloration in Fossil Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Orr, Patrick J; Kearns, Stuart L; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver, Enrique

    2016-04-25

    Evidence of original coloration in fossils provides insights into the visual communication strategies used by ancient animals and the functional evolution of coloration over time [1-7]. Hitherto, all reconstructions of the colors of reptile integument and the plumage of fossil birds and feathered dinosaurs have been of melanin-based coloration [1-6]. Extant animals also use other mechanisms for producing color [8], but these have not been identified in fossils. Here we report the first examples of carotenoid-based coloration in the fossil record, and of structural coloration in fossil integument. The fossil skin, from a 10 million-year-old colubrid snake from the Late Miocene Libros Lagerstätte (Teruel, Spain) [9, 10], preserves dermal pigment cells (chromatophores)-xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores-in calcium phosphate. Comparison with chromatophore abundance and position in extant reptiles [11-15] indicates that the fossil snake was pale-colored in ventral regions; dorsal and lateral regions were green with brown-black and yellow-green transverse blotches. Such coloration most likely functioned in substrate matching and intraspecific signaling. Skin replicated in authigenic minerals is not uncommon in exceptionally preserved fossils [16, 17], and dermal pigment cells generate coloration in numerous reptile, amphibian, and fish taxa today [18]. Our discovery thus represents a new means by which to reconstruct the original coloration of exceptionally preserved fossil vertebrates.

  17. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcik, Michal; Kolkova, Zuzana; Jandacka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  18. Annual Report: EPAct Complementary Program's Ultra-Deepwater R&D Portfolio and Unconventional Resources R&D Portfolio (30 September 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,; Rose, Kelly [NETL; Hakala, Alexandra [NETL; Guthrie, George [NETL

    2012-09-30

    objective of this body of work is to build the scientific understanding and assessment tools necessary to develop the confidence that key domestic oil and gas resources can be produced safely and in an environmentally sustainable way. For the Deepwater and Ultra-Deepwater Portfolio, the general objective is to develop a scientific base for predicting and quantifying potential risks associated with exploration and production in extreme offshore environments. This includes: (1) using experimental studies to improve understanding of key parameters (e.g., properties and behavior of materials) tied to loss-of-control events in deepwater settings, (2) compiling data on spatial variability for key properties used to characterize and simulate the natural and engineered components involved in extreme offshore settings, and (3) utilizing findings from (1) and (2) in conjunction with integrated assessment models to model worst-case scenarios, as well as assessments of most likely scenarios relative to potential risks associated with flow assurance and loss of control. This portfolio and approach is responsive to key Federal-scale initiatives including the Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee (OESC). In particular, the findings and recommendations of the OESC's Spill Prevention Subcommittee are addressed by aspects of the Complementary Program research. The Deepwater and Ultra-Deepwater Portfolio is also aligned with some of the goals of the United States- Department of the Interior (US-DOI) led Alaska Interagency Working Group (AIWG) which brings together state, federal, and tribal government personnel in relation to energy-related issues and needs in the Alaskan Arctic. For the Unconventional Fossil Resources Portfolio, the general objective is to develop a sufficient scientific base for predicting and quantifying potential risks associated with the oil/gas resources in shale reservoirs that require hydraulic fracturing and/or other engineering measures to produce. The major

  19. Health Impact Assessments, Regulation, and the Unconventional Gas Industry in the UK: Exploiting Resources, Ideology, and Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Andrew; Dinan, William

    2016-02-01

    Health impact assessments (HIAs) across the globe may be used by governments and industries to secure approval for unconventional gas extraction developments. HIA is an umbrella term that covers an array of health review and assessment practices, ranging from the very general to quite specific and technical health studies. Our concern in this paper is principally with the specialist end of the HIA continuum and particularly its application to unconventional gas extraction in the UK. We outline the context within which HIAs in unconventional gas extraction may be conducted. We then explain what HIAs may do. HIAs are often commissioned from consultancy companies to assess unconventional gas extraction project risks and benefits and propose mitigation measures. Communities can rarely afford HIAs in the planning process and may consider them biased when commissioned by vested interests. The oil and gas industry uses these techniques for its own ends. Hiring experts, be they specialist consultants, researchers, lobbyists, ex-government officials, or regulators, to influence planning and regulation is a well-tried tactic and structural advantage exploited by industry in seeking license to operate. Equitable and ethical HIA principles are urgently needed in the UK in relation to unconventional gas to secure the integrity and probity of the emerging regulatory system and address concerns regarding unregulated practitioners.

  20. Health Impact Assessments, Regulation, and the Unconventional Gas Industry in the UK: Exploiting Resources, Ideology, and Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Andrew; Dinan, William

    2016-02-01

    Health impact assessments (HIAs) across the globe may be used by governments and industries to secure approval for unconventional gas extraction developments. HIA is an umbrella term that covers an array of health review and assessment practices, ranging from the very general to quite specific and technical health studies. Our concern in this paper is principally with the specialist end of the HIA continuum and particularly its application to unconventional gas extraction in the UK. We outline the context within which HIAs in unconventional gas extraction may be conducted. We then explain what HIAs may do. HIAs are often commissioned from consultancy companies to assess unconventional gas extraction project risks and benefits and propose mitigation measures. Communities can rarely afford HIAs in the planning process and may consider them biased when commissioned by vested interests. The oil and gas industry uses these techniques for its own ends. Hiring experts, be they specialist consultants, researchers, lobbyists, ex-government officials, or regulators, to influence planning and regulation is a well-tried tactic and structural advantage exploited by industry in seeking license to operate. Equitable and ethical HIA principles are urgently needed in the UK in relation to unconventional gas to secure the integrity and probity of the emerging regulatory system and address concerns regarding unregulated practitioners. PMID:26531123

  1. Chemical stimulation in unconventional hydrocarbons extraction in the USA: a preliminary environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutra, Emilie; Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-04-01

    While the exploitation of unconventional resources recently shows an extensive development, the stimulation techniques in use in this domain arouse growing public concerns. Often in the shadow of the disputed hydraulic fracturing process, the matrix acidizing is however a complementary or alternative procedure to enhance the reservoir connectivity. Although acidizing processes are widespread within the traditional hydrocarbons sources exploration, the matrix acidizing does not appear to be commonly used in unconventional hydrocarbons formations due to their low permeability. Nonetheless, this process has been recently applied to the Monterey formation, a shale oil play in California. These stimulation fluids are composed by various chemicals, what represents a matter of concern for public as well as for authorities. As a consequence, a risk assessment implying an exposure and toxicity analysis is needed. Focusing on site surface accidents, e.g., leak of a chemical from a storage tank, we develop in this study concentration scenarios for different exposure pathways to estimate the potential environmental risk associated with the use of specific hazardous substances in the matrix acidizing process for unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in the USA. Primary, information about the usage of different hazardous substances have been collected in order to extract the most frequently used chemicals. Afterwards, a probabilistic estimation of the environmental risk associated with the use of these chemicals is carried out by comparing the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) distribution with the Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) value. The latter is collected from a literature review, whereas the PEC is estimated as probability distribution concentrations in different environmental compartments (e.g., soil) built upon various predefined accident scenarios. By applying a probabilistic methodology for the concentrations, the level at which the used chemicals

  2. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  3. Fast fossil rotation of neutron star cores

    CERN Document Server

    Melatos, A

    2012-01-01

    It is argued that the superfluid core of a neutron star super-rotates relative to the crust, because stratification prevents the core from responding to the electromagnetic braking torque, until the relevant dissipative (viscous or Eddington-Sweet) time-scale, which can exceed ~ 10^3 yr and is much longer than the Ekman timescale, has elapsed. Hence, in some young pulsars, the rotation of the core today is a fossil record of its rotation at birth, provided that magnetic crust-core coupling is inhibited, e.g. by buoyancy, field-line topology, or the presence of uncondensed neutral components in the superfluid. Persistent core super-rotation alters our picture of neutron stars in several ways, allowing for magnetic field generation by ongoing dynamo action and enhanced gravitational wave emission from hydrodynamic instabilities.

  4. Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, John J

    2006-06-01

    Steady increases in the average sulfur content of petroleum and stricter environmental regulations concerning the sulfur content have promoted studies of bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Bioprocesses can potentially provide a solution to the need for improved and expanded fuel upgrading worldwide, because bioprocesses for fuel upgrading do not require hydrogen and produce far less carbon dioxide than thermochemical processes. Recent advances have demonstrated that biodesulfurization is capable of removing sulfur from hydrotreated diesel to yield a product with an ultra-low sulfur concentration that meets current environmental regulations. However, the technology has not yet progressed beyond laboratory-scale testing, as more efficient biocatalysts are needed. Genetic studies to obtain improved biocatalysts for the selective removal of sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum provide the focus of current research efforts.

  5. Macroautophagy and Cell Responses Related to Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Lipid Metabolism and Unconventional Secretion of Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Arnould

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroautophagy has important physiological roles and its cytoprotective or detrimental function is compromised in various diseases such as many cancers and metabolic diseases. However, the importance of autophagy for cell responses has also been demonstrated in many other physiological and pathological situations. In this review, we discuss some of the recently discovered mechanisms involved in specific and unspecific autophagy related to mitochondrial dysfunction and organelle degradation, lipid metabolism and lipophagy as well as recent findings and evidence that link autophagy to unconventional protein secretion.

  6. Justification sequence dissolution of cobalt and nickel mineral by unconventional thermodynamic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabibulla Ospanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the forecasts of different reactivity of the mineral cobalt and nickel and the choice of effective reagents for opening minerals cobalt and nickel, copper and other metals from cobalt-nickel containing raw materials using unconventional thermodynamic method, in particular, the average atomic formation energy of minerals ∆rG° and the reduced value of new chemical affinity of reaction oxidation ΔrG°/n. These studies allow to choose of the optimal conditions for the dissolution of minerals cobalt and nickel with the least expenditure of time.

  7. The discovery of high-Tc superconductivity-unexpected discovery, unconventional behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andreone

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   A brief review on some peculiar properties of high temperature superconductors (HTS is presented. Twenty years after the discovery, it appears more and more clear that the behaviour of this new class of materials is remarkably different from what have been re-classified as “conventional” superconductors. In the following we will focus our attention on the study of two phenomena, namely the Josephson effect and the Meissner effect, where the unconventional nature of superconductivity in HTS offers exciting perspectives both for the understanding of the underlying mechanism, so far still unknown, and for the large potential of applications in different areas of superconducting electronics.

  8. Unconventional optical Tamm states in metal-terminated three-dimensional photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovin, Alexander V.; Romanov, Sergei G.

    2016-03-01

    Unconventional optical Tamm surface states have been demonstrated in transmission and reflectance spectra of three-dimensional opal photonic crystals coated by thin metal films. These states appear in registry with diffraction resonances and localize the electromagnetic energy in asymmetric resonators formed by stacks of lattice planes and metal semishells. Tamm defect states provide the bypass for light at the edges of the Bragg diffraction resonances and thus reduce the diffraction efficiency. Despite the hidden nature of this effect, its magnitude is comparable to the extraordinary transmission associated with the surface-plasmon polaritons that are simultaneously excited at the surfaces of the corrugated metal films.

  9. Macroautophagy and Cell Responses Related to Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Lipid Metabolism and Unconventional Secretion of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demine, Stéphane; Michel, Sébastien; Vannuvel, Kayleen; Wanet, Anaïs; Renard, Patricia; Arnould, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Macroautophagy has important physiological roles and its cytoprotective or detrimental function is compromised in various diseases such as many cancers and metabolic diseases. However, the importance of autophagy for cell responses has also been demonstrated in many other physiological and pathological situations. In this review, we discuss some of the recently discovered mechanisms involved in specific and unspecific autophagy related to mitochondrial dysfunction and organelle degradation, lipid metabolism and lipophagy as well as recent findings and evidence that link autophagy to unconventional protein secretion. PMID:24710422

  10. An Unconventional MOOC as a Solution for Short Budgets and Young Researchers in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pellissa Prades, Gemma; Palau Mumany, Joana; De Callatay, Godefroid; Moureau, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The MOOC ‘Magic in the Middle Ages’, organized by the Universitat de Barcelona (UB) with the collaboration of the Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), is an unconventional course even for an e-learning platform. It is being created by a group of interdisciplinary and inter- university lecturers and a team of organizers that is intended to be self-sufficient in order to create a brand new MOOC with a non-existent budget. A hotly debated topic is whether European universities are able to com...

  11. Unconventional Fermi surface spin patterns in the (Bi/Pb/Sb)/Ag(111) surface alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Fabian; Dil, Hugo [Physik Institut Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Swiss Light Source PSI (Switzerland); Petrov, Vladimir [Physics Institute St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Patthey, Luc [Swiss Light Source PSI (Switzerland); Osterwalder, Juerg [Physik Institut Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    By a controllable change in the stoichiometry of the long range ordered mixed surface alloy (Bi/Pb/Sb)/Ag(111) the Rashba and Fermi energy can be tuned over a wide range. We show by spin and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy that the spin structure of the individual surface state bands remain unaffected despite the random intermixing of the adatoms. We further report on the observation of unconventional Fermi surface spin textures. These spin textures are found when the Fermi energy lies between the crossing point and the apex of the Rashba type Kramer's pair. The results will be discussed in the context of spin transport.

  12. Physarum Polycephalum Syllogistic L-Systems and Judaic Roots of Unconventional Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumann Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that in Kabbalah, the esoteric teaching of Judaism, there were developed ideas of unconventional automata in which operations over characters of the Hebrew alphabet can simulate all real processes producing appropriate strings in accordance with some algorithms. These ideas may be used now in a syllogistic extension of Lindenmayer systems (L-systems, where we deal also with strings in the Kabbalistic-Leibnizean meaning. This extension is illustrated by the behavior of Physarum polycephalum plasmodia which can implement, first, the Aristotelian syllogistic and, second, a Talmudic syllogistic by qal wa-homer.

  13. Oil Shale Development from the Perspective of NETL's Unconventional Oil Resource Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.W. (REM Engineering Services, Morgantown, WV); Shadle, L.J.; Hill, D. (REM Engineering Services, Morgantown, WV)

    2007-01-01

    The history of oil shale development was examined by gathering relevant research literature for an Unconventional Oil Resource Repository. This repository contains over 17,000 entries from over 1,000 different sources. The development of oil shale has been hindered by a number of factors. These technical, political, and economic factors have brought about R&D boom-bust cycles. It is not surprising that these cycles are strongly correlated to market crude oil prices. However, it may be possible to influence some of the other factors through a sustained, yet measured, approach to R&D in both the public and private sectors.

  14. The eukaryotic fossil record in deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, N.

    2011-12-01

    Eukaryotic organisms are defining constituents of the Phanerozoic biosphere, but they also extend well back into the Proterozoic record, primarily in the form of microscopic body fossils. Criteria for identifying pre-Ediacaran eukaryotes include large cell size, morphologically complex cell walls and/or the recognition of diagnostically eukaryotic cell division patterns. The oldest unambiguous eukaryote currently on record is an acanthomorphic acritarch (Tappania) from the Palaeoproterozoic Semri Group of central India. Older candidate eukaryotes are difficult to distinguish from giant bacteria, prokaryotic colonies or diagenetic artefacts. In younger Meso- and Neoproterozoic strata, the challenge is to recognize particular grades and clades of eukaryotes, and to document their macro-evolutionary expression. Distinctive unicellular forms include mid-Neoproterozoic testate amoebae and phosphate biomineralizing 'scale-microfossils' comparable to an extant green alga. There is also a significant record of seaweeds, possible fungi and problematica from this interval, documenting multiple independent experiments in eukaryotic multicellularity. Taxonomically resolved forms include a bangiacean red alga and probable vaucheriacean chromalveolate algae from the late Mesoproterozoic, and populations of hydrodictyacean and siphonocladalean green algae of mid Neoproterozoic age. Despite this phylogenetic breadth, however, or arguments from molecular clocks, there is no convincing evidence for pre-Ediacaran metazoans or metaphytes. The conspicuously incomplete nature of the Proterozoic record makes it difficult to resolve larger-scale ecological and evolutionary patterns. Even so, both body fossils and biomarker data point to a pre-Ediacaran biosphere dominated overwhelming by prokaryotes. Contemporaneous eukaryotes appear to be limited to conspicuously shallow water environments, and exhibit fundamentally lower levels of morphological diversity and evolutionary turnover than

  15. Viroids: "living fossils" of primordial RNAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Theodor O

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the viroid in 1971, which initiated the third major expansion of the biosphere towards smaller living entities-after discovery of the "subvisual" microorganisms in 1675 and that of the "submicroscopic" viruses in 1892-has been officially endorsed by the International Committee on Virus Taxonomy as a new order called subviral agents.In 1989, I proposed that, based on their respective molecular properties, viroids are more plausible "living fossils" of the hypothetical RNA World (widely assumed to have existed prior to the evolution of DNA or proteins) than are intron-derived RNAs, which were, at that time, suggested as putative survivors. There were few citations of my proposal-and virtually none of viroids-beyond plant virology unil 1994, when Cheles-Flores critically examined the hypothesis and pointed out a serious difficulty, as well as a process by which this difficulty could be overcome. In 2013, when investigations by Koonin and Dolja revealed that of extant RNAs, viroids "strikingly" display some of the molecular properties posited for the earliest evolving, selfish RNAs (primordial RNAs), but, because extant organisms, aside from higher plants, appear not to harbor viroids, they cannot be regarded as primordial fossils, but appear to have evolved post LUCA (the Last Universal Common Ancestor). Here, I review whether some evidence nevertheless is compatible with the original postulate of the 1989 hypothesis. My analysis reveals no unequivocal evidence for an ancient origin of viroids, but suggests, alternatively, that viroids may have evolved de novo more recently, probably by novel processes similar to those suggested by each reviewer.These results are important, because they help illuminate a little understood period of abiogenesis--after the abiotic synthesis of life's chemical building blocks, which is, in principle, understood, and before the evolution of DNA and proteins in the late RNA World. PMID:27016066

  16. Fossil Leaves and Fossil Leaf n-Alkanes: Reconstructing the First Closed Canopied Rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, H. V.; Freeman, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Although the age and location is disputed, the rise of the first closed-canopy forest is likely linked with the expansion of angiosperms in the late Cretacous or early Cenozoic. The carbon isotope 'canopy effect' reflects the extent of canopy closure, and is well documented in δ13C values of the leaves and leaf lipids in modern forests. To test the extent of canopy closure among the oldest documented angiosperm tropical forests, we analyzed isotopic characteristics of leaf fossils and leaf waxes from the Guaduas and Cerrejón Formations. The Guaduas Fm. (Maastrichtian) contains some of the earliest angiosperm fossils in the Neotropics, and both leaf morphology and pollen records at this site suggest an open-canopy structure. The Cerrejón Fm. (Paleocene) contains what are believed to be the first recorded fossil leaves from a closed-canopy forest. We analyzed the bulk carbon isotope content (δ13Cleaf) of 199 fossil leaves, as well as the n-alkane concentration and chain-length distribution, and δ13C of alkanes (δ13Clipid) of 73 fossil leaves and adjacent sediment samples. Fossil leaves are dominated by eudicots and include ten modern plant families (Apocynaceae, Bombaceae, Euphorbaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Moraceae, Sapotaceae). We interpreted extent of canopy coverage based on the range of δ13Cleaf values. The narrow range of δ13C values in leaves from the Guaduas Fm (2.7‰) is consistent with an open canopy. A significantly wider range in values (6.3‰) suggests a closed-canopy signature for site 0315 of the Cerrejón Fm,. In contrast, at Site 0318, a lacustrine deposit, leaves had a narrow range (3.3‰) in δ13C values, and this is not consistent with a closed-canopy, but is consistent with leaf assemblages from a forest edge. Leaves that accumulate in lake sediments tend to be biased toward plants living at the lake edge, which do not experience closed-canopy conditions, and do not express the isotopic

  17. Efficiency and costs of the health management in an organic dairy farm where we use unconventional medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Polidori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU organic regulation explicitly promote the use of unconventional therapies, like homoeopathy and phytotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency and the costs of these treatment methods. From December 2006 to September 2008, we analyzed the data recorded in an organic dairy farm where the animals are normally treated by classical unicistic homeopathy and phytotherapy, and only when indispensable, by allophaty, antiparasitic drugs, surgery and vaccines. The use of homeopathy resulted to be predominant in comparison with the others treatments. Besides, our trial showed that homeopathy and phytotherapy could be used to treat, with good outcomes, the majority of diseases that occur in a dairy cattle farm, even if, sometimes, conventional medicines have to be used. The costs for unconventional treatments are very low in comparison with conventional ones. This will allow the spreading of unconventional medicines in the Italian organic farms.

  18. Enhanced recovery of unconventional gas. Volume II. The program. [Tight gas basins; Devonian shale; coal seams; geopressured aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Brashear, J.P.; Doscher, T.M.; Elkins, L.E.

    1978-10-01

    This study was conducted to assist public decision-makers in selecting among many choices to obtain new gas supplies by addressing 2 questions: 1) how severe is the need for additional future supplies of natural gas, and what is the economic potential of providing part of future supply through enhanced recovery from unconventional natural gas resources. The study also serves to assist the DOE in designing a cost-effective R and D program to stimulate industry to recover this unconventional gas and to produce it sooner. Tight gas basins, Devonian shale, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers are considered. It is concluded that unconventional sources, already providing about 1 Tcf per year, could provide from 3 to 4 Tcf in 1985 and from 6 to 8 Tcf in 1990 (at $1.75 and $3.00 per Mcf, respectively). However, even with these additions to supply, gas supply is projected to remain below 1977 usage levels. (DLC)

  19. Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This

  20. The financial impact of divestment from fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Auke; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Divesting from fossil companies has been put forward as a means to address climate change. We study the impact of such divesting on investment portfolio performance. To this extent, we systematically investigate the investment performance of portfolios with and without fossil fuel company stocks. We

  1. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.;

    2012-01-01

    , exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica...

  2. Development of concepts for a zero-fossil-energy greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, A. van 't; Henten, E.J. van; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Bot, G.P.A.; Dekker, E.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch government and greenhouse horticultural practice aim for strongly reduced fossil energy use and of environmental loads in 2010 and energy neutral greenhouses in 2020. This research aims to design a greenhouse concept with minimal use of fossil energy and independent of nearby greenhouses. The

  3. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  4. Size variation in samples of fossil and recent murid teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Martín Suárez, E.

    1990-01-01

    The variability coefficient proposed by Freudenthal & Cuenca Bescós (1984) for samples of fossil cricetid teeth, is calculated for about 200 samples of fossil and recent murid teeth. The results are discussed, and compared with those obtained for the Cricetidae.

  5. Divesting from Fossil Fuels Makes Sense Morally… and Financially

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Cutler J.; Reibstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Should university endowments divest from fossil fuels? A public discussion of this question has seen some university presidents issuing statements that they would not divest--that investments should not be used for "political action." Many universities hold large endowments that have significant positions in fossil fuel companies or…

  6. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Reijnders

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, s

  7. A review of water and greenhouse gas impacts of unconventional natural gas development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, Doug; Logan, Jeff; Macknick, Jordan; Boyd, William; Medlock , Kenneth; O' Sullivan, Francis; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Huntington, Hill; Heath, Garvin; Statwick, Patricia M.; Bazilian, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the production and use of unconventional natural gas in the United States with a focus on water and greenhouse gas emission implications. If unconventional natural gas in the U.S. is produced responsibly, transported and distributed with little leakage, and incorporated into integrated energy systems that are designed for future resiliency, it could play a significant role in realizing a more sustainable energy future; however, the increased use of natural gas as a substitute for more carbon intensive fuels will alone not substantially alter world carbon dioxide concentration projections.

  8. Fossil-energy program. Progress report for June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    This report - the eighty-third of series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component development and process evaluation, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process analysis and engineering evaluations, fossil energy environmental analysis, flue gas desulfurization, coal preparation waste utilization, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, TVA FBC demonstration plant program technical support, PFBC systems analysis, fossil fuel applications assessments, performance assurance system support for fossil energy projects, international energy technology assessment, generalized equilibrium models for liquid and gaseous fuel supplies, analyses of coal production goals, and fossil energy information center.

  9. Fossil plants from Romanian deposits of Bacles, Dolj District, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae T̡icleanu

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Middle Romanian lacustrine deposits of the Oltenia province, the authors describe the youngest fossil flora known until now in Oltenia. The inventory of the fossil flora includes the following taxa: Taxodium dubium, ?Platanus platanifolia, Ulmus laevis, Quercus roburoides, Q. cf. muehlenbergii, Carya serraefolia, Acer cf. tricuspidatum and Salix sp. In the Bâcleş fossil flora, Glyptostrobus europaeus, which is a thermophilous and shows a high frequency in all Oltenia area till the XV-th coal seam, is absent. Consequently, having in view the high frequency of Taxodium dubium, which indicate temperate climate conditions, the other consider that the fossil flora from Bâcleş is much more younger and marks an important cooling. From palaeofloristic point of view, the study of Bâcleş fossil flora is indicative for river meadow forest and, probably, flat plain forest environments.

  10. Map of assessed continuous (unconventional) oil resources in the United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts quantitative assessments of potential oil and gas resources of the onshore United States and associated coastal State waters. Since 2000, the USGS has completed assessments of continuous (unconventional) resources in the United States based on geologic studies and analysis of well-production data and has compiled digital maps of the assessment units classified into four categories: shale gas, tight gas, coalbed gas, and shale oil or tight oil (continuous oil). This is the fourth digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps; its focus being shale-oil or tight-oil (continuous-oil) assessments. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, which includes an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and a published map file (.pmf). Supporting geologic studies of total petroleum systems and assessment units, as well as studies of the methodology used in the assessment of continuous-oil resources in the United States, are listed with hyperlinks in table 1. Assessment results and geologic reports are available at the USGS websitehttp://energy.usgs.gov/OilGas/AssessmentsData/NationalOilGasAssessment.aspx.

  11. CHARACTERISTICS STUDY OF UNCONVENTIONAL TEXTILE FIBERS RECOVERED FROM RECYCLABLE MATERIALS - PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Ioan-Pavel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional textiles can be obtained by strengthening the fibrous layer using wires, thereby achieving auxiliary materials for clothing, apparel linings, carpets. The fiber layers can be reinforced backing fabric using mechanical or mixed methods. The products are designed as filter materials, basic clothing. The global market for raw materials there is a continuing concern for material recovery specialists and their reintroduction into the economic cycle. Reconsideration materials as technological losses in production processes and in the sphere of consumption as factors polunaţi environment on the one hand and as a source of raw materials and energy, on the other hand, gave rise to different views regarding society's attitudes also potential resources and practical concepts that operate in these areas are unforgettable. Researches in order to create new unconventional textile fiber content of recyclable materials recovered were considered objectives: -The establishment of new wool upholstery variants which besides reusable textile fibers recovered to be entered and recovered fiber in textile products -Make per-lightweight textile per unit area that could be used in land drainage works on clay as filter elements covering plastic tubes.

  12. Analysis of conventional and unconventional trafficking of CFTR and other membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Heon Yung; Kim, Joo Young; Lee, Min Goo

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a polytopic transmembrane protein that functions as a cAMP-activated anion channel at the apical membrane of epithelial cells. Mutations in CFTR cause cystic fibrosis and are also associated with monosymptomatic diseases in the lung, pancreas, intestines, and vas deferens. Many disease-causing CFTR mutations, including the deletion of a single phenylalanine residue at position 508 (ΔF508-CFTR), result in protein misfolding and trafficking defects. Therefore, intracellular trafficking of wild-type and mutant CFTR has been studied extensively, and results from these studies significantly contribute to our general understanding of mechanisms involved in the cell-surface trafficking of membrane proteins. CFTR is a glycoprotein that undergoes complex N-glycosylation as it passes through Golgi-mediated conventional exocytosis. Interestingly, results from recent studies revealed that CFTR and other membrane proteins can reach the plasma membrane via an unconventional alternative route that bypasses Golgi in specific cellular conditions. Here, we describe methods that have been used to investigate the conventional and unconventional surface trafficking of CFTR. With appropriate modifications, the protocols described in this chapter can also be applied to studies investigating the intracellular trafficking of other plasma membrane proteins.

  13. The Application Of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery On Unconventional Oil: A Field Specific Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Sean; Millar, Andrew; Allison, Heather; McCarthy, Alan

    2014-05-01

    A substantial amount of the world's recoverable oil reserves are made from unconventional or heavy resources. However, great difficulty has been had in recovering this oil after primary and secondary recovery methods have been employed. Therefore, tertiary methods such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) have been employed. MEOR involves the use of bacteria and their metabolic products to alter the oil properties or rock permeability within a reservoir in order to promote the flow of oil. Although MEOR has been trialed in the past with mixed outcomes, its feasibility on heavier oils has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to show that MEOR can be successfully applied to unconventional oils. By using an indigenous strain of bacteria isolated from a reservoir of interest and applied to field specific microcosms, we will look into the effect of these bacteria compared to variant inoculums to identify which mechanisms of action the bacteria are using to improve recovery. Using this information, we will be able to identify genes of interest and groups of bacteria that may be beneficial for MEOR and look accurately identify favorable bacteria within a reservoir.

  14. Critical Minerals and Energy–Impacts and Limitations of Moving to Unconventional Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. McLellan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nexus of minerals and energy becomes ever more important as the economic growth and development of countries in the global South accelerates and the needs of new energy technologies expand, while at the same time various important minerals are declining in grade and available reserves from conventional mining. Unconventional resources in the form of deep ocean deposits and urban ores are being widely examined, although exploitation is still limited. This paper examines some of the implications of the transition towards cleaner energy futures in parallel with the shifts through conventional ore decline and the uptake of unconventional mineral resources. Three energy scenarios, each with three levels of uptake of renewable energy, are assessed for the potential of critical minerals to restrict growth under 12 alternative mineral supply patterns. Under steady material intensities per unit of capacity, the study indicates that selenium, indium and tellurium could be barriers in the expansion of thin-film photovoltaics, while neodymium and dysprosium may delay the propagation of wind power. For fuel cells, no restrictions are observed.

  15. An Unconventional Inchworm Actuator Based on PZT/ERFs Control Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guojun; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Jianfang; Li, Jianqiao; Tang, Chunxiu; Wang, Tengfei; Yang, Xuhao

    2016-01-01

    An unconventional inchworm actuator for precision positioning based on piezoelectric (PZT) actuation and electrorheological fluids (ERFs) control technology is presented. The actuator consists of actuation unit (PZT stack pump), fluid control unit (ERFs valve), and execution unit (hydraulic actuator). In view of smaller deformation of PZT stack, a new structure is designed for actuation unit, which integrates the advantages of two modes (namely, diaphragm type and piston type) of the volume changing of pump chamber. In order to improve the static shear yield strength of ERFs, a composite ERFs valve is designed, which adopts the series-parallel plate compound structure. The prototype of the inchworm actuator has been designed and manufactured in the lab. Systematic test results indicate that the displacement resolution of the unconventional inchworm actuator reaches 0.038 μm, and the maximum driving force and velocity are 42 N, 14.8 mm/s, respectively. The optimal working frequency for the maximum driving velocity is 120 Hz. The complete research and development processes further confirm the feasibility of developing a new type of inchworm actuator with high performance based on PZT actuation and ERFs control technology, which provides a reference for the future development of a new type of actuator. PMID:27022234

  16. An Unconventional Inchworm Actuator Based on PZT/ERFs Control Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An unconventional inchworm actuator for precision positioning based on piezoelectric (PZT actuation and electrorheological fluids (ERFs control technology is presented. The actuator consists of actuation unit (PZT stack pump, fluid control unit (ERFs valve, and execution unit (hydraulic actuator. In view of smaller deformation of PZT stack, a new structure is designed for actuation unit, which integrates the advantages of two modes (namely, diaphragm type and piston type of the volume changing of pump chamber. In order to improve the static shear yield strength of ERFs, a composite ERFs valve is designed, which adopts the series-parallel plate compound structure. The prototype of the inchworm actuator has been designed and manufactured in the lab. Systematic test results indicate that the displacement resolution of the unconventional inchworm actuator reaches 0.038 μm, and the maximum driving force and velocity are 42 N, 14.8 mm/s, respectively. The optimal working frequency for the maximum driving velocity is 120 Hz. The complete research and development processes further confirm the feasibility of developing a new type of inchworm actuator with high performance based on PZT actuation and ERFs control technology, which provides a reference for the future development of a new type of actuator.

  17. Unconventional myosins, actin dynamics and endocytosis: a ménage à trois?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Thierry

    2003-06-01

    Ever since the discovery of class I myosins, the first nonmuscle myosins, about 30 years ago, the history of unconventional myosins has been linked to the organization and working of actin filaments. It slowly emerged from studies of class I myosins in lower eukaryotes that they are involved in mechanisms of endocytosis. Most interestingly, a flurry of recent findings assign a more active role to class I myosins in regulating the spatial and temporal organization of actin filament nucleation and elongation. The results highlight the multiple links between class I myosins and the major actin nucleator, the Arp2/3 complex, and its newly described activators. Two additional types of unconventional myosins, myosinIX, and Dictyostelium discoideum MyoM, have recently been tied to the signaling pathways controlling actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The present review surveys the links between these three classes of molecular motors and the complex cellular processes of endocytosis and actin dynamics, and concentrates on a working model accounting for the function of class I myosins via recruitment of the machinery responsible for actin nucleation and elongation. PMID:12753645

  18. Divergence time estimates of mammals from molecular clocks and fossils: Relevance of new fossil finds from India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V R Prasad

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a brief review of recent advances in the classification of mammals at higher levels using fossils and molecular clocks. It also discusses latest fossil discoveries from the Cretaceous – Eocene (66–55 m.y.) rocks of India and their relevance to our current understanding of placental mammal origins and diversifications.

  19. On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tey Jin Pin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of fossil fuel will be used. The prediction of fossil fuel reserves were estimated using ratio of fossil fuel reserve versus consumption, Klass Model and Modified Klass Model. The prediction time will give us the opportunity to prepare for the coming energy crisis and discover new energy sources. The results from the analysis will be concluded alongside with the Olduvai Theory and Hubbert Peak Theory. Both of the theories are highly related to the energy crisis. The Olduvai Theory states that the industrial civilization will last for approximately 100 year: circa 1930-2030. As for Hubbert Peak Theory, it can estimate the total amount of fossil fuels available based on the production rate from time to time. Results: Due to the vast usage of petroleum, it will be depleted faster than natural gas and coal. After 14 years, natural gas and coal will replace petroleum as a fossil fuel and coal would then be the major fossil fuels. Based on the results from Hubbert Peak Theory, the rate of production of petroleum has reached the maximum level in 2004 and started to decline since that time; while in the Olduvai theory, it has explained that the life expectancy of the industrial civilization was found to be ended in 2030. Petroleum will be spent over in 2020, followed by natural gas in 2058 and coal around the year 2066. Conclusion: So far, Malaysia has not facing disconnection of electricity as other developed countries. When this happens, it gives the meaning of the end of the

  20. Fossilized excreta associated to dinosaurs in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, P. R. F.; Fernandes, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an updated register of the main occurrences of fossilized excreta (coprolites and urolites) associated with dinosaurs found in the Brazil. The goal is to provide a relevant guide to the interpretation of the environment in the context of Gondwana. In four geographic areas, the excreta are recovered from Cretaceous sedimentary deposits in outcrops of the Bauru and São Luis basins and the Upper Jurassic aeolian deposits of the Parana Basin in the state of São Paulo. The coprolites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses reveal compositions that differ from the surrounding matrix, indicating a partial substitution of the organic material due to the feeding habits of the producers. Additionally, we describe the urolite excavations in epirelief and hyporelief, the result of gravitational flow the impact from urine jets on sand. These are associated with ornithopod and theropod dinosaur footprints preserved in the aeolian flagstones of the Botucatu Formation, Parana Basin.

  1. The Fossil Starburst in M82

    CERN Document Server

    De Grijs, R; Gallagher, J S; Grijs, Richard de; Connell, Robert W. O'; Gallagher, John S.

    2000-01-01

    (Abridged) We present high-resolution HST imaging in the optical (WFPC2) and near-infrared (NICMOS) of a disk region 1 kpc NE of the starburst core in the nearby galaxy M82. This region, M82 ``B,'' has been suspected to be a fossil starburst site in which an intense episode of star formation occurred over 100 Myr ago, and our new observations confirm this intepretation. We find a large, evolved system of super star clusters in M82 B; we identify a total of 113 super star cluster candidates. The clusters range in absolute magnitude from M_V^0 = -6 to -10, with a peak at -7.5. The derived age distribution suggests steady, continuing cluster formation at a modest rate at early times (> 2 Gyr ago), followed by a concentrated formation episode ~600 Myr ago and more recent suppression of cluster formation. The peak episode coincides with independent dynamical estimates for the last tidal encounter with M81. Our J and H band observations resolve the bright giant population in M82's disk for the first time. Star form...

  2. Modeling neck mobility in fossil turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Hinz, Juliane K; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Volpato, Virginie; Natchev, Nikolay; Joyce, Walter G

    2015-05-01

    Turtles have the unparalleled ability to retract their heads and necks within their shell but little is known about the evolution of this trait. Extensive analysis of neck mobility in turtles using radiographs, CT scans, and morphometry reveals that basal turtles possessed less mobility in the neck relative to their extant relatives, although the anatomical prerequisites for modern mobility were already established. Many extant turtles are able to achieve hypermobility by dislocating the central articulations, which raises cautions about reconstructing the mobility of fossil vertebrates. A 3D-model of the Late Triassic turtle Proganochelys quenstedti reveals that this early stem turtle was able to retract its head by tucking it sideways below the shell. The simple ventrolateral bend seen in this stem turtle, however, contrasts with the complex double-bend of extant turtles. The initial evolution of neck retraction therefore occurred in a near-synchrony with the origin of the turtle shell as a place to hide the unprotected neck. In this early, simplified retraction mode, the conical osteoderms on the neck provided further protection.

  3. NGC 4340 Double Bar + Fossil Nuclear Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Erwin, P; Beckman, J E

    2000-01-01

    NGC 4340 is a double-barred SB0 galaxy in the Virgo cluster (Wozniak et al. 1995, A&AS 111, 115). Here, we show that this galaxy also posseses a luminous stellar nuclear ring of relatively old stars with little or no gas. The ring lies just outside the inner bar, at the probable inner inner Lindblad resonance (IILR) of the outer bar. Careful inspection of the isophotes and unsharp masks shows that the two bars are slightly misaligned, which suggests they may be independently rotating. The bright nuclear ring distorts the isophotes and ellipse fits and is most clearly seen in the unsharp mask (an inner bar also visible). B-R color maps show no features associated with the ring: it is the same color as the surrounding bulge, and thus probably an old, ``fossil'' remnant of an earlier star-formation episode. We use Simien & Prugniel's (1997, A&AS 126, 15) major-axis velocities to compute resonance curves; we use our spectrum along the outer-bar major axis to estimate that bar's pattern speed. The Omeg...

  4. Origin of Metazoa: Sponges as Living Fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E. G.

    1998-01-01

    , which code for proteins. The analyses of their deduced amino acid sequences allowed a molecular biological approach to solve the problem of monophyly of Metazoa. Molecules of the extracellular matrix/basal lamina, with the integrin receptor, fibronectin, and galectin as prominent examples, cell-surface receptors (tyrosine kinase receptor), elements of sensory systems (crystallin, metabotropic glutamate receptor), and homologs/modules of an immune system (immunoglobulin like molecules, scavenger receptor cysteine-rich, and short consensus repeats, rhesus system) classify the Porifera as true Metazoa. As living fossils, provided with simple, primordial molecules allowing cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion as well as processes of signal transduction as known in a more complex manner from higher Metazoa, they also show peculiarities not known in other metazoan phyla. Tissues of sponges are rich in telomerase activity, suggesting a high plasticity in the determination of cell lineages. It is concluded that molecular biological studies with sponges as model will not only help to understand the evolution of Protoctista to Metazoa but also the complex, hierarchial regulatory network of cells in higher Metazoa.

  5. Unconventional uses for unconventional oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlig-Economides, C.A.; Barrufet, M.; Longbottom, J.R.; Velu, B.P. [Texas A and M Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The transportation sector in the United States is 95 per cent dependent on oil, which is the only primary fuel that is being imported to the country in great quantities. It has been proposed that energy independence may come by supplying electric power with renewable energy sources. It was also suggested that the best solution for future transportation may be to develop electrified guideways that would provide energy to automatically convey personal cars and driverless freight through the roadways. Advantages include zero vehicle emissions, greater safety and decreased road congestion. This paper examined the option of using heavy oil for power generation instead of the current expensive refining practices designed to produce liquid transportation fuels from heavy oil. It compared coal gasification with heavy oil for power generation. The cost to consumers and environmental impacts were considered. The comparison of conventional versus electrified transportation options was based on on a well-to-mine-to-wheels cycle. It was shown that electrified transportation is attractive from a cost, environmental and energy security perspective. If the United States were to import Canadian heavy oil only for transportation, the consumer cost will increase by approximately 25 per cent based on 2003 data. If the United States were to transform transportation from conventional to electrified transportation, the cost of using Canadian heavy oil will be less, even including carbon dioxide capture. It was concluded that all primary fuel sources would seek new equilibrium prices that may affect comparisons between heavy oil and coal. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  6. Unconventional uses for unconventional oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transportation sector in the United States is 95 per cent dependent on oil, which is the only primary fuel that is being imported to the country in great quantities. It has been proposed that energy independence may come by supplying electric power with renewable energy sources. It was also suggested that the best solution for future transportation may be to develop electrified guideways that would provide energy to automatically convey personal cars and driverless freight through the roadways. Advantages include zero vehicle emissions, greater safety and decreased road congestion. This paper examined the option of using heavy oil for power generation instead of the current expensive refining practices designed to produce liquid transportation fuels from heavy oil. It compared coal gasification with heavy oil for power generation. The cost to consumers and environmental impacts were considered. The comparison of conventional versus electrified transportation options was based on on a well-to-mine-to-wheels cycle. It was shown that electrified transportation is attractive from a cost, environmental and energy security perspective. If the United States were to import Canadian heavy oil only for transportation, the consumer cost will increase by approximately 25 per cent based on 2003 data. If the United States were to transform transportation from conventional to electrified transportation, the cost of using Canadian heavy oil will be less, even including carbon dioxide capture. It was concluded that all primary fuel sources would seek new equilibrium prices that may affect comparisons between heavy oil and coal. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  7. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, W.R. [Consultec Scientific, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes. The integration of these programs as viable bioprocessing initiatives proposes an innovative and conceptual principle for the development of a ``new`` approach to fossil energy biotechnology. This unifying principle is NON-AQUEOUS BIOCATALYSIS. Biocatalysis coupled to conventional chemical catalysis in organic-based media offers bioprocessing options uniquely characterized by the selectivity of biocatalysts plus fast reaction rates and specificity of chemical catalysts.

  8. New record of a fossil haplotilapiine cichlid from Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie B. R. Penk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available African freshwater cichlids (Cichlidae: Pseudocrenilabrinae are well known for their exceptionally great diversity and their capability of rapid speciation as well as diverse adaptations. The extant Pseudocrenilabrinae can be grouped into 27 tribes, with more than 2000 species harbored in the Great Lakes and surrounding water bodies of the East African Rift System. However, this unique diversity is not reflected in the fossil record because fossil cichlids were predominantly reported based on isolated teeth and bones. Moreover, the few articulated specimens that are known have not been analyzed sufficiently with regard to their systematic position due to lack of comparative material. Here we present a new extraordinarily well-preserved cichlid fish fossil from the Middle Miocene (c. 12.5 Ma Lagerstaette Kabchore, which was recovered during recent fieldwork in the Tugen Hills (Baringo County, Central Kenya Rift. Based on the evidence of tricuspid teeth, the Kabchore fossil can be assigned to the subclade of the Haplotilapiines within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. The multivariate analysis of a large meristic data set, derived from 1014 extant specimens (encompassing all main lineages of Haplotilapiines and usage of available osteological data suggest that this fossil is most likely related to one of the three haplotilapiine tribes Tilapiini, Haplochromini or Oreochromini. Moreover, the fossil specimen closely resembles the extinct cichlid Oreochromis martyni (Van Couvering, 1982, previously described as species of Sarotherodon from the Middle Miocene alkaline Kapkiamu Lake in the Tugen Hills. The analysis of the greatly preserved fossil fish specimen from Kabchore definitely supplements the fragmentary fossil record of Africa’s Cichlidae and will afford new insights into its evolutionary history. We also expect that this fossil will be useful as calibration point for new divergence-time estimates.

  9. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative: Unconventional Fuel Development Issues, Impacts, and Management Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Hagood, M.; Pasqualini, D.; Wood, T.; Wilson, C.; Witkowski, M.; Levitt, D.; Pawar, R.; Keating, G.; Ziock, H.

    2008-12-01

    The United States is increasingly dependent on imported oil and gas; commodities for which other nations are competing and for which future supply may be inadequate to support our transportation fuel needs. Therefore, a renewed interest in 'harder-to-get' unconventional fuels has emerged in both industry and government with directed focus on world class hydrocarbon resources within a corridor extending from Canada southward through the Rocky Mountain States. Within this Western Energy Corridor, co-located with significant conventional hydrocarbon and renewable energy resources, lie some of the world's richest unconventional hydrocarbon resources in oil shales, oil sands and coal for coal-to-liquid conversion. However, development of these resources poses substantial environmental concerns as well as increasing competition for limited resources of water and habitat. With large-scale energy development in the predominantly rural region, local communities, infrastructures, and economies will face increasing demands for roads, electricity, law enforcement, labor, and other support services. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI) seeks to develop an integrated assessment of the impacts of unconventional fuel development, the interrelationships of planned energy developments in different basins, and the resultant demands placed on the region. This initial WECI study focuses on two of the most important current issues for industry, regulators, and stakeholders -- the assessment of carbon and water resources issues, impacts, and management strategies. Through scenario analyses using coupled systems and process level models, this study investigates the viability of integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon neutral and environmentally acceptable manner, and the interrelationships of various energy resource development plans. The modeling framework is designed to extend to include infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal and economic demands

  10. Design and analysis of an unconventional permanent magnet linear machine for energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Peng

    This Ph.D. dissertation proposes an unconventional high power density linear electromagnetic kinetic energy harvester, and a high-performance two-stage interface power electronics to maintain maximum power abstraction from the energy source and charge the Li-ion battery load with constant current. The proposed machine architecture is composed of a double-sided flat type silicon steel stator with winding slots, a permanent magnet mover, coil windings, a linear motion guide and an adjustable spring bearing. The unconventional design of the machine is that NdFeB magnet bars in the mover are placed with magnetic fields in horizontal direction instead of vertical direction and the same magnetic poles are facing each other. The derived magnetic equivalent circuit model proves the average air-gap flux density of the novel topology is as high as 0.73 T with 17.7% improvement over that of the conventional topology at the given geometric dimensions of the proof-of-concept machine. Subsequently, the improved output voltage and power are achieved. The dynamic model of the linear generator is also developed, and the analytical equations of output maximum power are derived for the case of driving vibration with amplitude that is equal, smaller and larger than the relative displacement between the mover and the stator of the machine respectively. Furthermore, the finite element analysis (FEA) model has been simulated to prove the derived analytical results and the improved power generation capability. Also, an optimization framework is explored to extend to the multi-Degree-of-Freedom (n-DOF) vibration based linear energy harvesting devices. Moreover, a boost-buck cascaded switch mode converter with current controller is designed to extract the maximum power from the harvester and charge the Li-ion battery with trickle current. Meanwhile, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed and optimized for low frequency driving vibrations. Finally, a proof

  11. Effects of Social Reinforcement Contingent on Conventional or Unconventional Responses on Generalized Creativity by Older Adults in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenick, Courtney Allyn; Flora, Stephen Ray

    2012-01-01

    The effects of social praise contingent on either usual (conventional) or unusual (unconventional) responses during an object uses task were assessed on measures of generalized creativity in two novel, unrelated tasks. Participants were 20 older adults, ages 63 to 89 years (M = 80.90), who were recruited from a joint skilled nursing and assisted…

  12. A Study of Dispelling Lexical Fossilization for English Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Ai-ling

    2016-01-01

    Fossilization was first proposed by the famous British linguist Larry Selinker in his article Interlanguage in 1972. Non-English majors make many lexical errors in the process of English writings in universities. Therefore, their writing levels may reach a plateau and fail to make progress. Once English vocabulary is fossilized, it will prevent the development of students’ writing competence. Inspired and stimulated by the observation of lexical errors in the university, the author intends to explore effective and feasible methods of dispelling lexical fossilization from the perspective of the theories of prototype and basic-level category and tries to provide a useful supplement in this area.

  13. Estimates of seasonal variation in fossil fuel CO2emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Rotty, Ralph M.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variations are evident in the atmospheric CO2 concentration, and attempts to understand the causes of the variations require an estimate of the seasonal pattern of the fossil fuel CO2 source term. Estimates were made of CO2 emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion on a month-to-month basis for a recent typical year (1982). Twenty-one countries account for over 86% of the fossil fuel emissions. Monthly fuel consumption was used directly for those countries where such fuel data ...

  14. Zeolites replacing plant fossils in the Denver formation, Lakewood, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modreski, P.J.; Verbeek, E.R.; Grout, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Well-developed crystals of heulandite and stilbite, within fossil wood, occur in sedimentary rocks in Lakewood, Jefferson County. The rocks belong to the Denver formation, a locally fossiliferous deposit of fluvial claystone, siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate, containing some volcanic mudflows (andesitic) of late Cretaceous to Palaeocene age. Altered volcanic glass released Na and Ca into the ground-water and subsequently zeolites were crystallized in the open spaces between grains and within fossil plant structures. Minor pyrite, quartz (jasper), calcite and apatite also occur as replacements of fossil wood. Similar zeolite occurrences in other areas are reviewed.-R.S.M.

  15. Fossil proboscidea and edentata of the San Pedro Valley, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidley, James Williams

    1926-01-01

    A preliminary report on the fossil vertebrates of the San Pedro Valley, Ariz., collected by Kirk Bryan and me in the winter of 1920 and 1921 was published in 1922. This report includes a brief statement regarding the geology of the locality and a preliminary list of fossil vertebrates obtained by the expedition of 1921, with descriptions of the rodents and rabbits. Two additional papers on this interesting fauna have also appeared, one on the turtles by C.W. Gilmore and one on the birds by Alexander Wetmore. The present contribution deals with the proboscideans and edentates and gives a somewhat fuller discussion of the geology of the fossil-bearing beds.

  16. Epimerization of COOH-terminal isoleucine in fossil dipeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriausakul, Nivat; Mitterer, Richard M.

    1983-05-01

    Using procedures employed for protein sequencing to remove NH 2-terminal amino acids, the degree of epimerization of COOH-terminal isoleucine in dipeptides from fossil mollusc shells has been measured directly. The results show that isoleucine in this position is highly epimerized in fossil dipeptides and that the COOH-terminal isoleucine is more highly epimerized than the free amino acid. Hydrolysis of the highly epimerized terminal isoleucine leads to the high alloisoleucine/isoleucine values found in the free amino acid fraction. The results also provide evidence for the formation of diketopiperazines in fossils as a mechanism to account for the high degree of epimerization of COOH-terminal isoleucine.

  17. Environmental audit: Fossil energy sites in Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit completed for Selected Fossil Energy Sites in Wyoming. During this Audit, facilities, field sites, and activities were investigated and inspected in several areas of Wyoming that are considered to be representative of offsite work falling under the purview of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. Department of Energy (DOE) personnel at METC and at the Liquid Fuels Technology Branch (LFTB) in Laramie, Wyoming were interviewed as were DOE contractors and Federal and state regulators. Extensive document review was also a key part of this Audit. The on-site portion of the Audit occurred in Morgantown from May 18 to 22, 1992, and throughout Wyoming from May 26 through June 10, 1992. EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and DOE-funded off-site activities as part of the Assistant Secretary's Environmental Audit Program. That program is designed to evaluate the status of facilities and activities regarding compliance with environmental laws, regulations, DOE Directives, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Audit stresses the fact that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The scope of this Environmental Audit was comprehensive, covering all areas of environmental activities and waste management operations with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which is beyond the purview of EH-24. Specifically included within this Audit were Air, Soils/Sediment/Biota, Surface Water/Drinking Water, Groundwater, Waste Management, Toxic and Chemical Materials, Quality Assurance, Radiation, Inactive Waste Sites, and Environmental Management

  18. Environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil fuel which include natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat and electrical energy. All these fuels contain beside major constituents (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) other materials as metal, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. During the combustion process different pollutants as fly ash, sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3), nitrogen oxides (NOx NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds are emitted. Fly ash contain different trace elements (heavy metals). Gross emission of pollutants is tremendous all over the world. These pollutants are present in the atmosphere in such conditions that they can affect man and his environment. Air pollution caused by the particulate matter and other pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of environment. These phenomena affect health of the people, increase corrosion, destroy cultivated soil and forests. Most of the plants, especially coniferous trees are not resistant to sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Following longer exposure leaves wither and fall. Widespread forest damage has been reported in Europe and North America regions. Many cultivated plants are not resistant to these pollutants either especially in the early period vegetation. The mechanisms of pollutants transformation in atmosphere are described by environmental chemistry. An important role in these transformations plays photochemistry. SO2 and NOx are oxidized and sulfuric and nitric acids are formed in presence of water vapours, fog and droplets. Other problem discussed connected with human activities is emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. These emissions cause stratospheric ozone depletion, ground level photochemical ozone formation, toxic or carcinogenic human health effects, enhancing the global greenhouse effect, accumulation and persistence in environment. Wet flue gas

  19. Volume holographic printing using unconventional angular multiplexing for three-dimensional display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangcai; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Hao; Jin, Guofan; Gu, Claire

    2016-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate a volume holographic printing method for dynamic three-dimensional (3D) display with an expanded space-bandwidth product (SBP) using unconventional angular multiplexing techniques. By wavefront encoding of the 3D scene, with the help of computer-generated holography, the object beam is loaded onto a 2D phase spatial light modulator (SLM) with a limited SBP. The printing method then writes a single hologram through the interference of the object beam with a reference beam as a holographic element (hogel) in the volume holographic polymer. In addition, multiple 3D scenes can be recorded and dynamically reconstructed by angular multiplexing in the same hogel location. The SBP can be increased by two orders of magnitude compared to the conventional holographic printing method, showing the potential to realize a dynamic and high-resolution 3D display. PMID:27505387

  20. Low-grade astrocytomas: treatment with unconventionally fractionated external beam stereotactic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen patients with nonoperable low-grade astrocytomas were treated with unconventionally fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. The target volume was defined with computed tomography (CT) performed under stereotactic conditions. The treatment was carried out with a technique producing multiple noncoplanar arc irradiation, with the center of the target volume placed at the isocenter of the linear accelerator. A total dose of 16-50 Gy was administered in either one fraction or two fractions 8 days apart. The concentration of dose within the target volume allowed reduction of dose absorbed by adjacent critical structures of the intact brain. Patients were followed up for 11-48 months. Twelve of 14 patients had a partial or complete response to treatment, as demonstrated by CT. Stereotactic radiation therapy appears to be effective in the control of small radioresistant cerebral neoplasms, without damaging surrounding healthy tissues

  1. Low-grade astrocytomas: treatment with unconventionally fractionated external beam stereotactic radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozza, F.; Colombo, F.; Chierego, G.; Avanzo, R.C.; Marchetti, C.; Benedetti, A.; Casentini, L.; Danieli, D.

    1989-05-01

    Fourteen patients with nonoperable low-grade astrocytomas were treated with unconventionally fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. The target volume was defined with computed tomography (CT) performed under stereotactic conditions. The treatment was carried out with a technique producing multiple noncoplanar arc irradiation, with the center of the target volume placed at the isocenter of the linear accelerator. A total dose of 16-50 Gy was administered in either one fraction or two fractions 8 days apart. The concentration of dose within the target volume allowed reduction of dose absorbed by adjacent critical structures of the intact brain. Patients were followed up for 11-48 months. Twelve of 14 patients had a partial or complete response to treatment, as demonstrated by CT. Stereotactic radiation therapy appears to be effective in the control of small radioresistant cerebral neoplasms, without damaging surrounding healthy tissues.

  2. Unconventional minimal subtraction and Bogoliubov-Parasyuk-Hepp-Zimmermann method: Massive scalar theory and critical exponents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo R. S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Ministro Petrônio Portela, 64049-500 Teresina, PI (Brazil); Leite, Marcelo M. [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    We introduce a simpler although unconventional minimal subtraction renormalization procedure in the case of a massive scalar λφ{sup 4} theory in Euclidean space using dimensional regularization. We show that this method is very similar to its counterpart in massless field theory. In particular, the choice of using the bare mass at higher perturbative order instead of employing its tree-level counterpart eliminates all tadpole insertions at that order. As an application, we compute diagrammatically the critical exponents η and ν at least up to two loops. We perform an explicit comparison with the Bogoliubov-Parasyuk-Hepp-Zimmermann (BPHZ) method at the same loop order, show that the proposed method requires fewer diagrams and establish a connection between the two approaches.

  3. Unconventional Geometric Phase Gate with Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Qubits in Cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Fu-Quan; YANG Wen-Xing; SUN Jian-An; CHEN Ai-Xi; DUAN Wen-Shan

    2008-01-01

    In the system with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID) in cavity, a scheme for con-structing two-qubit quantum phase gate via a conventional geometric phase-shift is proposed by using a quantized cavity field and classical microwave pulses. In this scheme, the gate operation is realized in the subspace spanned by the two lower flux states of the SQUID system and the population operator of the excited state has no effect on it. Thus the effect of decoherence caused from the levels of the SQUID system is possible to minimize. Under cavity decay, our strictly numerical simulation shows that it is also possible to realize the unconventional geometric phase gate. The experimental feasibility is discussed in detail.

  4. Compressive Data Hiding: An Unconventional Approach for Improved Color Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundur Deepa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, data hiding and compression have had contradictory goals. The former problem adds perceptually irrelevant information in order to embed data, while the latter removes this irrelevancy and redundancy to reduce storage requirements. In this paper, we use data hiding to help improve signal compression. We take an unconventional approach and consider "piggy-backing" the color information on the luminance component of an image for improved color image coding. Our new technique essentially transforms a given color image into the YIQ color space where the chrominance information is subsampled and embedded in the wavelet domain of the luminance component. Our technique can be used as preprocessing to improve the performance of popular image compression schemes such as SPIHT that are optimized for grayscale image compression. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed technique in comparison to JPEG and straightforward SPIHT.

  5. Hints at Unconventional Superconductivity of the Heavy-Fermion Superconductor CeCoIn5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on investigations of CeCoIn5 in the superconducting state by point-contact spectroscopy. Andreev reflection of quasiparticles at a normal metal/superconductor interface leads to characteristic features in the differential resistance dV/dI as a function of applied bias V. We measured spectra which show either a reduced resistance for bias |V| c. The observation of a zero-bias conductance anomaly is expected only if the order parameter exhibits a sign change as a function of (vector)k. Andreev reflection of the quasiparticles at the surface leads to a surface bound state which is detected in the dV/dI versus V spectra. Therefore the data support unconventional superconductivity in CeCoIn5. (author)

  6. COMPARISON OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS OF UNCONVENTIONAL CHP UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Durcansky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An unconventional CHP unit with a hot air engine is designed as the primary energy source with fuel in the form of biomass. The heat source is a furnace designed for combustion of biomass, whether in the form of wood logs or pellets. The transport of energy generated by the biomass combustion to the working medium of a hot-air engine is ensured by a special heat exchanger connected to this resource. The correct operation of the hot-air engine is largely dependent on an appropriate design of the exchanger. The paper deals with the calculation of the heat exchanger for the applicationsmentioned, using criterion equations, and based on CFD simulations.

  7. Velocity Modeling and Inversion Techniques for Locating Microseismic Events in Unconventional Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianzhong Zhang; Han Liu; Zhihui Zou; Zhonglai Huang

    2015-01-01

    A velocity model is an important factor influencing microseismic event locations. We re-view the velocity modeling and inversion techniques for locating microseismic events in exploration for unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. We first describe the geological and geophysical characteristics of reservoir formations related to hydraulic fracturing in heterogeneity, anisotropy, and variability, then discuss the influences of velocity estimation, anisotropy model, and their time-lapse changes on the accuracy in determining microseismic event locations, and then survey some typical methods for build-ing velocity models in locating event locations. We conclude that the three tangled physical attributes of reservoirs make microseismic monitoring very challenging. The uncertainties in velocity model and ig-noring its anisotropies and its variations in hydraulic fracturing can cause systematic mislocations of microseismic events which are unacceptable in microseismic monitoring. So, we propose some potential ways for building accurate velocity models.

  8. Controversial cuisine: A global account of the demand, supply and acceptance of "unconventional" and "exotic" meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthorn, Donna-Mareè; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-10-01

    In most societies, meat is more highly prized, yet more frequently tabooed, than any other food. The reasons for these taboos are complex and their origins have been the focus of considerable research. In this paper, we illustrate this complexity by deliberating on several "unconventional" or "exotic" animals that are eaten around the world, but whose consumption evokes strong emotions, controversy and even national discourse: dogs, equids, kangaroos, marine mammals, primates, rodents and reptiles. We take a systematic approach, reflecting on the historical and current demand for the meat, the manner in which this demand is met, and how individual and societal attitudes towards these species shape their approval as food. What emerges from this synthesis is that conflicting views on the aforementioned species exist not only between Western societies and elsewhere, but also in nations where these animals are readily consumed. Moreover, such taboos are seldom based on functionalist explanations alone, but rather have overwhelming symbolic and psychological groundings. PMID:27155757

  9. Unconventional gas experience at El Paso Production Company : tapping into deep, tight gas and coalbed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current conditions in the natural gas industry were reviewed, from the excellent current and projected energy prices to low activity and rig count. Various graphs were presented, depicting total proved dry gas reserves and annual production over time for the Gulf of Mexico, including its continental shelf, the Texas coastal plains, and the United States lower 48. Offshore growth of unconventional gas was also displayed. The key elements of the strategy were also discussed. These included: (1) earnings driven, (2) superior science, (3) innovative application of technology, (4) ability to act quickly and decisively, (5) leadership, management, and professional development, and (6) achieve learning curve economics. The core competencies were outlined along with recent discoveries in South Texas and the Upper Gulf Coast. figs

  10. Polar Kerr Effect as Probe for Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking in Unconventional Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitulnik, A.

    2010-05-26

    The search for broken time reversal symmetry (TRSB) in unconventional superconductors intensified in the past year as more systems have been predicted to possess such a state. Following our pioneering study of TRSB states in Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} using magneto-optic probes, we embarked on a systematic study of several other of these candidate systems. The primary instrument for our studies is the Sagnac magneto-optic interferometer, which we recently developed. This instrument can measure magneto-optic Faraday or Kerr effects with an unprecedented sensitivity of 10 nanoradians at temperatures as low as 100 mK. In this paper we review our recent studies of TRSB in several systems, emphasizing the study of the pseudogap state of high temperature superconductors and the inverse proximity effect in superconductor/ferromagnet proximity structures.

  11. Unconventional uranium resources in China%中国非常规铀资源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆富成; 张字龙; 李治兴; 王志明; 何中波; 王文全

    2011-01-01

    Unconventional uranium resources in China mainly include black-rock series, peat, salt lake and evaporitic rocks. Among them, uraniferous black-rock series, uraniferous phosphorite and uranium-polymetallic phosphorite connected with black-rock series are important types for the sustainable support of uranium resources in China. Down-faulting and epocontinental rift in continental margin are the most important and beneficial ore-forming environment for unconventional uranium resources of black-rock series in China and produced a series of geochemistry combinations, such as, U-Cd, U-V-Mo, U-V-Re、U-V-Ni-Mo and U-V-Ni-Mo-Re-Tl. Unconventional uranium resources of black-rock series in China is related to uranium-rich marine black-rock series which are made up of hydrothermal sedimentary siliceous rocks, siliceous phospheorite and carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock and settled in the continental margin down-faulting and epicontinental rift accompanied by submarine backwash and marine volcano eruption. Hydrothermal sedimentation or exhalation sedimentary is the mechanism to form unconventional uranium resources in black-rock series or large scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization in China.%中国非常规铀资源主要包含黑色岩系型和盐湖型。其中与黑色岩系有关的含铀黑色岩系型、含铀磷块岩型、铀多金属磷块岩型是对中远期保障我国铀资源可持续供给有重要意义的类型。陆缘裂谷、陆缘裂陷环境是中国黑色岩系非常规铀资源最重要、最有利的成矿环境,形成U-Cd型、U-V-Mo型、U-V-Re型、U-V-Ni-Mo型和U-V-Ni-Mo-Re-T1型等地球化学组合。中国黑色岩系非常规铀资源铀成矿作用受控于陆缘裂谷、陆缘裂陷环境下伴随海底喷流作用和海底火山喷发而沉积的由热水沉积硅质岩、硅质磷块岩和碳硅泥岩组成的富铀海相黑色岩系,热水沉积作用或喷气-沉积是形成中国黑色岩系非常规铀资源或发生大规

  12. Novel Dictyostelium unconventional myosin, MyoM, has a putative RhoGEF domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, N; Adachi, H; Sutoh, K

    2000-05-26

    We have cloned a novel unconventional myosin gene myoM in Dictyostelium. Phylogenetic analysis of the motor domain indicated that MyoM does not belong to any known subclass of the myosin superfamily. Following the motor domain, two calmodulin-binding IQ motifs, a putative coiled-coil region, and a Pro, Ser and Thr-rich domain, lies a combination of dbl homology and pleckstrin homology domains. These are conserved in Rho GDP/GTP exchange factors (RhoGEFs). We have identified for the first time the RhoGEF domain in the myosin sequences. The growth and terminal developmental phenotype of Dictyostelium cells were not affected by the myoM(-) mutation. Green fluorescent protein-tagged MyoM, however, accumulated at crown-shaped projections and membranes of phase lucent vesicles in growing cells, suggesting its possible roles in macropinocytosis. PMID:10828443

  13. An all-silicon single-photon source by unconventional photon blockade

    CERN Document Server

    Flayac, H; Savona, V

    2015-01-01

    The lack of suitable quantum emitters in silicon and silicon-based materials has prevented the realization of room temperature, compact, stable, and integrated sources of single photons in a scalable on-chip architecture, so far. Current approaches rely on exploiting the enhanced optical nonlinearity of silicon through light confinement or slow-light propagation, and are based on parametric processes that typically require substantial input energy and spatial footprint to reach a reasonable output yield. Here we propose an alternative all-silicon device that employs a different paradigm, namely the interplay between quantum interference and the third-order intrinsic nonlinearity in a system of two coupled optical cavities. This unconventional photon blockade allows to produce antibunched radiation at extremely low input powers. We demonstrate a reliable protocol to operate this mechanism under pulsed optical excitation, as required for device applications, thus implementing a true single-photon source. We fin...

  14. Organic photovoltaic cells based on unconventional electron donor fullerene and electron acceptor copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. L.; Sullivan, P.; Schumann, S.; Hancox, I.; Jones, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate organic discrete heterojunction photovoltaic cells based on fullerene (C60) and copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc), in which the C60 and F16CuPc act as the electron donor and the electron acceptor, respectively. The C60/F16CuPc cells fabricated with conventional and inverted architectures both exhibit comparable power conversion efficiencies. Furthermore, we show that the photocurrent in both cells is generated by a conventional exciton dissociation mechanism rather than the exciton recombination mechanism recently proposed for a similar C60/F16ZnPc system [Song et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 4554 (2010)]. These results demonstrate that new unconventional material systems are a potential way to fabricate organic photovoltaic cells with inverted as well as conventional architectures.

  15. Recent Advances in Unconventional Lithography for Challenging 3D Hierarchical Structures and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Uk Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In nanoscience and nanotechnology, nanofabrication is critical. Among the required processes for nanofabrication, lithography is one of core issues. Although conventional photolithography with recent remarkable improvement has contributed to the industry during the past few decades, fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D nanostructure is still challenging. In this review, we summarize recent advances for the construction of 3D nanostructures by unconventional lithography and the combination of two top-down approaches or top-down and bottom-up approaches. We believe that the 3D hierarchical nanostructures described here will have a broad range of applications having adaptable levels of functional integration of precisely controlled nanoarchitectures that are required by not only academia, but also industry.

  16. Tunablity of the unconventional Fano resonances in coated nanowires with radial anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H L; Gao, L

    2013-10-01

    We establish full-wave electromagnetic scattering theory to study the near-field and far-field spectra of radially anisotropic coated nanowires. For coated nanowires containing radially anisotropic core and plasmonic shell, unconventional Fano resonances are predicted due to the interference between dipole cloaking mode and dipole resonant mode. In contrast to Z-shaped Fano profile with small modulation depth for coated nanospheres in Argyropoulos et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 263905 (2012), we predict S-shaped Fano profile with high depth for coated nanowires. An off-resonance field enhancement in the radially anisotropic core is found at the Fano dip, and its' magnitude is approximately the same as that the one at the low-energy resonant wavelength. Furthermore, with our adjustment of the inner size and the permittivity elements of the anisotropic core, tunable Fano-like profiles can be realized. These results may be useful for potential applications in different fields of nanotechnology. PMID:24104274

  17. Deep Geothermal:The‘Moon Landing’ Mission in the Unconventional Energy and Minerals Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus Regenauer-Lieb; Jie Liu; Vladimir Lyakhovsky; Elena Pasternak; Robert Podgorney1; Thomas Poulet; Sheik Rahman; Christoph Schrank; Mike Trefry; Manolis Veveakis; Bisheng Wu; Andrew Bunger; David A. Yuen; Florian Wellmann; Xi Zhang; Hui Tong Chua; Arcady Dyskin; Florian Fusseis; Oliver Gaede; Rob Jeffrey; Ali Karrech; Thomas Kohl

    2015-01-01

    Deep geothermal from the hot crystalline basement has remained an unsolved frontier for the geothermal industry for the past 30 years. This poses the challenge for developing a new un-conventional geomechanics approach to stimulate such reservoirs. While a number of new uncon-ventional brittle techniques are still available to improve stimulation on short time scales, the aston-ishing richness of failure modes of longer time scales in hot rocks has so far been overlooked. These failure modes represent a series of microscopic processes: brittle microfracturing prevails at low temperatures and fairly high deviatoric stresses, while upon increasing temperature and decreasing applied stress or longer time scales, the failure modes switch to transgranular and intergranular creep fractures. Accordingly, fluids play an active role and create their own pathways through fa-cilitating shear localization by a process of time-dependent dissolution and precipitation creep, rather than being a passive constituent by simply following brittle fractures that are generated in-side a shear zone caused by other localization mechanisms. We lay out a new theoretical approach for the design of new strategies to utilize, enhance and maintain the natural permeability in the deeper and hotter domain of geothermal reservoirs. The advantage of the approach is that, rather than engineering an entirely new EGS reservoir, we acknowledge a suite of creep-assisted geological processes that are driven by the current tectonic stress field. Such processes are particularly sup-ported by higher temperatures potentially allowing in the future to target commercially viable com-binations of temperatures and flow rates.

  18. Unconventional superconductivity in a two-dimensional repulsive gas of fermions with spin–orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We study the superconductivity of a 2D repulsive Fermi gas with spin–orbit coupling. •Renormalization group approach is applied. •In general, the critical temperature increases with spin–orbit coupling. •The superconducting states are unconventional and break time reversal symmetry. -- Abstract: We investigate the superconducting instability of a two-dimensional repulsive Fermi gas with Rashba spin–orbit coupling αR. Using renormalization group approach, we find the superconducting transition temperature as a function of the dimensionless ratio Θ=1/2 mαR2/EF where EF = 0 when the smaller Fermi surface shrinks to a (Dirac) point. The general trend is that superconductivity is enhanced as Θ increases, but in an intermediate regime Θ ∼ 0.1, a dome-like behavior appears. At a very small value of Θ, the angular momentum channel jz in which superconductivity occurs is quite high. With increasing Θ, jz decreases with a step of 2 down to jz = 6, after which we find the sequence jz = 6, 4, 6, 2, the last value of which continues to Θ → ∞. In an extended range of Θ, the superconducting gap predominantly resides on the large Fermi surface, while Josephson coupling induces a much smaller gap on the small Fermi surface. Below the superconducting transition temperature, we apply mean field theory to derive the self-consistent equations and find the condensation energies. The state with the lowest condensation energy is an unconventional superconducting state which breaks time-reversal symmetry, and in which singlet and triplet pairings are mixed. In general, these states are topologically nontrivial, and the Chern number of the state with total angular momentum jz is C = 2jz

  19. Fossil fuel sustainability index: An application of resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review on use of fossil fuel resources and sustainability is given in this paper. A sustainability index for fossil fuels is developed, which aims to determine the most efficient management of fossil fuel resources for the energy system. The study is conducted for 62 countries, in the presence of independence, lifetime and environmental constraints. The effect of these indicators are then integrated into a single index for oil, natural gas, and coal. Two approaches have been taken. The first one employs equally weighing of each index, where the second one weighs the indices by using principle component analysis. It is concluded that Fossil Fuel Sustainability Index (FFSI) values indicate that countries supporting oil as the one and only major player are condemned to suffer due to incompetent energy policies

  20. Proceedings of the fourth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Braski, D.N. (comps.)

    1990-08-01

    The Fourth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on may 15--17, 1990. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) Ceramics, (2) New Alloys, (3) Corrosion and Erosion, and (4) Technology Assessment and Technology Transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  1. The Great Fossil Enigma: The Search for the Conodont Animal

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Review of The Great Fossil Enigma: The Search for the Conodont Animal. Simon J. Knell. 2012. Indiana University Press, Bloomington. Pp. 440. $45.00 (cloth), 25 b & w illustrations. ISBN 9780253006042.

  2. Instrumentation and Control for Fossil-Energy Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Instrumentation and control requirements for fossil-energy processes discussed in working document. Published to foster advancement of instrumentation and control technology by making equipment suppliers and others aware of specifications, needs, and potential markets.

  3. First Record of Fossil Mesocupes from China (Coleoptera: Archostemata: Cupedidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three new fossil species of the genus Mesocupes of fossil cupedids, M. angustilabialis sp.nov., M. latilabialis sp. nov. and M. collaris sp. nov., are described from the Jiulongshan Formation of Inner Mongolia, China. These new species are the first three records of fossil Mesocupes in China as well as the oldest ones in the world now. This finding also extends the geographical distribution of this genus from Central to East Asia. In addition, based on the ratio of the length of the last to the penultimate abdominal ventrites of new beetles distinctly lower than that of the species from the Karabastau Formation, the age of Daohugou fossil-bearing beds might be older than that of Karatau assemblage and consequently of Middle Jurassic.

  4. Fossil Proboscidea from the Malay Archipelago and the Punjab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1955-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 1 Fossil Proboscidea and the stratigraphy of the Pleistocene in Southeastern Asia. 3 Order Proboscidea............. 9 Suborder Elephantoidea.......................... 9 Family Elephantidae............ 9 Subfamily Stegodontinae........... 9 Stegolophodon stegodont

  5. Life Detection System DTIVA for Monitoring Parameter in Fossilization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, F.; Garcia-Descalzo, L.; Cockell, C. S.; Schwendner, P.; Rettberg, P.; Beblo-Vranesevic, K.; Bohmeier, M.; Rabbow, E.; Westall, F.; Gaboyer, F.; Walter, N.; Moissl-Eichinger, M.; Perras, A.; Amils, R.; Malki, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Monaghan, E.; Marteinsson, V.; Vannier, P.

    2016-05-01

    Using Life Detection System LDS we followed the physicochemical parameter in a growth culture under fossilization/mineralization-induced process with the objectives of biomarkers detection. Biomarkers study is crucial for the search for life on Mars.

  6. Instrumentation and control for fossil-energy processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The 1982 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil energy processes was held June 7 through 9, 1982, at Adam's Mark Hotel, Houston, Texas. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy; Argonne National Laboratory; and the Society for Control and Instrumentation of Energy Processes. Fifty-two papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; eleven papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  7. Tomographic techniques for the study of exceptionally preserved fossils

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional fossils, especially those preserving soft-part anatomy, are a rich source of palaeontological information; they can, however, be difficult to work with. Imaging of serial planes through an object (tomography) allows study of both the inside and outside of three-dimensional fossils. Tomography may be performed using physical grinding or sawing coupled with photography, through optical techniques of serial focusing, or using a variety of scanning technologies such as neutron t...

  8. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  9. Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO2 emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO2 concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: → CO2 and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. → Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. → Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. → Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

  10. Geological setting of U.S. fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, C.D.; Mast, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The USA has a special position in terms of fossil fuel development. Not only is it one of the most important nations in terms of resources of oil, gas and coal, but it has also been by far the dominant producer and consumer. In this thorough review of the regional geological environments in which fossil fuels formed in the USA, the authors point to a variety of models of resource occurrence of global interest.-Authors

  11. Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

  12. Particle Acceleration and Diffusion in Fossil Radio Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Ensslin, Torsten A.

    2000-01-01

    The strong activity of radio galaxies should have led to a nearly ubiquitous presence of fossil radio plasma in the denser regions of the inter-galactic medium as clusters, groups and filaments of galaxies. This fossil radio plasma can contain large quantities of relativistic particles (electrons and possibly protons) by magnetic confinement. These particles might be released and/or re-energized under environmental influences as turbulence and shock waves. Possible connections of such process...

  13. Peaches Preceded Humans: Fossil Evidence from SW China

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Su; Peter Wilf; Yongjiang Huang; Shitao Zhang; Zhekun Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica, Rosaceae) is an extremely popular tree fruit worldwide, with an annual production near 20 million tons. Peach is widely thought to have origins in China, but its evolutionary history is largely unknown. The oldest evidence for the peach has been Chinese archaeological records dating to 8000–7000 BP. Here, we report eight fossil peach endocarps from late Pliocene strata of Kunming City, Yunnan, southwestern China. The fossils are identical to modern peach endocarps, incl...

  14. Economic comparison of hydrogen and fossil fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuels most considered for the post petroleum and natural gas era, hydrogen (gaseous and liquid), and coal and coal derived synthetic fluid fossil fuels, have been compared by taking into account production costs, external costs and utilization efficiencies. The results show that hydrogen is a much more cost effective energy carrier than coal and synthetic fossil fuels, as well as being the environmentally most compatible fuel. 4 figs., 12 tabs., 21 refs

  15. Proceedings of the Eight Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1994-08-01

    Objective of the meeting was to conduct R and D on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into ceramics, new alloys, corrosion, and technology assessment/transfer. The 39 papers are arranged under the session headings: ceramics, ceramics and new alloys, and intermetallics and advanced austenitics; a workshop on new materials development and applications is summarized briefly. The papers are processed separately for the data base.

  16. Satellite sensing of submerged fossil turbulence and zombie turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2004-11-01

    Surface brightness anomalies from a submerged municipal wastewater outfall trapped by buoyancy in an area 0.1 km^2 are surprisingly detected from space satellites in areas > 200 km^2. How is this possible? Microstructure measurements near the outfall diffuser reveal enhanced turbulence and temperature dissipation rates above the 50 m trapping depth. Near-vertical radiation of internal waves by fossil and zombie turbulence microstructure patches produce wind ripple smoothing with 30-50 m internal wave patterns in surface Fourier brightness anomalies near the outfall. Detections at 10-14 km distances are at 100-220 m bottom boundary layer (BBL) fossil turbulence scales. Advected outfall fossils form zombie turbulence patches in internal wave patterns as they extract energy, vorticity, turbulence and ambient vertical internal wavelength information as their density gradients are tilted by the waves. As the zombies fossilize, patterned energy radiates near-vertically to produce the detected Fourier anomalies. Zombie turbulence patches beam extracted energy in a preferred direction with a special frequency, like energized metastable molecules in a chemical maser. Thus, kilowatts to produce the submerged field of advected fossil outfall turbulence patches are amplified by beamed zombie turbulence maser action (BZTMA) into megawatts of turbulence dissipation to affect sea surface brightness on wide surface areas using gigawatts of BBL fossil turbulence wave energy available.

  17. Trace fossils from the Talchir carbonate concretions, Giridih Basin, Jharkhand

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Das; Mahesh Kumar Tripathi

    2009-02-01

    The carbonate concretions occurring at the bottom of Talchir fissile shale facies preserved signatures of various trace fossils along with a cast of doubtful organisms and cyanobacterial mat structures. The host shale deposited under glacial melt water fed lacustrine condition.The concretions,formed in poorly oxygenated conditions,are either of syndepositional origin and/or deposited a little below the sediment water interface and were later exhumed to the depositional surface due to erosion of soft mud overlying them. The trace fossils are both megascopic and microscopic in nature.The megascopic trace fossils are identified on the basis of their morphology as Monocraterion and Rhizocorallium. Some of the megascopic structures described remain problematic at present.The microscopic trace fossils are formed due to the activity of marine meiofauna (possibly by nematodes),which,although produced morphologically show similar traces of known larger ichnogeneras but much smaller than them. The discovery of these trace fossils apparently indicate the in flux of saline water into a lacustrine domain during the Talchir sedimentation at Giridih basin.Moreover, presence of the above two megascopic trace fossils in the marine lacustrine carbonate concretions may lead researchers to consider their much wider environmental significance than hitherto believed.

  18. Controversies on Energy: Fossil, hydroelectric, nuclear, renewable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Switzerland, energy policy was the subject of several referendums and decision takings in the past few decades. This book explains the numerous aspects to be considered when choosing a strategy which should warrant in the future a sufficient and safe access to energy, with a special emphasis on electric power. There is a tight, but not linear, coupling between the price of energy and the economic development. The pollution of environment induced by the use of fossil energy jeopardizes the survival of our Earth planet. Modeling the effects of the pollution is difficult and inaccurate because of complex feedbacks. In order to conciliate development progress, energy and environment, technology is needed but at the same time involves risks. In order to warrant the life quality in the long run, it is necessary to move to a sustainable development, which implies technological progress and changing the individual behaviours. The safety of the energy supply is warranted by diversifying the energy sources. But accurately define the mid and long term goals and also adapt the instruments which should enable their achievement, is a very demanding task. Privatising the electricity production and distribution networks leads in principle to increasing competition, but the electricity price becomes very variable with huge daily and seasonal fluctuations. To date, Switzerland counts 900 electric utilities. Opening the electricity market induces concentration and company merges. To promote an energy strategy, it is necessary to face in a lump the technological, economical and social realities. In the long run, renewable energies: small-scale hydroelectric power plants, biomass, wind, photovoltaics, geothermal energy, should have an important share in electricity production. In the mid term, natural gas and nuclear reactors will be used as transition energy sources. But all electric power plants, whenever nuclear or gas, or even renewable (as for instance wind power plants) must

  19. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials. Fossil Energy AR and TD Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1993-07-01

    Objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The 37 papers are arranged into 3 sessions: ceramics, new alloys/intermetallics, and new alloys/advanced austenitics. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Fossil and non-fossil source contributions to atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols during extreme spring grassland fires in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ulevicius

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In early spring the Baltic region is frequently affected by high pollution events due to biomass burning in that area. Here we present a comprehensive study to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning (BB on the evolution and composition of aerosol in Preila, Lithuania, during springtime open fires. Non-refractory submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1 was measured by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM and a source apportionment with the multilinear engine (ME-2 running the positive matrix factorization (PMF model was applied to the organic aerosol fraction to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning. Satellite observations over regions of biomass burning activity supported the results and identification of air mass transport to the area of investigation. Sharp increases in biomass burning tracers, such as levoglucosan up to 683 ng m−3 and black carbon (BC up to 17 μg m−3 were observed during this period. A further separation between fossil and non-fossil primary and secondary contributions was obtained by coupling ACSM PMF results and radiocarbon (14C measurements of the elemental (EC and organic (OC carbon fractions. Non-fossil organic carbon (OCnf was the dominant fraction of PM1, with the primary (POCnf and secondary (SOCnf fractions contributing 26–44 % and 13–23 % to the TC, respectively. 5–8 % of the TC had a primary fossil origin (POCf, whereas the contribution of fossil secondary organic carbon (SOCf was 4–13 %. Non-fossil EC (ECnf and fossil EC (ECf ranged from 13–24 % and 7–12 %, respectively. Isotope ratio of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to distinguish aerosol particles associated with solid and liquid fossil fuel burning.

  1. Fossil and non-fossil source contributions to atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols during extreme spring grassland fires in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulevicius, Vidmantas; Byčenkienė, Steigvilė; Bozzetti, Carlo; Vlachou, Athanasia; Plauškaitė, Kristina; Mordas, Genrik; Dudoitis, Vadimas; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Garbaras, Andrius; Masalaite, Agne; Blees, Jan; Fröhlich, Roman; Dällenbach, Kaspar R.; Canonaco, Francesco; Slowik, Jay G.; Dommen, Josef; Zimmermann, Ralf; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Salazar, Gary A.; Agrios, Konstantinos; Szidat, Sönke; El Haddad, Imad; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-05-01

    In early spring the Baltic region is frequently affected by high-pollution events due to biomass burning in that area. Here we present a comprehensive study to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning (BB) on the evolution and composition of aerosol in Preila, Lithuania, during springtime open fires. Non-refractory submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1) was measured by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) and a source apportionment with the multilinear engine (ME-2) running the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was applied to the organic aerosol fraction to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning. Satellite observations over regions of biomass burning activity supported the results and identification of air mass transport to the area of investigation. Sharp increases in biomass burning tracers, such as levoglucosan up to 683 ng m-3 and black carbon (BC) up to 17 µg m-3 were observed during this period. A further separation between fossil and non-fossil primary and secondary contributions was obtained by coupling ACSM PMF results and radiocarbon (14C) measurements of the elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon fractions. Non-fossil organic carbon (OCnf) was the dominant fraction of PM1, with the primary (POCnf) and secondary (SOCnf) fractions contributing 26-44 % and 13-23 % to the total carbon (TC), respectively. 5-8 % of the TC had a primary fossil origin (POCf), whereas the contribution of fossil secondary organic carbon (SOCf) was 4-13 %. Non-fossil EC (ECnf) and fossil EC (ECf) ranged from 13-24 and 7-13 %, respectively. Isotope ratios of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to distinguish aerosol particles associated with solid and liquid fossil fuel burning.

  2. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 2: Fossil energy in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keeville, H. [and others

    1993-12-01

    In Task 2, the authors establish a baseline for evaluating energy use in Hawaii, and examine key energy and economic indicators. They provide a detailed look at fossil energy imports by type, current and possible sources of oil, gas and coal, quality considerations, and processing/transformation. They present time series data on petroleum product consumption by end-use sector, though they caution the reader that the data is imperfect. They discuss fuel substitutability to identify those end-use categories that are most easily switched to other fuels. They then define and analyze sequential scenarios of fuel substitution in Hawaii and their impacts on patterns of demand. They also discuss energy security--what it means to Hawaii, what it means to neighboring economies, whether it is possible to achieve energy security. 95 figs., 48 tabs.

  3. Development and Demonstration of Mobile, Small Footprint Exploration and Development Well System for Arctic Unconventional Gas Resources (ARCGAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Glavinovich

    2002-11-01

    Traditionally, oil and gas field technology development in Alaska has focused on the high-cost, high-productivity oil and gas fields of the North Slope and Cook Inlet, with little or no attention given to Alaska's numerous shallow, unconventional gas reservoirs (carbonaceous shales, coalbeds, tight gas sands). This is because the high costs associated with utilizing the existing conventional oil and gas infrastructure, combined with the typical remoteness and environmental sensitivity of many of Alaska's unconventional gas plays, renders the cost of exploring for and producing unconventional gas resources prohibitive. To address these operational challenges and promote the development of Alaska's large unconventional gas resource base, new low-cost methods of obtaining critical reservoir parameters prior to drilling and completing more costly production wells are required. Encouragingly, low-cost coring, logging, and in-situ testing technologies have already been developed by the hard rock mining industry in Alaska and worldwide, where an extensive service industry employs highly portable diamond-drilling rigs. From 1998 to 2000, Teck Cominco Alaska employed some of these technologies at their Red Dog Mine site in an effort to quantify a large unconventional gas resource in the vicinity of the mine. However, some of the methods employed were not fully developed and required additional refinement in order to be used in a cost effective manner for rural arctic exploration. In an effort to offset the high cost of developing a new, low-cost exploration methods, the US Department of Energy, National Petroleum Technology Office (DOE-NPTO), partnered with the Nana Regional Corporation and Teck Cominco on a technology development program beginning in 2001. Under this DOE-NPTO project, a team comprised of the NANA Regional Corporation (NANA), Teck Cominco Alaska and Advanced Resources International, Inc. (ARI) have been able to adapt drilling technology

  4. Can Geothermal Power Replace Fossil Fuels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    is scaled up to produce power in the MW range. Values needed for these systems are temperatures of 92+ °C and flow rates of 140-1000 gpm. In a detailed analysis of the North Dakota part of the Williston Basin, we used heat flow, bottom-hole temperatures, and measured temperature gradients to calculate the energy contained within specific formations having temperatures in the range of 100 °C to 150 °C. We find that at a 2% recovery factor, approximately 4500 MW/hr can be recovered at depths of 3-4 km. North Dakota currently produces approximately 3100 MW/hr from non-renewable sources such as coal and petroleum. We conclude that the geothermal resource in the Williston Basin could completely replace fossil fuels as an electrical power supply for North Dakota.

  5. Can UK fossil fuel emissions be determined by radiocarbon measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Angelina; O'Doherty, Simon; Rigby, Matthew; Manning, Alistair; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The GAUGE project evaluates different methods to estimate UK emissions. However, estimating carbon dioxide emissions as a result of fossil fuel burning is challenging as natural fluxes in and out of the atmosphere are very large. Radiocarbon (14C) measurements offer a way to specifically measure the amount of recently added carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning. This is possible as, due to their age, all the radiocarbon in fossil fuels has decayed. Hence the amount of recently added CO2 from fossil fuel burning can be measured as a depletion of the 14C content in air. While this method has been successfully applied by several groups on a city or a regional scale, this is the first attempt at using the technique for a national emission estimate. Geographically the UK, being an island, is a good location for such an experiment. But are 14CO2 measurements the ideal solution for estimating fossil fuel emissions as they are heralded to be? Previous studies have shown that 14CO2emissions from the nuclear industry mask the 14C depletion caused by fossil fuel burning and result in an underestimation of the fossil fuel CO2. While this might not be a problem in certain regions around the world, many countries like the UK have a substantial nuclear industry. A correction for this enhancement from the nuclear industry can be applied but are invariably difficult as 14CO2emissions from nuclear power plants have a high temporal variability. We will explain how our sampling strategy was chosen to minimize the influence form the nuclear industry and why this proved to be challenging. In addition we present the results from our ground based measurements to show why trying to estimate national emissions using radiocarbon measurements was overambitious, and how practical the technique is for the UK in general.

  6. Turbulence and Fossil Turbulence in Oceans and Lakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pak-Tao Leung; Carl H. Gibson

    2004-01-01

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any of the other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Energy cascades of irrotational flows from large scales to small are non-turbulent, even if they supply energy to turbulence. Turbulent flows are rotational and cascade from small scales to large, with feedback. Viscous forces limit the smallest turbulent eddy size to the Kolmogorov scale. In stratified fluids, buoyancy forces limit large vertical overturns to the Ozmidov scale and convert the largest turbulent eddies into a unique class of saturated, non-propagating, internal waves, termed fossil-vorticity-turbulence. These waves have the same energy but different properties and spectral forms than the original turbulence patch. The Gibson (1980, 1986) theory of fossil turbulence applies universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as its growth is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Quantitative hydrodynamic-phase-diagrams (HPDs) from the theory are used to classify microstructure patches according to their hydrodynamic states. When analyzed in HPD space, previously published oceanic datasets showed their dominant microstructure patches are fossilized at large scales in all layers. Laboratory and field measurements suggested phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies by pattern recognition of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times that predict survival-relevant surface layer sea changes. New data collected near a Honolulu waste-water outfall showed the small-to-large evolution of oceanic turbulence microstructure from active to fossil states, and revealed the ability of fossil-density-turbulence patches to absorb, and vertically radiate, internal wave energy, information, and enhanced turbulent

  7. 76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel... government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units owned by municipalities....

  8. A Study of Informal Geobiology Learning Opportunities at US Fossil Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, R. M.; Wandersee, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    CNN, in June 2003, reported news of an innovative, informal geoscience educational experience: The Fossil Park at Sylvania, Ohio. Sylvania's was one of three unique US fossil parks identified in the article that move beyond exhibiting fossils in native strata and museums, to allowing visitors to collect and keep the fossils they find. Penn-Dixie Paleontological Park (Hamburg, NY) and Rockford Fossil and Prairie Park (Rockford, IA) also allow visitors to collect fossils at their sites. While all three parks are Devonian in age, site characteristics, presentation, and public access to the fossils varies in each park. At each of these innovative outdoor science centers, the researchers availed themselves of the full visitor experience, collected fossils, and observed other visitors. Their systematic evaluation of each fossil park resulted in the determination and synthesis of the most effective educational elements into an optimal model of fossil park design. Very marked differences existed among the three fossil parks, including authenticity of experience; publicity and ease of access; fossil collection methods; site organization, facilities, personnel, and geological mentors; and interpretation and identification of fossils procured. Analysis of the data led to a much-needed model that can be used to develop effective fossil parks that optimize visitor experiences. The study also yielded a geoscience learning inventory that is potentially helpful to geoscience educators who wish to utilize such fossil parks. This inventory was applied to a newer, fourth US fossil park to demonstrate its application.

  9. Generating and Synthesizing Information about Risks in Unconventional Oil and Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, H.

    2013-12-01

    Hannah Wiseman, Florida State University College of Law Stakeholders, agency staff, and policymakers all need more and better information about the risks of unconventional oil and gas development, including horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. To create more accurate and accessible information in this area, three steps are needed: better production of information about technologies; better production of information about risks; and better synthesis and organization of information. We also must decide who should be primarily responsible for these tasks. First, we must produce information about the technologies involved at each stage of well development. It is impossible to understand the risks without understanding the technologies behind them. When the Bureau of Land Management proposed that all oil and gas operators on BLM lands would have to submit a cement bond log for each well, industry actors argued that cement bond log readings are often unreliable close to the surface due to temperatures and acoustics. Industry has the most knowledge in this area, and government officials need to work with industry to better understand the technology and communicate information about it to the public. This is likely best done by a federal agency: the technologies are, broadly speaking, similar across regions--even for shale oil and gas. To understand and communicate risks we also need better data about risks. Industry actors often have few incentives to share information about known risks, as more data could lead to more regulation. States, who have the most jurisdictional authority over the risks, therefore should require industry to produce limited data. Alternatively, states--or the federal government--must collect this data themselves, as the U.S. Geological Survey has already begun to do for water in oil and gas regions. Specifically, they should require: baseline and post-development testing of surface and underground water sources around well sites before

  10. Fossil Energy Program Annual Progress Report for April 1, 2002, Through March 31, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, RR

    2003-06-19

    The mission of the Fossil Energy Program is to conduct research and development that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fossil Energy Program research and development activities, performed for the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, cover the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Projects on the ORNL Fossil Energy Program are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE National Petroleum Technology Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The ORNL Fossil Energy Program shares with DOE Oak Ridge Operations technical management responsibility for all activities on the DOE Fossil Energy Advanced Research Materials Program. The Advanced Research Materials Program includes research at other DOE and government laboratories, at universities, and at industrial organizations.

  11. The Fossil Phase in the Life of a Galaxy Group

    CERN Document Server

    von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Gottloeber, Stefan; Hoeft, Matthias; Khalatyan, Arman; Klypin, Anatoly; Mueller, Volker

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the origin and evolution of fossil groups in a concordance LCDM cosmological simulation. We consider haloes with masses between $(1-5)\\times10^{13} \\hMsun$ and study the physical mechanisms that lead to the formation of the large gap in magnitude between the brightest and the second most bright group member, which is typical for these fossil systems. Fossil groups are found to have high dark matter concentrations, which we can relate to their early formation time. The large magnitude-gaps arise after the groups have build up half of their final mass, due to merging of massive group members. We show that the existence of fossil systems is primarily driven by the relatively early infall of massive satellites, and that we do not find a strong environmental dependence for these systems. In addition, we find tentative evidence for fossil group satellites falling in on orbits with typically lower angular momentum, which might lead to a more efficient merger onto the host. We find a population of grou...

  12. Assessing global fossil fuel availability in a scenario framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Nico; Hilaire, Jerome; Brecha, Robert J.; Edmonds, James A.; Jiang, Kejun; Kriegler, Elmar; Rogner, Hans-Holger; Sferra, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    This study assesses global, long-term economic availability of coal, oil and gas within the Shared Socio-economic Pathway (SSP) scenario framework considering alternative assumptions as to highly uncertain future developments of technology, policy and the economy. Diverse sets of trajectories are formulated varying the challenges to mitigation and adaptation of climate change. The potential CO2 emissions from fossil fuels make it a crucial element subject to deep uncertainties. The analysis is based on a well-established data set of cost-quantity combinations that assumes favorable techno-economic developments, but ignores additional constraints on the extraction sector. This study significantly extends that analysis to include alternative assumptions for the fossil fuel sector consistent with the SSP scenario families and applies these filters to the original data set, thus resulting in alternative cumulative fossil fuel availability curves. In a Middle-of-the-Road scenario, low cost fossil fuels embody carbon consistent with a RCP6.0 emission profile, if all the CO2 were emitted freely during the 21st century. In scenarios with high challenges to mitigation, the assumed embodied carbon in low-cost fossil fuels can trigger a RCP8.5 scenario; low mitigation challenges scenarios are still consistent with a RCP4.5 scenario.

  13. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Øjvind; Taylor, Edith L.

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large C-shaped macronucleus. It agrees in every aspect with the living bell animals, such as Vorticella. Vorticellids and similar peritrichs are vital constituents of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, but so far have lacked any fossil record. This discovery offers a glimpse of ancient soft-bodied protozoan biotas, and also highlights the potential of clitellate cocoons as microscopic "conservation traps" comparable to amber.

  14. Numerical analysis on noise of rotor with unconventional blade tips based on CFD/Kirchhoff method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bo; Zhao Qijun; Xu Guohua; Ye Liang; Wang Junyi

    2013-01-01

    A solver is developed aiming at efficiently predicting rotor noise in hover and forward flight.In this solver,the nonlinear near-field solutions are calculated by a hybrid approach which includes the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations based on a moving-embedded grid system and adaptive grid methodology.A combination of the third-order upwind scheme and flux-difference splitting scheme,instead of the second-order center-difference scheme which may cause larger wake dissipation,has been employed in the present computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method.The sound pressure data in the near field can be calculated directly by solving the Navier-Stokes equations,and the sound propagation can be predicted by the Kirchhoffmethod.A harmonic expansion approach is presented for rotor far-field noise prediction,which gives an analytical expression for the integral function in the Kirchhoff formula.As a result,the interpolation process is simplified and the efficiency and accuracy of the interpolation are improved.Then,the high-speed impulsive (HIS) noise of a helicopter rotor at different tip Mach numbers and on different observers is calculated and analyzed in hover and forward flight,which shows a highly directional characteristic of the rotor HIS noise with a maximum value in the rotor plane,and the HSI noise weakens rapidly with the increasing of the directivity angle.In order to investigate the effects of the rotor blade-tip shape on its aeroacoustic characteristics,four kinds of blade tips are designed and their noise characteristics have been simulated.At last,a new unconventional CLOR-Ⅱ blade tip has been designed,and the noise characteristics of the presented CLOR-Ⅱ model rotor have been simulated and measured compared to the reference rotors with a rectangular or swept-back platform blade tip.The results demonstrate that the unconventional CLOR-Ⅱblade tip can significantly reduce the HSI noise of a rotor.

  15. Untapped Fossil Fuel and the Green Paradox: A classroom calibration of the optimal carbon tax

    OpenAIRE

    Rick van der Ploeg

    2013-01-01

    A classroom model of global warming, fossil fuel depletion and the optimal carbon tax is formulated and calibrated. It features iso-elastic fossil fuel demand, stock-dependent fossil fuel extraction costs, an exogenous interest rate and no decay of the atmospheric stock of carbon. The optimal carbon tax reduces emissions from burning fossil fuel, both in the short and medium run. Furthermore, it brings forward the date that renewables take over from fossil fuel and encourages the market to ke...

  16. Unconventional charge density wave in the organic conductor alpha-(BEDT-TTF)_2KHg(SCN)_4

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, Kazumi; Dóra, Balázs; Kartsovnik, Mark; Virosztek, Attila; Korin-Hamzic, Bojana; Basletic, Mario

    2002-01-01

    The low temperature phase (LTP) of alpha-(BEDT-TTF)_2KHg(SCN)_4 salt is known for its surprising angular dependent magnetoresistance (ADMR), which has been studied intensively in the last decade. However, the nature of the LTP has not been understood until now. Here we analyse theoretically ADMR in unconventional (or nodal) charge density wave (UCDW). In magnetic field the quasiparticle spectrum in UCDW is quantized, which gives rise to spectacular ADMR. The present model accounts for many st...

  17. Unconventional effects in the magnetization and magnetoconductivity of iron based superconductors near Tc as probed by thermal fluctuation spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Álvarez, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to study unconventional effects on the magnetization and Magnetoconductivity of iron-based superconductors, FeSCs, mainly family '122'. This was done through the so-called superconducting fluctuation spectroscopy above the superconducting critical temperature, Tc. This technique has been used in a considerable number of work to characterize the properties of superconductors (see for example). Moreover, the nature of the thermal fluctuations is determined,...

  18. Should Unconventional Balance Sheet Policies Be Added to the Central Bank toolkit? a Review of the Experience so Far

    OpenAIRE

    Kotaro Ishi; Kenji Fujita; Mark R. Stone

    2011-01-01

    What is the case for adding the unconventional balance sheet policies used by major central banks since 2007 to the standard policy toolkit? The record so far suggests that the new liquidity providing policies in support of financial stability generally warrant inclusion. As the balance sheet policies aimed at macroeconomic stability were used only by a small number of highly credible central banks facing a lower bound constraint on conventional interest rate policy, they are not relevant for...

  19. Equity market reactions to the unconventional monetary policy announcements of the ECB: Evidence from Germany between 2008 and 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Penttilä, Juuso

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I examine the equity market reactions to the European Central Bank's (ECB) expansionary unconventional monetary policy announcements between 1.11.2008 and 31.10.2015, using firm-level data from German markets. Exploiting the firm-level data and different measures for financial constraints allows me to sort companies into different portfolios. Hence, I am able to draw more precise conclusions about the equity market reactions and the feasibility of ECB's expansionary unconventio...

  20. The Effect of Unconventional Monetary Policy on the Macro Economy: Evidence from Japan's Quantitative Easing Policy Period

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiko Shibamoto; Minoru Tachibana

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness of unonventional monetary policy on the macro ecnomy. It focuses on the Japanese economy during the Bank of Japan's quantitative easing policy period, and analyzes the effects of monetary policy shocks and systematic monetary policy using the vector autoregression model with simultaneous interaction between stock prices and policy decisions. The main finding is that unconventional monetary policy has a significant effect on the macro economy, which is clo...

  1. Efficiency and costs of the health management in an organic dairy farm where we use unconventional medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Polidori; Massimo Casini; Paolo Tambini; Stefano Squilloni; Sara Gallai; Luca Sabatini; Giangiacomo Lorenzini; Andrea Martini

    2010-01-01

    The EU organic regulation explicitly promote the use of unconventional therapies, like homoeopathy and phytotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency and the costs of these treatment methods. From December 2006 to September 2008, we analyzed the data recorded in an organic dairy farm where the animals are normally treated by classical unicistic homeopathy and phytotherapy, and only when indispensable, by allophaty, antiparasitic drugs, surgery and vaccines. The u...

  2. Insulin-degrading enzyme secretion from astrocytes is mediated by an autophagy-based unconventional secretory pathway in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sung Min; Cha, Moon-Yong; Choi, Heesun; Kang, Seokjo; Choi, Hyunjung; Lee, Myung-Shik; Park, Sun Ah; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2016-05-01

    The secretion of proteins that lack a signal sequence to the extracellular milieu is regulated by their transition through the unconventional secretory pathway. IDE (insulin-degrading enzyme) is one of the major proteases of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), a presumed causative molecule in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. IDE acts in the extracellular space despite having no signal sequence, but the underlying mechanism of IDE secretion extracellularly is still unknown. In this study, we found that IDE levels were reduced in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with AD and in pathology-bearing AD-model mice. Since astrocytes are the main cell types for IDE secretion, astrocytes were treated with Aβ. Aβ increased the IDE levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, IDE secretion was associated with an autophagy-based unconventional secretory pathway, and depended on the activity of RAB8A and GORASP (Golgi reassembly stacking protein). Finally, mice with global haploinsufficiency of an essential autophagy gene, showed decreased IDE levels in the CSF in response to an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ. These results indicate that IDE is secreted from astrocytes through an autophagy-based unconventional secretory pathway in AD conditions, and that the regulation of autophagy is a potential therapeutic target in addressing Aβ pathology.

  3. Landscape Disturbance from Unconventional and Conventional Oil and Gas Development in the Marcellus Shale Region of Pennsylvania, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Terrence Slonecker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial footprint of unconventional (hydraulic fracturing and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of the State of Pennsylvania was digitized from high-resolution, ortho-rectified, digital aerial photography, from 2004 to 2010. We used these data to measure the spatial extent of oil and gas development and to assess the exposure of the extant natural resources across the landscape of the watersheds in the study area. We found that either form of development: (1 occurred in ~50% of the 930 watersheds that defined the study area; (2 was closer to streams than the recommended safe distance in ~50% of the watersheds; (3 was in some places closer to impaired streams and state-defined wildland trout streams than the recommended safe distance; (4 was within 10 upstream kilometers of surface drinking water intakes in ~45% of the watersheds that had surface drinking water intakes; (5 occurred in ~10% of state-defined exceptional value watersheds; (6 occurred in ~30% of the watersheds with resident populations defined as disproportionately exposed to pollutants; (7 tended to occur at interior forest locations; and (8 had >100 residents within 3 km for ~30% of the unconventional oil and gas development sites. Further, we found that exposure to the potential effects of landscape disturbance attributable to conventional oil and gas development was more prevalent than its unconventional counterpart.

  4. Unconventional Human T Cells Accumulate at the Site of Infection in Response to Microbial Ligands and Induce Local Tissue Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzi, Anna Rita; Kift-Morgan, Ann; Lopez-Anton, Melisa; Friberg, Ida M.; Zhang, Jingjing; Brook, Amy C.; Roberts, Gareth W.; Donovan, Kieron L.; Colmont, Chantal S.; Toleman, Mark A.; Bowen, Timothy; Johnson, David W.; Topley, Nicholas; Moser, Bernhard; Fraser, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial responsiveness and function of unconventional human T cells are poorly understood, with only limited access to relevant specimens from sites of infection. Peritonitis is a common and serious complication in individuals with end-stage kidney disease receiving peritoneal dialysis. By analyzing local and systemic immune responses in peritoneal dialysis patients presenting with acute bacterial peritonitis and monitoring individuals before and during defined infectious episodes, our data show that Vγ9/Vδ2+ γδ T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells accumulate at the site of infection with organisms producing (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate and vitamin B2, respectively. Such unconventional human T cells are major producers of IFN-γ and TNF-α in response to these ligands that are shared by many microbial pathogens and affect the cells lining the peritoneal cavity by triggering local inflammation and inducing tissue remodeling with consequences for peritoneal membrane integrity. Our data uncover a crucial role for Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells in bacterial infection and suggest that they represent a useful predictive marker for important clinical outcomes, which may inform future stratification and patient management. These findings are likely to be applicable to other acute infections where local activation of unconventional T cells contributes to the antimicrobial inflammatory response. PMID:27527598

  5. Analysis of the effects of section 29 tax credits on reserve additions and production of gas from unconventional resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal tax credits for production of natural gas from unconventional resources can stimulate drilling and reserves additions at a relatively low cost to the Treasury. This report presents the results of an analysis of the effects of a proposed extension of the Section 29 alternative fuels production credit specifically for unconventional gas. ICF Resources estimated the net effect of the extension of the credit (the difference between development activity expected with the extension of the credit and that expected if the credit expires in December 1990 as scheduled). The analysis addressed the effect of tax credits on project economics and capital formation, drilling and reserve additions, production, impact on the US and regional economies, and the net public sector costs and incremental revenues. The analysis was based on explicit modeling of the three dominant unconventional gas resources: Tight sands, coalbed methane, and Devonian shales. It incorporated the most current data on resource size, typical well recoveries and economics, and anticipated activity of the major producers. Each resource was further disaggregated for analysis based on distinct resource characteristics, development practices, regional economics, and historical development patterns

  6. Jane Eyre, an Unconventional Heroine%简·爱,一位反传统的女主人公

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲轶琼; 曾庆云

    2003-01-01

    很多人钟情于19世纪英国批判现实主义代表作家之一夏洛蒂@勃朗特的代表作,崇尚她在小说中描述的与传统不同的女主人公简@爱的勇于追求自由、平等和独立精神.本文意在通过比较和对小说中的情节分析来探求女主人公的反传统性.%Jane Eyre is the most representative work of Charlotte Bronte, who is considered as an extraordinarywoman novelist. Because the novel throbs with the heart-beats of its author, both literary critics and the readers havetaken great interest in its unconventional heroine Jane Eyre, whose unconventionality is shown in the heroine pursuit forliberty, equality and independence. This essay, therefore, is dedicated to probe the heroine's unconventionality with acomparison between the heroines and traditional images of women, which marks its heroine totally new in its genre.

  7. Ancient wet aeolian environments on Earth: Clues to presence of fossil/live microorganisms on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W.C.; Milner, M.W.; Netoff, D.I.; Malloch, D.; Dohm, J.M.; Baker, V.R.; Miyamoto, H.; Hare, T.M.; Komatsu, G.

    2004-01-01

    Ancient wet aeolian (wet-sabkha) environments on Earth, represented in the Entrada and Navajo sandstones of Utah, contain pipe structures considered to be the product of gas/water release under pressure. The sediments originally had considerable porosity allowing the ingress of living plant structures, microorganisms, clay minerals, and fine-grained primary minerals of silt and sand size from the surface downward in the sedimentary column. Host rock material is of a similar size and porosity and presumably the downward migration of fine-grained material would have been possible prior to lithogenesis and final cementation. Recent field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and EDS (energy-dispersive spectrometry) examination of sands from fluidized pipes in the Early Jurassic Navajo Sandstone reveal the presence of fossil forms resembling fungal filaments, some bearing hyphopodium-like structures similar to those produced by modern tropical leaf parasites. The tropical origin of the fungi is consistent with the paleogeography of the sandstone, which was deposited in a tropical arid environment. These fossil fungi are silicized, with minor amounts of CaCO3 and Fe, and in some cases a Si/Al ratio similar to smectite. They exist as pseudomorphs, totally depleted in nitrogen, adhering to the surfaces of fine-grained sands, principally quartz and orthoclase. Similar wet aeolian paleoenvironments are suspected for Mars, especially following catastrophic sediment-charged floods of enormous magnitudes that are believed to have contributed to rapid formation of large water bodies in the northern plains, ranging from lakes to oceans. These events are suspected to have contributed to a high frequency of constructional landforms (also known as pseudocraters) related to trapped volatiles and water-enriched sediment underneath a thick blanket of materials that were subsequently released to the martian surface, forming piping structures at the near surface and

  8. The formation and evolution of fossil groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Poor groups of galaxies are known to be the sites where galaxy-galaxy interactions or even the coalescence of individual galaxies, galaxy merging, take place. Numerical simulations have shown that merging can proceed as long as a single, massive elliptical galaxy surrounded by an extended, diffuse x-ray halo and a faint galaxy population, a so-called fossil group remain as final product. Complementary to previous work we have queried the SDSS database via Structured Query Language (SQL) for new fossil structures. Mid-resolution spectroscopy with ISIS has been carried out at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) to study the stellar population of fossil group central ellipticals supposed to contain the merger history of the whole group. In addition, VIMOS multi-object spectroscopy is currently carried out at the VLT to study the groups' faint galaxy populations, especially the shape of the optical luminosity function. (author)

  9. Peaches Preceded Humans: Fossil Evidence from SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tao; Wilf, Peter; Huang, Yongjiang; Zhang, Shitao; Zhou, Zhekun

    2015-11-01

    Peach (Prunus persica, Rosaceae) is an extremely popular tree fruit worldwide, with an annual production near 20 million tons. Peach is widely thought to have origins in China, but its evolutionary history is largely unknown. The oldest evidence for the peach has been Chinese archaeological records dating to 8000-7000 BP. Here, we report eight fossil peach endocarps from late Pliocene strata of Kunming City, Yunnan, southwestern China. The fossils are identical to modern peach endocarps, including size comparable to smaller modern varieties, a single seed, a deep dorsal groove, and presence of deep pits and furrows. These fossils show that China has been a critical region for peach evolution since long before human presence, much less agriculture. Peaches evolved their modern morphology under natural selection, presumably involving large, frugivorous mammals such as primates. Much later, peach size and variety increased through domestication and breeding.

  10. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  11. China's INDC and non-fossil energy development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change promotes the energy system reform. Achieving a high proportion of renewable energy becomes the major countries' energy strategy. As proposed in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC), China intends to raise the proportion of non-fossil energy in primary energy consumption to about 20%by 2030. That ambitious goal means the non-fossil energy supplies by 2030 will be 7e8 times that of 2005, and the annual increase rate is more than 8%within the 25 years. Besides, the capacity of wind power, solar power, hy-dropower and nuclear power reaches 400 GW, 350 GW, 450 GW, and 150 GW respectively, and China's non-fossil power capacity is even greater than the U.S.'s total power capacity. In addition, the scale of natural gas increases. Consequently, by 2030, the proportion of coal falls from the current 70% to below 50%, and the CO2 intensity of energy consumption decreases by 20% compared with the level of 2005, which play important roles in significantly reducing the CO2 intensity of GDP. Since China has confirmed to achieve the CO2 emissions peak around 2030, at that time, the newly added energy demand will be satisfied by non-fossil energy, and the consumption of fossil fuel will stop growing. By 2030, non-fossil energy accounts for 20%, and the large scale and sound momentum of new and renewable energy industry will support the growth of total energy demand, which plays a key role in CO2 emissions peaking and beginning to decline, and lays the foundation for establishing a new energy system dominated by new and renewable energy in the second half of the 21st century as well as finally achieving the CO2 zero-emission.

  12. China's INDC and non-fossil energy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Kun He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change promotes the energy system reform. Achieving a high proportion of renewable energy becomes the major countries' energy strategy. As proposed in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC, China intends to raise the proportion of non-fossil energy in primary energy consumption to about 20% by 2030. That ambitious goal means the non-fossil energy supplies by 2030 will be 7–8 times that of 2005, and the annual increase rate is more than 8% within the 25 years. Besides, the capacity of wind power, solar power, hydropower and nuclear power reaches 400 GW, 350 GW, 450 GW, and 150 GW respectively, and China's non-fossil power capacity is even greater than the U.S.'s total power capacity. In addition, the scale of natural gas increases. Consequently, by 2030, the proportion of coal falls from the current 70% to below 50%, and the CO2 intensity of energy consumption decreases by 20% compared with the level of 2005, which play important roles in significantly reducing the CO2 intensity of GDP. Since China has confirmed to achieve the CO2 emissions peak around 2030, at that time, the newly added energy demand will be satisfied by non-fossil energy, and the consumption of fossil fuel will stop growing. By 2030, non-fossil energy accounts for 20%, and the large scale and sound momentum of new and renewable energy industry will support the growth of total energy demand, which plays a key role in CO2 emissions peaking and beginning to decline, and lays the foundation for establishing a new energy system dominated by new and renewable energy in the second half of the 21st century as well as finally achieving the CO2 zero-emission.

  13. In-ground operation of Geothermic Fuel Cells for unconventional oil and gas recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Neal; Anyenya, Gladys; Haun, Buddy; Daubenspeck, Mark; Bonadies, Joseph; Kerr, Rick; Fischer, Bernhard; Wright, Adam; Jones, Gerald; Li, Robert; Wall, Mark; Forbes, Alan; Savage, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents operating and performance characteristics of a nine-stack solid-oxide fuel cell combined-heat-and-power system. Integrated with a natural-gas fuel processor, air compressor, reactant-gas preheater, and diagnostics and control equipment, the system is designed for use in unconventional oil-and-gas processing. Termed a "Geothermic Fuel Cell" (GFC), the heat liberated by the fuel cell during electricity generation is harnessed to process oil shale into high-quality crude oil and natural gas. The 1.5-kWe SOFC stacks are packaged within three-stack GFC modules. Three GFC modules are mechanically and electrically coupled to a reactant-gas preheater and installed within the earth. During operation, significant heat is conducted from the Geothermic Fuel Cell to the surrounding geology. The complete system was continuously operated on hydrogen and natural-gas fuels for ∼600 h. A quasi-steady operating point was established to favor heat generation (29.1 kWth) over electricity production (4.4 kWe). Thermodynamic analysis reveals a combined-heat-and-power efficiency of 55% at this condition. Heat flux to the geology averaged 3.2 kW m-1 across the 9-m length of the Geothermic Fuel Cell-preheater assembly. System performance is reviewed; some suggestions for improvement are proposed.

  14. The composition and signaling of the IL-35 receptor are unconventional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Lauren W; Delgoffe, Greg M; Guy, Clifford S; Vignali, Kate M; Chaturvedi, Vandana; Fairweather, DeLisa; Satoskar, Abhay R; Garcia, K Christopher; Hunter, Christopher A; Drake, Charles G; Murray, Peter J; Vignali, Dario A A

    2012-02-05

    Interleukin 35 (IL-35) belongs to the IL-12 family of heterodimeric cytokines but has a distinct functional profile. IL-35 suppresses T cell proliferation and converts naive T cells into IL-35-producing induced regulatory T cells (iTr35 cells). Here we found that IL-35 signaled through a unique heterodimer of receptor chains IL-12Rβ2 and gp130 or homodimers of each chain. Conventional T cells were sensitive to IL-35-mediated suppression in the absence of one receptor chain but not both receptor chains, whereas signaling through both chains was required for IL-35 expression and conversion into iTr35 cells. Signaling through the IL-35 receptor required the transcription factors STAT1 and STAT4, which formed a unique heterodimer that bound to distinct sites in the promoters of the genes encoding the IL-12 subunits p35 and Ebi3. This unconventional mode of signaling, distinct from that of other members of the IL-12 family, may broaden the spectrum and specificity of IL-35-mediated suppression.

  15. Stream Vulnerability to Widespread and Emergent Stressors: A Focus on Unconventional Oil and Gas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A Entrekin

    Full Text Available Multiple stressors threaten stream physical and biological quality, including elevated nutrients and other contaminants, riparian and in-stream habitat degradation and altered natural flow regime. Unconventional oil and gas (UOG development is one emerging stressor that spans the U.S. UOG development could alter stream sedimentation, riparian extent and composition, in-stream flow, and water quality. We developed indices to describe the watershed sensitivity and exposure to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and computed a vulnerability index from these two scores across stream catchments in six productive shale plays. We predicted that catchment vulnerability scores would vary across plays due to climatic, geologic and anthropogenic differences. Across-shale averages supported this prediction revealing differences in catchment sensitivity, exposure, and vulnerability scores that resulted from different natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. For example, semi-arid Western shale play catchments (Mowry, Hilliard, and Bakken tended to be more sensitive to stressors due to low annual average precipitation and extensive grassland. Catchments in the Barnett and Marcellus-Utica were naturally sensitive from more erosive soils and steeper catchment slopes, but these catchments also experienced areas with greater UOG densities and urbanization. Our analysis suggested Fayetteville and Barnett catchments were vulnerable due to existing anthropogenic exposure. However, all shale plays had catchments that spanned a wide vulnerability gradient. Our results identify vulnerable catchments that can help prioritize stream protection and monitoring efforts. Resource managers can also use these findings to guide local development activities to help reduce possible environmental effects.

  16. Extraordinary Hall resistance and unconventional magnetoresistance in Pt/LaCoO 3 hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, T.; Zhan, Q. F.; Yang, H. L.; Zuo, Z. H.; Xie, Y. L.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, L. P.; Wang, B. M.; Wu, Y. H.; Zhang, S.; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-10-01

    We report an investigation of transverse Hall resistance and longitudinal resistance on Pt thin films sputtered on epitaxial LaCoO3 (LCO) ferromagnetic insulator films. The LaCoO3 films were deposited on several single crystalline substrates [LaAlO3,(La,Sr)(Al,Ta)O3, and SrTiO3] with (001) orientation. The physical properties of LaCoO3 films were characterized by the measurements of magnetic and transport properties. The LaCoO3 films undergo a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic (FM) transition at Curie temperatures ranging from 40 to 85 K, below which the Pt/LCO hybrids exhibit significant extraordinary Hall resistance up to 50 m Ω and unconventional magnetoresistance ratio Δ ρ /ρ0 about 1.2 ×10-4 , accompanied by the conventional magnetoresistance. The observed spin transport properties share some common features as well as some unique characteristics when compared with well-studied Y3Fe5O12 -based Pt thin films. Our findings call for new theories since the extraordinary Hall resistance and magnetoresistance cannot be consistently explained by the existing theories.

  17. Unconventional Synthesis of γ-Fe2O3: Excellent Low-Concentration Ethanol Sensing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Atanu; Narjinary, Mousumi; Kundu, Susmita

    2016-09-01

    This study reports on a simple unconventional procedure for synthesis of γ-Fe2O3 nanopowder and its fabrication as a resistive ethanol sensor. γ-Fe2O3 powder having an average particle size of ˜15 nm was prepared by thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate. Platinum incorporation (0.5-1.5 wt.%) was also carried out for enhancing sensing performance. The powders were characterized using an x-ray diffractometer, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, field area scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy along with energy dispersion x-ray analyses. Sensor fabricated from pure γ-Fe2O3 exhibited excellent ethanol sensing performance at concentrations down to 1 ppm, having a great demand in medical diagnosis and food-processing industries. The response observed for pure γ-Fe2O3 (˜75% for 1 ppm ethanol) was enhanced ˜10% after 1 wt.% Pt impregnation. Sensors were quite stable and selective towards ethanol vapour detection. A possible mechanism for high sensing performance has been discussed.

  18. Application of a New Wavelet Threshold Method in Unconventional Oil and Gas Reservoir Seismic Data Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guxi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic data processing is an important aspect to improve the signal to noise ratio. The main work of this paper is to combine the characteristics of seismic data, using wavelet transform method, to eliminate and control such random noise, aiming to improve the signal to noise ratio and the technical methods used in large data systems, so that there can be better promotion and application. In recent years, prestack data denoising of all-digital three-dimensional seismic data is the key to data processing. Contrapose the characteristics of all-digital three-dimensional seismic data, and, on the basis of previous studies, a new threshold function is proposed. Comparing between conventional hard threshold and soft threshold, this function not only is easy to compute, but also has excellent mathematical properties and a clear physical meaning. The simulation results proved that this method can well remove the random noise. Using this threshold function in actual seismic processing of unconventional lithologic gas reservoir with low porosity, low permeability, low abundance, and strong heterogeneity, the results show that the denoising method can availably improve seismic processing effects and enhance the signal to noise ratio (SNR.

  19. Unconventional non-Fermi liquid state caused by nematic criticality in cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Liu, Guo-Zhu; Zhang, Chang-Jin

    2016-07-01

    At the nematic quantum critical point that exists in the {d}{x2-{y}2}-wave superconducting dome of cuprates, the massless nodal fermions interact strongly with the quantum critical fluctuation of nematic order. We study this problem by means of the renormalization group approach and show that, the fermion damping rate | {Im}{{{Σ }}}R(ω )| vanishes more rapidly than the energy ω and the quasiparticle residue {Z}f\\to 0 in the limit ω \\to 0. The nodal fermions thus constitute an unconventional non-Fermi liquid that represents an even weaker violation of Fermi liquid theory than a marginal Fermi liquid. We also investigate the interplay of quantum nematic critical fluctuation and gauge-potential-like disorder, and find that the effective disorder strength flows to the strong coupling regime at low energies. Therefore, even an arbitrarily weak disorder can drive the system to become a disorder controlled diffusive state. Based on these theoretical results, we are able to understand a number of interesting experimental facts observed in curpate superconductors.

  20. Unconventional natural gas development and public health: toward a community-informed research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Elam, Sarah; Gray, Kathleen M; Haynes, Erin; Hughes, Megan Hoert

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production in recent years. However, the rapid expansion of UNGD has also raised concerns about its potential impacts on public health. Academics and government agencies are developing research programs to explore these concerns. Community involvement in activities such as planning, conducting, and communicating research is widely recognized as having an important role in promoting environmental health. Historically, however, communities most often engage in research after environmental health concerns have emerged. This community information needs assessment took a prospective approach to integrating community leaders' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns into the research agenda prior to initiation of local UNGD. We interviewed community leaders about their views on environmental health information needs in three states (New York, North Carolina, and Ohio) prior to widespread UNGD. Interviewees emphasized the cumulative, long-term, and indirect determinants of health, as opposed to specific disease outcomes. Responses focused not only on information needs, but also on communication and transparency with respect to research processes and funding. Interviewees also prioritized investigation of policy approaches to effectively protect human health over the long term. Although universities were most often cited as a credible source of information, interviewees emphasized the need for multiple strategies for disseminating information. By including community leaders' concerns, insights, and questions from the outset, the research agenda on UNGD is more likely to effectively inform decision making that ultimately protects public health. PMID:25204212

  1. Quantitative Survey and Structural Classification of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals Reported in Unconventional Gas Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Martin; Hoelzer, Kathrin

    2016-04-01

    Much interest is directed at the chemical structure of hydraulic fracturing (HF) additives in unconventional gas exploitation. To bridge the gap between existing alphabetical disclosures by function/CAS number and emerging scientific contributions on fate and toxicity, we review the structural properties which motivate HF applications, and which determine environmental fate and toxicity. Our quantitative overview relied on voluntary U.S. disclosures evaluated from the FracFocus registry by different sources and on a House of Representatives ("Waxman") list. Out of over 1000 reported substances, classification by chemistry yielded succinct subsets able to illustrate the rationale of their use, and physicochemical properties relevant for environmental fate, toxicity and chemical analysis. While many substances were nontoxic, frequent disclosures also included notorious groundwater contaminants like petroleum hydrocarbons (solvents), precursors of endocrine disruptors like nonylphenols (nonemulsifiers), toxic propargyl alcohol (corrosion inhibitor), tetramethylammonium (clay stabilizer), biocides or strong oxidants. Application of highly oxidizing chemicals, together with occasional disclosures of putative delayed acids and complexing agents (i.e., compounds designed to react in the subsurface) suggests that relevant transformation products may be formed. To adequately investigate such reactions, available information is not sufficient, but instead a full disclosure of HF additives is necessary. PMID:26902161

  2. Multi-target-qubit unconventional geometric phase gate in a multi-cavity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Cao, Xiao-Zhi; Su, Qi-Ping; Xiong, Shao-Jie; Yang, Chui-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cavity-based large scale quantum information processing (QIP) may involve multiple cavities and require performing various quantum logic operations on qubits distributed in different cavities. Geometric-phase-based quantum computing has drawn much attention recently, which offers advantages against inaccuracies and local fluctuations. In addition, multiqubit gates are particularly appealing and play important roles in QIP. We here present a simple and efficient scheme for realizing a multi-target-qubit unconventional geometric phase gate in a multi-cavity system. This multiqubit phase gate has a common control qubit but different target qubits distributed in different cavities, which can be achieved using a single-step operation. The gate operation time is independent of the number of qubits and only two levels for each qubit are needed. This multiqubit gate is generic, e.g., by performing single-qubit operations, it can be converted into two types of significant multi-target-qubit phase gates useful in QIP. The proposal is quite general, which can be used to accomplish the same task for a general type of qubits such as atoms, NV centers, quantum dots, and superconducting qubits. PMID:26898176

  3. 'Unconventional' coordination chemistry by metal chelating fragments in a metalloprotein active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David P; Blachly, Patrick G; Marts, Amy R; Woodruff, Tessa M; de Oliveira, César A F; McCammon, J Andrew; Tierney, David L; Cohen, Seth M

    2014-04-01

    The binding of three closely related chelators: 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (allothiomaltol, ATM), 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiomaltol, TM), and 3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiopyromeconic acid, TPMA) to the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) has been investigated. Two of these ligands display a monodentate mode of coordination to the active site Zn(2+) ion in hCAII that is not recapitulated in model complexes of the enzyme active site. This unprecedented binding mode in the hCAII-thiomaltol complex has been characterized by both X-ray crystallography and X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, the steric restrictions of the active site force the ligands into a 'flattened' mode of coordination compared with inorganic model complexes. This change in geometry has been shown by density functional computations to significantly decrease the strength of the metal-ligand binding. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the mode of binding by small metal-binding groups can be significantly influenced by the protein active site. Diminishing the strength of the metal-ligand bond results in unconventional modes of metal coordination not found in typical coordination compounds or even carefully engineered active site models, and understanding these effects is critical to the rational design of inhibitors that target clinically relevant metalloproteins.

  4. Unconventional ratiometric-enhanced optical sensing of oxygen by mixed-phase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri, S.; Pallotti, D. K.; Gesuele, F.; Maddalena, P.

    2016-07-01

    We show that mixed-phase titanium dioxide (TiO2) can be effectively employed as an unconventional, inorganic, dual-emitting, and ratiometric optical sensor of O2. Simultaneous availability of rutile and anatase TiO2 photoluminescence (PL) and their peculiar "anti-correlated" PL responses to O2 allow using their ratio as a measurement parameter associated with the O2 concentration, leading to an experimental responsivity being by construction larger than the one obtainable for single-phase PL detection. A proof of this concept is given, showing a two-fold enhancement of the optical responsivity provided by the ratiometric approach. Besides the peculiar ratiometric-enhanced responsivity, other characteristics of mixed phase TiO2 can be envisaged as favorable for O2 optical probing, namely (a) low production costs, (b) absence of heterogeneous components, and (c) self-supporting properties. These characteristics encourage experimenting with its use for applications requiring high indicator quantities at a competitive price, possibly also tackling the need to develop supporting matrixes that carry the luminescent probes and avoiding issues related to the use of different components for ratiometric sensing.

  5. Deep Unconventional Geothermal Resources: a major opportunity to harness new sources of sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, G.O.; Albertsson, A.; Stefansson, B.; Gunnlaugsson, E.; Adalsteinsson, H.

    2007-07-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is a long-term program to improve the efficiency and economics of geothermal energy by harnessing Deep Unconventional Geothermal Resources (DUGR). Its aim is to produce electricity from natural supercritical hydrous fluids from drillable depths. Producing supercritical fluids will require drilling wells and sampling fluids and rocks to depths of 3.5 to 5 km, and at temperatures of 450-600{sup o}C. The long-term plan is to drill and test a series of such deep boreholes in Iceland at the Krafla, the Hengill, and the Reykjanes high temperature geothermal systems. Beneath these three developed drill fields temperatures should exceed 550-650{sup o}C, and the occurrence of frequent seismic activity below 5 km, indicates that the rocks are brittle and therefore likely to be permeable. Modeling indicates that if the wellhead enthalpy is to exceed that of conventionally produced geothermal steam, the reservoir temperature must be higher than 450{sup o}C. A deep well producing 0.67 m3/sec steam ({approx}2400 m3/h) from a reservoir with a temperature significantly above 450{sup o}C could yield enough high-enthalpy steam to generate 40-50 MW of electric power. This exceeds by an order of magnitude the power typically obtained from conventional geothermal wells. (auth)

  6. Unconventional charge order in a co-doped high-Tc superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, D.; Vučković, M.; Grafe, H.-J.; Baek, S.-H.; Požek, M.

    2016-09-01

    Charge-stripe order has recently been established as an important aspect of cuprate high-Tc superconductors. However, owing to the complex interplay between competing phases and the influence of disorder, it is unclear how it emerges from the parent high-temperature state. Here we report on the discovery of an unconventional ordered phase between charge-stripe order and (pseudogapped) metal in the cuprate La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4. We use three complementary experiments--nuclear quadrupole resonance, nonlinear conductivity and specific heat--to demonstrate that the order appears through a sharp phase transition and exists in a dome-shaped region of the phase diagram. Our results imply that the new phase is a state, which preserves translational symmetry: a charge nematic. We thus resolve the process of charge-stripe development in cuprates, show that this nematic phase is distinct from high-temperature pseudogap and establish a link with other strongly correlated electronic materials with prominent nematic order.

  7. Unconventional charge order in a co-doped high-Tc superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, D; Vučković, M; Grafe, H-J; Baek, S-H; Požek, M

    2016-01-01

    Charge-stripe order has recently been established as an important aspect of cuprate high-Tc superconductors. However, owing to the complex interplay between competing phases and the influence of disorder, it is unclear how it emerges from the parent high-temperature state. Here we report on the discovery of an unconventional ordered phase between charge-stripe order and (pseudogapped) metal in the cuprate La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4. We use three complementary experiments-nuclear quadrupole resonance, nonlinear conductivity and specific heat-to demonstrate that the order appears through a sharp phase transition and exists in a dome-shaped region of the phase diagram. Our results imply that the new phase is a state, which preserves translational symmetry: a charge nematic. We thus resolve the process of charge-stripe development in cuprates, show that this nematic phase is distinct from high-temperature pseudogap and establish a link with other strongly correlated electronic materials with prominent nematic order.

  8. Unconventional Gas Development in the USA: Exploring the Risk Perception Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John D; Rupp, John A; Schenk, Olga

    2015-10-01

    Unconventional gas development (UGD) is growing rapidly in the United States. Drawing on insights from risk perception and risk governance theories and recent public opinion surveys, we find that UGD is an emerging technology that is likely to be perceived as risky, even though objective risk assessments suggest that risks are low and controllable through best risk management practices. Perceived risk varies significantly depending on the state and locality but perceptions of risk appear to be increasing as the technology is used more widely in the United States and as organized opponents of the technology intensify their efforts. Risk perceptions are attenuated somewhat because of the perceived benefits of UGD and compensation schemes for individuals and communities. The types of triggering events necessary for large-scale social amplification and stigmatization have not yet occurred but awareness of UGD is growing and organized opposition has been sufficient to cause prohibitions of UGD in some U.S. states and localities. Additional directions for social science research on public reactions to UGD are recommended. PMID:26460730

  9. An unconventional method for the recovery of caustic soda from spent Al-rich pickling solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Paolo; de Gennaro, Bruno; Colella, Carmine

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an unconventional procedure for the recovery of spent Al-rich caustic soda solutions from the pickling of dies for the production of aluminium extrusions. Caustic soda was regenerated at roughly 70%, by precipitating aluminate, after addition of a silica source, in the form of zeolite A, a microporous material that is widely used in many technological sectors. It was shown that the process is reliable and can be repeated for several cycles, provided the concentration of the caustic soda solution is suitably restored. The by-product obtained, zeolite A, proved to be a high-grade material with performance as a cation exchanger and physical sorbent that is certainly comparable to that reported in literature (e.g., cation exchange capacity equal to 5.14 meq g(-1) vs. 5.48 meq g(-1) and water vapour adsorption capacity of 26.5% vs. 27.6% at 16 torr and 298 K). The economics of the process, although not examined yet, would appear generally favourable, considering that zeolite A is a valuable by-product which widely covers the costs for the recovery of the spent solutions. There are, therefore, significant prospects for the use of zeolite A, particularly as a builder in detergent formulation. PMID:21458911

  10. Effect of unconventional carbon sources on biosurfactant production and its application in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana; Joshi, Nidhi; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-11-01

    The potential of an alkaliphilic bacterium Klebsiella sp. strain RJ-03, to utilize different unconventional carbon sources for the production of biosurfactant was evaluated. The biosurfactant produced using corn powder, potato peel powder, Madhuca indica and sugarcane bagasse containing medium, exhibited significantly higher viscosity and maximum reduction in surface tension as compared to other substrates. Among several carbon substrates tested, production of biosurfactant was found to be the highest with corn powder (15.40 ± 0.21 g/l) as compared to others. The comparative chemical characterization of purified biosurfactant was done using advance analytical tools such as NMR, FT-IR, SEM, GPC, MALDI TOF-TOF MS, GC-MS, TG and DSC. Analyses indicated variation in the functional groups, monosaccharide composition, molecular mass, thermostability. Higher yield with cheaper raw materials, noteworthy stress tolerance of CP-biosurfactant toward pH and salt as well as compatibility with chemical surfactants and detergents revealed its potential for commercialization and application in bioremediation. PMID:23994788

  11. Transport spectroscopy on trapped superconducting nano-islands of Pb: signature of unconventional pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Anshu; Saha, Preetha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Singh, Avtar; Sheet, Goutam

    2016-07-01

    Elemental bulk lead (Pb) is a conventional type I, spin-singlet (s-wave) superconductor with a critical temperature T c = 7.2 K and a critical magnetic field H c = 800 Oe. However, it is known that at mesoscopic length scales, like in point-contact geometries, Pb shows significantly higher critical field, sometimes up to several Tesla. We have used this property to trap a small superconducting nano-droplet of Pb by forming a metallic point contact on Pb and then applying a magnetic field larger than 800 Oe that drives the bulk of the material non-superconducting. From systematic magnetic field dependent behaviour of the point-contact spectra measured across such a trapped island of Pb we show that the superconducting order parameter of mesoscopic Pb mixes non-trivially with magnetic field possibly due to the emergence of a local spin-triplet component at such length scales. From comparative studies with Nb-based point contacts we surmise that the strong spin-orbit coupling in Pb leads to the emergence of the unconventional component in the order parameter of mesoscopic Pb.

  12. Proceedings of the World Heavy Oil Congress : unconventional oil challenging conventional expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This international technical and business conference provided a forum to promote heavy oil technology and foster relationships between supply and demand countries. The interactive forum between global industry professionals addressed technological, strategic and environmental challenges facing the unconventional oil industry, including seeking innovative, low cost technologies, driving high costs down; educating and leading the workforce to maintain high standards of production; and ensuring that the footprint on the land is as light as possible. It emphasized that as demand for the uses of heavy oil grows, so does the responsibility of managing sustainability not just from an environmental and social perspective, but also with respect to supply, including manpower and infrastructure. The technical conference featured sessions on advanced and enhanced processes; combustion processes; drilling and completions; geology and reservoir; heavy oil exploitation and development; mining, extraction and transportation; non thermal processes; production and operations; reservoir monitoring; SAGD processes; sustainable development; thermal processes; and, upgrading technology. All 124 presentations from the technical conference were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Unconventional Andreev reflection on the quasi-one-dimensional superconductor Nb2PdxSe5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeping Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out Andreev reflection measurements on point contact junctions between normal metal and single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D superconductor Nb2PdxSe5 (Tc ∼ 5.5 K. The contacts of the junctions were made on either self-cleaved surfaces or crystal edges so that the current flow directions in the two types of junctions are different, and the measurements provide a directional probe for the order parameter of the superconductor. Junctions made in both configurations show typical resistances of ∼20-30 Ohms, and a clear double-gap Andreev reflection feature was consistently observed at low temperatures. Quantitative analysis of the conductance spectrum based on a modified Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK model suggests that the amplitudes of two order parameters may have angular dependence in the a-c plane. Moreover, the gap to transition temperature ratio (Δ/TC for the larger gap is substantially higher than the BCS ratio expected for phonon-mediated s-wave superconductors. We argue that the anisotropic superconducting order parameter and the extremely large gap to transition temperature ratio may be associated with an unconventional pairing mechanism in the inorganic Q1D superconductor.

  14. Human Primary Keratinocytes as a Tool for the Analysis of Caspase-1-Dependent Unconventional Protein Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strittmatter, Gerhard E; Garstkiewicz, Martha; Sand, Jennifer; Grossi, Serena; Beer, Hans-Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes comprise a group of protein complexes, which activate the protease caspase-1 upon sensing a variety of stress factors. Active caspase-1 in turn cleaves and thereby activates the pro-inflammatory cytokines prointerleukin (IL)-1β and -18, and induces unconventional protein secretion (UPS) of mature IL-1β, IL-18, as well as of many other proteins involved in and required for induction of inflammation. Human primary keratinocytes (HPKs) represent epithelial cells able to activate caspase-1 in an inflammasome-dependent manner upon irradiation with a physiological dose of ultraviolet B (UVB) light. Here, we describe the isolation of keratinocytes from human skin, their cultivation, and induction of caspase-1-dependent UPS upon UVB irradiation as well as its siRNA- and chemical-mediated inhibition. In contrast to inflammasome activation of professional immune cells, UVB-irradiated HPKs represent a robust and physiological cell culture system for the analysis of UPS induced by active caspase-1. PMID:27665556

  15. CONCEPT OF THE MINIMUM ENERGY PASSENGER CAR WITH USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gabrinets

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to consider the concept of creation of the minimum energy passenger car with use of nonconventional energy sources and the walls that have enhanced thermal insulation properties. Мethodology. The types of heat losses, as well as their value were analyzed. The alternative sources of energy are considered for heating. Their potential contribution to the overall energy balance of the passenger car is analyzed. Impact on the car design of the enhanced wall thermal insulation, solar energy inflow through the transparent windows and energy release of passengers are quantitatively evaluated. Findings. With the maximum possible use of all unconventional energy sources and the rational scheme solutions of conditioning and heating systems energy the costs for these needs for a passenger car can be reduced by 40-50%. Originality. New types of energy to maintain the heat balance of the car in the winter period is proposed to use firstly. New schematics solutions for environmental control system of the car both in winter and in summer periods were offered. Practical value. Introduction of the proposed scheme solutions and approaches to ensure the comfortable conditions for passengers may be implemented on an existing park of passenger cars and do not require a major re-equipment of systems that have already been installed.

  16. Modeling and Simulation on Co-evolution of Emergency Agents for Unconventional Emergency Water Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfei Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Unconventional Emergency Water Disaster (UEWD is a water disaster that the society has not experienced or experienced few times and lacks the knowledge of its evolution and the experience to deal with it. The emergency system for UEWD is a complex adaptive system with different kinds of agents. In this study, we study the co-evolution mechanism of UEWD agents system. A dynamical model based on improved Logistic model and co-evolution theory is proposed. The impact factors of the emergency ability which mainly include the initial emergency capacity, the growth rate of the emergency ability, the maximun of the emergency ability, the quantity of the emergency agents and the coefficients of the competition and cooperation, is simulated and analyzed. The results show that the emergency ability under the co-stable state has nothing to do with the initial emergency capacity and the growth rate of the emergency ability. However, the time which reaches the co-stable state is positively related to the two factors. The maximun of the emergency ability and the quantity of the emergency agents have impacts on the emergency ability. The degree for the competition and cooperation among the agents is the key factor that affects the co-stable state of UEWD agents. At the end, some conclusions and suggestions are given to improve the emergency ability based on the characters of UEWD and the simulation results.

  17. 'Unconventional' coordination chemistry by metal chelating fragments in a metalloprotein active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David P; Blachly, Patrick G; Marts, Amy R; Woodruff, Tessa M; de Oliveira, César A F; McCammon, J Andrew; Tierney, David L; Cohen, Seth M

    2014-04-01

    The binding of three closely related chelators: 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (allothiomaltol, ATM), 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiomaltol, TM), and 3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiopyromeconic acid, TPMA) to the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) has been investigated. Two of these ligands display a monodentate mode of coordination to the active site Zn(2+) ion in hCAII that is not recapitulated in model complexes of the enzyme active site. This unprecedented binding mode in the hCAII-thiomaltol complex has been characterized by both X-ray crystallography and X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, the steric restrictions of the active site force the ligands into a 'flattened' mode of coordination compared with inorganic model complexes. This change in geometry has been shown by density functional computations to significantly decrease the strength of the metal-ligand binding. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the mode of binding by small metal-binding groups can be significantly influenced by the protein active site. Diminishing the strength of the metal-ligand bond results in unconventional modes of metal coordination not found in typical coordination compounds or even carefully engineered active site models, and understanding these effects is critical to the rational design of inhibitors that target clinically relevant metalloproteins. PMID:24635441

  18. Recent federal initiatives to promote unconventional gas: High octane delivery of just hot air?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griff, M.T.

    1995-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent initiatives of the United States which promote greater use of natural gas and unconventional gas as one part of this nations`s larger response to the global warming threat. Measurable increases in greenhouse gas concentrations since the beginning of the industrial revolution have led to the belief in the existence of a global warming problem. The international community has responded to the global warming threat with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change which is directed toward the stabilization of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The Climate Change Action Plan is the Clinton Administration`s detailed response to the global warming threat. It is designed to return United States emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000. The Action Plan targets all greenhouse gases and emphasizes energy efficiency. Significant regulatory reformation designed to increase the efficiency of the natural gas industry has already occurred and will be continued. Recovery of methane emissions from landfills will be encouraged through indentification of suitable sites and use of existing technology and development of new technology. Recovery of methane from coal mining operations will be promoted by targeting 50 of the gassiest mines in the United States. Even if the Action Plan is fully implemented. legitimate questions arise as to whether its goals will be achieved as a result of funding shortfalls.

  19. Nomenclatural notes on living and fossil amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of extinct and living amphibians known from fossils (Allocaudata, Anura and Caudata has revealed several cases that require nomenclatural changes in order to stabilize the taxonomy of the group. Nomenclatural changes include homonym replacements, corrections of spelling variants and authorships, name availabilities, and in particular, the proposal of new combinations. These changes will allow the incorporation of some palaeontological taxa to the current evolutionary models of relationship of modern forms based on molecular phylogenies. Rana cadurcorum for Rana plicata Filhol, 1877, Rana auscitana for Rana pygmaea Lartet, 1851, and Rana sendoa for Rana robusta Brunner, 1956. Anchylorana Taylor, 1942 is considered a new synonym of Lithobates Fitzinger, 1843. New combinations proposed are: Anaxyrus defensor for Bufo defensor Meylan, 2005; Anaxyrus hibbardi for Bufo hibbardi Taylor, 1937; Anaxyrus pliocompactilis for Bufo pliocompactilis Wilson, 1968; Anaxyrus repentinus for Bufo repentinus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus rexroadensis for Bufo rexroadensis Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus spongifrons for Bufo spongifrons Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus suspectus for Bufo suspectus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus tiheni for Bufo tiheni Auffenberg, 1957; Anaxyrus valentinensis for Bufo valentinensis Estes et Tihen, 1964; Ichthyosaura wintershofi for Triturus wintershofi Lunau, 1950; Incilius praevius for Bufo praevius Tihen, 1951; Lithobates bucella for Rana bucella Holman, 1965; Lithobates dubitus for Anchylorana dubita Taylor, 1942; Lithobates fayeae for Rana fayeae Taylor, 1942; Lithobates miocenicus for Rana miocenica Holman, 1965; Lithobates moorei for Anchylorana moorei Taylor, 1942; Lithobates parvissimus for Rana parvissima

  20. Facts and fancies about early fossil chordates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Philippe

    2015-04-23

    The interrelationships between major living vertebrate, and even chordate, groups are now reasonably well resolved thanks to a large amount of generally congruent data derived from molecular sequences, anatomy and physiology. But fossils provide unexpected combinations of characters that help us to understand how the anatomy of modern groups was progressively shaped over millions of years. The dawn of vertebrates is documented by fossils that are preserved as either soft-tissue imprints, or minute skeletal fragments, and it is sometimes difficult for palaeontologists to tell which of them are reliable vertebrate remains and which merely reflect our idea of an ancestral vertebrate.

  1. Apatite crystal in hard tissue of conodont fossils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at examining the nature of apatite crystal in the tooth apparatus of a conodont fossil using transmission electron microscopy (TEM),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),laser Raman microprobe spectrometry and electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA).The hard tissue of the condont consisted of 2 layers and the organization varied with the size of the crystal.Higher magnification showed that the crystals were observed in the lattice of (100) and the central dark lines were not present.Ca,P,and F were detected in the crystal using EPMA.Our results indicate that the apatite crystal in conodont fossils is not hydroxyapatite but fluorapatite.

  2. Are Cluster Radio Relics Revived Fossil Radio Cocoons?

    OpenAIRE

    Ensslin, Torsten A.; Gopal-Krishna

    2000-01-01

    A new model for the, so called, `cluster radio relics' is presented (Ensslin & Gopal-Krishna 2000). Fossil radio cocoons, resulting from the former activity of radio galaxies, should contain a low energy relativistic electron population and magnetic fields. Electrons with an age of even up to 2 Gyr can be re-accelerated adiabatically to radio emitting energies, if the fossil radio plasma gets compressed in an environmental shock wave. Such a wave can be caused by a merging event of galaxy clu...

  3. Oldest Known Lichen Fossils Found in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Lichens are believed to play a pioneering role in transforming the earth surface when they appeared on land hundreds of million years ago, paving the way for the evolution of terrestrial plants and animals. But most habitats where lichens dominate,such as tundra, mountains, and deserts, have a very low chance of preserving fossils. Until recently the earliest known lichen fossils were discovered in 1995 by Thomas N.Taylor, a University of Kansas researcher, from 400 million-year old deposits in Scotland.

  4. Carbon monoxide: A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    OpenAIRE

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf; Meijer, Harro; Schroeder, Hartwig; LEVIN Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon (14CO2) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The observations were compared with model estimates simulated with the regional transport model REMO at 0.5°x0.5° resolution in Europe for 2002. These estimates are based on two available emissions inventories...

  5. The self-criticality of non-fossil energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under which conditions does a non-fossil fuelled energy system produce enough energy to regenerate itself after its useful lifetime? This basic question, controlling all energy accounting studies of energy systems, is clarified by virtue of an economic model based on self-organisation. Hereby, useful energy is generated in a delayed manner as the response of a capital flow fed-back for this purpose. For this, a novel theory for the static and dynamic ''harvest ratio'' of a power plant on a non-fossil basis is introduced. Two examples - nuclear and solar photovoltaic energy - visualize the consequences of this model. (orig.)

  6. Proceedings of the eleventh annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R. [comp.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. These proceedings contain 34 papers organized under the following topical sections: Ceramic composites and functional materials; Ceramics, new alloys, and functional materials; and New alloys. Also included is a summary of a workshop on materials issues in low emission boilers and in high efficiency coal-fired cycles. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. The cognitive surplus is made of fossil fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Bill; Silberman, M. Six

    2012-01-01

    People in the industrial world have a great deal of free time. Clay Shirky has described this free time, considered as a whole, as a vast “cognitive surplus,” and presents many efforts currently under way to use the cognitive surplus for prosocial ends. However, the cognitive surplus came to exist largely as a result of labor–saving devices that run on fossil fuels. Many problems relating to fossil fuels constrain how people can responsibly use the cognitive surplus to addre...

  8. Fossils and Fossil Climate: The Case for Equable Continental Interiors in the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Scott L.; Greenwood, David R.

    1993-08-01

    There are many methods for inferring terrestrial palaeoclimates from palaeontological data, including the size and species diversity of ectothermic vertebrates, the locomotor and dental adaptations of mammals, characteristics of leaf shape, size, and epidermis, wood anatomy, and the climatic preferences of nearest living relatives of fossil taxa. Estimates of palaeotemperature have also been based on stable oxygen isotope ratios in shells and bones. Interpretation of any of these data relies in some way on uniformitarian assumptions, although at different levels depending on the method. Most of these methods can be applied to a palaeoclimatic reconstruction for the interior of North America during the early Eocene, which is thought to be the warmest interval of global climate in the Cenozoic. Most of the data indicate warm equable climates with little frost. Rainfall was variable, but strong aridity was local or absent. The inferred palaeoclimate is very different from the present climate of the region and from model simulations for the Eocene. This suggests that models fail to incorporate forcing factors that were present at that time, that they treat the heat regime of continents unrealistically, and/or that model inputs such as sea surface temperature gradients or palaeotopography are incorrect.

  9. Vertebrate fossils and trace fossils in Upper Jurassic-Lower cretaceous red beds in the Atacama region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C. M.; Suárez, M.

    Pterosaur, dinosaur, and crocodile bones are recorded here for the first time in Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous red beds in the Atacama region east of Copiapó, Chile. Trace fossils produced by vertebrate animals include the footprints of theropod dinosaurs and the depressions of sandstone laminae interpreted as burrows and foot impressions. The fossils occur in the 1500-meter-thick Quebrada Monardes Formation, which consists predominantly of the aeolian and alluvial deposits of a semi-arid terrestrial environment. Vertebrate fossils are very rare in Chile. Dinosaur bones and footprints have previously been recorded at only seven locations, and pterosaur remains at only one location. The newly discovered dinosaur bones are the oldest to be described in Chile.

  10. Energy revolution: From a fossil energy era to a new energy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caineng Zou

    2016-01-01

    is the key to solving our energy and environmental issues. Then, under the low oil price circumstance, we should keep 200 million tons of annual oil production as “the bottom line” so as to ensure national energy security and to accelerate tight gas, shale gas and other unconventional resources development. In 2030, the annual natural gas production will reach up to more than 300 Bcm. Finally, the development and utilization of new energy resources should be further strengthened and non-fossil energy sources will be expected to reach as high as 20% of the primary energy consumption by 2030.

  11. Where to Dig for Fossils: Combining Climate-Envelope, Taphonomy and Discovery Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Block

    Full Text Available Fossils represent invaluable data to reconstruct the past history of life, yet fossil-rich sites are often rare and difficult to find. The traditional fossil-hunting approach focuses on small areas and has not yet taken advantage of modelling techniques commonly used in ecology to account for an organism's past distributions. We propose a new method to assist finding fossils at continental scales based on modelling the past distribution of species, the geological suitability of fossil preservation and the likelihood of fossil discovery in the field, and apply it to several genera of Australian megafauna that went extinct in the Late Quaternary. Our models predicted higher fossil potentials for independent sites than for randomly selected locations (mean Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic = 0.66. We demonstrate the utility of accounting for the distribution history of fossil taxa when trying to find the most suitable areas to look for fossils. For some genera, the probability of finding fossils based on simple climate-envelope models was higher than the probability based on models incorporating current conditions associated with fossil preservation and discovery as predictors. However, combining the outputs from climate-envelope, preservation, and discovery models resulted in the most accurate predictions of potential fossil sites at a continental scale. We proposed potential areas to discover new fossils of Diprotodon, Zygomaturus, Protemnodon, Thylacoleo, and Genyornis, and provide guidelines on how to apply our approach to assist fossil hunting in other continents and geological settings.

  12. Fossil slabs attached to unsubducted fragments of the Farallon plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Forsyth, Donald W; Rau, Christina J; Carriero, Nina; Schmandt, Brandon; Gaherty, James B; Savage, Brian

    2013-04-01

    As the Pacific-Farallon spreading center approached North America, the Farallon plate fragmented into a number of small plates. Some of the microplate fragments ceased subducting before the spreading center reached the trench. Most tectonic models have assumed that the subducting oceanic slab detached from these microplates close to the trench, but recent seismic tomography studies have revealed a high-velocity anomaly beneath Baja California that appears to be a fossil slab still attached to the Guadalupe and Magdalena microplates. Here, using surface wave tomography, we establish the lateral extent of this fossil slab and show that it is correlated with the distribution of high-Mg andesites thought to derive from partial melting of the subducted oceanic crust. We also reinterpret the high seismic velocity anomaly beneath the southern central valley of California as another fossil slab extending to a depth of 200 km or more that is attached to the former Monterey microplate. The existence of these fossil slabs may force a reexamination of models of the tectonic evolution of western North America over the last 30 My. PMID:23509274

  13. Testing cladograms by fossil record: the ghost range test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.

    2000-01-01

    A method of the ghost range calculation is proposed to assess the congruence between a cladogram and the fossil record and to compare cladograms on this basis. The method is tested on a set of cladograms developed recently to reveal the phylogeny of the hymenopterous insects (Order Vespida), and the

  14. Proceedings of the fifth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    The Fifth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 14--16, 1991. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the Program has been decentralized to the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by a substantial number of researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) Ceramics, (2) New Alloys, (3) Corrosion and Erosion, and (4) Technology Assessment and Technology Transfer. This conference is held every year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. The agenda for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B.

  15. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  16. Cladistic analysis and revised classification of fossil and recent mysticetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steeman, Mette Elstrup

    2007-01-01

    A cladistic analysis that includes representatives of all recent genera of mysticetes and several fossil species that were previously referred to the family Cetotheriidae, with tooth-bearing mysticetes and an archaeocete as an outgroup, is presented here. The result of this analysis forms the base...

  17. Otoliths as an integral part in fossil fish taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Gierl

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Otoliths are small structures in the skull of fishes. They are responsible for hearing and orientation in the 3-dimensional space. They also hold valuable information regarding the taxonomy. Their outline, the shape of the sulcus and other features allow the determination of a fish even to the species level. A lot of fossil species are solely based on otoliths because of their good chance of preservation. Gobies are in this case no different. An additional challenge in gobies is their high similarity between species concerning the preservable parts. Fossil skeletons that are 20 Million years old can show only few differences compared to recent gobies. These features are often hardly recognizable due to their preservation. As a consequence many fossil gobies have been assigned to the genus Gobius sensu lato. Examples are two gobies from the Miocene of Southern Germany. They have a unique combination of characters (six branchiostegals, palatine resembling a “T”, no entopterygoid that allows the rectification of a new fossil genus but the two species are hardly distinguishable based only on the skeleton. The key hints in having two species are the otoliths. They show slight but consistent differences in their outline. This shows that otoliths can be a key feature in species identification. They should also be taken into consideration by recent fish species. Not to mention their possible phylogenetic potential that remains to be explored.

  18. Life management of fossil power plants - facing the challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronte, J.M. [Iberdrola, S.A. (Spain). Thermal Generation Technical Services

    1994-12-31

    Examines the use of life extension in Iberdrola`s fossil fuel power plants. Life extension allows the safe, reliable and efficient use of older units, deferring the need for the construction of new power plants. Describes the methodology used to assess the work required. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  19. Absolute measures of the completeness of the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, M; Sepkoski, J J

    1999-04-01

    Measuring the completeness of the fossil record is essential to understanding evolution over long timescales, particularly when comparing evolutionary patterns among biological groups with different preservational properties. Completeness measures have been presented for various groups based on gaps in the stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa and on hypothetical lineages implied by estimated evolutionary trees. Here we present and compare quantitative, widely applicable absolute measures of completeness at two taxonomic levels for a broader sample of higher taxa of marine animals than has previously been available. We provide an estimate of the probability of genus preservation per stratigraphic interval, and determine the proportion of living families with some fossil record. The two completeness measures use very different data and calculations. The probability of genus preservation depends almost entirely on the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic records, whereas the proportion of living families with a fossil record is influenced largely by Cenozoic data. These measurements are nonetheless highly correlated, with outliers quite explicable, and we find that completeness is rather high for many animal groups.

  20. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of remotely sensed data from orbital satellites to the exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels. Geological applications of Landsat data are described including map editing, lithologic identification, structural geology, and mineral exploration. Specific results in fuel exploration are reviewed and a series of related Landsat images is included.

  1. Short notes and reviews The fossil fauna of Mazon Creek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze, Hans-Peter

    1998-01-01

    Review of: Richardson’s Guide to the Fossil Fauna of Mazon Creek, edited by Charles W. Shabica & Andrew A. Hay. Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, Illinois, 1997: XVIII + 308 pp., 385 figs., 4 tables, 1 faunal list; $75.00 (hard cover) ISBN 0-925065-21-8. Since the last century, the area aro

  2. First record of Podocarpoid fossil wood in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Jin, Jian-Hua; Quan, Cheng; Oskolski, Alexei A

    2016-01-01

    A new species of fossil conifer wood, Podocarpoxylon donghuaiense sp. nov., is described from the late Eocene of Nadu Formation in Baise Basin of the Guangxi Province, South China. This fossil wood is characterized by distinct growth rings, circular to oval tracheids in cross section, 1-2-seriate opposite pits on radial tracheid walls, uniseriate (rarely biseriate) rays, smooth end walls of ray parenchyma cells, and the absence of resin ducts, suggesting its affinity to Podocarpaceae. The new species is distinctive from other Cenozoic woods ascribed to this family by the combination of distinctive growth rings, the absence of axial parenchyma, the occurrence of bordered pits on tangential tracheid walls, and the occurrence of 3-4 cuppressoid or taxodioid pits on cross-fields. This represents the first record of podocarpoid fossil wood in South China and provides fossil evidence for the early dispersal and diversification of Podocarpaceae in eastern Asia as well as for mild temperate seasonal climate in this region during the late Eocene. PMID:27571780

  3. REE compositions in fossil vertebrate dental tissues indicate biomineral preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigaite, Ž.; Kear, B.; Pérez-Huerta, A.; Jeffries, T.; Blom, H.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth element (REE) abundances have been measured in a number of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic dental tissues using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Fossil vertebrates analysed comprise scales and tesserae of Silurian and Devonian acanthodians, chondrichthyans, galeaspids, mongolepids, thelodonts, as well as teeth of Cretaceous lungfish and marine reptiles. The evaluation of fossil preservation level has been made by semi-quantitative spot geochemistry analyses on fine polished teeth and scale thin sections, using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Fossil teeth and scales with significant structure and colour alteration have shown elevated heavy element concentrations, and the silicification of bioapatite has been common in their tissues. Stable oxygen isotope measurements (δ18O) of bulk biomineral have been conducted in parallel, and showed comparatively lower heavy oxygen values in the same fossil tissues with stronger visible alteration. Significant difference in REE concentrations has been observed between the dentine and enamel of Cretaceous plesiosaurs, suggesting the enamel to be more geochemically resistant to diagenetic overprint.

  4. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Park

    Full Text Available Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria, in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  5. On Fossil Disk Models of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Francischelli, G J

    2002-01-01

    Currently, two competing models are invoked in order to explain the observable properties of Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs). One model assumes that AXP emission is powered by a strongly magnetized neutron star - i.e., a magnetar. Other groups have postulated that the unusually long spin periods associated with AXPs could, instead, be due to accretion. As there are severe observational constraints on any binary accretion model, fossil disk models have been suggested as a plausible alternative. Here we analyze fossil disk models of AXPs in some detail, and point out some of their inherent inconsistencies. For example, we find that, unless it has an exceptionally high magnetic field strength, a neutron star in a fossil disk cannot be observed as an AXP if the disk opacity is dominated by Kramers' law. However, standard alpha-disk models show that a Kramers opacity must dominate for the case log B > 12, making it unlikely that a fossil disk scenario can successfully produce AXPs. Additionally, we find that in ord...

  6. Uranium and thorium in fossil bones : activity ratios and dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plicht, J. van der; Bartstra, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    We have analysed fossil bones by U-series disequilibrium from five different sites (Ngandong and Sonde, Indonesia; Gold Ox Hill, People's Republic of China; Pestera, Romania and Ksar Akil, Lebanon). Two samples were taken from all bones: one representing surface material, and one from the inner bone

  7. Fossil Rodents from Curaçao and Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1959-01-01

    The fossil remains of rodents described in the present paper are from various localities. The large extinct musk rat Megalomys occurs in reddish-brown phosphatic “oolite” fillings of irregular cavities in a marine limestone found by Mr. P. H. DE BUISONJÉ in the north-western part of the Duivelsklip,

  8. Fossil systems in the 400d cluster catalog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voevodkin, Alexey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Heitmann, Katrin;

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of seven new fossil systems in the 400d cluster survey. Our search targets nearby, z ≤ 0.2, and X-ray bright, LX ≥ 10^43 erg s-1, clusters of galaxies. Where available, we measure the optical luminosities from Sloan Digital Sky Survey images, thereby obtaining uniform sets...

  9. Proceedings of the sixth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1992-07-01

    The Sixth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 12--14, 1992. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the Program has been decentralized to the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by a substantial number of researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) ceramics, (2) development and corrosion resistance of iron aluminide, advanced austenitic and chromium-niobium alloys, and (3) technology assessment and technology transfer. This conference is held each year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. The agenda for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B. ASM International cosponsored the conference, for which we are especially grateful.

  10. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, April 1990-- September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1990, through September 30, 1990, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Topics discussed include: ceramics and composite materials R&D, new alloys, corrosion and erosion research, coal conversion development, mild gasification. (VC)

  11. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, April 1990-- September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1990, through September 30, 1990, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Topics discussed include: ceramics and composite materials R D, new alloys, corrosion and erosion research, coal conversion development, mild gasification. (VC)

  12. Evidence for Evolution from the Vertebrate Fossil Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Philip D.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three examples of evolutionary transition in the vertebrate fossil record, considering evolutionary transitions at the species level. Uses archaic squirrel-like Paleocine primates, the earliest primates of modern aspect, as examples. Also reviews new evidence on the origin of whales and their transition from land to sea. (JN)

  13. Rationale of Early Adopters of Fossil Fuel Divestment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christopher Todd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This research uses the social science perspectives of institutions, ecological modernization and social movements to analyze the rationale used by the early-adopting universities of fossil fuel divestment in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Through analysis of qualitative data from interviews with key actors at the universities that…

  14. Changing Biomass, Fossil, and Nuclear Fuel Cycles for Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy and chemical industries face two great sustainability challenges: the need to avoid climate change and the need to replace crude oil as the basis of our transport and chemical industries. These challenges can be met by changing and synergistically combining the fossil, biomass, and nuclear fuel cycles.

  15. Fossil Association from the Lower Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation in the Yangtze Gorges Area, Hubei, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Junfeng; Tsuyoshi KOMIYA; LI Yong; HAN Jian; ZHANG Xingliang; ZHANG Zhifei; OU Qiang; LIU Jianni; SHU Degan; Shigenori MARUYAMA

    2008-01-01

    Apart from previously reported Small Shelly Fossils (SSFs), a macroscopic fossil assemblage, comprising abundant algae, cone-shaped tubular fossil forms, and probable impressions of a megascopic metazoan, comes from the Lower Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area of western Hubei Province, south China. The visible fossils are preserved in thin-laminated siltstone or muddy siltstone intercalated between 8-15 mm-thick carbonate deposits, probably representing sedimentary settings of a constrained local depression in the shallow water carbonate platform during the Early Cambrian Meishucunian Stage. The macroscopic fossil association provides significant fossil evidence about the evolution of life from the late Precambrian to the 'Cambrian explosion' interval.

  16. 3D CENTRAL LINE EXTRACTION OF FOSSIL OYSTER SHELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Djuricic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetry provides a powerful tool to digitally document protected, inaccessible, and rare fossils. This saves manpower in relation to current documentation practice and makes the fragile specimens more available for paleontological analysis and public education. In this study, high resolution orthophoto (0.5 mm and digital surface models (1 mm are used to define fossil boundaries that are then used as an input to automatically extract fossil length information via central lines. In general, central lines are widely used in geosciences as they ease observation, monitoring and evaluation of object dimensions. Here, the 3D central lines are used in a novel paleontological context to study fossilized oyster shells with photogrammetric and LiDAR-obtained 3D point cloud data. 3D central lines of 1121 Crassostrea gryphoides oysters of various shapes and sizes were computed in the study. Central line calculation included: i Delaunay triangulation between the fossil shell boundary points and formation of the Voronoi diagram; ii extraction of Voronoi vertices and construction of a connected graph tree from them; iii reduction of the graph to the longest possible central line via Dijkstra’s algorithm; iv extension of longest central line to the shell boundary and smoothing by an adjustment of cubic spline curve; and v integration of the central line into the corresponding 3D point cloud. The resulting longest path estimate for the 3D central line is a size parameter that can be applied in oyster shell age determination both in paleontological and biological applications. Our investigation evaluates ability and performance of the central line method to measure shell sizes accurately by comparing automatically extracted central lines with manually collected reference data used in paleontological analysis. Our results show that the automatically obtained central line length overestimated the manually collected reference by 1.5% in the test set, which

  17. Evolution in fossil lineages: paleontology and The Origin of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gene

    2010-12-01

    Of all of the sources of evidence for evolution by natural selection, perhaps the most problematic for Darwin was the geological record of organic change. In response to the absence of species-level transformations in the fossil record, Darwin argued that the fossil record was too incomplete, too biased, and too poorly known to provide strong evidence against his theory. Here, this view of the fossil record is evaluated in light of 150 years of subsequent paleontological research. Although Darwin's assessment of the completeness and resolution of fossiliferous rocks was in several ways astute, today the fossil record is much better explored, documented, and understood than it was in 1859. In particular, a reasonably large set of studies tracing evolutionary trajectories within species can now be brought to bear on Darwin's expectation of gradual change driven by natural selection. An unusually high-resolution sequence of stickleback-bearing strata records the transformation of this lineage via natural selection. This adaptive trajectory is qualitatively consistent with Darwin's prediction, but it occurred much more rapidly than he would have guessed: almost all of the directional change was completed within 1,000 generations. In most geological sequences, this change would be too rapid to resolve. The accumulated fossil record at more typical paleontological scales (10(4)-10(6) years) reveals evolutionary changes that are rarely directional and net rates of change that are perhaps surprisingly slow, two findings that are in agreement with the punctuated-equilibrium model. Finally, Darwin's view of the broader history of life is reviewed briefly, with a focus on competition-mediated extinction and recent paleontological and phylogenetic attempts to assess diversity dependence in evolutionary dynamics. PMID:21043781

  18. Evolution in fossil lineages: paleontology and The Origin of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gene

    2010-12-01

    Of all of the sources of evidence for evolution by natural selection, perhaps the most problematic for Darwin was the geological record of organic change. In response to the absence of species-level transformations in the fossil record, Darwin argued that the fossil record was too incomplete, too biased, and too poorly known to provide strong evidence against his theory. Here, this view of the fossil record is evaluated in light of 150 years of subsequent paleontological research. Although Darwin's assessment of the completeness and resolution of fossiliferous rocks was in several ways astute, today the fossil record is much better explored, documented, and understood than it was in 1859. In particular, a reasonably large set of studies tracing evolutionary trajectories within species can now be brought to bear on Darwin's expectation of gradual change driven by natural selection. An unusually high-resolution sequence of stickleback-bearing strata records the transformation of this lineage via natural selection. This adaptive trajectory is qualitatively consistent with Darwin's prediction, but it occurred much more rapidly than he would have guessed: almost all of the directional change was completed within 1,000 generations. In most geological sequences, this change would be too rapid to resolve. The accumulated fossil record at more typical paleontological scales (10(4)-10(6) years) reveals evolutionary changes that are rarely directional and net rates of change that are perhaps surprisingly slow, two findings that are in agreement with the punctuated-equilibrium model. Finally, Darwin's view of the broader history of life is reviewed briefly, with a focus on competition-mediated extinction and recent paleontological and phylogenetic attempts to assess diversity dependence in evolutionary dynamics.

  19. An extraordinary gobioid fish fossil from Southern France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Gierl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The classification of gobioid fishes is still under discussion. Several lineages, including the Eleotridae and Butidae, remain difficult to characterize because synapomorphies are rare (Eleotridae or have not yet been determined (Butidae. Moreover, the fossil record of these groups is scarce. RESULTS: Exceptionally well-preserved fish fossils with otoliths in situ from uppermost Oligocene sediments (≈23-24 Mio. y. ago in Southern France provide the most in-depth description of a fossil gobioid to date. The species was initially described as Cottus aries Agassiz, then transferred to †Lepidocottus Sauvage, and subsequently assigned to Gobius. Based on a comparative analysis of meristic, osteological and otolith data, this species most likely is a member of the family Butidae. This discovery is important because it represents the first record of a fossil butid fish based on articulated skeletons from Europe. SIGNIFICANCE: The Butidae and Eleotridae are currently distributed in W-Africa, Madagascar, Asia and Australia, but they do not appear in Europe and also not in the Mediterranean Sea. The new results indicate that several species of the Butidae thrived in Europe during the Oligocene and Early Miocene. Similar to the recent Butidae and Eleotridae, these fishes were adapted to a wide range of salinities and thrived in freshwater, brackish and marginal marine habitats. The fossil Butidae disappeared from Europe and the Mediterranean and Paratethys areas during the Early Miocene, due probably to their lack of competitiveness compared to other Gobioidei that radiated during this period of time. In addition, this study documents the great value of otoliths for gobioid systematics.

  20. D Central Line Extraction of Fossil Oyster Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuricic, A.; Puttonen, E.; Harzhauser, M.; Mandic, O.; Székely, B.; Pfeifer, N.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetry provides a powerful tool to digitally document protected, inaccessible, and rare fossils. This saves manpower in relation to current documentation practice and makes the fragile specimens more available for paleontological analysis and public education. In this study, high resolution orthophoto (0.5 mm) and digital surface models (1 mm) are used to define fossil boundaries that are then used as an input to automatically extract fossil length information via central lines. In general, central lines are widely used in geosciences as they ease observation, monitoring and evaluation of object dimensions. Here, the 3D central lines are used in a novel paleontological context to study fossilized oyster shells with photogrammetric and LiDAR-obtained 3D point cloud data. 3D central lines of 1121 Crassostrea gryphoides oysters of various shapes and sizes were computed in the study. Central line calculation included: i) Delaunay triangulation between the fossil shell boundary points and formation of the Voronoi diagram; ii) extraction of Voronoi vertices and construction of a connected graph tree from them; iii) reduction of the graph to the longest possible central line via Dijkstra's algorithm; iv) extension of longest central line to the shell boundary and smoothing by an adjustment of cubic spline curve; and v) integration of the central line into the corresponding 3D point cloud. The resulting longest path estimate for the 3D central line is a size parameter that can be applied in oyster shell age determination both in paleontological and biological applications. Our investigation evaluates ability and performance of the central line method to measure shell sizes accurately by comparing automatically extracted central lines with manually collected reference data used in paleontological analysis. Our results show that the automatically obtained central line length overestimated the manually collected reference by 1.5% in the test set, which is deemed