WorldWideScience

Sample records for cbf mapping insight

  1. Brain regions involved in voluntary movements as revealed by radioisotopic mapping of CBF or CMR-glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Ingvar, D H

    1990-01-01

    Mapping of cortical and subcortical grey matter active during voluntary movements by means of measurements of local increases of CBF or CMR-Glucose is reviewed. Most of the studies concern observations in man during hand movements using the intracarotid Xenon-133 injection technique, an approach...... that only allows to image the cortex of the hemisphere on one side (the injected side) of the brain. The results show that simple static or repetitive movements mainly activate the contralateral primary hand area (MI and SI); complex preprogrammed or spontaneous purposeful movements the supplementary motor...

  2. Resting state rCBF mapping with single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography: magnitude and origin of differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, C.; Kimiaei, S.; Larsson, S.A. [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital and Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Pagani, M. [Institute of Experimental Medicine, CNR, Rome (Italy); Ingvar, M. [Section of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Thurfjell, L. [Center of Image Analysis, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-02-01

    Single-photon emission tomography (SPET), using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime, and positron emission tomography (PET), using oxygen-15 butanol were compared in six healthy male volunteers with regard to the mapping of resting state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). A computerized brain atlas was utilized for 3D regional analyses and comparison of 64 selected and normalized volumes of interest (VOIs). The normalized mean rCBF values in SPET, as compared to PET, were higher in most of the Brodmann areas in the frontal and parietal lobes (4.8% and 8.7% respectively). The average differences were small in the temporal (2.3%) and occipital (1.1%) lobes. PET values were clearly higher in small VOIs like the thalamus (12.3%), hippocampus (12.3%) and basal ganglia (9.9%). A resolution phantom study showed that the in-plane SPET/PET system resolution was 11.0/7.5 mm. In conclusion, SPET and PET data demonstrated a fairly good agreement despite the superior spatial resolution of PET. The differences between SPET and PET rCBF are mainly due to physiological and physical factors, the data processing, normalization and co-registration methods. In order to further improve mapping of rCBF with SPET it is imperative not only to improve the spatial resolution but also to apply accurate correction techniques for scatter, attenuation and non-linear extraction. (orig.) With 6 figs., 3 tabs., 23 refs.

  3. Resting state rCBF mapping with single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography: magnitude and origin of differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, C.; Kimiaei, S.; Larsson, S.A.; Pagani, M.; Ingvar, M.; Thurfjell, L.; Jacobsson, H.

    1998-01-01

    Single-photon emission tomography (SPET), using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime, and positron emission tomography (PET), using oxygen-15 butanol were compared in six healthy male volunteers with regard to the mapping of resting state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). A computerized brain atlas was utilized for 3D regional analyses and comparison of 64 selected and normalized volumes of interest (VOIs). The normalized mean rCBF values in SPET, as compared to PET, were higher in most of the Brodmann areas in the frontal and parietal lobes (4.8% and 8.7% respectively). The average differences were small in the temporal (2.3%) and occipital (1.1%) lobes. PET values were clearly higher in small VOIs like the thalamus (12.3%), hippocampus (12.3%) and basal ganglia (9.9%). A resolution phantom study showed that the in-plane SPET/PET system resolution was 11.0/7.5 mm. In conclusion, SPET and PET data demonstrated a fairly good agreement despite the superior spatial resolution of PET. The differences between SPET and PET rCBF are mainly due to physiological and physical factors, the data processing, normalization and co-registration methods. In order to further improve mapping of rCBF with SPET it is imperative not only to improve the spatial resolution but also to apply accurate correction techniques for scatter, attenuation and non-linear extraction. (orig.)

  4. Africa Insight: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · Journals · Africa Insight · About · Log In · Register · Advanced Search · By Author · By Title. Issues. Current Issue · Archives · Open Journal Systems · Help. ISSN: 1995-641X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  5. Arterial Transit Time Mapping Obtained by Pulsed Continuous 3D ASL Imaging with Multiple Post-Label Delay Acquisitions: Comparative Study with PET-CBF in Patients with Chronic Occlusive Cerebrovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Tetsuya; Kimura, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Isozaki, Makoto; Kikuta, Ken-Ichiro; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2016-01-01

    Arterial transit time (ATT) is most crucial for measuring absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) by arterial spin labeling (ASL), a noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion assessment technique, in patients with chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disease. We validated ASL-CBF and ASL-ATT maps calculated by pulsed continuous ASL (pCASL) with multiple post-label delay acquisitions in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Fifteen patients underwent MR scans, including pCASL, and positron emission tomography (PET) scans with 15O-water to obtain PET-CBF. MR acquisitions with different post-label delays (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 sec) were also obtained for ATT correction. The theoretical framework of 2-compartmental model (2CM) was also used for the delay compensation. ASL-CBF and ASL-ATT were calculated based on the proposed 2CM, and the effect on the CBF values and the ATT correction characteristics were discussed. Linear regression analyses were performed both on pixel-by-pixel and region-of-interest bases in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. There were significant correlations between ASL-CBF and PET-CBF both for voxel values (r = 0.74 ± 0.08, slope: 0.87 ± 0.22, intercept: 6.1 ± 4.9) and for the MCA territorial comparison in both affected (R2 = 0.67, y = 0.83x + 6.3) and contralateral sides (R2 = 0.66, y = 0.74x + 6.3). ASL-ATTs in the affected side were significantly longer than those in the contralateral side (1.51 ± 0.41 sec and 1.12 ± 0.30 sec, respectively, p <0.0005). CBF measurement using pCASL with delay compensation was feasible and fairly accurate even in altered hemodynamic states.

  6. Distinct pattern of cerebral blood flow alterations specific to schizophrenics experiencing auditory verbal hallucinations with and without insight: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Rixing; Huang, Jiangjie; Jiang, Deguo; Lin, Xiaodong; Ma, Xiaolei; Tian, Hongjun; Li, Jie; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2018-01-23

    Schizophrenia is associated with widespread and complex cerebral blood flow (CBF) disturbance. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and insight are the core symptoms of schizophrenia. However, to the best of our knowledge, very few studies have assessed the CBF characteristics of the AVH suffered by schizophrenic patients with and without insight. Based on our previous findings, Using a 3D pseudo-continuous ASL (pcASL) technique, we investigated the differences in AVH-related CBF alterations in schizophrenia patients with and without insight. We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) and statistical non-parametric mapping (SnPM13) to perform the fMRI analysis. We found that AVH-schizophrenia patients without insight showed an increased CBF in the left temporal pole and a decreased CBF in the right middle frontal gyrus when compared to AVH-schizophrenia patients with insight. Our novel findings suggest that AVH-schizophrenia patients without insight possess a more complex CBF disturbance. Simultaneously, our findings also incline to support the idea that the CBF aberrant in some specific brain regions may be the common neural basis of insight and AVH. Our findings support the mostly current hypotheses regarding AVH to some extent. Although our findings come from a small sample, it provide the evidence that indicate us to conduct a larger study to thoroughly explore the mechanisms of schizophrenia, especially the core symptoms of AVHs and insight.

  7. Activation of fronto-limbic system in the human brain by cigarette smoking: evaluated by a CBF measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Tanaka, A; Nomoto, Y; Ueno, Y; Nakayama, Y

    2000-02-01

    Nicotine produces profound behavioral effects in humans, but little is known about the sites of its action. There is a hypothesis that frontal lobe and limbic/cingulate cortical structures might be the sites. In this study, we examined the effects of cigarette smoking on feeling and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in human subjects. Young and healthy 9 cigarette smokers (all males, 24-33 years, average, 26.4) were included. After prohibiting them from smoking for 15 hours, CBF was measured using a Xenon CT-CBF system. Fifteen minutes later after allowing them to smoke two pieces of cigarette, the second CBF measurement was performed. Subtraction CBF map was created to display the changes after smoking. CT images were taken at three levels so as to include the cerebral lobes, basal ganglia, limbic system, brainstem and cerebellum. Arterial nicotine increased up to the levels 8 times higher than before smoking. The increases of blood pressure and pulse rate were minimal. Arterial carbon dioxide level and hematocrit did not change. Feeling after smoking was variable in individual subject. In 8 subjects with a relatively high feeling, CBF increased mainly in the frontal lobe, hippocampus, uncus, thalamus and caudate nucleus. CBF did not change in the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, and in the putamen, insula, brainstem and cerebellum. In two subjects with uncomfortable feeling, CBF did reduce in the whole brain. The CBF increase in frontal lobe and limbic structures seems to be secondary to nicotine-induced neuronal activation in each structure. Mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which is believed to influence learning, memory or emotional performance, appears to be a target for nicotine. The CBF reduction in the whole brain might be due to cerebral vasoconstriction or be secondary to a systemic hypotension.

  8. Memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer's disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstroem, Torbjoern; Riklund, Katrine Aa.; Elgh, Eva; Naesman, Birgitta; Larsson, Anne; Nyberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease that progressively affects all brain functions, with devastating consequences for the patient, the patient's family and society. Rest regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) could have a strategic role in differentiating between AD patients and normal controls, but its use for this purpose has a low discriminatory capacity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the diagnostic sensitivity of rCBF single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be increased by using an episodic memory task provocation, i.e. memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT (MP-SPECT). Eighteen persons (73.2±4.8 years) with mild AD and 18 healthy elderly (69.4±3.9 years) were included in the study. The subjects were injected with 99m Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) during memory provocation with faces and names, followed by an rCBF-SPECT study. The rCBF 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Peaks with a false discovery rate corrected value of 0.05 were considered significant. On MP-SPECT, the AD group showed a significant rCBF reduction in the left parietal cortex in comparison with healthy elderly. At rest, no significant group differences were seen. Memory provocation increased the sensitivity of rCBF-SPECT for the detection of AD-related blood flow changes in the brain at the group level. Further studies are needed to evaluate MP-SPECT as a diagnostic tool at the individual level. If a higher sensitivity for AD at the individual level is verified in future studies, a single MP-SPECT study might be sufficient in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  9. Post traumatic brain perfusion SPECT analysis using reconstructed ROI maps of radioactive microsphere derived cerebral blood flow and statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoron, Anthony J; Capille, Michael; Georgiou, Michael F; Sanchez, Pablo; Solano, Juan; Gonzalez-Brito, Manuel; Kuluz, John W

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by SPECT could be important in the management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) because changes in regional CBF can affect outcome by promoting edema formation and intracranial pressure elevation (with cerebral hyperemia), or by causing secondary ischemic injury including post-traumatic stroke. The purpose of this study was to establish an improved method for evaluating regional CBF changes after TBI in piglets. The focal effects of moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) by SPECT cerebral blood perfusion (CBP) imaging in an animal model were investigated by parallelized statistical techniques. Regional CBF was measured by radioactive microspheres and by SPECT 2 hours after injury in sham-operated piglets versus those receiving severe TBI by fluid-percussion injury to the left parietal lobe. Qualitative SPECT CBP accuracy was assessed against reference radioactive microsphere regional CBF measurements by map reconstruction, registration and smoothing. Cerebral hypoperfusion in the test group was identified at the voxel level using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). A significant area of hypoperfusion (P < 0.01) was found as a response to the TBI. Statistical mapping of the reference microsphere CBF data confirms a focal decrease found with SPECT and SPM. The suitability of SPM for application to the experimental model and ability to provide insight into CBF changes in response to traumatic injury was validated by the SPECT SPM result of a decrease in CBP at the left parietal region injury area of the test group. Further study and correlation of this characteristic lesion with long-term outcomes and auxiliary diagnostic modalities is critical to developing more effective critical care treatment guidelines and automated medical imaging processing techniques

  10. Statistic rCBF study of extrapyramidal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Takashi; Fukuhara, Nobuyoshi [National Saigata Hospital, Ogata, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    We studied regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 16 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 2 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 2 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 2 patients with striatonigral degeneration, and 16 normal volunteers, using Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). Decreased rCBF in PD patients was shown in the posterior parietal and occipital cortex. Decreased rCBF in DLB was shown in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex with relative sparing of the sensorimotor cortex.. Decreased rCBF in PSP was shown in the frontal cortex. Decreased rCBF in SND was shown in the frontal cortex and cerebellum. Statistic rCBF analysis using 3D-SSP was a useful measure for the early differential diagnosis of extrapyramidal disorders. (author)

  11. Volcanism on Io: Insights from Global Geologic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Crown, D. A.; Geissler, P. E.; Schenk, P. M.; Yff, Jessica; Jaeger, W. L.

    2009-01-01

    We are preparing a new global geo-logic map of Jupiter s volcanic moon, Io. Here we report the type of data that are now available from our global mapping efforts, and how these data can be used to investigate questions regarding the volcano-tectonic evolution of Io. We are using the new map to investigate several specific questions about the geologic evolution of Io that previously could not be well addressed, including (for example) a comparison of the areas vs. the heights of Ionian mountains to assess their stability and evolution (Fig. 1). The area-height relationships of Io s visible mountains show the low abundance and low relief of volcanic mountains (tholi) relative to tectonic mountains, consistent with formation from low-viscosity lavas less likely to build steep edifices. Mottled mountains are generally less high than lineated mountains, consistent with a degradational formation.

  12. insights from a linkage map of the damselfly Ischnura elegans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guillén, Adolfo Cordero-Rivera, Erik I. Svensson and Bengt Hansson. J. Genet. 92, 115–119. Table 1. Descriptive data for microsatellite loci that were used in the present linkage mapping study. GenBank. Expected. Actual. Number of accession.

  13. INFOMAR, Ireland's National Seabed Mapping Programme; Sharing Valuable Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, M. T.; McGrath, F.; Cullen, S.; Verbruggen, K.

    2017-12-01

    Following the successful high-resolution deep-sea mapping carried out as part of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS), a strategic, long term programme was established: INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Ireland MArine Resources (INFOMAR). Funded by Ireland's Department of Communication, Climate Action and Environment, INFOMAR comprises a multi-platform approach to completing Ireland's marine mapping, and is a key action in the integrated marine plan, Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth. Co-managed by Geological Survey Ireland and the Marine Institute, the programme has three work strands: Data Acquisition; Data Exchange and Integration; Value Added Exploitation.The Data Acquisition strand includes collection of geological, hydrographic, oceanographic, habitat and heritage datasets that underpin sustainable development and management of Ireland's marine resources. INFOMAR operates a free data policy; data and outputs are delivered online through the Data Exchange and Integration strand. Uses of data and outputs are wide-ranging and multipurpose. In order to address the evolution and diversification of user requirements, further data product development is facilitated through the Value Added Exploitation strand.Ninety percent of Ireland's territory lies offshore. Therefore, strategic national seabed mapping continues to provide critical, high-resolution baseline datasets for numerous economic sectors and societal needs. From these we can glean important geodynamic knowledge of Ireland's vast maritime territory. INFOMAR remains aligned with national and European policies and directives. Exemplified by our commitment to EMODnet, a European Commission funded project that supports the collection, standardisation and sharing of available marine information, data and data products across all European Seas. As EMODnet Geology Minerals leaders we have developed a framework for mapping marine minerals. Furthermore, collaboration with the international research

  14. Insights from two-dimensional mapping of otolith chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limburg, K E; Elfman, M

    2017-02-01

    Non-destructive microbeam-based methods were used for 2-D mapping of trace elements to gain a greater appreciation of otolith composition and spatial configuration. Based on studies of a wide variety of fish taxa, this approach more fully captures the nature of otolith chemical heterogeneity. Such variations may be due to a number of factors, including differences in crystallization, genetics, growth or even sample preparation or contamination. Examples presented here highlight research conducted at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF) and at the Cornell High-Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Going beyond the flood insurance rate map: insights from flood hazard map co-production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Adam; Sanders, Brett F.; Goodrich, Kristen A.; Feldman, David L.; Boudreau, Danielle; Eguiarte, Ana; Serrano, Kimberly; Reyes, Abigail; Schubert, Jochen E.; AghaKouchak, Amir; Basolo, Victoria; Matthew, Richard A.

    2018-04-01

    Flood hazard mapping in the United States (US) is deeply tied to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Consequently, publicly available flood maps provide essential information for insurance purposes, but they do not necessarily provide relevant information for non-insurance aspects of flood risk management (FRM) such as public education and emergency planning. Recent calls for flood hazard maps that support a wider variety of FRM tasks highlight the need to deepen our understanding about the factors that make flood maps useful and understandable for local end users. In this study, social scientists and engineers explore opportunities for improving the utility and relevance of flood hazard maps through the co-production of maps responsive to end users' FRM needs. Specifically, two-dimensional flood modeling produced a set of baseline hazard maps for stakeholders of the Tijuana River valley, US, and Los Laureles Canyon in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus groups with natural resource managers, city planners, emergency managers, academia, non-profit, and community leaders refined the baseline hazard maps by triggering additional modeling scenarios and map revisions. Several important end user preferences emerged, such as (1) legends that frame flood intensity both qualitatively and quantitatively, and (2) flood scenario descriptions that report flood magnitude in terms of rainfall, streamflow, and its relation to an historic event. Regarding desired hazard map content, end users' requests revealed general consistency with mapping needs reported in European studies and guidelines published in Australia. However, requested map content that is not commonly produced included (1) standing water depths following the flood, (2) the erosive potential of flowing water, and (3) pluvial flood hazards, or flooding caused directly by rainfall. We conclude that the relevance and utility of commonly produced flood hazard maps can be most improved by illustrating pluvial flood hazards

  16. Going beyond the flood insurance rate map: insights from flood hazard map co-production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood hazard mapping in the United States (US is deeply tied to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP. Consequently, publicly available flood maps provide essential information for insurance purposes, but they do not necessarily provide relevant information for non-insurance aspects of flood risk management (FRM such as public education and emergency planning. Recent calls for flood hazard maps that support a wider variety of FRM tasks highlight the need to deepen our understanding about the factors that make flood maps useful and understandable for local end users. In this study, social scientists and engineers explore opportunities for improving the utility and relevance of flood hazard maps through the co-production of maps responsive to end users' FRM needs. Specifically, two-dimensional flood modeling produced a set of baseline hazard maps for stakeholders of the Tijuana River valley, US, and Los Laureles Canyon in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus groups with natural resource managers, city planners, emergency managers, academia, non-profit, and community leaders refined the baseline hazard maps by triggering additional modeling scenarios and map revisions. Several important end user preferences emerged, such as (1 legends that frame flood intensity both qualitatively and quantitatively, and (2 flood scenario descriptions that report flood magnitude in terms of rainfall, streamflow, and its relation to an historic event. Regarding desired hazard map content, end users' requests revealed general consistency with mapping needs reported in European studies and guidelines published in Australia. However, requested map content that is not commonly produced included (1 standing water depths following the flood, (2 the erosive potential of flowing water, and (3 pluvial flood hazards, or flooding caused directly by rainfall. We conclude that the relevance and utility of commonly produced flood hazard maps can be most improved by illustrating

  17. Volcanism on Io: New insights from global geologic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.A.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Crown, D.A.; Yff, J.A.; Jaeger, W.L.; Schenk, P.M.; Geissler, P.E.; Becker, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    We produced the first complete, 1:15M-scale global geologic map of Jupiter's moon Io, based on a set of monochrome and color Galileo-Voyager image mosaics produced at a spatial resolution of 1km/pixel. The surface of Io was mapped into 19 units based on albedo, color and surface morphology, and is subdivided as follows: plains (65.8% of surface), lava flow fields (28.5%), mountains (3.2%), and patera floors (2.5%). Diffuse deposits (DD) that mantle the other units cover ???18% of Io's surface, and are distributed as follows: red (8.6% of surface), white (6.9%), yellow (2.1%), black (0.6%), and green (???0.01%). Analyses of the geographical and areal distribution of these units yield a number of results, summarized below. (1) The distribution of plains units of different colors is generally geographically constrained: Red-brown plains occur >??30?? latitude, and are thought to result from enhanced alteration of other units induced by radiation coming in from the poles. White plains (possibly dominated by SO2+contaminants) occur mostly in the equatorial antijovian region (??30??, 90-230??W), possibly indicative of a regional cold trap. Outliers of white, yellow, and red-brown plains in other regions may result from long-term accumulation of white, yellow, and red diffuse deposits, respectively. (2) Bright (possibly sulfur-rich) flow fields make up 30% more lava flow fields than dark (presumably silicate) flows (56.5% vs. 43.5%), and only 18% of bright flow fields occur within 10km of dark flow fields. These results suggest that secondary sulfurous volcanism (where a bright-dark association is expected) could be responsible for only a fraction of Io's recent bright flows, and that primary sulfur-rich effusions could be an important component of Io's recent volcanism. An unusual concentration of bright flows at ???45-75??N, ???60-120??W could be indicative of more extensive primary sulfurous volcanism in the recent past. However, it remains unclear whether most bright

  18. Male-biased recombination in odonates: insights from a linkage map ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 1. Male-biased recombination in odonates: insights from a linkage map of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Maren Wellenreuther Rosa A. Sánchez-Guillén Adolfo Cordero-Rivera Erik I. Svensson Bengt Hansson. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 1 April 2013 pp 115- ...

  19. Freezing-sensitive tomato has a functional CBF cold response pathway, but a CBF regulon that differs from that of freezing-tolerant Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Fowler, Sarah G; Cheng, Hongmei; Lou, Yigong; Rhee, Seung Y; Stockinger, Eric J; Thomashow, Michael F

    2004-09-01

    Many plants increase in freezing tolerance in response to low temperature, a process known as cold acclimation. In Arabidopsis, cold acclimation involves action of the CBF cold response pathway. Key components of the pathway include rapid cold-induced expression of three homologous genes encoding transcriptional activators, CBF1, 2 and 3 (also known as DREB1b, c and a, respectively), followed by expression of CBF-targeted genes, the CBF regulon, that increase freezing tolerance. Unlike Arabidopsis, tomato cannot cold acclimate raising the question of whether it has a functional CBF cold response pathway. Here we show that tomato, like Arabidopsis, encodes three CBF homologs, LeCBF1-3 (Lycopersicon esculentum CBF1-3), that are present in tandem array in the genome. Only the tomato LeCBF1 gene, however, was found to be cold-inducible. As is the case for Arabidopsis CBF1-3, transcripts for LeCBF1-3 did accumulate in response to mechanical agitation, but not in response to drought, ABA or high salinity. Constitutive overexpression of LeCBF1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants induced expression of CBF-targeted genes and increased freezing tolerance indicating that LeCBF1 encodes a functional homolog of the Arabidopsis CBF1-3 proteins. However, constitutive overexpression of either LeCBF1 or AtCBF3 in transgenic tomato plants did not increase freezing tolerance. Gene expression studies, including the use of a cDNA microarray representing approximately 8000 tomato genes, identified only four genes that were induced 2.5-fold or more in the LeCBF1 or AtCBF3 overexpressing plants, three of which were putative members of the tomato CBF regulon as they were also upregulated in response to low temperature. Additional experiments indicated that of eight tomato genes that were likely orthologs of Arabidopsis CBF regulon genes, none were responsive to CBF overexpression in tomato. From these results, we conclude that tomato has a complete CBF cold response pathway, but that the

  20. Divergent regulation of CBF regulon on cold tolerance and plant phenotype in cassava overexpressing Arabidopsis CBF3 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong An

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a tropical origin plant that is sensitive to chilling stress. In order to understand the CBF cold response pathway, a well-recognized regulatory mechanism in temperate plants, in cassava, overexpression of an Arabidopsis CBF3 gene is studied. This gene renders cassava increasingly tolerant to cold and drought stresses but is associated with retarded plant growth, leaf curling, reduced storage root yield, and reduced anthocyanin accumulation in a transcript abundance-dependent manner. Physiological analysis revealed that the transgenic cassava increased proline accumulation, reduced malondialdehyde production, and electrolyte leakage under cold stress. These transgenic lines also showed high relative water content when faced with drought. The expression of partial CBF-targeted genes in response to cold displayed temporal and spatial variations in the wild-type and transgenic plants: highly inducible in leaves and less altered in apical buds. In addition, anthocyanin accumulation was inhibited by downregulating the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis and by interplaying between the CBF3 and the endogenous transcription factors. Thus, the heterologous CBF3 modulates the expression of stress-related genes and carries out a series of physiological adjustments under stressful conditions, showing a varied regulation pattern of CBF regulon from that of cassava CBFs.

  1. Identification of genes from the ICE-CBF-COR pathway under cold stress inAegilops-Triticumcomposite group and the evolution analysis with those fromTriticeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ya'nan; Zhai, Shanshan; Wang, Wenjia; Ding, Xihan; Guo, Zhifu; Bai, Liping; Wang, Shu

    2018-03-01

    Adverse environmental conditions limit various aspects of plant growth, productivity, and ecological distribution. To get more insights into the signaling pathways under low temperature, we identified 10 C-repeat binding factors ( CBFs ), 9 inducer of CBF expression ( ICEs ) and 10 cold-responsive ( CORs ) genes from Aegilops - Triticum composite group under cold stress. Conserved amino acids analysis revealed that all CBF, ICE, COR contained specific and typical functional domains. Phylogenetic analysis of CBF proteins from Triticeae showed that these CBF homologs were divided into 11 groups. CBFs from Triticum were found in every group, which shows that these CBFs generated prior to the divergence of the subfamilies of Triticeae . The evolutionary relationship among the ICE and COR proteins in Poaceae were divided into four groups with high multispecies specificity, respectively. Moreover, expression analysis revealed that mRNA accumulation was altered by cold treatment and the genes of three types involved in the ICE-CBF-COR signaling pathway were induced by cold stress. Together, the results make CBF , ICE , COR genes family in Triticeae more abundant, and provide a starting point for future studies on transcriptional regulatory network for improvement of chilling tolerance in crop.

  2. Xenon-enhanced CT CBF measurements in intracranial vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Kohichi; Tamura, Kiyotaka; Takayama, Hideichi; Kodaki, Kohei; Kawase, Takeshi; Shiga, Hayao; Toya, Shigeo

    1989-01-01

    In the management of intracranial vascular malformations, it is important to know the regional cerebral blood flow in its surrounding structure. However, CT scan with contrast medium and angiography have only a limited ability to estimate the rCBF. In this study, stable xenon-computerized tomography scanning by means of the end-tidal gas-sampling method was performed in eleven patients with intracranial vascular malformations. Seven of the patients had arteriovenous malformations, three had venous angiomas and one had aneurysm of the vein of Galen. In two patients with large arteriovenous malformations, in two with 'larger' venous angioma and in one with aneurysm of the vein of Galen, rCBF values were significantly reduced, particularly adjacent to the malformations. In contrast, there were no areas showing reduced rCBF in cases where the malformations were small. This indicates development of ischemia correlates with the size of malformations. From the xenon-enhanced CT scan and angiographic findings, the presence of steal phenomenon with venous congestion might be a cause of rCBF reduction in those cases where ischemia exists. (author)

  3. CBF gene expression in peach leaf and bark tissues is gated by a circadian clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    CBF transcription factors are part of the AP2/ERF domain family of DNA-binding proteins that recognize a C-repeat response cis-acting element that regulates a number of cold-responsive genes (CBF-regulon). In peach (Prunus persica), five CBF genes are situated in tandem on scaffold (Linkage Group) ...

  4. Constitutive expression of DaCBF7, an Antarctic vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica CBF homolog, resulted in improved cold tolerance in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Mi Young; Lee, Jungeun; Cui, Li Hua; Kang, Yoonjee; Oh, Tae Kyung; Park, Hyun; Lee, Hyoungseok; Kim, Woo Taek

    2015-07-01

    Deschampsia antarctica is an Antarctic hairgrass that grows on the west coast of the Antarctic peninsula. In this report, we have identified and characterized a transcription factor, D. antarctica C-repeat binding factor 7 (DaCBF7), that is a member of the monocot group V CBF homologs. The protein contains a single AP2 domain, a putative nuclear localization signal, and the typical CBF signature. DaCBF7, like other monocot group V homologs, contains a distinct polypeptide stretch composed of 43 amino acids in front of the AP2 motif. DaCBF7 was predominantly localized to nuclei and interacted with the C-repeat/dehydration responsive element (CRT/DRE) core sequence (ACCGAC) in vitro. DaCBF7 was induced by abiotic stresses, including drought, cold, and salinity. To investigate its possible cellular role in cold tolerance, a transgenic rice system was employed. DaCBF7-overexpressing transgenic rice plants (Ubi:DaCBF7) exhibited markedly increased tolerance to cold stress compared to wild-type plants without growth defects; however, overexpression of DaCBF7 exerted little effect on tolerance to drought or salt stress. Transcriptome analysis of a Ubi:DaCBF7 transgenic line revealed 13 genes that were up-regulated in DaCBF7-overexpressing plants compared to wild-type plants in the absence of cold stress and in short- or long-term cold stress. Five of these genes, dehydrin, remorin, Os03g63870, Os11g34790, and Os10g22630, contained putative CRT/DRE or low-temperature responsive elements in their promoter regions. These results suggest that overexpression of DaCBF7 directly and indirectly induces diverse genes in transgenic rice plants and confers enhanced tolerance to cold stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cbf11 and Cbf12, the fission yeast CSL proteins, play opposing roles in cell adhesion and coordination of cell and nuclear division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevorovsky, Martin; Grousl, Tomas; Stanurova, Jana; Rynes, Jan [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Vinicna 7, 128 43, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Nellen, Wolfgang [Department of Genetics, Kassel University, Heinrich Plett Strasse 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany); Puta, Frantisek [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Vinicna 7, 128 43, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Folk, Petr, E-mail: folk@natur.cuni.cz [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Vinicna 7, 128 43, Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2009-05-01

    The CSL (CBF1/RBP-J{kappa}/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) family is comprised of transcription factors essential for metazoan development, mostly due to their involvement in the Notch receptor signaling pathway. Recently, we identified two novel classes of CSL genes in the genomes of several fungal species, organisms lacking the Notch pathway. In this study, we characterized experimentally cbf11{sup +} and cbf12{sup +}, the two CSL genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in order to elucidate the CSL function in fungi. We provide evidence supporting their identity as genuine CSL genes. Both cbf11{sup +} and cbf12{sup +} are non-essential; they have distinct expression profiles and code for nuclear proteins with transcription activation potential. Significantly, we demonstrated that Cbf11 recognizes specifically the canonical CSL response element GTG{sup A}/{sub G}GAA in vitro. The deletion of cbf11{sup +} is associated with growth phenotypes and altered colony morphology. Furthermore, we found that Cbf11 and Cbf12 play opposite roles in cell adhesion, nuclear and cell division and their coordination. Disturbed balance of the two CSL proteins leads to cell separation defects (sep phenotype), cut phenotype, and high-frequency diploidization in heterothallic strains. Our data show that CSL proteins operate in an organism predating the Notch pathway, which should be of relevance to the understanding of (Notch-independent) CSL functions in metazoans.

  6. Cbf11 and Cbf12, the fission yeast CSL proteins, play opposing roles in cell adhesion and coordination of cell and nuclear division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevorovsky, Martin; Grousl, Tomas; Stanurova, Jana; Rynes, Jan; Nellen, Wolfgang; Puta, Frantisek; Folk, Petr

    2009-01-01

    The CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jκ/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) family is comprised of transcription factors essential for metazoan development, mostly due to their involvement in the Notch receptor signaling pathway. Recently, we identified two novel classes of CSL genes in the genomes of several fungal species, organisms lacking the Notch pathway. In this study, we characterized experimentally cbf11 + and cbf12 + , the two CSL genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in order to elucidate the CSL function in fungi. We provide evidence supporting their identity as genuine CSL genes. Both cbf11 + and cbf12 + are non-essential; they have distinct expression profiles and code for nuclear proteins with transcription activation potential. Significantly, we demonstrated that Cbf11 recognizes specifically the canonical CSL response element GTG A / G GAA in vitro. The deletion of cbf11 + is associated with growth phenotypes and altered colony morphology. Furthermore, we found that Cbf11 and Cbf12 play opposite roles in cell adhesion, nuclear and cell division and their coordination. Disturbed balance of the two CSL proteins leads to cell separation defects (sep phenotype), cut phenotype, and high-frequency diploidization in heterothallic strains. Our data show that CSL proteins operate in an organism predating the Notch pathway, which should be of relevance to the understanding of (Notch-independent) CSL functions in metazoans.

  7. What does rCBF-SPECT offer in schizophrenia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, G.M.S.; Barrett, J.J.; Toone, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric problem common in the younger population. Structural imaging and findings on autopsy have not yet revealed a specific deficit in these patients. Uncertainty in clinical diagnosis based on a set of signs and symptoms is another drawback in the management of this patient population. Regional cerebral blood flow studies (rCBF) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offers the opportunity to study the underlying phenomenon and to detect the specific functional deficits in schizophrenia. (Author)

  8. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) with 133Xe inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Tadaki; Masumura, Michio; Tamaki, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Yamashita, Hideyuki.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of CO 2 inhalation on the cerebral blood flow (CBF) were examined with 133 Xe inhalation method (Novo Inhalation Cerebrograph) on 9 normal peoples and 20 patients. Nine normal peoples were divided into 3 groups consisting of each 3 peoples, namely young age group, middle age group, and old age group. Each increased CBF (%) by CO 2 inhalation was 40 -- 44 in young age group, 36 -- 37 in middle age group, and 35 -- 36 in old age group in the blood flow of the first compartment (F 1 ), and 27 -- 28 in young age group, 30 -- 31 in middle age group and 23 -- 24 in old age group in the initial slope index (ISI). Each CO 2 reactivity factor (RF) was 5.5 -- 5.8 in young age group, 3.8 -- 4.0 in middle age group and 3.3 in old age group in F 1 , and 3.1 -- 3.2 in young age group, 2.0 -- 3.3 in middle age group, and 1.2 -- 1.3 in old age group in ISI. Twenty patients consisted of 15 patients of occlusive cerebrovascular disease, 2 patients of head injury, 2 patients of normal pressure hydrocephalus and one patient of subarachnoid hemorrhage. RF was abnormally lower than normal value in 5 patients in F 1 , but in 7 in ISI. Clinical benefits of CBF study during CO 2 inhalation with 133 Xe inhalation method were discussed. (author)

  9. The correlative analysis between CBF measured by SPECT and Chinese reading test in childhood reading disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yonggang; Su Jianzhi; He Jianjun; Yang Zhiwei; Liu Guofeng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and its association with Chinese reading skill diagnostic test (CRSDT) in childhood reading disorder (RD). Methods: In 25 RD children and 20 age-matched control subjects, the authors quantitatively determined CBF and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with SPECT using the non-blood-withdrew method. The authors studied the correlation between the CBF and the total raw scores by CRSDT. Results: CBF in case group was (38.87 +- 3.77) ml·100 g -1 ·min -1 and was significantly lower than that in control group [43.65 +- 2.64) mL·100 g -1 ·min -1 (P < 0.01)]. These reduction in CBF correlated with the total raw scores by CRSDT. Conclusion: These results suggest the children with reading disorder have CBF reduction and SPECT is useful for evaluation of cerebral functioning in reading disorder children

  10. Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Priya; Wei, Annan; Welter, Elisabeth; Bamps, Yvan; Stoll, Shelley; Bukach, Ashley; Sajatovic, Martha; Sahoo, Satya S

    2015-11-01

    Insight is a Semantic Web technology-based platform to support large-scale secondary analysis of healthcare data for neurology clinical research. Insight features the novel use of: (1) provenance metadata, which describes the history or origin of patient data, in clinical research analysis, and (2) support for patient cohort queries across multiple institutions conducting research in epilepsy, which is the one of the most common neurological disorders affecting 50 million persons worldwide. Insight is being developed as a healthcare informatics infrastructure to support a national network of eight epilepsy research centers across the U.S. funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This paper describes the use of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) PROV recommendation for provenance metadata that allows researchers to create patient cohorts based on the provenance of the research studies. In addition, the paper describes the use of descriptive logic-based OWL2 epilepsy ontology for cohort queries with "expansion of query expression" using ontology reasoning. Finally, the evaluation results for the data integration and query performance are described using data from three research studies with 180 epilepsy patients. The experiment results demonstrate that Insight is a scalable approach to use Semantic provenance metadata for context-based data analysis in healthcare informatics.

  11. Probing the Chaotic Dynamics of Fluids using Insights from Coupled Map Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbish, Johnathon; Xu, Mu; Paul, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Many difficult fluid challenges exhibit high-dimensional spatiotemporal chaos. Natural examples include the dynamics of the atmosphere and oceans. New insights have been gained by studying canonical fluid problems such as Rayleigh-Bénard convection where significant progress has been made using large-scale computations of the partial differential equations that describe the fluid flow. However, these computations remain very expensive which makes it difficult, if not currently impossible, to explore new ideas that require large sample sets, vast sweeps of parameter space, and long-time statistics. We study these questions using coupled map lattices (CML) in one and two dimensions. We compute the covariant Lyapunov vectors to probe fundamental features of the CML's including the Lyapunov spectrum, fractal dimension, and the principal angle between the stable and unstable manifolds. We are particularly interested in the role of a conservation law on the chaotic dynamics, the use of ideas from equilibrium thermodynamics to yield a coarse-grained representation, and in the development of reduced order models. This work is supported by NSF DMS-1622299.

  12. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants.

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in major depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Junichi

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with major depression and in normal controls was measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p [ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine (IMP). The subjects were 22 patients with major depression and 14 normal controls. The rCBF was calculated by the ratio of activity per pixel in the cortical regions to activity per pixel in the cerebellum. IMP-SPECT was conducted in patients with major depression under the depressive and remitted states. rCBF values in the frontal, parietal, temporal, basal ganglia and the occipital regions, and the mean rCBF values were significantly lower in depressive patients than in the controls. Increased rCBF values were observed, and the mean rCBF became normal in the state of remittence. There was no significant difference in mean rCBF between depressive patients and the controls. Therefore, because the lower rCBF was normalized following improvement in expressive symptoms, the rCBF values could be useful as 'state dependent markers' in patients with major depression. (author)

  14. Low Residual CBF Variability in Alzheimer's Disease after Correction for CO(2) Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodell, Anders Bertil; Aanerud, Joel; Braendgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We tested the claim that inter-individual CBF variability in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is substantially reduced after correction for arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)). Specifically, we tested whether the variability of CBF in brain of patients with AD differed significantly from brain of age...

  15. The joys of mapping: qualitative insights into the student experience of a residential geoscience field course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Alison

    2010-05-01

    Using a mixed-format survey instrument, Boyle et al. (2007) identify significant effects in the affective domain resulting from participation in residential fieldwork. These findings are echoed by Stokes & Boyle (2009) in a separate, more detailed, study into the experiences of geoscience students when learning geologic mapping. While providing a quantifiable measure of changes in the students' attitudes and feelings, however, these survey data provide limited information about the experiences that have resulted in these changes, or of the factors likely to have influenced them. In order to gain a deeper insight into the students' affective responses, the quantitative data collected during this study were supplemented with qualitative data from in-situ and group interviews, open (free-text) survey questions, and direct observation of fieldwork activities. This provided a richness and depth of information that could not be achieved from quantitative data alone, and thus afforded a greater understanding of the students' experiences of this particular field activity. The survey findings showed that positive feelings and attitudes present at the start of the mapping field course became reinforced, but closer scrutiny of the data revealed that over half of the student cohort (57%) embarked on the fieldwork with some degree of worry, concern, or anxiety. The qualitative data enabled the source of these negative feelings to be identified, and provided evidence that these were overcome as a result of participating in the fieldwork. Thematic content analysis of the data resulted in the emergence of ten major themes; these provided a clear indication of factors significant to the student experience, and of specific aspects of the field course likely to generate either positive or negative affective responses. Further, these data highlighted the complexity of the learning process, and demonstrated the extent to which experiences varied between individual students. The social

  16. Magnetic mapping of (carbonated) oceanic crust-mantle boundary: New insights from Linnajavri, northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, M.; Beinlich, A.; Tivey, M.; Andrade Lima, E.; Weiss, B. P.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of lower oceanic crust and upper mantle to marine magnetic anomalies has long been recognized, but the detailed magnetic character of this non-volcanic source layer remains to be fully defined. Here, we report preliminary results of a magnetic survey and source characterization of a "carbonated" oceanic Moho (petrological "Mohorovicic discontinuity") sequence observed at the Linnajavri Serpentinite Complex (LSC), northern Norway. The LSC is located at 67° 36'N and 16° 24'E within the upper Allochthon of the Norwegian Caledonides and represents a dismembered ophiolite. Particularly in the southern ("Ridoalggicohkka") area of the LSC, gabbro, serpentinite and its talc-carbonate (soapstone) and quartz-carbonate (listvenite) altered equivalents are extraordinarily well-exposed [1]. An intact oceanic Moho is exposed here, despite its complex tectonic setting. The small degree of arctic rock weathering (≤ 2 mm weathering surface) allowed for detailed regional-scale surface magnetic mapping across alteration fronts (serpentinite-soapstone; soapstone-listvenite) and lithological contacts (soapstone-gabbro). Magnetic mapping was conducted using a handheld 3-axis magnetometer, surface-towed resistivity meter and Teka surface magnetic susceptometer with sample spacing of 1 m. Geophysical field mapping was combined with petrological observations and scanning SQUID microscopy (SM) mapping conducted on thin sections from rock samples that were drilled along the survey lines. Regional scale magnetic mapping indicates that the total magnetic field across both the "carbonated" Moho and the soapstone-serpentinite interfaces show higher frequency changes in their magnetic anomaly character and amplitudes than the surface-towed resistivity data. SQUID microscopy mapping of both natural remanence magnetization (NRM) and anhysteretic remanence magnetization (ARM) on gabbro, serpentinite, soapstone, and listvenite samples, with a sensor-sample separation of ˜190

  17. Establishing a leaf proteome reference map for Ginkgo biloba provides insight into potential ethnobotanical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although ginkgo (Maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba L.) is an ancient medicinal and ornamental tree, there has not previously been any systematic proteomic study of the leaves. Herein we describe results from the initial study identifying abundant ginkgo leaf proteins and present a gel reference map. Pr...

  18. Male-biased recombination in odonates: insights from a linkage map ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-05

    Apr 5, 2013 ... Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) represent the most ancient insect branch and have received much attention in the evolutionary and ecological research. However, few genomic resources are available and no genetic maps or genome assemblies have been developed. We present recom- bination ...

  19. Assessment of Cerebral Blood Flow Autoregulation (CBF AR) with Rheoencephalography (REG): Studies in Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Tomography IOP Publishing Journal of Physics: Conference Series 434 (2013) 012042 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/434/1/012042 Published under licence by IOP Publishing...Automated PRx- and REGx-based assessment of autoregulation was performed in MATLAB R2008 software (Natick, MA). PRx [10] and REGx [11] were computed by...The expert used the WRAIR DataLyser software package to view the signals, assess the state of CBF AR, and determine its lower limit if CBF AR was

  20. The precise regulation of different COR genes by individual CBF transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yihao; Huang, Jiaying; Sun, Tianshu; Wang, Xuefei; Zhu, Chenqi; Ai, Yuxi; Gu, Hongya

    2017-02-01

    The transcription factors CBF1/2/3 are reported to play a dominant role in the cold responsive network of Arabidopsis by directly regulating the expression levels of cold responsive (COR) genes. In this study, we obtained CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function mutants of cbf1∼3. Over 3,000 COR genes identified by RNA-seq analysis showed a slight but significant change in their expression levels in the mutants compared to the wild-type plants after being treated at 4 °C for 12 h. The C-repeat (CRT) motif (5'-CCGAC-3') was enriched in promoters of genes that were up-regulated by CBF2 and CBF3 but not in promoters of genes up-regulated by CBF1. These data suggest that CBF2 and CBF3 play a more important role in directing the cold response by regulating different sets of downstream COR genes. More than 2/3 of COR genes were co-regulated by two or three CBFs and were involved mainly in cellular signal transduction and metabolic processes; less than 1/3 of the genes were regulated by one CBF, and those genes up-regulated were enriched in cold-related abiotic stress responses. Our results indicate that CBFs play an important role in the trade-off between cold tolerance and plant growth through the precise regulation of COR genes in the complicated transcriptional network. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Correlative study between a serial changes of rCBF and aphasia in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yizhen; He Guangren

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the dynamic changes of rCBF of aphasic patients and its correlation with clinical findings. Methods: 32 dominant lateral hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhagic patients underwent the language function evaluation, rCBF tomographic imaging and CT scans. Semiquantitative analysis was used. Results: 1) 19 of 32 cases were aphasia while 13 were not. 2) There was a close correlation between aphasia and the size and location of hematoma. 3) There was only hemonrrhagic foci demonstrated with CT while multiple and extensive cortical hypo-perfused area were found in SPECT, especially in aphasic cases. Frontal and temporal lobes of each aphasia were involved 100%. 4) The rCBF ratio in both Broca's and Wernicke's areas of aphasias were lower than those of non-aphasias (t = 4.31, 5.52, P < 0.001). The degree of rCBF decrement in Wernicke's area varied with different aphasic types, among which the rCBF of sensory aphasia was the lowest (t 2.53, P<0.05). 5) 10 aphasias were followed with SPECT, CT and clinic evaluation 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after hemorrhage respectively. The rCBF ratios in cerebral cortex of 5 recovery cases increased gradually, but not in 5 not recovered cases. Conclusions: SPECT was superior to CT, it can provide useful information for diagnosing and staging aphasias, especially in early stage, and can also assess the prognosis of the disease

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurement by 133Xe inhalation (Inhamatic 33rCBF measuring instrument)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Onodera, Hideki; Endo, Hideo.

    1982-01-01

    The rCBF and its patterns obtained by 133 Xe inhalation on 20 healthy subjects were studied. In a group of subjects aged 25 years or less, the fast flow (F1) representing the mean cerebral blood flow (MCBF) was 97.1 +- 15.7 m1/100 g/min (abbreviated as m1) in the left hemisphere and 96.6 +- 16.8 m1 in the right; and the initial slope index (ISI), 65.8 +- 10.4 m1 for the left and 65.1 +- 10.7 m1 for the right. In a group of subjects aged 25 or more, F1 was 83.5 +- 10.1 m1 for the left and 84.8 +- 9.6 m1 for the right; and ISI, 55.7 +- 6.9 m1 for the left and 55.8 +- 6.7 m1 for the right. In both groups, F1 showed a hyperfrontal pattern in which F1 was higher than MCBF in the frontal region by about 10%, and ISI showed high values primarily in the sylvian fissure. With respect to the variation of F1 values from the 1st to 2nd measurements, MCBF was 7.6 +- 5.1% in the left hemisphere and 9.0 +- 4.7% in the right; and ISI, 14.6 +- 5.1% in the left and 14.4 +- 10.6% in the right. Thus, F1 values showed higher reproducibility. Depending on the difference in start fit time (SFT), both F1 and ISI values showed great changes, particularly so when SFT was close to the peak of the head curve. (Chiba, N.)

  3. Establishing a leaf proteome reference map for Ginkgo biloba provides insight into potential ethnobotanical uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvackova, Lubica; Ondruskova, Emilia; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Miernyk, Ján A; Hrubík, Pavel; Hajduch, Martin

    2014-11-26

    Although ginkgo (Maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba L.) is an ancient medicinal and ornamental tree, there has not previously been any systematic proteomic study of the leaves. Herein we describe results from the initial study identifying abundant ginkgo leaf proteins and present a gel reference map. Proteins were isolated from fully developed mature leaves in biological triplicate and analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis plus tandem mass spectrometry. Using this approach, we were able to reproducibly quantify 190 abundant protein spots, from which 157 proteins were identified. Most of identified proteins are associated with the energy and protein destination/storage categories. The reference map provides a basis for understanding the accumulation of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in mature leaves (e.g., identification of chalcone synthase, the first committed enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis). We additionally detected several proteins of as yet unknown function. These proteins comprise a pool of potential targets that might be useful in nontraditional medical applications.

  4. An apple rootstock overexpressing a peach CBF gene alters growth and flowering in the scion but does not impact cold hardiness or dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The C-repeat Binding Factor (CBF) transcription factor is involved in responses to low temperature and water deficit in many plant species. Overexpression of CBF genes leads to enhanced freezing tolerance and growth inhibition in many species. The overexpression of a peach CBF (PpCBF1) gene in a t...

  5. Characterization and expression analysis of three CBF/DREB1 transcriptional factor genes from mangrove Avicennia marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ya-Lan; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Wu, Peng; Wang, Li-Ying; Fei, Jiao

    2013-09-15

    Three CBF/DREB1 (C-repeat binding factor/dehydration responsive element-binding factor 1) homologues were isolated from mangrove Avicennia marina and designated AmCBF1, 2 and 3. Multiple sequence analysis showed that the three deduced proteins all contain an AP2 DNA-binding domain and two CBF signature sequences. According to the phylogenetic analysis, these proteins belong to the A-1 subgroup of the DREB subfamily. Expression analyses based on quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the AmCBF2 displayed relatively high expression under normal conditions, with the highest level in stems, while both AmCBF1 and 3 were weakly expressed without stress. The three genes also showed different responses to various environmental stimuli. The AmCBF2 was inducible by cold, drought, high salinity, heavy metals, as well as abscisic acid (ABA), and exhibited much stronger induction by cold, drought, Pb(2+) or Zn(2+) than by NaCl, ABA or Cd(2+). In contrast, both AmCBF1 and AmCBF3 displayed insignificant changes under these stimuli. These results indicate that the three AmCBF genes play different roles in A. marina and the AmCBF2 might be involved in the signaling pathway of cold, drought and heavy metal stress response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute rCBF changes in depressed patients receiving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haindl, W.; Loo, C.; Mitchell, P.; Sachdev, P.; Zheng, X.; Som, S.; Walker, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Electroconvulsant therapy (ECT) is very effective in treatment resistant severe depression with response rates of 70-90%. However, ECT has major limitations including the need for anaesthesia, memory difficulties and public apprehension about its use. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used as a diagnostic technique in neurology with recent reports of potential benefit in depressed patients. In this study, 5 patients (3 females, 2 males aged 36-66 years, mean 48.6 years) with major depression underwent SPET brain scanning using a Picker 3000 triple-headed camera. Each patient had a baseline rCBF scan with 500 MBq of 99 Tc m HMPAO injected intravenously during sham rTMS. On the following day, each patient received another 500 MBq of 99 Tc m HMPAo during rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using a Magstim Super Rapid magnetic stimulator with a 70-mm figure eight coil. The stimulator parameters were 15 Hz, 90% of resting motor threshold, 1 s on 3 s off for 30 trains prior to injection and 15-30 trains following injection. Each patient continued to receive their usual medication during this period. The reconstructed SPET data sets were normalized to the global mean, registered to the Talairach template and analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Compared with the baseline group, the rTMS group showed a significant perfusion increase in the pre-frontal cortices, especially on the left, and also in the anterior left temporal lobe (P < 0.05). Frontal lobe perfusion reduction is a common finding in depression. This study demonstrates the ability of rTMS to acutely increase frontal lobe perfusion, and therefore a possible mechanism for its therapeutic use as an adjunct to pharmacological therapy or as an alternative to ECT in depression

  7. rCBF measurement by one-point venous sampling with the ARG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Nobuhiro; Okamoto, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hidekado; Hattori, Teruo

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of using venous blood sampling instead of arterial blood sampling for the current method of ARG (autoradiography) used to determine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on the basis of one session of arterial blood sampling and SPECT. For this purpose, the ratio of the arterial blood radioactivity count to the venous blood radioactivity count, the coefficient of variation, and the correlation and differences between arterial blood-based rCBF and venous blood-based rCBF were analyzed. The coefficient of variation was lowest (4.1%) 20 minutes after injection into the dorsum manus. When the relationship between venous and arterial blood counts was analyzed, arterial blood counts correlated well with venous blood counts collected at the dorsum manus 20 or 30 minutes after intravenous injection and with venous blood counts collected at the wrist 20 minutes after intravenous injection (r=0.97 or higher). The difference from rCBF determined on the basis of arterial blood was smallest (0.7) for rCBF determined on the basis of venous blood collected at the dorsum manus 20 minutes after intravenous injection. (author)

  8. Platelet development in cuboid diamonds: insights from micro-FTIR mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, D.; O'Neill, C. J.; Grant, K. J.; Griffin, W. L.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Pearson, N. J.; Stern, R. A.; Stachel, T.

    2012-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared mapping of diamonds can reveal detailed information on impurities, with a spatial context. We apply this technique, combined with in situ isotopic analysis of carbon, to the study of cuboid diamond growth in a sample that exhibits some mixed-habit growth. While there has been some uncertainty in the literature regarding sectoral differences in nitrogen aggregation and subsequent platelet development, the data from this study appear far more conclusive. We show that despite nitrogen being concentrated in octahedral sectors, there is no detectable difference in the concentration-adjusted rate of nitrogen aggregation within octahedral and cuboid sectors. However, the resultant platelet development is significantly reduced in cuboid sectors compared to contemporaneously formed octahedral sectors. This finding has significant implications for the classification of diamonds using the relationship between their platelet intensity and the absorption caused by B centres. It means that cuboid diamonds naturally fall below the linear relationship that has been termed regular, which would lead to them being incorrectly interpreted as having experienced heating or deformation. The data also support earlier suggestions that large hydrogen concentrations in the diamond-forming fluid may be required for cuboid growth. We further suggest that high nitrogen and hydrogen concentrations are required for mixed-habit diamond growth, which might be the product of specific fluid chemistries that occur in reducing mantle environments.

  9. A new collimator for measurement of rCBF by means of gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zechmann, W.; Oberladstaetter, M.; Raccabona, G.; Vogl, G.; Gerstenbrand, F.

    1982-01-01

    Atraumatic measurement of rCBF by means of gamma camera and conventional collimators requires high doses of 133 Xenon to obtain high count rates over the cerebral ROI's. The input of time-activity curve of breathing air by means of a probe measurement is not possible on line without difficulties. A new collimator, developed by ours, which is comparable with standard rCBF-Multiprobe systems, which allows high countrates and low dose of 133 Xenon is presented. A special air bypass enables to get the breathing curve with simple ROI technique. The collimator can easily be adapted to the camera by means of an insert adapter ring. With this collimator the rCBF measurement with conventional equipment of a nuclear medicine department is possible. (Author)

  10. Association mapping of flowering time QTLs and insight into their contributions to rapeseed growth habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed sophisticated systems to adapt to local conditions during evolution, domestication and natural or artificial selection. The selective pressures of these different growing conditions have caused significant genomic divergence within species. The flowering time trait is the most crucial factor because it helps plants to maintain sustainable development. Controlling flowering at appropriate times can also prevent plants from suffering from adverse growth conditions, such as drought, winter hardness, and disease. Hence, discovering the genome-wide genetic mechanisms that influence flowering time variations and understanding their contributions to adaptation should be a central goal of plant genetics and genomics. A global core collection panel with 448 inbred rapeseed lines was first planted in four independent environments, and their flowering time traits were evaluated. We then performed a genome-wide association mapping of flowering times with a 60 K SNP array for this core collection. With quality control and filtration, 20,342 SNP markers were ultimately used for further analyses. In total, 312 SNPs showed marker-trait associations in all four environments, and they were based on a threshold p value of 4.06x10-4; the 40 QTLs showed significant association with flowering time variations. To explore flowering time QTLs and genes related to growth habits in rapeseed, selection signals related to divergent habits were screened at the genome-wide level and 117 genomic regions were found. Comparing locations of flowering time QTLs and genes with these selection regions revealed that 20 flowering time QTLs and 224 flowering time genes overlapped with 24 and 81 selected regions, respectively. Based on this study, a number of marker-trait associations and candidate genes for flowering time variations in rapeseed were revealed. Moreover, we also showed that both flowering time QTLs and genes play important roles in rapeseed growth

  11. Focal hyperemia followed by spreading oligemia and impaired activation of rCBF in classic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J; Larsen, B; Lauritzen, M

    1981-01-01

    migraine was similarly followed during his only classic attack. The attacks were initiated by focal hyperemia in 3 patients. During prodromes all patients displayed occipitoparietal rCBF reduction (oligemia), but in only 1 case did the reduction approach critical values. Oligemia gradually spread...... anteriorly in the course of 15 to 45 minutes. In 4 patients a global oligemia was observed. In 4 patients severe headache was present concomitantly with oligemia and with no sign of hyperemia or nonhomogeneous brain perfusion. The normal rCBF increase during cortical activity (hand movement, speech...

  12. Clinical advances of SPECT rCBF and interventional imaging applied in the diagnosis of dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kaijun

    2002-01-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT is a functional and noninvasive neuroimaging technique that allow the investigation of physiological and physiopathologic events in the human brain, including cerebral perfusion and function. Interventional rCBF imaging can also evaluate cerebrovascular reserve. In clinically, rCBF imaging play an important role in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementias, especially vascular and Alzheimer's dementia. If etiology of some types of dementias is determined so that it can be early diagnosed, treated and taken prevention; the partial patients with dementia can get recovery or remission

  13. Outcomes of Interorganizational Networks in Canada for Chronic Disease Prevention: Insights From a Concept Mapping Study, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernoghan, Alison; Riley, Barbara; Popp, Janice; Best, Allan; Milward, H. Brinton

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We conducted a mixed methods study from June 2014 to March 2015 to assess the perspectives of stakeholders in networks that adopt a population approach for chronic disease prevention (CDP). The purpose of the study was to identify important and feasible outcome measures for monitoring network performance. Methods Participants from CDP networks in Canada completed an online concept mapping exercise, which was followed by interviews with network stakeholders to further understand the findings. Results Nine concepts were considered important outcomes of CDP networks: enhanced learning, improved use of resources, enhanced or increased relationships, improved collaborative action, network cohesion, improved system outcomes, improved population health outcomes, improved practice and policy planning, and improved intersectoral engagement. Three themes emerged from participant interviews related to measurement of the identified concepts: the methodological difficulties in measuring network outcomes, the dynamic nature of network evolution and function and implications for outcome assessment, and the challenge of measuring multisectoral engagement in CDP networks. Conclusion Results from this study provide initial insights into concepts that can be used to describe the outcomes of networks for CDP and may offer foundations for strengthening network outcome-monitoring strategies and methodologies. PMID:26583571

  14. CBF and CMRo2 during craniotomy for small supratentorial cerebral tumours in enflurane anaesthesia. A dose-response study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, J.B.; Cold, G.E.; Eriksen, H.O.; Eskesen, V.; Blatt-Lyon, B.

    1986-01-01

    In 14 patients with supratentorial cerebral tumours with midline shift ≤ 10 mm, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRo 2 ) were measured twice on the contralateral side of the craniotomy, using a modification of the Kety and Schmidt method. For induction of anaesthesia, thiopental, fentanyl and pancuronium were used. The anaesthesia was maintained with enflurane 1% in nitrous oxide 67%. Moderate hypocapnia to a level averaging 4.3 kPa was achieved. The patients were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n=7), 1% enflurane was used throughout the anaesthesia, and CBF and CMRo 2 measured about 70 min after induction averaged 30.1 ml 100 g -1 min -1 and 1.98 ml O 2 100 g -1 min -1 , respectively. During the second CBF study 1 h later, CBF and CMRo 2 were unchanged (P>0.05). In group 2 (n=7), the inspiratory enflurane concentration was increased from 1 to 2% after the first CBF measurement. In this group a significant decrease in CMRo 2 was observed, while CBF was unchanged. In six patients EEG was recorded simultaneously with the CBF measurements. In patients subjected to increasing enflurane concentration (Group 2), a suppression in the EEG activity was observed without spike waves. It is concluded that enflurane induces a dose-related decrease in CMRo 2 and suppression in the EEG activity, whereas CBF was unchanged (author)

  15. Cyclosporine A, FK506, and NIM811 ameliorate prolonged CBF reduction and impaired neurovascular coupling after cortical spreading depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Piilgaard; Witgen, Brent Marvin; Rasmussen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ), and neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling were unaffected by all three drugs under control conditions. NIM811 augmented the rise in CBF observed during CSD. Cyclosporine A and FK506 ameliorated the persistent decrease in CBF after CSD. All three drugs prevented disruption of neurovascular coupling after CSD...

  16. The influence of the input function on quantitative rCBF by the Xe/CT method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Oettingen, G; Bergholt, B; Ostergaard, L

    2000-01-01

    gas exchange; high or low levels of rCBF; tissue type; and xenon inhalation protocols. In part 2 the mean rCBF underestimation was 18.8 +/- 8.3%. In conclusion, non-invasive estimate of the input function should be considered as a source of error when defining quantitative blood flow values e...

  17. Meta-analysis of the effect of overexpression of CBF/DREB family genes on drought stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcription factors C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding proteins (CBF/DREB) play an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. Over-expression of various CBF/DREB genes in diverse plants have been reported, but inconsistency of gene donor, recipient genus, parameters used i...

  18. Newly developed quantitative transactivation system shows difference in activation by Vitis CBF transcription factors on DRE/CRT elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassuth, Annette; Siddiqua, Mahbuba; Xiao, Huogen; Moody, Michelle A; Carlow, Chevonne E

    2014-01-01

    Agroinfiltration-based transactivation systems can determine if a protein functions as a transcription factor, and via which promoter element. However, this activation is not always a yes or no proposition. Normalization for variation in plasmid delivery into plant cells, sample collection and protein extraction is desired to allow for a quantitative comparison between transcription factors or promoter elements. We developed new effector and reporter plasmids which carry additional reporter genes, as well as a procedure to assay all three reporter enzymes from a single extract. The applicability of these plasmids was demonstrated with the analysis of CBF transcription factors and their target promoter sequence, DRE/CRT. Changes in the core DRE/CRT sequence abolished activation by Vitis CBF1 or Vitis CBF4, whereas changes in the surrounding sequence lowered activation by Vitis CBF1 but much less so for Vitis CBF4. The system also detected a reduction in activation due to one amino acid change in Vitis CBF1. The newly developed effector and reporter plasmids improve the ability to quantitatively compare the activation on two different promoter elements by the same transcription factor, or between two different transcription factors on the same promoter element. The quantitative difference in activation by VrCBF1 and VrCBF4 on various DRE/CRT elements support the hypothesis that these transcription factors have unique roles in the cold acclimation process.

  19. DREB1/CBF transcription factors: their structure, function and role in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This review is mainly focussed on the structural characteristics as well as transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to various abiotic stresses, with particular ... The recent progress related to genetic engineering of DREB1/CBF transcription factors in various crops and model plants is also summarized.

  20. Runx1-Cbfβ facilitates early B lymphocyte development by regulating expression of Ebf1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wooseok; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Taniuchi, Ichiro

    2012-07-02

    Although Runx and Cbfβ transcription factor complexes are involved in the development of multiple hematopoietic lineages, their precise roles in early mouse B lymphocyte differentiation remain elusive. In this study, we examined mouse strains in which Runx1, Runx3, or Cbfβ were deleted in early B lineage progenitors by an mb1-cre transgene. Loss of Runx1, but not Runx3, caused a developmental block during early B lymphopoiesis, resulting in the lack of IgM(+) B cells and reduced V(H) to DJ(H) recombination. Expression of core transcription factors regulating early B cell development, such as E2A, Ebf1, and Pax5, was reduced in B cell precursors lacking Runx1. We detected binding of Runx1-Cbfβ complexes to the Ebf1 proximal promoter, and these Runx-binding motifs were essential to drive reporter gene expression. Runx1-deficient pro-B cells harbored excessive amounts of the repressive histone mark H3K27 trimethylation in the Ebf1 proximal promoter. Interestingly, retroviral transduction of Ebf1, but not Pax5, into Runx1-deficient progenitors restored not only development of B220(+) cells that underwent V(H) to DJ(H) rearrangement but also expression of B lineage signature genes. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Runx1-Cbfβ complexes are essential to facilitate B lineage specification, in part via epigenetic activation of the Ebf1 gene.

  1. Arabidopsis CBF5 interacts with the H/ACA snoRNP assembly factor NAF1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lermontova, I.; Schubert, V.; Bornke, F.; Macas, Jiří; Schubert, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2007), s. 615-626 ISSN 0167-4412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : AtCBF5 * RNA * Arabidopsis thaliana Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.847, year: 2007

  2. [Arabidopsis CBF1 in plant tolerance to low temperature and drought stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fen-Xia; Tan, Zhen-Bo; Zhu, Jian-Qing; Deng, Xiao-Jian

    2004-05-01

    Since it was established that the alteration in gene expression occur during cold acclimation, a major goal in cold acclimation research has been to identify cold-responsive genes and to determine whether they play roles in freezing tolerance. Many cold-regulated genes (COR) were isolated and characterized in Arabidopsis and other cold tolerant plant species. Studies on regulation of COR in Arabidopsis have resulted in the discovery of a family of transcriptional activators, of which, CBF1, a member of the gene family, controls expression of a battery of COR in Arabidopsis and other cold tolerant plant species. During recent years, CBF-like genes were found in the genomes of chilling-sensitive plant species such as tomato and maize. Over-expression of Arabidopsis CBF1 confers elevated tolerance to chilling and drought stresses in transgenic tomato. These results promote our effort to identify and characterize CBF-like genes to improve tolerance of chilling-sensitive plant species to chilling and drought stresses.

  3. Monitoring CBF in clinical routine by dynamic single photon emission tomography (SPECT) of inhaled xenon-133

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, H; Christensen, J; Skyhøj Olsen, T

    1986-01-01

    A very simple and low-cost brain dedicated, rapidly rotating Single Photon Emission Tomograph SPECT is described. Its use in following patients with ischemic stroke is illustrated by two middle cerebral artery occlusion cases, one with persistent occlusion and low CBF in MCA territory, and one wi...

  4. Alpha-contingent EEG feedback reduces SPECT rCBF variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Steinberg, Bruce; Mulholland, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    randomly presented to seven subjects, contingent upon the occurrence of alpha (alpha-contingent stimulation (ACS)) or alpha-blocking (not-alpha-blocking-contingent stimulation (NACS)) events. We employed a within-subjects design. rCBF was measured from multiple, cortical and sub-cortical regions...

  5. DREB1/CBF transcription factors: their structure, function and role in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-12-10

    Dec 10, 2012 ... growth due to decline in photosynthesis and nonavailability of nutrients as soil dries. Similarly, salinity leads to phys- iological dryness. Chilling and freezing temperatures can ... and stress-responsive gene expres-. Keywords. abiotic stress; transcription factors; DREB1/CBF. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 91, No.

  6. Nonlinear coupling between evoked rCBF and BOLD signals: a simulation study of hemodynamic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechelli, A; Price, C J; Friston, K J

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the dependence of BOLD responses on different patterns of stimulus input/neuronal changes. In an earlier report, we described an input-state-output model that combined (i) the Balloon/Windkessel model of nonlinear coupling between rCBF and BOLD signals, and (ii) a linear model of how regional flow changes with synaptic activity. In the present investigation, the input-state-output model was used to explore the dependence of simulated PET (rCBF) and fMRI (BOLD) signals on various parameters pertaining to experimental design. Biophysical simulations were used to estimate rCBF and BOLD responses as functions of (a) a prior stimulus, (b) epoch length (for a fixed SOA), (c) SOA (for a fixed number of events), and (d) stimulus amplitude. We also addressed the notion that a single neuronal response may differ, in terms of the relative contributions of early and late neural components, and investigated the effect of (e) the relative size of the late or "endogenous" neural component. We were interested in the estimated average rCBF and BOLD responses per stimulus or event, not in the statistical efficiency with which these responses are detected. The BOLD response was underestimated relative to rCBF with a preceding stimulus, increasing epoch length, and increasing SOA. Furthermore, the BOLD response showed some highly nonlinear behaviour when varying stimulus amplitude, suggesting some form of hemodynamic "rectification." Finally, the BOLD response was underestimated in the context of large late neuronal components. The difference between rCBF and BOLD is attributed to the nonlinear transduction of rCBF to BOLD signal. Our simulations support the idea that varying parameters that specify the experimental design may have differential effects in PET and fMRI. Moreover, they show that fMRI can be asymmetric in its ability to detect deactivations relative to activations when an absolute baseline is stipulated. Finally, our simulations

  7. The usefulness of CBF brain SPECT in forensic medicine: the civil law codes cases. A description of four cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskunowicz, M.; Lass, P.; Bandurski, T.; Krzyzanowski, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this report was to assess the usefulness of cerebral blood flow (CBF) scanning utilising the SPECT technique in forensic medicine cases in the area of civil law cases. CBF SPECT scanning was performed in four patients utilising 99m Tc-ECD and a triple-head gammacamera. In the analysis both the asymmetry index and cerebellar normalisation were applied. Reference values were obtained by studying 30 healthy volunteers. In those cases CBF SPECT scanning played an important role in forensic argument. It influenced the sentence and the amount of financial compensation. CBF SPECT scanning may provide valuable information in forensic medicine argument in civil law cases, but only when taken together with psychometric tests and other neuroimaging methods (CT, MRI). The value of CBF SPECT scanning alone may be limited in judicial proceedings. (author)

  8. Acute effects of electroconvulsive therapy on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prohovnik, I.; Alderson, P.O.; Sackheim, H.A.; Decina, P.; Kahn, D.

    1984-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is frequently used in the treatment of major depression and other psychiatric disorders; its mechanism of action is not established, but previous evidence suggests that it is associated with postictal metabolic suppression. The authors have used measurements of rCBF as an index of cortical metabolic activity to study the acute effects of ECT. Measurements of rCBF were made in 32 cortical regions in 10 patients (pts) following one minute breathing of Xe-133 (5mCi/L); the measurements were performed 30min before and 50min after ECT. Bilateral ECT was administered to six pts (five diagnosed as major depressives and one schizophrenic) and unilateral ECT to four (all diagnosed as unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). The total rCBF material consists of 52 measurements in these pts, made before and after 16 bilateral and 10 unilateral treatments. ECT was found to cause significant reduction of rCBF. Mean hemispheric flows (using the Initial Slope Index to measure grey-matter flow) were reduced by about 5% in both hemispheres following bilateral treatment. Unilateral treatment caused a 9% reduction of flow in the treated hemisphere, but only 2% contralaterally. Regional patterns of flow decreases also differed between the two treatment modes: bilateral frontal reductions were found after bilateral treatment, whereas unilateral ECT caused a widespread flow reduction in the treated hemisphere, and almost no effect contralaterally. These results suggest that rCBF studies are useful for assessing ECT, and indicate that the acute cerebral effects of ECT vary with the mode of treatment

  9. A noninvasive approach to quantitative functional brain mapping with H215O and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, P.T.; Mintun, M.A.; Raichle, M.E.; Herscovitch, P.

    1984-01-01

    Positron emission tomographic (PET) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with intravenously administered 15 O-labeled water and an adaptation of the Kety autoradiographic model are well suited to the study of functional-anatomical correlations within the human brain. This model requires arterial blood sampling to determine rCBF from the regional tissue radiotracer concentration (Cr) recorded by the tomograph. Based upon the well-defined, nearly linear relation between Cr and rCBF inherent in the model, we have developed a method for estimating changes in rCBF from changes in Cr without calculating true rCBF and thus without arterial sampling. This study demonstrates that quantitative functional brain mapping does not require the determination of rCBF from Cr when regional neuronal activation is expressed as the change in rCBF from an initial, resting-state measurement. Patterned-flash visual stimulation was used to produce a wide range of increases in rCBF within the striate cortex. Changes in occipital rCBF were found to be accurately estimated directly from Cr over a series of 56 measurements on eight subjects. This adaptation of the PET/autoradiographic method serves to simplify its application and to make it more acceptable to the subject

  10. Cerebral blood flow mapping in children with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numaguchi, Y.; Humbert, J.R.; Robinson, A.E.; Lindstrom, W.W.; Gruenauer, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    A cerebral blood flow mapping system was applied to the evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 21 patients with sickle cell cerebrovascular disease, by means of a Picker xenon computed tomographic (CT) scanner. Results indicate that (1) xenon CT is a safe and reliable procedure in children with cerebrovascular diseases; (2) CBF in the gray matter of children seems to be higher than in previously reported data obtained with use of isotopes; and (3) regional CBF can be altered significantly by changing the size of the region of interest (ROI). The term regional CBF probably has to be carefully defined in xenon CT flow mapping. Correlation with anatomy by means of CT or magnetic resonance imaging and comparison with the ROI of the contralateral side and/or adjacent sections is important

  11. Memory functions and rCBF-99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT: Developing diagnostics in Alzheimer's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstroem, T.; Riklund Ahlstroem, K.; Elgh, E.; Naesman, B.; Nyberg, L.

    2002-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease of the brain. The prevalence increases with age with devastating consequences for the individual and for the society. The aim of this study was to evaluate if patients with early AD show an altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) compared to control persons. The aim was furthermore to investigate the correlation between rCBF in sub-lobar volumes of the brain and performance on memory tests. Memory tests were chosen to evaluate episodic and semantic memory. Fourteen patients (75.2±8.8 yrs) with early AD, and 15 control persons (71.4±3.2 yrs) were included. rCBF measurements with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) using 99m Tc-hexamethyl propylenamine oxime (HMPAO) were performed. The rCBF- 99m Tc-HMPAO-SPECT images were spatially transformed to fit a brain atlas and normalized for differences in rCBF (Computerized Brain Atlas software). Cortical and sub-cortical volumes of interests (VOI) were analyzed and compared. Compared to the controls, AD-patients showed a significantly lower rCBF ratio in temporoparietal regions including left hippocampus. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for AD were high in temporoparietal regions. AD-patients had significantly reduced performance on semantic and, in particular, episodic memory tests compared to age matched normative data, and their performance on several episodic tests correlated with rCBF ratios in parietal and temporal regions including left hippocampus. The correlation between rCBF ratio and level of episodic memory performance suggests that abnormalities in rCBF pattern underlie impaired episodic memory functioning in AD

  12. Memory functions and rCBF 99mTc-HMPAO SPET: developing diagnostics in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgh, Eva; Naesman, Birgitta; Sundstroem, Torbjoern; Aahlstroem, Katrine Riklund; Nyberg, Lars

    2002-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease of the brain. The prevalence increases with age, with devastating consequences for the individual and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with early AD show an altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) compared with control persons. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the correlation between rCBF in sublobar volumes of the brain and performance on memory tests. Memory tests were chosen to evaluate episodic and semantic memory. Fourteen patients (aged 75.2±8.8 years) with early AD and 15 control persons (aged 71.4±3.2 years) were included. rCBF measurements with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) were performed. The rCBF 99m Tc-HMPAO SPET images were spatially transformed to fit a brain atlas and normalised for differences in rCBF (Computerised Brain Atlas software). Cortical and subcortical volumes of interest (VOIs) were analysed and compared. Compared with the controls, AD patients showed a significantly lower rCBF ratio in temporoparietal regions, including the left hippocampus. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for AD were high in temporoparietal regions. AD patients had significantly reduced performance on semantic and, in particular, episodic memory tests compared with age-matched normative data, and their performance on several episodic tests correlated with rCBF ratios in parietal and temporal regions, including the left hippocampus. The correlation between rCBF ratio and level of episodic memory performance suggests that abnormalities in rCBF pattern underlie impaired episodic memory functioning in AD. (orig.)

  13. Statistical parametric mapping analysis of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and symptom clusters of the depressive mood in patients with pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong-Jang; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and symptom clusters of depressive mood in pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Twenty-seven patients with stage 4-5 CKD were subjected to statistical parametric mapping analysis of brain single-photon emission computed tomography. Correlation analyses between separate symptom clusters of depressive mood and rCBF were done. The first factor (depressive mood) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right insula, posterior cingulate gyrus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the left fusiform gyrus. The second factor (insomnia) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyri, right insula, right putamen, and right inferior parietal lobule, and positively correlated with rCBF in left fusiform gyrus and bilateral cerebellar tonsils. The third factor (anxiety and psychomotor aspects) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyms, right superior frontal gyms, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left superior frontal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the right ligual gyrus and right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, the separate symptom clusters were correlated with specific rCBF patterns similar to those in major depressive disorder patients without CKD. However, some areas with discordant rCBF patterns were also noted when compared with major depressive disorder patients. Further larger scale investigations are needed. (author)

  14. Effect of memantine on CBF and CMRO2 in patients with early Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, P; Vafaee, M; Ostergaard, K

    2008-01-01

    Objectives –  Parkinson’s disease (PD) may be associated with increased energy metabolism in overactive regions of the basal ganglia. Therefore, we hypothesized that treatment with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist memantine would decrease regional cerebral blood flow (r......CBF) and oxygen metabolism in the basal ganglia of patients with early-stage PD. Methods –  Quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) recordings were obtained with [15O]water and [15O]oxygen in 10 patients, scanned first in a baseline condition, and again 6 weeks after treatment with a daily dose of 20 mg...... memantine. Dynamic PET data were analyzed using volume of interest and voxel-based approaches. Results –  The treatment evoked rCBF decreases in basal ganglia, and in several frontal cortical areas. The regional cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO2) did not decrease in any of the a priori defined...

  15. Combination of dynamic and integral methods for generating reproducible functional CBF images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammertsma, A.A.; Cunningham, V.J.; Deiber, M.P.; Heather, J.D.; Bloomfield, P.M.; Nutt, J.; Frackowiak, R.S.; Jones, T.

    1990-01-01

    A new method to measure regional CBF is presented, applying both dynamic and integral analyses to a dynamic sequence of positron emission tomographic scans collected during and following the administration of H2(15)O (inhalation of C15O2). The dynamic analysis is used to correct continuously monitored arterial whole-blood activity for delay and dispersion relative to tissue scans. An integral analysis including corrections for this delay and dispersion is then used to calculate CBF on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Normal values and reproducibility over a 2-h period are presented, together with the results of validation and simulation studies. The results indicate that the single-tissue compartment model adequately describes the distribution of H2(15)O in the brain, without recourse to postulating a nonexchanging water pool

  16. Changes of rCBF 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in a selected disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junik, R.

    2003-01-01

    With single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) and HMPAO a noninvasive examination of regional cerebral blood flow can be performed (rCBF). The purpose of the SPECT examinations was to define the location and magnitude of blood flow disorder in selected diseases and the assessment of the results as complementary to morphological tests CT and MRI or functional tests, such as EEG. The examinations were carried out in 455 patients: 91 - patients with depression, 29 - congenital hypothyroidism, 66 - migraine, 34 - epilepsy, 6 - Landau-Kleffner syndrome, 20 - Alzheimer disease, 55 - with suspected Alzheimer disease, 105 - cerebral stroke, and 48 - transient cerebral ischemia. The control group comprised of 26 subjects. The SPECT method was used to perform examinations. The images were evaluated based on semiquantitative method. The asymmetry of activity and activity referred to the referential region were measured using symmetrical ROIs localized in hypoperfusion foci. The differences in perfusion in symmetric locations exceeding 10% were considered abnormal. During the depression stage, in patients with depression, a decrease of rCBF occurred. Regression of depression results in an increase of rCBF almost in the entire cerebrum. In patients with depression, SPECT examination is a useful method to monitor course of a disease and to objectively verify the results of treatment. 2. Disorders of rCBF, a decrease and/or asymmetry, occurred in patients with congenital hypothyroidism, migraine, and epilepsy. 3. There is a relation between patterns of cerebral perfusion in stroke, visible in SPECT image, and an extent and intensity of cerebral ischemia. (author)

  17. rCBF change in the brain of patients with major depressive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da; Xu Wei; Zhan Hongwei; Liu Hongbiao

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Major depressive disorder is a frequent emotional mood disorder. To evaluate the changes of brain blood flow in patients with depressive disorder and the correlation between rCBF and clinical feature is very important to diagnosis and treatment of this decease. Methods: Regional cerebral perfusion was investigated using SPECT in 75 patients with depressive disorders. The mean ages of the patients were 41.9 (17-74) Years old. The course of disease was different from several days to over 20 years. Results: 97.3 per cent of patients (73/75) had relative hypoperfusions in some cerebral regions. The patients had a significant decrease of rCBF in the frontal lobesbilaterally, and temporal lobes, basal ganglia, thalamus and parietal lobe. The course of disease and age of the patients had a negative correlation with the changes of rCBF. Conclusion: According to the results of our study, patients with depressive disorders had profound dysfunction of the frontal lobes bilaterally. The temporal cortices and basal ganglia were involved in most patients too. It is coincident with the results of other studies. The function of frontal lobes and temporal lobes is close relation close with affective action, attention, memory, thinking, abstraction, and other brain cognitive function. The clinical symptom of depressive disorder may be relevant with hypoperfusions of frontal lobes and temporal lobes. (authors)

  18. PIF3 is a negative regulator of the CBF pathway and freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bochen; Shi, Yiting; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xin, Xiaoyun; Qi, Lijuan; Guo, Hongwei; Li, Jigang; Yang, Shuhua

    2017-01-01

    Light and temperature are major environmental factors that coordinately control plant growth and survival. However, how plants integrate light and temperature signals to better adapt to environmental stresses is poorly understood. PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3), a key transcription factor repressing photomorphogenesis, has been shown to play a pivotal role in mediating plants’ responses to various environmental signals. In this study, we found that PIF3 functions as a negative regulator of Arabidopsis freezing tolerance by directly binding to the promoters of C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) genes to down-regulate their expression. In addition, two F-box proteins, EIN3-BINDING F-BOX 1 (EBF1) and EBF2, directly target PIF3 for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. Consistently, ebf1 and ebf2 mutants were more sensitive to freezing than were the wild type, and the pif3 mutation suppressed the freezing-sensitive phenotype of ebf1. Furthermore, cold treatment promoted the degradation of EBF1 and EBF2, leading to increased stability of the PIF3 protein and reduced expression of the CBF genes. Together, our study uncovers an important role of PIF3 in Arabidopsis freezing tolerance by negatively regulating the expression of genes in the CBF pathway. PMID:28739888

  19. Focal hyperemia followed by spreading oligemia and impaired activation of rCBF in classic migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, J.; Larsen, B.; Lauritzen, M.

    1981-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 254 areas of a hemisphere with the xenon 133 intraarterial injection method. Six cases of classic migraine were followed from the normal state into the prodromal phase, and in 3 cases further into the headache phase. One patient with common migraine was similarly followed during his only classic attack. The attacks were initiated by focal hyperemia in 3 patients. During prodromes all patients displayed occipitoparietal rCBF reduction (oligemia), but in only 1 case did the reduction approach critical values. Oligemia gradually spread anteriorly in the course of 15 to 45 minutes. In 4 patients a global oligemia was observed. In 4 patients severe headache was present concomitantly with oligemia and with no sign of hyperemia or nonhomogeneous brain perfusion. The normal rCBF increase during cortical activity (hand movement, speech, and similar activities) was impaired in 6 patients. The results indicate that the vasospastic model of the migraine attack is too simplistic

  20. Cloning and transformation of INDUCER of CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1) in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X H; Juan, J X; Gao, Z L; Zhang, Y; Li, W Y; Jiang, X M

    2015-10-27

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) is sensitive to cold, and low field temperatures can result in shortened growth periods and decreased crop yield. Transcription of CRT/DRE-binding factor (CBF) is regulated by INDUCER of CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1). CBF activates many downstream genes that confer cold tolerance on plants. ICE1 has been used in genetic engineering to improve cold-resistance in several plant species. Here, ICE1 in a plant expression vector was used to transform a tissue-cultured rhubarb tomato variety using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The transgenic and control plants were compared at 4°C for 0, 24, and 72 h. We measured leaf physiological indicators related to cold resistance, including malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline (Pro) contents, and peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities. At 72 h, the MDA content in transgenic plants was significantly lower than in control plants, indicating a lower membrane lipid injury. The Pro contents and the CAT and POD activities in the transgenic plants increased significantly compared with those of the control plants. For Pro, the increase continued over the prolonged stress exposure, while CAT and POD activities reached peak levels at 24 h. These results are consistent with the roles of Pro, CAT, and POD in defending the integrity of plant cells. Our study not only improves the cold resistance of tomato, but also provides the foundation for further research on the role of ICE1 as a transcription factor in plant cold resistance.

  1. Study of regional cerebral blood flow in alcohol dependents using statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xufeng; Li Peiyong; Zhu Chenmo; Yu Jinling

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alternations in alcohol dependents ,comparing with normal subjects using statistical parametric mapping. Methods: 99mTc-ECD SPECT brain imaging were performed in 14 alcohol dependents diagnosed with SCID-AD, and 23 age matched normal controls for comparison situation of rCBF in alcohol dependents was analyzed by SPM. Results: The rCBF of bilateral frontal lobe, fight cingulate gyms, right caudate body , bilateral cerebellar tonsil were significantly decreased in alcohol dependents, and the rCBF of left inferior temporal gyms, left middle temporal gyms, bilateral precentral gyms, left thalamus, leftparahippocampal gyms, right lentiform nucleus was significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: SPM analysis showed that significant rCBF change in alcohol dependents. (authors)

  2. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...... be estimated during neural activity using a reference condition obtained with known CMRO2 change. In this work, nine subjects were studied at a magnetic field of 1.5 T; each subject underwent inhalation of a 5% carbon dioxide gas mixture as a reference and two visual stimulation studies. Relative CBF and BOLD...... signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec...

  3. Cyclosporine A, FK506, and NIM811 ameliorate prolonged CBF reduction and impaired neurovascular coupling after cortical spreading depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Piilgaard; Witgen, Brent Marvin; Rasmussen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with mitochondrial depolarization, increasing intracellular Ca(2+), and the release of free fatty acids, which favor opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and activation of calcineurin (CaN). Here, we test the hypothesis...... and the specific CaN blocker FK506. Cortical spreading depression was induced in rat frontal cortex. Electrocortical activity was recorded by glass microelectrodes, CBF by laser Doppler flowmetry, and tissue oxygen tension with polarographic microelectrodes. Electrocortical activity, basal CBF, CMRO(2......), and neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling were unaffected by all three drugs under control conditions. NIM811 augmented the rise in CBF observed during CSD. Cyclosporine A and FK506 ameliorated the persistent decrease in CBF after CSD. All three drugs prevented disruption of neurovascular coupling after CSD...

  4. Usefulness of CBF measurement in the hyperacute phase of ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogawa, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    Thrombolytic therapy has emerged as a new treatment option in the hyperacute stage of ischemic stroke. Although a 15% increase in meaningful recovery has been observed at three months, it can also trigger devastating hemorrhagic transformations. Therefore, it is important to select suitable patients to undergo this treatment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement by xenon-enhanced CT (Xe-CT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke as well as its potential in identifying the occluded artery and the stroke subtype. In effect, this study examines the potential for Xe-CT to select the appropriate candidates for thrombolytic therapy. In 36 sequential patients (average age: 64.1±13.1) with sudden-onset of ischemic stroke (except for lacunar stroke) who had presented to our hospital within two hours after the onset, we performed Xe-CT and MRI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). A selective cerebral angiography was also done if further evaluation was warranted. We examined the sensitivity of Xe-CT in demonstrating the ischemic area compared with that of DWI, its potential to identify the stroke subtype, its ability to determine infarction and hemorrhage based on CBF thresholds, and its contribution to selection of thrombolysis candidates. Xe-CT was completed safely in 31 out of 34 patients (91%). Within three hours after symptom onset, Xe-CT detected the ischemic area in most of the patients (94%), whereas DWI failed to do so in 24%. Of 14 patients who underwent both Xe-CT and angiography, the diagnosis of the stroke subtype determined by Xe-CT was confirmed to be correct by angiography in 11 patients (79%). The CBF threshold of non-hemorrhagic infarction in the gray matter became constant (19 ml/100 g/min) at 3-5 hours after the onset. In hemorrhagic infarction, however, the threshold was initially found to be lower (9 ml/100 g/min) at 3-5 hours and reaching comparable levels with non-hemorrhagic subtypes

  5. Natural variation in CBF gene sequence, gene expression and freezing tolerance in the Versailles core collection of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunel Dominique

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants from temperate regions are able to withstand freezing temperatures due to a process known as cold acclimation, which is a prior exposure to low, but non-freezing temperatures. During acclimation, a large number of genes are induced, bringing about biochemical changes in the plant, thought to be responsible for the subsequent increase in freezing tolerance. Key regulatory proteins in this process are the CBF1, 2 and 3 transcription factors which control the expression of a set of target genes referred to as the "CBF regulon". Results To assess the role of the CBF genes in cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana, the CBF genes and their promoters were sequenced in the Versailles core collection, a set of 48 accessions that maximizes the naturally-occurring genetic diversity, as well as in the commonly used accessions Col-0 and WS. Extensive polymorphism was found in all three genes. Freezing tolerance was measured in all accessions to assess the variability in acclimated freezing tolerance. The effect of sequence polymorphism was investigated by evaluating the kinetics of CBF gene expression, as well as that of a subset of the target COR genes, in a set of eight accessions with contrasting freezing tolerance. Our data indicate that CBF genes as well as the selected COR genes are cold induced in all accessions, irrespective of their freezing tolerance. Although we observed different levels of expression in different accessions, CBF or COR gene expression was not closely correlated with freezing tolerance. Conclusion Our results indicate that the Versailles core collection contains significant natural variation with respect to freezing tolerance, polymorphism in the CBF genes and CBF and COR gene expression. Although there tends to be more CBF and COR gene expression in tolerant accessions, there are exceptions, reinforcing the idea that a complex network of genes is involved in freezing tolerance

  6. Comparison of rCBF between patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and normal controls using H215O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Sung; Nam, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas whose regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was changed in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) using H 2 15 O-PET. 12 patients with mTLE (6 left, 6 right mTLE) and 6 normal controls were scanned during a fixation baseline period and a sensory-motor condition where subjects pressed a button to an upward arrow. A voxel-based analysis using SPM99 software was performed to compare the patient groups with the normal controls for the rCBF during fixation baseline period and for relative changes of rCBF during the sensory-motor task relative to fixation. Duirng the fixation baseline, a significant reduction of rCBF was found posterior insula bilaterally and right frontopolar regions in right mTLE patients compared to the normal controls. In left mTLE patients, the reduction was found in left frontopolar and temporal regions. During the sensory-motor task, rCBF increase over the fixation period, was reduced in left frontal and superior temporal regions in the right mTLE patients whereas in various areas of right hemisphere in left mTLE patients, relative to normal controls. However, the increased rCBF was also found in the left inferior parietal and anterior thalamic/fornix regions in both right and left mTLE patients compared to normal controls. Epilepsy induced changes were found not only in relative increase/ decrease of rCBF during a simple sensory-motor control condition relative to a fixation rest condition but also in the relative rCBF distribution during the rest period

  7. The study of correlation between neurological function rehabilitation and dynamic change of rCBF in patients with aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haibo; Song Debiao; Kong Jun; Lv Junfeng; Tian Jing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the result of SPECT and CT in the patients with acute cerebral infarction and further more, to study the correlation between aphasia and dynamic change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients. Methods: Thirty cases with cerebral infarction of left basal ganglia were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of aphasia; the vision and semi-ration analysis were used in photograph reading and region of interest (ROI) technology, respectively. Results: 1) Group A: there was a low rCBF in left basal ganglia, the dimension was larger than that in CT. There was also a low rCBF in frontal lobe and temporal lobe. Group B: there was only a low rCBF in left basal ganglia. 2) There were 6 cases with crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in the patients with aphasia. 3) The comparison about aphasia: the rCBF was higher in language center in the patients with improved language function than that in the patients without language function improvement and the difference between them was significant. Conclusions: The neurological function can be indirectly reflected through the study of the rCBF. At the same time, it may conduce to the locating of the damage in the central nervous system and to the differentiation diagnosis. It may also conduce to the programming of the therapeutic course and prognostication. (authors)

  8. Potential language and attentional networks revealed through factor analysis of rCBF data measured with SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, T; Steinberg, B; Christensen, B

    1992-01-01

    We used changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to disclose regions involved in central auditory and language processing in the normal brain. rCBF was quantified with a fast-rotating, single-photon emission computerized tomograph (SPECT) and inhalation of 133Xe. rCBF data were obtained sim...... brain networks involved in (I) auditory/linguistic, (II) attentional, and (III) visual imaging activity.......We used changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to disclose regions involved in central auditory and language processing in the normal brain. rCBF was quantified with a fast-rotating, single-photon emission computerized tomograph (SPECT) and inhalation of 133Xe. rCBF data were obtained...... simultaneously from parallel, transverse slices of the brain. The lower slice was positioned to include both Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The upper slice included regions generally regarded by neurobehaviorists as less related to primary auditory or linguistic functions. We presented three types of auditory...

  9. SPECT image analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imon, Y; Matsuda, H; Ogawa, M; Kogure, D; Sunohara, N

    1999-10-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with Parkinson's disease using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 28 patients with Parkinson's disease and 48 age-matched healthy volunteers. The Parkinson's disease patients were divided into two groups, 16 patients with Hoehn and Yahr stage I or II and 12 patients with Hoehn and Yahr stage III or IV. We used the raw data (absolute rCBF parametric maps) and the adjusted rCBF images in relative flow distribution (normalization of global CBF for each subject to 50 mL/100 g/min with proportional scaling) to compare these groups with SPM. In patients with stage I or II Parkinson's disease, we found a diffuse decrease in absolute rCBF in the whole brain with sparing of the central gray matter, hippocampus and right lower temporal lobe compared with healthy volunteers. Adjusted rCBF increased in both putamina and the right hippocampus. In patients with stage III or IV disease, rCBF decreased throughout the whole brain. Adjusted rCBF increased bilaterally in the putamina, globi pallidi, hippocampi and cerebellar hemispheres (dentate nuclei) and in the left ventrolateral thalamus, right insula and right inferior temporal gyrus. SPM analysis showed that significant rCBF changes in Parkinson's disease accompanied disease progression and related to disease pathophysiology in the functional architecture of thalamocortex-basal ganglia circuits and related systems.

  10. Sequence-tagged high-density genetic maps of Zoysia japonica provide insights into genome evolution in Chloridoideae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Singh, Ratnesh; Genovesi, Anthony D; Wai, Ching Man; Huang, Xiaoen; Chandra, Ambika; Yu, Qingyi

    2015-06-01

    Zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.), belonging to the genus Zoysia in the subfamily Chloridoideae, is widely used in domestic lawns, sports fields and as forage. We constructed high-density genetic maps of Zoysia japonica using a restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) approach and an F1 mapping population derived from a cross between 'Carrizo' and 'El Toro'. Two linkage maps were constructed, one for each of the parents. A map consisting of 2408 RAD markers distributed on 21 linkage groups was constructed for 'Carrizo'. Another map with 1230 RAD markers mapped on 20 linkage groups was constructed for 'El Toro'. The average distance between adjacent markers of the two maps was at 0.56 and 1.4 cM, respectively. Comparative genomics analysis was carried out among zoysiagrass, rice and sorghum genomes and a highly conserved collinearity in the gene order was observed among the three genomes. Chromosome collinearity was disrupted at centromeric regions for each chromosome pair between zoysiagrass and sorghum genomes. However, no obvious synteny gaps were observed across the centromeric regions between zoysiagrass and rice genomes. Two homologous chromosomes for each of the 10 sorghum chromosomes were found in the zoysiagrass genome, indicating an allotetraploid origin for zoysiagrass. The reduction of the basic chromosome number from 12 to 10 in chloridoids and panicoids took place via independent single-step nested chromosome fusion events after the two subfamilies diverged from a common ancestor. The genetic maps will assist in genome sequence assembly, targeted gene isolation and comparative genomic analyses among grasses. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of a commercial PET tomograph-based system for the quantitative assessment of r CBF, rOEF and rCMRO{sub 2} by using sequential administration of {sup 15}O-labeled compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidahara, Miho; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong-Min [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan). Research Inst.] [and others

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and practical strategy that generates quantitative cerebral blood (CBF) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) maps accurately from PET data sets obtained with {sup 15}O-tracers. Sequential sinogram data sets were acquired after the administration of {sup 15}O-tracers, and combined single-frame images were obtained. The delay time between sampled input function and the brain was estimated from the H{sub 2}{sup 15}O study with the whole brain and the arterial time-activity curves (TACs). The whole-brain TACs were obtained from the reconstructed images (image-base method) and the sinogram data (sinogram-base method). Six methods were also evaluated for the dead-time and decay correction procedures in the process of generating a single-frame image from the dynamic sinogram. The estimated delay values were similar with both the sinogram-based and image-based methods. A lumped correction factor to a previously added single-frame sinogram caused an underestimation of CBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} by 16% at maximum, as compared with the correction procedure for a short sinogram. This suggested the need for a dynamic acquisition of a sinogram with a short interval. The proposed strategy provided an accurate quantification of CBF and OEF by PET with {sup 15}O-tracers. (author)

  12. Oil palm EgCBF3 conferred stress tolerance in transgenic tomato plants through modulation of the ethylene signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mortaza; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Abdul Aziz, Maheran; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2016-09-01

    CBF/DREB1 is a group of transcription factors that are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. They belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily of plant-specific transcription factors. A gene encoding a new member of this group was isolated from ripening oil palm fruit and designated as EgCBF3. The oil palm fruit demonstrates the characteristics of a climacteric fruit like tomato, in which ethylene has a major impact on the ripening process. A transgenic approach was used for functional characterization of the EgCBF3, using tomato as the model plant. The effects of ectopic expression of EgCBF3 were analyzed based on expression profiling of the ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, anti-freeze proteins (AFPs), abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth and development. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated altered phenotypes compared to the wild type tomatoes. Delayed leaf senescence and flowering, increased chlorophyll content and abnormal flowering were the consequences of overexpression of EgCBF3 in the transgenic tomatoes. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance under in vitro conditions. Further, transcript levels of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, including three SlACSs and two SlACOs, were altered in the transgenic plants' leaves and roots compared to that in the wild type tomato plant. Among the eight AFPs studied in the wounded leaves of the EgCBF3 tomato plants, transcript levels of SlOSM-L, SlNP24, SlPR5L and SlTSRF1 decreased, while expression of the other four, SlCHI3, SlPR1, SlPR-P2 and SlLAP2, were up-regulated. These findings indicate the possible functions of EgCBF3 in plant growth and development as a regulator of ethylene biosynthesis-related and AFP genes, and as a stimulator of abiotic stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Insights from the correlation of the preliminary Geologic and Mineralogic maps of Vesta from the Dawn mission data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S.; Garry, B.; Magni, G.; Palomba, E.; Petro, N.; Tosi, F.; Williams, D.; Zambon, F.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-04-01

    The Dawn mission to Vesta has greatly improved the quality and resolution of data available to explore the asteroid. Prior to the Dawn mission the best data available was the one from Hubble Space Telescope with a maximum resolution of 50 km per pixel. The survey phase of the mission has pushed spatial resolution up to about 100 meters per pixel by the Framing Camera on-board Dawn, and 700 meters per pixel for the VIR spectrometer, spanning the spectral range from the visible to infrared at 0.25-1 μm and 1-5 μm. The frames of the FC and VIR have been processed and mosaicked. A preliminary Geologic map has been produced by mapping units and structures over the FC mosaic and the DTM derived from stereo processing of visible imagery. We will present some examples of correlation between the preliminary geologic and VIR-derived mineralogic maps. The Dawn mission team is using Geographic Information System tools for locating frames and for data exchange among the team. The use of GIS tools and data formats significantly improves our ability to create and interpret geologic maps, and also improves the interoperability of high level data products among the instruments' team. VIR data have been synthesized into a series of spectral indicators that give indications on the mineralogical composition and the physical state of the surface. We ingested in GIS the the preliminary geologic map as units and structures and we projected the mosaics of spectral indicators in a common coordinate reference system. The first spectral indicators we started to look at were the Band Depth computed on pyroxene Band II and the Band Center also computed on Band II. The comparison of the preliminary geologic map and the mosaics of spectral indicators extracted from VIR data show promising aspects on both the geologic and mineralogic aspects. Geologic units are made up of bodies of rock that are interpreted to have been formed by a particular process or set of related processes over a discrete

  14. Mapping financial flows for immunisation in Uganda 2009/10 and 2010/11: New insights for methodologies and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Teresa; Zikusooka, Charlotte; Kwesiga, Brendan; Abewe, Christabel; Lagony, Stephen; Schutte, Carl; Marinda, Edmore; Humphreys, Kerrin; Motlogelwa, Katlego; Nombewu, Zipozihle Chuma; Brenzel, Logan; Kinghorn, Anthony

    2015-05-07

    The Global Vaccine Action Plan highlights the need for immunisation programmes to have sustainable access to predictable funding. A good understanding of current and future funding needs, commitments, and gaps is required to enhance planning, improve resource allocation and mobilisation, and to avoid funding bottlenecks, as well as to ensure that co-funding arrangements are appropriate. This study aimed to map the resource envelope and flows for immunisation in Uganda in 2009/10 and 2010/11. To assess costs and financing of immunisation, the study applied a common methodology as part of the multi-country Expanded Program on Immunisation Costing (EPIC) study (Brenzel et al., 2015). The financial mapping developed a customised extension of the System of Health Accounts (SHA) codes to explore immunisation financing in detail. Data were collected from government and external sources. The mapping was able to assess financing more comprehensively than many studies, and the simultaneous costing of routine immunisation collected detailed data about human resources costs. The Ugandan government contributed 56% and 42% of routine immunisation funds in 2009/10 and 2010/11, respectively, higher than previously estimated, and managed up to 90% of funds. Direct delivery of services used 93% of the immunisation financial resources in 2010/11, while the above service delivery costs were small (7%). Vaccines and supplies (41%) and salaries (38%) absorbed most funding. There were differences in the key cost categories between actual resource flows and the estimates from the comprehensive multi-year plan (cMYP). Results highlight that governments and partners need to improve systems to routinely track immunisation financing flows for enhanced accountability, performance, and sustainability. The modified SHA coding allowed financing to be mapped to specific immunisation activities, and could be used for standardised, resource tracking compatible with National Health Accounts (NHA

  15. Imaging of the appearance time of cerebral blood using [15O]H2O PET for the computation of correct CBF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Yukito; Sasakawa, Yasuhiro; Monden, Toshihide; Yamamoto, Yuka; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Iida, Hidehiro; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro

    2013-05-23

    Quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is important for the understanding of normal and pathologic brain physiology. Positron emission tomography (PET) with H215O (or C15O2) can quantify CBF and apply kinetic analyses, including autoradiography (ARG) and the basis function methods (BFM). These approaches, however, are sensitive to input function errors such as the appearance time of cerebral blood (ATB), known as the delay time. We estimated brain ATB in an image-based fashion to correct CBF by accounting for differences in computed CBF values using three different analyses: ARG and BFM with and without fixing the partition coefficient. Subject groups included those with no significant disorders, those with elevated cerebral blood volume, and those with reduced CBF. All subjects underwent PET examination, and CBF was estimated using the three analyses. The ATB was then computed from the differences of the obtained CBF values, and ATB-corrected CBF values were computed. ATB was also estimated for regions of interest (ROIs) of multiple cortical regions. The feasibility of the present method was tested in a simulation study. There were no significant differences in the obtained ATB between the image- and ROI-based methods. Significantly later appearance was found in the cerebellum compared to other brain regions for all groups. In cortical regions where CBF was reduced due to occlusive lesions, the ATB was 0.2 ± 1.2 s, which was significantly delayed relative to the contralateral regions. A simulation study showed that the ATB-corrected CBF was less sensitive to errors in input function, and noise on the tissue curve did not enhance the degree of noise on ATB-corrected CBF image. This study demonstrates the potential utility of visualizing the ATB in the brain, enabling the determination of CBF with less sensitivity to error in input function.

  16. Insights into the Influence of Priors in Posterior Mapping of Discrete Morphological Characters: A Case Study in Annonaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Gort, Gerrit; Richardson, James E.; Sosef, Marc S. M.; Chatrou, Lars W.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Posterior mapping is an increasingly popular hierarchical Bayesian based method used to infer character histories and reconstruct ancestral states at nodes of molecular phylogenies, notably of morphological characters. As for all Bayesian analyses specification of prior values is an integrative and important part of the analysis. He we provide an example of how alternative prior choices can seriously influence results and mislead interpretations. Methods/Principal Findings - For ...

  17. A study of cerebral hemodynamics in various cerebrovascular disorders by means of rCBF measurement with single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harano, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Xe-133 inhalation method, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured for the purpose of analyzing the pathophysiology of various cerebrovascular disorders. Included in this series were 38 normal volunteers (N), 72 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICD), 16 with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 9 with arteriovenous malformation (AVM), 6 with Moyamoya disease (MD), and 4 with hypertensive intracerebral hematoma (HIH). In the N group, rCBF was independent of sex and laterality. Increased rCBF was observed in the frontal region, as compared with other regions. A significantly increased rCBF was observed in the thirties decade of life; the difference in rCBF was, however, not statistically significant above the age of 30 years. In the ICD group, rCBF decreased in association with severer disorder. In cases of severe disorder, a significantly decreased rCBF was observed in the whole area, as compared with the control group. SPECT allowed early detection of decreased rCBF due to vaso-spasm in the SAH group. The groups of AVM, MD, and HIH showed decreased rCBF in the surrounding areas of the lesions. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction in the ICE-CBF-COR Signaling Pathway during Cold Stress in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Jin, Ya-Nan; Ding, Xi-Han; Wang, Wen-Jia; Zhai, Shan-Shan; Bai, Li-Ping; Guo, Zhi-Fu

    2017-10-01

    Low temperature is an abiotic stress that adversely affects the growth and production of plants. Resistance and adaptation of plants to cold stress is dependent upon the activation of molecular networks and pathways involved in signal transduction and the regulation of cold-stress related genes. Because it has numerous and complex genes, regulation factors, and pathways, research on the ICE-CBF-COR signaling pathway is the most studied and detailed, which is thought to be rather important for cold resistance of plants. In this review, we focus on the function of each member, interrelation among members, and the influence of manipulators and repressors in the ICE-CBF-COR pathway. In addition, regulation and signal transduction concerning plant hormones, circadian clock, and light are discussed. The studies presented provide a detailed picture of the ICE-CBF-COR pathway.

  19. Consumers' perceptions toward 3 different fermented dairy products: Insights from focus groups, word association, and projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmerino, Erick A; Ferraz, Juliana P; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Pinto, Letícia P F; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2017-11-01

    Yogurts, fermented milk beverages, and fermented milks have great similarity and are widely accepted by Brazilian population, but the factors that influence their choice and consumption are unknown. In this sense, the present study aimed to identify the main aspects involved in consumers' perception of 3 different products, comparing the findings by using the 2 fast qualitative methods, word association and projective mapping, and a standard method, focus group. The tasks were performed by different participants through graphic stimuli (word association and projective mapping) and focus interviews (focus group). Results showed that all the 3 methodologies identified numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the consumer choices regarding fermented dairy products. Major dimensions were closely related to the sensory aspects, emotional factors, perception of benefits, and composition, among others. It is noteworthy that the stimuli related to fermented milk beverages evoked rejecting responses, possibly due to the dissociation between information and consumers' expectation. Although minor differences were observed between the number and type of dimensions that were obtained, similar conclusions can be drawn from all 3 sensory methods, which shows the relevance of qualitative and projective methods for investigation of consumers' perception. These findings can help dairy companies to provide subsidies and guidelines for the reformulation of their products, marketing strategies, and improvement in the communication between producers and consumers from different fermented dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Working memory capacity and the functional connectome - insights from resting-state fMRI and voxelwise centrality mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markett, Sebastian; Reuter, Martin; Heeren, Behrend; Lachmann, Bernd; Weber, Bernd; Montag, Christian

    2018-02-01

    The functional connectome represents a comprehensive network map of functional connectivity throughout the human brain. To date, the relationship between the organization of functional connectivity and cognitive performance measures is still poorly understood. In the present study we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to explore the link between the functional connectome and working memory capacity in an individual differences design. Working memory capacity, which refers to the maximum amount of context information that an individual can retain in the absence of external stimulation, was assessed outside the MRI scanner and estimated based on behavioral data from a change detection task. Resting-state time series were analyzed by means of voxelwise degree and eigenvector centrality mapping, which are data-driven network analytic approaches for the characterization of functional connectivity. We found working memory capacity to be inversely correlated with both centrality in the right intraparietal sulcus. Exploratory analyses revealed that this relationship was putatively driven by an increase in negative connectivity strength of the structure. This resting-state connectivity finding fits previous task based activation studies that have shown that this area responds to manipulations of working memory load.

  1. In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Shiga, Yusei; Itoyama, Yasuhito [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Sendai (Japan); Furumoto, Shozo [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tashiro, Manabu [Tohoku University, Division of Cyclotron Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tsuboi, Yoshio [Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Fukuoka (Japan); Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki [Institute of Development, Aging, and Cancer, Tohoku University, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Division of Brain Sciences, Sendai (Japan); Iwata, Ren [Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Kudo, Yukitsuka [Tohoku University, Innovation of New Biomedical Engineering Center, Sendai (Japan); Doh-ura, Katsumi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Prion Research, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [{sup 11}C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)

  2. In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [11C]BF-227 PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Shiga, Yusei; Itoyama, Yasuhito; Furumoto, Shozo; Tashiro, Manabu; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Ren; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Doh-ura, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [ 11 C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [ 11 C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)

  3. Deformation and evolution of an experimental drainage network subjected to oblique deformation: Insight from chi-maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerit, Laure; Goren, Liran; Dominguez, Stéphane; Malavieille, Jacques; Castelltort, Sébastien

    2017-04-01

    The morphology of a fluvial landscape reflects a balance between its own dynamics and external forcings, and therefore holds the potential to reveal local or large-scale tectonic patterns. Commonly, particular focus has been cast on the longitudinal profiles of rivers as they constitute sensitive recorders of vertical movements, that can be recovered based on models of bedrock incision. However, several recent studies have suggested that maps of rescaled distance along channel called chi (χ), derived from the commonly observed power law relation between the slope and the drainage area , could reveal transient landscapes in state of reorganization of basin geometry and location of water divides. If river networks deforms in response to large amount of distributed strain, then they might be used to reconstruct the mode and rate of horizontal deformation away from major active structures through the use of the parameter χ. To explore how streams respond to tectonic horizontal deformation, we develop an experimental model for studying river pattern evolution over a doubly-vergent orogenic wedge growing in a context of oblique convergence. We use a series of sprinklers located about the experimental table to activate erosion, sediment transport and river development on the surface of the experimental wedge. At the end of the experiment, the drainage network is statistically rotated clockwise, confirming that rivers can record the distribution of motion along the wedge. However, the amount of rotation does not match with the imposed deformation, and thus we infer that stream networks are not purely passive markers. Based on the comparison between the observed evolution of the fluvial system and the predictions made from χ maps, we show that the plan-view morphology of the streams results from the competition between the imposed deformation and fluvial processes of drainage reorganization.

  4. Premature Ventricular Contraction Coupling Interval Variability Destabilizes Cardiac Neuronal and Electrophysiological Control: Insights from Simultaneous Cardio-Neural Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, David; Rajendran, Pradeep S.; Chui, Ray W.; Ajijola, Olujimi A.; Irie, Tadanobu; Talebi, Ramin; Salavatian, Siamak; Vaseghi, Marmar; Bradfield, Jason S.; Armour, J. Andrew; Ardell, Jeffrey L.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2017-01-01

    Background Variability in premature ventricular contraction (PVC) coupling interval (CI) increases the risk of cardiomyopathy and sudden death. The autonomic nervous system regulates cardiac electrical and mechanical indices, and its dysregulation plays an important role in cardiac disease pathogenesis. The impact of PVCs on the intrinsic cardiac nervous system (ICNS), a neural network on the heart, remains unknown. The objective was to determine the effect of PVCs and CI on ICNS function in generating cardiac neuronal and electrical instability using a novel cardio-neural mapping approach. Methods and Results In a porcine model (n=8) neuronal activity was recorded from a ventricular ganglion using a microelectrode array, and cardiac electrophysiological mapping was performed. Neurons were functionally classified based on their response to afferent and efferent cardiovascular stimuli, with neurons that responded to both defined as convergent (local reflex processors). Dynamic changes in neuronal activity were then evaluated in response to right ventricular outflow tract PVCs with fixed short, fixed long, and variable CI. PVC delivery elicited a greater neuronal response than all other stimuli (P<0.001). Compared to fixed short and long CI, PVCs with variable CI had a greater impact on neuronal response (P<0.05 versus short CI), particularly on convergent neurons (P<0.05), as well as neurons receiving sympathetic (P<0.05) and parasympathetic input (P<0.05). The greatest cardiac electrical instability was also observed following variable (short) CI PVCs. Conclusions Variable CI PVCs affect critical populations of ICNS neurons and alter cardiac repolarization. These changes may be critical for arrhythmogenesis and remodeling leading to cardiomyopathy. PMID:28408652

  5. Premature Ventricular Contraction Coupling Interval Variability Destabilizes Cardiac Neuronal and Electrophysiological Control: Insights From Simultaneous Cardioneural Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, David; Rajendran, Pradeep S; Chui, Ray W; Ajijola, Olujimi A; Irie, Tadanobu; Talebi, Ramin; Salavatian, Siamak; Vaseghi, Marmar; Bradfield, Jason S; Armour, J Andrew; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2017-04-01

    Variability in premature ventricular contraction (PVC) coupling interval (CI) increases the risk of cardiomyopathy and sudden death. The autonomic nervous system regulates cardiac electrical and mechanical indices, and its dysregulation plays an important role in cardiac disease pathogenesis. The impact of PVCs on the intrinsic cardiac nervous system, a neural network on the heart, remains unknown. The objective was to determine the effect of PVCs and CI on intrinsic cardiac nervous system function in generating cardiac neuronal and electric instability using a novel cardioneural mapping approach. In a porcine model (n=8), neuronal activity was recorded from a ventricular ganglion using a microelectrode array, and cardiac electrophysiological mapping was performed. Neurons were functionally classified based on their response to afferent and efferent cardiovascular stimuli, with neurons that responded to both defined as convergent (local reflex processors). Dynamic changes in neuronal activity were then evaluated in response to right ventricular outflow tract PVCs with fixed short, fixed long, and variable CI. PVC delivery elicited a greater neuronal response than all other stimuli ( P <0.001). Compared with fixed short and long CI, PVCs with variable CI had a greater impact on neuronal response ( P <0.05 versus short CI), particularly on convergent neurons ( P <0.05), as well as neurons receiving sympathetic ( P <0.05) and parasympathetic input ( P <0.05). The greatest cardiac electric instability was also observed after variable (short) CI PVCs. Variable CI PVCs affect critical populations of intrinsic cardiac nervous system neurons and alter cardiac repolarization. These changes may be critical for arrhythmogenesis and remodeling, leading to cardiomyopathy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in sauropsids: evolutionary insights from cDNA mapping and GC3 profiling in snake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsubara Kazumi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extant sauropsids (reptiles and birds are divided into two major lineages, the lineage of Testudines (turtles and Archosauria (crocodilians and birds and the lineage of Lepidosauria (tuatara, lizards, worm lizards and snakes. Karyotypes of these sauropsidan groups generally consist of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. In chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher GC-content than macrochromosomes. To examine the pattern of intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in lepidosaurian genomes, we constructed a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata with 183 cDNA clones by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and examined the correlation between the GC-content of exonic third codon positions (GC3 of the genes and the size of chromosomes on which the genes were localized. Results Although GC3 distribution of snake genes was relatively homogeneous compared with those of the other amniotes, microchromosomal genes showed significantly higher GC3 than macrochromosomal genes as in chicken. Our snake cytogenetic map also identified several conserved segments between the snake macrochromosomes and the chicken microchromosomes. Cross-species comparisons revealed that GC3 of most snake orthologs in such macrochromosomal segments were GC-poor (GC3 3 ≥ 50%. Conclusion Our results suggest that the chromosome size-dependent GC heterogeneity had already occurred before the lepidosaur-archosaur split, 275 million years ago. This character was probably present in the common ancestor of lepidosaurs and but lost in the lineage leading to Anolis during the diversification of lepidosaurs. We also identified several genes whose GC-content might have been influenced by the size of the chromosomes on which they were harbored over the course of sauropsid evolution.

  7. Intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in sauropsids: evolutionary insights from cDNA mapping and GC3 profiling in snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Extant sauropsids (reptiles and birds) are divided into two major lineages, the lineage of Testudines (turtles) and Archosauria (crocodilians and birds) and the lineage of Lepidosauria (tuatara, lizards, worm lizards and snakes). Karyotypes of these sauropsidan groups generally consist of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. In chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher GC-content than macrochromosomes. To examine the pattern of intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in lepidosaurian genomes, we constructed a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata) with 183 cDNA clones by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and examined the correlation between the GC-content of exonic third codon positions (GC3) of the genes and the size of chromosomes on which the genes were localized. Results Although GC3 distribution of snake genes was relatively homogeneous compared with those of the other amniotes, microchromosomal genes showed significantly higher GC3 than macrochromosomal genes as in chicken. Our snake cytogenetic map also identified several conserved segments between the snake macrochromosomes and the chicken microchromosomes. Cross-species comparisons revealed that GC3 of most snake orthologs in such macrochromosomal segments were GC-poor (GC3 < 50%) whereas those of chicken orthologs in microchromosomes were relatively GC-rich (GC3 ≥ 50%). Conclusion Our results suggest that the chromosome size-dependent GC heterogeneity had already occurred before the lepidosaur-archosaur split, 275 million years ago. This character was probably present in the common ancestor of lepidosaurs and but lost in the lineage leading to Anolis during the diversification of lepidosaurs. We also identified several genes whose GC-content might have been influenced by the size of the chromosomes on which they were harbored over the course of sauropsid evolution. PMID:23140509

  8. Intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in sauropsids: evolutionary insights from cDNA mapping and GC(3) profiling in snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kazumi; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Tarui, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Osamu; Nishida, Chizuko; Agata, Kiyokazu; Kumazawa, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2012-11-09

    Extant sauropsids (reptiles and birds) are divided into two major lineages, the lineage of Testudines (turtles) and Archosauria (crocodilians and birds) and the lineage of Lepidosauria (tuatara, lizards, worm lizards and snakes). Karyotypes of these sauropsidan groups generally consist of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. In chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher GC-content than macrochromosomes. To examine the pattern of intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in lepidosaurian genomes, we constructed a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata) with 183 cDNA clones by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and examined the correlation between the GC-content of exonic third codon positions (GC3) of the genes and the size of chromosomes on which the genes were localized. Although GC3 distribution of snake genes was relatively homogeneous compared with those of the other amniotes, microchromosomal genes showed significantly higher GC3 than macrochromosomal genes as in chicken. Our snake cytogenetic map also identified several conserved segments between the snake macrochromosomes and the chicken microchromosomes. Cross-species comparisons revealed that GC3 of most snake orthologs in such macrochromosomal segments were GC-poor (GC3 < 50%) whereas those of chicken orthologs in microchromosomes were relatively GC-rich (GC3 ≥ 50%). Our results suggest that the chromosome size-dependent GC heterogeneity had already occurred before the lepidosaur-archosaur split, 275 million years ago. This character was probably present in the common ancestor of lepidosaurs and but lost in the lineage leading to Anolis during the diversification of lepidosaurs. We also identified several genes whose GC-content might have been influenced by the size of the chromosomes on which they were harbored over the course of sauropsid evolution.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas putida CBF10-2, a Soil Isolate with Bioremediation Potential in Agricultural and Industrial Environmental Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Rupa; Damania, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida CBF10-2 is a microorganism isolated from farmland soil in Fairchild, TX, found to degrade high-impact xenobiotics, including organophosphate insecticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, and both monocyclic and polycyclic aromatics. The versatility of CBF10-2 makes it useful for multipurpose bioremediation of contaminated sites in agricultural and industrial environments.

  10. Runx1–Cbfβ facilitates early B lymphocyte development by regulating expression of Ebf1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wooseok; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Kawamoto, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Although Runx and Cbfβ transcription factor complexes are involved in the development of multiple hematopoietic lineages, their precise roles in early mouse B lymphocyte differentiation remain elusive. In this study, we examined mouse strains in which Runx1, Runx3, or Cbfβ were deleted in early B lineage progenitors by an mb1-cre transgene. Loss of Runx1, but not Runx3, caused a developmental block during early B lymphopoiesis, resulting in the lack of IgM+ B cells and reduced VH to DJH recombination. Expression of core transcription factors regulating early B cell development, such as E2A, Ebf1, and Pax5, was reduced in B cell precursors lacking Runx1. We detected binding of Runx1–Cbfβ complexes to the Ebf1 proximal promoter, and these Runx-binding motifs were essential to drive reporter gene expression. Runx1-deficient pro-B cells harbored excessive amounts of the repressive histone mark H3K27 trimethylation in the Ebf1 proximal promoter. Interestingly, retroviral transduction of Ebf1, but not Pax5, into Runx1-deficient progenitors restored not only development of B220+ cells that underwent VH to DJH rearrangement but also expression of B lineage signature genes. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Runx1–Cbfβ complexes are essential to facilitate B lineage specification, in part via epigenetic activation of the Ebf1 gene. PMID:22665574

  11. Delayed reflow of an ischemic infarct after spontaneous thrombolysis studied by CBF tomography using SPECT and Tc-99m HMPAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Companioni, J M; Lassen, N A; Tfelt-Hansen, P

    1991-01-01

    A patient with a large ischemic infarct in the left middle cerebral artery territory was studied six times in the acute/subacute phase by cerebral blood flow (CBF) tomography using Tc-99m-HMPAO. The SPECT instrument used was a brain dedicated highly sensitive four-camera system (TOMOMATIC 232...

  12. Perfusion and diffusion MRI study detecting CBF disturbance and edema formation in the acute phase of cerebral contusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamata, Tatsuro; Aoyama, Naoki; Mori, Tatsuro; Maeda, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoichi

    1998-01-01

    In order to clarify the mechanisms underlying cerebral contusion-induced CBF disturbance and edema formation, echoplanar diffusion and perfusion images were obtained in the patients with cerebral contusion. In the acute phase within 48 hours post-trauma, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) showed various levels with a tendency to increase in the central area of contusion (ADC ratio=1.06±0.21). In contrast, the ADC was significantly reduced in the peripheral area of contusion (ADC ratio=0.87±0.16). The ADC at 2 weeks post-trauma increased both in the central (ADC ratio=1.16±0.26) and the peripheral area of contusion (ADC ratio=1.10±0.26, p<0.05), as compared to those within 48 hours post-trauma. The perfusion images showed a wide spread CBF depression extending beyond the area of contusion observed on the T1 and T2 weighted images. These results indicate that; in the early phase of contusion-induced edema formation, cytotoxic edema is predominant, especially in the peripheral area of contusion, and vasogenic edema appears thereafter. The CBF depression may contribute such cytotoxic edema formation in the surrounding area of cerebral contusion. It is concluded that echo-planar diffusion and perfusion images are excellent technique to investigate the evolution of CBF disturbance and edema formation following traumatic brain injury. (author)

  13. Cerebrovascular ETB, 5-HT1B, and AT1 receptor upregulation correlates with reduction in regional CBF after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Vikman, Petter; Nielsen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    with the reduction in regional and global cerebral blood flow (CBF) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH was induced by injecting 250 microl blood into the prechiasmatic cistern in rats. The cerebral arteries were removed 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after the SAH for functional and molecular studies...

  14. LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping: insights into the crystallisation history of a metamorphic garnet population

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Freya; Gaidies, Fred

    2017-04-01

    In comparison to our understanding of major element zoning, relatively little is known about the incorporation of trace elements into metamorphic garnet. Given their extremely slow diffusivities and sensitivity to changing mineral assemblages, the analysis of the distribution of trace elements in garnet has the potential to yield a wealth of information pertaining to interfacial attachment mechanisms during garnet crystallisation, the mobility of trace elements in both garnet and the matrix, and trace element geochronology. Due to advances in the spatial resolution and analytical precision of modern microbeam techniques, small-scale trace element variations can increasingly be documented and used to inform models of metamorphic crystallisation. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in particular, can be used to rapidly quantify a wide range of elemental masses as a series of laser rasters, producing large volumes of spatially constrained trace element data. In this study, we present LA-ICP-MS maps of trace element concentrations from numerous centrally-sectioned garnets representative of the crystal size-distribution of a single sample's population. The study sample originates from the garnet-grade Barrovian zone of the Lesser Himalayan Sequence in Sikkim, northeast India, and has been shown to have crystallised garnet within a single assemblage between 515 ˚C and 565˚C, with no evidence for accessory phase reaction over the duration of garnet growth. Previous models have indicated that the duration of garnet crystallisation was extremely rapid (growth. In spite of straightforward (i.e. concentrically-zoned) major element garnet zonation, trace elements maps are characterised by significant complexity and variability. Y and the heavy rare earth elements are strongly enriched in crystal cores, where there is overprinting of the observed internal fabric, and exhibit numerous concentric annuli towards crystal rims. Conversely, the

  15. Mapping the diatom redox-sensitive proteome provides insight into response to nitrogen stress in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Shilo; Graff van Creveld, Shiri; Schatz, Daniella; Malitsky, Sergey; Tzfadia, Oren; Aharoni, Asaph; Levin, Yishai; Gabashvili, Alexandra; Feldmesser, Ester; Vardi, Assaf

    2014-02-18

    Diatoms are ubiquitous marine photosynthetic eukaryotes responsible for approximately 20% of global photosynthesis. Little is known about the redox-based mechanisms that mediate diatom sensing and acclimation to environmental stress. Here we used a quantitative mass spectrometry-based approach to elucidate the redox-sensitive signaling network (redoxome) mediating the response of diatoms to oxidative stress. We quantified the degree of oxidation of 3,845 cysteines in the Phaeodactylum tricornutum proteome and identified approximately 300 redox-sensitive proteins. Intriguingly, we found redox-sensitive thiols in numerous enzymes composing the nitrogen assimilation pathway and the recently discovered diatom urea cycle. In agreement with this finding, the flux from nitrate into glutamine and glutamate, measured by the incorporation of (15)N, was strongly inhibited under oxidative stress conditions. Furthermore, by targeting the redox-sensitive GFP sensor to various subcellular localizations, we mapped organelle-specific oxidation patterns in response to variations in nitrogen quota and quality. We propose that redox regulation of nitrogen metabolism allows rapid metabolic plasticity to ensure cellular homeostasis, and thus is essential for the ecological success of diatoms in the marine ecosystem.

  16. Hybrid PET/MRI imaging in healthy unsedated newborn infants with quantitative rCBF measurements using 15O-water PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Julie B; Lindberg, Ulrich; Olesen, Oline V

    2018-01-01

    were scanned in a PET/MRI scanner during natural sleep after median intravenous injection of 14 MBq 15O-water. Regional CBF was quantified using a one-tissue-compartment model employing an image-derived input function (IDIF) from the left ventricle. PET rCBF showed the highest values in the thalami.......36, significantly higher than previous ASL data. The rCBF ASL measurements were all unsuccessful primarily owing to subject movement. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time, a minimally invasive PET/MRI method using low activity 15O-water PET for quantitative rCBF assessment in unsedated healthy newborn...... infants and found a white/grey matter CBF ratio similar to that of the adult human brain....

  17. PpCBF3 from Cold-Tolerant Kentucky Bluegrass Involved in Freezing Tolerance Associated with Up-Regulation of Cold-Related Genes in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhuang

    Full Text Available Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding proteins (DREB/C-repeat (CRT Binding Factors (CBF have been identified as transcriptional activators during plant responses to cold stress. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological roles of a CBF gene isolated from a cold-tolerant perennial grass species, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., which designated as PpCBF3, in regulating plant tolerance to freezing stress. Transient transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplast with PpCBF3-eGFP fused protein showed that PpCBF3 was localized to the nucleus. RT-PCR analysis showed that PpCBF3 was specifically induced by cold stress (4°C but not by drought stress [induced by 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 solution (PEG-6000] or salt stress (150 mM NaCl. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing PpCBF3 showed significant improvement in freezing (-20°C tolerance demonstrated by a lower percentage of chlorotic leaves, lower cellular electrolyte leakage (EL and H2O2 and O2.- content, and higher chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency compared to the wild type. Relative mRNA expression level analysis by qRT-PCR indicated that the improved freezing tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PpCBF3 was conferred by sustained activation of downstream cold responsive (COR genes. Other interesting phenotypic changes in the PpCBF3-transgenic Arabidopsis plants included late flowering and slow growth or 'dwarfism', both of which are desirable phenotypic traits for perennial turfgrasses. Therefore, PpCBF3 has potential to be used in genetic engineering for improvement of turfgrass freezing tolerance and other desirable traits.

  18. 14q12 and severe Rett-like phenotypes: new clinical insights and physical mapping of FOXG1-regulatory elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allou, Lila; Lambert, Laetitia; Amsallem, Daniel; Bieth, Eric; Edery, Patrick; Destrée, Anne; Rivier, François; Amor, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Nicholl, Julian; Harbord, Michael; Nemos, Christophe; Saunier, Aline; Moustaïne, Aissa; Vigouroux, Adeline; Jonveaux, Philippe; Philippe, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The Forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) gene has been implicated in severe Rett-like phenotypes. It encodes the Forkhead box protein G1, a winged-helix transcriptional repressor critical for forebrain development. Recently, the core FOXG1 syndrome was defined as postnatal microcephaly, severe mental retardation, absent language, dyskinesia, and dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. We present seven additional patients with a severe Rett-like neurodevelopment disorder associated with de novo FOXG1 point mutations (two cases) or 14q12 deletions (five cases). We expand the mutational spectrum in patients with FOXG1-related encephalopathies and precise the core FOXG1 syndrome phenotype. Dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and dyskinesia are not always present in FOXG1-mutated patients. We believe that the FOXG1 gene should be considered in severely mentally retarded patients (no speech-language) with severe acquired microcephaly (−4 to−6 SD) and few clinical features suggestive of Rett syndrome. Interestingly enough, three 14q12 deletions that do not include the FOXG1 gene are associated with phenotypes very reminiscent to that of FOXG1-mutation-positive patients. We physically mapped a putative long-range FOXG1-regulatory element in a 0.43 Mb DNA segment encompassing the PRKD1 locus. In fibroblast cells, a cis-acting regulatory sequence located more than 0.6 Mb away from FOXG1 acts as a silencer at the transcriptional level. These data are important for clinicians and for molecular biologists involved in the management of patients with severe encephalopathies compatible with a FOXG1-related phenotype. PMID:22739344

  19. Brain SPECT analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Euy Neyng; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Yang, Dong Won [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 23 patients with PTSD and 21 age matched normal controls without re-exposure to accident-related stimuli. The relative rCBF maps in patients with PTSD and controls were compared. In patients with PTSD, significant increased rCBF was found along the limbic system in the brain. There were a few foci of decreased rCBF in the superior frontal gyrus, parietal and temporal region. PTSD is associated with increased rCBF in limbic areas compared with age-matched normal controls. These findings implicate regions of the limbic brain, which may mediate the response to aversive stimuli in healthy individuals, play on important role in patients suffering from PTSD and suggest that ongoing hyperfunction of 'overlearned survival response' or flashbacks response in these regions after painful, life threatening, or horrifying events without re-exposure to same traumatic stimulus.

  20. Brain SPECT analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with transient global amnesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E. N.; Sohn, H. S.; Kim, S. H; Chung, S. K.; Yang, D. W. [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) using statistical parametric mapping 99 (SPM99). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 8 patients with TGA and 17 age matched controls. The relative rCBF maps in patients with TGA and controls were compared. In patients with TGA, significantly decreased rCBF was found along the left superior temporal extending to left parietal region of the brain and left thalamus. There were areas of increased rCBF in the right temporal, right frontal region and right thalamus. We could demonstrate decreased perfusion in left cerebral hemisphere and increased perfusion in right cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA using SPM99. The reciprocal change of rCBF between right and left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA might suggest that imbalanced neuronal activity between the bilateral hemispheres may be important role in the pathogenesis of the TGA. For quantitative SPECT analysis in TGA patients, we recommend SPM99 rather than the ROI method because of its definitive advantages.

  1. Brain SPECT analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with transient global amnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. N.; Sohn, H. S.; Kim, S. H; Chung, S. K.; Yang, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) using statistical parametric mapping 99 (SPM99). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 8 patients with TGA and 17 age matched controls. The relative rCBF maps in patients with TGA and controls were compared. In patients with TGA, significantly decreased rCBF was found along the left superior temporal extending to left parietal region of the brain and left thalamus. There were areas of increased rCBF in the right temporal, right frontal region and right thalamus. We could demonstrate decreased perfusion in left cerebral hemisphere and increased perfusion in right cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA using SPM99. The reciprocal change of rCBF between right and left cerebral hemisphere in patients with TGA might suggest that imbalanced neuronal activity between the bilateral hemispheres may be important role in the pathogenesis of the TGA. For quantitative SPECT analysis in TGA patients, we recommend SPM99 rather than the ROI method because of its definitive advantages

  2. A dense camera network for cropland (CropInsight) - developing high spatiotemporal resolution crop Leaf Area Index (LAI) maps through network images and novel satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, H.; Guan, K.; Luo, Y.; Peng, J.; Mascaro, J.; Peng, B.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring crop growth conditions is of primary interest to crop yield forecasting, food production assessment, and risk management of individual farmers and agribusiness. Despite its importance, there are limited access to field level crop growth/condition information in the public domain. This scarcity of ground truth data also hampers the use of satellite remote sensing for crop monitoring due to the lack of validation. Here, we introduce a new camera network (CropInsight) to monitor crop phenology, growth, and conditions that are designed for the US Corn Belt landscape. Specifically, this network currently includes 40 sites (20 corn and 20 soybean fields) across southern half of the Champaign County, IL ( 800 km2). Its wide distribution and automatic operation enable the network to capture spatiotemporal variations of crop growth condition continuously at the regional scale. At each site, low-maintenance, and high-resolution RGB digital cameras are set up having a downward view from 4.5 m height to take continuous images. In this study, we will use these images and novel satellite data to construct daily LAI map of the Champaign County at 30 m spatial resolution. First, we will estimate LAI from the camera images and evaluate it using the LAI data collected from LAI-2200 (LI-COR, Lincoln, NE). Second, we will develop relationships between the camera-based LAI estimation and vegetation indices derived from a newly developed MODIS-Landsat fusion product (daily, 30 m resolution, RGB + NIR + SWIR bands) and the Planet Lab's high-resolution satellite data (daily, 5 meter, RGB). Finally, we will scale up the above relationships to generate high spatiotemporal resolution crop LAI map for the whole Champaign County. The proposed work has potentials to expand to other agro-ecosystems and to the broader US Corn Belt.

  3. Insight From the Statistics of Nothing: Estimating Limits of Change Detection Using Inferred No-Change Areas in DEM Difference Maps and Application to Landslide Hazard Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneberg, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    Remote characterization of new landslides or areas of ongoing movement using differences in high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) created through time, for example before and after major rains or earthquakes, is an attractive proposition. In the case of large catastrophic landslides, changes may be apparent enough that simple subtraction suffices. In other cases, statistical noise can obscure landslide signatures and place practical limits on detection. In ideal cases on land, GPS surveys of representative areas at the time of DEM creation can quantify the inherent errors. In less-than-ideal terrestrial cases and virtually all submarine cases, it may be impractical or impossible to independently estimate the DEM errors. Examining DEM difference statistics for areas reasonably inferred to have no change, however, can provide insight into the limits of detectability. Data from inferred no-change areas of airborne LiDAR DEM difference maps of the 2014 Oso, Washington landslide and landslide-prone colluvium slopes along the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky, show that DEM difference maps can have non-zero mean and slope dependent error components consistent with published studies of DEM errors. Statistical thresholds derived from DEM difference error and slope data can help to distinguish between DEM differences that are likely real—and which may indicate landsliding—from those that are likely spurious or irrelevant. This presentation describes and compares two different approaches, one based upon a heuristic assumption about the proportion of the study area likely covered by new landslides and another based upon the amount of change necessary to ensure difference at a specified level of probability.

  4. Hypersensitivity to thromboxane receptor mediated cerebral vasomotion and CBF oscillations during acute NO-deficiency in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Horváth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low frequency (4-12 cpm spontaneous fluctuations of the cerebrovascular tone (vasomotion and oscillations of the cerebral blood flow (CBF have been reported in diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction. Since endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO suppresses constitutively the release and vascular effects of thromboxane A(2 (TXA(2, NO-deficiency is often associated with activation of thromboxane receptors (TP. In the present study we hypothesized that in the absence of NO, overactivation of the TP-receptor mediated cerebrovascular signaling pathway contributes to the development of vasomotion and CBF oscillations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Effects of pharmacological modulation of TP-receptor activation and its downstream signaling pathway have been investigated on CBF oscillations (measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry in anesthetized rats and vasomotion (measured by isometric tension recording in isolated rat middle cerebral arteries, MCAs both under physiological conditions and after acute inhibition of NO synthesis. Administration of the TP-receptor agonist U-46619 (1 µg/kg i.v. to control animals failed to induce any changes of the systemic or cerebral circulatory parameters. Inhibition of the NO synthesis by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 mg/kg i.v. resulted in increased mean arterial blood pressure and a decreased CBF accompanied by appearance of CBF-oscillations with a dominant frequency of 148±2 mHz. U-46619 significantly augmented the CBF-oscillations induced by L-NAME while inhibition of endogenous TXA(2 synthesis by ozagrel (10 mg/kg i.v. attenuated it. In isolated MCAs U-46619 in a concentration of 100 nM, which induced weak and stable contraction under physiological conditions, evoked sustained vasomotion in the absence of NO, which effect could be completely reversed by inhibition of Rho-kinase by 10 µM Y-27632. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that hypersensitivity of the TP

  5. Effect of recirculation and regional counting rate on reliability of noninvasive bicompartmental CBF measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herholz, K.

    1985-01-01

    Based on data from routine intravenous Xe133-rCBF studies in 50 patients, using Obrist's algorithm the effect of counting rate statistics and amount of recirculating activity on reproducibility of results was investigated at five simulated counting rate levels. Dependence of the standard deviation of compartmental and noncompartmental flow parameters on recirculation and counting rate was determined by multiple linear regression analysis. Those regression equations permit determination of the optimum accuracy that may be expected from individual flow measurements. Mainly due to a delay of the start-of-fit time an exponential increase in standard deviation of flow measurements was observed as recirculation increased. At constant start-of-fit, however, a linear increase in standard deviation of compartmental flow parameters only was found, while noncompartmental results remained constant. Therefore, and in regard to other studies of potential sources of error, an upper limit of 2.5 min for the start-of-fit time and usage of noncompartmental flow parameters for measurements affected by high recirculation are suggested

  6. Insight into Genotype-Phenotype Associations through eQTL Mapping in Multiple Cell Types in Health and Immune-Mediated Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Peters

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have transformed our understanding of the genetics of complex traits such as autoimmune diseases, but how risk variants contribute to pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Identifying genetic variants that affect gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci, or eQTLs is crucial to addressing this. eQTLs vary between tissues and following in vitro cellular activation, but have not been examined in the context of human inflammatory diseases. We performed eQTL mapping in five primary immune cell types from patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (n = 91, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (n = 46 and healthy controls (n = 43, revealing eQTLs present only in the context of active inflammatory disease. Moreover, we show that following treatment a proportion of these eQTLs disappear. Through joint analysis of expression data from multiple cell types, we reveal that previous estimates of eQTL immune cell-type specificity are likely to have been exaggerated. Finally, by analysing gene expression data from multiple cell types, we find eQTLs not previously identified by database mining at 34 inflammatory bowel disease-associated loci. In summary, this parallel eQTL analysis in multiple leucocyte subsets from patients with active disease provides new insights into the genetic basis of immune-mediated diseases.

  7. Memory functions and rCBF {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET: developing diagnostics in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgh, Eva; Naesman, Birgitta [Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeaa University, 901 85 Umeaa (Sweden); Sundstroem, Torbjoern; Aahlstroem, Katrine Riklund [Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, Umeaa University, Umeaa (Sweden); Nyberg, Lars [Department of Psychology, Umeaa University, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease of the brain. The prevalence increases with age, with devastating consequences for the individual and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with early AD show an altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) compared with control persons. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the correlation between rCBF in sublobar volumes of the brain and performance on memory tests. Memory tests were chosen to evaluate episodic and semantic memory. Fourteen patients (aged 75.2{+-}8.8 years) with early AD and 15 control persons (aged 71.4{+-}3.2 years) were included. rCBF measurements with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) were performed. The rCBF {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET images were spatially transformed to fit a brain atlas and normalised for differences in rCBF (Computerised Brain Atlas software). Cortical and subcortical volumes of interest (VOIs) were analysed and compared. Compared with the controls, AD patients showed a significantly lower rCBF ratio in temporoparietal regions, including the left hippocampus. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for AD were high in temporoparietal regions. AD patients had significantly reduced performance on semantic and, in particular, episodic memory tests compared with age-matched normative data, and their performance on several episodic tests correlated with rCBF ratios in parietal and temporal regions, including the left hippocampus. The correlation between rCBF ratio and level of episodic memory performance suggests that abnormalities in rCBF pattern underlie impaired episodic memory functioning in AD. (orig.)

  8. Xenon contrast CT-CBF measurements in patients with pre- and post-correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, and in the white matter lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Shigekiyo

    2004-01-01

    About 10 years ago, the author found that, patients with headache, vertigo, dizziness and dementia, had a high prevalence (about 70%) of platelet hyper-aggregability which was especially prevalent (up to 100%) in Binswanger's dementia. Correction of the platelet hyper-aggregability in those patients led to remarkable improvement of symptoms. Based on this effective result with treatment of platelet hyper-aggregability, the author hypothesized that patients may show improvement or recovery of cerebral blood flow from the decreased blood flow by the correction of the platelet hyper-aggregability. The present report consist of two parts: 1) comparison of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, 2) measurements of CBF in patients with severe white matter lesions, and the CBF within white matter lesions. The results of 1) showed CBF was decreased by about 20 to 30% before treatment and marked increase to normal CBF after correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, particularly in the thalamus and cortex. The increase was statistically significant except in bilateral frontal cortex and bilateral anterior white matter and left posterior white matter. From these results, it is confirmed that platelet hyper-aggregability is associated with decreased CBF, and after correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, CBF increases markedly. The results of 2) showed moderate to severe decreases of blood flow in all areas of the brain, and marked decreases of CBF in white matter lesions, 12.8±2.7 m1/100 g/min on average, which corresponded approximately to 60% of normal white matter CBF. (author)

  9. Interictal SPECT of rCBF is of clinical utility in the preoperative evaluation of patients with partial epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A R; Hansen, B A; Høgenhaven, H

    1996-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy were studied preoperatively by interictal rCBF measurements using 99mTc-HMPAO and a dedicated brain SPECT camera (Tomomatic 64). Follow-up of seizure outcome, using the "Engel score", was at least 3 years. The data were analyzed in a blinded...... set-up, first visually and subsequently quantitatively by an automatic regional analysis. By visual analysis 95% of the patients were considered abnormal in one part of the brain, of whom 27% were abnormal on CT, 45% on MRI and 98% on scalp EEG. Using a quantitative regional analysis subdividing each...... hemisphere into 17 larger regions, 85% of the patients had an abnormal rCBF compared to an age-matched control population of healthy volunteers (using the Wilcoxon 2-sample test with Bonferroni's correction). The average number of abnormal regions of interest was 4.7. The percentage of patients with abnormal...

  10. Improvement in regional CBF by L-serine contributes to its neuroprotective effect in rats after focal cerebral ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao-Jie Ren

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of L-serine, permanent focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery while monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF. Rats were divided into control and L-serine-treated groups after middle cerebral artery occlusion. The neurological deficit score and brain infarct volume were assessed. Nissl staining was used to quantify the cortical injury. L-serine and D-serine levels in the ischemic cortex were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography. We found that L-serine treatment: 1 reduced the neurological deficit score, infarct volume and cortical neuron loss in a dose-dependent manner; 2 improved CBF in the cortex, and this effect was inhibited in the presence of apamin plus charybdotoxin while the alleviation of both neurological deficit score and infarct volume was blocked; and 3 increased the amount of L-serine and D-serine in the cortex, and inhibition of the conversion of L-serine into D-serine by aminooxyacetic acid did not affect the reduction of neurological deficit score and infarct volume by L-serine. In conclusion, improvement in regional CBF by L-serine may contribute to its neuroprotective effect on the ischemic brain, potentially through vasodilation which is mediated by the small- and intermediate-conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels on the cerebral blood vessel endothelium.

  11. Somatotype and body composition of referees and assistant referees from the CBF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Ricardo Rech

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine and compare the somatotype and body composition of principal soccer referees and assistant soccer referees from the state of Paraná in Brazil, all working for the Brazilian Soccer Confederation – (CBF Confederaçao Brasileira de Futebol. Twenty-five referees participated in this study: 12 principal referees (PR and 13 assistant referees (AR, all male. The variables body mass, height, skinfolds, body girth and bone diameters were collected with the aim of estimating the referees’ body composition and determining their somatotypes. Data are presented in the form of descriptive statistics. Comparisons between the PR and AR groups were made using Student’s t test for independent samples. The PR referees had a mean age of 38.5 + 5.1 years of age, body mass of 80.9 + 7.61 Kg, mean height of 179 + 3.3 cm and an average percentage of fat of 20.81 + 3.29%. The AR group were significantly younger on average (37.3 + 3.1 years old, p Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar e comparar o somatotipo e a composição corporal de árbitros e árbitros assistentes de futebol do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, que atuam junto à Confederação Brasileira de Futebol (CBF. Participaram do estudo 25 árbitros, sendo 12 árbitros principais (AP e 13 árbitros assistentes (AA ambos do sexo masculino. As variáveis de massa corporal, estatura, espessura de dobras cutâneas, perímetros corporais e diâmetros ósseos foram coletados com a finalidade de estimar a composição corporal e determinar o somatotipo dos árbitros. Os dados são apresentados mediante estatística descritiva, a comparação entre os grupos de AP e AA foi realizada por meio do teste “t” de student para amostras independentes. Os AP apresentaram uma idade média de 38,5±5,1 anos, massa corporal de 80,9±7,61 kg, estatura 179±3,3 cm e um percentual de gordura médio de 20,81±3,29 %. O grupo de AA apresentou uma idade média menor (37,3±3

  12. Somatotype and body composition of referees and assistant referees from the CBF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Inacio da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p143 The aim of this study was to determine and compare the somatotype and body composition of principal soccer referees and assistant soccer referees from the state of Paraná in Brazil, all working for the Brazilian Soccer Confederation – (CBF Confederaçao Brasileira de Futebol. Twenty-five referees participated in this study: 12 principal referees (PR and 13 assistant referees (AR, all male. The variables body mass, height, skinfolds, body girth and bone diameters were collected with the aim of estimating the referees’ body composition and determining their somatotypes. Data are presented in the form of descriptive statistics. Comparisons between the PR and AR groups were made using Student’s t test for independent samples. The PR referees had a mean age of 38.5 + 5.1 years of age, body mass of 80.9 + 7.61 Kg, mean height of 179 + 3.3 cm and an average percentage of fat of 20.81 + 3.29%. The AR group were significantly younger on average (37.3 + 3.1 years old, p < 0.05. None of the variables body mass (77.2 + 8.2 Kg, height (178.3 + 5.23 or percentage body fat (18.1 + 4.2% exhibited any statistical differences. As for somatotypes, it was noted that the PR had predominantly endomorphic characteristics (3.9- 3.6-1.7, while the AR were characterized as mesomorphic (3.7-4.1-2.1. Significant differences were observed between the mesomorphic and ectomorphic components when referees and assistant referees were compared. Therefore, refereeing category was not influenced by the morphological profile of the referees who were analyzed.

  13. Validation of noninvasive quantification of rCBF compared with dynamic/integral method by using positron emission tomography and oxygen-15 labeled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, H.; Itoh, M.; Mejia-R.M.; Fujiwara, T.; Jones, T.; Nakamura, T.

    1995-01-01

    This study proposes a new solution for the quantification of rCBF pixel-by-pixel using PET and 15 O-H 2 O. The method represents an application of weighted integration that uses PET image only, requiring no input function of arterial blood. It generates the rCBF image quickly and automatically. Simulation studies revealed that the calculation of rCBF was fairly stable as long as a relatively shorter scan frame time and longer scan time were selected. Calculated images of actual PET study by this method correlated significantly with those identified by the dynamic/integral method. Because this procedure could detect whole brain CBF change between different studies as accurately as by the dynamic/integral method, this procedure may be the most suitable for brain activation studies. (author)

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurement using D.S.P.E.C.T. and xenon inhalation: first results in distal encephalic juvenile ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinling, M.; Guerouaou, D.; Dubois, P.; Bouchez, P.; Arnott, G.; Vergnes, R.

    1984-01-01

    Xenon inhalation and D.S.P.E.C.T. were used for rCBF measurement in 16 patients with distal encephalic juvenile ischemia. 8 patients immediately had a second study, 15 minutes after IV injection of 500 mg acetazolamide. Results show that rCBF was abnormal in 13 patients, including some who had only minor clinical symptoms. rCBF measurement complemented neuroradiological data in 12 of 16 cases and proved more informative in 7 cases. Our most striking finding is perhaps that no patient responded normally to acetazolamide injection: three failed to respond and five showed complex (heterogeneous responses). Follow up of these patients will perhaps provide information as to the prognostic value of rCBF and acetazolamide reactivity measurements [fr

  15. Evaluation of a bedside monitor of regional CBF as a measure of CO2 reactivity in neurosurgical intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Jens; Bramsiepe, Isa; Brucke, Matthias; Sanchin, Lhaghva; Menzel, Matthias

    2008-10-01

    Mild hyperventilation remains a key element in the management of elevated intracranial pressure. However, a harmful effect of hyperventilation on the development or deterioration of ischemic lesions has been shown in patients after severe head trauma. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical feasibility and reliability of continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during mild hyperventilation using a thermodiffusion probe. CO2 reactivity was calculated. The measurement of the partial pressure of oxygen (PtiO2) in the cerebral tissue served as a reference parameter. An intraparenchymal intracranial pressure sensor, a multiparameter probe for determining the partial pressure of cerebral gases (pHti, PtiO2, PtiCO2), and a thermodiffusion probe for measuring rCBF were used in 10 intensive care patients. All patients were analgosedated and received pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation. Controlled mild hyperventilation was carried out on 2 consecutive days. CO2 reactivity was determined in relation to both CBF and PtiO2. Controlled hyperventilation resulted in a rCBF reduction from 30+/-3 mL/100 g/min to 25+/-2.4 mL/100 g/min (-17%; P<0.05) on the first day of examination and 31+/-3.6 mL/100 g/min to 22+/-4.9 mL/100 g/min (-29%; P<0.05) on the second day. Likewise, mild hyperventilation resulted in a reduction of regional cerebral tissue oxygen partial pressure from 20+/-2.9 mm Hg to 15+/-4 (-25%; P<0.05) on the first day and 20+/-3.1 mm Hg to 14+/-1.5 mm Hg (-30%; P<0.05) on the second. Continuous monitoring of regional CBF, using an intraparenchymally placed thermodiffusion probe, seems to be a simple and safe bedside technique. The promise of reliably monitoring and interpreting additional parameters such as PtiO2 and PtiCO2 warrants further investigation.

  16. CBF and CMRo/sub 2/ during craniotomy for small supratentorial cerebral tumours in enflurane anaesthesia. A dose-response study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, J.B.; Cold, G.E.; Eriksen, H.O.; Eskesen, V.; Blatt-Lyon, B.

    1986-01-01

    In 14 patients with supratentorial cerebral tumors with midline shift less than or equal to 10 mm, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRo/sub 2/) were measured twice on the contralateral side of the craniotomy, using a modification of the Kety and Schmidt method. For induction of anaesthesia, thiopental, fentanyl and pancuronium were used. The anaesthesia was maintained with enflurane 1% in nitrous oxide 67%. Moderate hypocapnia to a level averaging 4.3 kPa was achieved. The patients were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n=7), 1% enflurane was used throughout the anaesthesia, and CBF and CMRo/sub 2/ measured about 70 min after induction averaged 30.1 ml 100 g/sup -1/ min/sub -1/ and 1.98 ml O/sub 2/ 100 g/sup -1/ min/sup -1/, respectively. During the second CBF study 1 h later, CBF and CMRo/sub 2/ were unchanged (P>0.05). In group 2 (n=7), the inspiratory enflurane concentration was increased from 1 to 2% after the first CBF measurement. In this group a significant decrease in CMRo/sub 2/ was observed, while CBF was unchanged. In six patients EEG was recorded simultaneously with the CBF measurements. In patients subjected to increasing enflurane concentration (Group 2), a suppression in the EEG activity was observed without spike waves. It is concluded that enflurane induces a dose-related decrease in CMRo/sub 2/ and suppression in the EEG activity, whereas CBF was unchanged.

  17. Comparison of rCBF between patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and normal controls using H{sub 2}{sup 15}O PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Sung; Nam, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas whose regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was changed in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) using H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET. 12 patients with mTLE (6 left, 6 right mTLE) and 6 normal controls were scanned during a fixation baseline period and a sensory-motor condition where subjects pressed a button to an upward arrow. A voxel-based analysis using SPM99 software was performed to compare the patient groups with the normal controls for the rCBF during fixation baseline period and for relative changes of rCBF during the sensory-motor task relative to fixation. Duirng the fixation baseline, a significant reduction of rCBF was found posterior insula bilaterally and right frontopolar regions in right mTLE patients compared to the normal controls. In left mTLE patients, the reduction was found in left frontopolar and temporal regions. During the sensory-motor task, rCBF increase over the fixation period, was reduced in left frontal and superior temporal regions in the right mTLE patients whereas in various areas of right hemisphere in left mTLE patients, relative to normal controls. However, the increased rCBF was also found in the left inferior parietal and anterior thalamic/fornix regions in both right and left mTLE patients compared to normal controls. Epilepsy induced changes were found not only in relative increase/ decrease of rCBF during a simple sensory-motor control condition relative to a fixation rest condition but also in the relative rCBF distribution during the rest period.

  18. r-CBF brain SPET before surgery and during subthalamic nuclei (STN) high frequency stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerundini, P.; Benti, R.; De Notaris, A.; Ferrari, M.; Raimondi, A.; Mariani, C.; Antonini, A.; Pezzoli, G.; Gaini, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nuclei (STN) can improve motor symptoms and reduces the need for medical therapy in severe Parkinson's Disease (PD). Moreover, DBS can affect, as the medical treatment, cerebral perfusion/metabolism even in cortical/subcortical areas not primarily involved in PD motor symptoms. Aim of the study was the assessment of r-CBF changes by mean of brain SPECT in severe PD .before surgery and during DBS of the STN. Methods. 14 PD patients (duration 15.2±5.1 ys; H and Y off-score 3.6±0.7) underwent STN electrode implantation. Residual motor dysfunction was assessed by UPDRS score up to one year after surgery. SPECT was performed after i.v. injection of Tc-99m ECD (740 MBq) in PD group before and 6-9 months after surgery and in 13 age matched normals. Standardized ROIs templates were applied in brain sections to generate perfusion ratios in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) analysis of SPET studies was also obtained. Results: 6 months after surgery the mean UPDRS score improvement was 48.8±26.1% (DBS on) vs pre surgery. 8 patients (R+) had UPDRS improvement >50% (mean 67.7±8.8%); 6 patients (R-) had score improvement <50% (mean 22.9±18.9%). Before surgery, motor dysfunction during therapy was similar in R+ and R- groups (mean UPDRS 19.8±8.2 vs. 21.3±9.6). During BDS, UPDRS mean score without medical therapy was lower in R+ (15.6±5.6) vs. R- (35.0±12.4; p<0.001). ROIs and SPM analysis of pre-surgery SPET studies showed significant hypoperfusion (p<0.01) in the occipital gyri of PD vs control groups. No significant differences were found by comparing pre/post surgery SPECT patterns in whole PD group. However, in R- group SPECT showed significant hypoperfusion in pre-frontal areas, parietal and occipital gyri vs R+ patients (p<0.02) and controls (p<0.01). Before surgery, R+ group had borderline occipital hypoperfusion (p=0.04) and mild increase of putaminal perfusion (p=0.03) vs

  19. Quantitative assessment of rest and acetazolamide CBF using quantitative SPECT reconstruction and sequential administration of (123)I-iodoamphetamine: comparison among data acquired at three institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Miho; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Takahashi, Masaaki; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Fukuda, Kenji; Iihara, Koji; Iida, Hidehiro

    2014-11-01

    A recently developed technique which reconstructs quantitative images from original projection data acquired using existing single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) devices enabled quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest and after acetazolamide challenge. This study was intended to generate a normal database and to investigate its inter-institutional consistency. The three institutions carried out a series of SPECT scanning on 32 healthy volunteers, following a recently proposed method that involved dual administration of (123)I-iodoamphetamine during a single SPECT scan. Intra-institute and inter-institutional variations of regional CBF values were evaluated both at rest and after acetazolamide challenge. Functional images were pooled for both rest and acetazolamide CBF, and inter-institutional difference was evaluated among these images using two independent software programs. Quantitative assessment of CBF images at rest and after acetazolamide was successfully achieved with the given protocol in all institutions. Intra-institutional variation of CBF values at rest and after acetazolamide was consistent with previously reported values. Quantitative CBF values showed no significant difference among institutions in all regions, except for a posterior cerebral artery region after acetazolamide challenge in one institution which employed SPECT device with lowest spatial resolution. Pooled CBF images at rest and after acetazolamide generated using two software programs showed no institutional differences after equalization of the spatial resolution. SPECT can provide reproducible images from projection data acquired using different SPECT devices. A common database acquired at different institutions may be shared among institutions, if images are reconstructed using a quantitative reconstruction program, and acquired by following a standardized protocol.

  20. Is it possible to define salvageable ischemic penumbra using semiquantitative rCBF levels derived from MR perfusion-weighted imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akazawa, Kentaro; Yamada, Kei; Matsushima, Shigenori; Kubota, Takao; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto City, Kyoto (Japan); Nagakane, Yoshinari; Kuriyama, Nagato; Nakagawa, Masanori [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto City, Kyoto (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to test if magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) can reliably characterize the ischemic penumbra. Sixteen patients with nonlacunar ischemic stroke who were scanned within 24 h after onset of symptoms were selected for the study. In previous studies, the level of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the normal white matter of the contralateral hemisphere was defined as 22 ml/100 g/min. We used this level as a standard of reference. We hypothesized that rCBF below this level would be amenable to infarct. The lesion-to-white matter ratios of rCBF were measured in the regions of ischemic core (''Core''), infarcted penumbra (''Growth''), salvaged penumbra (''Reversed''), and contralateral normal cortex (''Normal''). The rCBF of ''Growth'' and ''Reversed'' areas showed substantial overlap, which hampered the delineation of areas that would become infarcted. The semiquantitative rCBF derived from MR PWI may not accurately characterize the ischemic penumbra. (orig.)

  1. One-year follow-up of neuropsychology, MRI, rCBF and glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) in cerebral microangiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, O.; Hellwig, D.; Schreckenberger, M.; Kaiser, H.-J.; Wagenknecht, G.; Setani, K.; Reinartz, P.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U.; Schneider, R.; Mull, M.; Ringelstein, E.-B.

    2000-01-01

    Background: MRI shows lacunar infarctions (LI), deep white matter lesions (DWML) and atrophy in cerebral microangiopathy, which is said to lead to vascular dementia. In a first trial series on 57 patients with confirmed pure cerebral microangiopathy (without concomitant macroangiopathy), neuropsychological impairment and (where present) brain atrophy correlated with decreased rCBF and rMRGlu. LI and DWML did not correlate with either neuropsychological impairment or decreased rCBF/rMRGlu. This study was done one year later to detect changes in any of the study parameters. Methods: 26 patients were re-examined for rCBF, rMRGlu, LI, DWML, atrophy and neuropsychological performance (7 cognitive, 3 mnestic, 4 attentiveness tests). Using a special head holder for exact repositioning, rCBF (SPECT) and rMRGlu (PET) were measured and imaged slice by slice. White matter/cortex were quantified using MRI-defined ROIs. Results: After one year the patients did not show significant decreases in rCBF or rMRGlu either in cortex or in white matter (p>0.05), nor did any patient show LI, DWML or atrophy changes on MRI. There were no significant neuropsychological decreases (p>0.05). (orig.) [de

  2. High-Throughput Sequencing and Linkage Mapping of a Clownfish Genome Provide Insights on the Distribution of Molecular Players Involved in Sex Change

    KAUST Repository

    Casas, Laura

    2018-02-28

    Clownfishes are an excellent model system for investigating the genetic mechanism governing hermaphroditism and socially-controlled sex change in their natural environment because they are broadly distributed and strongly site-attached. Genomic tools, such as genetic linkage maps, allow fine-mapping of loci involved in molecular pathways underlying these reproductive processes. In this study, a high-density genetic map of Amphiprion bicinctus was constructed with 3146 RAD markers in a full-sib family organized in 24 robust linkage groups which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of the species. The length of the map was 4294.71 cM, with an average marker interval of 1.38 cM. The clownfish linkage map showed various levels of conserved synteny and collinearity with the genomes of Asian and European seabass, Nile tilapia and stickleback. The map provided a platform to investigate the genomic position of genes with differential expression during sex change in A. bicinctus. This study aims to bridge the gap of genome-scale information for this iconic group of species to facilitate the study of the main gene regulatory networks governing social sex change and gonadal restructuring in protandrous hermaphrodites.

  3. One-year follow-up of neuropsychology, MRI, rCBF and glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) in cerebral microangiopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, O.; Hellwig, D.; Schreckenberger, M.; Kaiser, H.-J.; Wagenknecht, G.; Setani, K.; Reinartz, P.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technische Univ. Aachen (Germany); Schneider, R. [Department of Neurology, Technische Univ. Aachen (Germany); Mull, M. [Department of Neuroradiology, Technische Univ. Aachen (Germany); Ringelstein, E.-B. [Department of Neurology, Muenster Univ. (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Background: MRI shows lacunar infarctions (LI), deep white matter lesions (DWML) and atrophy in cerebral microangiopathy, which is said to lead to vascular dementia. In a first trial series on 57 patients with confirmed pure cerebral microangiopathy (without concomitant macroangiopathy), neuropsychological impairment and (where present) brain atrophy correlated with decreased rCBF and rMRGlu. LI and DWML did not correlate with either neuropsychological impairment or decreased rCBF/rMRGlu. This study was done one year later to detect changes in any of the study parameters. Methods: 26 patients were re-examined for rCBF, rMRGlu, LI, DWML, atrophy and neuropsychological performance (7 cognitive, 3 mnestic, 4 attentiveness tests). Using a special head holder for exact repositioning, rCBF (SPECT) and rMRGlu (PET) were measured and imaged slice by slice. White matter/cortex were quantified using MRI-defined ROIs. Results: After one year the patients did not show significant decreases in rCBF or rMRGlu either in cortex or in white matter (p>0.05), nor did any patient show LI, DWML or atrophy changes on MRI. There were no significant neuropsychological decreases (p>0.05). (orig.) [German] Ziel: In der MRT zeigen sich bei zerebraler Mikroangiopathie (ZMA) lakunaere Infarkte (LI), Deep White Matter Lesions (DWML) und Atrophie (Atr). Die sogenannte vaskulaere Demenz wurde dabei hauptsaechlich auf die Laesionen der weissen Substanz zurueckgefuehrt. In einer ersten Untersuchungsreihe waren bei 57 Patienten mit gesicherter ZMA nur neuropsychologische Defizite (Nps) und, falls vorhanden, Atr als Grundlage fuer erniedrigte rCBF/rMRGlu-Werte zu eruieren, jedoch nicht LI/DWML. Es sollte geklaert werden, ob sich im Verlauf der Erkrankung nach einem Jahr Veraenderungen dieser Parameter ergeben. Methode: 26 Patienten wurden nach einem Jahr erneut neuropsychologisch untersucht (7 kognitive, 3 mnestrische, 4 Aufmerksamkeitstests). Mittels eines speziellen Kopfhalterungssystems wurden in

  4. Core binding factor beta (Cbfβ) controls the balance of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation by upregulating Indian hedgehog (Ihh) expression and inhibiting parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor (PPR) expression in postnatal cartilage and bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fei; Wu, Mengrui; Deng, Lianfu; Zhu, Guochun; Ma, Junqing; Gao, Bo; Wang, Lin; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Core binding factor beta (Cbfβ) is essential for embryonic bone morphogenesis. Yet the mechanisms by which Cbfβ regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation as well as postnatal cartilage and bone formation remain unclear. Hence, using paired-related homeobox transcription factor 1-Cre (Prx1-Cre) mice, mesenchymal stem cell-specific Cbfβ-deficient (Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre) mice were generated to study the role of Cbfβ in postnatal cartilage and bone development. These mutant mice survived to adulthood but exhibited severe sternum and limb malformations. Sternum ossification was largely delayed in the Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice and the xiphoid process was noncalcified and enlarged. In newborn and 7-day-old Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice, the resting zone was dramatically elongated, the proliferation zone and hypertrophic zone of the growth plates were drastically shortened and disorganized, and trabecular bone formation was reduced. Moreover, in 1-month-old Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice, the growth plates were severely deformed and trabecular bone was almost absent. In addition, Cbfβ deficiency impaired intramembranous bone formation both in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, although the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) was largely reduced, the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) receptor (PPR) was dramatically increased in the Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre growth plate, indicating that that Cbfβ deficiency disrupted the Ihh-PTHrP negative regulatory loop. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis and promoter luciferase assay demonstrated that the Runx/Cbfβ complex binds putative Runx-binding sites of the Ihh promoter regions, and also the Runx/Cbfβ complex directly upregulates Ihh expression at the transcriptional level. Consistently, the expressions of Ihh target genes, including CyclinD1, Ptc, and Pthlh, were downregulated in Cbfβ-deficient chondrocytes. Taken together, our study reveals not only that Cbfβ is essential for chondrocyte

  5. The effect of selective intraarterial infusion of the anticancer agents on cerebral hemodynamics: Concerned with the change of CBF in the non-tumoral tissue. Quantitative evaluation using 123-IMP-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Hiroko; Tomura, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Mitsuru; Ohyama, Yoichi; Watarai, Jiro

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intraarterial chemotherapy on cerebral blood flow (CBF) of patients with brain tumor was quantitatively studied by means of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The subjects consisted of twenty patients with brain tumor (2 fibrillary astrocytoma grade II, 9 malignant astrocytoma grade III, 7 glioblastoma grade IV, 1 pineoblastoma grade IV and 1 malignant glioma). In twenty patients, twenty-four intraarterial infusions (IAs) were performed. IA chemotherapy was selectively performed through the Tracker-18 catheter, using nimustine (ACNU) in 22 infusions and tumor necrotizing factor-α (TNF) in 2 infusions. CBF was quantitatively measured by Kuhl's method, using N-isopropyl-p= 123 I=-iodoamphetamine (IMP). All patients underwent a baseline SPECT scan 1-10 days prior to IA chemotherapy, and a scan 1-22 days after IA. The change of CBF before and after IA, particularly in the non-tumoral tissue, was highlighted. CBF in the infused region as well as in the non-infused region variously changed after IA. The mean CBF of the whole brain before IA was 47.8±11.9 (mean±SD, n=24) ml/100 ml/min and than after IA was 49.3±12.4. CBF in the infused region changed (-17-+52%) after IA chemotherapy. In 12 patients whose CBF measurement was performed within 5 days after IA, CBF increased in 6 patients compared with that measured before IA. In 3 patients whose CBF measurement was performed more than 10 days after IA, CBF decreased in all of patients. This result suggested that the increase of CBF may possibly be an early change after IA chemotherapy, and that an augmented cellular metabolism and/or acute inflammatory reaction may explain this early change after IA chemotherapy. (author)

  6. Correlation between the arterial pulse wave of the cerebral microcirculation and CBF during breath holding and hyperventilation in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, S; Viola, P; Litterio, P; Buongarzone, M P; Fiorelli, L

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate if relative changes in the amplitude of the arterial pulse wave of the cerebral microcirculation (APWCM) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) may provide information about relative changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in cerebral cortex. In 10 healthy human volunteers, through simultaneous recording of the APWCM amplitude by means of NIRS and the mean blood flow velocity (MBFV) of middle cerebral artery by means of transcranial Doppler (TCD) at rest and during breath holding and hyperventilation, we evaluate a possible correlation between relative changes of the mean APWCM amplitude and relative changes of MBFV. We found a significant linear correlation: breath holding: R(2) 0.84, p breath holding and hyperventilation. APWCM detected by NIRS, a safe, repeatable, inexpensive technology and at the bedside may improve the study of cerebral cortex microcirculation in neurological diseases. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuropsychological functions and rCBF SPECT in Parkinson's disease patients considered candidates for deep brain stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Vassilakos, Paulos; Messinis, Lambros; Lyros, Epameinondas; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Constantoyannis, Costas; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we examined relationships between neuropsychological functions and brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed at presurgical evaluation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Twenty advanced non-demented PD patients, candidates for DBS surgery, underwent perfusion brain SPECT study and neuropsychological assessment prior to surgery (range: 30-50 days). Patients were further assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) scale. During all assessments patients were ''on'' standard medication. NeuroGam software, which permits voxel by voxel analysis, was used to compare the brain perfusion of PD patients with a normal database adjusted for sex and age. Neuropsychological scores were compared to age, education and sex-adjusted normative databases. Our results indicated that the distribution of rCBF showed significant differences when compared to an age- and sex-adjusted normative database. We found impaired blood flow in 17 (85%) of our patients in the left prefrontal lobe, in 14 (70%) in the right prefrontal lobe and in 11 (55%) in the left frontal and right parietal lobes. Neuropsychological testing revealed that 18 (90%) of our patients had significant impairments in measures of executive functions (set-shifting) and 15 (75%) in response inhibition. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between measures of visual attention, executive functions and the right frontal lobe region. The presence of widespread blood flow reduction was observed mainly in the frontal lobes of dementia-free patients with advanced PD. Furthermore, performance on specific cognitive measures was highly related to perfusion brain SPECT findings. (orig.)

  8. Neuropsychological functions and rCBF SPECT in Parkinson's disease patients considered candidates for deep brain stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Vassilakos, Paulos [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Patras (Greece); Messinis, Lambros; Lyros, Epameinondas; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurology, Neuropsychology Section, Patras (Greece); Constantoyannis, Costas; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Patras (Greece)

    2009-11-15

    In the present study, we examined relationships between neuropsychological functions and brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed at presurgical evaluation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Twenty advanced non-demented PD patients, candidates for DBS surgery, underwent perfusion brain SPECT study and neuropsychological assessment prior to surgery (range: 30-50 days). Patients were further assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) scale. During all assessments patients were ''on'' standard medication. NeuroGam software, which permits voxel by voxel analysis, was used to compare the brain perfusion of PD patients with a normal database adjusted for sex and age. Neuropsychological scores were compared to age, education and sex-adjusted normative databases. Our results indicated that the distribution of rCBF showed significant differences when compared to an age- and sex-adjusted normative database. We found impaired blood flow in 17 (85%) of our patients in the left prefrontal lobe, in 14 (70%) in the right prefrontal lobe and in 11 (55%) in the left frontal and right parietal lobes. Neuropsychological testing revealed that 18 (90%) of our patients had significant impairments in measures of executive functions (set-shifting) and 15 (75%) in response inhibition. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between measures of visual attention, executive functions and the right frontal lobe region. The presence of widespread blood flow reduction was observed mainly in the frontal lobes of dementia-free patients with advanced PD. Furthermore, performance on specific cognitive measures was highly related to perfusion brain SPECT findings. (orig.)

  9. A synthetic rainbow trout linkage map provides new insights into the salmonid whole genome duplication and the conservation of synteny among teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyomard, René; Boussaha, Mekki; Krieg, Francine; Hervet, Caroline; Quillet, Edwige

    2012-03-16

    Rainbow trout is an economically important fish and a suitable experimental organism in many fields of biology including genome evolution, owing to the occurrence of a salmonid specific whole-genome duplication (4th WGD). Rainbow trout is among some of the most studied teleosts and has benefited from substantial efforts to develop genomic resources (e.g., linkage maps. Here, we first generated a synthetic map by merging segregation data files derived from three independent linkage maps. Then, we used it to evaluate genome conservation between rainbow trout and three teleost models, medaka, stickleback and zebrafish and to further investigate the extent of the 4th WGD in trout genome. The INRA linkage map was updated by adding 211 new markers. After standardization of marker names, consistency of marker assignment to linkage groups and marker orders was checked across the three different data sets and only loci showing consistent location over all or almost all of the data sets were kept. This resulted in a synthetic map consisting of 2226 markers and 29 linkage groups spanning over 3600 cM. Blastn searches against medaka, stickleback, and zebrafish genomic databases resulted in 778, 824 and 730 significant hits respectively while blastx searches yielded 505, 513 and 510 significant hits. Homology search results revealed that, for most rainbow trout chromosomes, large syntenic regions encompassing nearly whole chromosome arms have been conserved between rainbow trout and its closest models, medaka and stickleback. Large conserved syntenies were also found between the genomes of rainbow trout and the reconstructed teleost ancestor. These syntenies consolidated the known homeologous affinities between rainbow trout chromosomes due to the 4th WGD and suggested new ones. The synthetic map constructed herein further highlights the stability of the teleost genome over long evolutionary time scales. This map can be easily extended by incorporating new data sets and should

  10. A SNP Based Linkage Map of the Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus Genome Provides Insights into the Diploidization Process After Whole Genome Duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron M. Nugent

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diploidization, which follows whole genome duplication events, does not occur evenly across the genome. In salmonid fishes, certain pairs of homeologous chromosomes preserve tetraploid loci in higher frequencies toward the telomeres due to residual tetrasomic inheritance. Research suggests this occurs only in homeologous pairs where one chromosome arm has undergone a fusion event. We present a linkage map for Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus, a salmonid species with relatively fewer chromosome fusions. Genotype by sequencing identified 19,418 SNPs, and a linkage map consisting of 4508 markers was constructed from a subset of high quality SNPs and microsatellite markers that were used to anchor the new map to previous versions. Both male- and female-specific linkage maps contained the expected number of 39 linkage groups. The chromosome type associated with each linkage group was determined, and 10 stable metacentric chromosomes were identified, along with a chromosome polymorphism involving the sex chromosome AC04. Two instances of a weak form of pseudolinkage were detected in the telomeric regions of homeologous chromosome arms in both female and male linkage maps. Chromosome arm homologies within the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss genomes were determined. Paralogous sequence variants (PSVs were identified, and their comparative BLASTn hit locations showed that duplicate markers exist in higher numbers on seven pairs of homeologous arms, previously identified as preserving tetrasomy in salmonid species. Homeologous arm pairs where neither arm has been part of a fusion event in Arctic charr had fewer PSVs, suggesting faster diploidization rates in these regions.

  11. Notch 1 and 3 receptor signaling modulates vascular smooth muscle cell growth, apoptosis, and migration via a CBF-1/RBP-Jk dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Catherine; Morrow, David; Birney, Yvonne A; Coyle, Seamus; Hennessy, Colm; Scheller, Agnieszka; Cummins, Philip M; Walls, Dermot; Redmond, Eileen M; Cahill, Paul A

    2004-09-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) fate decisions (cell growth, migration, and apoptosis) are fundamental features in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. We investigated the role of Notch 1 and 3 receptor signaling in controlling adult SMC fate in vitro by establishing that hairy enhancer of split (hes-1 and -5) and related hrt's (hrt-1, -2, and -3) are direct downstream target genes of Notch 1 and 3 receptors in SMC and identified an essential role for nuclear protein CBF-1/RBP-Jk in their regulation. Constitutive expression of active Notch 1 and 3 receptors (Notch IC) resulted in a significant up-regulation of CBF-1/RBP-Jk-dependent promoter activity and Notch target gene expression concomitant with significant increases in SMC growth while concurrently inhibiting SMC apoptosis and migration. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous Notch mediated CBF-1/RBP-Jk regulated gene expression with a non-DNA binding mutant of CBF-1, a Notch IC deleted of its delta RAM domain and the Epstein-Barr virus encoded RPMS-1, in conjunction with pharmacological inhibitors of Notch IC receptor trafficking (brefeldin A and monensin), resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth while concomitantly increasing SMC apoptosis and migration. These findings suggest that endogenous Notch receptors and downstream target genes control vascular cell fate in vitro. Notch signaling, therefore, represents a novel therapeutic target for disease states in which changes in vascular cell fate occur in vivo.

  12. 99mTc-bicisate reliably images CBF in chronic brain diseases but fails to show reflow hyperemia in subacute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Sperling, B

    1994-01-01

    a normal or elevated flow (luxury perfusion) as sign of spontaneous thrombolysis with reperfusion; in fact, these seven cases comprised all the reperfusion cases in the series. The results validate bicisate as a tracer of CBF in normal humans and in chronic brain diseases. Only in a subgroup of subacute...

  13. CBF before and after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease studied with 133Xe-inhalation tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorstrup, S; Lassen, N A; Henriksen, L

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied by 133Xenon inhalation tomography in 22 patients with symptoms of ischemic cerebrovascular disease before and after establishment of an extracranial-intracranial bypass shunt. Selection of patients for shunting was based on angiographically demonstrated...

  14. Separation of input function for rapid measurement of quantitative CMRO{sub 2} and CBF in a single PET scan with a dual tracer administration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takuya; Iida, Hidehiro [Department of Investigative Radiology, Advanced Medical-Engineering Center, National Cardiovascular Center-Research Institute, 5-7-1, Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan)

    2007-04-07

    Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) images can be quantified using positron emission tomography (PET) by administrating {sup 15}O-labelled water (H{sup 15}{sub 2}O) and oxygen ({sup 15}O{sub 2}). Conventionally, those images are measured with separate scans for three tracers C{sup 15}O for CBV, H{sup 15}{sub 2}O for CBF and {sup 15}O{sub 2} for CMRO{sub 2}, and there are additional waiting times between the scans in order to minimize the influence of the radioactivity from the previous tracers, which results in a relatively long study period. We have proposed a dual tracer autoradiographic (DARG) approach (Kudomi et al 2005), which enabled us to measure CBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} rapidly by sequentially administrating H{sup 15}{sub 2}O and {sup 15}O{sub 2} within a short time. Because quantitative CBF and CMRO{sub 2} values are sensitive to arterial input function, it is necessary to obtain accurate input function and a drawback of this approach is to require separation of the measured arterial blood time-activity curve (TAC) into pure water and oxygen input functions under the existence of residual radioactivity from the first injected tracer. For this separation, frequent manual sampling was required. The present paper describes two calculation methods: namely a linear and a model-based method, to separate the measured arterial TAC into its water and oxygen components. In order to validate these methods, we first generated a blood TAC for the DARG approach by combining the water and oxygen input functions obtained in a series of PET studies on normal human subjects. The combined data were then separated into water and oxygen components by the present methods. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were calculated using those separated input functions and tissue TAC. The quantitative accuracy in the CBF and CMRO{sub 2} values by the DARG approach did not exceed the acceptable range, i.e., errors in those

  15. Local application of 133Xenon for measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eintrei, C.; Leszniewski, W.; Carlsson, C.

    1985-01-01

    It is well known that halothane causes an increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this study the effects of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in humans were determined in the presence of 70% N 2 O at a combined MAC concentration of 1.5. CBF was determined in 24 patients from the washout of locally applied 133 Xenon with the use of an external scintillation. All 24 patients (control n = 6, halothane n = 6, enflurane n = 6, and isoflurane n = 6) were undergoing neurosurgical procedures. All patients were anesthetized with thiopental, fentanyl, droperidol, and 70% N 2 O in oxygen and paralyzed with pancuronium. The measurements were performed after the dura had been opened and before definitive surgery. The first measurement was done in the absence of any volatile agent, and the wash-out curve was registered for 6 min. The second measurement was done after one of the volatile agents had been added for at least 20 min and had reached a concentration of 0.58% for halothane, 1.14% for enflurane, or 1.0% for isoflurane in the expiratory gases in order to obtain about 1.5 MAC with each volatile anesthetic. The anesthetic concentrations were measured with the Engstroem multigas analyzer EMMA. The physiologic variables changed very little throughout the period of observation. Body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, PaCO 2 , and PaO 2 were stable. Ephedrine was used to maintain a stable arterial pressure. At approximately 1.5 MAC, halothane (plus N 2 O) increased rCBF to nearly three times (166%) the control value, while enflurane induced only a slight increase (35%) in rCBF

  16. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Eucalyptus grandis: an intriguing over-representation of stress-responsive DREB1/CBF genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P B Cao

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF family includes a large number of developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors sharing an AP2 DNA-binding domain. Among them DREB1/CBF and DREB2 factors are known as master regulators respectively of cold and heat/osmotic stress responses.The manual annotation of AP2/ERF family from Eucalyptus grandis, Malus, Populus and Vitis genomes allowed a complete phylogenetic study for comparing the structure of this family in woody species and the model Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiles of the whole groups of EgrDREB1 and EgrDREB2 were investigated through RNAseq database survey and RT-qPCR analyses.The structure and the size of the AP2/ERF family show a global conservation for the plant species under comparison. In addition to an expansion of the ERF subfamily, the tree genomes mainly differ with respect to the group representation within the subfamilies. With regard to the E. grandis DREB subfamily, an obvious feature is the presence of 17 DREB1/CBF genes, the maximum reported to date for dicotyledons. In contrast, only six DREB2 have been identified, which is similar to the other plants species under study, except for Malus. All the DREB1/CBF and DREB2 genes from E. grandis are expressed in at least one condition and all are heat-responsive. Regulation by cold and drought depends on the genes but is not specific of one group; DREB1/CBF group is more cold-inducible than DREB2 which is mainly drought responsive.These features suggest that the dramatic expansion of the DREB1/CBF group might be related to the adaptation of this evergreen tree to climate changes when it expanded in Australia.

  17. Genome-wide mapping of transcription start sites yields novel insights into the primary transcriptome of Pseudomonas putida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arrigo, Isotta; Bojanovic, Klara; Yang, Xiaochen

    2016-01-01

    but a lack of conserved overrepresented promoter motifs. These TSSs defined approximately 50 leaderless transcripts and an abundance of mRNAs with long leader regions of which 18 contain RNA regulatory elements from the Rfam database. The thiamine pyrophosphate riboswitch upstream of the thiC gene...... was examined using an in vivo assay with GFP-fusion vectors and shown to function via a translational repression mechanism. Furthermore, 56 novel intergenic small RNAs and 8 putative actuaton transcripts were detected, as well as 8 novel open reading frames (ORFs). This study illustrates how global mapping...

  18. Extensional Volcanism of the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, Northern Rio Grande Rift, USA: New Insights from Geologic Mapping, 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology, Geochemistry and Geophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. A.; Turner, K. J.; Cosca, M. A.; Drenth, B.; Grauch, V. J. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Pliocene Taos Plateau Volcanic Field (TPVF) is the largest volcanic field of the Rio Grande rift. Deposits of the TPVF are distributed across 4500 km2 in the southern part of the 11,500 km2 San Luis Valley in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico constituting a major component of the structural San Luis Basin (SLB) fill. Exposed deposit thicknesses range from a few meters near the distal termini of basaltic lava flows to 240 m in the Rio Grande gorge near Taos, NM. New geologic mapping and 100 high-resolution 40Ar/39Ar age determinations help identify a complex distribution of >50 exposed eruptive centers ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite. Total eruptive volume, estimated from geologic map relations, geophysical modeling of basin geometry and subsurface distribution of basaltic deposits, are approximately 300 km3; comprising 66% Servilleta Basalt (tholeiite), 3% mildly alkaline trachybasalt & trachyandesite, 12% olivine andesite, 17% dacite, and Guadalupe Mountain/Cerro Negro, 3.9 Ma Ute Mountain, and 3 Ma San Antonio Mountain) reach elevations of 3300 m, 770 m above the valley floor each spatially and temporally associated with fault-bounded sub-basins superposed on the broader structural SLB. Locally, coeval Pliocene fault-slip rates are 2.5 times the long-term rates determined for the SLB confirming the temporal association of local intrabasin extensional faulting and eruptive centers.

  19. Grid-mapping Hellas Planitia, Mars - Insights into distribution, evolution and geomorphology of (Peri)-glacial, fluvial and lacustrine landforms in Mars' deepest basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, M.; Hauber, E.; Schulzeck, F.; Jaumann, R.

    2017-10-01

    Traditional maps of Hellas Planitia, the most prominent impact basin on Mars, have focused on the delineation of continuous surface units. We applied the newly developed grid-mapping method in order to quantitatively analyze the distribution and geostatistics of selected (peri)-glacial, fluvial, and lacustrine landforms. The study area was subdivided in grid cells with a mesh size of 20 × 20 km, and more than 10,000 grids have been inspected manually in a GIS environment at a mapping scale of 1:30,000. Each grid has been checked for the presence or absence of a landform. Thus, we were able to statistically evaluate the geographical behavior of landforms with respect to elevation, slope inclination, aspect, and other parameters. We searched for 24 pre-selected landforms. However, only 15 of them had a sufficient abundance for scientific research. Whereas the latitude-dependent mantle is widespread in most of Hellas, it was found to be mostly missing in the northeastern part, likely a result of desiccating winds circulating clockwise within the basin. The location and morphologic expression of scalloped terrain also seems to be influenced by winds, as the local orientation of scalloped depressions appears to be aligned along the dominant wind direction, indicating that insolation is not the only factor controlling their formation. Hellas Planitia has been suggested as the site of a former sea. We also searched each grid for the presence of possible shorelines. Despite the small scale of our mapping, no clear evidence for coastal landforms has been detected. Our results reveal a distinctive asymmetry with respect to fluvial channels and Noachian light-toned sediments along the rim of the impact basin. While the northern rim shows a high density of both channels and sediments, the southern counterpart basically lacks channels and light-toned deposits. We suggest different climatic conditions for this imbalance, as the northern part of Hellas likely experienced higher

  20. Brain in situ hybridization maps as a source for reverse-engineering transcriptional regulatory networks: Alzheimer's disease insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acquaah-Mensah, George K.; Taylor, Ronald C.

    2016-07-01

    Microarray data have been a valuable resource for identifying transcriptional regulatory relationships among genes. As an example, brain region-specific transcriptional regulatory events have the potential of providing etiological insights into Alzheimer Disease (AD). However, there is often a paucity of suitable brain-region specific expression data obtained via microarrays or other high throughput means. The Allen Brain Atlas in situ hybridization (ISH) data sets (Jones et al., 2009) represent a potentially valuable alternative source of high-throughput brain region-specific gene expression data for such purposes. In this study, Allen BrainAtlasmouse ISH data in the hippocampal fields were extracted, focusing on 508 genes relevant to neurodegeneration. Transcriptional regulatory networkswere learned using three high-performing network inference algorithms. Only 17% of regulatory edges from a network reverse-engineered based on brain region-specific ISH data were also found in a network constructed upon gene expression correlations inmousewhole brain microarrays, thus showing the specificity of gene expression within brain sub-regions. Furthermore, the ISH data-based networks were used to identify instructive transcriptional regulatory relationships. Ncor2, Sp3 and Usf2 form a unique three-party regulatory motif, potentially affecting memory formation pathways. Nfe2l1, Egr1 and Usf2 emerge among regulators of genes involved in AD (e.g. Dhcr24, Aplp2, Tia1, Pdrx1, Vdac1, andSyn2). Further, Nfe2l1, Egr1 and Usf2 are sensitive to dietary factors and could be among links between dietary influences and genes in the AD etiology. Thus, this approach of harnessing brain region-specific ISH data represents a rare opportunity for gleaning unique etiological insights for diseases such as AD.

  1. A nonparametric mean-variance smoothing method to assess Arabidopsis cold stress transcriptional regulator CBF2 overexpression microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pingsha; Maiti, Tapabrata

    2011-01-01

    Microarray is a powerful tool for genome-wide gene expression analysis. In microarray expression data, often mean and variance have certain relationships. We present a non-parametric mean-variance smoothing method (NPMVS) to analyze differentially expressed genes. In this method, a nonlinear smoothing curve is fitted to estimate the relationship between mean and variance. Inference is then made upon shrinkage estimation of posterior means assuming variances are known. Different methods have been applied to simulated datasets, in which a variety of mean and variance relationships were imposed. The simulation study showed that NPMVS outperformed the other two popular shrinkage estimation methods in some mean-variance relationships; and NPMVS was competitive with the two methods in other relationships. A real biological dataset, in which a cold stress transcription factor gene, CBF2, was overexpressed, has also been analyzed with the three methods. Gene ontology and cis-element analysis showed that NPMVS identified more cold and stress responsive genes than the other two methods did. The good performance of NPMVS is mainly due to its shrinkage estimation for both means and variances. In addition, NPMVS exploits a non-parametric regression between mean and variance, instead of assuming a specific parametric relationship between mean and variance. The source code written in R is available from the authors on request.

  2. Cerebral Blood Flow Changes after Shunt in Hydrocephalus after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Analysis by statistical Parametric Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, I. Y.; Choi, W. S.; Pak, H. S. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Inhwa, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after shunt operation in patients with hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage ba statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Seven patients (4 male, mean age 54 years) with hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent a shunt operation. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed within I week before, and 2 weeks after the shunt operation. All of the SPECT images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed, and globally normalized. After spatial and count normalization, rCBF of pre- and post- shunting Tc- 99m HMPAO SPECT was estimated at every voxel using t statistics. The voxels with a P value of less than 0.001 were considered to be significantly different. The shunt operation was effective in all patients. Pre-shunting Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT showed hypoperfusion, predominantly in the periventricular area. After shunt operation, periventricular low perfusion was disappeared. The results of this study show that periventricular CBF is impaired in hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Significant increase of periventricular CBF after shunt operation suggests the evaluation of periventricular CBF by SPM might be of value for the prediction of shunt effectiveness in hydrocephalus.

  3. Surgery for gliomas involving the left inferior parietal lobule: new insights into the functional anatomy provided by stimulation mapping in awake patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Igor Lima; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Bertram, Luc; Moulinié, Gérard; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-10-01

    Surgery in the left dominant inferior parietal lobule (IPL) is challenging because of a high density of somatosensory and language structures, both in the cortex and white matter. In the present study, on the basis of the results provided by direct cerebral stimulation in awake patients, the authors revisit the anatomofunctional aspects of surgery within the left IPL. Fourteen consecutive patients underwent awake craniotomy for a glioma involving the left IPL. Intraoperative motor, sensory, and language mapping was performed before and during the tumor removal, at both the cortical and subcortical levels, to optimize the extent of resection, which was determined based on functional boundaries. Anatomofunctional correlations were performed by combining the results of intraoperative mapping and those provided by pre- and postoperative MR imaging. At the cortical level, the primary somatosensory area (retrocentral gyrus) limited the resection anteriorly in all cases, at least partially. Less frequently, speech arrest or articulatory problems were observed within the parietal operculum (4 cases). The lateral limit was determined by language sites that were variably distributed. Anomia was the most frequent response (9 cases) at the posterior third of the superior (and/or middle) temporal gyrus. Posteriorly, less reproducible reorganized language sites were seldom observed in the posterior portion of the angular gyrus (2 cases). At the subcortical level, in addition to somatosensory responses due to stimulation of the thalamocortical pathways, articulatory disturbances were induced by stimulation of white matter in the anterior and lateral part of the surgical cavity (11 cases). This tract anatomically corresponds to the horizontal portion of the lateral segment of the superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF III). Deeper and superiorly, phonemic paraphasia was the main language disturbance (12 cases), elicited by stimulation of the posterosuperior portion of the arcuate

  4. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li Wang

    Full Text Available Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0, stearic acid (C18:0, arachidic acid (C20:0, gadoleic acid (C20:1, behenic acid (C22:0, and lignoceric acid (C24:0 are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL populations namely S-population (high oleic line 'SunOleic 97R' × low oleic line 'NC94022' and T-population (normal oleic line 'Tifrunner' × low oleic line 'GT-C20' were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE. Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition.

  5. 99mTc-bicisate reliably images CBF in chronic brain diseases but fails to show reflow hyperemia in subacute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Sperling, B

    1994-01-01

    of 115 cases were collected, and of these 105 were considered technically adequate, comprising 18 normal subjects, 18 senile dementia, eight epilepsy, one brain tumor, eight chronic head trauma, and 52 stroke cases. As expected, bicisate gave better spatial resolution than Xe. Agreement between...... a normal or elevated flow (luxury perfusion) as sign of spontaneous thrombolysis with reperfusion; in fact, these seven cases comprised all the reperfusion cases in the series. The results validate bicisate as a tracer of CBF in normal humans and in chronic brain diseases. Only in a subgroup of subacute...... stroke cases does bicisate not follow CBF, as it fails to show reperfusion hyperemia. This suggests the usefulness of bicisate in stroke cases, particularly in the subacute phase, where other SPECT methods often present difficulties due to reflow masking the size and the severity of the lesion....

  6. Noninvasive quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using Tc-99m ECD SPECT with adjunctive radionuclide angiography in ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Jun Sung; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Myung Ho; Cho, Suk Shin

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative CBF measurements are essential for diagnosing ischemic lesion, evaluating the therapeutic effects and predicting the prognosis of cerebral ischemia. Even though several methods have been introduced, these techniques are too cumbersome and invasive to be applied to routine studies. In this study, a non-invasive simple method for the quantitative angiography. Fifteen normal controls and 27 patients with unilateral carotid ischemic stoke were selected. Brain perfusion index (BPI) of each hemisphere was measured in each subject by acquisition of serial radionuclide angiography after injection of 20mCi of Tc-99m ECD. With Lassen's correction algorithm of curve-linear relationship between the brain activity and blood flow, rCBF on transaxial SPECT slice corresponding with MRI lesion sites (ischemic core, border zone and contralateral mirror locus) were calculated. BPI values for normal controls showed a significant negative correlation with advantage age (r=-0.64, p=0.021) and hemisphric BPI were 11.02±1.6 and 7.8±1.4 for normal controls and patient, respectively. Significant differences were observed between two groups (p=0.0012). rCBF obtained from core zone (12±2.5 ml/100/min), boneder zone (29.2±8.1) and contralateral mirror locus (52.1±15.1) were clearly defined in each subject of patient group. Measurement of BPI and rCBF using Tc-99m ECD SPECT with adjunctive radionuclide angiography could be an useful, simple and non-invasive method in evaluation of the cerebral flood in the ischemic stroke

  7. Strain distribution across a partially molten middle crust: Insights from the AMS mapping of the Carlos Chagas Anatexite, Araçuaí belt (East Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Geane C. G.; Egydio-Silva, Marcos; Vauchez, Alain; Camps, Pierre; Oliveira, Eurídice

    2013-10-01

    The easternmost part of the Neoproterozoic Araçuaí belt comprises an anatectic domain that involves anatexites (the Carlos Chagas unit), leucogranites and migmatitic granulites that display a well-developed fabric. Microstructural observations support that the deformation occurred in the magmatic to submagmatic state. Structural mapping integrating field and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) revealed a complex, 3D structure. The northern domain displays gently dipping foliations bearing a NW-trending lineation, southward, the lineation trend progressively rotates to EW then SW and the foliation is gently folded. The eastern domain displays E-W and NE-SW trending foliations with moderate to steeply dips bearing a dominantly NS trending lineation. Magnetic mineralogy investigation suggests biotite as the main carrier of the magnetic susceptibility in the anatexites and ferromagnetic minerals in the granulites. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) measurements using the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique suggest that the magnetic fabric comes from the crystalline anisotropy of biotite and feldspar grains, especially. The delineation of several structural domains with contrasted flow fabric suggests a 3D flow field involving westward thrusting orthogonal to the belt, northwestward orogen-oblique escape tectonics and NS orogen-parallel flow. This complex deformation pattern may be due to interplay of collision-driven and gravity-driven deformations.

  8. Insights into Photosystem II from Isomorphous Difference Fourier Maps of Femtosecond X-ray Diffraction Data and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Structural Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jimin; Askerka, Mikhail; Brudvig, Gary W; Batista, Victor S

    2017-02-10

    Understanding structure-function relations in photosystem II (PSII) is important for the development of biomimetic photocatalytic systems. X-ray crystallography, computational modeling, and spectroscopy have played central roles in elucidating the structure and function of PSII. Recent breakthroughs in femtosecond X-ray crystallography offer the possibility of collecting diffraction data from the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) before radiation damage of the sample, thereby overcoming the main challenge of conventional X-ray diffraction methods. However, the interpretation of XFEL data from PSII intermediates is challenging because of the issues regarding data-processing, uncertainty on the precise positions of light oxygen atoms next to heavy metal centers, and different kinetics of the S-state transition in microcrystals compared to solution. Here, we summarize recent advances and outstanding challenges in PSII structure-function determination with emphasis on the implementation of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics techniques combined with isomorphous difference Fourier maps, direct methods, and high-resolution spectroscopy.

  9. Comparison of D2 receptor binding (123I-IBZM) and rCBF (99mTc-HMPAO) in extrapyramidal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saur, H.B.; Bartenstein, P.; Schober, O.; Oberwittler, C.; Lerch, H.; Masur, H.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this SPECT study was to determine whether there is a correlation between rCBF ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) and D2 receptor binding ( 123 I-IBZM) in disorders of the extrapyramidal system and in which situation the 99 MTc-HMPAO scan could predict the outcome of the 123 I-IBZM study. 13 patients with Parkinson's syndrome and 13 patients with hyperkinetic extrapyramidal disorders were studied. In all patients the two SPECT studies were performed within 2-7 days. ROIs were placed over the basal ganglia (BG), the frontal cortex (FC) and the cerebellum (CE). The ratios BG/FC and BG/CE were calculated. In both groups the scatter was lower when the frontal cortex was used as reference region. Among the patients with hyperkinetic extrapyramidal hyperkinetic extrapyramidal disorders the two patients with Huntington's chorea had lower rCBF and D2 receptor binding compared to other hyperkinetic extrapyramidal disorders. There was no correlation between D2 receptor binding and rCBF in the basal ganglia. The 99 MTc-HMPAO studies did not provide clinically useful information, except in Huntington's chorea. (orig.) [de

  10. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway Are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Lu, Junyang; Gao, Min; Shi, Kai; Kong, Qiusheng; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon. PMID:27777580

  11. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-ɑ-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon.

  12. Growth rates and geochemical proxies in Late Campanian bivalves - New insights from micro-X-ray Fluorescence mapping and numerical growth modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Niels; Goderis, Steven; van Malderen, Stijn; Vanhaecke, Frank; Claeys, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Late Cretaceous greenhouse climate is of vital importance for understanding present and future climate change. While a lot of good work has been done to reconstruct climate in this interesting period, most paleoclimatic studies have focused on long-term climate change[1]. Alternatively, multi-proxy records from marine bivalves provide us with a unique opportunity to study past climate on a seasonal scale. However, previous fossil bivalve studies have reported ambiguous results with regard to the interpretation of trace element and stable isotope proxies in marine bivalve shells[2]. One major problem in the interpretation of such records is the bivalve's vital effect and the occurrence of disequilibrium fractionation during bivalve growth. Both these problems are linked to the annual growth cycle of marine bivalves, which introduces internal effects on the incorporation of isotopes and trace elements into the shell[3]. Understanding this growth cycle in extinct bivalves is therefore of great importance for the interpretation of seasonal proxy records in their shells. In this study, three different species of extinct Late Campanian bivalves (two rudist species and one oyster species) that were found in the same stratigraphic interval are studied. Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence line scanning and mapping of trace elements such as Mg, Sr, S and Zn, calibrated by LA-ICP-MS measurements, is combined with microdrilled stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis on the well-preserved part of the shells. Data of this multi-proxy study is compared with results from a numerical growth model written in the open-source statistics package R[4] and based on annual growth increments observed in the shells and shell thickness. This growth model is used together with proxy data to reconstruct rates of trace element incorporation into the shell and to calculate the mass balance of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes. In order to achieve this goal, 2D mapping of bivalve shell

  13. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive heart disease with mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction: insight from altered mechanics and native T1 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L-M; An, D-A L; Yao, Q-Y; Ou, Y-R Z; Lu, Q; Jiang, M; Xu, J-R

    2017-10-01

    To explore the relationship between extracellular volume (ECV), native T1, and systolic strain in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (HTN LVH) with mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction. T1 mapping was performed in 45 patients with late gadolinium enhancement positive (LGE+) HCM (mean age, 53±6 years), 11 patients with LGE- (LGE-) HCM (mean age, 56±5 years), and 20 patients with HTN LVH (mean age, 55±6 years) on at 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the modified look-locker inversion-recovery (MOLLI) pulse sequence. Mean T1 value, ECV and circumferential strain parameters were determined for each patient. Overall, the HCM patients had higher native T1 values (1242.92±68.94) and ECV (0.31±0.05) in comparison to those of the HTN LVH patients (1197±46.80, 0.27±0.04; p<0.05). In the subgroup analysis, the HCM LGE+ patients had the highest native T1 values among the three groups. The HCM LGE+ patients had higher ECV than the LGE- patients. HCM LGE- patients had higher ECV than HTN LVH patients (p<0.05). Peak systolic circumferential strain and early diastolic strain rates were reduced in the HCM LGE+ patients in comparison to the HCM LGE- and HTN LVH patients (p<0.05). Reduced peak systolic and early diastolic circumferential strain rates were associated with increased levels of ECV and native T1 values among all the patients. HCM LGE+ patients had higher native T1 values, higher ECV, and an associated reduction in early diastolic strain rates and peak systolic circumferential strains when compared to the HCM LGE- and HTN LVH patients with mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Seismic Response and Performance Evaluation of Self-Centering LRB Isolators Installed on the CBF Building under NF Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwon Seo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly treats the seismic behavior of lead-rubber bearing (LRB isolation systems with superealstic shape memory alloy (SMA bending bars functioning as damper and self-centering devices. The conventional LRB isolators that are usually installed at the column bases supply extra flexibility to the centrically braced frame (CBF building with a view to elongate its vibration period, and thus make a contribution to mitigating seismic acceleration transferred from ground to structure. However, these base isolation systems are somehow susceptible to shear failure due to the lack of lateral resistance. In the construction site, they have been used to be integrated with displacement control dampers additionally withstanding lateral seismic forces. For this motivation, LRB isolation systems equipped with superelastic SMA bending bars, which possess not only excellent energy dissipation but also outstanding recentering capability, are proposed in this study. These reinforced and recentering LRB base isolators are modeled as nonlinear component springs, and then assigned into the bases of 2D frame models used for numerical simulation. Their seismic performance and capacity in the base-isolated frame building can be evaluated through nonlinear dynamic analyses conducted with historic ground motion data. After comparative study with analyses results, it is clearly shown that 2D frame models with proposed LRB isolators generally have smaller maximum displacements than those with conventional LRB isolators. Furthermore, the LRB isolation systems with superelastic SMA bending bars effectively reduce residual displacement as compared to those with steel bending bars because they provide more flexibility and recentering force to the entire building structure.

  15. Analysis of voxel-based rCBF in patients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy of multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo

    2004-01-01

    Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy (OPCA) is one phenotype of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and is characterized neuropathologically by neuronal degeneration in the inferior olives, pons and cerebellar cortex. The diagnosis of OPCA requires clinical evaluation to exclude other diseases. And it's usually supported by atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem visualized on CT or MRI. But there are some reports that the disease can occur without demonstrable atrophy in these anatomic studies. There are only a few reports about perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with OPCA. The aim of this study was to describe voxel-based rCBF of OPCA in comparison of healthy volunteers. We studied 5 patients with OPCA (1 men, 4 women: age 50.4±9.6y) and age matched 13 healthy volunteers (4 men, 9 women: age 54.9±6.6y). All subjects injected 20mCi of Tc-99m HMPAO and scanning was initiated 20 min after injection. Images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. On visual analysis, in 3 patients with OPCA, SPECT image showed significant hypoperfusion in the cerebellum. In another 2 patients, diffuse hypoperfusion was found in the both cerebro-cerebellar hemispheres, untypical perfusion pattern in OPCA. So there is existed limitation to diagnosis by only visual analysis. On SPM analysis, in OPCA patients significantly decreased perfusion was present in culmen, tonsil, tuber in Lt. cerebellum and declive, tonsil, pyramid and inf. Semi-lunar lobule in Rt. cerebellum, Rt. inf. frontal gyrus and Rt. temporal lobe (p<0.001, uncorrected). We also performed individual analysis with SPM. Two of 5 patients have additional hypoperfusion brain lesions. In one patient, decreased perfusion found in Lt. temporal, both occipital lobe, Lt. parahippocampal gyrus. In another patient, decreased perfusion found in both frontal and parietal lobe. This study is one of a few trials analysis with SPM for OPCA. We defined the specific location of decreased perfusion in patients with OPCA

  16. A genome-wide transcriptome map of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) provides novel insights into salinity-related genes and marker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzzam Jazi, Maryam; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Ebrahimi, Mansour; De Moro, Gianluca; Botanga, Christopher

    2017-08-17

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most important commercial nut crops worldwide. It is a salt-tolerant and long-lived tree, with the largest cultivation area in Iran. Climate change and subsequent increased soil salt content have adversely affected the pistachio yield in recent years. However, the lack of genomic/global transcriptomic sequences on P. vera impedes comprehensive researches at the molecular level. Hence, whole transcriptome sequencing is required to gain insight into functional genes and pathways in response to salt stress. RNA sequencing of a pooled sample representing 24 different tissues of two pistachio cultivars with contrasting salinity tolerance under control and salt treatment by Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform resulted in 368,953,262 clean 100 bp paired-ends reads (90 Gb). Following creating several assemblies and assessing their quality from multiple perspectives, we found that using the annotation-based metrics together with the length-based parameters allows an improved assessment of the transcriptome assembly quality, compared to the solely use of the length-based parameters. The generated assembly by Trinity was adopted for functional annotation and subsequent analyses. In total, 29,119 contigs annotated against all of five public databases, including NR, UniProt, TAIR10, KOG and InterProScan. Among 279 KEGG pathways supported by our assembly, we further examined the pathways involved in the plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling as well as those to be contributed to secondary metabolite biosynthesis due to their importance under salinity stress. In total, 11,337 SSRs were also identified, which the most abundant being dinucleotide repeats. Besides, 13,097 transcripts as candidate stress-responsive genes were identified. Expression of some of these genes experimentally validated through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) that further confirmed the accuracy of the assembly. From this analysis, the contrasting expression pattern

  17. Mapping of the Co-Transcriptomes of UPEC-Infected Macrophages Reveals New Insights into the Molecular Basis of Host-Pathogen Interactions in Human and Mouse

    KAUST Repository

    Mavromatis, Charalampos Harris

    2014-01-01

    provides both a unique co-culture approach to study infection in vitro and a technological framework for simultaneously capturing global changes in hostpathogen interactions at the transcriptional level in co-cultures. In conclusion, this work has generated new insights into the mechanisms that UPEC strains exploit to persist within the mouse intramacrophage environment, as well as differences in the transcriptional repertoire of HMDM and BMM challenged with the same UPEC strain.

  18. Quantitative kinetic analysis of PET amyloid imaging agents [11C]BF227 and [18F]FACT in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidahara, Miho; Watabe, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Furumoto, Shozo; Watanuki, Shoichi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arakawa, Yuma; Funaki, Yoshihito; Iwata, Ren; Gonda, Kohsuke; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare two amyloid imaging agents, [ 11 C]BF227 and [ 18 F]FACT (derivative from [ 11 C]BF227) through quantitative pharmacokinetics analysis in human brain. Methods: Positron emission tomography studies were performed on six elderly healthy control (HC) subjects and seven probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients with [ 11 C]BF227 and 10 HC subjects and 10 probable AD patients with [ 18 F]FACT. Data from nine regions of interest were analyzed by several approaches, namely non-linear least-squared fitting methods with arterial input functions (one-tissue compartment model(1TCM), two-tissue compartment model (2TCM)), Logan plot, and linearized methods with reference region (Reference Logan plot (RefLogan), MRTM0, MRTM2). We also evaluated SUV and SUVR for both tracers. The parameters estimated by several approaches were compared between two tracers for detectability of differences between HC and AD patients. Results: For [ 11 C]BF227, there were no significant difference of V T (2TCM, 1TCM) and SUV in all regions (Student t-test; p < 0.05) and significant differences in the DVRs (Logan, RefLogan, and MRTM2) and SUVRs in six neocortical regions (p < 0.05) between the HC and AD groups. For [ 18 F]FACT, significant differences in DVRs (RefLogan, MRTM0, and MRTM2) were observed in more than four neocortical regions between the HC and AD groups (p < 0.05), and the significant differences were found in SUVRs for two neocortical regions (inferior frontal coretex and lateral temporal coretex). Our results showed that both tracers can clearly distinguish between HC and AD groups although the pharmacokinetics and distribution patterns in brain for two tracers were substantially different. Conclusion: This study revealed that although the PET amyloid imaging agents [ 11 C]BF227 and [ 18 F]FACT have similar chemical and biological properties, they have different pharmacokinetics, and caution must be paid for usage of the

  19. The distribution and origins of extremely acidic saline groundwaters in the south of Western Australia - Groundwater and digital mapping datasets provide new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillicrap, Adam M.; Biermann, Vera; George, Richard J.; Gray, David J.; Oldham, Carolyn E.

    2018-01-01

    Some of the largest extents of naturally occurring acidic waters are found across southern Australia. The origins of these systems remain poorly understood with many hypotheses for their genesis. Australian government agency groundwater datasets and mapping data (vegetation, geology, regolith and soils) for south-western Australia, unavailable to previous researchers, were statistically analysed to better understand the origins of acidic groundwater and guide additional fieldwork to study the origins of acidic saline groundwater. The groundwater data showed a distinct bimodal distribution in pH; the 'acid' population had a median pH of 3.5 and the larger 'non-acid' population had a median pH of 6.6. Acidic groundwater became progressively more common further from the coast towards the drier internally drained regions. Acidic groundwater was mostly confined to the lower slopes and valley floors with localised controls on distribution. Paradoxically, subsoil alkalinity within the internally drained inland regions had the strongest correlation with acidic groundwater (r2 = 0.85). Vegetation was also a strong predictor of acidic groundwater. Acidic groundwater had the highest occurrence under Eucalyptus woodlands and shrublands that grew on alkaline calcareous soils. Pre-clearing soil data in areas with acidic saline groundwater showed that the upper 1 m of the unsaturated zone had a pH around 8 while the pH at depths greater than 5 m decreased to 1.5 m. There, the iron is reduced around roots and the alkalinity generated by microbial iron reduction is removed by biogenic calcification processes. The iron moves in solution further down the profile following roots where it comes in contact with the oxygenated unsaturated zone matrix and is oxidised generating acid. The resulting acidic recharging solution acidifies the unsaturated zone matrix. Saline groundwater moving through the matrix becomes acidified due to ion exchange or direct recharge. The main chemical

  20. Comparison of Global Cerebral Blood Flow Measured by Phase-Contrast Mapping MRI with O-15-H2O Positron Emission Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mark Bitsch; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare mean global cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by phase-contrast mapping magnetic resonance imaging (PCM MRI) and by 15O-H2O positron emission tomography (PET) in healthy subjects. PCM MRI is increasingly being used to measure mean global CBF, but has not been validated in vivo...... against an accepted reference technique. Materials and Methods Same-day measurements of CBF by 15O-H2O PET and subsequently by PCM MRI were performed on 22 healthy young male volunteers. Global CBF by PET was determined by applying a one-tissue compartment model with measurement of the arterial input...... function. Flow was measured in the internal carotid and vertebral arteries by a noncardiac triggered PCM MRI sequence at 3T. The measured flow was normalized to total brain weight determined from a volume-segmented 3D T1-weighted anatomical MR-scan. Results Mean CBF was 34.9 ± 3.4 mL/100 g/min measured...

  1. Diagnosis of regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities using SPECT: agreement between individualized statistical parametric maps and visual inspection by nuclear medicine physicians with different levels of expertise in nuclear neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Euclides Timoteo da, E-mail: euclidestimoteo@uol.com.b [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer. Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Nitrini, Ricardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia; Tazima, Sergio [Hospital Alemao Oswaldo Cruz (HAOC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Peres, Stela Verzinhase [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer; Busatto Filho, Geraldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Medicina Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    Introduction: visual analysis is widely used to interpret regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT images in clinical practice despite its limitations. Automated methods are employed to investigate between-group rCBF differences in research studies but have rarely been explored in individual analyses. Objectives: to compare visual inspection by nuclear physicians with the automated statistical parametric mapping program using a SPECT dataset of patients with neurological disorders and normal control images. Methods: using statistical parametric mapping, 14 SPECT images from patients with various neurological disorders were compared individually with a databank of 32 normal images using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 (corrected for multiple comparisons at the level of individual voxels or clusters). Statistical parametric mapping results were compared with visual analyses by a nuclear physician highly experienced in neurology (A) as well as a nuclear physician with a general background of experience (B) who independently classified images as normal or altered, and determined the location of changes and the severity. Results: of the 32 images of the normal databank, 4 generated maps showing rCBF abnormalities (p<0.05, corrected). Among the 14 images from patients with neurological disorders, 13 showed rCBF alterations. Statistical parametric mapping and physician A completely agreed on 84.37% and 64.28% of cases from the normal databank and neurological disorders, respectively. The agreement between statistical parametric mapping and ratings of physician B were lower (71.18% and 35.71%, respectively). Conclusion: statistical parametric mapping replicated the findings described by the more experienced nuclear physician. This finding suggests that automated methods for individually analyzing rCBF SPECT images may be a valuable resource to complement visual inspection in clinical practice. (author)

  2. Dreaming and insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Edwards

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years. Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996 therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams. The need to distinguish ‘aha’ experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from ‘aha’ experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared.

  3. Dreaming and insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  4. Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa. It is accredited by the South African National Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) and is indexed in the International Bibliography of Social Science (IBSS). It is a multi-disciplinary journal primarily focusing on African ...

  5. TIPS bilateral noise reduction in 4D CT perfusion scans produces high-quality cerebral blood flow maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendrik, Adrienne M; Van Ginneken, Bram; Viergever, Max A; Vonken, Evert-jan; De Jong, Hugo W; Riordan, Alan; Van Seeters, Tom; Smit, Ewoud J; Prokop, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral computed tomography perfusion (CTP) scans are acquired to detect areas of abnormal perfusion in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. These 4D CTP scans consist of multiple sequential 3D CT scans over time. Therefore, to reduce radiation exposure to the patient, the amount of x-ray radiation that can be used per sequential scan is limited, which results in a high level of noise. To detect areas of abnormal perfusion, perfusion parameters are derived from the CTP data, such as the cerebral blood flow (CBF). Algorithms to determine perfusion parameters, especially singular value decomposition, are very sensitive to noise. Therefore, noise reduction is an important preprocessing step for CTP analysis. In this paper, we propose a time-intensity profile similarity (TIPS) bilateral filter to reduce noise in 4D CTP scans, while preserving the time-intensity profiles (fourth dimension) that are essential for determining the perfusion parameters. The proposed TIPS bilateral filter is compared to standard Gaussian filtering, and 4D and 3D (applied separately to each sequential scan) bilateral filtering on both phantom and patient data. Results on the phantom data show that the TIPS bilateral filter is best able to approach the ground truth (noise-free phantom), compared to the other filtering methods (lowest root mean square error). An observer study is performed using CBF maps derived from fifteen CTP scans of acute stroke patients filtered with standard Gaussian, 3D, 4D and TIPS bilateral filtering. These CBF maps were blindly presented to two observers that indicated which map they preferred for (1) gray/white matter differentiation, (2) detectability of infarcted area and (3) overall image quality. Based on these results, the TIPS bilateral filter ranked best and its CBF maps were scored to have the best overall image quality in 100% of the cases by both observers. Furthermore, quantitative CBF and cerebral blood volume values in both the phantom and the

  6. TIPS bilateral noise reduction in 4D CT perfusion scans produces high-quality cerebral blood flow maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendrik, Adrienne M; Van Ginneken, Bram; Viergever, Max A [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Vonken, Evert-jan; De Jong, Hugo W; Riordan, Alan; Van Seeters, Tom; Smit, Ewoud J; Prokop, Mathias, E-mail: a.m.mendrik@gmail.com [Radiology Department, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-07-07

    Cerebral computed tomography perfusion (CTP) scans are acquired to detect areas of abnormal perfusion in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. These 4D CTP scans consist of multiple sequential 3D CT scans over time. Therefore, to reduce radiation exposure to the patient, the amount of x-ray radiation that can be used per sequential scan is limited, which results in a high level of noise. To detect areas of abnormal perfusion, perfusion parameters are derived from the CTP data, such as the cerebral blood flow (CBF). Algorithms to determine perfusion parameters, especially singular value decomposition, are very sensitive to noise. Therefore, noise reduction is an important preprocessing step for CTP analysis. In this paper, we propose a time-intensity profile similarity (TIPS) bilateral filter to reduce noise in 4D CTP scans, while preserving the time-intensity profiles (fourth dimension) that are essential for determining the perfusion parameters. The proposed TIPS bilateral filter is compared to standard Gaussian filtering, and 4D and 3D (applied separately to each sequential scan) bilateral filtering on both phantom and patient data. Results on the phantom data show that the TIPS bilateral filter is best able to approach the ground truth (noise-free phantom), compared to the other filtering methods (lowest root mean square error). An observer study is performed using CBF maps derived from fifteen CTP scans of acute stroke patients filtered with standard Gaussian, 3D, 4D and TIPS bilateral filtering. These CBF maps were blindly presented to two observers that indicated which map they preferred for (1) gray/white matter differentiation, (2) detectability of infarcted area and (3) overall image quality. Based on these results, the TIPS bilateral filter ranked best and its CBF maps were scored to have the best overall image quality in 100% of the cases by both observers. Furthermore, quantitative CBF and cerebral blood volume values in both the phantom and the

  7. Mapping local cerebral blood flow by means of computerized tomography with a short inhalation of low-dose stable xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Karasawa, Jun; Tasawa, Toshiaki; Touho, Hajime; Nakauchi, Mikio; Kagawa, Masa-aki; Asai, Masa-aki; Kuriyama, Yoshihiro; Kikuchi, Haruhiko.

    1986-01-01

    A non-invasive technique has been developed for mapping the local blood-brain partition coefficient (λi), the local build-up rate constant (κi), and the local cerebral blood flow (l-CBF) by means of xenon-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) using a YMS CT 9000 scanner. After denitrogenation for 10 minutes, a 30 % xenon/oxygen mixture is inhaled for 4 - 8 minutes through a rubber face-mask and a delivery system of stable xenon. The time course of local cerebral CT enhancement is utilized in order to calculate, the λi, κi, and l-CBF values. The CT enhancement data during the washin-washout phase are fitted to the mathematical functions, based on Kety's formula, using least-squares curve-fitting analysis. Several case studies of patients with cerebral vascular accidents are presented to demonstrate the characterization of the λi and l-CBF patterns in various tissues; the results are of sufficient quality for the management of patients. The theoretical assumptions underlying stable xenon CT CBF measurements are discussed. (author)

  8. A comprehensive protein-protein interactome for yeast PAS kinase 1 reveals direct inhibition of respiration through the phosphorylation of Cbf1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMille, Desiree; Bikman, Benjamin T; Mathis, Andrew D; Prince, John T; Mackay, Jordan T; Sowa, Steven W; Hall, Tacie D; Grose, Julianne H

    2014-07-15

    Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) kinase is a sensory protein kinase required for glucose homeostasis in yeast, mice, and humans, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms of its function. Using both yeast two-hybrid and copurification approaches, we identified the protein-protein interactome for yeast PAS kinase 1 (Psk1), revealing 93 novel putative protein binding partners. Several of the Psk1 binding partners expand the role of PAS kinase in glucose homeostasis, including new pathways involved in mitochondrial metabolism. In addition, the interactome suggests novel roles for PAS kinase in cell growth (gene/protein expression, replication/cell division, and protein modification and degradation), vacuole function, and stress tolerance. In vitro kinase studies using a subset of 25 of these binding partners identified Mot3, Zds1, Utr1, and Cbf1 as substrates. Further evidence is provided for the in vivo phosphorylation of Cbf1 at T211/T212 and for the subsequent inhibition of respiration. This respiratory role of PAS kinase is consistent with the reported hypermetabolism of PAS kinase-deficient mice, identifying a possible molecular mechanism and solidifying the evolutionary importance of PAS kinase in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. © 2014 DeMille et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. Age-matched normal values and topographic maps for regional cerebral blood flow measurements by Xe-133 inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Maeda, T.; Yamada, M.; Gui, L.X.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between normal aging and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) computed as initial slope index (ISI) by Fourier method was investigated in 105 right-handed healthy volunteers (132 measurements) by Xe-133 inhalation method, and age-matched normal values were calculated. Mean brain ISI values showed significant negative correlation with advancing age (r . 0.70, p less than 0.001), and the regression line and its 95% confidence interval was Y . -0.32 (X - 19) + 63.5 +/- 11.2 (19 less than or equal to X less than or equal to 80). Regional ISI values also showed significant negative correlations for the entire brain (p less than 0.001). The regional reductions of ISI values with advancing age were significantly greater in the regional distribution of the middle cerebral arteries bilaterally, compared with regions in the distribution of the other arteries (p less than 0.05). Therefore, measured rCBF values for patients must be compared to age-matched normal values for mean hemispheric and each region examined. Two kinds of topographic maps, brain map showing rCBF compared to age-matched normal values and showing hemispheric differences were made by dividing patient's values by the 95% confidence limits for age-matched normal values and displaying laterality index calculated as follows, respectively. (formula; see text) These maps were useful for evaluating significantly decreased or increased regions and regional hemispheric differences

  10. Cerebral blood flow and related factors in hyperthyroidism patients by SPECT imaging and statistical parametric mapping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu Yan; Shi Hongcheng; Liu Wenguan; Chen Xuefen; Gu Yushen; Chen Shuguang; Yu Haojun; Yu Yiping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cerebral blood flow (CBF) perfusion patterns and related factors in hyperthyroidism patients. Methods: Twenty-five patients with hyperthyroidism and twenty-two healthy controls matched for age, sex, education were enrolled. 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT CBF perfusion imaging was performed at rest. Statistical parametric mapping 5.0 software (SPM5) was used and a statistical threshold of P 3 , FT 4 ), thyroid autoimmune antibodies: sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) by Pearson analysis, with disease duration by Spearman analysis. Results: rCBF was decreased significantly in limbic system and frontal lobe, including parahippocampal gyrus, uncus (posterior entorhinal cortex, posterior parolfactory cortex, parahippocampal cortex, anterior cingulate, right inferior temporal gyrus), left hypothalamus and caudate nucleus (P 3 (r=-0.468, -0.417, both P 4 (r=-0.4M, -0.418, -0.415, -0.459, all P 4 (r=0.419, 0.412, both P<0.05). rCBF in left insula was negatively correlated with concentration of sTSH, and right auditory associated cortex was positively correlated with concentration of sTSH (r=-0.504, 0.429, both P<0.05). rCBF in left middle temporal gyrus, left angular gyrus was positively correlated with concentration of TRAb while that in right thalamus, right hypothalamus, left anterior nucleus,left ventralis nucleus was negatively correlated with concentration of TRAb (r=0.750, 0.862, -0.691, -0.835, -0.713, -0.759, all P<0.05). rCBF in right anterior cingulate, right cuneus, right rectus gyrus, right superior marginal gyrus was positively correlated with concentration of TPOAb (r=0.696, 0.581, 0.779, 0.683, all P<0.05). rCBF in postcentral gyrus, temporal gyrus, left superior marginal gyrus and auditory associated cortex was positively correlated with disease duration (r=0.502, 0.457, 0.524, 0.440, all P<0.05). Conclusion: Hypoperfusions in

  11. Wave maps on a wormhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizoń, Piotr; Kahl, Michał

    2015-03-01

    We consider equivariant wave maps from a fixed wormhole spacetime into the 3-sphere. This toy model is designed for gaining insight into the dissipation-by-dispersion phenomena, in particular the soliton resolution conjecture. We first prove that for each topological degree of the map there exists a unique static solution (harmonic map) that is linearly stable. Then, using the hyperboloidal formulation of the initial value problem, we give numerical evidence that every solution starting from smooth initial data of any topological degree evolves asymptotically to the harmonic map of the same degree. The late-time asymptotics of this relaxation process is described in detail.

  12. Onomastic Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Yu. Gordova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mapping the onomastic material and creating linguistic atlases of each region remains a significant and urgent problem of Russian onomastics. The paper summarizes the experience of onomastic cartography, and explains the concept of onomastic map as well as linguistic and technical principles of mapping. The author considers traditional objects of mapping and main map topics and describes new opportunities which become possible due to the creation of modern means and techniques of mapping. The paper is illustrated with toponymic maps, compiled by different researchers between 1970 and 2000.

  13. Towards a culture of maps appreciation in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper provides a broad insight into what maps are and the purposes they are meant to serve. It looks at the attitudes towards funding support for mapping activities and the relegation of map use and studies to the backburners in many institutions and organizations. The genesis and current state of mapping in ...

  14. Melatonin-induced CBF/DREB1s are essential for diurnal change of disease resistance and CCA1 expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Wei, Yunxie; He, Chaozu

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is an important regulator of circadian rhythms and immunity in animals. However, the diurnal changes of endogenous melatonin and melatonin-mediated diurnal change of downstream responses remain unclear in Arabidopsis. Using the publicly available microarray data, we found that the transcript levels of two melatonin synthesis genes (serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT)) and endogenous melatonin level were regulated by diurnal cycles, with different magnitudes of change. Moreover, the transcripts of C-repeat-binding factors (CBFs)/Drought response element Binding 1 factors (DREB1s) were co-regulated by exogenous melatonin and diurnal changes, indicating the possible correlation among clock, endogenous melatonin level and AtCBFs expressions. Interestingly, diurnal change of plant immunity against Pst DC3000 and CIRCADIANCLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) expression were largely lost in AtCBFs knockdown line-amiR-1. Taken together, this study identifies the molecular pathway underlying the diurnal changes of immunity in Arabidopsis. Notably, the diurnal changes of endogenous melatonin may regulate corresponding changes of AtCBF/DREB1s expression and their underlying diurnal cycle of plant immunity and AtCCA1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Remote effects and thresholds of CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ in MCA territory ischemic infarction with a high resolution positron CT (HEADTOME-III) and 0-15 labeled gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishido, F.; Uemura, K.; Inugami, A.; Ogawa, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Kanno, I.; Miura, S.; Murakami, M.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, H.

    1985-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO/sub 2/) were measured with a high resolution positron CT (HEADTOME-III) and 0-15 labeled CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/ and CO gases. Seven normal volunteers and 13 cases with MCA territory ischemic infarction were performed on positron CT measurement. Remote effects from MCA territory infarction were noted in the following areas without structural damages by X-ray CT and cerebral angiography: (1) contralateral MCA territory, (2) ipsilateral thalamus, (3) contralateral cerebellar hemisphere, and (4) brainstem. Areas shown as remote effects had normal regional oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF), slightly depressed rCBF and rCMRO/sub 2/. These remote effects were demonstrated typically between 1 and 4 weeks after onset. The morphological damages were assessed as low density are with X-ray CT, and threshold levels of rCBF and rCMRo/sub 2/ were determined. Threshold of rCBF was about 12 ml/100 ml/min, and rCMRO/sub 2/ threshold was about 1.4 ml/100 ml/min in acute stroke within 1 day after onset. The areas of remote effects were indicated above these threshold values. These results suggest that (1) remote effects were not ischemic changes, (2) almost cases with MCA territory infarct showed in this effect, (3) these effects very frequently appeared in 1-4 weeks after onsets, (4) these remote effects may have connection of neural tracts, and the areas shown in remote effects may be a ''resting state''.

  16. Somatosensory maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding-Forrester, Samuel; Feldman, Daniel E

    2018-01-01

    Somatosensory areas containing topographic maps of the body surface are a major feature of parietal cortex. In primates, parietal cortex contains four somatosensory areas, each with its own map, with the primary cutaneous map in area 3b. Rodents have at least three parietal somatosensory areas. Maps are not isomorphic to the body surface, but magnify behaviorally important skin regions, which include the hands and face in primates, and the whiskers in rodents. Within each map, intracortical circuits process tactile information, mediate spatial integration, and support active sensation. Maps may also contain fine-scale representations of touch submodalities, or direction of tactile motion. Functional representations are more overlapping than suggested by textbook depictions of map topography. The whisker map in rodent somatosensory cortex is a canonic system for studying cortical microcircuits, sensory coding, and map plasticity. Somatosensory maps are plastic throughout life in response to altered use or injury. This chapter reviews basic principles and recent findings in primate, human, and rodent somatosensory maps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  18. CBF tomograms with [/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in patients with dementia (Alzheimer type and HIV) and Parkinson's disease--initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, D.C.; Ell, P.J.; Burns, A.; Philpot, M.; Levy, R.

    1988-01-01

    We present preliminary data on the utility of functional brain imaging with [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the study of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), HIV-related dementia syndrome, and the on-off syndrome of Parkinson's disease. In comparison with a group of age-matched controls, the DAT patients revealed distinctive bilateral temporal and posterior parietal deficits, which correlate with detailed psychometric evaluation. Patients with amnesia as the main symptom (group A) showed bilateral mesial temporal lobe perfusion deficits (p less than 0.02). More severely affected patients (group B) with significant apraxia, aphasia, or agnosia exhibited patterns compatible with bilateral reduced perfusion in the posterior parietal cortex, as well as reduced perfusion to both temporal lobes, different from the patients of the control group (p less than 0.05). SPECT studies of HIV patients with no evidence of intracraneal space occupying pathology showed marked perfusion deficits. Patients with Parkinson's disease and the on-off syndrome studied during an on phase (under levodopa therapy) and on another occasion after withdrawal of levodopa (off) demonstrated a significant change in the uptake of [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO in the caudate nucleus (lower on off) and thalamus (higher on off). These findings justify the present interest in the functional evaluation of the brain of patients with dementia. [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)/SPECT appear useful and highlight individual disorders of flow in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions

  19. CBF tomograms with (/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in patients with dementia (Alzheimer type and HIV) and Parkinson's disease--initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, D.C.; Ell, P.J.; Burns, A.; Philpot, M.; Levy, R.

    1988-12-01

    We present preliminary data on the utility of functional brain imaging with (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the study of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), HIV-related dementia syndrome, and the on-off syndrome of Parkinson's disease. In comparison with a group of age-matched controls, the DAT patients revealed distinctive bilateral temporal and posterior parietal deficits, which correlate with detailed psychometric evaluation. Patients with amnesia as the main symptom (group A) showed bilateral mesial temporal lobe perfusion deficits (p less than 0.02). More severely affected patients (group B) with significant apraxia, aphasia, or agnosia exhibited patterns compatible with bilateral reduced perfusion in the posterior parietal cortex, as well as reduced perfusion to both temporal lobes, different from the patients of the control group (p less than 0.05). SPECT studies of HIV patients with no evidence of intracraneal space occupying pathology showed marked perfusion deficits. Patients with Parkinson's disease and the on-off syndrome studied during an on phase (under levodopa therapy) and on another occasion after withdrawal of levodopa (off) demonstrated a significant change in the uptake of (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO in the caudate nucleus (lower on off) and thalamus (higher on off). These findings justify the present interest in the functional evaluation of the brain of patients with dementia. (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)/SPECT appear useful and highlight individual disorders of flow in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions.

  20. Introduction to "Mapping Vietnameseness"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hue-Tam Ho Tai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam and China are currently engaged in a map war, with each country using ancient maps to buttress its claims to territorial sovereignty over some uninhabited islands in the South China Sea (in Chinese terminology, also known as the Eastern Sea (in Vietnamese. But what do maps in fact represent? What is meant by “territory”? How are territorial limits conceived? These questions were raised in a May 2015 workshop inspired by Thongchai Winichakul’s Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation (1994, a groundbreaking book that traces the transformation of Thai geographical consciousness as a result of Siam’s encounter with Western powers in the nineteenth century. While many of Thongchai’s insights apply to the Vietnamese case, as the first of the three articles included in this special issue of Cross-Currents shows, some of the 2015 workshop participants’ conclusions departed from his, especially regarding the formation of a Vietnamese geographical consciousness before the colonial period.[i] This is true of the other two papers, which focus specifically on the construction of borders and the associated production of maps in the nineteenth century before French colonial conquest... Notes 1 Thanks are due to the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Change in Gottingen, Germany, for its gracious hosting and generous funding of the conference, together with the Asia Center of Harvard University.

  1. Usefulness of change ratio map in 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT with acetazolamide enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    1996-01-01

    Although a sequential 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT technique with Diamox test (seq-SPECT) is a simple and time-saving procedure to assess brain perfusion reserve, the influence of the first dose of the tracer on the second one is not negligible. Therefore, a subtraction of the rest-SPECT from the 2nd SPECT is widely-used. However, subtracted SPECT images not only need to be corrected for the injected dose and the radiochemical purity due to inherent instability of HMPAO but also are usually degraded in quality. This study was undertaken to resolve these problems utilizing a change ratio (CR) map. The CR map was obtained by dividing 2nd SPECT by rest-SPECT. Prior to subtraction, the 2nd SPECT was normalized with the ratio of the mean whole brain counts between both SPECTs. To validate CR map, 7 patients were studied with both seq-SPECT and 133 Xe inhalation CBF measurement (Xe-CBF). The right to left count ratio obtained from the ROIs placed on MCA territory of CR map correlated well with that from Xe-CBF (r=0.89, p<0.01). Fifty-three patients with stroke underwent the seq-SPECT which was compared with the cerebral angiography (CAG) and classified into 4 groups according to the CR map. In 25 patients, all of the rest-, the subtracted-SPECT and the CR map did not show any difference between the affected side and the contralateral normal side. Seven patients with normal rest-SPECT showed decreased subtracted-SPECT counts and CR on the affected side. Three of them showed more than 75% stenosis on CAG. Four patients with the decreased counts both at the rest-and the subtracted-SPECT revealed no difference on the CR map suggesting the matched decrease of both blood flow and metabolism in the affected side. In conclusion, the CR map was a simple and useful method to evaluate the brain perfusion reserve with the seq-SPECT. (author)

  2. Single photon emission computed tomography and statistical parametric mapping analysis in cirrhotic patients with and without minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yuri; Matsumura, Kaname; Iwasa, Motoh; Kaito, Masahiko; Adachi, Yukihiko; Takeda, Kan

    2004-01-01

    The early diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment in cirrhotic patients is needed to improve the patients' daily living. In this study, alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were evaluated in cirrhotic patients using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The relationships between rCBF and neuropsychological test, severity of disease and biochemical data were also assessed. 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer single photon emission computed tomography was performed in 20 patients with non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and in 20 age-matched healthy subjects. Neuropsychological tests were performed in 16 patients; of these 7 had minimal HE. Regional CBF images were also analyzed in these groups using SPM. On SPM analysis, cirrhotic patients showed regions of significant hypoperfusion in the superior and middle frontal gyri, and inferior parietal lobules compared with the control group. These areas included parts of the premotor and parietal associated areas of the cortex. Among the cirrhotic patients, those with minimal HE had regions of significant hypoperfusion in the cingulate gyri bilaterally as compared with those without minimal HE. Abnormal function in the above regions may account for the relatively selective neuropsychological deficits in the cognitive status of patients with cirrhosis. These findings may be important in the identification and management of cirrhotic patients with minimal HE. (author)

  3. Causal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2006-01-01

    The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method......The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method...

  4. Collection Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Explains collection mapping for library media collections. Discusses purposes for creating collection maps, including helping with selection and weeding decisions, showing how the collection supports the curriculum, and making budget decisions; and methods of data collection, including evaluating a collaboratively taught unit with the classroom…

  5. CALS Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Ib; Nielsen, Povl Holm; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1998-01-01

    To enhance the industrial applications of CALS, CALS Center Danmark has developed a cost efficient and transparent assessment, CALS Mapping, to uncover the potential of CALS - primarily dedicated to small and medium sized enterprises. The idea behind CALS Mapping is that the CALS State of the ent...

  6. Cortical Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, James A; Wilson, Stuart P

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we review functional organization in sensory cortical regions-how the cortex represents the world. We consider four interrelated aspects of cortical organization: (1) the set of receptive fields of individual cortical sensory neurons, (2) how lateral interaction between cortical neurons reflects the similarity of their receptive fields, (3) the spatial distribution of receptive-field properties across the horizontal extent of the cortical tissue, and (4) how the spatial distributions of different receptive-field properties interact with one another. We show how these data are generally well explained by the theory of input-driven self-organization, with a family of computational models of cortical maps offering a parsimonious account for a wide range of map-related phenomena. We then discuss important challenges to this explanation, with respect to the maps present at birth, maps present under activity blockade, the limits of adult plasticity, and the lack of some maps in rodents. Because there is not at present another credible general theory for cortical map development, we conclude by proposing key experiments to help uncover other mechanisms that might also be operating during map development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The use of maps in the exploration of geographic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzakker, Corne P.J.M. van

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation is about map use research in exploratory cartography. Exploratory cartography is a cognitive process in which maps are used as tools for discovery, to solve the problem of gaining insight into unknown geographic relationships. In the past, users had to rely fully on the static maps

  8. Friction on MAP determines its traveling direction on microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sadanori; Goshima, Gohta

    2014-04-14

    Microtubule networks generate various forces, and the forces are applied to microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Forth et al. (2014) show in a recent issue of Cell that asymmetric frictional force between MAPs and microtubules leads to directional movement of MAPs along microtubules, providing insight into the mechanism of microtubule network self-organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Landslide kinematics and their potential controls from hourly to decadal timescales: Insights from integrating ground-based InSAR measurements with structural maps and long-term monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Ricci, Pier P.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Shurtleff, Brett L.; Panosky, Joanna

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge of kinematics is rudimentary for understanding landslide controls and is increasingly valuable with greater spatiotemporal coverage. However, characterizing landslide-wide kinematics is rare, especially at broadly ranging timescales. We used highly detailed kinematic data obtained using photogrammetry and field mapping during the 1980s and 1990s and our 4.3-day ground-based InSAR survey during 2010 to study kinematics of the large, persistently moving Slumgullion landslide. The landslide was segregated into 11 kinematic elements using the 1980s-1990s data and the InSAR survey revealed most of these elements within a few hours. Averages of InSAR-derived displacement point measures within each element agreed well with higher quality in situ observations; averaging was deemed necessary because adverse look angles for the radar coupled with tree cover on the landslide introduced error in the InSAR results. We found that the landslide moved during 2010 at about half its 1985-1990 speed, but slowing was most pronounced at the landslide head. Gradually decreased precipitation and increased temperature between the periods likely resulted in lower groundwater levels and consequent slowing of the landslide. We used GPS survey results and limit-equilibrium modeling to analyze changing stability of the landslide head from observed thinning and found that its stability increased between the two periods, which would result in its slowing, and the consequent slowing of the entire landslide. Additionally, InSAR results suggested movement of kinematic element boundaries in the head region and our field mapping verified that they moved and changed character, likely because of the long-term increasing head stability. On an hourly basis, InSAR results were near error bounds but suggested landslide acceleration in response to seemingly negligible rainfall. Pore-pressure diffusion modeling suggested that rainfall infiltration affected frictional strength only to shallow depths

  10. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for Teachers Genomic ... genetic mapping? Among the main goals of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to develop new, better and cheaper ...

  11. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...... of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  12. Cell- and stage-specific chromatin structure across the Complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) promoter coincide with CBF1 and C/EBP-beta binding in B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Mark N; Fenwick, Emily; Karimi, Mahdad; Abraham, Lawrence J; Ulgiati, Daniela

    2009-08-01

    Stringent developmental transcription requires multiple transcription factor (TF) binding sites, cell-specific expression of signaling molecules, TFs and co-regulators and appropriate chromatin structure. During B-lymphopoiesis, human Complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) is detected on immature and mature B cells but not on B cell precursors and plasma cells. We examined cell- and stage-specific human CR2 gene regulation using cell lines modeling B-lymphopoiesis. Chromatin accessibility assays revealed a region between -409 and -262 with enhanced accessibility in mature B cells and pre-B cells, compared to either non-lymphoid or plasma cell-types, however, accessibility near the transcription start site (TSS) was elevated only in CR2-expressing B cells. A correlation between histone acetylation and CR2 expression was observed, while histone H3K4 dimethylation was enriched near the TSS in both CR2-expressing B cells and non-expressing pre-B cells. Candidate sites within the CR2 promoter were identified which could regulate chromatin, including a matrix attachment region associated with CDP, SATB1/BRIGHT and CEBP-beta sites as well as two CBF1 sites. ChIP assays verified that both CBF1 and C/EBP-beta bind the CR2 promoter in B cells raising the possibility that these factors facilitate or respond to alterations in chromatin structure to control the timing and/or level of CR2 transcription.

  13. Sleep inspires insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ullrich; Gais, Steffen; Haider, Hilde; Verleger, Rolf; Born, Jan

    2004-01-22

    Insight denotes a mental restructuring that leads to a sudden gain of explicit knowledge allowing qualitatively changed behaviour. Anecdotal reports on scientific discovery suggest that pivotal insights can be gained through sleep. Sleep consolidates recent memories and, concomitantly, could allow insight by changing their representational structure. Here we show a facilitating role of sleep in a process of insight. Subjects performed a cognitive task requiring the learning of stimulus-response sequences, in which they improved gradually by increasing response speed across task blocks. However, they could also improve abruptly after gaining insight into a hidden abstract rule underlying all sequences. Initial training establishing a task representation was followed by 8 h of nocturnal sleep, nocturnal wakefulness, or daytime wakefulness. At subsequent retesting, more than twice as many subjects gained insight into the hidden rule after sleep as after wakefulness, regardless of time of day. Sleep did not enhance insight in the absence of initial training. A characteristic antecedent of sleep-related insight was revealed in a slowing of reaction times across sleep. We conclude that sleep, by restructuring new memory representations, facilitates extraction of explicit knowledge and insightful behaviour.

  14. Relative 11C-PiB Delivery as a Proxy of Relative CBF: Quantitative Evaluation Using Single-Session 15O-Water and 11C-PiB PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin J; Rosario, Bedda L; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Laymon, Charles M; Lu, Xueling; Lopez, Oscar L; Klunk, William E; Lopresti, Brian J; Mathis, Chester A; Price, Julie C

    2015-08-01

    The primary goal of this study was to assess the suitability of (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) blood-brain barrier delivery (K1) and relative delivery (R1) parameters as surrogate indices of cerebral blood flow (CBF), with a secondary goal of directly examining the extent to which simplified uptake measures of (11)C-PiB retention (amyloid-β load) may be influenced by CBF, in a cohort of controls and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Nineteen participants (6 controls, 5 AD, 8 MCI) underwent MR imaging, (15)O-water PET, and (11)C-PiB PET in a single session. Fourteen regions of interest (including cerebellar reference region) were defined on MR imaging and applied to dynamic coregistered PET to generate time-activity curves. Multiple analysis approaches provided regional (15)O-water and (11)C-PiB measures of delivery and (11)C-PiB retention that included compartmental modeling distribution volume ratio (DVR), arterial- and reference-based Logan DVR, simplified reference tissue modeling 2 (SRTM2) DVR, and standardized uptake value ratios. Spearman correlation was performed among delivery measures (i.e., (15)O-water K1 and (11)C-PiB K1, relative K1 normalized to cerebellum [Rel-K1-Water and Rel-K1-PiB], and (11)C-PiB SRTM2-R1) and between delivery measures and (11)C-PiB retention, using the Bonferroni method for multiple-comparison correction. Primary analysis showed positive correlations (ρ ≈0.2-0.5) between (15)O-water K1 and (11)C-PiB K1 that did not survive Bonferroni adjustment. Significant positive correlations were found between Rel-K1-Water and Rel-K1-PiB and between Rel-K1-Water and (11)C-PiB SRTM2-R1 (ρ ≈0.5-0.8, P PiB retention and relative (11)C-PiB delivery measures (but not (15)O-water delivery measures) in primary cortical areas that arose only after accounting for cerebrospinal fluid dilution. (11)C-PiB SRTM2-R1 is highly correlated with regional relative CBF, as measured by (15)O-water K1

  15. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children without comorbidity: quantitative analysis using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young; Chung, Young Ki; Hwang, Isaac; Lee, Jae Sung

    2002-01-01

    We examined the abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) without comorbidity using statistical parametric mapping(SPM) method. We used the patients with not compatible to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis as normal control children. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed on 75 patients (M:F=64:11, 10.0±2.5y) with the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and 13 normal control children (M:F=9:4, 10.3±4.1y). Using SPM method, we compared patient group's SPECT images with those of 13 control subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion(p<0.01) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Only on area of left temporal lobe showed significant hypoperfusion in ADHD patients without comorbidity (n=75) compared with control subjects(n=13). (n=75, p<0.01, extent threshold=16). rCBF of left temporal area was decreased in ADHD group without comorbidity, such as tic, compared with control group

  16. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children without comorbidity: quantitative analysis using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Ki; Hwang, Isaac; Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We examined the abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) without comorbidity using statistical parametric mapping(SPM) method. We used the patients with not compatible to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis as normal control children. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed on 75 patients (M:F=64:11, 10.0{+-}2.5y) with the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and 13 normal control children (M:F=9:4, 10.3{+-}4.1y). Using SPM method, we compared patient group's SPECT images with those of 13 control subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion(p<0.01) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Only on area of left temporal lobe showed significant hypoperfusion in ADHD patients without comorbidity (n=75) compared with control subjects(n=13). (n=75, p<0.01, extent threshold=16). rCBF of left temporal area was decreased in ADHD group without comorbidity, such as tic, compared with control group.

  17. Radioelement mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A high quality geochemical database is pertinent to a wide range of investigations in the earth and life sciences, and should be considered as an essential component of environmental knowledge. Natural radioactive elements associated with radioactive raw materials, the radiation environment and their health impact, form part of such a comprehensive geochemical database. Databases on radioelement mapping have been increasingly used and updated in several countries for the exploration of uranium and thorium raw materials for nuclear fuels, environmental geochemical studies and the assessment of the radiation environment. The demand for radioelement databases is expected to grow over the next decade as new applications for them are foreseen. To this end, the IAEA invited a group of experts to investigate the issues and draft a report on the current state of radioelement mapping and the development of a global radioelement baseline. In the past, based on gamma surveys for uranium exploration and field gamma spectrometry, the IAEA took a leading role in facilitating the development of methodologies and standards for the quantitative estimation of radioelement concentrations and for the geochemical mapping of radioelements.. The need for approved methodologies and standards for radioelement mapping was identified at an IAEA panel meeting in 1972. This led to IAEA technical meetings in 1973 and 1974 and the publication of the proceedings of an IAEA symposium entitled Exploration for Uranium Ore Deposits. In subsequent years, calibration standards and procedures were developed for radiometric field equipment. The standards were based on geological reference materials for laboratory gamma ray spectrometers issued by the IAEA. The information on the standards and the equipment has been documented in detail in IAEA technical reports: Preparation and Certification of IAEA Gamma ray Spectrometry Reference Materials RGU-1, RGTh-1 and RGK-1, report IAEA/RL/148 (1987); and

  18. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  19. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    , performative, and participatory practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-human- geographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement...... towards a new political ecology. This type of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper...

  20. CT perfusion mapping of hemodynamic disturbances associated to acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fainardi, Enrico; Borrelli, Massimo; Saletti, Andrea; Ceruti, Stefano; Tamarozzi, Riccardo [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Neuroradiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ferrara (Italy); Schivalocchi, Roberta; Cavallo, Michele [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ferrara (Italy); Azzini, Cristiano [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ferrara (Italy); Chieregato, Arturo [Ospedale M. Bufalini, Neurocritical Care Unit, Cesena (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    We sought to quantify perfusion changes associated to acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) by means of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging. We studied 89 patients with supratentorial SICH at admission CT by using CTP scanning obtained within 24 h after symptom onset. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and mean transit time (rMTT) levels were measured in four different regions of interest manually outlined on CT scan: (1) hemorrhagic core; (2) perihematomal low-density area; (3) 1 cm rim of normal-appearing brain tissue surrounding the perilesional area; and (4) a mirrored area, including the clot and the perihematomal region, located in the non-lesioned contralateral hemisphere. rCBF, rCBV, and rMTT mean levels showed a centrifugal distribution with a gradual increase from the core to the periphery (p < 0.0001). Perfusion absolute values were indicative of ischemia in hemorrhagic core, oligemia in perihematomal area, and hyperemia in normal-appearing and contralateral areas. Perihematomal rCBF and rCBV mean levels were higher in small ({<=}20 ml) than in large (>20 ml) hematomas (p<0.01 and p <0.02, respectively). Multi-parametric CTP mapping of acute SICH indicates that perfusion values show a progressive improvement from the core to the periphery. In the first 24 h, perihemorrhagic region was hypoperfused with CTP values which were not suggestive of ischemic penumbra destined to survive but more likely indicative of edema formation. These findings also argue for a potential influence of early amounts of bleeding on perihematomal hemodynamic abnormalities. (orig.)

  1. Revealing Visualization Insights from Quantified-Selfers' Personal Data Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Bongshin; Schraefel, M C

    2015-05-13

    Data visualization and analytics research has great potential to empower people to improve their lives by leveraging their own personal data. However, most Quantified-Selfers are neither visualization experts nor data scientists. Consequently, their visualizations of their data are often not ideal for conveying their insights. Aiming to design a visualization system to help non-experts explore and present their personal data, we conducted a pre-design empirical study. Through the lens of Quantified-Selfers, we examined what insights people gain specifically from their personal data and how they use visualizations to communicate their insights. Based on our analysis of 30 Quantified Self presentations, we characterized eight insight types (detail, self-reflection, trend, comparison, correlation, data summary, distribution, outlier) and mapped the visual annotations used to communicate them. We further discussed four areas for the design of personal visualization systems, including support for encouraging self-reflection, gaining valid insight, communicating insight, and using visual annotations.

  2. Energetic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  3. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    probabilities are subjected to multiple correspondence analysis and mapped into low-dimensional space. In a third step, the principal coordinates representing meal centres and side components in the correspondence analysis solution are subjected to cluster analysis to identify distinct groups of compatible...

  4. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...

  5. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    , it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This article looks at computer-assisted cartography as part of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the data-journalism platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example...

  6. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  7. Functional brain mapping using H215O positron emission tomography (I): statistical parametric mapping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Kyeong Min; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the statistical methods to compose the functional brain map of human working memory and the principal factors that have an effect on the methods for localization. Repeated PET scans with successive four tasks, which consist of one control and three different activation tasks, were performed on six right-handed normal volunteers for 2 minutes after bolus injections of 925 MBq H 2 15 O at the intervals of 30 minutes. Image data were analyzed using SPM96 (Statistical Parametric Mapping) implemented with Matlab (Mathworks Inc., U.S.A.). Images from the same subject were spatially registered and were normalized using linear and nonlinear transformation methods. Significant difference between control and each activation state was estimated at every voxel based on the general linear model. Differences of global counts were removed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with global activity as covariate. Using the mean and variance for each condition which was adjusted using ANCOVA, t-statistics was performed on every voxel. To interpret the results more easily, t-values were transformed to the standard Gaussian distribution (Z-score). All the subjects carried out the activation and control tests successfully. Average rate of correct answers was 95%. The numbers of activated blobs were 4 for verbal memory I, 9 for verbal memory II, 9 for visual memory, and 6 for conjunctive activation of these three tasks. The verbal working memory activates predominantly left-sided structures, and the visual memory activates the right hemisphere. We conclude that rCBF PET imaging and statistical parametric mapping method were useful in the localization of the brain regions for verbal and visual working memory

  8. CT perfusion mapping of hemodynamic disturbances associated to acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainardi, Enrico; Borrelli, Massimo; Saletti, Andrea; Ceruti, Stefano; Tamarozzi, Riccardo; Schivalocchi, Roberta; Cavallo, Michele; Azzini, Cristiano; Chieregato, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    We sought to quantify perfusion changes associated to acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) by means of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging. We studied 89 patients with supratentorial SICH at admission CT by using CTP scanning obtained within 24 h after symptom onset. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and mean transit time (rMTT) levels were measured in four different regions of interest manually outlined on CT scan: (1) hemorrhagic core; (2) perihematomal low-density area; (3) 1 cm rim of normal-appearing brain tissue surrounding the perilesional area; and (4) a mirrored area, including the clot and the perihematomal region, located in the non-lesioned contralateral hemisphere. rCBF, rCBV, and rMTT mean levels showed a centrifugal distribution with a gradual increase from the core to the periphery (p 20 ml) hematomas (p<0.01 and p <0.02, respectively). Multi-parametric CTP mapping of acute SICH indicates that perfusion values show a progressive improvement from the core to the periphery. In the first 24 h, perihemorrhagic region was hypoperfused with CTP values which were not suggestive of ischemic penumbra destined to survive but more likely indicative of edema formation. These findings also argue for a potential influence of early amounts of bleeding on perihematomal hemodynamic abnormalities. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  10. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2002-01-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5±3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis

  11. Perfusion CT in acute stroke: effectiveness of automatically-generated colour maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukmar, Maja; Degrassi, Ferruccio; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberta Antea; Neri, Francesca; Mucelli, Fabio Pozzi; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of perfusion CT (pCT) in the definition of the infarcted core and the penumbra, comparing the data obtained from the evaluation of parametric maps [cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mean transit time (MTT)] with software-generated colour maps. A retrospective analysis was performed to identify patients with suspected acute ischaemic strokes and who had undergone unenhanced CT and pCT carried out within 4.5 h from the onset of the symptoms. A qualitative evaluation of the CBV, CBF and MTT maps was performed, followed by an analysis of the colour maps automatically generated by the software. 26 patients were identified, but a direct CT follow-up was performed only on 19 patients after 24-48 h. In the qualitative analysis, 14 patients showed perfusion abnormalities. Specifically, 29 perfusion deficit areas were detected, of which 15 areas suggested the penumbra and the remaining 14 areas suggested the infarct. As for automatically software-generated maps, 12 patients showed perfusion abnormalities. 25 perfusion deficit areas were identified, 15 areas of which suggested the penumbra and the other 10 areas the infarct. The McNemar's test showed no statistically significant difference between the two methods of evaluation in highlighting infarcted areas proved later at CT follow-up. We demonstrated how pCT provides good diagnostic accuracy in the identification of acute ischaemic lesions. The limits of identification of the lesions mainly lie at the pons level and in the basal ganglia area. Qualitative analysis has proven to be more efficient in identification of perfusion lesions in comparison with software-generated maps. However, software-generated maps have proven to be very useful in the emergency setting. Advances in knowledge: The use of CT perfusion is requested in increasingly more patients in order to optimize the treatment, thanks also to the technological evolution of CT, which now allows a whole

  12. rCBF and cognitive impairment changes assessed by SPECT and ADAS-cog in late-onset Alzheimer's disease after 18 months of treatment with the cholinesterase inhibitors donepezil or galantamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirayama, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Michio; Oda, Yasunori; Yoshino, Kouhei; Sato, Koichi; Okubo, Toshiyuki; Iyo, Masaomi

    2017-12-15

    Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) differs substantially from early-onset AD. In this cross sectional study we investigated brain perfusion changes after 18 months of treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) donepezil or galantamine. Twenty-five drug-naïve late-onset AD patients were recruited from outpatient clinics. We examined brain perfusion using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and used three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) and the stereotactic extraction estimation method (SEE) level 3 to analyze classified gyrus level segments. We assessed cognitive function using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) grouped into three subgroup domains, language, memory, and praxis. In the follow-up data, some regions were further hypoperfused, reflecting worsening of the disease, while other regions showed alleviated hypoperfusion, potentially related to the ChEIs treatment. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) decreased in the parietal cortex and increased in the frontal and the limbic cortices. Increased hypoperfusion significantly correlated with ADAS-cog scores changes were seen in the superior parietal lobule, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus, and supramarginal gyrus of the parietal cortex. Alleviated hypoperfusion significantly related to recovery of ADAS-cog scores were seen in the rectal and paracentral lobule of the frontal cortex, and the anterior cingulate of the limbic cortex. These regions showed significant relationships with total ADAS-cog and language, memory and praxis subscales scores. The current longitudinal study indicates prominent rCBF changes and their relationships with changes in ADAS-cog scores in late-onset AD patients.

  13. Reasoning Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Renato Pinto de Queiroz

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Esta dissertação apresenta uma ferramenta de apoio à decisão, baseada na Metodologia Multicritérios de Apoio à Decisão - MCDA, através do desenvolvimento de um software denominado Reasoning Maps. O software permite, de maneira integrada, a construção de mapas cognitivos, suas diversas análises topológicas e o cadastramento e análise de alternativas. Abor...

  14. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    the applied framework, semantic restrictions, the choice of type of assessors and the validation of product separations. The applied framework concerns the response surface as presented to the assessor in different shapes, e.g. rectangular, square or round. Semantic restrictions are a part of the assessor...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent...

  15. insights from a linkage map of the damselfly Ischnura elegans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Wellenreuther et al. 2010, 2This paper, 3Cooper et al. 1994. GenBank accession number, microsatellite repeat motif in the original microsatellite clone sequence, primer sequences, expected product size based on the original microsatellite clone sequence, actual allele size range of genotypes in the pedigree and number ...

  16. Map of the Physical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, Kevin W.

    1999-07-02

    Various efforts to map the structure of science have been undertaken over the years. Using a new tool, VxInsight{trademark}, we have mapped and displayed 3000 journals in the physical sciences. This map is navigable and interactively reveals the structure of science at many different levels. Science mapping studies are typically focused at either the macro-or micro-level. At a macro-level such studies seek to determine the basic structural units of science and their interrelationships. The majority of studies are performed at the discipline or specialty level, and seek to inform science policy and technical decision makers. Studies at both levels probe the dynamic nature of science, and the implications of the changes. A variety of databases and methods have been used for these studies. Primary among databases are the citation indices (SCI and SSCI) from the Institute for Scientific Information, which have gained widespread acceptance for bibliometric studies. Maps are most often based on computed similarities between journal articles (co-citation), keywords or topics (co-occurrence or co-classification), or journals (journal-journal citation counts). Once the similarity matrix is defined, algorithms are used to cluster the data.

  17. Mapping sense(s) of place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovse, Astrid Ravn; Hovy, Dirk; Johannsen, Anders Trærup

    2016-01-01

    aspects of the informants’ place-making processes. Drawing on insights from humanistic geography and urban sociology, Skovse developed and applied a modified mapping method. After the initial data collection, Skovse, Hovy, and Johannsen employed open-source, GIS-based software to digitalize and process...

  18. Mapping of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Arafat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover map of North Sinai was produced based on the FAO-Land Cover Classification System (LCCS of 2004. The standard FAO classification scheme provides a standardized system of classification that can be used to analyze spatial and temporal land cover variability in the study area. This approach also has the advantage of facilitating the integration of Sinai land cover mapping products to be included with the regional and global land cover datasets. The total study area is covering a total area of 20,310.4 km2 (203,104 hectare. The landscape classification was based on SPOT4 data acquired in 2011 using combined multispectral bands of 20 m spatial resolution. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to manipulate the attributed layers of classification in order to reach the maximum possible accuracy. GIS was also used to include all necessary information. The identified vegetative land cover classes of the study area are irrigated herbaceous crops, irrigated tree crops and rain fed tree crops. The non-vegetated land covers in the study area include bare rock, bare soils (stony, very stony and salt crusts, loose and shifting sands and sand dunes. The water bodies were classified as artificial perennial water bodies (fish ponds and irrigated canals and natural perennial water bodies as lakes (standing. The artificial surfaces include linear and non-linear features.

  19. Consequences of Uncertainty in Global-Scale Land Cover Maps for Mapping Ecosystem Functions: An Analysis of Pollination Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Alkemade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping ecosystem services (ESs is an important tool for providing the quantitative information necessary for the optimal use and protection of ecosystems and biodiversity. A common mapping approach is to apply established empirical relationships to ecosystem property maps. Often, ecosystem properties that provide services to humanity are strongly related to the land use and land cover, where the spatial allocation of the land cover in the landscape is especially important. Land use and land cover maps are, therefore, essential for ES mapping. However, insight into the uncertainties in land cover maps and how these propagate into ES maps is lacking. To analyze the effects of these uncertainties, we mapped pollination efficiency as an example of an ecosystem function, using two continental-scale land cover maps and two global-scale land cover maps. We compared the outputs with maps based on a detailed national-scale map. The ecosystem properties and functions could be mapped using the GLOBCOVER map with a reasonable to good accuracy. In homogeneous landscapes, an even coarser resolution map would suffice. For mapping ESs that depend on the spatial allocation of land cover in the landscape, a classification of satellite images using fractional land cover or mosaic classes is an asset.

  20. Wide-area mapping of resting state hemodynamic correlations at microvascular resolution with multi-contrast optical imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarathna, Janaka; Hadjiabadi, Darian; Gil, Stacy; Thakor, Nitish V.; Pathak, Arvind P.

    2017-02-01

    Different brain regions exhibit complex information processing even at rest. Therefore, assessing temporal correlations between regions permits task-free visualization of their `resting state connectivity'. Although functional MRI (fMRI) is widely used for mapping resting state connectivity in the human brain, it is not well suited for `microvascular scale' imaging in rodents because of its limited spatial resolution. Moreover, co-registered cerebral blood flow (CBF) and total hemoglobin (HbT) data are often unavailable in conventional fMRI experiments. Therefore, we built a customized system that combines laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging and fluorescence imaging (FI) to generate multi-contrast functional connectivity maps at a spatial resolution of 10 μm. This system comprised of three illumination sources: a 632 nm HeNe laser (for LSCI), a 570 nm ± 5 nm filtered white light source (for IOS), and a 473 nm blue laser (for FI), as well as a sensitive CCD camera operating at 10 frames per second for image acquisition. The acquired data enabled visualization of changes in resting state neurophysiology at microvascular spatial scales. Moreover, concurrent mapping of CBF and HbT-based temporal correlations enabled in vivo mapping of how resting brain regions were linked in terms of their hemodynamics. Additionally, we complemented this approach by exploiting the transit times of a fluorescent tracer (Dextran-FITC) to distinguish arterial from venous perfusion. Overall, we demonstrated the feasibility of wide area mapping of resting state connectivity at microvascular resolution and created a new toolbox for interrogating neurovascular function.

  1. Noninvasive method for mapping CVR in moyamoya disease using ASL-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Tomoyuki, E-mail: tnogucci@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, National center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1, Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Kawashima, Masatou, E-mail: m996kawa@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurosugery, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Nishihara, Masashi, E-mail: nishiham@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Egashira, Yoshiaki, E-mail: bunta1974@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Azama, Shinya, E-mail: azama-ssam-71257@b2.bunbun.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Irie, Hiroyuki, E-mail: irie@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • A clinical use of a pulse-wave-synchronized ASL-MRI (pulsy ASL-MRI) was proposed. • Resting IMP-SPECT correlated with pulsy ASL-MRI in moyamoya disease. • ASL-MRI could measure cerebrovascular reserve noninvasively in moyamoya disease. - Abstract: Purpose: To project a noninvasive method for mapping cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) in moyamoya disease (MMD) using ASL-MRI. Methods: 16 MMD patients underwent cerebral blood flow (CBF) examinations by standard ASL-MRI, pulse-wave-synchronized ASL-MRI (pulsy ASL-MRI) which tagged the arterial blood coincident with a peak of a pulse wave, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imagings with iodine-123-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine in the resting (rest-IMP) and after acetazolamide challenge (ACZ-IMP). Hemispheric 32-sided cerebral blood flow (CBF) values were measured with normalized CBF maps created from standard ASL-MRI (standard-ASL value), pulsy ASL-MRI (pulsy-ASL value), rest-IMP (rest-IMP value), and ACZ-IMP (ACZ-IMP value). CVR based on rest-IMP and ACZ-IMP values (IMP-CVR) was calculated. ASL-CVR was also calculated on the basis of corrected standard-ASL values and pulsy-ASL values, which were adjusted to the ACZ-IMP values and rest-IMP values, respectively, by the least-squares method. We assessed the relationships between rest-IMP values and pulsy-ASL values, ACZ-IMP values and standard-ASL values, and IMP-CVR and ASL-CVR. Results: Significant relationships were observed between rest-IMP values and pulsy-ASL values (correlation coefficient (r = 0.557, p < 0.01)), ACZ-IMP values and standard-ASL values (r = 0.825, p < 0.01), and IMP-CVR and ASL-CVR (r = 0.736, p < 0.01). Conclusions: ASL-MRI is equivalent to SPECT and that it might serve as a noninvasive method for mapping CVR in MMD.

  2. Noninvasive method for mapping CVR in moyamoya disease using ASL-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Kawashima, Masatou; Nishihara, Masashi; Egashira, Yoshiaki; Azama, Shinya; Irie, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A clinical use of a pulse-wave-synchronized ASL-MRI (pulsy ASL-MRI) was proposed. • Resting IMP-SPECT correlated with pulsy ASL-MRI in moyamoya disease. • ASL-MRI could measure cerebrovascular reserve noninvasively in moyamoya disease. - Abstract: Purpose: To project a noninvasive method for mapping cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) in moyamoya disease (MMD) using ASL-MRI. Methods: 16 MMD patients underwent cerebral blood flow (CBF) examinations by standard ASL-MRI, pulse-wave-synchronized ASL-MRI (pulsy ASL-MRI) which tagged the arterial blood coincident with a peak of a pulse wave, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imagings with iodine-123-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine in the resting (rest-IMP) and after acetazolamide challenge (ACZ-IMP). Hemispheric 32-sided cerebral blood flow (CBF) values were measured with normalized CBF maps created from standard ASL-MRI (standard-ASL value), pulsy ASL-MRI (pulsy-ASL value), rest-IMP (rest-IMP value), and ACZ-IMP (ACZ-IMP value). CVR based on rest-IMP and ACZ-IMP values (IMP-CVR) was calculated. ASL-CVR was also calculated on the basis of corrected standard-ASL values and pulsy-ASL values, which were adjusted to the ACZ-IMP values and rest-IMP values, respectively, by the least-squares method. We assessed the relationships between rest-IMP values and pulsy-ASL values, ACZ-IMP values and standard-ASL values, and IMP-CVR and ASL-CVR. Results: Significant relationships were observed between rest-IMP values and pulsy-ASL values (correlation coefficient (r = 0.557, p < 0.01)), ACZ-IMP values and standard-ASL values (r = 0.825, p < 0.01), and IMP-CVR and ASL-CVR (r = 0.736, p < 0.01). Conclusions: ASL-MRI is equivalent to SPECT and that it might serve as a noninvasive method for mapping CVR in MMD

  3. The making of the FM value map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To present the FM Value Map and the background, process and considerations of its development and to reflect on perspectives and limitations. Methodology: The FM Value Map was developed from cases studies as part of the research project Facilities Management Best Practice in the Nordic...... Countries. This project is briefly presented, the methods and different versions in the development of the value map are described and explained, and the strengths and limitations of it are discussed. Findings: The FM Value Map presents a holistic view on the added value of FM by including impacts on both...... in specific cases have a special importance for the value creation of FM. Research limitations: The chapter is a retrospective presentation of a research process. Originality/value: The chapter gives a detailed insight in the development process of the conceptual FM Value Map....

  4. Volume perfusion CT imaging of cerebral vasospasm: diagnostic performance of different perfusion maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Ahmed E. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Afat, Saif; Nikoubashman, Omid; Mueller, Marguerite; Wiesmann, Martin; Brockmann, Carolin [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Schubert, Gerrit Alexander [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany); Bier, Georg [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Brockmann, Marc A. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Mainz, Department of Neuroradiology, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of different volume perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of cerebral vasospasm compared to angiographic findings. Forty-one datasets of 26 patients (57.5 ± 10.8 years, 18 F) with subarachnoid hemorrhage and suspected cerebral vasospasm, who underwent VPCT and angiography within 6 h, were included. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated the presence and severity of vasospasm on perfusion maps on a 3-point Likert scale (0 - no vasospasm, 1 - vasospasm affecting <50 %, 2 - vasospasm affecting >50 % of vascular territory). A third neuroradiologist independently assessed angiography for the presence and severity of vasospasm on a 3-point Likert scale (0 - no vasospasm, 1 - vasospasm affecting < 50 %, 2 - vasospasm affecting > 50 % of vessel diameter). Perfusion maps of cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), and time to drain (TTD) were evaluated regarding diagnostic accuracy for cerebral vasospasm with angiography as reference standard. Correlation analysis of vasospasm severity on perfusion maps and angiographic images was performed. Furthermore, inter-reader agreement was assessed regarding findings on perfusion maps. Diagnostic accuracy for TTD and MTT was significantly higher than for all other perfusion maps (TTD, AUC = 0.832; MTT, AUC = 0.791; p < 0.001). TTD revealed higher sensitivity than MTT (p = 0.007). The severity of vasospasm on TTD maps showed significantly higher correlation levels with angiography than all other perfusion maps (p ≤ 0.048). Inter-reader agreement was (almost) perfect for all perfusion maps (kappa ≥ 0.927). The results of this study indicate that TTD maps have the highest sensitivity for the detection of cerebral vasospasm and highest correlation with angiography regarding the severity of vasospasm. (orig.)

  5. Inside PixInsight

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    In this book, Warren Keller reveals the secrets of astro-image processing software PixInsight in a practical and easy to follow manner, allowing the reader to produce stunning astrophotographs from even mediocre data. As the first comprehensive post-processing platform to be created by astro-imagers for astro-imagers, it has for many, replaced the generic graphics editors as the software of choice. With clear instructions from Keller, astrophotographers can get the most from its tools to create amazing images. Capable of complex post-processing routines, PixInsight is also an advanced pre-processing software, through which astrophotographers calibrate and stack their exposures into completed master files.This is the most comprehensive resource on PixInsight to date. With screenshots to help illustrate the process, it is a vital guide.

  6. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience theory is a growing discipline with great relevance for the discipline of planning, particularly in fields like energy planning that face great uncertainty and rapidly transforming contexts. Building on the work of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, this paper begins by outlining...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...... by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...

  7. OpenGL Insights

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Get Real-World Insight from Experienced Professionals in the OpenGL Community With OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL, real-time rendering is becoming available everywhere, from AAA games to mobile phones to web pages. Assembling contributions from experienced developers, vendors, researchers, and educators, OpenGL Insights presents real-world techniques for intermediate and advanced OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL developers. Go Beyond the Basics The book thoroughly covers a range of topics, including OpenGL 4.2 and recent extensions. It explains how to optimize for mobile devices, explores the design

  8. Africa Insight: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA). It is accredited by the South African National Department of Higher Education and Training and is indexed in the International Bibliography of Social Science. AISA is a statutory research body focusing on ...

  9. New Insights into Obesity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 12. New Insights into Obesity. D D Bansal Ravneet Kaur Boparai. Research News Volume 8 Issue 12 December 2003 pp 92-93. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/12/0092-0093 ...

  10. Africa Insight: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA). It is accredited by the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) and is indexed in the International Bibliography of Social Science (IBSS). It is a multi-disciplinary journal primarily focusing on African ...

  11. Imaging: Insight Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Richard L., II; Cotrell, Howard W.

    Imaging is the process of creating mental pictures that can be scanned as people would scan a current event. It is a real, powerful personal process, which has been used in medicine, science, health care, sports, creativity, education, and other areas. On a day-to-day level, imaging can be used to engineer insights regarding self-concept,…

  12. The Power of Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-08

    joint government and industry conference in Australia . And last month in the United Kingdom, defense representatives from four nations ( Australia ...cooperation that is the hallmark of the International Performance Management Council. There now are six nations in the Council: Australia , Canada...reported,” but managed. From Oversight to Insight The earned value reform objectives supported the larger acquisition reform objectives introduced by the

  13. [Poor insight and psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O

    2017-01-01

    A variety of phenomena might be considered as reflecting impaired insight in psychosis, like failure to recognize signs, symptoms or disease, failure to derive appropriate cognitive representations, despite recognition of the disease, and misattribution of the source or cause of the disease. The unawareness of tardive dyskinesia symptoms in schizophrenic patients points that self-awareness deficits in schizophrenia may be domain specific. Poor insight is an independent phenomenological and a prevalent feature in psychotic disorders in general, and in schizophrenia in particular, but we don't know yet if delusions in schizophrenia are the result of an entirely normal attempt to account for abnormal perceptual experiences or a product of abnormal experience but of normal reasoning. The theoretical approaches regarding impaired insight include the disturbed perceptual input, the impaired linkage between thought and emotion and the breakdown of the process of self-monitoring and error checking. The inability to distinguish between internally and externally generated mental events has been described by the metarepresentation theory. This theory includes the awareness of ones' goals, which leads to disorders of willed action, the awareness of intention, which leads to movement disorders, and the awareness of intentions of others, which leads to paranoid delusions. The theory of metarepresentation implies mainly output mechanisms, like the frontal cortex, while the input mechanism implies posterior brain systems, including the parietal lobe. There are many similarities between the disturbances of awareness seen in schizophrenia and those seen as a result of known neurological impairment. Neuropsychological models of impaired insight typically attribute the disturbance to any of a variety of core deficits in the processing of information. In this respect, lack of insight is on conceptual par with alogia, apraxia or aphasia in reflecting disturbed cognitive processing. In

  14. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  15. MapSnapper: engineering an efficient algorithm for matching images of maps from mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jonathon S.; Lewis, Paul H.; Gordon, Layla; Hart, Glen

    2008-01-01

    The MapSnapper project aimed to develop a system for robust matching of low-quality images of a paper map taken from a mobile phone against a high quality digital raster representation of the same map. The paper presents a novel methodology for performing content-based image retrieval and object recognition from query images that have been degraded by noise and subjected to transformations through the imaging system. In addition the paper also provides an insight into the evaluation-driven development process that was used to incrementally improve the matching performance until the design specifications were met.

  16. To the National Map and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmelis, J.

    2003-01-01

    Scientific understanding, technology, and social, economic, and environmental conditions have driven a rapidly changing demand for geographic information, both digital and analog. For more than a decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been developing innovative partnerships with other government agencies and private industry to produce and distribute geographic information efficiently; increase activities in remote sensing to ensure ongoing monitoring of the land surface; and develop new understanding of the causes and consequences of land surface change. These activities are now contributing to a more robust set of geographic information called The National Map (TNM). The National Map is designed to provide an up-to-date, seamless, horizontally and vertically integrated set of basic digital geographic data, a frequent monitoring of changes on the land surface, and an understanding of the condition of the Earth's surface and many of the processes that shape it. The USGS has reorganized its National Mapping Program into three programs to address the continuum of scientific activities-describing (mapping), monitoring, understanding, modeling, and predicting. The Cooperative Topographic Mapping Program focuses primarily on the mapping and revision aspects of TNM. The National Map also includes results from the Land Remote Sensing and Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Programs that provide continual updates, new insights, and analytical tools. The National Map is valuable as a framework for current research, management, and operational activities. It also provides a critical framework for the development of distributed, spatially enabled decision support systems.

  17. Maps & minds : mapping through the ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1984-01-01

    Throughout time, maps have expressed our understanding of our world. Human affairs have been influenced strongly by the quality of maps available to us at the major turning points in our history. "Maps & Minds" traces the ebb and flow of a few central ideas in the mainstream of mapping. Our expanding knowledge of our cosmic neighborhood stems largely from a small number of simple but grand ideas, vigorously pursued.

  18. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  19. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  20. STOOKE SMALL BODIES MAPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Stooke Small Bodies Map collection contains maps of small solar system bodies in various projections, with and without latitude/longiude grids. The maps are...

  1. Update on INSIGHTS Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed; Eric Burgett

    2011-09-01

    INSIGHTS is a transformational separate effects testing capability to perform in situ irradiation studies and characterization of the microscale behavior of nuclear fuel materials under a wide variety of in-pile conditions. Separate effects testing including growth, irradiation, and monitoring of these materials, and encompasses the full science based approach for fuels development from the nanoscale to the mesoscale behavior of the sample material and other defects driven by the modeling and simulation efforts of INL.

  2. Methods for the correction of vascular artifacts in PET O-15 water brain-mapping studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.; Reiman, E.M.; Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ; Lawson, M.; Yun, L.S.; Bandy, D.

    1996-01-01

    While positron emission tomographic (PET) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can be used to map brain regions that are involved in normal and pathological human behaviors, measurements in the anteromedial temporal lobe can be confounded by the combined effects of radiotracer activity in neighboring arteries and partial-volume averaging. The authors now describe two simple methods to address this vascular artifact. One method utilizes the early frames of a dynamic PET study, while the other method utilizes a coregistered magnetic resonance image (MRI) to characterize the vascular region of interest (VROI). Both methods subsequently assign a common value to each pixel in the VROI for the control scan and the activation scan. To study the vascular artifact and to demonstrate the ability of the proposed methods correcting the vascular artifact, four dynamic PET scans were performed in a single subject during the same behavioral state. For each of the four scans, a vascular scan containing vascular activity was computed as the summation of the images acquired 0--60 s after radiotracer administrations, and a control scan containing minimal vascular activity was computed as the summation of the images acquired 20--80 s after radiotracer administration. t-score maps calculated from the four pairs of vascular and control scans were used to characterize regional blood flow differences related to vascular activity before and after the applications of each vascular artifact correction method. Both methods eliminated the observed differences in vascular activity, as well as the vascular artifact observed in the anteromedial temporal lobes. Using PET data from a study of normal human emotion, these methods permitted us to identify rCBF increases in the anteromedial temporal lobe free from the potentially confounding, combined effects of vascular activity and partial-volume averaging

  3. Mapping Mutations on Phylogenies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides a short review of recent methodologies developed for mapping mutations on phylogenies. Mapping of mutations, or character changes in general, using the maximum parsimony principle has been one of the most powerful tools in phylogenetics, and it has been used in a variety...... uncertainty in the mapping. Recently developed probabilistic methods can incorporate statistical uncertainty in the character mappings. In these methods, focus is on a probability distribution of mutational mappings instead of a single estimate of the mutational mapping....

  4. Three-dimensional mapping of local cerebral perfusion in alcoholic encephalopathy with and without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, T.; Meyer, J.S.; Tanahashi, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Imai, A.; Shinohara, T.; Velez, M.; Fann, W.E.; Kandula, P.; Sakai, F.

    1987-02-01

    Seventeen severe chronic alcoholic patients with and without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) were examined prospectively after being treated by withdrawal from alcohol. The WKS patients also received thiamine supplements. Three-dimensional measurements of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and local partition coefficients (L lambda) were made utilizing xenon contrast computed tomography (Xe CT-CBF). Results were displayed as color-coded brain maps before and after treatment and these were correlated with neurological and cognitive examinations. Before treatment chronic alcoholics without WKS (n = 10) showed diffuse reductions of LCBF values throughout all gray matter including hypothalamus, vicinity of nucleus basalis of Meynert, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Similar, but more severe, reductions were seen in patients with WKS (n = 7), however, white matter perfusion was also reduced. In WKS, most prominent reductions of LCBF were also seen in hypothalamus and basal forebrain nuclei but thalamus, basal ganglia, and limbic systems were severely reduced. After treatment, both groups with alcoholic encephalopathy showed marked clinical improvement and cerebral perfusion was restored toward normal. Chronic alcohol abuse, in the absence of thiamine deficiency, reduces CBF by direct neurotoxic effects. If thiamine deficiency is also present, more severe and localized hemodynamic reductions are superimposed.

  5. Cerebral Blood Flow Autoregulation in Sepsis for the Intensivist: Why Its Monitoring May Be the Future of Individualized Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Carrie M; Rosenblatt, Kathryn; Rivera-Lara, Lucia; Nyquist, Paul; Hogue, Charles W

    2018-02-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation maintains consistent blood flow across a range of blood pressures (BPs). Sepsis is a common cause of systemic hypotension and cerebral dysfunction. Guidelines for BP management in sepsis are based on historical concepts of CBF autoregulation that have now evolved with the availability of more precise technology for its measurement. In this article, we provide a narrative review of methods of monitoring CBF autoregulation, the cerebral effects of sepsis, and the current knowledge of CBF autoregulation in sepsis. Current guidelines for BP management in sepsis are based on a goal of maintaining mean arterial pressure (MAP) above the lower limit of CBF autoregulation. Bedside tools are now available to monitor CBF autoregulation continuously. These data reveal that individual BP goals determined from CBF autoregulation monitoring are more variable than previously expected. In patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, for example, the lower limit of autoregulation varied between a MAP of 40 to 90 mm Hg. Studies of CBF autoregulation in sepsis suggest patients frequently manifest impaired CBF autoregulation, possibly a result of BP below the lower limit of autoregulation, particularly in early sepsis or with sepsis-associated encephalopathy. This suggests that the present consensus guidelines for BP management in sepsis may expose some patients to both cerebral hypoperfusion and cerebral hyperperfusion, potentially resulting in damage to brain parenchyma. The future use of novel techniques to study and clinically monitor CBF autoregulation could provide insight into the cerebral pathophysiology of sepsis and offer more precise treatments that may improve functional and cognitive outcomes for survivors of sepsis.

  6. Web mapping: tools and solutions for creating interactive maps of forestry interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notarangelo G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of geobrowsers as tools for displaying geographically referenced information provides insights and opportunities to those who, not being specialists in Geographic Information Systems, want to take advantage from exploration and communication power offered by these software. Through the use of web services such as Google Maps and the use of suitable markup languages, one can create interactive maps starting from highly heterogeneous data and information. These interactive maps can also be easily distributed and shared with Internet users, because they do not need to use proprietary software nor special skills but only a web browser. Unlike the maps created with GIS, whose output usually is a static image, the interactive maps retain all their features to users advantage. This paper describes a web application that, using the Keyhole Markup Language and the free service of Google Maps, produces choropleth maps relating to some forest indicators estimated by the last Italian National Forest Inventory. The creation of a map is done through a simple and intuitive interface. The maps created by users can be downloaded as KML file and can be viewed or modified via the freeware application Google Earth or free and open source GIS software like Quantum GIS. The web application is free and available at www.ricercaforestale.it.

  7. Cementoenamel junction: An insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharidi Laxman Vandana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The location and nature of cemento-enamel junction (CEJ are more than descriptive terms used simply to describe some aspects of tooth morphology; however, CEJ gains a lot of clinical significance due to various measurements dependent on it. It may be necessary to determine the location and pathological changes occurring at CEJ to make a diagnosis and treat diseases pertaining to epithelial attachment and gingival margin. However, the information related to CEJ is not discussed commonly. Hence, the present review paper provides an insight on CEJ in both primary and permanent dentition.

  8. Genomic insights into tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, James E

    2014-05-01

    Prevalent since pre-history, human tuberculosis - caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis - remains a major source of death worldwide. Moreover, increasing drug resistance poses the threat of disease resurgence. However, the expanding application of genomic techniques is providing new avenues for combating this old foe. Whole-genome sequencing, comparative genomics and systems biology are generating new insights into the origins and ongoing evolution of M. tuberculosis, as well as the molecular basis for its pathogenicity. These have important implications for our perspective of the disease, development of new drugs and vaccines, and treatment of patients using existing therapeutics.

  9. Mapping the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  10. USGS Map Indices Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Map Indices service from The National Map (TNM) consists of 1x1 Degree, 30x60 Minute (100K), 15 Minute (63K), 7.5 Minute (24K), and 3.75 Minute grid...

  11. 7. Annex II: Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Aeberli, Annina

    2012-01-01

    Map 1: States of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – States, as of 15 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-states-15-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 2: Counties of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – Counties, as of 16 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-counties-16-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 3: Eastern Equato...

  12. Differential maps, difference maps, interpolated maps, and long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    1988-06-01

    Mapping techniques may be thought to be attractive for the long term prediction of motion in accelerators, especially because a simple map can approximately represent an arbitrarily complicated lattice. The intention of this paper is to develop prejudices as to the validity of such methods by applying them to a simple, exactly solveable, example. It is shown that a numerical interpolation map, such as can be generated in the accelerator tracking program TEAPOT, predicts the evolution more accurately than an analytically derived differential map of the same order. Even so, in the presence of ''appreciable'' nonlinearity, it is shown to be impractical to achieve ''accurate'' prediction beyond some hundreds of cycles of oscillation. This suggests that the value of nonlinear maps is restricted to the parameterization of only the ''leading'' deviation from linearity. 41 refs., 6 figs

  13. Modeling for Insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen Matthern

    2007-04-01

    System Dynamics is a computer-aided approach to evaluating the interrelationships of different components and activities within complex systems. Recently, System Dynamics models have been developed in areas such as policy design, biological and medical modeling, energy and the environmental analysis, and in various other areas in the natural and social sciences. The real power of System Dynamic modeling is gaining insights into total system behavior as time, and system parameters are adjusted and the effects are visualized in real time. System Dynamic models allow decision makers and stakeholders to explore long-term behavior and performance of complex systems, especially in the context of dynamic processes and changing scenarios without having to wait decades to obtain field data or risk failure if a poor management or design approach is used. The Idaho National Laboratory recently has been developing a System Dynamic model of the US Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The model is intended to be used to identify and understand interactions throughout the entire nuclear fuel cycle and suggest sustainable development strategies. This paper describes the basic framework of the current model and presents examples of useful insights gained from the model thus far with respect to sustainable development of nuclear power.

  14. Outsourcing/Offshoring Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tate, Wendy; Bals, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    that these decisions are embedded in the same context – firms making governance and location decisions. Therefore, papers 1-4 primarily focus on offshoring, whereas paper 5 focuses on insourcing and paper 6 on reshoring. Their main findings are summarized in Table II. Research limitations/implications: Suggestions......Findings: Both the geographical and governance dimensions are part of the rightshoring decision which is an important conceptual foundation for this special issue, as it invited insightful pieces on all of these phenomena (e.g. outsourcing, insourcing, offshoring, reshoring), acknowledging...... for future research out of the six papers are summarized in Table III. There is ample opportunity to further shed light on these suggestions as well as to cover parts of the “rightshoring” framework presented, that remain less covered here (e.g. insourcing and/or reshoring). Practical implications: The array...

  15. Genetic Insights into Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Anne S; Chow, Eva WC; Waterworth, Dawn M; Brzustowicz, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objective To outline new insights into the genetic etiology of schizophrenia. Methods We discuss several commonly held beliefs about the genetic issues in schizophrenia. Results The complex genetic nature of the illness poses a challenge for investigators seeking causative genetic mutations. Multiple independent research findings are, however converging to identify a relatively small number of chromosomal locations that appear to contain schizophrenia susceptibility genes. Also, a clinically relevant genetic subtype of schizophrenia (22qDS) has been identified. We are developing a better understanding of how schizophrenia relates to other psychiatric disorders. While investigations into the possible roles of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems continue, other approaches that do not require theories of the mechanism of illness are also being used to identify candidate susceptibility genes. Conclusions Research to date suggests that our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia will soon be fundamentally altered by genetic approaches to this complex disease. PMID:11280081

  16. Insights on STEM Careers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-05

    This presentation will provide career advice for individuals seeking to go beyond just having a job to building a successful career in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Careful planning can be used to turn a job into a springboard for professional advancement and personal satisfaction. Topics to be addressed include setting priorities, understanding career ladders, making tough choices, overcoming stereotypes and assumptions by others, networking, developing a professional identify, and balancing a career with family and other personal responsibilities. Insights on the transition from individual technical work to leadership will also be provided. The author will draw upon experiences gained in academic, industrial, and government laboratory settings, as well as extensive professional service and community involvement.

  17. Osho - Insights on sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of "Tantra" which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment.

  18. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  19. Ethnic Maps: Between Reality and Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Klemenčić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic maps provide insight into the ethnically complex populations of certain areas. They are a cartographic way of portraying a part of geographic reality. Southeastern Europe appears as an ideal area for ethnic maps drawers: there is a variety of different ethnic groups living in a relatively small area. Moreover, political boundaries often do not correspond with so-called ethnic borders, i.e. divisions between majority areas of different nations and/or ethnic groups. The history of South-Eastern Europe offers a number of examples of ethnic maps drawing and their use in political context. The paper focused on ethnic maps drawn and published in the context of the break-up of Yugoslav federation during the first half of the 1990’s. The maps were produced mainly by scientific institutions or under the supervision of such institutions or experts, but always with the specific goal to back and justify political standpoints of their respective country's governments during a turbulent period of geopolitical change and transition. Generally, figures and statistics were presented professionally and correctly. Map authors and compilers did not try to falsify figures. The degree of intent in mapmaking is registered primarily through the choice of cartographic technique, including certain elements of the map design (choice of colours. In that regard, one can identify a technique favoured by Croatian sources (pie charts and another one often used by Serbian mapmakers (choropleth maps. Maps were understood to be powerful media tools and influential visual images that could be used to create a particular perception.

  20. Mapping Affinities in Academic Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Rodighiero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly affinities are one of the most fundamental hidden dynamics that drive scientific development. Some affinities are actual, and consequently can be measured through classical academic metrics such as co-authoring. Other affinities are potential, and therefore do not leave visible traces in information systems; for instance, some peers may share interests without actually knowing it. This article illustrates the development of a map of affinities for academic collectives, designed to be relevant to three audiences: the management, the scholars themselves, and the external public. Our case study involves the School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering of EPFL, hereinafter ENAC. The school consists of around 1,000 scholars, 70 laboratories, and 3 institutes. The actual affinities are modeled using the data available from the information systems reporting publications, teaching, and advising scholars, whereas the potential affinities are addressed through text mining of the publications. The major challenge for designing such a map is to represent the multi-dimensionality and multi-scale nature of the information. The affinities are not limited to the computation of heterogeneous sources of information; they also apply at different scales. The map, thus, shows local affinities inside a given laboratory, as well as global affinities among laboratories. This article presents a graphical grammar to represent affinities. Its effectiveness is illustrated by two actualizations of the design proposal: an interactive online system in which the map can be parameterized, and a large-scale carpet of 250 square meters. In both cases, we discuss how the materiality influences the representation of data, in particular the way key questions could be appropriately addressed considering the three target audiences: the insights gained by the management and their consequences in terms of governance, the understanding of the scholars’ own

  1. Insights into business student's book

    CERN Document Server

    Lannon, Michael; Trappe, Tonya

    1993-01-01

    With Challenging reading and listening texts from a range of authentic business sources, New Insights into Business will really engage your students. The thorough language and vocabulary syllabus together with the strong focus on business skills development gives students everything they need to function effectively in the workplace. New Insights into Business is a self-contained course and is also an ideal follow-on to First Insights into Business.

  2. OpenStreetMap, the Wikipedia Map

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    "This paper presents OpenStreetMap and closely related software as a resource for spatial economic research. The paper demonstrates how information can be extracted from OpenStreetMap, how it can be used as a geographical interface in web-based communication, and illustrates the value of the tools by use of a specific application, the WU campus GIS." (author's abstract)

  3. Mapping in the cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    This engaging text provides a solid introduction to mapmaking in the era of cloud computing. It takes students through both the concepts and technology of modern cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), and Web-based mapping. Conceptual chapters delve into the meaning of maps and how they are developed, covering such topics as map layers, GIS tools, mobile mapping, and map animation. Methods chapters take a learn-by-doing approach to help students master application programming interfaces and build other technical skills for creating maps and making them available on the Internet. Th

  4. Mapping with Drupal

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzolo, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Build beautiful interactive maps on your Drupal website, and tell engaging visual stories with your data. This concise guide shows you how to create custom geographical maps from top to bottom, using Drupal 7 tools and out-of-the-box modules. You'll learn how mapping works in Drupal, with examples on how to use intuitive interfaces to map local events, businesses, groups, and other custom data. Although building maps with Drupal can be tricky, this book helps you navigate the system's complexities for creating sophisticated maps that match your site design. Get the knowledge and tools you ne

  5. Creation of coherent structures in area-preserving maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupte, Neelima [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India)]. E-mail: guote@physics.iitm.ac.in; Sharma, Ashutosh [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India)]. E-mail: ashutosh_a@persistent.co.in

    2007-06-04

    We propose a new method for the creation of coherent structures in two-dimensional area-preserving maps. The coherent structures are created by applying a parameter perturbation in the neighbourhood of the periodic points of the map. We demonstrate the success of our method in the case of the standard map and in two cases of maps which represent realistic fluid flows, the blinking vortex map of Aref and the journal bearing map of Chaiken. We also find the signatures of the coherent structures in quantifiers like the local exit time distribution and of the local Lyapunov exponents of the system. Our method may provide useful insights into the ways in which coherent structures are created in natural systems.

  6. Meso(topoclimatic maps and mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Plánka

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric characteristics can be studied from many points of view, most often we talk about time and spatial standpoint. Application of time standpoint leads either to different kinds of the synoptic and prognostic maps production, which presents actual state of atmosphere in short time section in the past or in the near future or to the climatic maps production which presents longterm weather regime. Spatial standpoint then differs map works according to natural phenomenon proportions, whereas the scale of their graphic presentation can be different. It depends on production purpose of each work.In the paper there are analysed methods of mapping and climatic maps production, which display longterm regime of chosen atmospheric features. These athmosphere features are formed in interaction with land surface and also have direct influence on people and their activities throughout the country. At the same time they’re influenced by anthropogenic intervention to the landscape.

  7. Edge maps: Representing flow with bounded error

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatia, Harsh

    2011-03-01

    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Many analysis techniques rely on computing streamlines, a task often hampered by numerical instabilities. Approaches that ignore the resulting errors can lead to inconsistencies that may produce unreliable visualizations and ultimately prevent in-depth analysis. We propose a new representation for vector fields on surfaces that replaces numerical integration through triangles with linear maps defined on its boundary. This representation, called edge maps, is equivalent to computing all possible streamlines at a user defined error threshold. In spite of this error, all the streamlines computed using edge maps will be pairwise disjoint. Furthermore, our representation stores the error explicitly, and thus can be used to produce more informative visualizations. Given a piecewise-linear interpolated vector field, a recent result [15] shows that there are only 23 possible map classes for a triangle, permitting a concise description of flow behaviors. This work describes the details of computing edge maps, provides techniques to quantify and refine edge map error, and gives qualitative and visual comparisons to more traditional techniques. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijmans, A.-M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-10-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is a galaxy integral-field spectroscopic survey within the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). It will be mapping the composition and kinematics of gas and stars in 10,000 nearby galaxies, using 17 differently sized fiber bundles. MaNGA's goal is to provide new insights in galaxy formation and evolution, and to deliver a local benchmark for current and future high-redshift studies.

  9. Mapping transient hyperventilation induced alterations with estimates of the multi-scale dynamics of BOLD signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa J Kiviniemi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporal blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD contrast signals in functional MRI during rest may be characterized by power spectral distribution (PSD trends of the form 1/f α. Trends with 1/f characteristics comprise fractal properties with repeating oscillation patterns in multiple time scales. Estimates of the fractal properties enable the quantification of phenomena that may otherwise be difficult to measure, such as transient, non-linear changes. In this study it was hypothesized that the fractal metrics of 1/f BOLD signal trends can map changes related to dynamic, multi-scale alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF after a transient hyperventilation challenge. Twenty-three normal adults were imaged in a resting-state before and after hyperventilation. Different variables (1/f trend constant α, fractal dimension Df, and, Hurst exponent H characterizing the trends were measured from BOLD signals. The results show that fractal metrics of the BOLD signal follow the fractional Gaussian noise model, even during the dynamic CBF change that follows hyperventilation. The most dominant effect on the fractal metrics was detected in grey matter, in line with previous hyperventilation vaso-reactivity studies. The α was able to differentiate also blood vessels from grey matter changes. Df was most sensitive to grey matter. H correlated with default mode network areas before hyperventilation but this pattern vanished after hyperventilation due to a global increase in H. In the future, resting-state fMRI combined with fractal metrics of the BOLD signal may be used for analyzing multi-scale alterations of cerebral blood flow.

  10. Understanding Spatial Genome Organization: Methods and Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Ramani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The manner by which eukaryotic genomes are packaged into nuclei while maintaining crucial nuclear functions remains one of the fundamental mysteries in biology. Over the last ten years, we have witnessed rapid advances in both microscopic and nucleic acid-based approaches to map genome architecture, and the application of these approaches to the dissection of higher-order chromosomal structures has yielded much new information. It is becoming increasingly clear, for example, that interphase chromosomes form stable, multilevel hierarchical structures. Among them, self-associating domains like so-called topologically associating domains (TADs appear to be building blocks for large-scale genomic organization. This review describes features of these broadly-defined hierarchical structures, insights into the mechanisms underlying their formation, our current understanding of how interactions in the nuclear space are linked to gene regulation, and important future directions for the field.

  11. MapBook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Beginning with the systematic mapping of the lunar surface more than three decades ago, this database contains over 1600 maps of the planets and satellites of the...

  12. NAIP Status Maps Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — NAIP Status Maps Gallery. These maps illustrate what aerial imagery collection is planned, whats been collected, when it is available and how it is available. These...

  13. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  14. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  15. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  16. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  17. Using choice modeling to map aesthetic values at a landscape scale: Lessons from a Dutch case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zanten, B.T.; Verburg, P.H.; Scholte, S.S.K.; Tieskens, K.F.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying and mapping ecosystem services is increasingly employed to guide policies in their search for environmental sustainability. In this study, we present a method for mapping aesthetic values as an ecosystem service, combining insights from landscape research and ecosystem service mapping

  18. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  20. O insight em psiquiatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida P. Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sinal de que algo está a acontecer contribui para que o paciente reconheça que alguma coisa de estranho se está a passar consigo. Este reconhecimento faz com que o sujeito possa desempenhar uma função activa e seja um elemento colaborante do seu processo de recuperação. Cada doença apresenta, contudo, diferentes sintomas, uma vez que cada doença psiquiátrica consiste em diferentes perturbações com diversos efeitos sobre o funcionamento mental. Desta maneira, o fenómeno do insight que é registado em cada doença é diferente e expressa-se sob diferentes formas, não somente devido às manifestações clínicas da doença mas também devido às características individuais do sujeito.

  1. Grigor Narekatsi's astronomical insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Samvel

    2015-07-01

    What stand out in the solid system of Gr. Narekatsi's naturalistic views are his astronomical insights on the material nature of light, its high speed and the Sun being composed of "material air". Especially surprising and fascinating are his views on stars and their clusters. What astronomers, including great Armenian academician V. Ambartsumian (scattering of stellar associations), would understand and prove with much difficulty thousand years later, Narekatsi predicted in the 10th century: "Stars appear and disappear untimely", "You who gather and scatter the speechless constellations, like a flock of sheep". Gr. Narekatsti's reformative views were manifested in all the spheres of the 10th century social life; he is a reformer of church life, great language constructor, innovator in literature and music, freethinker in philosophy and science. His ideology is the reflection of the 10th century Armenian Renaissance. During the 9th-10th centuries, great masses of Armenians, forced to migrate to the Balkans, took with them and spread reformative ideas. The forefather of the western science, which originated in the period of Reformation, is considered to be the great philosopher Nicholas of Cusa. The study of Gr. Narekatsti's logic and naturalistic views enables us to claim that Gr. Narekatsti is the great grandfather of European science.

  2. Cognitive insight: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, L S C; Sabbe, B G C; Oldenburg, J F E

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive insight is the ability to re-evaluate thoughts and beliefs in order to make thoughtful conclusions. It differs from clinical insight, as it focuses on more general metacognitive processes. Therefore, it could be relevant to diverse disorders and non-clinical subjects. There is a growing body of research on cognitive insight in individuals with and without psychosis. This review has summarised the current state of the art regarding this topic. We conclude that while cognitive insight in its current form seems valid for use in individuals with psychosis, it is less so for individuals without psychosis. Additionally, higher cognitive insight not always leads to better psychological functioning. For instance, higher levels of self-reflection are often associated with depressive mood. We therefore recommend the sub-components of cognitive insight to be studied separately. Also, it is unclear what position cognitive insight takes within the spectrum of metacognitive processes and how it relates to other self-related concepts that have been defined previously in literature. Combining future and past research on cognitive insight and its analogue concepts will help in the formation of a uniform definition that fits all subjects discussed here. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...

  4. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically expan...

  5. Reading Angles in Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  6. Mappings of terminal continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz J. Charatonik

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a terminal continuum introduced in 1973 by G. R. Gordh Jr., for hereditarily unicoherent continua is extended to arbitrary continua. Mapping properties of these two concepts are investigated. Especially the invariance of terminality under mappings satisfying some special conditions is studied. In particular, we conclude that the invariance holds for atomic mappings.

  7. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  8. Comparison of national level biomass maps for conterminous US: understanding pattern and causes of differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Neeti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As Earth observation satellite data proliferate, so too do maps derived from them. Even when two co-located maps are produced with low overall error, the spatial distribution of error may not be the same. Increasingly, methods will be needed to understand differences among purportedly similar products. For this study, we have used the four aboveground biomass (AGB maps for conterminous US generated under NASA’s Carbon Monitoring System. We have developed systematic approach to (1 assess both the absolute accuracy of individual maps and assess the spatial patterns of agreement among maps, and (2 investigate potential causes of the spatial structure of agreement among maps to gain insight into reliability of methodological choices in map making. Results The comparison of the four biomass maps with FIA based total biomass estimates at national scale suggest that all the maps have higher biomass estimate compared to FIA. When the four maps were compared among each other, the result shows that the maps S and K have more similar spatial structure whereas the maps K and W have more similar absolute values. Although the maps K and W were generated using completely different methodological workflow, they agree remarkably. All the maps did well in the dominant forest type with maximum agreement between them. The comparison of difference between maps S and K with regional maps suggests that these maps were able to capture the disturbance and not so much regrowth pattern. Conclusions The study provides a comprehensive systematic approach to compare and evaluate different real data products using examples of four AGB maps. Although ostensibly the four maps map the same variable, they have different spatial distribution at different scale. Except the 2003 map, one can use other maps at the coarser spatial resolution. Finally, the disparate information available through different maps indicates a need for a temporal framework for

  9. OpenStreetMap, the Wikipedia Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Maier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents OpenStreetMap and closely related software as a resource for spatial economic research. The paper demonstrates how information can be extracted from OpenStreetMap, how it can be used as a geographical interface in web-based communication, and illustrates the value of the tools by use of a specific application, the WU campus GIS.

  10. Thematic Maps for Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Krtalić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian Mine Action Centre (CROMAC reviewed, defined and marked the entire mine suspected area (MSA in Croatia by the year 2004. However, due to the need to reduce risk and the lack of information from the deepest reaches of the MSA, its surface area was defined as larger than in reality. Mine clearance is a long-term, expensive process, and Croatia has committed itself to resolving the problem of landmines on its territory by 201 9. Such developments have led to searching for and finding solutions to speed up resolution of the mine problem in Croatia (and in the world through reducing the defined MSA. The reduction of an already defined MSA requires additional data and information from the deepest reaches of the MSA, on the basis of which a revision of existing SMEs to make reductions will be carried out. Based on these data and revision of the existing MSA, reduction can be performed. All subsequently collected data and information, together with previously known data from the CROMAC Mine Information System (MIS, are processed in the decision support system in conditions of uncertainty. The results obtained are displayed on different thematic maps, showing the positions of objects and their spatial impact on the environment. Thus, thematic maps allow insights into topics which experts in humanitarian demining can use to make decisions in the process. These thematic maps are the result of the methodology created within the project Space and Airborne Mined Area Reduction Tools (SMART, and further developed in the technological project System for Multisensor Airborne Reconnaissance and Surveillance in Emergency Situations and Environmental Protection, TP-06/0007-01 , Ministry of Science, Education and Sports; Deployment of Advanced Intelligence Decision Support System for Mine Suspected Area Reduction in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the author's doctoral dissertation. This paper establishes the new terminology for new, improved thematic maps

  11. Two-dimensional Value Stream Mapping: Integrating the design of the MPC system in the value stream map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, Daryl; Olesen, Peter Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Companies use value stream mapping to identify waste, often in the early stages of a lean implementation. Though the tool helps users to visualize material and information flows and to identify improvement opportunities, a limitation of this approach is the lack of an integrated method...... for analysing and re-designing the MPC system in order to support lean improvement. We reflect on the current literature regarding value stream mapping, and use practical insights in order to develop and propose a two-dimensional value stream mapping tool that integrates the design of the MPC system within...

  12. Mapping the Constellation of Educational Marxism(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyson E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the author maps three radically different visions of Marxism in educational philosophy. Each "register" contains insights but also contradictions that cannot easily be resolved through internal modifications of the theory or through theoretical synthesis with other registers. The radical function of Marxist pedagogy is to create a…

  13. A dense genetic linkage map for common carp and its integration with a BAC-based physical map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. RESULTS: The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. CONCLUSION: We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for

  14. On palaeogeographic map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Zhao Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The palaeogeographic map is a graphic representation of physical geographical characteristics in geological history periods and human history periods. It is the most important result of palaeogeographic study. The author, as the Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Palaeogeography, Chinese Edition and English Edition, aimed at the problems of the articles submitted to and published in the Journal of Palaeogeography in recent years and the relevant papers and books of others, and integrated with his practice of palaeogeographic study and mapping, wrote this paper. The content mainly includes the data of palaeogeographic mapping, the problems of palaeogeographic mapping method, the “Single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping method —— Methodology of quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography”, i.e., the “4 steps mapping method”, the nomenclature of each palaeogeographic unit in palaeogeographic map, the explanation of each palaeogeographic unit in palaeogeographic map, the explanation of significance of palaeogeographic map and palaeogeographic article, the evaluative standards of palaeogeographic map and palaeogeographic article, and the self-evaluation. Criticisms and corrections are welcome.

  15. Mapping Urban Social Divisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ball

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of increased levels of interest in space and images beyond the field of geography, this article (re- introduces earlier work on the semiotics of maps undertaken by geographers in the 1960s. The data limitations, purpose and cultural context in which a user interprets a map's codes and conventions are highlighted in this work, which remains relevant to the interpretation of maps—new and old—forty years later. By means of drawing on geography's contribution to the semiotics of maps, the article goes on to examine the concept of urban social divisions as represented in map images. Using a small number of map images, including two of the most widely known maps of urban social division in Europe and North America, the roles of context, data and purpose in the production and interpretation of maps are discussed. By presenting the examples chronologically the article shows that although advances in data collection and manipulation have allowed researchers to combine different social variables in maps of social division, and to interact with map images, work by geographers on the semiotics of maps is no less relevant today than when it was first proposed forty years ago. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002372

  16. Franchise Business Model: Theoretical Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Levickaitė, Rasa; Reimeris, Ramojus

    2010-01-01

    The article is based on literature review, theoretical insights, and deals with the topic of franchise business model. The objective of the paper is to analyse peculiarities of franchise business model and its developing conditions in Lithuania. The aim of the paper is to make an overview on franchise business model and its environment in Lithuanian business context. The overview is based on international and local theoretical insights. In terms of practical meaning, this article should be re...

  17. Map Projection Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Map Projection Transitions is a very successful web application about map projections. The web page (http://www.jasondavies.com/maps/transition pre­sents a world map with graticule and country borders in the oblique Aitoff projection, with the South Pole. The map is not static, but animated. The South Pole moves toward the bottom and Earth rotates around its poles. The animation lasts five seconds, after which the projection changes and movement continues for five seconds, after which the projection changes again. Names of projections appear in a separate window. There are a total of 56 projections. The South Pole eventually becomes invisible and the North Pole appears at the top. Various parts of Earth appear in the center of the map by rotating around the poles.

  18. Of maps and myths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, J.E.; Mooneyhan, D.W. [Univ. Space Research Assoc, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-05-01

    For many areas of both the developed and developing world, the spatially accurate data required to effectively support environmental planning, resources management, and public policy decision making do not exist. There are a variety of reasons for this lack of map data. Mapping is neither easy nor cheap. Issues of both national security and national sovereignty are involved. There is a need to reinvigorate and expand our mapping programs to make them national in focus but global in scope. It is also essential that a civil agency be given a load role in global mapping. There is a need to work to break down the barriers that inhibit the open flow of map information that does exist, garner the resources required to fill in where there are gaps, and support efforts to increase funding for research in mapping and spatial analysis. All this must be done if we are to improve our understanding of our rapidly changing world. 20 refs.

  19. Mapping of wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віліна Пересадько

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very unevenly; - all existing maps of the industry could be classified as analytical ascertaining inventory type; - the dominant ways of cartographic representation are area method and qualitative background method, sign method and collation maps are rarely used; - basically all the Internet maps have low quality as they are scanned images with poor resolution; - the special feature of maps published lately is lack of geographical basis (except for state borders and coastline. We created wine production and consumption world map «Wine Industry» in the scale of 1:60 000 000 with simple geographical basis (state names, state borders, major rivers, coastline. It was concluded that from the methodological point of view it is incorrect not to show geographical basis on maps of wine industry. Analysis of this map allowed us to identify areas of traditional wine-making, potential wine-making areas and countries which claim to be the world leaders in the field of wine production. We found disbalans between wine production and wine consumption - increasing wine production in South America, China and the United States and increasing wine consumption (mainly due to the import products in countries where the grape is not the primary agricultural product.

  20. On probabilistic Mandelbrot maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreadis, Ioannis [International School of The Hague, Wijndaelerduin 1, 2554 BX The Hague (Netherlands)], E-mail: i.andreadis@ish-rijnlandslyceum.nl; Karakasidis, Theodoros E. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Thessaly, GR-38334 Volos (Greece)], E-mail: thkarak@uth.gr

    2009-11-15

    In this work, we propose a definition for a probabilistic Mandelbrot map in order to extend and support the study initiated by Argyris et al. [Argyris J, Andreadis I, Karakasidis Th. On perturbations of the Mandelbrot map. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2000;11:1131-1136.] with regard to the numerical stability of the Mandelbrot and Julia set of the Mandelbrot map when subjected to noise.

  1. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  2. Similarity transformations of MAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Allan T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

  3. Plague Maps and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Maps and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Plague in the United States ...

  4. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  5. High-spatial-resolution mapping of the oxygen concentration in cortical tissue (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Rajeshwer S.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Fu, Buyin; Boas, David A.; Sakadžic, Sava

    2016-03-01

    Due to a lack of imaging tools for high-resolution imaging of cortical tissue oxygenation, the detailed maps of the oxygen partial pressure (PO2) around arterioles, venules, and capillaries remain largely unknown. Therefore, we have limited knowledge about the mechanisms that secure sufficient oxygen delivery in microvascular domains during brain activation, and provide some metabolic reserve capacity in diseases that affect either microvascular networks or the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF). To address this challenge, we applied a Two-Photon PO2 Microscopy to map PO2 at different depths in mice cortices. Measurements were performed through the cranial window in the anesthetized healthy mice as well as in the mouse models of microvascular dysfunctions. In addition, microvascular morphology was recorded by the two-photon microscopy at the end of each experiment and subsequently segmented. Co-registration of the PO2 measurements and exact microvascular morphology enabled quantification of the tissue PO2 dependence on distance from the arterioles, capillaries, and venules at various depths. Our measurements reveal significant spatial heterogeneity of the cortical tissue PO2 distribution that is dominated by the high oxygenation in periarteriolar spaces. In cases of impaired oxygen delivery due to microvascular dysfunction, significant reduction in tissue oxygenation away from the arterioles was observed. These tissue domains may be the initial sites of cortical injury that can further exacerbate the progression of the disease.

  6. Mapping the Llano Estacado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early maps of North America, prepared in the 18th and early 19th centuries, often depicted the Llano Estacado as a conspicuous blank spot - a terra incognita. A good example is a map of the southwest sketched by Alexander von Humboldt in 1804. In 1830, Stephen F. Austin added little detail to the ...

  7. MAP OF NASCA GEOGLYPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanzalová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Technical University in Prague in the cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences in Dresden (Germany work on the Nasca Project. The cooperation started in 2004 and much work has been done since then. All work is connected with Nasca lines in southern Peru. The Nasca project started in 1995 and its main target is documentation and conservation of the Nasca lines. Most of the project results are presented as WebGIS application via Internet. In the face of the impending destruction of the soil drawings, it is possible to preserve this world cultural heritage for the posterity at least in a digital form. Creating of Nasca lines map is very useful. The map is in a digital form and it is also available as a paper map. The map contains planimetric component of the map, map lettering and altimetry. Thematic folder in this map is a vector layer of the geoglyphs in Nasca/Peru. Basis for planimetry are georeferenced satellite images, altimetry is created from digital elevation model. This map was created in ArcGis software.

  8. Mapping Hrad Vallis, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Hamilton, C. W.

    2017-06-01

    Our 1:175K-scale geologic map is almost done! And we've found inflated lava flows and multiple episodes of aqueous discharge interspersed with volcanic eruptions. But we should also look beyond this area, as these units extend beyond the map area.

  9. Haz-Map Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF documents can be viewed with the free Adobe® Reader™ Home » Haz-Map Glossary Haz-Map Glossary ... PDF documents can be viewed with the free Adobe® Reader™ Customer Service: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov ...

  10. Simplifying Massive Contour Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski; Mølhave, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple, efficient and practical algorithm for constructing and subsequently simplifying contour maps from massive high-resolution DEMs, under some practically realistic assumptions on the DEM and contours.......We present a simple, efficient and practical algorithm for constructing and subsequently simplifying contour maps from massive high-resolution DEMs, under some practically realistic assumptions on the DEM and contours....

  11. Mercator and his Map

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Improved Descriptions of the Lands of the World, amended and intended for the Use of Navigators. The map was large (54" x 83"), and it was divided into twenty one parts. It is regarded as highly valuable; only three original copies survive. Mercator called his map Atlas, after the mythological character who held the ...

  12. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features...

  13. Maps between Grassmann manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parameswaran Sankaran Institute of Mathematical Sciences Chennai, India sankaran@imsc.res.in Indian Academy of Sciences Platinum Jubilee Meeting Hyderabad

    2009-07-02

    Jul 2, 2009 ... Regarding self-maps of (complex) Grassmann manifolds the following results are well-known: Parameswaran Sankaran Institute of Mathematical Sciences Chennai, India sankaran@imsc.res.in. Indian Academy of Sciences Platinum Jubilee Meeting Hyderabad. Maps between Grassmann manifolds ...

  14. 3D Ground Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Poverud, Therese Tokle; Christensen, Ole Petter; Jacop, Asadullah; Mpoyi, Giresse Kadima; Mann, Harjit Laly Singh; Albert, Ngenzi; Dalset, Bjørnar

    2015-01-01

    Utført i samarbeid med Cube AS Cube AS wants a system for 3D mapping of terrain using an UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle). We chose to equip the UAV with a camera to take aerial photos that are processed through image processing software to produce detailed, digital 3D maps.

  15. Formal genetic maps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... The number of genetic maps constructed based on certain data related to the structural organization and functional ... tome maps of messenger RNA and of different micro RNA species in normal and in diseased subjects could ..... other eukaryotic genomes. The human genome contains over one million ...

  16. Map of Nasca Geoglyphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzalová, K.; Pavelka, K.

    2013-07-01

    The Czech Technical University in Prague in the cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences in Dresden (Germany) work on the Nasca Project. The cooperation started in 2004 and much work has been done since then. All work is connected with Nasca lines in southern Peru. The Nasca project started in 1995 and its main target is documentation and conservation of the Nasca lines. Most of the project results are presented as WebGIS application via Internet. In the face of the impending destruction of the soil drawings, it is possible to preserve this world cultural heritage for the posterity at least in a digital form. Creating of Nasca lines map is very useful. The map is in a digital form and it is also available as a paper map. The map contains planimetric component of the map, map lettering and altimetry. Thematic folder in this map is a vector layer of the geoglyphs in Nasca/Peru. Basis for planimetry are georeferenced satellite images, altimetry is created from digital elevation model. This map was created in ArcGis software.

  17. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  18. Mapping Medievalism: An Indigenous Political Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Dion Fletcher

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Kathryn Brush (ed., Mapping Medievalism at the Canadian Frontier, London Ontario Canada: Museum London and the McIntosh Gallery, 2010. Mapping Medievalism, a collection of essays written by a professor and nine graduate students, is an examination of the role of settlers’ imagination of Europe’s middle ages in the development of Canadian culture. The project aims to be inclusive of Aboriginal histories, and some authors grapple with the colonial implications of the settlers’ imagining of the medieval. This review provides an indigenous political perspective on the book, and argues that some essays provide useful insight into colonial processes. However, some essays approach colonialism in a non-productive fashion and, ultimately, the publication falls short of its aim to be inclusive to Aboriginal histories.

  19. Geologic map of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P.; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  20. Application of ecological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherk, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service has initiated the production of a comprehensive ecological inventory map series for use as a major new planning tool. Important species data along with special land use designations are displayed on 1:250,000 scale topographic base maps. Sets of maps have been published for the Atlantic and Pacific coastal areas of the United States. Preparation of a map set for the Gulf of Mexico is underway at the present time. Potential application of ecological inventory map series information to a typical land disposal facility could occur during the narrowing of the number of possible disposal sites, the design of potential disposal site studies of ecological resources, the preparation of the environmental report, and the regulatory review of license applications. 3 figures, 3 tables

  1. The projective heat map

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces a simple dynamical model for a planar heat map that is invariant under projective transformations. The map is defined by iterating a polygon map, where one starts with a finite planar N-gon and produces a new N-gon by a prescribed geometric construction. One of the appeals of the topic of this book is the simplicity of the construction that yet leads to deep and far reaching mathematics. To construct the projective heat map, the author modifies the classical affine invariant midpoint map, which takes a polygon to a new polygon whose vertices are the midpoints of the original. The author provides useful background which makes this book accessible to a beginning graduate student or advanced undergraduate as well as researchers approaching this subject from other fields of specialty. The book includes many illustrations, and there is also a companion computer program.

  2. Understanding Insight in the Context of Q

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, David

    2012-01-01

    In Revans' learning formula, L = P + Q, Q represents "questioning insight", by which Revans means that insight comes out of the process of questioning programmed knowledge (P) in the light of experience. We typically focus on the content of an insight rather than on the act of insight. Drawing primarily on the work of Bernard Lonergan this paper…

  3. Equivariant harmonic maps into the sphere via isoparametric maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Y.L.

    1992-08-01

    By using concrete isoparametric maps we obtain some new equivariant harmonic maps between spheres and solve equivariant boundary value problems for harmonic maps from unit open ball B m+1 into S n . (author). 22 refs

  4. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight.

  5. Mapping permafrost with airborne electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, B. J.; Ball, L. B.; Bloss, B. R.; Kass, A.; Pastick, N.; Smith, B. D.; Voss, C. I.; Walsh, D. O.; Walvoord, M. A.; Wylie, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost is a key characteristic of cold region landscapes, yet detailed assessments of how the subsurface distribution of permafrost impacts the environment, hydrologic systems, and infrastructure are lacking. Data acquired from several airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys in Alaska provide significant new insight into the spatial extent of permafrost over larger areas (hundreds to thousands of square kilometers) than can be mapped using ground-based geophysical methods or through drilling. We compare several AEM datasets from different areas of interior Alaska, and explore the capacity of these data to infer geologic structure, permafrost extent, and related hydrologic processes. We also assess the impact of fires on permafrost by comparing data from different burn years within similar geological environments. Ultimately, interpretations rely on understanding the relationship between electrical resistivity measured by AEM surveys and the physical properties of interest such as geology, permafrost, and unfrozen water content in the subsurface. These relationships are often ambiguous and non-unique, so additional information is useful for reducing uncertainty. Shallow (upper ~1m) permafrost and soil characteristics identified from remotely sensed imagery and field observations help to constrain and aerially extend near-surface AEM interpretations, where correlations between the AEM and remote sensing data are identified using empirical multivariate analyses. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (sNMR) measurements quantify the contribution of unfrozen water at depth to the AEM-derived electrical resistivity models at several locations within one survey area. AEM surveys fill a critical data gap in the subsurface characterization of permafrost environments and will be valuable in future mapping and monitoring programs in cold regions.

  6. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  7. Geoconservation mapping using digital geomorphological maps in Vorarlberg, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijmonsbergen, A. C.; De Jong, M. G. G.; de Graaff, L. W. S.; Anders, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphological inventories are being made in the State of Vorarlberg (Austria) since the mid-1950s by the University of Amsterdam. Starting as an academic training fieldwork for undergraduate geomorphology students, PhD students and staff members soon recognized the research potential of the unique alpine landscape. In particular, landforms and deposits of the ice-marginal environment and pollen records preserved in peat provide valuable proxies for climate reconstruction and give detailed insight in the former growth and decay of the Rhine glacier network and of local glaciers, and assist in reconstructing landscape development in general. A project was started in 2007 to prepare community wide inventory maps of potential geoconservation areas, based on digital geomorphological mapping in a Geographical Information System (GIS). A stepwise protocol was designed for the identification of potential geoconservation areas in the landscape, comprising: 1. Preparing digital geomorphological maps, using a morphogenetic classification scheme 2. Assigning values for selected geoconservation assessment criteria to types of geomorphological features 3. Ranking the criteria assessment values into three categories of potential geoconservation value, and 4. Storing, visualizing and describing the geoconservation data. Four major traits are used in the weighting and ranking protocol (steps 2 and 3): scientific relevance, frequency of occurrence, disturbance, and environmental vulnerability. The process of assigning values and of ranking the landforms and deposits has been automated in GIS. For the evaluation of disturbance we use digital infrastructure layers in GIS which can be intersected with the potential geoconservation areas to determine the level of disturbance. The proposed method is demonstrated for the municipality of Lech, a well-known winter skiing resort. To illustrate the loss of high-rank potential geoconservation areas due to human influence over the last 50

  8. Creativity Development in Adolescence: Insight from Behavior, Brain, and Training Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to…

  9. The use of process mapping in healthcare quality improvement projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Grazia; Reed, Julie E; Lennox, Laura; Barlow, James

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Process mapping provides insight into systems and processes in which improvement interventions are introduced and is seen as useful in healthcare quality improvement projects. There is little empirical evidence on the use of process mapping in healthcare practice. This study advances understanding of the benefits and success factors of process mapping within quality improvement projects. Methods Eight quality improvement projects were purposively selected from different healthcare settings within the UK's National Health Service. Data were gathered from multiple data-sources, including interviews exploring participants' experience of using process mapping in their projects and perceptions of benefits and challenges related to its use. These were analysed using inductive analysis. Results Eight key benefits related to process mapping use were reported by participants (gathering a shared understanding of the reality; identifying improvement opportunities; engaging stakeholders in the project; defining project's objectives; monitoring project progress; learning; increased empathy; simplicity of the method) and five factors related to successful process mapping exercises (simple and appropriate visual representation, information gathered from multiple stakeholders, facilitator's experience and soft skills, basic training, iterative use of process mapping throughout the project). Conclusions Findings highlight benefits and versatility of process mapping and provide practical suggestions to improve its use in practice.

  10. Coastal mapping handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,; Ellis, Melvin Y.

    1978-01-01

    Passage of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 focused attention on the Nation's coastal land and water areas. As plans for more effective management of the coastal zone evolved, it soon became apparent that improved maps and charts of these areas were needed. This handbook was prepared with the requirements of the entire coastal community in mind, giving greatest attention to the needs of coastal zone managers and planners at the State and local levels. Its principal objective is to provide general information and guidance; it is neither a textbook nor a technical manual, but rather a primer on coastal mapping. This handbook should help planners and managers of coastal programs to determine their mapping requirements, select the best maps and charts for their particular needs, and to deal effectively with personnel who gather data and prepare maps. The sections on "Sources of Assistance and Advice" and "Product and Data Sources" should be especially useful to all involved in mapping the coastal zone. Brief summaries of the mapping efforts of several State coastal zone management programs are included. "Future outlook" discusses anticipated progress and changes in mapping procedures and techniques. Illustrations are inserted, where appropriate, to illustrate the products and equipment discussed. Because of printing restrictions, the colors in map illustrations may vary from those in the original publication. The appendixes include substantial material which also should be of interest. In addition a glossary and an index are included to provide easy and quick access to the terms and concepts used in the text. For those interested in more technical detail than is provided in this handbook, the "Selected references" will be useful. Also, the publications of the professional societies listed in appendix 4 will provide technical information in detail.

  11. Region & Gateway Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Derik

    2007-01-01

    State-of-the-art robot mapping approaches are capable of acquiring impressively accurate 2D and 3D models of their environments. To the best of our knowledge, few of them represent structure or acquire models of task-relevant objects. In this work, a new approach to mapping of indoor environments is presented, in which the environment structure in terms of regions and gateways is automatically extracted, while the robot explores. Objects, both in 2D and 3D, are modeled explicitly in those map...

  12. Crowdsourcing The National Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elizabeth; Craun, Kari J.; Korris, Erin M.; Brostuen, David A.; Moore, Laurence R.

    2015-01-01

    Using crowdsourcing techniques, the US Geological Survey’s (USGS) Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) project known as “The National Map Corps (TNMCorps)” encourages citizen scientists to collect and edit data about man-made structures in an effort to provide accurate and authoritative map data for the USGS National Geospatial Program’s web-based The National Map. VGI is not new to the USGS, but past efforts have been hampered by available technologies. Building on lessons learned, TNMCorps volunteers are successfully editing 10 different structure types in all 50 states as well as Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands.

  13. Elevation data for floodplain mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Elevation Data for Floodplain Mapping shows that there is sufficient two-dimensional base map imagery to meet FEMA's flood map modernization goals, but that the three-dimensional base elevation data...

  14. Northern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Part I consists of plotted and analyzed daily maps of sea-level and 500-mb maps for 0300, 0400, 1200, 1230, 1300, and 1500...

  15. Tools for mapping ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Ignacio; Adamescu, Mihai; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cazacu, Constantin; Klug, Hermann; Nedkov, Stoyan; Burkhard, Benjamin; Maes, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Mapping tools have evolved impressively in recent decades. From early computerised mapping techniques to current cloud-based mapping approaches, we have witnessed a technological evolution that has facilitated the democratisation of Geographic Information

  16. New Insights into Behavioral Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Baltussen (Guido)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis applies insights from psychology and other behavioral sciences to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional finance approach (which assumes that agents and markets are rational) and improves our understanding of financial markets and its participants. More specific, this

  17. Investigating Insight as Sudden Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.; Jee, Benjamin D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or…

  18. Global China Insights July 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingrid Fischer

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  19. The effect of HapMap on cardiovascular research and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelding, Kimberly A; Gerhard, Glenn S; Simari, Robert D; Holmes, David R

    2007-03-01

    The Haplotype Genetic Map (HapMap) is an invaluable resource to the cardiovascular researcher, enabling a decrease in cost and an increase in the efficiency and speed of discoveries in the laboratory. As cardiologists, we need to understand the vocabulary of genomics because the translation of scientific findings using HapMap could provide insight for improved care and therapeutic guidance of our patients. Genomics is the evaluation of genes as a dynamic system, in which genes interact to influence biologic pathways, networks and physiology. The HapMap promises to increase the efficiency of genomics in identifying cardiovascular-disease-related genes that could become vital for choosing relevant tests and providing preventative and curative therapies. In this Review, the HapMap will be described, to provide insight into the relevance of this work to cardiovascular practice, to clinical research in cardiovascular disease and to future discoveries in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.

  20. Using GeoMapApp in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The GeoMapApp tool has been updated with enhanced functionality that is useful in the classroom. Hosted as a service of the IEDA Facility at Columbia University, GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org) is a free resource that integrates a wide range of research-grade geoscience data in one intuitive map-based interface. It includes earthquake and volcano data, geological maps, plate tectonic data sets, and a high-resolution topography/bathymetry base map. Users can also import and analyse their own data files. Layering and transparency capabilities allow users to compare multiple data sets at once. The GeoMapApp interface presents data in its proper geospatial context, helping students more easily gain insight and understanding from the data. Simple tools for data manipulation allow students to analyse the data in different ways such as generating profiles and producing visualisations for reports. The new Save Session capability is designed to assist in the classroom: The educator saves a pre-loaded state of GeoMapApp. When shared with the class, the saved session file allows students to open GeoMapApp with exactly the same data sets loaded and the same display parameters chosen thus freeing up valuable time in which students can explore the data. In this presentation, activities related to plate tectonics will be highlighted. One activity helps students investigate plate boundaries by exploring earthquake and volcano locations. Another requires students to calculate the rate of seafloor spreading using crustal age data in various ocean basins. A third uses the GeoMapApp layering technique to explore the influence of geological forces in shaping the landscape. Educators report that using GeoMapApp in the classroom lowers the barriers to data accessibility for students; fosters an increased sense of data "ownership" - GeoMapApp presents the same data in the same tool used by researchers; allows engagement with authentic geoscience data; promotes STEM skills and

  1. Latest Insights on Adenovirus Structure and Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen San Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus (AdV capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size (~950 Å and triangulation number (pseudo T = 25, but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasi-equivalent icosahedral interactions. Up until 2009, only its major components (hexon, penton, and fiber had separately been described in atomic detail. Their relationships within the virion, and the location of minor coat proteins, were inferred from combining the known crystal structures with increasingly more detailed cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM maps. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Later on that year, two reports described the structural differences between the mature and immature adenoviral particle, starting to shed light on the different stages of viral assembly, and giving further insights into the roles of core and minor coat proteins during morphogenesis [1,2]. Finally, in 2010, two papers describing the atomic resolution structure of the complete virion appeared [3,4]. These reports represent a veritable tour de force for two structural biology techniques: X-ray crystallography and cryoEM, as this is the largest macromolecular complex solved at high resolution by either of them. In particular, the cryoEM analysis provided an unprecedented clear picture of the complex protein networks shaping the icosahedral shell. Here I review these latest developments in the field of AdV structural studies.

  2. Air Data - Concentration Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Make a map of daily concentrations over several days. The daily air quality can be displayed in terms of the Air Quality Index or in concentration ranges for certain PM species like organic carbon, nitrates, and sulfates.

  3. NOS Bathymetric Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection of bathymetric contour maps which represent the seafloor topography includes over 400 individual titles and covers US offshore areas including Hawaii...

  4. The CPD Maps System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CPD Maps includes data on the locations of existing CDBG, HOME, public housing and other HUD-funded community assets, so that users can view past investments...

  5. Mapping Unknown Knowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diogo de Andrade Silva, Elisa; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon

    in relation to analysis, representation, exploration and design of everyday travelling in the city. Such ‘mobilities design’ (Jensen and Lanng 2017) concerns routes, sites and artefacts of mobilities, e.g., road networks, train stations, and bike parking facilities. Some dimensions of these structures...... representative dimensions of travellers’ embodied ‘dwelling-in-motion’ (Urry, 2007) and experiences. The paper foregrounds a ‘Mapping-in-Motion’ graphic example, an experimental urban design student assignment aiming to map some of the less representative dimensions of journeys between A and B in Berlin...... infrastructures. The further objective of the paper is to contribute to advancing mapping as an operational tool that sensitizes mobilities designers to less-representational aspects of the intersection between embodied mobililities and physical infrastructures. Structured by James Corner’s (1999) mapping...

  6. Marketplace Enrollment Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The maps show the distribution of consumers in a state who enrolled in marketplace plans through federally facilitated, partnership, and supported state-based...

  7. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  8. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  9. Public Waters Inventory Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...

  10. PDS Planetary Maps API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are developing a set of NASA Extensions to the Google Maps API—and soon to other frameworks such as OpenLayers as well—that will make these platforms more useful...

  11. Interest rates mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevski, M.; Maignan, M.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Timonin, V.

    2008-06-01

    The present study deals with the analysis and mapping of Swiss franc interest rates. Interest rates depend on time and maturity, defining term structure of the interest rate curves (IRC). In the present study IRC are considered in a two-dimensional feature space-time and maturity. Exploratory data analysis includes a variety of tools widely used in econophysics and geostatistics. Geostatistical models and machine learning algorithms (multilayer perceptron and Support Vector Machines) were applied to produce interest rate maps. IR maps can be used for the visualisation and pattern perception purposes, to develop and to explore economical hypotheses, to produce dynamic asset-liability simulations and for financial risk assessments. The feasibility of an application of interest rates mapping approach for the IRC forecasting is considered as well.

  12. TOXMAP®: Environmental Health Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — TOXMAP® is a Geographic Information System (GIS) that uses maps of the United States and Canada to help users visually explore data primarily from the EPA's Toxics...

  13. Haz-Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Haz-Map is an occupational health database designed for health and safety professionals and for consumers seeking information about the adverse effects of workplace...

  14. MetaMap

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MetaMap is a highly configurable application developed by the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to...

  15. Ogallala Aquifer Mapping Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    A computerized data file has been established which can be used efficiently by the contour-plotting program SURFACE II to produce maps of the Ogallala aquifer in 17 counties of the Texas Panhandle. The data collected have been evaluated and compiled into three sets, from which SURFACE II can generate maps of well control, aquifer thickness, saturated thickness, water level, and the difference between virgin (pre-1942) and recent (1979 to 1981) water levels. 29 figures, 1 table

  16. The National Map - Orthoimagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, James; Brown, Kim; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Orthorectified digital aerial photographs and satellite images of 1-meter (m) pixel resolution or finer make up the orthoimagery component of The National Map. The process of orthorectification removes feature displacements and scale variations caused by terrain relief and sensor geometry. The result is a combination of the image characteristics of an aerial photograph or satellite image and the geometric qualities of a map. These attributes allow users to: *Measure distance *Calculate areas *Determine shapes of features *Calculate directions *Determine accurate coordinates *Determine land cover and use *Perform change detection *Update maps The standard digital orthoimage is a 1-m or finer resolution, natural color or color infra-red product. Most are now produced as GeoTIFFs and accompanied by a Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)-compliant metadata file. The primary source for 1-m data is the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) leaf-on imagery. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) utilizes NAIP imagery as the image layer on its 'Digital- Map' - a new generation of USGS topographic maps (http://nationalmap.gov/digital_map). However, many Federal, State, and local governments and organizations require finer resolutions to meet a myriad of needs. Most of these images are leaf-off, natural-color products at resolutions of 1-foot (ft) or finer.

  17. MAPS of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lincoln

    1998-01-01

    Our goal was to produce an interactive visualization from a mathematical model that successfully predicts metastases from head and neck cancer. We met this goal early in the project. The visualization is available for the public to view. Our work appears to fill a need for more information about this deadly disease. The idea of this project was to make an easily interpretable visualization based on what we call "functional maps" of disease. A functional map is a graphic summary of medical data, where distances between parts of the body are determined by the probability of disease, not by anatomical distances. Functional maps often beat little resemblance to anatomical maps, but they can be used to predict the spread of disease. The idea of modeling the spread of disease in an abstract multidimensional space is difficult for many people. Our goal was to make the important predictions easy to see. NASA must face this problem frequently: how to help laypersons and professionals see important trends in abstract, complex data. We took advantage of concepts perfected in NASA's graphics libraries. As an analogy, consider a functional map of early America. Suppose we choose travel times, rather than miles, as our measures of inter-city distances. For Abraham Lincoln, travel times would have been the more meaningful measure of separation between cities. In such a map New Orleans would be close to Memphis because of the Mississippi River. St. Louis would be close to Portland because of the Oregon Trail. Oklahoma City would be far from Little Rock because of the Cheyenne. Such a map would look puzzling to those of us who have always seen physical maps, but the functional map would be more useful in predicting the probabilities of inter-site transit. Continuing the analogy, we could predict the spread of social diseases such as gambling along the rivers and cattle rustling along the trails. We could simply print the functional map of America, but it would be more interesting

  18. Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a method for solving problems related to gas laws, the mole concept, molarity, heats of reactions, and other chemical concepts. Also presents another method which was devised to simplify the teaching of stoichiometric calculations using conversion factors. (JN)

  19. Geologic mapping of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-11-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  20. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High- Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  1. Dictionary-Based Map Compression for Sparse Feature Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kanji; Nagasaka, Tomomi

    Obtaining a compact representation of a large-size feature map built by mapper robots is a critical issue in recent mobile robotics. This “map compression” problem is explored from a novel perspective of dictionary-based data compression techniques in the paper. The primary contribution of the paper is the proposal of the dictionary-based map compression approach. A map compression system is presented by employing RANSAC map matching and sparse coding as building blocks. The effectiveness levels of the proposed techniques is investigated in terms of map compression ratio, compression speed, the retrieval performance of compressed/decompressed maps, as well as applications to the Kolmogorov complexity.

  2. Data-driven assessment of eQTL mapping methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schughart Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL is a potentially powerful way to detect transcriptional regulatory relationships at the genomic scale. However, eQTL data sets often go underexploited because legacy QTL methods are used to map the relationship between the expression trait and genotype. Often these methods are inappropriate for complex traits such as gene expression, particularly in the case of epistasis. Results Here we compare legacy QTL mapping methods with several modern multi-locus methods and evaluate their ability to produce eQTL that agree with independent external data in a systematic way. We found that the modern multi-locus methods (Random Forests, sparse partial least squares, lasso, and elastic net clearly outperformed the legacy QTL methods (Haley-Knott regression and composite interval mapping in terms of biological relevance of the mapped eQTL. In particular, we found that our new approach, based on Random Forests, showed superior performance among the multi-locus methods. Conclusions Benchmarks based on the recapitulation of experimental findings provide valuable insight when selecting the appropriate eQTL mapping method. Our battery of tests suggests that Random Forests map eQTL that are more likely to be validated by independent data, when compared to competing multi-locus and legacy eQTL mapping methods.

  3. Theoretical Insight into Shocked Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiding, Jeffery Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    I present the results of statistical mechanical calculations on shocked molecular gases. This work provides insight into the general behavior of shock Hugoniots of gas phase molecular targets with varying initial pressures. The dissociation behavior of the molecules is emphasized. Impedance matching calculations are performed to determine the maximum degree of dissociation accessible for a given flyer velocity as a function of initial gas pressure.

  4. Space mapping and defect correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echeverría, D.; Hemker, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show that space-mapping optimization can be understood in the framework of defect correction. Then, space-mapping algorithms can be seen as special cases of defect correction iteration. In order to analyze the properties of space mapping and the space-mapping function, we introduce

  5. Sri Lanka Malaria Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Hoek Wim

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available. Methods In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 – 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 – 2002. Results The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax. In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced. Conclusion This paper provides the first publicly available maps of both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution on the island of Sri Lanka at sub-district resolution, which may be useful to health professionals, travellers and travel medicine professionals in their assessment of malaria risk in Sri Lanka. As incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of these maps are necessary.

  6. Concept Maps Provide a Window onto Preservice Elementary Teachers' Knowledge in the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichekian, Tanya; Shore, Bruce M.

    2013-01-01

    This collaborative concept-mapping exercise was conducted in a second-year mathematics methods course. Teachers' visual representations of their mathematical content and pedagogical knowledge provided insight into their understanding of how students learn mathematics. We collected 28 preservice student teachers' concept maps and analyzed them by…

  7. A Global Geologic Map of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janelle Leonard, Erin; Patthoff, Donald Alex; Senske, David A.; Collins, Geoffrey

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the global scale geology of Europa is paramount to gaining insight into the potential habitability of this icy world. To this end, work is ongoing to complete a global geological map at the scale of 1:15 million that incorporates data at all resolutions collected by the Voyager and Galileo missions. The results of this work will aid the Europa Clipper mission, now in formulation, by providing a framework for collaborative and synergistic science investigations.To understand global geologic and tectonic relations, a total of 10 geologic units have been defined. These include: Low Albedo Ridge Material (lam)—low albedo material that irregularly surrounds large (>20 km) ridge structures; Ridged plains (pr)—distributed over all latitudes and characterized by subparallel to cross-cutting ridges and troughs visible at high resolution (chh)—disrupted terrain with a relatively uniform low albedo, patchy/variegated albedo, and uniform high albedo appearance respectively; Knobby Chaos (chk) - disrupted terrain with rough and blocky texture occurring in the high latitudes.In addition to the geologic units, our mapping also includes structural features—Ridges, Cycloids, Undifferentiated Linea, Crater Rims, Depression Margins, Dome Margins and Troughs. We also introduce a point feature (at the global scale), Microchaos, to denote small (<10 km) patches of discontinuous chaos material. The completed map will constrain the distribution of different Europa terrains and provide a general stratigraphic framework to assess the geologic history of Europa from the regional to the global scale.

  8. Mapping prehistoric ghosts in the synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, N.P.; Wogelius, R.A. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bergmann, U. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Linac Coherent Light Source, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Larson, P. [Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, Inc., Hill City, SD (United States); Sellers, W.I. [University of Manchester, Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Manning, P.L. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The detailed chemical analysis of fossils has the potential to reveal great insight to the composition, preservation and biochemistry of ancient life. Such analyses would ideally identify, quantify, and spatially resolve the chemical composition of preserved bone and soft tissue structures, but also the embedding matrix. Mapping the chemistry of a fossil in situ can place constraints on mass transfer between the enclosing matrix and the preserved organism(s), and therefore aid in distinguishing taphonomic processes from original chemical zonation remnant within the fossils themselves. Conventional analytical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) have serious limitations in this case, primarily, an inability to provide large (i.e., decimeter) scale chemical maps. Additionally, vacuum chamber size and the need for destructive sampling preclude analysis of large and precious fossil specimens. However, the recent development of Synchrotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence (SRS-XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) allows the non-destructive chemical analysis and imaging of major, minor, and trace element concentrations of large paleontological and archeological specimens in rapid scanning times. Here we present elemental maps of a fossil reptile produced using the new SRS-XRF method. Our results unequivocally show that preserved biological structures are not simply impressions or carbonized remains, but possess a remnant of the original organismal biochemistry. We show that SRS-XRF is a powerful new tool for the study of paleontological and archaeological samples. (orig.)

  9. Mapping prehistoric ghosts in the synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, N. P.; Wogelius, R. A.; Bergmann, U.; Larson, P.; Sellers, W. I.; Manning, P. L.

    2013-04-01

    The detailed chemical analysis of fossils has the potential to reveal great insight to the composition, preservation and biochemistry of ancient life. Such analyses would ideally identify, quantify, and spatially resolve the chemical composition of preserved bone and soft tissue structures, but also the embedding matrix. Mapping the chemistry of a fossil in situ can place constraints on mass transfer between the enclosing matrix and the preserved organism(s), and therefore aid in distinguishing taphonomic processes from original chemical zonation remnant within the fossils themselves. Conventional analytical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) have serious limitations in this case, primarily, an inability to provide large (i.e., decimeter) scale chemical maps. Additionally, vacuum chamber size and the need for destructive sampling preclude analysis of large and precious fossil specimens. However, the recent development of Synchrotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence (SRS-XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) allows the non-destructive chemical analysis and imaging of major, minor, and trace element concentrations of large paleontological and archeological specimens in rapid scanning times. Here we present elemental maps of a fossil reptile produced using the new SRS-XRF method. Our results unequivocally show that preserved biological structures are not simply impressions or carbonized remains, but possess a remnant of the original organismal biochemistry. We show that SRS-XRF is a powerful new tool for the study of paleontological and archaeological samples.

  10. MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Bisgaard, M L

    2008-01-01

    MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP), a Polyposis predisposition caused by biallelic mutations in the Base Excision Repair (BER) gene MUTYH, confers a marked risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The MAP phenotype is difficult to distinguish from other hereditary CRC syndromes. Especially from Familial...... Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and to a lesser extend Lynch Syndrome, which are caused by germline mutations in the APC and Mismatch Repair (MMR) genes, respectively.Here we review research findings regarding MUTYH interactions, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of MAP, as well as surveillance......, cooperation between the BER and the MMR systems exists, as MUTYH interacts with MMR gene-products. Possibly, monoallelic defects in both pathways are of significance to CRC development.Specific MUTYH variants are found to be characteristic in distinct ethnic populations, which could facilitate future genetic...

  11. Extending rational maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gaven J.

    We investigate when a rational endomorphism of the Riemann sphere overline{C} extends to a mapping of the upper half-space {H3 which is rational with respect to some measurable conformal structure. Such an extension has the property that it and all its iterates have uniformly bounded distortion. Such maps are called uniformly quasiregular. We show that, in the space of rational mappings of degree d , such an extension is possible in the structurally stable component where there is a single (attracting) component of the Fatou set and the Julia set is a Cantor set. We show that generally outside of this set no such extension is possible. In particular, polynomials can never admit such an extension.

  12. Copenhagen Sonic Experience Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of present European interest for mapping urban noise, it seems increasingly relevant to investigate the multiple ways in which sound intersects with the everyday experiences of urban citizens. Focusing on the polluting effects of infrastructural noise, the EU-initiated project...... of assessment and management of environmental noise brings forth the disturbing and potentially damaging effect of environmental sound.1 But as maps of coloured streets start to circulate, and real estate prices drop in designated blue and red areas,2 it is worth remembering that sound itself is not a killer....... Most of the time sound is a trivial part of everyday life involved in interactions, experiences, atmospheres, actions, etc. Although trivial, the role of the aural in the urban life world is more complex than what is suggested by sound level maps, and as such it may be a vital part of urbanity itself...

  13. Measuring the Uncertainty of Probabilistic Maps Representing Human Motion for Indoor Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Kaiser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor navigation and mapping have recently become an important field of interest for researchers because global navigation satellite systems (GNSS are very often unavailable inside buildings. FootSLAM, a SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping algorithm for pedestrians based on step measurements, addresses the indoor mapping and positioning problem and can provide accurate positioning in many structured indoor environments. In this paper, we investigate how to compare FootSLAM maps via two entropy metrics. Since collaborative FootSLAM requires the alignment and combination of several individual FootSLAM maps, we also investigate measures that help to align maps that partially overlap. We distinguish between the map entropy conditioned on the sequence of pedestrian’s poses, which is a measure of the uncertainty of the estimated map, and the entropy rate of the pedestrian’s steps conditioned on the history of poses and conditioned on the estimated map. Because FootSLAM maps are built on a hexagon grid, the entropy and relative entropy metrics are derived for the special case of hexagonal transition maps. The entropy gives us a new insight on the performance of FootSLAM’s map estimation process.

  14. Quantifying the Qualitative: Measuring the Insight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    No scales currently exist that measure variability in the insight experience. Two scales were created to measure two factors hypothesized to be key drivers of the insight experience: insight radicality (i.e., perceived deviation between previous and new problem representations) and restructuring experience (i.e., the subjective experience of the…

  15. Insight in psychosis : Metacognitive processes and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Annerieke

    2016-01-01

    Insight is impaired in 50- 80% of the patients with schizophrenia. Annerieke de Vos working at GGZ Drenthe and the University Medical Hospital Groningen, aimed to elucidate which processes underlie impaired insight and tried to improve insight in patients by targeting these processes. On September

  16. Mapping the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goerres, Achim; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the call for a political science based study of older people and ageing is not new (Cutler 1977; Heclo 1988), relatively little unified progress has been made so far. This chapter maps the field of generational politics and introduces our edited volume "Ageing Populations in Post-Industri......Whereas the call for a political science based study of older people and ageing is not new (Cutler 1977; Heclo 1988), relatively little unified progress has been made so far. This chapter maps the field of generational politics and introduces our edited volume "Ageing Populations in Post...

  17. Copenhagen Sonic Experience Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    of assessment and management of environmental noise brings forth the disturbing and potentially damaging effect of environmental sound.1 But as maps of coloured streets start to circulate, and real estate prices drop in designated blue and red areas,2 it is worth remembering that sound itself is not a killer....... Most of the time sound is a trivial part of everyday life involved in interactions, experiences, atmospheres, actions, etc. Although trivial, the role of the aural in the urban life world is more complex than what is suggested by sound level maps, and as such it may be a vital part of urbanity itself...

  18. Learning Bing maps API

    CERN Document Server

    Sinani, Artan

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide with illustrative examples, which will help you explore the vast universe of Bing maps.If you are a developer who wants to learn how to exploit the numerous features of Bing Maps then this book is ideal for you. It can also be useful for more experienced developers who wish to explore other areas of the APIs. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. For some chapters a working knowledge of .Net and Visual Studio is also needed.

  19. Incorporating evolutionary insights to improve ecotoxicology for freshwater species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Steven P.; Richardson, Jonathan L.; Kunz, Bethany K.

    2017-01-01

    Ecotoxicological studies have provided extensive insights into the lethal and sublethal effects of environmental contaminants. These insights are critical for environmental regulatory frameworks, which rely on knowledge of toxicity for developing policies to manage contaminants. While varied approaches have been applied to ecotoxicological questions, perspectives related to the evolutionary history of focal species or populations have received little consideration. Here, we evaluate chloride toxicity from the perspectives of both macroevolution and contemporary evolution. First, by mapping chloride toxicity values derived from the literature onto a phylogeny of macroinvertebrates, fish, and amphibians, we tested whether macroevolutionary relationships across species and taxa are predictive of chloride tolerance. Next, we conducted chloride exposure tests for two amphibian species to assess whether potential contemporary evolutionary change associated with environmental chloride contamination influences chloride tolerance across local populations. We show that explicitly evaluating both macroevolution and contemporary evolution can provide important and even qualitatively different insights from those obtained via traditional ecotoxicological studies. While macroevolutionary perspectives can help forecast toxicological end points for species with untested sensitivities, contemporary evolutionary perspectives demonstrate the need to consider the environmental context of exposed populations when measuring toxicity. Accounting for divergence among populations of interest can provide more accurate and relevant information related to the sensitivity of populations that may be evolving in response to selection from contaminant exposure. Our data show that approaches accounting for and specifically examining variation among natural populations should become standard practice in ecotoxicology.

  20. Insight and psychosocial treatment compliance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, P; Bell, M; Milstein, R; Bryson, G; Beam-Goulet, J

    1994-11-01

    Research has suggested that poor insight in patients with schizophrenia is associated with poorer medication compliance and heightened levels of psychopathology. This study examined the relationship of insight to compliance with a work rehabilitation program and with levels of psychopathology and psychosocial functioning. Poor insight was found to be positively associated with fewer weeks of participation and with poorer social skills and personal presentation in the fifth week of work. Poor insight was also associated with cognitive disorganization and a lower intelligence quotient, but not with heightened levels of psychopathology. Results suggest that poor insight may predict noncompliance with psychosocial treatment and may be related to a constellation of cognitive deficits.

  1. Stereo Visualization and Map Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D. N.; Culpepper, S.; Kirkby, K.; Morin, P.

    2004-12-01

    In this experiment, we assessed the use of stereo visualizations as effective tools for topographic map learning. In most Earth Science courses, students spend extended time learning how to read topographic maps, relying on the lines of the map as indicators of height and accompanying distance. These maps often necessitate extended training for students to acquire an understanding of what they represent, how they are to be used, and the implementation of these maps to solve problems. In fact instructors often comment that students fail to adequately use such maps, instead relying on prior spatial knowledge or experiences which may be inappropriate for understanding topographic displays. We asked participants to study maps that provided 3-dimensional or 2-dimensional views, and then answer a battery of questions about features and processes associated with the maps. The results will be described with respect to the cognitive utility of visualizations as tools for map comprehension tasks.

  2. Historical Topographic Map Collection bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the historical scanned maps in 2011, is to provide a digital repository of USGS topographic maps, available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of printed topographic maps, and prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic printing process. As the USGS continues the release of a new generation of topographic maps (US Topo) in electronic form, the topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, land management planning, and leisure.

  3. Photogrammetry and Digital Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Technical tour to Lithuania, Poland and Estonia for 13 technical staff and managers of State Land Service, HQ, Latvia. Focus on technical aspects and management of geographical data for map production and administration. Visits to state and local government organisations and newly established pri...

  4. Bike Map Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Chapel Hill Bike Map Lines from KMZ file.This data came from the wiki comment board for the public, not an “official map” showing the Town of Chapel Hill's plans or...

  5. Mapping the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    2012-01-01

    As the utilization of various e-voting technologies has notably increased in the past few years, so has the amount of publications on experiences with these technologies. This article, will, therefore map the literature while highlighting some of the important topics discussed within the field of e...

  6. Comparative wear mapping techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, J.; Sørensen, Ole Toft; Jensen, S.

    1996-01-01

    Pin-on-disc tests of tungsten carbide pins against silicon carbide discs were performed and wear rate, mechanism and friction maps constructed. Correlations were observed between the wear mode and the friction of the pin-disc interface, and between the qualitative incidence of disruptive wear mec...

  7. Comparative wear mapping techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, J.; Sørensen, Ole Toft; Jensen, S.

    1996-01-01

    Pin surfaces were analysed by laser profilometry. Two roughness parameters, R(a) and the fractal dimension, were investigated as a first step towards methods of quantitative wear mechanism mapping. Both parameters were analysed for their relationship to the severity and prevalence of a mechanism....

  8. Ramachandran and his Map

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 10. Ramachandran and his Map. C Ramakrishnan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 10 October 2001 pp 48-56. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/10/0048-0056. Author Affiliations.

  9. Extending Lipschitz mappings continuously

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecká, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2012), s. 167-177 ISSN 1425-6908 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Lipschitz mapping * Hilbert space * extension Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jaa.2012.18.issue-2/jaa-2012-0011/jaa-2012-0011. xml

  10. eMAPS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Starting with the 2005 performance appraisal and advancement exercise (MAPS), the paper version of the annual appraisal report has been replaced by an electronic EDH version - eMAPS (see Weekly Bulletin 48/2004). As announced in Weekly Bulletin 2/2005, information sessions to explain the features of eMAPS using EDH have been arranged as follows: 18 January 2005: Main Auditorium (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB Auditorium II (864-1-D02) from 14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT Auditorium (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. The changeover to an electronic appraisal report is designed to reduce the administrative workload involving, e.g. photocopying, tracing and filing paper copies, while allowing staff members and their hierarchy access to the report form at the appropriate times. There is no change in the procedure for the annual interview and the advancement exercise, though Administrative Circular No 26 (Rev. 5) has been updated to take account of the introduction of eMAPS. The content...

  11. Covariance mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasinski, Leszek J.

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.

  12. Designing Maps for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Barbara S.

    In 1964 World Book wanted to be able to say that more than 1,000 maps being made for the encyclopedia were designed to be appropriate and useful for children between the ages of nine and fourteen. However, there was virtually no research on which such a program could be based. This paper briefly reviews research projects in this area started in…

  13. Personal Food System Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  14. Maps between Grassmann manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parameswaran Sankaran Institute of Mathematical Sciences Chennai, India sankaran@imsc.res.in Indian Academy of Sciences Platinum Jubilee Meeting Hyderabad

    2009-07-02

    Jul 2, 2009 ... The philosophy of algebraic topology is to associate, in a 'natural' manner, algebraic objects—which could be groups, vector spaces, rings, or just numerical invariants–to topological objects—spaces, maps, etc. Such association an leads to topological invariants. Parameswaran Sankaran Institute of ...

  15. Mapping World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vliet, Lucille W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to involve students in grades 6 through 8 in learning how geography was affected the problem of world hunger. Emphasis is placed on using maps, globes, atlases, and geographic dictionaries, as well as books, magazines, and other resources. (MES)

  16. Multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. B.; Swann, A.

    2012-01-01

    and third Lie algebra Betti numbers are zero. We show that these form a special class of solvable Lie groups and provide a structural characterisation. We provide many examples of multi-moment maps for different geometries and use them to describe manifolds with holonomy contained in G(2) preserved by a two...

  17. 2004 Alaska Lidar Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data sets are generated using the OPTECH ALTM 70 kHz LIDAR system mounted onboard AeroMap's twin-engine Cessna 320 aircraft. Classified data sets such as this...

  18. Mapping functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Vogt; Joseph R. Ferrari; Todd R. Lookingbill; Robert H. Gardner; Kurt H. Riitters; Katarzyna Ostapowicz

    2009-01-01

    An objective and reliable assessment of wildlife movement is important in theoretical and applied ecology. The identification and mapping of landscape elements that may enhance functional connectivity is usually a subjective process based on visual interpretations of species movement patterns. New methods based on mathematical morphology provide a generic, flexible,...

  19. Extending Lipschitz mappings continuously

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecká, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2012), s. 167-177 ISSN 1425-6908 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Lipschitz mapping * Hilbert space * extension Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jaa.2012.18.issue-2/jaa-2012-0011/jaa-2012-0011.xml

  20. European Psychology Map

    OpenAIRE

    DANA SCHÖN

    2009-01-01

    The Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID) compiled an extensive list of European psycho-logical organizations, comprised of university departments, research institutions, professional associa-tions and publishing houses. The list is available on the ZPID website, together with a web mapping applet that indicates the exact geographical location of the organizations.

  1. Theoretical insights into interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hean, Sarah; Craddock, Deborah; Hammick, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the need for theory in the practice of interprofessional education. It highlights the range of theories available to interprofessional educators and promotes the practical application of these to interprofessional learning and teaching. It summarises the AMEE Guides in Medical Education publication entitled Theoretical Insights into Interprofessional Education: AMEE Guide No. 62, where the practical application of three theories, social capital, social constructivism and a sociological perspective of interprofessional education are discussed in-depth through the lens of a case study. The key conclusions of these discussions are presented in this article.

  2. Generalized Smooth Transition Map Between Tent and Logistic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Wafaa S.; Fahmy, Hossam A. H.; Rezk, Ahmed A.; Radwan, Ahmed G.

    There is a continuous demand on novel chaotic generators to be employed in various modeling and pseudo-random number generation applications. This paper proposes a new chaotic map which is a general form for one-dimensional discrete-time maps employing the power function with the tent and logistic maps as special cases. The proposed map uses extra parameters to provide responses that fit multiple applications for which conventional maps were not enough. The proposed generalization covers also maps whose iterative relations are not based on polynomials, i.e. with fractional powers. We introduce a framework for analyzing the proposed map mathematically and predicting its behavior for various combinations of its parameters. In addition, we present and explain the transition map which results in intermediate responses as the parameters vary from their values corresponding to tent map to those corresponding to logistic map case. We study the properties of the proposed map including graph of the map equation, general bifurcation diagram and its key-points, output sequences, and maximum Lyapunov exponent. We present further explorations such as effects of scaling, system response with respect to the new parameters, and operating ranges other than transition region. Finally, a stream cipher system based on the generalized transition map validates its utility for image encryption applications. The system allows the construction of more efficient encryption keys which enhances its sensitivity and other cryptographic properties.

  3. Neural correlates of fear: insights from neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfinkel SN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarah N Garfinkel,1,2 Hugo D Critchley1,2 1Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, 2Department of Psychiatry, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK Abstract: Fear anticipates a challenge to one's well-being and is a reaction to the risk of harm. The expression of fear in the individual is a constellation of physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and experiential responses. Fear indicates risk and will guide adaptive behavior, yet fear is also fundamental to the symptomatology of most psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies of normal and abnormal fear in humans extend knowledge gained from animal experiments. Neuroimaging permits the empirical evaluation of theory (emotions as response tendencies, mental states, and valence and arousal dimensions, and improves our understanding of the mechanisms of how fear is controlled by both cognitive processes and bodily states. Within the human brain, fear engages a set of regions that include insula and anterior cingulate cortices, the amygdala, and dorsal brain-stem centers, such as periaqueductal gray matter. This same fear matrix is also implicated in attentional orienting, mental planning, interoceptive mapping, bodily feelings, novelty and motivational learning, behavioral prioritization, and the control of autonomic arousal. The stereotyped expression of fear can thus be viewed as a special construction from combinations of these processes. An important motivator for understanding neural fear mechanisms is the debilitating clinical expression of anxiety. Neuroimaging studies of anxiety patients highlight the role of learning and memory in pathological fear. Posttraumatic stress disorder is further distinguished by impairment in cognitive control and contextual memory. These processes ultimately need to be targeted for symptomatic recovery. Neuroscientific knowledge of fear has broader relevance to understanding human and societal behavior. As yet, only some of

  4. Map projections: A working manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, John P.

    1987-01-01

    After decades of using only one map projection, the Polyconic, for its mapping program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) now uses several of the more common projections for its published maps. For larger scale maps, including topographic quadrangles and the State Base Map Series, conformal projections such as the Transverse Mercator and the Lambert Conformal Conic are used. Equal-area and equidistant projections appear in the National Atlas. Other projections, such as the Miller Cylindrical and the Van der Grinten, are chosen occasionally for convenience, sometimes making use of existing base maps prepared by others. Some projections treat the Earth only as a sphere, others as either ellipsoid or sphere.

  5. USGS Imagery Only Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Imagery Only is a tile cache base map of orthoimagery in The National Map visible to the 1:18,000 scale. Orthoimagery data are typically high resolution images...

  6. Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Hoogveld, Bert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., Hoogveld, A. W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands; EU Forlic project.

  7. GOES-R: Satellite Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Leon, Nancy J.; Novati, Alexander; Lincoln, Laura K.; Fisher, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    GOES-R: Satellite Insight seeks to bring awareness of the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite -- R Series) satellite currently in development to an audience of all ages on the emerging medium of mobile games. The iPhone app (Satellite Insight) was created for the GOES-R Program. The app describes in simple terms the types of data products that can be produced from GOES-R measurements. The game is easy to learn, yet challenging for all audiences. It includes educational content and a path to further information about GOESR, its technology, and the benefits of the data it collects. The game features action-puzzle game play in which the player must prevent an overflow of data by matching falling blocks that represent different types of GOES-R data. The game adds more different types of data blocks over time, as long as the player can prevent a data overflow condition. Points are awarded for matches, and players can compete with themselves to beat their highest score.

  8. Theory of mind correlates with clinical insight but not cognitive insight in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xu; Parker, Giverny J; Hong, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Yi; Lui, Simon S Y; Neumann, David L; Cheung, Eric F C; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-03-30

    Research on the relationship between insight and social cognition, in particular Theory of Mind (ToM), in schizophrenia has yielded mixed findings to date. Very few studies, however, have assessed both clinical insight and cognitive insight when examining their relationships with ToM in schizophrenia. The current study thus investigated the relationship between clinical insight, cognitive insight, and ToM in a sample of 56 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. Twenty-seven patients were classified as low in clinical insight according to their scores on the 'insight' item (G12) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Moreover, cognitive insight and ToM were assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Yoni task, respectively. The results indicated that patients with poor clinical insight performed worse on tasks of second-order cognitive and affective ToM, while the ToM performance of patients with high clinical insight was equivalent to that of healthy controls. Furthermore, while clinical insight was correlated with ToM and clinical symptoms, cognitive insight did not correlate with clinical insight, ToM, or clinical symptoms. Clinical insight thus appears to be an important factor related to ToM in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ShoreZone mapping for Haida Gwaii : relevance for spill planning in northern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.R. [Coastal and Ocean Resources Inc., Sidney, BC (Canada); Sloan, N.; Bartier, P. [Parks Canada, Queen Charlotte City, BC (Canada); Morris, M. [Archipelago Marine Research Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Ogborne, C. [British Columbia Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The ShoreZone Mapping System was recently used to map approximately 5,000 km of shoreline on Haida Gwaii, known as the Queen Charlotte Islands. The region is renowned for fishing and coastal tourism. The area is presently at a relatively low risk from accidental oil spills, with sources including an offshore tanker route between Alaska and Puget Sound, and cruise ship route between Vancouver and Alaska. However, the risk could increase greatly in the future given proposed resource development plans for offshore drilling in Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait. Oil spills typically end up on coastlines where impacts can be severe and cleanup is difficult. Having adequate coastal resource information represents an important tool for decision-making and planning to mitigate risk. The ShoreZone Mapping System uses video imagery mapping and breaks the shoreline into alongshore units, which is the basic mapping element, and across-shore components, which are not mapped but are included in a separate relational database. The following elements make the ShoreZone coastal habitat mapping data unique: the primary data includes both biological and physical mapping attributes; wave exposure is systematically mapped; imagery and mapping data are web-posted; and the mapping system is extensive. The distribution of resources also provides important insight for oil spill response scenarios for Haida Gwaii. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  10. Fast mapping of global protein folding states by multivariate NMR:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmendal, Anders; Underhaug, Jarl; Otzen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    that provides such an overview. GPS NMR exploits the unique ability of NMR to simultaneously record signals from individual hydrogen atoms in complex macromolecular systems and of multivariate analysis to describe spectral variations from these by a few variables for establishment of, and positioning in......, protein-folding state maps. The method is fast, sensitive, and robust, and it works without isotope-labelling. The unique capabilities of GPS NMR to identify different folding states and to compare different unfolding processes are demonstrated by mapping of the equilibrium folding space of bovine alpha......To obtain insight into the functions of proteins and their specific roles, it is important to establish efficient procedures for exploring the states that encapsulate their conformational space. Global Protein folding State mapping by multivariate NMR (GPS NMR) is a powerful high-throughput method...

  11. Neural response imaging (NRI) cochlear mapping: prospects for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L; Lindsey, P; Hacking, C; Boyle, P

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the potential for clinical application of neural response imaging (NRI) cochlear mapping. Cochlear mapping was performed at each fitting session up to at least six months following initial fitting. Stimulation was delivered to one electrode site. NRI was recorded from each of the remaining sites. The procedure was repeated for apical, medial and basal stimulation sites, stimulating at subjective threshold and most comfortable levels. Responses were obtained in five out of six subjects and are discussed in terms of: reproducibility, quality, changes over time. Cochlear mapping provided repeatable data that gave interesting insights into the implanted cochlea. Further work is required to determine whether this approach could contribute to programme optimisation. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Integrating Evolutionary Game Theory into Mechanistic Genotype-Phenotype Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuli; Jiang, Libo; Ye, Meixia; Sun, Lidan; Gragnoli, Claudia; Wu, Rongling

    2016-05-01

    Natural selection has shaped the evolution of organisms toward optimizing their structural and functional design. However, how this universal principle can enhance genotype-phenotype mapping of quantitative traits has remained unexplored. Here we show that the integration of this principle and functional mapping through evolutionary game theory gains new insight into the genetic architecture of complex traits. By viewing phenotype formation as an evolutionary system, we formulate mathematical equations to model the ecological mechanisms that drive the interaction and coordination of its constituent components toward population dynamics and stability. Functional mapping provides a procedure for estimating the genetic parameters that specify the dynamic relationship of competition and cooperation and predicting how genes mediate the evolution of this relationship during trait formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bedrock geologic map of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

  14. Novel Mapping Strategies for Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Zaid; Tung, Roderick

    2018-03-23

    Despite advances in antiarrhythmic and device therapy, ventricular tachycardia (VT) continues to be a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality. During scar-mediated monomorphic ventricular tachycardia ablation, the search for critical isthmus sites continues to be the primary goal during successful ablative procedures. However, given the overwhelming hemodynamic instability of most ventricular arrhythmias (> 70%), VT ablation is increasingly performed during sinus rhythm. This technique requires either a greater reliance on isthmus surrogates, or more extensive ablation techniques and is a more probabilistic approach to substrate modification. We believe that a better understanding of scar physiology and activation during sinus rhythm has important implications for clinical workflow and mechanistic improvements with current ablation strategies. With advancements in high-density mapping and multi-electrode catheter technology, mapping of VT substrates is performed with higher resolution, with improved visualization of local abnormal ventricular activities (LAVA), and with a more nuanced functional understanding of late potentials. As a prerequisite, our practice for VT ablation starts with a high-density structural map to identify voltage abnormalities as well as an isochronal functional map of sinus rhythm activation to identify region of discontinuous wavefront propagation. As the era of increased automation has emerged, there continues to be vast array of customizable features, and we have adopted the use of multiple wavefront mapping to further elucidate possible arrhythmogenic substrate. Our emerging understanding of how scar propagation patterns relate to areas of abnormal signals and critical isthmuses may greatly improve the ability to identify surrogates during sinus rhythm and help localize the most arrhythmogenic regions within a given scar. In the hemodynamically unstable patients, we routinely integrate isochronal late activation mapping (ILAM

  15. Fixed point theorems for densifying mappings and compact mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeqing Liu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this note is to establish fixed point theorems for densifying mappings and compact mappings which are contractive in metric spaces and to investigate the existence of fixed points for a family of mappings in bounded metric spaces. The results of this note generalize the results of Bailey (1966 and Liu (1994.

  16. Using (10)CO2 for single subject characterization of the stimulus frequency dependence in visual cortex: a novel positron emission tomography tracer for human brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, I; Jensen, M; Holm, S; Nickles, R J; Paulson, O B

    2001-08-01

    Carbon-10-labeled carbon dioxide ((10)CO2) with a half-life of 19.3 seconds offers almost ideal characteristics as a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution, enabling multiple independent measurements at short intervals. To appraise the feasibility of (10)CO2 for localizing and characterizing human brain function in single subjects, the authors chose a well-characterized activation paradigm. In 6 healthy volunteers, 50 to 64 independent PET scans of the rCBF distribution were acquired while viewing an annular reversing checkerboard presented at 10 reversal frequencies between 0.03 and 30 Hz. Changes in regional cerebral activity as a function of reversal frequency were modeled in every subject using a set of polynomial basis functions, which, as predicted, showed highly significant second or third order relations located in the striatal cortex. Correlation coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.46 to 0.63. The average intersubject maximal response relative to the 0.03 Hz condition was 8.0% +/- 1.7% SD occurring at stimulus contrast reversal frequencies between 6 and 15 Hz with an average of 11.8 +/- 3.8 (SD) Hz. From the qualitative and quantitative replication of previous results it is concluded that (10)CO2 PET is a feasible technique for human brain mapping studies and a great improvement compared with the existing oxygen-15-labeled water (H(2)(15)O) PET method, particularly for single subject studies and parametric design.

  17. Aging alterations in whole-brain networks during adulthood mapped with the minimum spanning tree indices: The interplay of density, connectivity cost and life-time trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, W.M.; van Diessen, E.; Paul, S.; Ramaswamy, R.; Rallabandi, V.P.S.; Stam, C.J.; Roy, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    The organizational network changes in the human brain across the lifespan have been mapped using functional and structural connectivity data. Brain network changes provide valuable insights into the processes underlying senescence. Nonetheless, the altered network density in the elderly severely

  18. Aging alterations in whole-brain networks during adulthood mapped with the minimum spanning tree indices : The interplay of density, connectivity cost and life-time trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, Wim; van Diessen, Eric; Paul, Subhadip; Ramaswamy, Rajiv; Subramanyam Rallabandi, V. P.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Roy, Prasun K.

    2015-01-01

    The organizational network changes in the human brain across the lifespan have been mapped using functional and structural connectivity data. Brain network changes provide valuable insights into the processes underlying senescence. Nonetheless, the altered network density in the elderly severely

  19. Insight in schizophrenia: from conceptualization to neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzir, Mounir; Azorin, Jean Michel; Adida, Marc; Boussaoud, Driss; Battas, Omar

    2012-04-01

    Lack of insight into illness is a prevalent and distinguishing feature of schizophrenia, which has a complex history and has been given a variety of definitions. Currently, insight is measured and treated as a multidimensional phenomenon, because it is believed to result from psychological, neuropsychological and organic factors. Thus, schizophrenia patients may display dramatic disorders including demoralization, depression and a higher risk of suicide, all of which are directly or indirectly related to a lack of insight into their illness, and make the treatment difficult. To improve the treatment of people with schizophrenia, it is thus crucial to advance research on insight into their illness. Insight is studied in a variety of ways. Studies may focus on the relationship between insight and psychopathology, may view behavioral outcomes or look discretely at the cognitive dysfunction versus anatomy level of insight. All have merit but they are dispersed across a wide body of literature and rarely are the findings integrated and synthesized in a meaningful way. The aim of this study was to synthesize findings across the large body of literature dealing with insight, to highlight its multidimensional nature, measurement, neuropsychology and social impact in schizophrenia. The extensive literature on the cognitive consequences of lack of insight and the contribution of neuroimaging techniques to elucidating neurological etiology of insight deficits, is also reviewed. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Map projections cartographic information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grafarend, Erik W; Syffus, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a timely review of map projections including sphere, ellipsoid, rotational surfaces, and geodetic datum transformations. Coverage includes computer vision, and remote sensing space projective mappings in photogrammetry.

  1. North America Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Maps contains a surface analysis comprised of plotted weather station observations, isobars indicating low and high-pressure...

  2. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  3. NEPR Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  4. Knowledge Map of Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nenonen, Suvi; Jensen, Per Anker; Lindahl, Göran

    2014-01-01

    in creating an inventory of knowledge (i.e. the knowledge base) and developing/improving the processes of knowledge sharing in research, education and practice. Theory Knowledge mapping is discussed in terms of knowledge management. The research is connected to knowledge mapping in the facilities management......Purpose This paper aims to draft a knowledge map of the fragmented and multidisciplinary research of and relevant to FM. Facilities management knowledge map is a tool for presenting what relevant data and knowledge, a.k.a. knowledge, resides in different disciplines. Knowledge mapping is a step...... profession, research and education. The knowledge map aims to contrast perspectives on how to map interdisciplinary research. Design/methodology/approach The Knowledge map is based on classification of 83 articles, including volume 2013 of Facilities (40 articles) and of Journal of Facilities Management (21...

  5. Universal map for cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Morales, V.

    2012-01-01

    A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CAs) containing no freely adjustable parameters and valid for any alphabet size and any neighborhood range (including non-symmetrical neighborhoods). The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and to arbitrary order in time. Specific CA maps for the famous Conway's Game of Life and Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs are given. An induction method for CAs, based in the universal map, allows mathematical expressions for the orbits of a wide variety of elementary CAs to be systematically derived. -- Highlights: ► A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CA). ► The map is generalized to 2D for Von Neumann, Moore and hexagonal neighborhoods. ► A map for all Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs is derived. ► A map for Conway's “Game of Life” is obtained.

  6. Map projections cartographic information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grafarend, Erik W

    2006-01-01

    In the context of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) the book offers a timely review of map projections (sphere, ellipsoid, rotational surfaces) and geodetic datum transformations. For the needs of photogrammetry, computer vision, and remote sensing space projective mappings are reviewed.

  7. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Orgiazzi, A.; Gardi, C.; Römbke, J.; Jansch, S.; Keith, A.; Neilson, R.; Boag, B.; Schmidt, O.; Murchie, A.K.; Blackshaw, R.P.; Pérès, G.; Cluzeau, D.; Guernion, M.; Briones, M.J.I.; Rodeiro, J.; Pineiro, R.; Diaz Cosin, D.J.; Sousa, J.P.; Suhadolc, M.; Kos, I.; Krogh, P.H.; Faber, J.H.; Mulder, C.; Bogte, J.J.; Wijnen, van H.J.; Schouten, A.J.; Zwart, de D.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, collated, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use,

  8. Map Usage in Virtual Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cevik, Helsin

    1998-01-01

    .... Instead, we can determine the parameters that affect virtual map representation and that help to construct a mental map, and then manipulate these parameters in order to increase the effectiveness...

  9. MAPS Appraisal Report Form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2005-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin 48/2004, from now onwards, the paper MAPS appraisal report form has been replaced by an electronic form, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. Practical information will be available on the web page http://cern.ch/ais/projs/forms/maps/info.htm, and information meetings will be held on the following dates: 18 January 2005: MAIN AUDITORIUM (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB AUDITORIUM II (864-1-D02) from14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT AUDITORIUM (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  10. Graphene mobility mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2015-01-01

    Carrier mobility and chemical doping level are essential figures of merit for graphene, and large-scale characterization of these properties and their uniformity is a prerequisite for commercialization of graphene for electronics and electrodes. However, existing mapping techniques cannot directly...... assess these vital parameters in a non-destructive way. By deconvoluting carrier mobility and density from non-contact terahertz spectroscopic measurements of conductance in graphene samples with terahertz-transparent backgates, we are able to present maps of the spatial variation of both quantities over...... graphene indicates dominance by charged scatterers. Unexpectedly, significant variations in mobility rather than doping are the cause of large conductance inhomogeneities, highlighting the importance of statistical approaches when assessing large-area graphene transport properties....

  11. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  12. Citrus Grove Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Citrus growers have long used aerial photography to inventory the number of groves in production. A new development at Kennedy Space Center, aerial mapping of groves with color infrared (CIR) film, affords an important advance in grove management by detecting and locating unhealthy trees long before they could be detected by ground survey methods. Aerial CIR photography picks up light reflected from foliage-- light not visible to the human eye--and enables differentiation between healthy and "stressed" (diseased) trees of a Florida orange/grapefruit grove. Computer aided photo interpretation techniques permit grading diseased trees lightly, moderately or severely stressed or dead. Method of grove mapping has offered advantage to growers in early disease warning, possible savings through water regulation and provision of a permanent record of grove growth patterns.

  13. ASTROMETRIC REVERBERATION MAPPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yue

    2012-01-01

    Spatially extended emission regions of active galactic nuclei respond to continuum variations, if such emission regions are powered by energy reprocessing of the continuum. The response from different parts of the reverberating region arrives at different times lagging behind the continuum variation. The lags can be used to map the geometry and kinematics of the emission region (i.e., reverberation mapping, RM). If the extended emission region is not spherically symmetric in configuration and velocity space, reverberation may produce astrometric offsets in the emission region photocenter as a function of time delay and velocity, detectable with future μas to tens of μas astrometry. Such astrometric responses provide independent constraints on the geometric and kinematic structure of the extended emission region, complementary to traditional RM. In addition, astrometric RM is more sensitive to infer the inclination of a flattened geometry and the rotation angle of the extended emission region.

  14. CRIME MAPS AND COMPUTER TECNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal KARAKAŞ; Sabri KARADOĞAN; Handan ARSLAN

    2004-01-01

    Crime maps show crime density values and locations where crime have accured. For this reason it had been easy to examine the spatial distribution of crime locations with crime maps. There for crime maps have long been part of the process to crime analysis. In this study, the crime of home burglary was mapped with respect to general areal distribution by GIS (Geographic Information System) in the city of Elazig The distribution of the crime was handled considering the parameters such as month,...

  15. Land Corruption Risk Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Tump, Rainer; Damböck, Johanna; Hehemann, Patric; Ouna, Victor Kanyangi; Mbabu, Oscar Koome; Nagel, Lukas; Risch, Manuel; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Zentai, Fanni

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Centre for Rural Development – commissioned by Transparency International – developed a Handbook on Land Corruption Risk Mapping, which helps NGOs, governmental institutions, and other actors to systematically identify and assess corruption risks in land governance and to develop effective counter-measures. The present study was produced during the development process of the handbook. It explains the handbook’s conceptual framework (corruption, corruption risks, risk assessment, ...

  16. Dimensionality Reduction Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Bunte, Kerstin; Biehl, Michael; Hammer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    A wealth of powerful dimensionality reduction methods has been established which can be used for data visualization and preprocessing. These are accompanied by formal evaluation schemes, which allow a quantitative evaluation along general principles and which even lead to further visualization schemes based on these objectives. Most methods, however, provide a mapping of a priorly given finite set of points only, requiring additional steps for out-of-sample extensions. We propose a general vi...

  17. Mercator and his Map

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gradually due to the works of Aristotle (384-322 Be), Eratosthenes (273-192. Be), Ptolemy (85-165 AD) and others, the ideas of the poles of the Earth, the equator, various climatic regions and drawing of maps using projections came into being. -12----------------------------~------------R-E-SO-N-A-N-C-E--1 -M-a-rc-h--20-0-S ...

  18. MAP user's manual copyright

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillsbury, R.D. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The program MITMAP represents a set of general purpose, two- dimensional, finite element programs for the calculation of magnetic fields. It consists of the program MAP and MAP2DJ. The two programs are used to solve different electromagnetic problems, but they have a common set of subrountines for pre- and postprocessing. Originally separate programs, they have been combined to make modification easier. The manuals, however, will remain separate. The program MAP is described in this manual. MAP is applicable to the class of problems with two-dimensional-planar or axisymmetric - geometries, in which the current density and the magnetic vector potential have only a single nonvanishing component. The single component is associated with the direction that is perpendicular to the plane of the problem and is invariant with respect to that direction. Maxwell's equations can be reduced to a solver diffusion equation in terms of the single, nonvanishing component of the magnetic vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector diffusion equation for axisymmetric problems. The magnetic permeability appears in the governing equation. The permeability may be a function of the magnetic flux density. In addition, any electrically conducting material present will have eddy currents induced by a time varying magnetic field. These eddy currents must be included in the solution process. This manual provides a description of the structure of the input data and output for the program. There are several example problems presented that illustrate the major program features. Appendices are included that contain a derivation of the governing equations and the application of the finite element method to the solution of the equations

  19. Association between insight, cognitive insight, positive symptoms and violence in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Okan; Ekinci, Asli

    2013-04-01

    Violence is a significant clinical and public concern and is a frequent occurrence in patients with schizophrenia. The relationship between insight and violence remains controversial. In addition, there is a lack of research on insight, cognitive insight, demographic and psychopathologic variables in violent versus nonviolent schizophrenia patients. We aimed to compare insight, cognitive insight, psychopathological and demographic variables in violent and nonviolent subjects suffering from schizophrenia. In addition, we aimed to determine the demographic and clinical predictors of violent behaviour in patients with schizophrenia. We recruited 133 schizophrenic patients without concomitant substance abuse or axis II disorder. Diagnoses were based on the SCID-I and SCID-II. Violent behaviours were assessed using the Overt Aggression Scale. Insight and cognitive insight were assessed with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, respectively. We compared 47 patients with violent schizophrenia with 86 nonviolent patients. Non-violent patients had more severe depression, lower scores on positive symptoms, better clinical insight, more self-reflectivity and higher R-C index scores than did violent patients. In addition, history of violence, lower self-reflectiveness, worse clinical insight and delusion severity were significant predictors of violence in schizophrenia. The present study suggests that the inclusion of insight and cognitive insight may increase the prediction of violence in this population. In addition, clinicians should consider using non-pharmacological techniques that are based on cognitive behaviour therapy and enhance insight, particularly cognitive insight, among patients with schizophrenia who exhibit violent behaviour.

  20. Mapping in inertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunasalam, V.

    1989-05-01

    World space mapping in inertial frames is used to examine the Lorentz covariance of symmetry operations. It is found that the Galilean invariant concepts of simultaneity (S), parity (P), and time reversal symmetry (T) are not Lorentz covariant concepts for inertial observers. That is, just as the concept of simultaneity has no significance independent of the Lorentz inertial frame, likewise so are the concepts of parity and time reversal. However, the world parity (W) [i.e., the space-time reversal symmetry (P-T)] is a truly Lorentz covariant concept. Indeed, it is shown that only those mapping matrices M that commute with the Lorentz transformation matrix L (i.e., [M,L] = 0) are the ones that correspond to manifestly Lorentz covariant operations. This result is in accordance with the spirit of the world space Mach's principle. Since the Lorentz transformation is an orthogonal transformation while the Galilean transformation is not an orthogonal transformation, the formal relativistic space-time mapping theory used here does not have a corresponding non-relativistic counterpart. 12 refs

  1. Try This: Collaborative Mind Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    In this "Try This" article, students learn about collaborative mind mapping. A mind map is a type of graphic organizer that allows for short ideas to be written and linked to related ideas on a "map." A central idea is placed in the middle of the paper with related ideas connected to the central idea as well as to other ideas.…

  2. Eye Noise and Map Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Mylon

    This paper describes the physiological "eye noise" effect of line contrast in maps and considers the effect of line contrast on the direct picture of terrain surface as produced by shaded relief. An attempt is made to describe map reading in its two major steps: 1) the enrichment of the brain image resulting from scanning the map sheet,…

  3. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2001-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic

  4. Journey Mapping the User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Sue; Granath, Kim; Alger, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    This journey-mapping pilot study was designed to determine whether journey mapping is an effective method to enhance the student experience of using the library by assessing our services from their point of view. Journey mapping plots a process or service to produce a visual representation of a library transaction--from the point at which the…

  5. Managing complexity insights, concepts, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Each chapter in Managing Complexity focuses on analyzing real-world complex systems and transferring knowledge from the complex-systems sciences to applications in business, industry and society. The interdisciplinary contributions range from markets and production through logistics, traffic control, and critical infrastructures, up to network design, information systems, social conflicts and building consensus. They serve to raise readers' awareness concerning the often counter-intuitive behavior of complex systems and to help them integrate insights gained in complexity research into everyday planning, decision making, strategic optimization, and policy. Intended for a broad readership, the contributions have been kept largely non-technical and address a general, scientifically literate audience involved in corporate, academic, and public institutions.

  6. Map reading, navigating from maps, and the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J; Kim, Soyun; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2016-12-13

    We administered map-reading tasks in which participants navigated an array of marks on the floor by following paths on hand-held maps that made up to nine turns. The burden on memory was minimal because the map was always available. Nevertheless, because the map was held in a fixed position in relation to the body, spatial computations were continually needed to transform map coordinates into geographical coordinates as participants followed the maps. Patients with lesions limited to the hippocampus (n = 5) performed similar to controls at all path lengths (experiment 1). They were also intact at executing single moves to an adjacent location, even when trials began by facing in a direction that put the map coordinates and geographical coordinates into conflict (experiment 2). By contrast, one patient with large medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions performed poorly overall in experiment 1 and poorly in experiment 2 when trials began by facing in the direction that placed the map coordinates and geographical coordinates in maximal conflict. Directly after testing, all patients were impaired at remembering factual details about the task. The findings suggest that the hippocampus is not needed to carry out the spatial computations needed for map reading and navigating from maps. The impairment in map reading associated with large MTL lesions may depend on damage in or near the parahippocampal cortex.

  7. Geologic map of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis

  8. Illness Insight and Recovery: How Important is Illness Insight in Peoples’ Recovery Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Topic: This account reflects on the topic of illness insight and recovery. Purpose: The purpose of the account is to clarify our understanding about the importance of illness insight in peoples’ recovery process, especially when relating the question of illness insight to the question of identity....... Sources Used:The writing is based on research literature related to illness insight and on personal recovery experiences.Conclusions and Implications for Practice: It is helpful to consider the integration of the issue of illness insight when addressing the questions and consequences of diagnosis...... in relation to the importance of illness insight in the recovery process....

  9. Genetic correlates of insight in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Vorderstrasse, Allison; Keefe, Richard S E; Dungan, Jennifer R

    2017-10-17

    Insight in schizophrenia is clinically important as it is associated with several adverse outcomes. Genetic contributions to insight are unknown. We examined genetic contributions to insight by investigating if polygenic risk scores (PRS) and candidate regions were associated with insight. Schizophrenia case-only analysis of the Clinical Antipsychotics Trials of Intervention Effectiveness trial. Schizophrenia PRS was constructed using Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) leave-one out GWAS as discovery data set. For candidate regions, we selected 105 schizophrenia-associated autosomal loci and 11 schizophrenia-related oligodendrocyte genes. We used regressions to examine PRS associations and set-based testing for candidate analysis. We examined data from 730 subjects. Best-fit PRS at p-threshold of 1e-07 was associated with total insight (R 2 =0.005, P=0.05, empirical P=0.054) and treatment insight (R 2 =0.005, P=0.048, empirical P=0.048). For models that controlled for neurocognition, PRS significantly predicted treatment insight but at higher p-thresholds (0.1 to 0.5) but did not survive correction. Patients with highest polygenic burden had 5.9 times increased risk for poor insight compared to patients with lowest burden. PRS explained 3.2% (P=0.002, empirical P=0.011) of variance in poor insight. Set-based analyses identified two variants associated with poor insight- rs320703, an intergenic variant (within-set P=6e-04, FDR P=0.046) and rs1479165 in SOX2-OT (within-set P=9e-04, FDR P=0.046). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study examining genetic basis of insight. We provide evidence for genetic contributions to impaired insight. Relevance of findings and necessity for replication are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a ...

  11. Hybrid optical acoustic seafloor mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Gabrielle

    The oceanographic research and industrial communities have a persistent demand for detailed three dimensional sea floor maps which convey both shape and texture. Such data products are used for archeology, geology, ship inspection, biology, and habitat classification. There are a variety of sensing modalities and processing techniques available to produce these maps and each have their own potential benefits and related challenges. Multibeam sonar and stereo vision are such two sensors with complementary strengths making them ideally suited for data fusion. Data fusion approaches however, have seen only limited application to underwater mapping and there are no established methods for creating hybrid, 3D reconstructions from two underwater sensing modalities. This thesis develops a processing pipeline to synthesize hybrid maps from multi-modal survey data. It is helpful to think of this processing pipeline as having two distinct phases: Navigation Refinement and Map Construction. This thesis extends existing work in underwater navigation refinement by incorporating methods which increase measurement consistency between both multibeam and camera. The result is a self consistent 3D point cloud comprised of camera and multibeam measurements. In map construction phase, a subset of the multi-modal point cloud retaining the best characteristics of each sensor is selected to be part of the final map. To quantify the desired traits of a map several characteristics of a useful map are distilled into specific criteria. The different ways that hybrid maps can address these criteria provides justification for producing them as an alternative to current methodologies. The processing pipeline implements multi-modal data fusion and outlier rejection with emphasis on different aspects of map fidelity. The resulting point cloud is evaluated in terms of how well it addresses the map criteria. The final hybrid maps retain the strengths of both sensors and show significant improvement

  12. Timed bisimulation and open maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hune, Thomas; Nielsen, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    of timed bisimulation. Thus the abstract results from the theory of open maps apply, e.g. the existence of canonical models and characteristic logics. Here, we provide an alternative proof of decidability of bisimulation for finite timed transition systems in terms of open maps, and illustrate the use......Open maps have been used for defining bisimulations for a range of models, but none of these have modelled real-time. We define a category of timed transition systems, and use the general framework of open maps to obtain a notion of bisimulation. We show this to be equivalent to the standard notion...... of open maps in presenting bisimulations....

  13. Image processing for optical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Prabu; Gupta, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Optical Mapping is an established single-molecule, whole-genome analysis system, which has been used to gain a comprehensive understanding of genomic structure and to study structural variation of complex genomes. A critical component of Optical Mapping system is the image processing module, which extracts single molecule restriction maps from image datasets of immobilized, restriction digested and fluorescently stained large DNA molecules. In this review, we describe robust and efficient image processing techniques to process these massive datasets and extract accurate restriction maps in the presence of noise, ambiguity and confounding artifacts. We also highlight a few applications of the Optical Mapping system.

  14. Maps of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sells a variety of maps of the United States. Who needs these maps? Students, land planners, politicians, teachers, marketing specialists, delivery companies, authors and illustrators, attorneys, railroad enthusiasts, travelers, Government agencies, military recruiters, newspapers, map collectors, truckers, boaters, hikers, sales representatives, communication specialists. Everybody. Users of these maps range from a corporation planning a regional expansion or a national marketing campaign, to a person who wants a decoration to hang on the wall. If you are not sure which map best meets your needs, call the Earth Science Information Center for assistance.

  15. RgoogleMaps and loa: Unleashing R Graphics Power on Map Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Loecher

    2015-02-01

    In addition to solving the generic task of plotting on a map background in R, we introduce several specific algorithms to detect and visualize spatio-temporal clusters. This task can often be reduced to detecting over-densities in space relative to a background density. The relative density estimation is framed as a binary classification problem. An integrated hotspot visualizer is presented which allows the efficient identification and visualization of clusters in one environment. Competing clustering methods such as the scan statistic and the density scan offer higher detection power at a much larger computational cost. Such clustering methods can then be extended using the lattice trellis framework to provide further insight into the relationship between clusters and potentially influential parameters. While there are other options for such map mashups we believe that the integration of RgoogleMaps and lattice using loa can in certain circumstances be advantageous, e.g., by providing a highly intuitive working environment for multivariate analysis and flexible testbed for the rapid development of novel data visualizations.

  16. New insights into the structural organization of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cytoskeletons using cryo-electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuerner, Julia; Medalia, Ohad; Linaroudis, Alexandros A.; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is an emerging imaging technology that combines the potential of three-dimensional (3-D) imaging at molecular resolution (<5 nm) with a close-to-life preservation of the specimen. In conjunction with pattern recognition techniques, it enables us to map the molecular landscape inside cells. The application of cryo-ET to intact cells provides novel insights into the structure and the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

  17. Conceptual maps as evaluation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionísio Borsato

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The following work shows the conceptual map as an evaluation tool. In this study, an opening text was used as a previous organizer, with a theme related to the students’ daily lives. The developed activity consisted in elaborating conceptual maps before and after the experimental works. The evaluation was applied to 21 students of the 1st grade and 22 of the 3rd grade of High School. The elaborated maps were scored according to hierarchy, propositions, linking words, cross linking and examples. The classification of the maps elaborated before and after the experimental activity, was obtained having as a parameter, a referential conceptual map. In this classification many differences were observed between the first and second maps of both grades and among the groups. The elaboration of conceptual maps showed great potential as evaluation resources.

  18. Mapping the literature of nephrology nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Melody M

    2006-04-01

    A bibliometric investigation was done to identify characteristics of the literature that nephrology nurses utilize. It is one component of a broader study, "Mapping the Literature of Nursing," by the Medical Library Association's Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section Task Force to Map the Literature of Nursing. Following a standard protocol, this project utilized Bradford's Law of Scattering to analyze the literature of nephrology nursing. Citation analysis was done on articles that were published from 1996 to 1998 in a source journal. Cited journal titles were divided into three zones, and coverage in major article databases were scored for Zones 1 and 2. During the three-year period, journals were the most frequently cited format type. Eighty-one journals were cited in Zones 1 and 2. As Bradford's Law of Scattering predicted, a small number of the cited journals accounted for the most use. Coverage is most comprehensive for cited journals in Science Citation Index, PubMed/ MEDLINE, and EMBASE. When looking just at cited nursing journals, CINAHL and PubMed/MEDLINE provide the best indexing coverage. This study offers understanding of and insights into the types of information that nephrology nurses use for research. It is a valuable tool for anyone involved with providing nephrology nursing literature.

  19. Concept mapping: A supervision strategy for introducing case conceptualization skills to novice therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Bruce S; Esterline, Kate M

    2015-06-01

    Case conceptualization, a term synonymous with case formulation, is an essential psychotherapy skill. Novice therapists enter into the practice of psychotherapy with limited case conceptualization skills. Hence, an important goal when supervising novice therapists is to effectively teach these skills. Concept mapping facilitates case conceptualization skills through the process of methodically creating graphic representations of clients' problems and dynamic relationships between these problems. This article introduces a highly structured and practical 4-stage approach to supervision that effectively introduces case formulation skills to novice therapists using concept mapping. It is assumed that concept maps, when shared with clients, function as an intervention to facilitate insight and change. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Analysis of Patent Databases Using VxInsight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYACK,KEVIN W.; WYLIE,BRIAN N.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.; JOHNSON,DAVID K.

    2000-12-12

    We present the application of a new knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight, to the mapping and analysis of patent databases. Patent data are mined and placed in a database, relationships between the patents are identified, primarily using the citation and classification structures, then the patents are clustered using a proprietary force-directed placement algorithm. Related patents cluster together to produce a 3-D landscape view of the tens of thousands of patents. The user can navigate the landscape by zooming into or out of regions of interest. Querying the underlying database places a colored marker on each patent matching the query. Automatically generated labels, showing landscape content, update continually upon zooming. Optionally, citation links between patents may be shown on the landscape. The combination of these features enables powerful analyses of patent databases.

  1. Probability mapping of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; McGraw, M.A.; Istok, J.D.; Sigda, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds)

  2. Online maps with APIs and webservices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    With the Internet now the primary method of accessing maps, this volume examines developments in the world of online map delivery, focusing in particular on application programmer interfaces such as the Google Maps API, and their utility in thematic mapping.

  3. Turbulent baker's maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, S.

    1995-01-01

    The authors formulate and study an elementary one-dimensional model mimicking some of the features of fluid turbulence. The underlying vorticity field corresponds to a parallel flow. Structure on all scales down to the numerical resolution is generated by the action of baker's maps acting on the vorticity of the flow. These transformations conserve kinetic energy locally in the Euler model, while viscous diffusion of vorticity occurs in the Navier-Stokes case. The authors apply the model to the study of homogeneous fully, developed turbulence, and to turbulent channel flow

  4. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...

  5. Journal of Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Maps (JoM (http://www.journalofmaps.com počeo je izlaziti 2005. godine isključivo kao elektronički časopis. Izdavač je School of Earth Sciences and Geography, Kingston University, UK. Budući da ne izlazi u tiskanom izdanju, časopis nema uobičajene sveske. Svescima se, ipak, mogu smatrati članci srodne tematike koji se objavljuju tri puta godišnje – u travnju, kolovozu i prosincu.

  6. Mapping eParticipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2007-01-01

    The emerging research area of eParticipation can be characterized as the study of technology-facilitated citizen participation in (democratic) deliberation and decision-making. Using conventional literature study techniques, we identify 105 articles that are considered to be highly relevant to e......Participation. We develop a definitional schema that suggests different ways of understanding an emerging socio-technical research area and use this schema to map the research contributions identified. This allows us make an initial sketch of the scientific character of the area and its central concerns, theories...

  7. Schema matching and mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Bellahsene, Zohra; Rahm, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    Requiring heterogeneous information systems to cooperate and communicate has now become crucial, especially in application areas like e-business, Web-based mash-ups and the life sciences. Such cooperating systems have to automatically and efficiently match, exchange, transform and integrate large data sets from different sources and of different structure in order to enable seamless data exchange and transformation. The book edited by Bellahsene, Bonifati and Rahm provides an overview of the ways in which the schema and ontology matching and mapping tools have addressed the above requirements

  8. Graphene Conductance Uniformity Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combination of micro four-point probe (M4PP) and non-contact terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements for centimeter scale quantitative mapping of the sheet conductance of large area chemical vapor deposited graphene films. Dual configuration M4PP measurements...... of less than a minute for a 4-in. wafer. The combination of M4PP and THz-TDS conductance measurements, supported by micro Raman spectroscopy and optical imaging, reveals that the film is electrically continuous on the nanoscopic scale with microscopic defects likely originating from the transfer process...

  9. Mapping of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, V.

    2013-01-01

    Germany is the champion of green energy in Europe: the contribution of renewable energies to electricity generation reached about 20% in 2011. This article describes the situation of renewable energies in Germany in 2011 with the help of 2 maps, the first one gives the installed electrical generation capacity for each region and for each renewable energy source (wind power, hydro-electricity, biomass, photovoltaic energy and biogas) and the second one details the total number of jobs (direct and indirect) for each renewable energy source and for each region. In 2011 about 372000 people worked in the renewable energy sector in Germany. (A.C.)

  10. Searching with iterated maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, V; Rankenburg, I; Thibault, P

    2007-01-09

    In many problems that require extensive searching, the solution can be described as satisfying two competing constraints, where satisfying each independently does not pose a challenge. As an alternative to tree-based and stochastic searching, for these problems we propose using an iterated map built from the projections to the two constraint sets. Algorithms of this kind have been the method of choice in a large variety of signal-processing applications; we show here that the scope of these algorithms is surprisingly broad, with applications as diverse as protein folding and Sudoku.

  11. Between Maps and Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Rasmus; Stricker, Jan Høgh

    2016-01-01

    This audio paper departs from an artwork made by Andreas Führer called The Map is Not The Territory D’Or; a score for a soundwalk in the town of Roskilde, Denmark. The basic sound materials used in the audio paper are 1) an interview in Danish with the artist, 2) a voice over of a theoretical text...... in English, and 3) recordings from performances of the piece, including walking, breathing exercises, and the sounds of ventilation systems and other environmental sound. By mingling these different materials, and by using ‘map’ and ‘territory’ as metaphors, the paper complicates issues of representation...

  12. Mapping Deviant Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A number of countries have emerged as stable (though minimalist) democracies despite low levels of modernization, lack of democratic neighbouring countries and other factors consistently related to democratic stability in the literature. The study of these deviant democracies is a promising new...... research field but it is afflicted by a notable problem, viz. the lack of a consensus as to which countries are actually instances of deviant democracy. The present article attempts to solve this problem by carrying out a comprehensive mapping of deviant democracies. First, I review the existing literature......., the Central African Republic, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mongolia, Niger, Senegal, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turkey....

  13. Mapping the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, S.; Wright, L.; Church, V.; Hager, M.

    1992-01-01

    With powerful new technologies such as positron tomography and superconducting quantum interference device that peer through the skull and see the brain at work, neuroscientists seek the wellsprings of thoughts and emotions, the genesis of intelligence and language. A functional map of the brain is thus obtained and its challenge is to move beyond brain structure to create a detailed diagram of which part do what. For that the brain's cartographers rely on a variety of technologies such as positron tomography and superconducting quantum interference devices. Their performances and uses are briefly reviewed. ills

  14. Molecular responses to xenoestrogens: mechanistic insights from toxicogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggs, Jonathan G

    2005-10-01

    The xenoestrogen group of endocrine disruptors has the potential to cause reproductive and developmental effects through stimulation or disruption of sex steroid nuclear receptor signalling pathways. A more detailed understanding of the ways in which xenoestrogens interact with biological systems at the molecular level will provide a mechanistic basis for improved safety assessment. The recent sequencing of mammalian genomes has driven the development of toxicogenomic technologies, including microarray based gene expression profiling, which allow the expression levels of thousands of genes to be measured simultaneously. Since the cellular responses to xenoestrogens are predominantly mediated by estrogen receptors, which function as ligand-activated transcription factors to regulate gene expression, the application of toxicogenomics has great potential for providing insights into the molecular mechanisms of xenoestrogen action. A major challenge in applying toxicogenomics to the field of endocrine disruption is the need to define how xenoestrogen-induced changes in gene expression relate to conventional physiological and toxicological endpoints. Gene Ontology Mapping, Pathway Mapping and Phenotypic Anchoring of xenoestrogen-induced gene expression changes to cellular pathways and processes represent key steps in defining these relationships. Mechanistic insights into how xenoestrogens target specific genes and into the functional significance of xenoestrogen-induced alterations in gene expression can be further enhanced by combining transcript profiling with transgenic animal models or cell-based systems in which the estrogen receptor signalling pathways have been modified experimentally. This review illustrates how these toxicogenomic approaches are providing an unprecedented amount of mechanistic information on the molecular responses to xenoestrogens and how they are likely to impact on hazard and risk assessment.

  15. Molecular responses to xenoestrogens: Mechanistic insights from toxicogenomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moggs, Jonathan G.

    2005-01-01

    The xenoestrogen group of endocrine disruptors has the potential to cause reproductive and developmental effects through stimulation or disruption of sex steroid nuclear receptor signalling pathways. A more detailed understanding of the ways in which xenoestrogens interact with biological systems at the molecular level will provide a mechanistic basis for improved safety assessment. The recent sequencing of mammalian genomes has driven the development of toxicogenomic technologies, including microarray based gene expression profiling, which allow the expression levels of thousands of genes to be measured simultaneously. Since the cellular responses to xenoestrogens are predominantly mediated by estrogen receptors, which function as ligand-activated transcription factors to regulate gene expression, the application of toxicogenomics has great potential for providing insights into the molecular mechanisms of xenoestrogen action. A major challenge in applying toxicogenomics to the field of endocrine disruption is the need to define how xenoestrogen-induced changes in gene expression relate to conventional physiological and toxicological endpoints. Gene Ontology Mapping, Pathway Mapping and Phenotypic Anchoring of xenoestrogen-induced gene expression changes to cellular pathways and processes represent key steps in defining these relationships. Mechanistic insights into how xenoestrogens target specific genes and into the functional significance of xenoestrogen-induced alterations in gene expression can be further enhanced by combining transcript profiling with transgenic animal models or cell-based systems in which the estrogen receptor signalling pathways have been modified experimentally. This review illustrates how these toxicogenomic approaches are providing an unprecedented amount of mechanistic information on the molecular responses to xenoestrogens and how they are likely to impact on hazard and risk assessment

  16. A dynamic model for functional mapping of biological rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guifang; Luo, Jiangtao; Berg, Arthur; Wang, Zhong; Li, Jiahan; Das, Kiranmoy; Li, Runze; Wu, Rongling

    2011-01-01

    Functional mapping is a statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that regulate the dynamic pattern of a biological trait. This method integrates mathematical aspects of biological complexity into a mixture model for genetic mapping and tests the genetic effects of QTLs by comparing genotype-specific curve parameters. As a way of quantitatively specifying the dynamic behavior of a system, differential equations have proven to be powerful for modeling and unraveling the biochemical, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of a biological process, such as biological rhythms. The equipment of functional mapping with biologically meaningful differential equations provides new insights into the genetic control of any dynamic processes. We formulate a new functional mapping framework for a dynamic biological rhythm by incorporating a group of ordinary differential equations (ODE). The Runge-Kutta fourth order algorithm was implemented to estimate the parameters that define the system of ODE. The new model will find its implications for understanding the interplay between gene interactions and developmental pathways in complex biological rhythms.

  17. Images Are Not the (Only) Truth: Brain Mapping, Visual Knowledge, and Iconoclasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Debates the paradoxical nature of claims about the emerging contributions of functional brain mapping. Examines the various ways that images are deployed and rejected and highlights an approach that provides insight into the current demarcation of imaging. (Contains 68 references.) (DDR)

  18. Physical mapping of 5S and 45S rDNA in Chrysanthemum and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-09

    Aug 9, 2012 ... The present study has shown that fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) physical mapping of rDNA sites is a valuable method to gain insight into the genome in Chrysan- themum and related genera of the Anthemideae. FISH signals revealed that 45S rDNA sites were localized on the terminal regions of ...

  19. A mapping review of international guidance on the management and care of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Astrid I W A; Ruytings, Marijke; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Chio, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla; Mcdermott, Christopher J; Meyer, Thomas; Mora, Gabriele; Van Damme, Philip; Van Den Berg, Leonard H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288255216; Vanhaecht, Kris; Winkler, Andrea S; Sermeus, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Management of ALS is suboptimal. Consequently, quality improvement interventions are needed to improve ALS care. An evidence-based insight into how patients should be managed is essential when developing quality improvement interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to map, categorize and summarize

  20. Chronic alcoholism: insights from neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, S; Petit, G; Maurage, P; Kornreich, C; Verbanck, P; Noël, X

    2009-01-01

    Increasing knowledge of the anatomical structures and cellular processes underlying psychiatric disorders may help bridge the gap between clinical signs and basic physiological processes. Accordingly, considerable insight has been gained in recent years into a common psychiatric condition, i.e., chronic alcoholism. We reviewed various physiological parameters that are altered in chronic alcoholic patients compared to healthy individuals--continuous electroencephalogram, oculomotor measures, cognitive event-related potentials and event-related oscillations--to identify links between these physiological parameters, altered cognitive processes and specific clinical symptoms. Alcoholic patients display: (1) high beta and theta power in the resting electroencephalogram, suggesting hyperarousal of their central nervous system; (2) abnormalities in smooth pursuit eye movements, in saccadic inhibition during antisaccade tasks, and in prepulse inhibition, suggesting disturbed attention modulation and abnormal patterns of prefrontal activation that may stem from the same prefrontal "inhibitory" cortical dysfunction; (3) decreased amplitude for cognitive event-related potentials situated along the continuum of information-processing, suggesting that alcoholism is associated with neurophysiological deficits at the level of the sensory cortex and not only disturbances involving associative cortices and limbic structures; and (4) decreased theta, gamma and delta oscillations, suggesting cognitive disinhibition at a functional level. The heterogeneity of alcoholic disorders in terms of symptomatology, course and outcome is the result of various pathophysiological processes that physiological parameters may help to define. These alterations may be related to precise cognitive processes that could be easily monitored neurophysiologically in order to create more homogeneous subgroups of alcoholic individuals.