WorldWideScience

Sample records for cba process

  1. Fuzzy Neural Network Model of 4-CBA Concentration for Industrial Purified Terephthalic Acid Oxidation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞兰; 苏宏业; 牟盛静; 贾涛; 陈渭泉; 褚健

    2004-01-01

    A fuzzy neural network (FNN) model is developed to predict the 4-CBA concentration of the oxidation unit in purified terephthalic acid process. Several technologies are used to deal with the process data before modeling.First,a set of preliminary input variables is selected according to prior knowledge and experience. Secondly,a method based on the maximum correlation coefficient is proposed to detect the dead time between the process variables and response variables. Finally, the fuzzy curve method is used to reduce the unimportant input variables.The simulation results based on industrial data show that the relative error range of the FNN model is narrower than that of the American Oil Company (AMOCO) model. Furthermore, the FNN model can predict the trend of the 4-CBA concentration more accurately.

  2. 工业PTA氧化过程中4-CBA浓度的模糊神经网络模型%Fuzzy Neural Network Model of 4-CBA Concentration for Industrial Purified Terephthalic Acid Oxidation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞兰; 苏宏业; 牟盛静; 贾涛; 陈渭泉; 褚健

    2004-01-01

    A fuzzy neural network (FNN) model is developed to predict the 4-CBA concentration of the oxidation unit in purified terephthalic acid process. Several technologies are used to deal with the process data before modeling.First, a set of preliminary input variables is selected according to prior knowledge and experience. Secondly, a method based on the maximum correlation coefficient is proposed to detect the dead time between the process variables and response variables. Finally, the fuzzy curve method is used to reduce the unimportant input variables. The simulation results based on industrial data show that the relative error range of the FNN model is narrower than that of the American Oil Company (AMOCO) model. Furthermore, the FNN model can predict the trend of the 4-CBA concentration more accurately.

  3. Fuzzy Support Vector Regression Model of 4-CBA Concentration for Industrial PTA Oxidation Process%工业PTA氧化工程中4-CBA浓度的模糊支持向量回归模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英; 苏宏业; 刘瑞兰; 褚健

    2005-01-01

    In the past few years, support vector machines (SVMs) have been applied to many fields, such as pattern recognition and data mining, etc. However there still exist some problems to be solved. One of them is that the SVM is very sensitive to outliers or noises because of over-fitting problem. In this paper, a fuzzy support vector regression (FSVR) method is presented to deal with this problem. Strategies based on k nearest neighbor (kNN) and support vector data description (SVDD) are adopted to set the fuzzy membership values of data points in FSVR.The proposed FSVR soft sensor models based on kNN and SVDD are employed to predict the concentration of 4-carboxy-benzaldehyde (4-CBA) in purified terephthalic acid (PTA) oxidation process. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method indeed reduces the effect of outliers and yields higher accuracy.

  4. The Cognitive Behavioral Assessment (CBA Project: Presentation and Proposal for International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Sanavio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The main aim of this paper is to describe almost 30 years of work on psychological assessment using CBA, a research team, and to propose collaboration with Latin countries. Methods: The acronym CBA stands for Cognitive Behavioural Assessment and indicates both an overall approach to clinical assessment and a series of tests. Five general principles formed the basis on which the team developed their questionnaires: (1 assessment is not a passive collection of information, but an active process similar to problem-solving; (2 horizontal integration of questionnaires with other assessment methods; (3 vertical integration and hierarchical structure of assessment questionnaires; (4 idiographic perspective; (5 computer support. Results: The paper briefly presents the most important tests: CBA-2.0, a broad-spectrum Battery for patients who need counselling and/or psychotherapy; CBA-H (Hospital for both in-patients and out-patients suffering from physical illnesses; CBA-SPORT for professional athletes; CBA-Y (young people for adolescents and young adults; CBD-VE (treatment benefits to assess the effectiveness of psychological treatment. Conclusion: These questionnaires have produced over 100 research works, published in Italian journals or presented in conferences. In the near future, we expect important, radical changes and hope to create an international research milieu.

  5. Biocide leaching from CBA treated wood — A mechanistic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupsea, Maria [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, ESE/Environment, 24 rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Mathies, Helena; Schoknecht, Ute [BAM — Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.1, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Tiruta-Barna, Ligia, E-mail: ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Schiopu, Nicoleta [Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, ESE/Environment, 24 rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France)

    2013-02-01

    Treated wood is frequently used for construction. However, there is a need to ensure that biocides used for the treatment are not a threat for people or environment. The paper focused on Pinus sylvestris treated with copper–boron–azole (CBA), containing tebuconazole as organic biocide and monoethanolamine (Mea). This study investigates chemical mechanisms of fixation and mobilisation involved in the leaching process of the used inorganic and organic biocides in CBA. A pH dependent leaching test was performed, followed by a set of complementary analysis methods in order to identify and quantify the species released from wood. The main findings of this study are: -Organic compounds are released from untreated and treated wood; the quantity of released total organic carbon, carboxylic and phenolic functions increasing with the pH. -Nitrogen containing compounds, i.e. mainly Mea and its reaction products with extractives, are released in important quantities from CBA treated wood, especially at low pH. -The release of copper is the result of competitive reactions: fixation via complexation reactions and complexation with extractives in the liquid phase. The specific pH dependency of Cu leaching is explained by the competition of ligands for protonation and complexation. -Tebuconazole is released to a lesser extent relative to its initial content. Its fixation on solid wood structure seems to be influenced by pH, suggesting interactions with -OH groups on wood. Boron release appears to be pH independent and very high. This confirms its weak fixation on wood and also no or weak interaction with the extractives. - Highlights: ► A pH dependent leaching mechanism for CBA treated wood is described. ► The fixation and mobilisation of inorganic and organic biocides was investigated. ► Extractives' quantity and nature depend on pH. ► Competition of ligands for protonation and complexation explains Cu behaviour. ► Tebuconazole seems to interact with -OH groups

  6. Comparison of outcomes obtained in murine local lymph node assays using CBA/J or CBA/Ca mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yosuke; Hirosaki, Haruka; Yakata, Naoaki; Takeyoshi, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice are the recommended strains for local lymph node assays (LLNAs). Here, we report quantitative and qualitative comparisons between both mouse strains to provide useful information for the strain selection of sensitization testing. LLNA was conducted, in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline No. 429, with CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice using five chemicals including typical contact sensitizers and non-sensitizers: 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), isoeugenol, α-hexylcinnamic aldehyde (HCA), propylene glycol (PG), and hexane; then outcomes were compared based on the raw data (disintegrations per minute, DPM), stimulation index (SI) values, EC3 values and positive/negative decisions. Although a significant difference was noted between DPM values derived from each strain of mice, SI values exhibited no considerable difference. The EC3 values for DNCB in CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice were 0.04 and 0.03, those for isoeugenol were 1.4 and 0.9, and those for HCA were 7.7 and 6.0, respectively. All EC values derived from each test system were almost equivalent and were within the range of acceptance criteria of the ICCVAM performance standard for LLNA. Positive/negative outcomes for all test chemicals were consistent. In conclusion, no considerable differences were observed in the final outcomes derived from CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice in LLNA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. 4-CBA Soft Sensor Based on Fuzzy CMAC Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文莉; 钱锋; 刘漫丹; 张凯

    2005-01-01

    Soft sensor is attractive in dealing with online product quality measurement by virtue of other easily measured variables. In AMOCO PTA (purified terephthalic acid) production process, the unavailability of real-time measurement of 4-CBA makes it impossible for timely adjustment and thereby influences the product quality and the plant economy benefit. In this paper, a kind of FCMAC (fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller) method is presented to solve the online measurement problem. Different from the conventional CMAC (cerebellar model articulation controller) networks, which has inferior smoothing ability because of its table look-up based technology. Integrating fuzzy model into CMAC networks, it becomes more accurate in functional mapping without weakening its generalization ability. Numerical example and industrial application results show the method proposed here is satisfactory and feasible.

  8. Bridging the gap between LCA, LCC and CBA as sustainability assessment tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogmartens, Rob, E-mail: rob.hoogmartens@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Acker, Karel, E-mail: karel.vanacker@lrd.kuleuven.be [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dubois, Maarten, E-mail: maarten.dubois@kuleuven.be [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Policy Research Centre for Sustainable Materials, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-09-15

    Increasing interest in sustainability has led to the development of sustainability assessment tools such as Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and Cost–Benefit Analysis (CBA). Due to methodological disparity of these three tools, conflicting assessment results generate confusion for many policy and business decisions. In order to interpret and integrate assessment results, the paper provides a framework that clarifies the connections and coherence between the included assessment methodologies. Building on this framework, the paper further focuses on key aspects to adapt any of the methodologies to full sustainability assessments. Aspects dealt with in the review are for example the reported metrics, the scope, data requirements, discounting, product- or project-related and approaches with respect to scarcity and labor requirements. In addition to these key aspects, the review shows that important connections exist: (i) the three tools can cope with social inequality, (ii) processes such as valuation techniques for LCC and CBA are common, (iii) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is used as input in both LCA and CBA and (iv) LCA can be used in parallel with LCC. Furthermore, the most integrated sustainability approach combines elements of LCA and LCC to achieve the Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA). The key aspects and the connections referred to in the review are illustrated with a case study on the treatment of end-of-life automotive glass. - Highlights: • Proliferation of assessment tools creates ambiguity and confusion. • The developed assessment framework clarifies connections between assessment tools. • Broadening LCA, key aspects are metric and data requirements. • Broadening LCC, key aspects are scope, time frame and discounting. • Broadening CBA, focus point, timespan, references, labor and scarcity are key.

  9. Expression of chemokine receptors CCR3,CCR5 and CXCR3 on CD4+ T cells in CBA/JxDBA/2 mouse model,selectively induced by IL-4 and IL-10,regulates the embryo resorption rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Pei-juan; ZHAO Ai-min; BAO Shi-min; XIAO Shi-jin; XIONG Miao

    2009-01-01

    Background Chemokines and their receptors have been a research focus in transplantation immunology.Chemokines and their receptors play a role in lymphocyte recruitment and differentiation process.This study aimed to observe whether IL-4 and IL-10 may regulate the expression of chemokine receptors CCR3,CCR5 and CXCR3 on CD4+ T cells in CBA/JxDBA/2 mouse model and to explore the role of CCR3,CCR5,CXCR3 in immune tolerance in pregnancy.Methods The mouse model of spontaneous abortion (CBA/JxDBA/2) and the normal pregnant mouse model (CBA/JxBALB/c) were used.CBA/JxDBA/2 mice were injected with IL-4 (CBA/JxDBA/2-1L-4),IL-4 and IL-10 (CBA/JxDBA/2-1L-4+IL-10),or normal saline (CBA/JxDBA/2-NS) as a control.The expression of CCR3,CCR5 and CXCR3 on CD4+ T cells from mouse peripheral blood was measured by the double-labelled FCM method,and the embryo resorption rate was also examined.Results The embryo resorption rate in the CBA/JxDBA/2 group without any treatment was significantly higher than that in the CBA/JxBALB/c group (17.9% vs 3.7%,P<0.01).The embryo resorption rate in the CBA/JxDBA/2 group immunized with IL-4 or IL-4 together with IL-10 was significantly decreased,compared with that in the control and NS groups respectively.CCR3 expression on CD4+ T cells in the CBA/JxDBA/2 group without any treatment was significantly lower than that in the CBA/JxBALB/c group (0.3738±0.3575 vs 1.2190±0.2772,P<0.01 );both CCR5 (3.0900±1.5603 vs 1.2390±0.6361,P <0.01)and CXCR3 (2.4715±0.9074 vs 0.9200±0.5585,P <0.01 ) expressions on CD4+ T cells of the CBA/JxDBA/2 group without any treatment were significantly higher than those of the CBA/JxBALB/c group.Significant up-regulation of CCR3 and down-regulation of CXCR3 were found in the CBA/JxDBA/2 group treated with IL-4 (CCR3:2.0360±0.6944,CXCR3:1.3510±0.5263,P <0.01) or IL-4 and IL-10 (CCR3:1.8160±1.0947,CXCR3:1.0940±0.7168,P<0.01).Because of the CCR5,IL-4 and IL-10 (1.9400±0.8504 vs 3.0900±1.5603,P <0.05),but

  10. Effect of NGBFS and CBA as fine aggregate on the chloride permeability of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsa Yüksel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation which was about influence of non-ground Coal Bottom Ash (CBA and Non-Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (NGBFS as fine aggregate on rapid chloride permeability of concrete. Series of Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (RCPT were conducted with concrete specimens containing NGBFS and CBA in varying percentages from 10 to 50% with the step of 10% of fine aggregate by weight. Two basic series concrete specimens were prepared in laboratory. The first series (G was contained NGBFS, the second series (B was contained CBA as fine aggregate. Test results indicated that NGBFS or CBA improves the resistance to chloride ion penetration tosome extent. 30% and 10% replacement ratios were selected as optimum replacement ratios for G and B series. It was concluded that GBFS was more impressive then CBA for blocking chloride ion movements.

  11. Simplified CBA Concept and Express Choice Method for Integrated Network Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al Rawajbeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of choosing and integrating a network management system (NMS to an existing computer network became a big question due to the complexity of used technologies and the variety of NMS options. Most of computer networks are being developed according to their internal rules in cloud environments. The use of NMS requires not only infrastructural changes, consequently increasing the cost of integration and maintenance, but also increases the risk of potential failures. In this paper, conception and method of express choice to implement and integrate a network management system are presented. Review of basic methods of cost analysis for IT systems is presented. The simplified conception of cost benefits analysis (CBA is utilized as a basis of the offered method. A final estimation is based on three groups of parameters: parameters of expected integration risk evaluation, expected effect and level of completed management tasks. The explanation of the method is provided via example.

  12. Bending magnets for the CBA beam-transport line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thern, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The beam-transport line from the AGS to CBA requires 68 large bending magnets, consisting of pure dipoles and two types of combined function gradient magnets. All three types were designed with magnetic-field calculation program POISSON, using the same exterior dimensions and coil package. The design goal of +-1% momentum acceptance for the transport line required a wide horizontal aperture, with a much-smaller vertical aperture for economy. Two prototypes of one gradient magnet were built, and a facility constructed to measure them and the later production magnets. Measurements were done using both a long coil and a point coil (Rawson-Lush gaussmeter). Preliminary results show ..delta..B/B < 0.2 x 10/sup -3/, ..delta..G/G < 0.3 x 10/sup -2/, and ..delta..B/sub 2//B < 0.3 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup -2/ over the beam aperture. Due to end effects, the actual gradient differs from the design gradient by 1%, which has been compensated for in the beam-line design.

  13. CBA 职业联赛监管运行及发展趋势分析%The regulation and development trend of CBA professional league

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒同; 孙民治

    2015-01-01

    A thorough analysis was made on the regulation problems of Chinese men's basketball pro-fessional league with the methods of documentation,expert interview,empirical analysis and logic a-nalysis and CBA development trend was also summarized.The results show that the league regulation operation interoperability is not strong;league organization setup is not science;regulatory responsi-bilities are not clear;league regulation has great difficulties.Therefore,it is suggested that CBA league should have specific regulation goals and separate regulation from management to achieve good regulation effect.%运用文献资料法、专家访谈法、实证分析法以及逻辑分析法,对 CBA 职业联赛监管运行存在的问题进行了深入剖析,并总结了其发展趋势。结果表明:联赛监管运行协同性不强;联赛机构设置不够科学;监管职责不清晰;联赛监管难度大。CBA 职业联赛监管发展应向监管目标明确、监管效果高、管办分离以及协同监管的方向迈进。

  14. Mast cells are responsible for the lack of anti-inflammatory effects of morphine in CBA mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Stankiewicz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND and aim: Morphine co-injection has anti-inflammatory effects on zymosan-induced peritonitis in several strains of mice except that of CBA. As peritoneal mast cells (pMCs are much more numerous in CBA mice than in SWISS mice, the role of pMCs in morphine-modulated zymosan peritonitis is compared in CBA and SWISS males.

  15. Loss of Myh14 Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in CBA/CaJ Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Linqing; Jin, Yecheng; Sun, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Aizhen; Wen, Zongzhuang; Zhou, Yichen; Xia, Ming

    2016-01-01

    MYH14 is a member of the myosin family, which has been implicated in many motile processes such as ion-channel gating, organelle translocation, and the cytoskeleton rearrangement. Mutations in MYH14 lead to a DFNA4-type hearing impairment. Further evidence also shows that MYH14 is a candidate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) susceptible gene. However, the specific roles of MYH14 in auditory function and NIHL are not fully understood. In the present study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to establish a Myh14 knockout mice line in CBA/CaJ background (now referred to as Myh14−/− mice) and clarify the role of MYH14 in the cochlea and NIHL. We found that Myh14−/− mice did not exhibit significant hearing loss until five months of age. In addition, Myh14−/− mice were more vulnerable to high intensity noise compared to control mice. More significant outer hair cell loss was observed in Myh14−/− mice than in wild type controls after acoustic trauma. Our findings suggest that Myh14 may play a beneficial role in the protection of the cochlea after acoustic overstimulation in CBA/CaJ mice. PMID:28101381

  16. Loss of Myh14 Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in CBA/CaJ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MYH14 is a member of the myosin family, which has been implicated in many motile processes such as ion-channel gating, organelle translocation, and the cytoskeleton rearrangement. Mutations in MYH14 lead to a DFNA4-type hearing impairment. Further evidence also shows that MYH14 is a candidate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL susceptible gene. However, the specific roles of MYH14 in auditory function and NIHL are not fully understood. In the present study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to establish a Myh14 knockout mice line in CBA/CaJ background (now referred to as Myh14−/− mice and clarify the role of MYH14 in the cochlea and NIHL. We found that Myh14−/− mice did not exhibit significant hearing loss until five months of age. In addition, Myh14−/− mice were more vulnerable to high intensity noise compared to control mice. More significant outer hair cell loss was observed in Myh14−/− mice than in wild type controls after acoustic trauma. Our findings suggest that Myh14 may play a beneficial role in the protection of the cochlea after acoustic overstimulation in CBA/CaJ mice.

  17. Physical and Chemical Properties of Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) from Tanjung Bin Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzati Raihan Ramzi, Nurul; Shahidan, Shahiron; Zulkhairi Maarof, Mohamad; Ali, Noorwirdawati

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) obtained from Tanjung Bin Power Plant Station and compare them with the characteristics of natural river sand (as a replacement of fine aggregates). Bottom ash is the by-product of coal combustion during the electricity generating process. However, excess bottom ash production due to the high production of electricity in Malaysia has caused several environmental problems. Therefore, several tests have been conducted in order to determine the physical and chemical properties of bottom ash such as specific gravity, density, particle size distribution, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) and X- Ray Fluorescence (XRF) in the attempt to produce sustainable material from waste. The results indicated that the natural fine aggregate and coal bottom ash have very different physical and chemical properties. Bottom ash was classified as Class C ash. The porous structure, angular and rough texture of bottom ash affected its specific gravity and particle density. From the tests, it was found that bottom ash is recommended to be used in concrete as a replacement for fine aggregates.

  18. Assessment of Large Transport Infrastructure Projects: the CBA-DK model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Banister, David

    2008-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to present a newly developed decision support model to assess transport infrastructure projects: CBA-DK. The model makes use of conventional cost-benefit analysis resulting in aggregated single point estimates and quantitative risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation...... resulting in interval results. The embedded uncertainties within traditional CBA such as ex-ante based investment costs and travel time savings are of particular concern. The methodological approach has been to apply suitable probability distribution functions on the uncertain parameters, thus resulting...

  19. A Composite Modelling Approach to Decision Support by the Use of the CBA-DK Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a decision support system for assessment of transport infrastructure projects. The composite modelling approach, COSIMA, combines a cost-benefit analysis by use of the CBA-DK model with multi-criteria analysis applying the AHP and SMARTER techniques. The modelling uncertainties...

  20. NBA停摆与CBA应对研究%NBA Lockout and CBA Coping with Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷婷

    2012-01-01

    NBA breaks down and CBA has got the good development opportunity.The CBA brand and competition operation and the competitive ability of the Chinese basketball players can be promoted by the entry of excellent foreign athletes into CBA but it will have negative impact on the profit gaining of the league,foreign aid management,team work,development of Chinese core back and center forward and basketball cultural development.The paper also proposes countermeasures and suggestions,so as to promote the international CBA brand development and the healthy development of the Chinese basketball.%2011-2012NBA停摆后CBA迎来最佳的发展时机,高水平外援进入CBA对其品牌、赛事经营、竞技水平、观赏性、国内球员提高等方面产生有利影响;对联赛盈利、外援管理、球队整体打法、国内核心后卫和中锋培养、篮球文化等方面产生不利影响。并提出了CBA的应对策略,为CBA品牌国际化和中国篮球健康快速发展提供参考。

  1. Evaluation of Lassa virus vaccine immunogenicity in a CBA/J-ML29 mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicochea, Marco A; Zapata, Juan C; Bryant, Joseph; Davis, Harry; Salvato, Maria S; Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-02-14

    Lassa fever (LF) is one of the most prevalent viral hemorrhagic fevers in West Africa responsible for thousands of deaths annually. The BSL-4 containment requirement and lack of small animal model to evaluate Lassa virus (LASV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) complicate development of effective LF vaccines. Here we have described a CBA/J-ML29 model allowing evaluation of LASV-specific CMI responses in mice. This model is based on Mopeia virus reassortant clone ML29, an attractive immunogenic surrogate for LASV. A single intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunization of CBA/J mice with ML29 protected animals against a lethal homologous intracerebral (i.c.) challenge with 588 LD(50). The ML29-immunized mice displayed negligible levels of LASV-specific antibody titers, but LASV-specific CMI responses were detectable early and peaked on day 8-10 after immunization. A T cell cytotoxicity assay in vivo showed a correlation between LASV-specific cytotoxicity and the timing of protection induced by the ML29 immunization. Notably, CBA/J mice that received CD8+ T cell-depleted splenocytes from ML29-immunized donors all succumbed to a lethal i.c. challenge, demonstrating that CD8+ T cells are critical in protection. The CBA/J-ML29 model can be useful immunological tool for the preliminary evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates against LASV outside of BSL-4 containment facilities.

  2. Transport appraisal and Monte Carlo simulation by use of the CBA-DK model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2011-01-01

    (epistemic uncertainty). After a short introduction to deterministic calculation resulting in some evaluation criteria a more comprehensive evaluation of the stochastic calculation is made. Especially, the risk analysis part of CBA-DK, with considerations about which probability distributions should be used...

  3. Characterization of the SpaCBA pilus fibers in the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunanen, Justus; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a human intestinal isolate that has been studied intensively because of its probiotic properties. We have previously shown that L. rhamnosus GG produces proteinaceous pili that earlier had been observed only in Gram-positive pathogens (M. Kankainen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106:17193-17198, 2009). These pili were found to be encoded by the spaCBA gene cluster, and the pilus-associated SpaC pilin was shown to confer on the cells a mucus-binding ability. In addition to the spaCBA cluster, another putative pilus cluster, spaFED, was predicted from the L. rhamnosus GG genome sequence. Herein, we show that only SpaCBA pili are produced by L. rhamnosus, and we describe a detailed analysis of cell wall-associated and affinity-purified SpaCBA pili by Western blotting and immunogold electron microscopy. Our results indicate that SpaCBA pili are heterotrimeric protrusions with a SpaA subunit as the shaft-forming major pilin. Only a few SpaB subunits could be observed in pilus fibers. Instead, SpaB pilins were found at pilus bases, as assessed by immunogold double labeling of thin sections of cells, suggesting that SpaB is involved in the termination of pilus assembly. The SpaC adhesin was present along the whole pilus length at numbers nearly equaling those of SpaA. The relative amount and uniform distribution of SpaC within pili not only makes it possible to exert both long-distance and intimate contact with host tissue but also provides mucus-binding strength, which explains the prolonged intestinal residency times observed for L. rhamnosus GG compared to that of nonpiliated lactobacilli.

  4. In vivo toxicity of 3 prime -azido-3 prime -deoxythymidine (AZT) on CBA/Ca mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Bullis, J. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (USA))

    1990-09-01

    CBA/Ca male mice were given 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) in drinking water (1 mg/ml) for up to 7 weeks. Water consumption and body weight decreased significantly. Neutropenia and lymphopenia were observed during and after exposure. Significant macrocytic anemia developed and disappeared as a function of red cell life span after stopping AZT intake. A microthrombocytosis was seen. Bone marrow cellularity and spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-s) content fell, but recovered completely and quickly after terminating AZT intake. Hemopoietic stem cell function measured by 2 different methods of rescuing fatally irradiated mice was normal 4 weeks after AZT exposure, suggesting that AZT treatment does not induce a long-lasting effect in genetic control of mitotic potential of stem cells. This is in marked contrast to exposure of CBA/Ca mice to benzene and ionizing radiation.

  5. Feasibility Risk Assessment of Transport Infrastructure Projects: The CBA-DK Decision Support Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Banister, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the final version of the CBA-DK decision support model for assessment of transport projects. The model makes use of conventional cost-benefit analysis resulting in aggregated single point estimates and quantitative risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation resulting in interval...... results. Two special concerns in this paper is firstly the treatment of feasibility risk assessment adopted for evaluation of transport infrastructure projects, and secondly whether this can provide a more robust decision support model. This means moving away from a single point estimate to an interval...... result, and the determination of suitable probability distributions. Use is made of the reference class forecasting information, such as that developed in Optimism Bias for adjustments to investment decisions that relate to all modes of transport. The CBA-DK decision support model results in more...

  6. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 interferes with gliadin peptides entrance in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Marco; Lania, Giuliana; Cuomo, Marialaura; Nigro, Federica; Passannanti, Francesca; Budelli, Andrea; Fasano, Francesca; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Salvatore; Barone, Maria Vittoria; Nigro, Roberto; Nanayakkara, Merlin

    2014-12-01

    Several recent reports describe a role of probiotics as a therapeutic approach for celiac disease (CD). Two undigested A-gliadin peptides, P31-43 and P57-68, are central to CD pathogenesis, inducing an innate and an adaptive immune response, respectively. They enter enterocytes and localize to vesicular compartment to induce their toxic/immunogenics effects. In this article, we tested the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei (LP) CBA L74 (International Depository Accession Number LMG P-24778), its supernatant and LP-fermented cereals on gliadin peptides, P31-43 and P57-68, entrance in Caco-2 cells. Both LP CBA L74 and its supernatant inhibit P31-43 (intensity of fluorescence; FI: 75%) and P57-68 (FI: 50%) entrance in Caco2 cells, indicating that this biological effect is due to some product included in LP CBA L74 supernatant. This effect was present also after fermentation of cereals. This study describes a novel effect of probiotics in the prevention of undigested gliadin peptides toxic effects.

  7. Sex differences in distortion product otoacoustic emissions as a function of age in CBA mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Patricia; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Cannon, Trinitia; Kim, SungHee; Frisina, Robert D

    2004-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss--presbycusis--is the number one communication problem of the aged. A major contributor to presbycusis is the progressive degeneration of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are effective in vivo, physiological measures of hearing, assessing the health and functioning of the OHCs in mammals. We and others have previously demonstrated that DPOAE amplitudes decline with age in humans and mice. The present study's objective was to measure age-related declines in the OHCs in CBA mice (slow, progressive age-related hearing loss) by comparing DPOAEs and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) generated from females and males. Young adult (2.1-2.9 months) and middle-aged CBA (14.0-16.4 months) mice were tested, as well as old CBAs (24.3-29.0 months). DPOAE-grams were obtained with L1 = 65 and L2 = 50 dB SPL, f1/f2 = 1.25, using eight points per octave covering a frequency range from 5.6 to 44.8 kHz (geometric mean frequency). ABRs ranged from 3 to 48 kHz. Analyses revealed that DPOAE levels decreased with age for middle-aged and old male CBAs, but for female CBAs, declines did not occur until old age - after menopause. In contrast, ABR amplitudes for female and male young adult and middle-aged CBAs were the same. Female ABR thresholds were lower than males for old CBAs. In conclusion, we discovered that pre-menopausal CBA female mice have healthier OHCs relative to middle-aged males, but much of this relative advantage is lost post-menopause. Understanding sex differences in age-related sensory disorders will be quite helpful for the goals of preventing, slowing or curing sensory problems in old age for both women and men.

  8. The fluid dynamics of a downer fluidised bed using a cluster-based approach (CBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán González Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The fluid dynamics of a downer reactor were numerically resolved by adapting a mathematical conservation model. The mathematical model was based on the solid and fluid properties and physical characteristics using a cluster-based approach (CBA. Comparing the numerical results to the experimental data found in the literature indicated that the mathematical model could satisfactorily predict the experimental data. The mathematical simulation determined that there were three fluid dynamic areas in the downer reactor which were characterized by accelerated, slowed-down and fully-developed flow. The fully developed flow area in the downer decreased with increased gas surface speed keeping solid flux constant.

  9. Examination of decision support systems for composite CBA & MCDA assessments of transport infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines decision support systems (DSS) for composite appraisals of transport infrastructure projects comprising both cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Two DSS, REMBRANDT and COSIMA, are in this context examined and compared using a case study...... dealing with alternatives for a new high-speed railway line in Sweden. The REMBRANDT system is based on multiplicative value functions and makes use of pair wise comparisons on both attribute and criteria level. The COSIMA system is based on additive value functions and makes use of the REMBRANDT......, a recommendation for the use of DSS within transport infrastructure appraisals is set out....

  10. Examination of Decision Support Systems for Composite CBA and MCDA Assessments of Transport Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines decision support systems (DSS) for composite appraisals of transport infrastructure projects comprising both cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Two DSS, REMBRANDT and COSIMA, are in this context examined and compared using a case study...... dealing with alternatives for a new high-speed railway line in Sweden. The REMBRANDT system is based on multiplicative value functions and makes use of pair wise comparisons on both attribute and criteria level. The COSIMA system is based on additive value functions and makes use of the REMBRANDT......, a recommendation for the use of DSS within transport infrastructure appraisals is set out....

  11. Assessment of Large Transport Infrastructure Projects: The CBA-DK Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Banister, David

    2009-01-01

    use of both deterministic and stochastic based information. Decision support as illustrated in this paper aims to provide assistance in the development and ultimately the choice of action, while accounting for the uncertainties surrounding transport appraisal schemes. The modelling framework...... interval results. The embedded uncertainties within traditional CBA such as ex-ante based investment costs and travel time savings are of particular concern. The paper investigates these two impacts in terms of the Optimism Bias principle which is used to take account of the underestimation of construction...

  12. A polymorphic and hypervariable locus in the pseudoautosomal region of the CBA/H mouse sex chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennelly, J.; Laval, S.; Wright, E.; Plumb, M. [MRC Radiation and Genomic Stability Unit, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    We have identified a genomic locus (DXYH1) that is polymorphic and hypervariable within the CBA/H colony. Using a panel of C57BL/6 x Mus spretus backcross offspring, it was mapped to the distal end of the X chromosome. Pseudoautosomal inheritance was demonstrated through three generations of CBA/H x CBA/H and CBA/H x C57BL/6 crosses and confirmed through linkage to the Sxr locus in X/Y Sxr x 3H1 crosses. Meiotic recombination frequencies place DXYH1 {approximately}28% into the pseudoautosomal region from the boundary. The de novo generation of CBA/H variant DXYH1 restriction fragment length polymorphisms during spermatogenesis is suggestive of the germline instability associated with hypermutable human minisatellites. The absence of DXY1-related sequences in Mus spretus provides DNA sequence evidence to support the observed failure of X-Y pairing during meiosis and consequent hybrid infertility in C57BL/6 x Mus spretus male F1 offspring. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagato, Elena; Mileti, Erika; Massimiliano, Lucia; Fasano, Francesca; Budelli, Andrea; Penna, Giuseppe; Rescigno, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula). We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk) could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium). Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system.

  14. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zagato

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula. We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium. Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system.

  15. Long-Term Dietary Folate Deficiency Accelerates Progressive Hearing Loss on CBA/Ca Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vega, Raquel; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Partearroyo, Teresa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Pajares, María A.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary folic acid deficiency induced early hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice after 2-months, corroborates the epidemiological association previously described between vitamin deficiency and this sensory impairment. However, this strain is prone to early hearing loss, and hence we decided to analyze whether the effects exerted by folate deprivation follow the same pattern in a mouse strain such as CBA/Ca, which is resistant to hearing impairment. Here, we show results of a long-term study on hearing carried out on CBA/Ca mice subjected to dietary folate deprivation. Systemic changes included decreased serum folate levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and signs of anemia in the group fed with folate-deficient (FD) diet. Initial signs of hearing loss were detected in this strain after 8-months of vitamin deficiency, and correlated with histological damage in the cochleae. In conclusion, the data presented reinforce the importance of adequate folic acid levels for the auditory system and suggest that the impact of dietary deficiencies may depend on the genetic background. PMID:27630560

  16. Long-Term Dietary Folate Deficiency Accelerates Progressive Hearing Loss On CBA/Ca Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Martinez-Vega

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary folic acid deficiency induced early hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice after two-months, corroborating the epidemiological association previously described between vitamin deficiency and this sensory impairment. However, this strain is prone to early hearing loss, and hence we decided to analyze whether the effects exerted by folate deprivation follow the same pattern in a mouse strain such as CBA/Ca, which is resistant to hearing impairment. Here, we show results of a long-term study on hearing carried out on CBA/Ca mice subjected to dietary folate deprivation. Systemic changes included decreased serum folate levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and signs of anemia in the group fed the folate-deficient diet. Initial signs of hearing loss were detected in this strain after 8-months of vitamin deficiency, and correlated with histological damage in the cochleae. In conclusion, the data presented reinforce the importance of adequate folic acid levels for the auditory system and suggest that the impact of dietary deficiencies may depend on the genetic background.

  17. 基于模糊CMAC神经网络的4-CBA软测量%4-CBA Soft Sensor Based on Fuzzy CMAC Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文莉; 钱锋; 刘漫丹; 张凯

    2005-01-01

    Soft sensor is attractive in dealing with online product quality measurement by virtue of other easily measured variables. In AMOCO PTA (purified terephthalic acid) production process, the unavailability of real-time measurement of 4-CBA makes it impossible for timely adjustment and thereby influences the product quality and the plant economy benefit. In this paper, a kind of FCMAC (fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller) method is presented to solve the online measurement problem. Different from the conventional CMAC (cerebellar model articulation controller) networks, which has inferior smoothing ability because of its table look-up based technology.Integrating fuzzy model into CMAC networks, it becomes more accurate in functional mapping without weakening its generalization ability. Numerical example and industrial application results show the method proposed here is satisfactory and feasible.

  18. Examination of decision support systems for composite CBA & MCDA assessments of transport infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    This paper examines decision support systems (DSS) for composite appraisals of transport infrastructure projects comprising both cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Two DSS are in this context examined and compared using a case study dealing with alternatives for a new...... high-speed railway line between the two cities, Norrköping and Bäckeby, in Sweden. Both systems are based on additive value functions and makes use of pair wise comparisons. The first system examined, which is widely used and based on acknowledged methods, comprises the REMBRANDT technique using pair...... of the examination and comparison of the two systems is to determine which is the most appropriate for conducting composite appraisals of transport infrastructure projects. The first system provides a conventional widely used and theoretical well founded framework. The COSIMA framework is founded on a somewhat...

  19. Genomic Analysis of the Extremely Halophilic Archaeon Halobacterium noricense CBA1132 Isolated from Solar Salt That Is an Essential Material for Fermented Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Joon Yong; Song, Hye Seon; Kwon, Min-Sung; Lee, Jieun; Oh, Young Jun; Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Lee, Dong-Gi; Choi, Jong-Soon; Yoon, Changmann; Sohn, Eunju; Rahman, Md Arif-Ur; Roh, Seong Woon; Choi, Hak-Jong

    2016-08-28

    The extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium noricense is a member of the genus Halobacterium. Strain CBA1132 (= KCCM 43183, JCM 31150) was isolated from solar salt. The genome of strain CBA1132 assembled with 4 contigs, including three rRNA genes, 44 tRNA genes, and 3,208 open reading frames. Strain CBA1132 had nine putative CRISPRs and the genome contained genes encoding metal resistance determinants: copper-translocating P-type ATPase (CtpA), arsenical pump-driving ATPase (ArsA), arsenate reductase (ArsC), and arsenical resistance operon repressor (ArsR). Strain CBA1132 was related to Halobacterium noricense, with 99.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Based on the comparative genomic analysis, strain CBA1132 has distinctly evolved; moreover, essential genes related to nitrogen metabolism were only detected in the genome of strain CBA1132 among the reported genomes in the genus Halobacterium. This genome sequence of Halobacterium noricense CBA1132 may be of use in future molecular biological studies.

  20. Sex hormones modulate the immune response to Plasmodium berghei ANKA in CBA/Ca mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mosqueda-Romo, Néstor Aarón; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; Morales-Rodríguez, Ana Laura; Buendía-González, Fidel Orlando; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility to malaria differs between females and males, and this sexual dimorphism may have important implications for the effects of vaccines and drugs. However, little is known about the mechanisms mediating these sexual differences. Because the main differences between sexes are dictated by sex hormones, we studied the effect of gonadal steroids on immune responses to malaria in CBA/Ca mice. We decreased sex hormones levels by gonadectomy and evaluated the splenic index and the cells involved in the immune response, including T cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and NK(+)), B cells and macrophages (Mac-3(+)) in the spleens of female and male mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. In addition, we measured antibody and cytokine levels in blood. Gonadectomy increased T(+) and B(+) splenic cells in both sexes but increased Mac-3(+) cells only in male mice. By contrast, gonadectomy decreased the NK(+) cell population only in male mice. In general, female mice developed higher antibody levels than males. Contrary to our expectations, gonadectomy increased the synthesis of IgG1, IgG2b, IgG3, and total IgG in female mice, indicating negative regulation of antibody production by female sex hormones. Gonadectomy increased the synthesis of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) only in female mice, suggesting that female sex hormones have anti-inflammatory properties. This work demonstrates that the levels of sex hormones affect the immune response and should be considered when designing malaria vaccines.

  1. Relative biological effectiveness of tritium for induction of myeloid leukemia in CBA/H mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J R; Myers, D K; Jackson, J S; Dunford, D W; Gragtmans, N J; Wyatt, H M; Jones, A R; Percy, D H

    1995-10-01

    To help resolve uncertainties as to the most appropriate weighting factor for tritium beta rays, a large experiment was carried out to measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water compared to X rays for the induction of myeloid leukemia in male mice of the CBA/H strain. The study was designed to estimate the lifetime incidence of myeloid leukemia in seven groups of about 750 mice each; radiation exposures were approximately 0, 1, 2 and 3 Gy both for tritiated water and for X rays. The lifetime incidence of leukemia in these mice increased from 0.13% in the control group to 6-8% in groups exposed to higher radiation doses. The results were fitted to various equations relating leukemia incidence to radiation dose, using both the raw data and data corrected for cumulative mouse-days at risk. The calculated RBE values for tritium beta rays compared to X rays ranged from 1.0 +/- 0.5 to 1.3 +/- 0.3. A best estimate of the RBE for this experiment was about 1.2 +/- 0.3. A wR value of 1 would thus appear to be more appropriate than a wR of 2 for tritium beta rays.

  2. Relative biological effectiveness of tritium for induction of myeloid leukemia in CBA/H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.R. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Health Protection Branch, Health Div., Richland, WA (United States); Myers, D.K.; Jackson, J.S.; Dunford, D.W.; Gragtmans, N.J.; Wyatt, H.M.; Jones, A.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontairo (Canada); Percy, D.H. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    To help resolve uncertainties as to the most appropriate weighting factor for tritium {beta} rays, a large experiment was carried out to measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water compared to X rays for the induction of myeloid leukemia in male mice of the CBA/H strain. The study was designed to estimate the lifetime incidence of myeloid leukemia in seven groups of about 750 mice each; radiation exposures were approximately 0, 1, 2 and 3 Gy both for tritiated water and for X rays. The lifetime incidence of leukemia in these mice increased from 0.13% in the control group to 6-8% in groups exposed to higher radiation doses. The results were fitted to various equations relating leukemia incidence to radiation dose, using both the raw data and data corrected for cumulative mouse-days at risk. The calculated RBE values for tritium 13 rays compared to X rays ranged from 1.0 {+-} 0.5 to 1.3 {+-} 0.3. A best estimate of the RBE for this experiment was about 1.2 {+-} 0.3. A w{sub R} value of 1 would thus appear to be more appropriate than a W{sub R} of 2 for tritium {beta} rays. (author)

  3. Vocal development and auditory perception in CBA/CaJ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwon, Kelly E.

    Mice are useful laboratory subjects because of their small size, their modest cost, and the fact that researchers have created many different strains to study a variety of disorders. In particular, researchers have found nearly 100 naturally occurring mouse mutations with hearing impairments. For these reasons, mice have become an important model for studies of human deafness. Although much is known about the genetic makeup and physiology of the laboratory mouse, far less is known about mouse auditory behavior. To fully understand the effects of genetic mutations on hearing, it is necessary to determine the hearing abilities of these mice. Two experiments here examined various aspects of mouse auditory perception using CBA/CaJ mice, a commonly used mouse strain. The frequency difference limens experiment tested the mouse's ability to discriminate one tone from another based solely on the frequency of the tone. The mice had similar thresholds as wild mice and gerbils but needed a larger change in frequency than humans and cats. The second psychoacoustic experiment sought to determine which cue, frequency or duration, was more salient when the mice had to identify various tones. In this identification task, the mice overwhelmingly classified the tones based on frequency instead of duration, suggesting that mice are using frequency when differentiating one mouse vocalization from another. The other two experiments were more naturalistic and involved both auditory perception and mouse vocal production. Interest in mouse vocalizations is growing because of the potential for mice to become a model of human speech disorders. These experiments traced mouse vocal development from infant to adult, and they tested the mouse's preference for various vocalizations. This was the first known study to analyze the vocalizations of individual mice across development. Results showed large variation in calling rates among the three cages of adult mice but results were highly

  4. The value of dynamic remediation processes: a real option approach

    OpenAIRE

    Compernolle, T.; Van Passel, S.; Lebbe, L.; Huisman, K.; Kort, P.; Thewys, T.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted by limited resources, the management of problems related to soil and groundwater contamination involves the search for a balance between costs and bene fits, integrating the knowledge from multiple disciplines. A wide range of economic decision tools are available to support the remediation selection process, including Cost Bene fit Analysis (CBA), risk-based CBA, and multi-criteria analysis. However, these tools do not take into account the reversibility of a remediation strategy....

  5. The Analysis On Winning Factors Of The Championship Beijing Team In CBA 2011~ 2012 Season%CBA2011~2012赛季总冠军北京队制胜因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高铖; 卢春根; 许斌; 王荣臻

    2012-01-01

    Acoording to the 5 games of Beijing Jinyu to Guangdong Dongguan Bank Team in CBA finals of 2011~2012 season, we use the methods of documentation, video observation and statistics methods and so on to do a statistical research, and analyze on both sides cxmching, abilities to use techniques, tactics and foreign aid influence factors. The results show that the Beijing team has a reasonable arrangement, two points and free throws get high hit rate, the team has more score points, foreign aid has an obvious effect, the team is both offensive and defensive, which are the main factors that make Baijing team win.%运用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法等研究方法对CBA20112012赛季总决赛北京队对广东队5场比赛进行统计研究,并对双方教练指导、技战术运用能力、外援影响等因素进行分析比较。结果表明:北京队阵容安排合理、2分和罚篮命中率高、球队得分点多、外援作用明显,教练员指挥得当,这些都是北京队获胜的主要因素。

  6. Comparative morphocytologic study of native and irradiated crotoxin on CBA/J mice tissues and cells; Estudo morfocitologico comparativo de crotoxina nativa e irradiada em tecidos e celulas de camundongos CBA/J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardi, Bruno A.

    1995-12-31

    Snake venoms submitted to gamma radiation are better immunogens, have less toxic activity and maintain immunogenic and antigenic properties, favoring its use in anti-sera production which is the main therapy in human accidents. Severe human accidents attributed to neurotoxicity, are caused by Crotalus durissus terrificus, which main toxin - crotoxin - acts on neuro muscular junctions, as detected by electrophysiological studies and could be detoxified by gamma radiation. In order to evaluate the biological effects of this irradiated protein, we analyzed, at morphological and immunohistochemical levels, organs and cells from CBA/J mice challenged with crude venom or purified crotoxin, in an acute intoxication model. Both toxins were submitted to 2 kGy irradiation with a Co-60 source, in water solution. (author). 140 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. On the Meaning,Principles and Access of CBA Brand Positioning%论CBA品牌定位的意义、原则及路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高治

    2012-01-01

    through analysis of the CBA brand positioning is to create the brand's core values,establish a solid long-term customer relationship,guide CBA product development and marketing significance,put forward CBA brand positioning brand conscious principle,aimed at consumers,principle of difference competition principle,from the products and consumers in two aspects,form the brand positioning of the two channel,thereby establishing the brand CBA path.%通过分析CBA品牌定位具有创造品牌的核心价值、建立长期稳固的顾客关系、引导CBA产品开发与营销的意义,提出CBA品牌定位具有品牌意识原则、针对消费者原则、差异性竞争原则,从产品和消费者两个方面出发,形成品牌定位的两条通道,从而建立CBA品牌定位的路径。

  8. Analysis of the multimer resolution system encoded by the parCBA operon of broad-host-range plasmid RP4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberl, Leo; Sternberg, Claus; Givskov, Michael Christian;

    1994-01-01

    specific sites situated in the promoter region of the parCBA operon. The two ParA proteins that are produced as a result of independent translation initiation at two different start codons within the same open reading frame were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and partially purified. Both forms...

  9. Auditory efferent activation in CBA mice exceeds that of C57s for varying levels of noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D; Newman, S R; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2007-01-01

    The medial olivocochlear efferent (MOC) system enhances signals in noise and helps mediate auditory attention. Contralateral suppression (CS) of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) has revealed age-related MOC declines. Here, differences in CS as a function of contralateral noise intensity (43-67 dB sound pressure level) were measured; 2f1-f2 DPOAE grams were recorded for young adult CBA and C57 mice. In CBAs, CS was a monotonic function of contralateral noise level. The C57s showed normal hearing, measured with DPOAE amplitudes and auditory brainstem response thresholds, but showed little CS, suggesting a loss of efferent dynamics preceding any deficiencies of the afferent auditory system.

  10. Absence of activated murine leukaemia virus in X-irradiated CBA/H-T6Crc mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, H.C.; Tuffrey, M.; Wilson, L.; Barnes, R.D. (Medical Research Council, Harrow (UK). Clinical Research Centre)

    1981-04-01

    CBA/H-T6Crc mice, a substrain that does not normally express demonstrable levels of murine leukaemia virus (MuLV) and has a low natural incidence of leukaemia, were examined for evidence of virus activation at various times following X-irradiation. Although X-irradiation caused a high incidence of leukaemia, no ecotropic, xenotropic or recombinant MuLV was detected by in vitro co-cultivation of bone marrow, spleen and thymus cells from pre-leukaemic and leukaemic animals with selectively permissive cell lines followed by indirect immunofluorescence for MuLV group-specific (gs) antigen. These results therefore, are not consistent with the hypothesis that endogenous viruses are the universal aetiological agents of leukaemia.

  11. Dynamics and reproductive effects of complement factors in the spontaneous abortion model of CBA/J×DBA/2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Ai; Kusakabe, Ken Takeshi; Hiyama, Masato; Kuniyoshi, Nobue; Kondo, Tomohiro; Kano, Kiyoshi; Kiso, Yasuo; Okada, Toshiya

    2014-05-01

    The complement system is one component of innate immunity that could participate in fetal loss. We have already reported that adipsin, a complement activator in the alternative pathway, is stably expressed in the placenta and that an increase in this expression is related to spontaneous abortion. However, complement inhibitor Crry was concurrently expressed in the placenta, and the role of complement factors during pregnancy was not clear. In the present study, we examined the endogenous regulation of complement factors in placenta and serum by using another model mouse for spontaneous abortion and studied the effect of exogenous complement disruption on pregnancy. Compared to control mice, the CBA/J×DBA/2 model mice had higher expression levels of adipsin in the placenta and serum. Adipsin and complement C3 were localized in the metrial gland and labyrinth regions, and both positive reactive ranges were limited in the maternal blood current in normal implantation sites. These results suggest that extrauterine adipsin hematogenously reaches the placenta, activates complement C3, and promotes destruction of the feto-maternal barrier in aborted implantation sites. Crry was consistently expressed in the placenta and serum and reduced in the resorption sites of CBA/J×DBA/2 mice as compared to normal sites. Injection of recombinant adipsin increased the resorption rate and changed the expression of Th-type cytokines toward a Th1 bias. The present study indicates that adipsin could induce the fetal loss that accompanies the Th1 bias and may be a crucial cause of spontaneous abortion. In addition, the local expression of Crry prevents complement activation in placenta in response to a systemic increase of adipsin.

  12. Knowledge discovery and sequence-based prediction of pandemic influenza using an integrated classification and association rule mining (CBA) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Fatemeh; Sami, Ashkan; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-10-01

    Pandemic influenza is a major concern worldwide. Availability of advanced technologies and the nucleotide sequences of a large number of pandemic and non-pandemic influenza viruses in 2009 provide a great opportunity to investigate the underlying rules of pandemic induction through data mining tools. Here, for the first time, an integrated classification and association rule mining algorithm (CBA) was used to discover the rules underpinning alteration of non-pandemic sequences to pandemic ones. We hypothesized that the extracted rules can lead to the development of an efficient expert system for prediction of influenza pandemics. To this end, we used a large dataset containing 5373 HA (hemagglutinin) segments of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and non-pandemic influenza sequences. The analysis was carried out for both nucleotide and protein sequences. We found a number of new rules which potentially present the undiscovered antigenic sites at influenza structure. At the nucleotide level, alteration of thymine (T) at position 260 was the key discriminating feature in distinguishing non-pandemic from pandemic sequences. At the protein level, rules including I233K, M334L were the differentiating features. CBA efficiently classifies pandemic and non-pandemic sequences with high accuracy at both the nucleotide and protein level. Finding hotspots in influenza sequences is a significant finding as they represent the regions with low antibody reactivity. We argue that the virus breaks host immunity response by mutation at these spots. Based on the discovered rules, we developed the software, "Prediction of Pandemic Influenza" for discrimination of pandemic from non-pandemic sequences. This study opens a new vista in discovery of association rules between mutation points during evolution of pandemic influenza.

  13. Age-related declines in distortion product otoacoustic emissions utilizing pure tone contralateral stimulation in CBA/CaJ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, George I; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Frisina, Robert D

    2005-11-01

    One role of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) auditory efferent system is to suppress cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) responses when presented with a contralateral sound. Using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), the effects of active changes in OHC responses due to the MOC as a function of age can be observed when contralateral stimulation with a pure tone is applied. Previous studies have shown that there are age-related declines of the MOC when broad band noise is presented to the contralateral ear. In this study, we measured age-related changes in CBA/CaJ mice by comparing DPOAE generation with and without a contralateral pure tone at three different frequencies (12, 22, and 37 kHz). Young (n = 16), middle (n = 10) and old-aged (n = 10) CBA mice were tested. DPOAE-grams were obtained using L1 = 65 and L2 = 50 dB SPL, F1/F2 = 1.25, using eight points per octave covering a frequency range from 5.6-44.8 kHz. The pure tone was presented contralaterally at 55 dB SPL. DPOAE-grams and ABR levels indicated age-related hearing loss in the old mice. In addition, there was an overall change in DPOAEs in the middle-aged and old groups relative to the young. Pure tone stimulation was not as effective as a suppressor compared to broadband noise. An increase in pure tone frequency from 12 to 22 kHz induced greater suppression of DPOAEs, but the 37 kHz was least effective. These results indicate that as the mouse ages, there are significant changes in the efficiency of the suppression mechanism as elicited by contralateral narrowband stimuli. These findings reinforce the idea that age-related changes in the MOC or the operating points of OHCs play a role in the progression of presbycusis - age-related hearing loss in mammals.

  14. Selection of clc, cba, and fcb chlorobenzoate-catabolic genotypes from groundwater and surface waters adjacent to the Hyde park, Niagara Falls, chemical landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, M C; Wyndham, R C

    1999-04-01

    The frequency of isolation of three nonhomologous chlorobenzoate catabolic genotypes (clc, cba, and fcb) was determined for 464 isolates from freshwater sediments and groundwater in the vicinity of the Hyde Park industrial landfill site in the Niagara watershed. Samples were collected from both contaminated and noncontaminated sites during spring, summer, and fall and enriched at 4, 22, or 32 degrees C with micromolar to millimolar concentrations of chlorobenzoates and 3-chlorobiphenyl (M. C. Peel and R. C. Wyndham, Microb. Ecol: 33:59-68, 1997). Hybridization at moderate stringency to restriction-digested genomic DNA with DNA probes revealed the chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase operon (clcABD), the 3-chlorobenzoate 3,4-(4,5)-dioxygenase operon (cbaABC), and the 4-chlorobenzoate dehalogenase (fcbB) gene in isolates enriched from all contaminated sites in the vicinity of the industrial landfill. Nevertheless, the known genes were found in less than 10% of the isolates from the contaminated sites, indicating a high level of genetic diversity in the microbial community. The known genotypes were not enriched from the noncontaminated control sites nearby. The clc, cba, and fcb isolates were distributed across five phenotypically distinct groups based on Biolog carbon source utilization, with the breadth of the host range decreasing in the order clc > cba > fcb. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns showed that the cba genes were conserved in all isolates whereas the clc and fcb genes exhibited variation in RFLP patterns. These observations are consistent with the recent spread of the cba genes by horizontal transfer as part of transposon Tn5271 in response to contaminant exposure at Hyde Park. Consistent with this hypothesis, IS1071, the flanking element in Tn5271, was found in all isolates that carried the cba genes. Interestingly, IS1071 was also found in a high proportion of isolates from Hyde Park carrying the clc and fcb genes, as well as in type

  15. The effects of early bilateral deafening on calretinin expression in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of aged CBA/CaJ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettel, Martha L; O'Neill, William E; Trang, Tung T; Frisina, Robert D

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that calretinin (CR) levels in the aged mouse auditory brainstem depend upon hearing ability. Old animals with good hearing, and thus higher sound-evoked activity levels, were predicted to have higher levels of CR immunoreactivity than old animals with hearing loss. CR immunoreactivity was analyzed in the deep layer (layer III) of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) in CBA/CaJ mice that were bilaterally deafened at 3 months of age with kanamycin, and then aged until 24 months. This manipulation partially mimics the lack of sound-evoked auditory activity experienced by old C57BL/6J mice, who are deaf at 24 months of age (but show residual hearing at 15 months) and have lower levels of CR immunoreactivity than old CBA mice with normal hearing [Hear. Res. 158 (2001) 131]. Cell counts revealed that the density of CR+ cells in DCN layer III of the deafened CBA mice was statistically different from old intact CBA mice raised under identical conditions. Old deafened CBAs showed a decline of 47% in the mean density of CR+ cells compared to old hearing CBAs, thus supporting the hypothesis. Interestingly, while there tended to be fewer CR+ cells in the old deaf C57s as compared to young C57s and young and old CBAs with normal hearing, the difference was not statistically significant. It is possible that the residual hearing of C57 mice at 15 months may provide sufficient auditory input to maintain CR at levels higher than CBA mice that are deafened completely at 3 months of age, and are profoundly deaf for a much longer time (21 months).

  16. Interactions of hearing loss and diabetes mellitus in the middle age CBA/CaJ mouse model of presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Olga N; Frisina, Susan T; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P; Frisina, Robert D

    2009-03-01

    Recently, we characterized the more severe nature of hearing loss in aged Type 2 diabetic human subjects [Frisina, S.T., Mapes, F., Kim, S., Frisina, D.R., Frisina, R.D., 2006. Characterization of hearing loss in aged type II diabetics. Hear. Res. 211, 103-113]. The current study prospectively assessed hearing abilities in middle age CBA/CaJ mice with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (STZ injection) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (high fat diet), for a period of 6 months. Blood glucose, body weight and auditory tests (Auditory Brainstem Response-ABR, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions-DPOAE) were evaluated at baseline and every 2 months. Tone and broad-band noise-burst responses in the inferior colliculus were obtained at 6 months. Body weights of controls did not change over 6 months (approximately 32 g), but there was a significant (approximately 5 g) decline in the T1DM, while T2DM exhibited approximately 10 g weight gain. Blood glucose levels significantly increased: 3-fold for T1DM, 1.3-fold for T2DM; with no significant changes in controls. ABR threshold elevations were found for both types of diabetes, but were most pronounced in the T2DM, starting as early as 2 months after induction of diabetes. A decline of mean DPOAE amplitudes was observed in both diabetic groups at high frequencies, and for the T2DM at low frequencies. In contrast to ABR thresholds, tone and noise thresholds in the inferior colliculus were lower for both diabetic groups. Induction of diabetes in middle-aged CBA/CaJ mice promotes amplification of age-related peripheral hearing loss which makes it a suitable model for studying the interaction of age-related hearing loss and diabetes. On the other hand, initial results of effects from very high blood glucose level (T1DM) on the auditory midbrain showed disruption of central inhibition, increased response synchrony or enhanced excitation in the inferior colliculus.

  17. Crystallization and X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of the Adhesive SpaC Pilin Subunit in the SpaCBA Pilus of Gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Abhiruchi; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Palva, Airi; Krishnan, Vengadesan

    2016-01-01

    Gram-positive Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a gut-adapted commensalic (and probiotic) strain, is known to express sortase-assembled pili on its cell surface. These SpaCBA-called pili consist of three different types of building blocks; the SpaA backbone-pilin subunit and the SpaB and SpaC ancillary pilins. SpaC is a relatively large (~90kDa) multi-domain fimbrial adhesin, and while it is located primarily at the SpaCBA pilus tip, occasionally, it can also be detected throughout the length of pilus backbone. Functionally, SpaC mainly accounts for SpaCBA pilus-mediated interactions with intestinal mucus, collagen, and human gut epithelial cells. Moreover, SpaC adhesiveness is also perceived to have a causal relationship with SpaCBA pilus-induced host-cell immune responses. In order to improve the mechanistic understanding of SpaC and its adhesive properties by structural investigation, we purified and successfully crystallized a recombinant construct of the near full-length SpaC protein (residues 36-856) in the presence of magnesium ions. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution. The SpaC crystal belongs to the space group P21212 with unit cell parameters a = 116.5, b = 128.3, c = 136.5 Å and contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Presence of conserved metal ion-dependent adhesion site containing von Willebrand factor type A domain suggests its likely role in the function of SpaC.

  18. Mixtures of Uncaria and Tabebuia extracts are potentially chemopreventive in CBA/Ca mice: a long-term experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budán, Ferenc; Szabó, István; Varjas, Tímea; Nowrasteh, Ghodratollah; Dávid, Tamás; Gergely, Péter; Varga, Zsuzsa; Molnár, Kornélia; Kádár, Balázs; Orsós, Zsuzsa; Kiss, István; Ember, István

    2011-04-01

    A long-term experimental animal model was developed by our research group for the evaluation of potential chemopreventive effects. The inhibitory effects of agents on carcinogen (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced molecular epidemiological biomarkers, in this case the expression of key onco/suppressor genes were investigated. The expression pattern of c-myc, Ha-ras, Bcl-2, K-ras protooncogene and p53 tumour suppressor gene were studied to elucidate early carcinogenic and potential chemopreventive effects. The consumption of so-called Claw of Dragon tea (CoD™ tea) containing the bark of Uncaria guianensis, Cat's Claw (Uncaria sp. U. tomentosa) and Palmer trumpet-tree (Tabebuia sp. T. avellanedae) was able to decrease the DMBA-induced onco/suppressor gene overexpression in a short-term animal experiment. In a following study CBA/Ca mice were treated with 20 mg/kg bw DMBA intraperitoneally (i.p.) and the expression patterns of onco/suppressor genes were examined at several time intervals. According to the examined gene expression patterns in this long-term experiment the chemopreventive effect of CoD™ tea consumption could be confirmed.

  19. Discrimination of ultrasonic vocalizations by CBA/CaJ mice (Mus musculus is related to spectrotemporal dissimilarity of vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erikson G Neilans

    Full Text Available The function of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs produced by mice (Mus musculus is a topic of broad interest to many researchers. These USVs differ widely in spectrotemporal characteristics, suggesting different categories of vocalizations, although this has never been behaviorally demonstrated. Although electrophysiological studies indicate that neurons can discriminate among vocalizations at the level of the auditory midbrain, perceptual acuity for vocalizations has yet to be determined. Here, we trained CBA/CaJ mice using operant conditioning to discriminate between different vocalizations and between a spectrotemporally modified vocalization and its original version. Mice were able to discriminate between vocalization types and between manipulated vocalizations, with performance negatively correlating with spectrotemporal similarity. That is, discrimination performance was higher for dissimilar vocalizations and much lower for similar vocalizations. The behavioral data match previous neurophysiological results in the inferior colliculus (IC, using the same stimuli. These findings suggest that the different vocalizations could carry different meanings for the mice. Furthermore, the finding that behavioral discrimination matched neural discrimination in the IC suggests that the IC plays an important role in the perceptual discrimination of vocalizations.

  20. Auditory sensitivity and the outer hair cell system in the CBA mouse model of age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2010-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss is a highly prevalent sensory disorder, from both the clinical and animal model perspectives. Understanding of the neurophysiologic, structural, and molecular biologic bases of age-related hearing loss will facilitate development of biomedical therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow, or reverse its progression. Thus, increased understanding of relationships between aging of the cochlear (auditory portion of the inner ear) hair cell system and decline in overall hearing ability is necessary. The goal of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that there would be correlations between physiologic measures of outer hair cell function (otoacoustic emission levels) and hearing sensitivity (auditory brainstem response thresholds), starting in middle age. For the CBA mouse, a useful animal model of age-related hearing loss, it was found that correlations between these two hearing measures occurred only for high sound frequencies in middle age. However, in old age, a correlation was observed across the entire mouse range of hearing. These findings have implications for improved early detection of progression of age-related hearing loss in middle-aged mammals, including mice and humans, and distinguishing peripheral etiologies from central auditory system decline.

  1. Discrimination between Weaned and Unweaned Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) in Capture-Based Aquaculture (CBA) by X-Ray Imaging and Radio-Frequency Metal Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misimi, Ekrem; Martinsen, Svein; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Erikson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of two detection methods for use in discrimination and sorting of adult Atlantic cod (about 2 kg) in the small scale capture-based aquaculture (CBA). Presently, there is no established method for discrimination of weaned and unweaned cod in CBA. Generally, 60–70% of the wild-caught cod in the CBA are weaned into commercial dry feed. To increase profitability for the fish farmers, unweaned cod must be separated from the stock, meaning the fish must be sorted into two groups – unweaned and weaned from moist feed. The challenges with handling of large numbers of fish in cages, defined the limits of the applied technology. As a result, a working model was established, focusing on implementing different marking materials added to the fish feed, and different technology for detecting the feed presence in the fish gut. X-ray imaging in two modes (planar and dual energy band) and sensitive radio-frequency metal detection were the detection methods that were chosen for the investigations. Both methods were tested in laboratory conditions using dead fish with marked feed inserted into the gut cavity. In particular, the sensitive radio-frequency metal detection method with carbonyl powder showed very promising results in detection of marked feed. Results show also that Dual energy band X-ray imaging may have potential for prediction of fat content in the feed. Based on the investigations it can be concluded that both X-ray imaging and sensitive radio-frequency metal detector technology have the potential for detecting cod having consumed marked feed. These are all technologies that may be adapted to large scale handling of fish from fish cages. Thus, it may be possible to discriminate between unweaned and weaned cod in a large scale grading situation. Based on the results of this study, a suggestion for evaluation of concept for in-situ sorting system is presented. PMID:24743448

  2. Discrimination between weaned and unweaned Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in capture-based aquaculture (CBA) by X-ray imaging and radio-frequency metal detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misimi, Ekrem; Martinsen, Svein; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Erikson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of two detection methods for use in discrimination and sorting of adult Atlantic cod (about 2 kg) in the small scale capture-based aquaculture (CBA). Presently, there is no established method for discrimination of weaned and unweaned cod in CBA. Generally, 60-70% of the wild-caught cod in the CBA are weaned into commercial dry feed. To increase profitability for the fish farmers, unweaned cod must be separated from the stock, meaning the fish must be sorted into two groups - unweaned and weaned from moist feed. The challenges with handling of large numbers of fish in cages, defined the limits of the applied technology. As a result, a working model was established, focusing on implementing different marking materials added to the fish feed, and different technology for detecting the feed presence in the fish gut. X-ray imaging in two modes (planar and dual energy band) and sensitive radio-frequency metal detection were the detection methods that were chosen for the investigations. Both methods were tested in laboratory conditions using dead fish with marked feed inserted into the gut cavity. In particular, the sensitive radio-frequency metal detection method with carbonyl powder showed very promising results in detection of marked feed. Results show also that Dual energy band X-ray imaging may have potential for prediction of fat content in the feed. Based on the investigations it can be concluded that both X-ray imaging and sensitive radio-frequency metal detector technology have the potential for detecting cod having consumed marked feed. These are all technologies that may be adapted to large scale handling of fish from fish cages. Thus, it may be possible to discriminate between unweaned and weaned cod in a large scale grading situation. Based on the results of this study, a suggestion for evaluation of concept for in-situ sorting system is presented.

  3. Discrimination between weaned and unweaned Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in capture-based aquaculture (CBA by X-ray imaging and radio-frequency metal detector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Misimi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of two detection methods for use in discrimination and sorting of adult Atlantic cod (about 2 kg in the small scale capture-based aquaculture (CBA. Presently, there is no established method for discrimination of weaned and unweaned cod in CBA. Generally, 60-70% of the wild-caught cod in the CBA are weaned into commercial dry feed. To increase profitability for the fish farmers, unweaned cod must be separated from the stock, meaning the fish must be sorted into two groups - unweaned and weaned from moist feed. The challenges with handling of large numbers of fish in cages, defined the limits of the applied technology. As a result, a working model was established, focusing on implementing different marking materials added to the fish feed, and different technology for detecting the feed presence in the fish gut. X-ray imaging in two modes (planar and dual energy band and sensitive radio-frequency metal detection were the detection methods that were chosen for the investigations. Both methods were tested in laboratory conditions using dead fish with marked feed inserted into the gut cavity. In particular, the sensitive radio-frequency metal detection method with carbonyl powder showed very promising results in detection of marked feed. Results show also that Dual energy band X-ray imaging may have potential for prediction of fat content in the feed. Based on the investigations it can be concluded that both X-ray imaging and sensitive radio-frequency metal detector technology have the potential for detecting cod having consumed marked feed. These are all technologies that may be adapted to large scale handling of fish from fish cages. Thus, it may be possible to discriminate between unweaned and weaned cod in a large scale grading situation. Based on the results of this study, a suggestion for evaluation of concept for in-situ sorting system is presented.

  4. Cultural Analysis of Naming and Logo Design of CBA Clubs%CBA俱乐部命名及标识设计的文化探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 陶国栋

    2012-01-01

    运用文献资料法和比较研究法,对CBA俱乐部物质层文化的重要组成部分——俱乐部(球队)的命名和标识设计进行分析。结果显示:CBA俱乐部命名方式及标识存在设计过于单一,缺乏特色和文化内涵;俱乐部及球队名称商业色彩过浓;俱乐部标识设计不够简洁美观等问题。建议:俱乐部命名及标识设计应突显特色、深化内涵;俱乐部及球队命名应改变传统模式,减少商业色彩;俱乐部标识设计应简洁精致、符合美学原理等。%Analyses the important constituent parts of physical culture of the CBA clubs--naming and logo de sign by using the methods of documentation and comparative research, and puts forward some suggestions in allu sion to the deficiency, so as to provide reference for the culture construction of the CBA clubs. Conclusion : The naming and logo design of CBA clubs are too oncfold, and lack of features and cultural connotation; The com mercial colour of the names of clubs and teams is too thick ; The logo design is not concise and elegant, etc. Sug gestion: The naming and logo design of the clubs should be highlighted characteristic and deepend connotation; The clubs should change the traditional pattern of naming, and reduce commercial colour; The logo design should be more concise and delicate, and accord with aesthetics principle, etc.

  5. 新赛季CBA各俱乐部外援引进使用的新思考%New Thinking of CBA Club Introduction of External Aid in the New Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玺

    2012-01-01

    CBA17 years' history of external aid policy has been changed,the main considerations to take into account the improvement of the domestic players and team achievements.CBA is a professional sports league goal of the direction of the development of our foreign aid is the introduction of the policy should be a new way of thinking,more respect for the club the right to better reflect the expectations of the majority of fans for the club.National team in international competitions achievement is one of the development goals of CBA,not all,should modern enterprise management methods to manage the CBA.%CBA17年历史外援政策几经变更,主要考虑的是国内球员的提高和国家队成绩。在CBA以职业竞技联赛为方向发展的目标下,我们外援引进使用政策应有新的思维方式,更加尊重俱乐部权利,更加体现广大球迷对于俱乐部的期待。国家队国际比赛成绩是CBA发展的目标之一不是全部,更应以现代企业管理方式管理CBA。

  6. Synthesis, structural characterization and luminescent properties of a novel europium ternary complex Eu(2-A-4-CBA){sub 3}phen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yongjie, E-mail: cyj200507@aliyun.com; Wu, Shengnan; Xing, Zhenfang; Cao, Shuang; Geng, Xiujuan; Yang, Ying; Xiao, Linjiu

    2015-11-15

    The preparation of a novel europium ternary complex with the formula of Eu(2-A-4-CBA){sub 3}phen (where, 2-A-4-CBA = 2-amino-4-chlorobenzoic acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) under solvothermal condition is described. The composition and structure of the resulting complex were investigated by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The complex is polycrystalline, and the morphology is clean and regular as revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The luminescent and thermal properties of the complex were researched by fluorescence spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Of importance here is that, the room-temperature luminescence spectra of the complex show strong characteristic emission of the corresponding Eu{sup 3+}, which is attributed to the energy transfer from ligands to Eu{sup 3+} via an Antenna effect. It is also found that the complex exhibits pure red light and high color purity. In addition, the complex does not decompose until 300 °C, so it exhibits good thermal stability. - Highlights: • A novel Eu(III) complex was synthesized by solvothermal synthesis method. • The structure and properties of complex were studied. • The complex can emits pure red light and has a high color purity. • The complex does not decompose until 300 °C and it has a good thermal stability.

  7. Influence of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. on T-cell-mediated immunity in normal and immunosuppressed mice line CBA/Ca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhenkovska, Iryna V; Pidchenko, Vitalii T; Bychkova, Nina G; Bisko, Nina A; Rodnichenko, Angela Y; Kozyko, Natalya O

    2015-09-01

    The article presents the results of the investigation of the effect of biomass powder of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum on T-cell-mediated immunity in normal and immunosuppressed mice CBA/Ca. Delayed-type hypersensitivity assay was used. Experimental immunodeficiency was established with intraperitoneal injection of the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide at a single dose of 150 mg/kg on the first day of the experiment. Results of the study show that the administration of biomass powder of Ganoderma lucidum in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg orally for 10 days increases the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in normal mice CBA/Ca. Administration of 0.5 mg/kg of biomass powder of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum for 10 days blocked the development of the T-cell-mediated immunosuppression, induced by administration of cyclophosphamide and restored the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in immunosuppressed mice. Key words: fungus Ganoderma lucidum cyclophosphamide immunodeficiency T-cell-mediated immunity delayed-type hypersensitivity.

  8. NBA与CBA比赛跳跃步法的对比分析%Comparison of Jumping Footwork in NBA and CBA Matches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚远; 阮棉芳; 任峰

    2012-01-01

    通过录像分析了NBA与CBA各8场比赛,对比CBA与NBA比赛中各个位置队员使用各种跳跃步法的差异。将跳跃步法按原地起跳、一步助跑起跳、两步以上单脚起跳、两步以上双脚起跳、后撤步起跳、连续起跳、横向移动急停起跳等7种方式进行了归类和统计。结果发现CBA队员比NBA队员更多地采用了原地起跳,而在一步助跑起跳与两步以上助跑双脚起跳的使用频率上比NBA低。相差最大的是横向移动急停起跳,NBA的控球后卫、得分后卫、小前锋使用该步法的频率分别是CBA相同队员的1.6倍、2.1倍、3.9倍。提示:CBA队员应该增加运动中起跳的次数,尤其要加强对横向移动急停起跳的训练与应用。同时要加强对横向移动急停起跳的生物力学研究,为提高训练效果、预防损伤、研发符合篮球运动特点的篮球鞋提供理论依据。%Through video analysis,the author analyzed 8 matches each in NBA and CBA so as to compare the difference of the different jumping footwork of of the different position players in CBA and NBA matches.The jumping footwork is classified into 7 types,i.e.,standing jump,one-step jump,over two steps one-foot jump,over two steps two-feet jump,backward step jump,continuous jump and lateral movement abrupt stop jump.The result shows that compared to NBA players,more CBA players use standing jump and the frequency of using one-step jump and over two steps two-feet jump is lower.Great different can be found in lateral movement abrupt stop jump.The frequency of using this footwork by NBA's point guard,shooting guard and small forward is 1.6 times,2.1 times and 3.9 times separately than the CBA players.This suggests that CBA players should increase jumping times in movement and strengthen the training and application of lateral movement abrupt stop jumping.At the same time,more attention should be paid to the biomechanical study of lateral movement abrupt stop jump

  9. Proteomic Profiling of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells after a Whole Body Exposure of CBA/CaJ Mice to Titanium (48Ti Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokporn Noy Rithidech

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid leukemia (ML is one of the major health concerns from exposure to radiation. However, the risk assessment for developing ML after exposure to space radiation remains uncertain. To reduce the uncertainty in risk prediction for ML, a much increased understanding of space radiation-induced changes in the target cells, i.e., hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs, is critically important. We used the label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQMS proteomic approach to determine the expression of protein in HSPC-derived myeloid colonies obtained at an early time-point (one week and a late time-point (six months after an acute whole body exposure of CBA/CaJ mice to a total dose of 0, 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 Gy of heavy-ion titanium (48Ti ions, which are the important component of radiation found in the space environment. Mice exposed to 0 Gy of 48Ti ions served as non-irradiated sham controls. There were five mice per treatment groups at each harvest time. The Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP was used to assign a probability of a particular protein being in the sample. A proof-of-concept based Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA was used to characterize the functions, pathways, and networks of the identified proteins. Alterations of expression levels of proteins detected in samples collected at one week (wk post-irradiation reflects acute effects of exposure to 48Ti ions, while those detected in samples collected at six months (mos post-irradiation represent protein expression profiles involved in the induction of late-occurring damage (normally referred to as genomic instability. Our results obtained by using the IPA analyses indicate a wide array of signaling pathways involved in response to 1 GeV/n 48Ti ions at both harvest times. Our data also demonstrate that the patterns of protein expression profiles are dose and time dependent. The majority of proteins with altered expression levels are involved in cell cycle control, cellular growth and

  10. Developing a CBA Methodology for the Scenario-Based Land-Use Impact Assessment of Proposed Rail Investments in the Leipzig Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ustaoglu, Eda; Williams, Brndan; Petrov, Laura Oana

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a methodological approach to be utilised for the evaluation of transport-land-use impacts of rapid rail investments in the Leipzig Region with the potential for this approach to be used for other European regions. Various land development scenarios are generated from the MOLAND...... Model applications. The land-use scenarios considered in this research are a baseline scenario of dispersed development and an alternative scenario of more compact urban developments associated with potential rapid rail provisions in the Leipzig Region. The appraisal of transport-land-use relationships...... is subject to the use of economic indicators and can be evaluated based on alternative land development scenarios developed for the Leipzig Area. In this context, key elements of a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) approach will be developed for the evaluation of potential costs of urban rail provisions with its...

  11. Late-occurring chromosome aberrations and global DNA methylation in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells of CBA/CaJ mice exposed to silicon ({sup 28}Si) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy, E-mail: kanokporn.rithidech@stonybrookmedicine.edu [Pathology Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8691 (United States); Honikel, Louise M. [Pathology Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8691 (United States); Reungpathanaphong, Paiboon [Pathology Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8691 (United States); Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Sciences, Kasetsart University, Chatuchuck, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Tungjai, Montree [Pathology Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8691 (United States); Department of Radiologic Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Center of Excellence for Molecular Imaging, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Jangiam, Witawat [Pathology Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8691 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131 (Thailand); Whorton, Elbert B. [StatCom, PO Box 3041, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Late-occurring chromosome aberrations were found in HSPCs of exposed CBA/CaJ mice. • A dose-dependent reduction in the level of global 5hmC was detected in HSPCs. • There is a link between reduced global 5hmC levels and genomic instability in vivo. • The level of global 5hmC is a better marker of radiation exposure than that of 5mC. - Abstract: Although myeloid leukemia (ML) is one of the major health concerns from exposure to space radiation, the risk prediction for developing ML is unsatisfactory. To increase the reliability of predicting ML risk, a much improved understanding of space radiation-induced changes in the target cells, i.e. hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), is important. We focused on the in vivo induction of late-occurring damage in HSPCs of mice exposed to {sup 28}Si ions since such damage is associated with radiation-induced genomic instability (a key event of carcinogenesis). We gave adult male CBA/CaJ mice, known to be sensitive to radiation-induced ML, a whole-body exposure (2 fractionated exposures, 15 days apart, that totaled each selected dose, delivered at the dose-rate of 1 cGy/min) to various doses of 300 MeV/n {sup 28}Si ions, i.e. 0 (sham controls), 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 Gy. At 6 months post-irradiation, we collected bone marrow cells from each mouse (five mice per treatment-group) for obtaining the myeloid-lineage of HSPC-derived clones for analyses. We measured the frequencies of late-occurring chromosome aberrations (CAs), using the genome-wide multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization method. The measurement of CAs was coupled with the characterization of the global DNA methylation patterns, i.e. 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). A dose-dependent increase in the frequencies of CAs was detected (Analysis of Variance or ANOVA, p < 0.01), indicating the induction of genomic instability after exposure of mice to 300 MeV/n {sup 28}Si ions. Slight increases in the levels of 5m

  12. 2011-2012 CBA Finals in Both the Position Players Comparative Analysis%2011~2012赛季CBA总决赛双方技术对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 王冬慧

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the use of literature,the method of video observation and mathematical statistical method,comparative analysis of all five games of the teams CBA2011-2012 Finals,forward.the center and guard position players,comparative analysis,which reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the two teams provide a valuable theoretical basis for future training and competition of the two teams.%运用文献资料法、录像观察法和数理统计法等方法,对CBA2011~2012赛季总决赛北京队和广东队两队前锋、中锋和后卫的技术进行对比分析,从中揭示两队的优势与不足,为两队今后的训练和比赛提供有价值的理论依据。

  13. Pretreatment with Cry1Ac Protoxin Modulates the Immune Response, and Increases the Survival of Plasmodium-Infected CBA/Ca Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Legorreta-Herrera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a major global health problem that kills 1-2 million people each year. Despite exhaustive research, naturally acquired immunity is poorly understood. Cry1A proteins are potent immunogens with adjuvant properties and are able to induce strong cellular and humoral responses. In fact, it has been shown that administration of Cry1Ac protoxin alone or with amoebic lysates induces protection against the lethal infection caused by the protozoa Naegleria fowleri. In this work, we studied whether Cry1Ac is able to activate the innate immune response to induce protection against Plasmodium berghei ANKA (lethal and P. chabaudi AS (nonlethal parasites in CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with Cry1Ac induced protection against both Plasmodium species in terms of reduced parasitaemia, longer survival time, modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and increased levels of specific antibodies against Plasmodium. Understanding how to boost innate immunity to Plasmodium infection should lead to immunologically based intervention strategies.

  14. GolS controls the response to gold by the hierarchical induction of Salmonella-specific genes that include a CBA efflux-coding operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontel, Lucas B; Audero, María E Pérez; Espariz, Martín; Checa, Susana K; Soncini, Fernando C

    2007-11-01

    Salmonella employs a specific set of proteins that allows it to detect the presence of gold salts in the environment and to mount the appropriate resistance response. This includes a P-type ATPase, GolT, and a small cytoplasmic metal binding protein, GolB. Their expression is controlled by a MerR-like sensor, GolS, which is highly selective for Au ions. Here, we identify a new GolS-controlled operon named gesABC which codes for a CBA efflux system, and establish its role in Au resistance. GesABC can also mediate drug resistance when induced by Au in a GolS-dependent manner, in a strain deleted in the main drug transporter acrAB. The GolS-controlled transcription of gesABC differs from the other GolS-regulated loci. It is activated by gold, but not induced by copper, even in a strain deleted of the main Cu transporter gene copA, which triggers a substantial GolS-dependent induction of golTS and golB. We demonstrate that the Au-dependent induction of gesABC transcription requires higher GolS levels than for the other members of the gol regulon. This correlates with a divergent GolS operator in the gesABC promoter. We propose that the hierarchical induction within the gol regulon allows Salmonella to cope with Au-contaminated environments.

  15. Growth hormone is necessary for the p53-mediated, obesity-induced insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J x CBA mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogazzi, Fausto; Raggi, Francesco; Russo, Dania; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Sardella, Chiara; Urbani, Claudio; Lombardi, Martina; Manetti, Luca; Lupi, Isabella; Tornell, Jan; Martino, Enio

    2013-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a key marker of both obesity and GH excess. The purpose of the study was to assess the role of GH on p53-mediated insulin resistance of male mice with obesity due to a high-fat diet. C57BL/6J × CBA male mice fed on a high-fat diet (Obe) were studied; male mice fed a normal diet (Lean) or transgenic mice for bovine GH under the same genetic background (Acro) served as controls. The convergence of p53 and GH pathways was evaluated by Western blot. Obe mice had insulin resistance, which was sustained by a selective increased expression of p53 in adipose tissue. Normal insulin sensitivity was restored, and adipose p53 expression normalized when the GH pathway was blocked. Only the adipose p53 expression was sensitive to the GH blockage, which occurred through the p38 pathway. Adipose tissue of Obe mice had a coordinate overexpression of suppressors of cytokine signal 1-3 and signal transducers and activators of transcription-1, -3, and -5b, not different from that of Acro mice, suggesting an increased sensitivity of adipose tissue to GH. On the contrary, Lean mice were unaffected by changes of GH action. GH seems to be necessary for the increased adipose p53 expression and for insulin resistance of obese mice.

  16. [Effect of sulpiride on immobility reflex and pinch-induced catalepsy in CBA/Lac male mice with various social status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipina, T V; Vishnivetskaia, G B

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of D2/D3 receptor antagonist sulpiride on the expression of immobility reflex ("pinch-test") and pinch-induced catalepsy ("bar-test") of CBA/Lac male mice depending on their social status ("aggressors" with repeated experience of victories or a "losers" with repeated experience of social defeats). Sulpiride (20 mg/kg, i.p.) was acutely administered to "aggressors" and "losers" after 10 and 20 daily social contacts (victories or social defeats) and to a control group of male mice. Repeated experience of social victories and defeats altered the immobility duration in both tests and modified the expression of the sulpiride effect. In the pinch-tets, the duration of immobility was longer in "loosers" than in "aggressors". In the bar-test, the pinch-induced catalepsy was more expressed in "losers" and "aggressors" as compared to control. Sulpiride was more effective in increasing immobility of"aggressors" and had a weaker effect on the control and "losers". Therefore, the effect of sulpiride is affected by the social status of the animals.

  17. CBA小鼠内耳感觉上皮的参考数据%Reference data of sensory epithelium in the inner ear in CBA mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪; 丁大连; 孙虹; 蒋海燕; RichardSalvi

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide useful reference data of sensory epithelium in the inner ear, the cochlear and vestibular system were carefully measured in CBA mice. Methods Six young CBA mice at three months of age were used for this study. The surface preparations of cochlear basilar membrane and vestibular end-organs were measured under light microscope. The length and the width of basilar membrane and organ of Corti were examined along the cochlear basilar membrane. In addition, the total number and the density of cochlear hair cell along the basilar membrane were also calculated. To evaluate the vestibular end-organs, the total amount of hair cells in macula of saccule and utricle were counted. The hair cell density of striola region and marginal region in saccule and utricle were calculated respectively, and the density of hair cells in cristae in membranous ampulla of three semicircular canals were also counted. Results The total length of the cochlear basilar membrane was 5.76 ±0.196 mm in CBA mice. The width of basilar membrane was 339.1 ±9.87 μm at 1.5 mm, 304.5 ± 11.82 μm at 3 mm, and 300.1 ±7.22μm at 5 mm from the cochlear base respectively. This indicated that the width of cochlear basilar membrane was gradually narrowing from base to apex. In contrast, the width of organ of Corti was 37.80±2.24 μm at 1.5 mm, 45.00±2.67μm at 3 mm, and 52.20 ± 3.16 fun at 5 mm from the base respectively, which demonstrated that the width of organ of Corti was gradually increasing from base to apex. The total number of cochlear hair cells in CBA mice was 3116.41 ± 151.91, which included 680.67 ± 17.50 inner hair cells and 2435.8 ± 143.46 outer hair cells. The density of cochlear hair cells was similar across the entire length of the cochlea with a density of 541.1 ± 9.36/mm. The density of inner hair cells and outer hair cells were 118.3±2.68/mm and 422.8 ± 11.87/mm respectively. The total number of hair cells in macula of utricle and saccule were 3300 ± 177

  18. Certification-Based Process Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Space mission architects are often challenged with knowing which investment in technology infusion will have the highest return. Certification-based analysis (CBA) gives architects and technologists a means to communicate the risks and advantages of infusing technologies at various points in a process. Various alternatives can be compared, and requirements based on supporting streamlining or automation can be derived and levied on candidate technologies. CBA is a technique for analyzing a process and identifying potential areas of improvement. The process and analysis products are used to communicate between technologists and architects. Process means any of the standard representations of a production flow; in this case, any individual steps leading to products, which feed into other steps, until the final product is produced at the end. This sort of process is common for space mission operations, where a set of goals is reduced eventually to a fully vetted command sequence to be sent to the spacecraft. Fully vetting a product is synonymous with certification. For some types of products, this is referred to as verification and validation, and for others it is referred to as checking. Fundamentally, certification is the step in the process where one insures that a product works as intended, and contains no flaws.

  19. CBA Being as Regulation Tool:Taking the American Theory and Practice for Example%作为规制工具的成本收益分析*--以美国的理论与实践为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘权

    2015-01-01

    成本收益分析是美国行政法上一项行之有效的规制影响分析工具。在当代行政法中有效运用成本收益分析,不仅可以起到提高资源配置效率、优化行政规制的作用,而且还能提升现代行政的合法性。通过考察相关案例可以发现,美国司法审查对成本收益分析的态度是一个从否定到肯定的渐进过程,经历了从“如果国会法律没有明确规定,行政机关就不能使用”,到“如果国会法律没有明确规定,行政机关可以不使用”,再到“如果国会法律没有明确禁止,行政机关就能使用”的变化过程。成本与收益的计算可以通过市场评估法和非市场评估法予以确定。美国行政法上的成本收益分析在质疑与批判中不断发展完善。%The CBA is an effective tool of regulation inlfuence analysis in the American administrative law. In contemporary administrative law, the effective usage of it brings much, not only the improvement of resource allocation efficiency and the optimization of administrative regulation function, but also the enhancement of modern administrative legitimacy. By reviewing related cases, it is found that the attitude of CBA by the American judicial review transferred from negation to affirmation, i.e. from ‘without clear definition by the Congress, the administrative body should not use it’, to ‘without clear definition by the Congress, the administrative body can choose to use it or not’, then to ‘without clear prohibition by the Congress, the administrative body can use it’. The calculation of CBA can be carried out in ways of market evaluation method and non-market evaluation method. The CBA in the American administrative law develops constantly in questioning and criticism.

  20. Analysis on winning reason of Beijing basketball team in 2013-2014 season CBA finals%2013-2014赛季CBA总决赛北京队获胜因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安迪

    2014-01-01

    Through making comparative analysis on the 2013-2014 CBA finals that all six games technical index and video between Beijing team and Xinjiang team,the reasons of Beijing team won the CBA finals champion was found in this paper.The results showed that Beijing winning the finals mainly depend on the powerful whole style of play,with both offensive and defensive strategies,good teamwork,balanced scoring ability in all positions,the key of winning are more fast attack and fewer errors.%通过对2013-2014赛季CBA总决赛北京队与新疆队6场比赛的各项技术指标和比赛录像进行统计与分析,找到了北京队最终获得总决赛冠军的原因。结果显示:北京队赢得总冠军主要靠的是强大的整体打法,战术运动灵活,攻守兼备,队员之间配合默契,不同位置的得分能力相对均衡,快攻多、失误少。

  1. From 2015-2016 Season CBA Technical Differences of Chinese and Foreign Basketball Players%从2015-2016赛季CBA联赛看中外篮球运动员的技术差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2016-01-01

    运用对比分析法、文献资料法、数理统计法对CBA2015—2016赛季篮球比赛本国球员与外国球员的技术指标作对比分析,找出差距。通过对比分析显示我国篮球篮球运动员的现状,找出造成两者之间技术水平差距的原因,为各球队在选材、训练方面提供参考。%Use the method of comparative analysis,literature,mathematical statistics method to the basketball game players and foreign players' technical indicators of CBA2015- 2016 season for comparison and analysis,and find out the gap.The comparative analysis will show the present situation of basketball basketball player in China,instruct us to find out the causes of the technology gap between two different teams and provide references for every team in the aspect of material selection and training.

  2. Skill Comparison between Beijing Team and Guangdong Team in CBA Finals in 2011-2012 Seasons%2011—2012赛季CBA总决赛北京队与广东队技术对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋

    2012-01-01

    With the research methods of video analysis and statistic,the paper analyses and compares the various data of the CBA Finals in 2011-2012 seasons.The research findings show that CBA finals have got improvement in appreciation and competitiveness.Guangdong team has more shooting,rebound,faults and fouls than its opponent while Beijing team is more good at shooting percentage,steals,star players' cooperation than its opponent.%运用录像分析法、数理统计法等,对2011—2012赛季CBA总决赛的各项数据进行统计、比较和分析,结果显示:CBA总决赛在观赏性和竞争性方面有所提高,广东队投篮次数、篮板球、失误和犯规等数据均高于对手;北京队在投篮命中率、抢断、明星球员的融合上明显好于对手。

  3. Evidence that radio-sensitive cells are central to skin-phase protective immunity in CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni as well as in naive mice protected with vaccine serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, V.S.; McLaren, D.J. (National Inst. for Medical Research, London (UK))

    1990-02-01

    Naive CBA/Ca mice and CBA/ca mice vaccinated 4 weeks previously with radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were subjected to 550 rad of whole body (gamma) irradiation and then challenged 3 days later with normal cercariae. The perfusion recovery data showed that this procedure reduced the primary worm burden in naive mice by 22% and the challence worm burden in vaccinated mice by 82%. Irradiation also ablated the peripheral blood leucocytes of both mouse groups by 90-100% at the time of challenge. Histological data revealed that such treatment caused a dramatic change in number, size and leucocyte composition of cutaneous inflammatory skin reactions that characterize challenged vacccinated mice and are known to entrap invading larvae; cutaneous eosinophils were preferentially abolished by this treatment. Polyvaccine mouse serum that conferred protection passively upon naive recipient mice, failed to protect naive/irradiated mice when administered by the same protocol. Distraction of macrophages by treatment of mice with silica did not affect the establishment of a primary worm burden and reduced the protection exhibited by vaccinated mice by only 16%. These data indicade that radio-sensitive cells are important to both innate and specific acquired resistance in this mouse model and that macrophages contribute only marginally to the expression of vaccine immunity. (author).

  4. Dynamic modeling and control of industrial crude terephthalic acid hydropurification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi; Zhong, Weimin; Liu, Yang; Luo, Na; Qian, Feng [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-15

    Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) is critical to the development of the polyester industry. PTA production consists of p-xylene oxidation reaction and crude terephthalic acid (CTA) hydropurification. The hydropurification process is necessary to eliminate 4-carboxybenzaldehyde (4-CBA), which is a harmful byproduct of the oxidation reaction process. Based on the dynamic model of the hydropurification process, two control systems are studied using Aspen Dynamics. The first system is the ratio control system, in which the mass flows of CTA and deionized water are controlled. The second system is the multivariable predictive control-proportional-integral-derivative cascade control strategy, in which the concentrations of 4-CBA and carbon monoxide are chosen as control variables and the reaction temperature and hydrogen flow are selected as manipulated variables. A detailed dynamic behavior is investigated through simulation. Results show that the developed control strategies exhibit good control performances, thereby providing theoretical guidance for advanced control of industry-scale PTA production.

  5. 2011-2012赛季CBA运动员年龄与身体形态特征%CBA Plays' Age and Body Shape Characteristics in 2011~2012 Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵克

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the four basic parameters of CBA players in 2011-2012 season from the view of the features of average number and absoluter frequency.The research shows that there are no significant difference among the average age of CBA center,strike and defender player,but it is very significantly among the average height,weight and Quetelet.There is a significant difference compared with NBA players' average age,height,weight and Quetelet.In these four basic parameter features,Quetelet structure is normal distribution while the rests is not normal distribution.The paper suggests to formulate a model of equipment selection that fits Chinese basketball play on the base of NBA players' baxic parameter features,and fact.%从平均数特征及结构频数特征对2011-2012赛季CBA运动员的4项基本参数进行分析,结果表明:CBA中锋、前锋、后卫运动员之间的平均年龄之间不具有统计学意义(P〉0.05),但平均身高、体重、克托莱指数均存在非常显著的统计学意义(P〈0.01)。与NBA运动员的平均年龄、身高、体重、克托莱指数相比,均存在非常显著性差异(P〈0.01)。其4项基本结构参数特征只有克托莱指数结构特征符合正态分布,年龄、身高、体重结构特征均不符合正态分布。建议根据CBA运动员基本参数特征,结合实际情况,制定我国篮球运动员的选材模式。

  6. NBA全明星赛研究——兼谈CBA全明星赛不足%Research of NBA All Stars Games——On the lack of the CBA All-Star Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娇

    2012-01-01

    简析了NBA全明星赛获得成功的各种因素,其中包括夺目的明星基础、成熟的包装设计、全球化的发展策略和不断创新的明星表演思维;剖析了NBA全明星赛的文化内涵,具体包括NBA全明星赛是NBA职业联盟发展的历史驱动,是美国好莱坞娱乐精神的体现,是美国商业文化的体现,是美国多元文化、青少年和残疾人人文关怀的综合体现。指出了我国CBA全明星赛存在的不足,主要有模仿过度、创新不足,只见比赛、娱乐不足,场馆软硬件服务不足,主办方运营困难重重。最后,指出了NBA全明星赛对CBA全明星的若干启示。%The paper analyses various factors of the success of NBA All Star Games,including the dazzling stars basis、mature packaging and design、global development strategy and innovative performance thinking.The paper also analyses the cultural connotations of NBA All Star Games,including that NBA All Star Games is the historical drive of the development of NBA and points out that the NBA All Star Games is the embodiment of American Hollywood entertainment spirit,the American commercial culture and the American multi-culture and humanistic care of teenagers and the disabled.The paper also points out the shortages of CBA All Star Games,such as excessive copy、the lack of innovation,games only、the lack of entertainments,the insufficient tangible and intangible services of venues,the troubled operations of the organizers.The paper proposes some suggestions to the CBA All Star Games.

  7. Analysis on Losing Reason of Xinjiang Basketball Team in CBA Final Match in 2010-2011 Season%2010—2011赛季CBA总决赛新疆队失利因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡盟盟; 张宏成

    2011-01-01

    为了找到2010—2011赛季CBA总决赛新疆队失利因素,本文通过对总决赛6场比赛中新疆队和广东队各项技术指标、比赛录像进行研究和比较分析。结果显示:新疆队中锋实力、替补队员实力与广东队比较差;得分过分依赖外援;临场应变能力较差是新疆队失利的主要因素。%In order to find out the losing reason of Xinjiang basketball team in CBA final match in 2010-2011 season,this paper makes comparative analysis on each technical index and video between Xinjiang team and Guangdong team in final six matches.The result shows that the strength of central forward and bench players of Xinjiang team is weak comparing with Guangdong team.The poor ability to improvise is the main reason of Xinjiang team losing.

  8. 2011—2012赛季CBA总决赛北京队与广东队技术指标统计分析%Statistical analysis of 2011-2012 season CBA finals between Beijing and Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾远生

    2012-01-01

    运用文献资料、录像观察、数理统计等研究方法,对2011—2012赛季CBA总决赛北京队与广东队5场比赛进行统计研究,并对双方技术指标数据进行分析比较,总结交战双方各技术指标的特点,从中发现他们的优势及不足,期望可以给球队建设和参赛战绩以有益参考。%With literature, video observation, mathematical statistics and other research methods, 5 matches of the 2011 -2012 season CBA finals between Beijing and Guangdong teams were used for statistical research on both sides, and the technical data were analyzed. It summarized both sides of each technical index of characteristics, found their advantages and disadvantages to give the team construction and team record for reference.

  9. 2014-2015赛季CBA总决赛北京队和辽宁队技术分析%CBA 2014-2015 Season Finals Beijing and Liaoning Technical Indicators Statistical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥龙

    2015-01-01

    通过2014-2015赛季CBA总决赛北京队和辽宁队两队全部六场比赛的数据技术统计对比与研究,结果表明:北京队在得失分、命中率、助攻等技术数据统计中占优势,辽宁队在篮板球、场均出手次数等方面有优势;北京队在外援引进上更合理,外援和球队的融合性更好;北京队本土球员总决赛中表现更为突出,国内球员的发挥直接影响着比赛的结果。%By comparison of data and research of CBA2014-2014 NBA Finals Beijing and Liaoning team two teams all six games of technical statistical, it shows that: the Beijing team dominated the pros and cons of points, shooting, assists and other technical data statistics, the Liaoning team rebounds, averaging shots and so have the advantage; Beijing team in the introduction of foreign aid is more reasonable, foreign aid and the team is of better integration; Beijing team of local players in the finals was more prominent and domestic players play a key role in direct impact outcome of the game.

  10. Radiation leukemogenesis in mice: loss of PU.1 on chromosome 2 in CBA and C57BL/6 mice after irradiation with 1 GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions, X rays or gamma rays. Part I. Experimental observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuanlin; Brown, Natalie; Finnon, Rosemary; Warner, Christy L; Liu, Xianan; Genik, Paula C; Callan, Matthew A; Ray, F Andrew; Borak, Thomas B; Badie, Christophe; Bouffler, Simon D; Ullrich, Robert L; Bedford, Joel S; Weil, Michael M

    2009-04-01

    Since deletion of the PU.1 gene on chromosome 2 is a crucial acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initiating step in the mouse model, we quantified PU.1 deleted cells in the bone marrow of gamma-, X- and 56Fe-ion-irradiated mice at various times postirradiation. Although 56Fe ions were initially some two to three times more effective than X or gamma rays in inducing PU.1 deletions, by 1 month postirradiation, the proportions of cells with PU.1 deletions were similar for the HZE particles and the sparsely ionizing radiations. These results indicate that while 56Fe ions are more effective in inducing PU.1 deletions, they are also more effective in causing collateral damage that removes hit cells from the bone marrow. After X, gamma or 56Fe-ion irradiation, AML-resistant C57BL/6 mice have fewer cells with PU.1 deletions than CBA mice, and those cells do not persist in the bone marrow of the C57B6/6 mice. Our findings suggest that quantification of PU.1 deleted bone marrow cells 1 month postirradiation can be used as surrogate for the incidence of radiation-induced AML measured in large-scale mouse studies. If so, PU.1 loss could be used to systematically assess the potential leukemogenic effects of other ions and energies in the space radiation environment.

  11. Successive Administration of Streptococcus Type 5 Group A Antigens and S. typhimurium Antigenic Complex Corrects Elevation of Serum Cytokine Concentration and Number of Bone Marrow Stromal Pluripotent Cells in CBA Mice Induced by Each Antigen Separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorskaya, Yu F; Danilova, T A; Grabko, V I; Nesterenko, V G

    2015-12-01

    Administration of bacterial antigens to CBA mice induced an increase in serum concentration of virtually all cytokines with a peak in 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens and in 7 h after administration of streptococcus antigens. In 20 h, cytokine concentrations returned to the control level or were slightly below it. In 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, we observed a significant decrease in serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-10, GM-CSF, IL-12, and TNF-α, in comparison with injection S. typhimurium antigens alone and IL-5, IL-10, GM-CSF, and TNF-α in comparison with injection of streptococcus antigens alone; the concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ, in contrast, increased by 1.5 times in this case. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens, the number of multipotential stromal cells (MSC) in the bone marrow and their cloning efficiency (ECF-MSC) increased by 4.8 and 4.4 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, while after administration of streptococcus antigens by 2.6 and 2.4 times, respectively. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, these parameters increased by 3.2 and 2.9 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, i.e. the observed increase in the level of MSC count and ECF-MSC is more consistent with the response of the stromal tissue to streptococcus antigens. Thus, successive administration of two bacterial antigens corrected both serum cytokine profiles and MSC response to administration of each antigen separately, which indicates changeability of the stromal tissue in response to changes in the immune response.

  12. Theoretical and experimental study of foaming process with chain extended recycled PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental study of a thermoplastic polymer foaming process is presented. Industrial scraps of PET were used for the production of foamed sheets. The process was performed by making use of a chemical blowing agent (CBA in the extrusion process. Due to the low intrinsic viscosity of the recycled PET, a chain extender was also used in order to increase the molecular weight of the polymer matrix. Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA and Hydrocerol CT 534 were chosen as chain extender and CBA, respectively. The reactive extrusion and foaming were performed in a two step process. Rheological characterization was carried out on PET samples previously treated with PMDA, as well as the morphological study was performed to define the cellular structure of the foams produced. Moreover, in order to predict the morphology of the foam, a non isothermal model was developed by taking into account both mass transfer phenomenon and viscous forces effect. Model results were compared with experimental data obtained analyzing the foamed samples. The model was validated in relation to working conditions, chemical blowing agent percentage and initial rheological properties of recycled polymer. A pretty good agreement between experimental and calculated data was achieved.

  13. CBA赛事中球迷参与度、球队认同感及广告态度对赞助效益的影响——基于江、浙、沪现场观众的实证研究%The Fan Involvement, Team Identity and Advertisement Attitude on the Impact of Sponsorship Benefits in CBA --An Empirical Research Based on the On-field Fans of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁志强; 张军

    2012-01-01

    通过对球迷参与度、球队认同感、广告态度和赞助效益等文献资料分析的基础上,利用CBA赛事中对现场观众球迷调查所获得数据,运用SPSS16.0和AMOS16.0软件对数据进行处理,检验了球迷参与度、球队认同感、广告态度对赞助效益的影响路径。实证研究的结果显示,球迷参与度、球队认同感和广告态度都会对赞助效益产生正向显著的影响,此外,球迷参与度和球队认同感会通过广告态度来正向显著地影响赞助效益。即现场球迷对赞助事件的参与度或对支持球队的认同感愈高,对赞助广告的态度也会会愈正面,进而放太赞助效益。%Based on the literature analysis on the documents about fan involvement, team identity, advertisement atti- tude and sponsorship benefit and the data from on-field CBA fans investigation , the paper used SPSS16.0 & AMO616.0 software for data processing to explore the influencing path of fan involvement, team identity and advertise- ment attitude on the sponsorship benefit. The empirical research indicates that the sponsorstip benefit is significantly greater for those most highly involvmaent, identity and attitude in an activity; Moreover, fan involvmaent and team i- dentity can indirectly affect sponsorship benefit through imervening variable (advertisement attimde). That is to say, more involvement in the sponsored events or higher reception on their supporting team, more positive attitude on the sponsots' advertismaent will they have and therefore the sponsor effect will be tmgnified.

  14. CBA比赛现场球迷暴力心理动机分析——以太原赛区2008-2013连续五赛季为例%Analysis of CBA Game Fans Violence Psychological Motivation——In the Taiyuan Division 2008-2013 for Five Consecutive Season as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁艳江

    2013-01-01

    文章运用文献资料法、访谈法、逻辑分析法对CBA比赛现场观众暴力产生的心理动机进行分析.以CBA2008-2013连续五赛季太原赛区为例,从观众观看比赛的动机入手,结合出现新的暴力形式,得出观众暴力产生的动机有赛场环境、比赛对抗程度、裁判判罚水平以及球迷自身原因中的情感投入、从众心理、球迷心理宣泄等原因.

  15. On the Influencing Factors and the Upgrade Path of Fan Loyalty of CBA -based on the Perspective of the Theory of Customer Loyalty%CBA赛事球迷忠诚度影响因素及其提升路径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌云; 陶玉流

    2011-01-01

    赛事球迷忠诚是联赛生存和发展的基础,运用文献资料、逻辑分析等研究方法对赛事球迷忠诚的内涵、影响因素及其提升的路径进行了研究,以培育CBA赛事球迷忠诚度,促进联赛收益的持续增长。研究认为:CBA赛事球迷忠诚度影响因素主要包括赛事服务产品质量、赛事球迷价值和赛事球迷满意等因素;CBA赛事球迷忠诚度提升不仅需要确立CBA赛事球迷忠诚营销理念,还需要构建CBA赛事球迷忠诚驱动机制,进一步打造CBA赛事品牌,促进联赛持续发展。%Loyal fans are the basis for survival and development of the league tournament. The meaning of loyal fans, influencing factors and the upgrade path to foster fan loyalty are analyzed by Literature and logic analysis, to promote sustainable growth in earnings league. The results are: the main affecting factors include the quality of the events, the value of the fans and satisfied fans and other factors; And the enhancement of the loyalty not only need to establish the concept of loyalty marketing, but also need to build loyalty drive mechanism to build CBA event brand and promote the sustainable development of CBA.

  16. 对2010-2011赛季CBA总决赛外援和本土球员比赛情况的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of Outside Help and Local Players Competition in CBA Finals in 2010-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑义

    2012-01-01

    本文运用文献法、视频法和统计法对2010-2011赛季CBA总决赛广东队与新疆队的6场比赛进行分析,得出两队外援的竞技状态整体好于本土球员;球队过分的依赖外援,他们是球队的战术核心,外援的竞技状态直接决定着球队的成绩;本土球员能担当主力的人太少等。%This paper uses literature, video and statistical laws in six games in the 2010-2011 CBA Finals, analyzed the six gemes between Guangdong and Xinjiang team, obtained the competitive state of the two teams of outside help are better than the local players; team overly dependent on outside help, they are the core of the team's tactics, the competitive state of the outside help directly determines the team's record; too few people of local players can play the main.

  17. TiO2/H2O2/UV和TiO2/O3/UV降解对氯苯甲酸和喹啉的试验研究%Degradation of 4-CBA and quinoline by TiO2/H2O2/UV and TiO2/O3/UV systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方喜玲; 成捷; 胡兰花; 王小毛; 黄霞; 施汉昌

    2005-01-01

    主要叙述TiO2/H2O2/UV和TiO2/O3/UV体系降解对氯苯甲酸(4-CBA)和喹啉的试验研究.研究表明,(1)在TiO2/H2O2/UV体系里目标物降解速度先随过氧化氢投加量的增加而提高,但超过一定浓度之后便开始下降;(2)在TiO2/O3/UV体系中,目标降解物的反应速度都非常快,且臭氧浓度高的时候降解速度更快;(3)二氧化钛催化剂在TiO2/O3/UV体系中作为积极因素有助于提高反应速率,而在TiO2/H2O2/UV体系是消极因素,会降低反应速率.

  18. The Analysis on “The Role of Dark Horse” of The Men’s Basketball Team of Shandong Gold in CBA 2012-2013 Season%2012-2013赛季CBA联赛山东黄金男篮“黑马角色”的探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉东; 李磊

    2013-01-01

    通过录像观察法、数理统计法及逻辑分析法,以CBA联赛2012-2013赛季山东黄金男篮为研究对象,对取得优异成绩的指标因素分析。研究指出:球馆的多容量带来的多球迷支持和年轻化本土球员的培养策略,以及三外援规则的合理运用是取得优异成绩的重要原因,另外针对全运会契机提出锻炼本土球员的建议。%Through video observation, mathematical statistics and logical analysis ,as The Men’s basketball team of Shandong gold in 2012-2013 season CBA league for the research object, and analysis of factors why it gets good results. Research suggests that multiple capacity of arena fans support and strategy of the cultivation of the young players, and the reasonable use of the three rules of foreign aid is the important reason to get good results, in addition to the national games suggest exercise players an opportunity.

  19. Occupation times of refracted L\\'evy processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kyprianou, Andreas E; Pérez, J L

    2012-01-01

    A refracted L\\'evy process is a L\\'evy process whose dynamics change by subtracting off a fixed linear drift (of suitable size) whenever the aggregate process is above a pre-specified level. More precisely, whenever it exists, a refracted L\\'evy process is described by the unique strong solution to the stochastic differential equation \\[ \\ud U_t=-\\delta\\mathbf{1}_{\\{U_t>b\\}}\\ud t +\\ud X_t, \\] where $X=(X_t, t\\ge 0)$ is a L\\'evy process with law $\\p$ and $b,\\delta\\in \\R$ such that the resulting process $U$ may visit the half line $(b,\\infty)$ with positive probability. In this paper, we consider the case that $X$ is spectrally negative and establish a number of identities for the following functionals \\[ \\int_0^\\infty\\mathbf{1}_{\\{U_t a\\}$ and $\\rho^-_c=\\inf\\{t\\ge 0: U_t< c\\}$ for $c$. Our identities extend recent results of Landriault et al. \\cite{LRZ} and bear relevance to Parisian-type financial instruments and insurance scenarios.

  20. Analysis on Causes of Beijing Team Winning in CBA Finals in 2011-2012 Season%2011-2012赛季CBA总决赛北京队夺冠的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开银; 谢茜

    2012-01-01

    通过对北京队与广东队在赛前实力和总决赛五场比赛的分析,结果发现北京队整体实力应低于广东队,但是从比赛的过程和赛后的技术统计来看,北京队的技术统计几乎全面占优,球队表现出敢打敢拼的精神面貌,特别是核心球员的稳定发挥,成为其夺冠的主要因素.%Analysis of Beijing team and Guangdong team in strength before competition and five finals shows that Beijing overall strength is below that of Guangdong,but process of competition and technology statistics show that Beijing team takes advantage over Guangdong in technology statistics.Beijing struggling to win with the core players stable performance helps to take the first place.

  1. 2014-2015赛季中国男子篮球职业联赛季后赛各参赛球队攻、防能力比较研究%Comparative Analysis on CBA Teams' Offense and Defense Strength in 2014 -2015 Season Playoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱焱; 周殿学

    2016-01-01

    By using the method of literature review ,mathematical statistics and RSR ,this paper makes statistical analysis on playoff basketball eight teams' offensive and defensive technical indicators in 2014 -2015 season China Basketball Association (CBA ) .The result shows that in the offensive ,eight teams can be divided into different levels ,Beijing and Liaoning belong to level A ,Qingdao ,Guangdong ,Shanxi were in the level B ,and Jilin ,Dongguan ,Zhejiang at the level C ;on the defensive end ,Beijing and Guangdong team at level A ,Liaoning and Zhejiang in the level B ,and others are below level B .However ,in the offensive and defensive strength , Beijing and Liaoning teams' offensive and defensive capabilities of the RSR values were higher than 0 .8 ,which belong to level A .Guangdong team defense RSR value was 0 .75 ,which be-long to level B ,Qingdao and Zhejiang teams' offense and defense RSR values were 0 .56 , 0 .50 ,which belong to level C ,while Jilin ,Shanxi ,Dongguan teams' offense and defense RSR values between 0 .25~0 .32 ,which belong to level D .The correlation coefficient of 8 teams in the attack and defense ability of the playoff performance ranking is R= 0 .786 ( P< 0 .05) ,and they were significantly related .Comparing with the Beijing team in CBA finals ,the Liaoning team is not as good as Beijing on the offensive side except the free throw ,offensive rebounds and abroad ,and there is a highly significant differences ( P< 0 .01 ) between them in three pointers and match fault indicator .In general ,the Beijing team's offensive ability was signifi-cantly higher than the Liaoning team ,but its defense was lower than the Liaoning team in the backcourt rebounds and fouled control data ,the comparison was a significant difference ( P<0 .05) between them .In general ,the Liaoning team's defensive ability is higher than the Beijing team .Finally ,this paper makes some suggestions on how to improve the overall defensive and defensive ability of the China

  2. 我国优秀篮球中锋运动员唐正东背身持球进攻技术分析研究——以2010-2011赛季CBA江苏队比赛为例%The analysis on China best basketball center Tang Zhengdong's turning around and attacking the ball technique——To 2010-2011 season CBA competition in Jiangsu example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振翠

    2011-01-01

    以2010-2011赛季CBA江苏队唐正东参与的32场比赛为研究对象,对其不同区域的背身持球进攻瞬间脚步落位情况与其转身方向和进攻方式之间的关系进行研究与分析,结果发现:不同区域其进攻脚步落位情况的选择存在较大差异,同一区域、不同的落位形式与特定的转身方向存在显著联系,不同区域进攻方式的选择各有不同。%With 2010-2011 CBA competition which Jiangsu's Tang Zhengdong in 32 games as the research object,to research and analysis the moment of turn around and attack the ball in different regions that between his settled down of the pace and turn direction and attack mode,the results show that,there are quite differences on his offensive settled down of the pace in different regions,there is significant link in the sane region,different of settled down and Specific turn direction,there are varies on choose the attack mode in different region.

  3. Primary Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Carre, P.; Kamm, B.; Schoenicke, P.

    2012-01-01

    Primary processing of oil-containing material involves pre-treatment processes, oil recovery processes and the extraction and valorisation of valuable compounds from waste streams. Pre-treatment processes, e.g. thermal, enzymatic, electrical and radio frequency, have an important effect on the oil r

  4. Processing integral-skin polyolefin foams in single-charge rotational foam molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Iliev, Remon

    This thesis focuses on establishing the scientific and engineering foundations for gaining a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms and critical parameters governing the processing of integral-skin low-density polyolefin foams in rotational foam molding. The presented research is particularly intended to broaden the knowledge in the field of manufacturing adjacent, but clearly distinct, layers of non-cellular and cellular structures, consisting of identical or compatible plastic grades, using a single-charge processing concept. Although this technology is beneficial for the efficacy of the molding process and the structural homogeneity of the moldings, its optimization raised a fairly large number of fundamental issues that had to be resolved through further research. In this context, an attempt has been made to establish rigorous, experimentally validated, theoretical models that describe the phenomena identified as the fundamental challenges of this technology. The major contributions of this thesis include: (i) optimization of the single-charge rotational foam molding process for the manufacture of both PE/PE and PE/PP integral-skin cellular composites, (ii) development of a two-step oven temperature profile that prevents the foamable resins invading the solid skin layer and ensures that skin formation always completes prior to the activation of the foamable resin, (iii) fundamental study of the adherence behavior of powders and foamable pellets to a high-temperature rotating mold wall, (iv) fundamental study of the lifespan of CBA-blown bubbles in non-pressurized non-isothermal polymer melts using hot-stage optical microscopy and digital imaging, (v) development of a detailed theoretical model involving diffusion, surface tension, and viscosity to simulate the observed foaming mechanism, and (vi) fundamental study of the rotofoamablility of polyolefin resins using both dry blending and melt compounding based methods and characterization of rheological and

  5. Elektrokemiske Processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals.......Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals....

  6. Economic valuation through cost-benefit analysis--possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansjürgens, Bernd

    2004-12-15

    The economic approach used to evaluate effects on human health and the environment centres around cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Thus, for most economists, economic valuation and CBA are one and the same. However, the question of the possibilities and limitations of cost-benefit analysis is one of the most controversial aspects of environmental research. In this paper, the possibilities and limitations of CBA are analysed. This is done not only by explaining the central elements of CBA, but also by commenting on criticism of it. What becomes clear is that CBA is not only a mere mechanism of monetarisation, but a heuristic model for the whole process of valuation. It can serve as a guideline for collecting the necessary data in a systematic way. The limits of CBA can be mainly seen in the non-substitutability of essential goods, irreversibility, long-term effects and inter-generational fairness.

  7. Data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, T F

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing discusses the principles, practices, and associated tools in data processing. The book is comprised of 17 chapters that are organized into three parts. The first part covers the characteristics, systems, and methods of data processing. Part 2 deals with the data processing practice; this part discusses the data input, output, and storage. The last part discusses topics related to systems and software in data processing, which include checks and controls, computer language and programs, and program elements and structures. The text will be useful to practitioners of computer-rel

  8. Photodegradation and toxicity changes of antibiotics in UV and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Fang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Hu Chun, E-mail: huchun@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Hu Xuexiang; Wei Dongbin; Chen Yong; Qu Jiuhui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2011-01-30

    The photodegradation of three antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline (DTC), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in UV and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was investigated with a low-pressure UV lamp system. Experiments were performed in buffered ultrapure water (UW), local surface water (SW), and treated water from local municipal drinking water treatment plant (DW) and wastewater treatment plant (WW). The efficiency of UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was affected by water quality. For all of the three selected antibiotics, the fastest degradation was observed in DW, and the slowest degradation occurred in WW. This phenomenon can be explained by R{sub OH,UV}, defined as the experimentally determined {center_dot}OH radical exposure per UV fluence. The R{sub OH,UV} values represent the background {center_dot}OH radical scavenging in water matrix, obtained by the degradation of para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), a probe compound. In natural water, the indirect degradation of CIP did not significantly increase with the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} due to its effective degradation by UV direct photolysis. Moreover, the formation of several photoproducts and oxidation products of antibiotics in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was identified using GC-MS. Toxicity assessed by Vibrio fischer (V. fischer), was increased in UV photolysis, for the photoproducts still preserving the characteristic structure of the parent compounds. While in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process, toxicity increased first, and then decreased; nontoxic products were formed by the oxidation of {center_dot}OH radical. In this process, detoxification was much easier than mineralization for the tested antibiotics, and the optimal time for the degradation of pollutants in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process would be determined by parent compound degradation and toxicity changes.

  9. Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2009-01-01

    advantages and challenges of agile processes in mobile software and web businesses are identified. The applicability of these agile processes is discussed in re- gards to design educations and product development in the domain of Industrial Design and is briefly seen in relation to the concept of dromology......Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through interviews...

  10. Magnetics Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Processing Lab equipped to perform testing of magnetometers, integrate them into aircraft systems, and perform data analysis, including noise reduction...

  11. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Parzen, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine

  12. Image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der F.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Blanken, H.M.; Vries de, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L

    2007-01-01

    The field of image processing addresses handling and analysis of images for many purposes using a large number of techniques and methods. The applications of image processing range from enhancement of the visibility of cer- tain organs in medical images to object recognition for handling by industri

  13. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  14. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...... behavior. This generalization is often driven by the representation language and very crude assumptions about completeness. As a result, parts of the model are “overfitting” (allow only for what has actually been observed) while other parts may be “underfitting” (allowfor much more behavior without strong...

  15. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...

  16. Electrochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    The notes describe in detail primary and secondary galvanic cells, fuel cells, electrochemical synthesis and electroplating processes, corrosion: measurments, inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, details of metal dissolution reactions, Pourbaix diagrams and purification of waste water from...

  17. Processing Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    Processing proteases are proteases which proteolytically activate proteins and peptides into their biologically active form. Processing proteases play an important role in biotechnology as tools in protein fusion technology. Fusion strategies where helper proteins or peptide tags are fused...... to the protein of interest are an elaborate method to optimize expression or purification systems. It is however critical that fusion proteins can be removed and processing proteases can facilitate this in a highly specific manner. The commonly used proteases all have substrate specificities to the N...... of few known proteases to have substrate specificity for the C-terminal side of the scissile bond. LysN exhibits specificity for lysine, and has primarily been used to complement trypsin in to proteomic studies. A working hypothesis during this study was the potential of LysN as a processing protease...

  18. Grants Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Grants Process provides an overview of the end-to-end lifecycle of grant funding. Learn about the types of funding available and the basics for application, review, award, and on-going administration within the NCI.

  19. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    and valuable information on the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor. It focuses on how to predict critical impacts and control adverse effects. It also provides an integrated description of sewer processes in modeling terms. This second edition is full of illustrative examples and figures, includes...... microbial and chemical processes and demonstrates how this knowledge can be applied for the design, operation, and the maintenance of wastewater collection systems. The authors add chemical and microbial dimensions to the design and management of sewer networks with an overall aim of improved sustainability...... by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...

  20. In process...

    OpenAIRE

    LI Xin

    1999-01-01

    Architecture is a wonderful world. As a student of architecture, time and time again I am inpressed by its powerful imagines. The more I study and learn, however, the more I question. What is the truth beyond those fantastic imagines? What is the nuture of Architecture? Is there any basic way or process to approach the work of Architecture? With these questions, I begin my thesis project and the process of looking for answers. MArch

  1. In process...

    OpenAIRE

    LI Xin

    2000-01-01

    Architecture is a wonderful world. As a student of architecture, time and time again I am inpressed by its powerful imagines. The more I study and learn, however, the more I question. What is the truth beyond those fantastic imagines? What is the nuture of Architecture? Is there any basic way or process to approach the work of Architecture? With these questions, I begin my thesis project and the process of looking for answers.

  2. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  3. Macdonald processes

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    Macdonald processes are probability measures on sequences of partitions defined in terms of nonnegative specializations of the Macdonald symmetric functions and two Macdonald parameters q,t in [0,1). We prove several results about these processes, which include the following. (1) We explicitly evaluate expectations of a rich family of observables for these processes. (2) In the case t=0, we find a Fredholm determinant formula for a q-Laplace transform of the distribution of the last part of the Macdonald-random partition. (3) We introduce Markov dynamics that preserve the class of Macdonald processes and lead to new "integrable" 2d and 1d interacting particle systems. (4) In a large time limit transition, and as q goes to 1, the particles of these systems crystallize on a lattice, and fluctuations around the lattice converge to O'Connell's Whittaker process that describe semi-discrete Brownian directed polymers. (5) This yields a Fredholm determinant for the Laplace transform of the polymer partition function...

  4. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...

  5. Processing Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali;

    2014-01-01

    Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning and compu...

  6. Innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodovski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, economic...

  7. BENTONITE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Kutlić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite has vide variety of uses. Special use of bentonite, where its absorbing properties are employed to provide water-tight sealing is for an underground repository in granites In this paper, bentonite processing and beneficiation are described.

  8. Optical Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    34perceptron" (F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics ), workers in the neural network field have been seeking to understand how neural networks can perform...Moscow). 13. F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics , (Spartan, 1962). 14. W. Stoner "Incoherent optical processing via spatially offset pupil

  9. Show me the money: cost-benefit analysis in the work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Charles; Dunn, Mary Lee

    2005-01-01

    During the last several decades, Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has become a widely used technique in public policy-making. This review examines CBA from perspectives of both advocates and critics; it looks at its theory and practice, its purported advantages and shortcomings in application. It also proposes several ways in which the process can be made more accountable.

  10. Photobiomodulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Yi Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation (PBM is a modulation of laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LI on biosystems. There is little research on PBM dynamics although its phenomena and mechanism have been widely studied. The PBM was discussed from dynamic viewpoint in this paper. It was found that the primary process of cellular PBM might be the key process of cellular PBM so that the transition rate of cellular molecules can be extended to discuss the dose relationship of PBM. There may be a dose zone in which low intensity LI (LIL at different doses has biological effects similar to each other, so that biological information model of PBM might hold. LIL may self-adaptively modulate a chronic stress until it becomes successful.

  11. Boolean process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵应骅; 李忠诚; 赵著行

    1997-01-01

    Boolean algebra successfully describes the logical behavior of a digital circuit, and has been widely used in electronic circuit design and test With the development of high speed VLSIs it is a drawback for Boolean algebra to be unable to describe circuit timing behavior. Therefore a Boolean process is defined as a family of Boolean van ables relevant to the time parameter t. A real-valued sample of a Boolean process is a waveform. Waveform functions can be manipulated formally by using mathematical tools. The distance, difference and limit of a waveform polynomial are defined, and a sufficient and necessary condition of the limit existence is presented. Based on this, the concept of sensitization is redefined precisely to demonstrate the potential and wide application possibility The new definition is very different from the traditional one, and has an impact on determining the sensitizable paths with maximum or minimum length, and false paths, and then designing and testing high performance circuits

  12. Purification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, A.

    1981-02-17

    A process for the removal of hydrogen sulphide from gases or liquid hydrocarbons, comprises contacting the gas or liquid hydrocarbon with an aqueous alkaline solution, preferably having a pH value of 8 to 10, comprising (A) an anthraquinone disulphonic acid or a water-soluble sulphonamide thereof (B) a compound of a metal which can exist in at least two valency states and (C) a sequestering agent.

  13. Characterization of the SpaCBA Pilus Fibers in the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reunanen, J.; Ossowski, von I.; Hendrickx, A.P.; Palva, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a human intestinal isolate that has been studied intensively because of its probiotic properties. We have previously shown that L. rhamnosus GG produces proteinaceous pili that earlier had been observed only in Gram-positive pathogens (M. Kankainen et al., Proc. Natl. A

  14. Estimating the robustness of composite CBA & MCA assessments by variation of criteria importance order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    This paper discusses the concept of using rank variation concerning the stake-holder prioritising of importance criteria for exploring the sensitivity of criteria weights in multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Thereby the robustness of the MCA-based decision support can be tested. The analysis described......, the relative weights can make a large difference in the resulting assessment of alternatives [1]. Therefore it is highly relevant to introduce a procedure for estimating the importance of criteria weights. This paper proposes a methodology for estimating the robustness of weights used in additive utility...... models. When assessing larger transport infrastructure projects often several non-monetised impacts could be relevant to include in the appraisal [2]. For many decision makers and stakeholders the task of setting the criteria weights for several criteria can be very difficult. To overcome this...

  15. Estimating the Robustness of Composite CBA and MCDA Assessments by Variation of Criteria Importance Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper discusses the concept of using rank variation concerning the stakeholder prioritising of importance criteria for exploring the sensitivity of criteria weights in multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Thereby the robustness of the MCA-based decision support can be tested. The analysis....... Furthermore, the relative weights can make a large difference in the resulting assessment of alternatives (Hobbs and Meier 2000). Therefore it is highly relevant to introduce a procedure for estimating the importance of criteria weights. This paper proposes a methodology for estimating the robustness...

  16. Ceramic Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  17. Hydrocarbon processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S.G.; Seddon, D.

    1989-06-28

    A process for the catalytic conversion of synthesis-gas into a product which comprises naphtha, kerosene and distillate is characterized in that the catalyst is a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst also containing a zeolite, the naphtha fraction contains 60% or less linear paraffins and the kerosene and distillated fractions contain more linear paraffins and olefins than found in the naphtha fraction. Reduction of the relative amount of straight chain material in the naphtha fraction increases the octane number and so enhances the quality of the gasoline product, while the high quality of the kerosene and distillate fractions is maintained.

  18. Crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  19. Lithospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldridge, W. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  20. Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

  1. Dynamic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingshirn, C.

    . Phys. Lett. 92:211105, 2008). For this point, recall Figs. 6.16 and 6.33. Since the polarisation amplitude is gone in any case after the recombination process, there is an upper limit for T 2 given by T 2 ≤ 2 T1. The factor of two comes from the fact that T 2 describes the decay of an amplitude and T 1 the decay of a population, which is proportional to the amplitude squared. Sometimes T 2 is subdivided in a term due to recombination described by T 1 and another called 'pure dephasing' called T 2 ∗ with the relation 1 / T 2 = 1 / 2 T 1 + 1 / T2 ∗. The quantity T 2 ∗ can considerably exceed 2 T 1. In the part on relaxation processes that is on processes contributing to T 3, we give also examples for the capture of excitons into bound, localized, or deep states. For more details on dynamics in semiconductors in general see for example, the (text-) books [Klingshirn, Semiconductor Optics, 3rd edn. (Springer, Berlin, 2006); Haug and Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 4th edn. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2004); Haug and Jauho, Quantum Kinetics in Transport and Optics of Semiconductors, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 123 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 115 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); Schafer and Wegener, Semiconductor Optics and Transport Phenomena (Springer, Berlin, 2002)]. We present selected data for free, bound and localized excitons, biexcitons and electron-hole pairs in an EHP and examples for bulk materials, epilayers, quantum wells, nano rods and nano crystals with the restriction that - to the knowledge of the author - data are not available for all these systems, density ranges and temperatures. Therefore, we subdivide the topic below only according to the three time constants T 2, T 3 and T 1.

  2. Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeat, P.

    A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of

  3. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  4. Item Unique Identification Capability Expansion: Established Process Analysis, Cost Benefit Analysis, and Optimal Marking Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Government Entity Code CBA cost benefit analysis CIC Combat Information Center CFO chief financial officer CO2 carbon dioxide DOD Department of...be close to impossible to use. Stephen Spence wrote, “The difference between an yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser and the carbon dioxide (CO2...Over air vents /intakes.  Any pertinent information belonging to the item being marked.  Windows, access ports, view ports or fastener holes

  5. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  6. Studies on process synthesis and process integration

    OpenAIRE

    Fien, Gert-Jan A. F.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis discusses topics in the field of process engineering that have received much attention over the past twenty years: (1) conceptual process synthesis using heuristic shortcut methods and (2) process integration through heat-exchanger networks and energy-saving power and refrigeration systems. The shortcut methods for conceptual process synthesis presented in Chapter 2, utilize Residue Curve Maps in ternary diagrams and are illustrated with examples of processes...

  7. Extensible packet processing architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  8. Process mineralogy IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruk, W.; Hagni, R.D.; Pignolet-Brandom, S.; Hausen, D.M. (eds.) (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    54 papers are presented under the headings: keynote address; process mineralogy applications to mineral processing; process mineralogy applications to gold; process mineralogy applications to pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy; process mineralogy applications to environment and health; and process mineralogy applications to synthetic materials. Subject and author indexes are provided. Three papers have been abstracted separately.

  9. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    2010-01-01

    are identified, and where we simulate backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and...

  10. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    , and where one simulates backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and thus can...

  11. Refactoring Process Models in Large Process Repositories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS), large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real-world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are introdu

  12. Process Intensification: A Perspective on Process Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Gani, Rafiqul; Woodley, John

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, process intensification (PI) has attracted considerable academic interest as a potential means for process improvement, to meet the increasing demands for sustainable production. A variety of intensified operations developed in academia and industry creates a large number...... of options to potentially improve the process but to identify the set of feasible solutions for PI in which the optimal can be found takes considerable resources. Hence, a process synthesis tool to achieve PI would potentially assist in the generation and evaluation of PI options. Currently, several process...... of the main concepts is illustrated through an example involving the operation of a membrane reactor....

  13. The permanental process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCullagh, Peter; Møller, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second to an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension i called a permanental...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanental process are also studied. Extensions of the fermion process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinantal processes, are discussed....

  14. Elimination de solutés organiques polluants d'effluents liquides par plasma non thermique : comparaison des processus mis en jeu à l'interface liquide-plasma dans les procédés Glidarc et DBD

    OpenAIRE

    Djakaou, Iya-Sou

    2012-01-01

    The role of oxidant species created in the gas phase has been investigated in two non-thermal plasma processes applied for the water treatment: Gliding Arc and falling film Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) processes. Three different model organic pollutants have been treated in the two discharge reactors. The obtained results, from easier to more difficult to remove, are as follows: phenol>> Heptanol> pCBA> for the Glidarc reactor and 1-Heptanol >> Phenol> pCBA for DBD falling film reactor....

  15. Food processing and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Vissers, Y.M.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Feys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, N. van der; Wichers, H.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat tre

  16. Food Processing and Allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.; Vissers, Y.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Fleys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, van der Nieke; Wichers, H.J.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed.

    In this review the impact of processing (heat and non

  17. SAR processing using SHARC signal processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Barton D.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Skaron, Steve A.

    1998-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is uniquely suited to help solve the Search and Rescue problem since it can be utilized either day or night and through both dense fog or thick cloud cover. Other papers in this session, and in this session in 1997, describe the various SAR image processing algorithms that are being developed and evaluated within the Search and Rescue Program. All of these approaches to using SAR data require substantial amounts of digital signal processing: for the SAR image formation, and possibly for the subsequent image processing. In recognition of the demanding processing that will be required for an operational Search and Rescue Data Processing System (SARDPS), NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and NASA/Stennis Space Center are conducting a technology demonstration utilizing SHARC multi-chip modules from Boeing to perform SAR image formation processing.

  18. INTEGRATED RENEWAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyono .

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The marginal distribution of integrated renewal process is derived in this paper. Our approach is based on the theory of point processes, especially Poisson point processes. The results are presented in the form of Laplace transforms.

  19. Integrated Process Capability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; H; T; Huang; M; L; Hung; Y; H; Chen; K; S

    2002-01-01

    Process Capability Analysis (PCA) is a powerful too l to assess the ability of a process for manufacturing product that meets specific ations. The larger process capability index implies the higher process yield, a nd the larger process capability index also indicates the lower process expected loss. Chen et al. (2001) has applied indices C pu, C pl, and C pk for evaluating the process capability for a multi-process product wi th smaller-the-better, larger-the-better, and nominal-the-best spec...

  20. Product Development Process Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The use of Concurrent Engineering and other modern methods of product development and maintenance require that a large number of time-overlapped "processes" be performed by many people. However, successfully describing and optimizing these processes are becoming even more difficult to achieve. The perspective of industrial process theory (the definition of process) and the perspective of process implementation (process transition, accumulation, and inter-operations between processes) are used to survey the method used to build one base model (multi-view) process model.

  1. From Process Understanding to Process Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefland, M.

    2010-01-01

    A licensed pharmaceutical process is required to be executed within the validated ranges throughout the lifetime of product manufacturing. Changes to the process usually require the manufacturer to demonstrate that the safety and efficacy of the product remains unchanged. Recent changes in the regul

  2. Business Process Redesign: Design the Improved Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    64 C. MULTIVOTING ......... .................. .. 65 D. ELECTRONIC VOTING TECHNOLOGY ... ......... .. 65 v E. PAIRED...PROCESS IMPROVEMENT PROCESS (PIP) Diagram of each Activity (AI-A4) ......... .. 122 vi APPENDIX D: PRODUCTS AND VENDORS WHICH SUPPORT ELECTRONIC VOTING ............. 126...requirements. D. ELECTRONIC VOTING TECHNOLOGY Nunamaker [1992] suggests that traditional voting usual- ly happens at the end of a discussion, to close

  3. Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of disaster risk management in a development context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, Daniel; Mechler, Reinhard; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    Limited studies have shown that disaster risk management (DRM) can be cost-efficient in a development context. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is an evaluation tool to analyse economic efficiency. This research introduces quantitative, stochastic CBA frameworks and applies them in case studies of flood and drought risk reduction in India and Pakistan, while also incorporating projected climate change impacts. DRM interventions are shown to be economically efficient, with integrated approaches more cost-effective and robust than singular interventions. The paper highlights that CBA can be a useful tool if certain issues are considered properly, including: complexities in estimating risk; data dependency of results; negative effects of interventions; and distributional aspects. The design and process of CBA must take into account specific objectives, available information, resources, and the perceptions and needs of stakeholders as transparently as possible. Intervention design and uncertainties should be qualified through dialogue, indicating that process is as important as numerical results.

  4. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  5. Technology or Process First?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur Henryk; Svejvig, Per; Møller, Charles

    between them using strategic alignment, Enterprise Systems and Business Process Management theories. We argue that the insights from these cases can lead to a better alignment between process and technology. Implications for practice include the direction towards a closer integration of process...... and technology factors in organizations. Theoretical implications call for a design-oriented view of technology and process alignment....

  6. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  7. Metallurgical process engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ruiyu [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    ''Metallurgical Process Engineering'' discusses large-scale integrated theory on the level of manufacturing production processes, putting forward concepts for exploring non-equilibrium and irreversible complex system. It emphasizes the dynamic and orderly operation of the steel plant manufacturing process, the major elements of which are the flow, process network and program. The book aims at establishing a quasi-continuous and continuous process system for improving several techno-economic indices, minimizing dissipation and enhancing the market competitiveness and sustainability of steel plants. The book is intended for engineers, researchers and managers in the fields of metallurgical engineering, industrial design, and process engineering. (orig.)

  8. Acoustic signal processing toolbox for array processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tien; Whipps, Gene T.

    2003-08-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed an acoustic signal processing toolbox (ASPT) for acoustic sensor array processing. The intent of this document is to describe the toolbox and its uses. The ASPT is a GUI-based software that is developed and runs under MATLAB. The current version, ASPT 3.0, requires MATLAB 6.0 and above. ASPT contains a variety of narrowband (NB) and incoherent and coherent wideband (WB) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and beamforming algorithms that have been researched and developed at ARL. Currently, ASPT contains 16 DOA and beamforming algorithms. It contains several different NB and WB versions of the MVDR, MUSIC and ESPRIT algorithms. In addition, there are a variety of pre-processing, simulation and analysis tools available in the toolbox. The user can perform simulation or real data analysis for all algorithms with user-defined signal model parameters and array geometries.

  9. News: Process intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation of materials and energy is a major objective to the philosophy of sustainability. Where production processes can be intensified to assist these objectives, significant advances have been developed to assist conservation as well as cost. Process intensification (PI) h...

  10. Group Decision Process Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  11. Business Process Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Inventory of maps and descriptions of the business processes of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM), with an emphasis on the processes of the Office of the...

  12. Towards better process understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matero, Sanni Elina; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J; Poutiainen, Sami

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of tablets involves many unit operations that possess multivariate and complex characteristics. The interactions between the material characteristics and process related variation are presently not comprehensively analyzed due to univariate detection methods. As a consequence......, current best practice to control a typical process is to not allow process-related factors to vary i.e. lock the production parameters. The problem related to the lack of sufficient process understanding is still there: the variation within process and material properties is an intrinsic feature...... and cannot be compensated for with constant process parameters. Instead, a more comprehensive approach based on the use of multivariate tools for investigating processes should be applied. In the pharmaceutical field these methods are referred to as Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools that aim...

  13. Secure Processing Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Secure Processing Lab is the center of excellence for new and novel processing techniques for the formation, calibration and analysis of radar. In addition, this...

  14. Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)�is a scientific facility funded by DOE to create and implement innovative processes for environmental clean-up and...

  15. Infrared processing of foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  16. Dairy processing, Improving quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    This book discusses raw milk composition, production and quality, and reviews developments in processing from hygiene and HACCP systems to automation, high-pressure processing and modified atmosphere packaging.

  17. Stochastic processes - quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, L. (Bielefeld Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1984-01-01

    The author presents an elementary introduction to stochastic processes. He starts from simple quantum mechanics and considers problems in probability, finally presenting quantum dynamics in terms of stochastic processes.

  18. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Step 1 Discovery and Development Discovery and Development Research for a new drug ...

  19. Polyamines in tea processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Arisan, Elif Damla; Terzioglu, Salih

    2007-06-01

    The distribution of dietary polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, was determined during processing of Camellia sinensis. Black tea manufacture is carried by a series of processes on fresh tea leaves involving withering, rolling, fermentation, drying and sieving. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of tea processing on the polyamine content in relation with antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase. Before processing, the spermine content was much higher than the putrescine and spermidine content in green tea leaves. Spermine was significantly decreased during processing while the putrescine and spermine contents increased during withered and rolling and decreased in the following stages. The superoxide dismutase activity increased at the withering stage and declined during processing. The transcript level of the polyamine biosynthesis-responsible enzyme ornithine decarboxylase was reduced during each processing step. This study reveals the importance of protection of nutritional compounds that are essential for health during the manufacturing process.

  20. Community-based adaptation to climate change: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Jessica; Huq, Saleemul

    2009-06-15

    Over a billion people - the world's poorest and most bulnerable communities – will bear the brunt of climate change. For them, building local capacity to cope is a vital step towards resilience. Community-based adaptation (CBA) is emerging as a key response to this challenge. Tailored to local cultures and conditions, CBA supports and builds on autonomous adaptations to climate variability, such as the traditional baira or floating gardens of Bangladesh, which help small farmers' crops survive climate-driven floods. Above all, CBA is participatory – a process involving both local stakeholders, and development and disaster risk reduction practitioners. As such, it builds on existing cultural norms while addressing local development issues that contribute to climate vulnerability. CBA is now gaining ground in many regions, and is ripe for the reassessment offered here.

  1. Grind hardening process

    CERN Document Server

    Salonitis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the grind-hardening process and the main studies published since it was introduced in 1990s.  The modelling of the various aspects of the process, such as the process forces, temperature profile developed, hardness profiles, residual stresses etc. are described in detail. The book is of interest to the research community working with mathematical modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  2. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  3. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  4. Project evaluation, sustainability and accountability : combining cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    General abstract Decision-makers in governments and businesses must choose among different project alternatives which, in varying degrees, contribute to sustainability. Decision-makers also have to account for their choices to a large audience or a broad range of stakeholders. This thesis is about t

  5. Gonadal Steroids Negatively Modulate Oxidative Stress in CBA/Ca Female Mice Infected with P. berghei ANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Aarón Mosqueda-Romo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We decreased the level of gonadal steroids in female and male mice by gonadectomy. We infected these mice with P. berghei ANKA and observed the subsequent impact on the oxidative stress response. Intact females developed lower levels of parasitaemia and lost weight faster than intact males. Gonadectomised female mice displayed increased levels of parasitaemia, increased body mass, and increased anaemia compared with their male counterparts. In addition, gonadectomised females exhibited lower specific catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in their blood and spleen tissues compared with gonadectomised males. To further study the oxidative stress response in P. berghei ANKA-infected gonadectomised mice, nitric oxide levels were assessed in the blood and spleen, and MDA levels were assessed in the spleen. Intact, sham-operated, and gonadectomised female mice exhibited higher levels of nitric oxide in the blood and spleen compared with male mice. MDA levels were higher in all of the female groups. Finally, gonadectomy significantly increased the oxidative stress levels in females but not in males. These data suggest that differential oxidative stress is influenced by oestrogens that may contribute to sexual dimorphism in malaria.

  6. Mucosal adhesion properties of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG SpaCBA and SpaFED pilin subunits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Satokari, R.M.; Vesterlund, S.; Kankainen, M.; Huhtinen, H.; Tynkkynen, S.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Palva, A.

    2010-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a well-established Gram-positive probiotic strain, whose health-benefiting properties are in part dependent upon a prolonged residency in the gastrointestinal tract and likely dictated by an adherence to the intestinal mucosa. Previously, we identified two pilus gene cl

  7. Auditory processing models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook will pr...

  8. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelian,Diran

    2002-01-10

    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  9. Clinical Process Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup Pedersen, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    .e. local guidelines. From a knowledge management point of view, this externalization of generalized processes, gives the opportunity to learn from, evaluate and optimize the processes. "Clinical Process Intelligence" (CPI), will denote the goal of getting generalized insight into patient centered health...

  10. Biomass process handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  11. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  12. Colloid process engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peukert, Wolfgang; Rehage, Heinz; Schuchmann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with colloidal systems in technical processes and the influence of colloidal systems by technical processes. It explores how new measurement capabilities can offer the potential for a dynamic development of scientific and engineering, and examines the origin of colloidal systems and its use for new products. The future challenges to colloidal process engineering are the development of appropriate equipment and processes for the production and obtainment of multi-phase structures and energetic interactions in market-relevant quantities. The book explores the relevant processes and for controlled production and how they can be used across all scales.

  13. Silicon production process evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  14. Data processing made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  15. Dynamical laser spike processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shastri, Bhavin J; Tait, Alexander N; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Wu, Ben; Prucnal, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Novel materials and devices in photonics have the potential to revolutionize optical information processing, beyond conventional binary-logic approaches. Laser systems offer a rich repertoire of useful dynamical behaviors, including the excitable dynamics also found in the time-resolved "spiking" of neurons. Spiking reconciles the expressiveness and efficiency of analog processing with the robustness and scalability of digital processing. We demonstrate that graphene-coupled laser systems offer a unified low-level spike optical processing paradigm that goes well beyond previously studied laser dynamics. We show that this platform can simultaneously exhibit logic-level restoration, cascadability and input-output isolation---fundamental challenges in optical information processing. We also implement low-level spike-processing tasks that are critical for higher level processing: temporal pattern detection and stable recurrent memory. We study these properties in the context of a fiber laser system, but the addit...

  16. A secondary fuel removal process: plasma processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, J. Y.; Kim, Y. S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, K. K.; Yang, M. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Plasma etching process of UO{sub 2} by using fluorine containing gas plasma is studied as a secondary fuel removal process for DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel Into Candu) process which is taken into consideration for potential future fuel cycle in Korea. CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} gas mixture is chosen for reactant gas and the etching rates of UO{sub 2} by the gas plasma are investigated as functions of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio, plasma power, substrate temperature, and plasma gas pressure. It is found that the optimum CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio is around 4:1 at all temperatures up to 400 deg C and the etching rate increases with increasing r.f. power and substrate temperature. Under 150W r.f. power the etching rate reaches 1100 monolayers/min at 400 deg C, which is equivalent to about 0.5mm/min. (author).

  17. Business Model Process Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Nielsen, Christian; Thomsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims: 1) To develop systematically a structural list of various business model process configuration and to group (deductively) these selected configurations in a structured typological categorization list. 2) To facilitate companies in the process of BM innovation, by develop......Purpose – The paper aims: 1) To develop systematically a structural list of various business model process configuration and to group (deductively) these selected configurations in a structured typological categorization list. 2) To facilitate companies in the process of BM innovation......, by developing (inductively) an ontological classification framework, in view of the BM process configurations typology developed. Design/methodology/approach – Given the inconsistencies found in the business model studies (e.g. definitions, configurations, classifications) we adopted the analytical induction...... method of data analysis. Findings - A comprehensive literature review and analysis resulted in a list of business model process configurations systematically organized under five classification groups, namely, revenue model; value proposition; value configuration; target customers, and strategic...

  18. Decomposability for stable processes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yizao; Roy, Parthanil

    2011-01-01

    We characterize all possible independent symmetric $\\alpha$-stable (S$\\alpha$S) components of a non--Gaussian S$\\alpha$S process, $0<\\alpha<2$. In particular, we characterize the independent stationary S$\\alpha$S components of a stationary S$\\alpha$S process. One simple consequence of our characterization is that all stationary components of the S$\\alpha$S moving average processes are trivial. As a main application, we show that the standard Brown--Resnick process has a moving average representation. This complements a result of Kabluchko et al. (2009), who obtained mixed moving average representations for these processes. We also develop a parallel characterization theory for max-stable processes.

  19. Badge Office Process Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haurykiewicz, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dinehart, Timothy Grant [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Robert Young [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The purpose of this process analysis was to analyze the Badge Offices’ current processes from a systems perspective and consider ways of pursuing objectives set forth by SEC-PS, namely increased customer flow (throughput) and reduced customer wait times. Information for the analysis was gathered for the project primarily through Badge Office Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and in-person observation of prevailing processes. Using the information gathered, a process simulation model was constructed to represent current operations and allow assessment of potential process changes relative to factors mentioned previously. The overall purpose of the analysis was to provide SEC-PS management with information and recommendations to serve as a basis for additional focused study and areas for potential process improvements in the future.

  20. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open-map bisi......The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  1. Process Improvement Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Persse, James R

    2006-01-01

    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  2. TEP process flow diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  3. Business process transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Featuring contributions from prominent thinkers and researchers, this volume in the ""Advances in Management Information Systems"" series provides a rich set of conceptual, empirical, and introspective studies that epitomize fundamental knowledge in the area of Business Process Transformation. Processes are interpreted broadly to include operational and managerial processes within and between organizations, as well as those involved in knowledge generation. Transformation includes radical and incremental change, its conduct, management, and outcome. The editors and contributing authors pay clo

  4. Jointly Poisson processes

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, D H

    2009-01-01

    What constitutes jointly Poisson processes remains an unresolved issue. This report reviews the current state of the theory and indicates how the accepted but unproven model equals that resulting from the small time-interval limit of jointly Bernoulli processes. One intriguing consequence of these models is that jointly Poisson processes can only be positively correlated as measured by the correlation coefficient defined by cumulants of the probability generating functional.

  5. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  6. Polygon mesh processing

    CERN Document Server

    Botsch, Mario; Pauly, Mark; Alliez, Pierre; Levy, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Geometry processing, or mesh processing, is a fast-growing area of research that uses concepts from applied mathematics, computer science, and engineering to design efficient algorithms for the acquisition, reconstruction, analysis, manipulation, simulation, and transmission of complex 3D models. Applications of geometry processing algorithms already cover a wide range of areas from multimedia, entertainment, and classical computer-aided design, to biomedical computing, reverse engineering, and scientific computing. Over the last several years, triangle meshes have become increasingly popular,

  7. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  8. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  9. Scientific information processing procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Maylin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper systematizes several theoretical view-points on scientific information processing skill. It decomposes the processing skills into sub-skills. Several methods such analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, document analysis were used to build up a theoretical framework. Interviews and survey to professional being trained and a case study was carried out to evaluate the results. All professional in the sample improved their performance in scientific information processing.

  10. Multimodal Processes Rescheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Banaszak, Zbigniew A.; Nielsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe-cuted in the......Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe...

  11. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  12. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  13. Living olefin polymerization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  14. Financial information processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo BAI; Shouyang WANG; Lean YU; Aoying ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    @@ The rapid growth in financial data volume has made financial information processing more and more difficult due to the increase in complexity, which has forced businesses and academics alike to turn to sophisticated information processing technologies for better solutions. A typical feature is that high-performance computers and advanced computational techniques play ever-increasingly important roles for business and industries to have competitive advantages. Accordingly, financial information processing has emerged as a new cross-disciplinary field integrating computer science, mathematics, financial economics, intelligent techniques, and computer simulations to make different decisions based on processed financial information.

  15. The Recruitment Process:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna

    The aim of this research was to determine whether the introduction of e-recruitment has an impact on the process and underlying tasks, subtasks and activities of recruitment. Three large organizations with well-established e-recruitment practices were included in the study. The three case studies......, which were carried out in Denmark in 2008-2009 using qualitative research methods, revealed changes in the sequence, divisibility and repetitiveness of a number of recruitment tasks and subtasks. The new recruitment process design was identified and presented in the paper. The study concluded...... that the main task of the process shifted from processing applications to communicating with candidates....

  16. Biased predecision processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Aaron L

    2003-07-01

    Decision makers conduct biased predecision processing when they restructure their mental representation of the decision environment to favor one alternative before making their choice. The question of whether biased predecision processing occurs has been controversial since L. Festinger (1957) maintained that it does not occur. The author reviews relevant research in sections on theories of cognitive dissonance, decision conflict, choice certainty, action control, action phases, dominance structuring, differentiation and consolidation, constructive processing, motivated reasoning, and groupthink. Some studies did not find evidence of biased predecision processing, but many did. In the Discussion section, the moderators are summarized and used to assess the theories.

  17. Acoustic Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William M.; Candy, James V.

    Signal processing refers to the acquisition, storage, display, and generation of signals - also to the extraction of information from signals and the re-encoding of information. As such, signal processing in some form is an essential element in the practice of all aspects of acoustics. Signal processing algorithms enable acousticians to separate signals from noise, to perform automatic speech recognition, or to compress information for more efficient storage or transmission. Signal processing concepts are the building blocks used to construct models of speech and hearing. Now, in the 21st century, all signal processing is effectively digital signal processing. Widespread access to high-speed processing, massive memory, and inexpensive software make signal processing procedures of enormous sophistication and power available to anyone who wants to use them. Because advanced signal processing is now accessible to everybody, there is a need for primers that introduce basic mathematical concepts that underlie the digital algorithms. The present handbook chapter is intended to serve such a purpose.

  18. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  19. Kuhlthau's Information Search Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Explains Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP) model which is based on a constructivist view of learning and provides a framework for school library media specialists for the design of information services and instruction. Highlights include a shift from library skills to information skills; attitudes; process approach; and an interview with…

  20. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  1. Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-09-01

    This document represents the roadmap for Processing Technology Research in the US Mining Industry. It was developed based on the results of a Processing Technology Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held January 24 - 25, 2000.

  2. Technologies for Optical Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    The article consists of a Powerpoint presentation on technologies for optical processing. The paper concludes that the nonlinear elements based on SOA, fibers and waveguide structures have capabilities of simple processing at data rates of 100-600 Gb/s. Switching powers comparable to electronics...

  3. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  4. The process of entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle

    2003-01-01

    Growing a technology-based new venture is a complex process because these ventures are embedded in turbulent environments that require fast organisational and managerial transformation. This chapter addresses the evolutionary process of such ventures. It seeks to provide insight into the link...

  5. Process Writing Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Christopher J.

    This checklist is designed to help develop writing strategies for English language learners (ELLs), focusing on a variety of linguistic strategies inherent in the writing process. It provides them with a graphical representation of the cognitive process involved in complex writing, promoting self-assessment strategies and integrating oral…

  6. Food processing and allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity.

  7. Process innovation laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Most organizations today are required not only to operate effective business processes but also to allow for changing business conditions at an increasing rate. Today nearly every business relies on their enterprise information systems (EIS) for process integration and future generations of EIS...

  8. Hyperspectral image processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  9. Flow generating processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanen, van H.A.J.; Fendeková, M.; Kupczyk, E.; Kasprzyk, A.; Pokojski, W.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter starts with an overview of how climatic water deficits affect hydrological processes in different type of catchments. It then continues with a more comprehensive description of drought relevant processes. Two catchments in climatologically contrasting regions are used for illustrative p

  10. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  11. Uranium processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Covers a broad spectrum of topics and applications that deal with uranium processing and the properties of uranium Offers extensive coverage of both new and established practices for dealing with uranium supplies in nuclear engineering Promotes the documentation of the state-of-the-art processing techniques utilized for uranium and other specialty metals

  12. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  13. Monitoring Business Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellandi, Valerio; Ceravolo, Paolo; Damiani, Ernesto; Frati, Fulvio

    In this chapter, we introduce the TEKNE Metrics Framework that performs services to monitor business processes. This framework was designed to support the prescription and explanation of these processes. TEKNE's most innovative contribution is managing data expressed in declarative form. To face this challenge, the TEKNE project implemented an infrastructure that relies on declarative Semantic Web technologies designed to be used in distributed systems.

  14. Image processing mini manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Christine G.; Posenau, Mary-Anne; Leonard, Desiree M.; Avis, Elizabeth L.; Debure, Kelly R.; Stacy, Kathryn; Vonofenheim, Bill

    1992-01-01

    The intent is to provide an introduction to the image processing capabilities available at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Central Scientific Computing Complex (CSCC). Various image processing software components are described. Information is given concerning the use of these components in the Data Visualization and Animation Laboratory at LaRC.

  15. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  16. Organic food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria....... These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product...... to evaluate processing methods. Therefore the goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the topic of organic food processing to make it operational. A conceptual background for organic food processing is given by verifying the underlying paradigms and principles of organic farming and organic food as well...

  17. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  18. Posttranslational processing of progastrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jens René; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are homologous hormones with important functions in the brain and the gut. Gastrin is the main regulator of gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal growth, whereas cholecystokinin regulates gall bladder emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion and besides acts...... processing progastrin is often greatly disturbed in neoplastic cells.The posttranslational phase of the biogenesis of gastrin and the various progastrin products in gastrin gene-expressing tissues is now reviewed here. In addition, the individual contributions of the processing enzymes are discussed......, as are structural features of progastrin that are involved in the precursor activation process. Thus, the review describes how the processing depends on the cell-specific expression of the processing enzymes and kinetics in the secretory pathway....

  19. Managing Software Process Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book focuses on the design, development, management, governance and application of evolving software processes that are aligned with changing business objectives, such as expansion to new domains or shifting to global production. In the context of an evolving business world, it examines...... the complete software process lifecycle, from the initial definition of a product to its systematic improvement. In doing so, it addresses difficult problems, such as how to implement processes in highly regulated domains or where to find a suitable notation system for documenting processes, and provides...... essential insights and tips to help readers manage process evolutions. And last but not least, it provides a wealth of examples and cases on how to deal with software evolution in practice. Reflecting these topics, the book is divided into three parts. Part 1 focuses on software business transformation...

  20. Business Process Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendling, Jan

    The recent progress of Business Process Management (BPM) is reflected by the figures of the related industry. Wintergreen Research estimates that the international market for BPM-related software and services accounted for more than USD 1 billion in 2005 with a tendency towards rapid growth in the subsequent couple of years [457]. The relevance of business process modeling to general management initiatives has been previously studied in the 1990s [28]. Today, Gartner finds that organizations that had the best results in implementing business process management spent more than 40 percent of the total project time on discovery and construction of their initial process model [265]. As a consequence, Gartner considers Business Process Modeling to be among the Top 10 Strategic Technologies for 2008.

  1. New Processes for Annulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hsing-Jang

    2004-01-01

    Making use of the high propensity of 2-cyano-2-cycloalkenones to undergo conjugate addition with various carbanions and the high reactivity of the ensuing α -cyano ketone system, a number of new annulation processes have been developed recently in our laboratories. As shown in Eq. 1 (n=1) with a specific example, one such process involves the addition of 3-butenylmagnesium bromide, followed by a palladium (Ⅱ) acetate mediated oxidative cyclization, to facilitate methylenecyclopentane ring formation. This annulation process could be readily extended to effect methylenecyclohexane ring formation (Eq. 1, n=2), using 4-pentenylmagnesinm bromide as the initial reagent, and to install the carbomethoxy-substituted methylenecyclopentane and methylenecyclohexane rings, using the carbanions derived from methyl 4-pentenoate and methyl 5-hexenoate, respectively (Eq. 2). In another annulation process, the addition of the enolate of methyl 5-chloropentanoate is involved initially, and the ring formation is readily effected by an intramolecular alkylation process. A specific example is given in Eq. 3.

  2. Business process support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, Adriana; Fiducia, Daniel [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. (TGS), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    This paper is about the own development of business support software. The developed applications are used to support two business processes: one of them is the process of gas transportation and the other is the natural gas processing. This software has interphases with the ERP SAP, software SCADA and on line gas transportation simulation software. The main functionalities of the applications are: entrance on line real time of clients transport nominations, transport programming, allocation of the clients transport nominations, transport control, measurements, balanced pipeline, allocation of gas volume to the gas processing plants, calculate of product tons processed in each plant and tons of product distributed to clients. All the developed software generates information to the internal staff, regulatory authorities and clients. (author)

  3. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaotian [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: swa001@126.com; Zhang Shiying [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fan Shen [Computer and Information School, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function {lambda}(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t)

  4. Conceptualizing operations strategy processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Niels Gorm; Boer, Harry; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present insights into operations strategy (OS) in practice. It outlines a conceptualization and model of OS processes and, based on findings from an in-depth and longitudinal case study, contributes to further development of extant OS models and methods......; taking place in five dimensions of change - technical-rational, cultural, political, project management, and facilitation; and typically unfolding as a sequential and parallel, ordered and disordered, planned and emergent as well as top-down and bottom-up process. The proposed OS conceptualization...... outcomes for an OS process in practice, change agents may need to moderate their outcome ambitions, manage process dimensions and agendas in a situational manner, balance inherent process paradoxes, strive at bridging both language and reality, as well as mobilizing key stakeholders, especially middle...

  5. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  6. Formed HIP Can Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  7. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  8. The Isasmelt process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, K.R. (MIM Technology Marketing Ltd., Northfleet (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    The Isasmelt process was developed at Mt Isa Mines Ltd. in Queensland. The process was initially developed for the treatment of lead concentrate. After successful application of the process to lead production a pilot plant was built for the treatment of copper concentrate to produce copper matte. This was successful and as a result Mt Isa Mines decided to build a new copper smelter with a capacity of 180,000 t copper/ a in copper matte. Further commercialisation of the process has resulted in the construction of further plants for lead, nickel and copper production. Mt Isa Mines Ltd. has been associated with CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation) in the development of the Isasmelt process since 1977, when a Sirosmelt lance was tested for reducing copper converter slags. Thermodynamic modelling and cruicible scale investigations on a lead smelting process were initiated in 1978. After further work on a 120 kg/h pilot plant the Isasmelt process for lead concentrate smelting was patented jointly by Mt Isa Mines and CSIRO. Since then a 5 t/h demonstration plant was commissioned 1983/85 for smelting and reduction. Finally in 1991 a commercial scale plant with a capacity of 60,000 t/a was commissioned. (orig.).

  9. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textb......One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...... process for which process recordings are a valuable communication media in order to enhance the learning process. Student feedback indicates both high learning outcome and superior learning potential compared to traditional classroom teaching....

  10. States in Process Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Formal reasoning about distributed algorithms (like Consensus typically requires to analyze global states in a traditional state-based style. This is in contrast to the traditional action-based reasoning of process calculi. Nevertheless, we use domain-specific variants of the latter, as they are convenient modeling languages in which the local code of processes can be programmed explicitly, with the local state information usually managed via parameter lists of process constants. However, domain-specific process calculi are often equipped with (unlabeled reduction semantics, building upon a rich and convenient notion of structural congruence. Unfortunately, the price for this convenience is that the analysis is cumbersome: the set of reachable states is modulo structural congruence, and the processes' state information is very hard to identify. We extract from congruence classes of reachable states individual state-informative representatives that we supply with a proper formal semantics. As a result, we can now freely switch between the process calculus terms and their representatives, and we can use the stateful representatives to perform assertional reasoning on process calculus models.

  11. Semi-Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabski

    2014-01-01

    Semi-Markov Processes: Applications in System Reliability and Maintenance is a modern view of discrete state space and continuous time semi-Markov processes and their applications in reliability and maintenance. The book explains how to construct semi-Markov models and discusses the different reliability parameters and characteristics that can be obtained from those models. The book is a useful resource for mathematicians, engineering practitioners, and PhD and MSc students who want to understand the basic concepts and results of semi-Markov process theory. Clearly defines the properties and

  12. Transnational Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    This paper analyses and compares the transnational learning processes in the employment field in the European Union and among the Nordic countries. Based theoretically on a social constructivist model of learning and methodologically on a questionnaire distributed to the relevant participants......, a number of hypotheses concerning transnational learning processes are tested. The paper closes with a number of suggestions regarding an optimal institutional setting for facilitating transnational learning processes.Key words: Transnational learning, Open Method of Coordination, Learning, Employment......, European Employment Strategy, European Union, Nordic countries....

  13. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  14. Getting Started with Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi

  15. Chemical Processing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

  16. The image processing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Russ, John C

    2006-01-01

    Now in its fifth edition, John C. Russ's monumental image processing reference is an even more complete, modern, and hands-on tool than ever before. The Image Processing Handbook, Fifth Edition is fully updated and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field. Written by an expert with unequalled experience and authority, it offers clear guidance on how to create, select, and use the most appropriate algorithms for a specific application. What's new in the Fifth Edition? ·       A new chapter on the human visual process that explains which visual cues elicit a response from the vie

  17. Study on Glulam Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Limin; WANG Haiqing; HE Weili

    2006-01-01

    This paper selected lumbers of Manchurian ash (Fraxinus rnandshurica), Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshuricd) and Spruce (Picea jezoensis vai.kornamvii) for manufacturing glulam with water-borne polymeric-isocyanate adhesive to determine process variables. The process variables that include specific pressure, pressing time and adhesive application amount influencing the shear strength of the glulam, were investigated through the orthogonal test. The results indicated that optimum process variables for glulam manufacturing were as follows: Specific pressure of 1.5 MPa for Spruce and 2,0 MPa both for Manchurian ash and Manchurian walnut, pressing time of 60 min and adhesive application amount of 250 g/m2.

  18. Digital Differential Geometry Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Guo Liu; Hu-Jun Bao; Qun-Sheng Peng

    2006-01-01

    The theory and methods of digital geometry processing has been a hot research area in computer graphics, as geometric models serves as the core data for 3D graphics applications. The purpose of this paper is to introduce some recent advances in digital geometry processing, particularly mesh fairing, surface parameterization and mesh editing, that heavily use differential geometry quantities. Some related concepts from differential geometry, such as normal, curvature, gradient,Laplacian and their counterparts on digital geometry are also reviewed for understanding the strength and weakness of various digital geometry processing methods.

  19. Nano integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-15

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  20. Irreversible processes kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brush, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s

  1. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingyou

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation of high-energy ultrasonic vibration in metals and alloys generates oscillating strain and stress fields in solids, and introduces nonlinear effects such as cavitation, acoustic streaming, and radiation pressure in molten materials. These nonlinear effects can be utilized to assist conventional material processing processes. This article describes recent research at Oak Ridge National Labs and Purdue University on using high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations for degassing molten aluminum, processing particulate-reinforced metal matrix composites, refining metals and alloys during solidification process and welding, and producing bulk nanostructures in solid metals and alloys. Research results suggest that high-intensity ultrasonic vibration is capable of degassing and dispersing small particles in molten alloys, reducing grain size during alloy solidification, and inducing nanostructures in solid metals.

  2. Processer i undervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    Undersøgelsen har fokus på processer i undervisningen – og derigennem på hvordan digitale læremidler kan understøtte eller integreres i typiske processer. Undersøgelsen hviler på deltagende observation på Abildgårdskolen i Odense. Gennem observationerne er der identificeret en række eksempler på ...... udfordringer for at gennemføre de undervisningsmæssige processer og givet bud på digitale læremidler der forventes at kunne understøtte processerne. Undersøgelsen viser samtidig hvordan fokus på processer kan fungere som en metode til brugerdreven innovation....

  3. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  4. Reconfigurable network processing platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kachris, C.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents our investigation on how to efficiently exploit reconfigurable hardware to design flexible, high performance, and power efficient network devices capable to adapt to varying processing requirements of network applications and traffic. The proposed reconfigurable network pr

  5. Quantum processes in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Ridley, B K

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at graduate students, this is a guide to quantum processes of importance in the physics and technology of semiconductors. The fifth edition includes new chapters that expand the coverage of semiconductor physics relevant to its accompanying technology.

  6. CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

  7. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  8. Logistics Innovation Process Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan; Yang, Su-Lan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to learn more about logistics innovation processes and their implications for the focal organization as well as the supply chain, especially suppliers. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical basis of the study is a longitudinal action research project...... that was triggered by the practical needs of new ways of handling material flows of a hospital. This approach made it possible to revisit theory on logistics innovation process. Findings – Apart from the tangible benefits reported to the case hospital, five findings can be extracted from this study: the logistics...... innovation process model may include not just customers but also suppliers; logistics innovation in buyer-supplier relations may serve as an alternative to outsourcing; logistics innovation processes are dynamic and may improve supplier partnerships; logistics innovations in the supply chain are as dependent...

  9. SIMULATION OF LOGISTICS PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Taranenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the theoretical basis of the simulation. The study shows the simulation of logistic processes in industrial countries is an integral part of many economic projects aimed at the creation or improvement of logistics systems. The paper was used model Beer Game for management of logistics processes in the enterprise. The simulation model implements in AnyLogic package. AnyLogic product allows us to consider the logistics processes as an integrated system, which allows reaching better solutions. Logistics process management involves pooling the sales market, production and distribution to ensure the temporal level of customer service at the lowest cost overall. This made it possible to conduct experiments and to determine the optimal size of the warehouse at the lowest cost.

  10. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, an hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi......-level modulation founats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signa In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral...... regeneratio These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platform like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described....

  11. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  12. IT Project Prioritization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shollo, Arisa; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    In most of the large companies IT project prioritization process is designed based on principles of evidencebased management. We investigate a case of IT project prioritization in a financial institution, and in particular, how managers practice evidence-based management during this process. We use...... a rich dataset built from a longitudinal study of the prioritization process for the IT projects. Our findings indicate that managers reach a decision not only by using evidence but from the interplay between the evidence and the judgment devices that managers employ. The interplay between evidence...... and judgment devices is manifested in three ways: supplementing, substituting, and interpreting evidence. We show that while evidence does not fully determine the decision, it plays a central role in discussions, reflections, and negotiations during the IT prioritization process....

  13. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  14. TERMINOLOGY IN PROCESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor G. Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We can be mistaken to formulate basic concepts of process management, and we are at risk to be on the wrong way solving the focused problems – instead of process management we could do automatization, instead of process system we could introduce function-oriented system. Without having a clear idea of the model we have to execute, we can plan this model as an analytical one and do not include all the necessary tools for management on the stage of planning. The article is targeted for the analysts who have skills in analytical modeling of business processes and would like to make a step forward to the implementation of these models. In order to become professionals in this field it is necessary to learn the terminology, first of all. 

  15. Essentials of stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Building upon the previous editions, this textbook is a first course in stochastic processes taken by undergraduate and graduate students (MS and PhD students from math, statistics, economics, computer science, engineering, and finance departments) who have had a course in probability theory. It covers Markov chains in discrete and continuous time, Poisson processes, renewal processes, martingales, and option pricing. One can only learn a subject by seeing it in action, so there are a large number of examples and more than 300 carefully chosen exercises to deepen the reader’s understanding. Drawing from teaching experience and student feedback, there are many new examples and problems with solutions that use TI-83 to eliminate the tedious details of solving linear equations by hand, and the collection of exercises is much improved, with many more biological examples. Originally included in previous editions, material too advanced for this first course in stochastic processes has been eliminated while treatm...

  16. Assessing Process and Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises the ques......The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises...... the question how to include this in assessments. Traditional assessments (e.g. oral, written, or multiple choice) are unsuitable to test the programming process. We describe and evaluate a practical lab examination that assesses the students' programming process as well as the developed programs...

  17. Markovian risk process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Han-xing; YAN Yun-zhi; ZHAO Fei; FANG Da-fan

    2007-01-01

    A Markovian risk process is considered in this paper, which is the generalization of the classical risk model. It is proper that a risk process with large claims is modelled as the Markovian risk model. In such a model, the occurrence of claims is described by a point process {N(t)}t≥o with N(t) being the number of jumps during the interval (0, t] for a Markov jump process. The ruin probability Ψ(u) of a company facing such a risk model is mainly studied. An integral equation satisfied by the ruin probability function Ψ(u) is obtained and the bounds for the convergence rate of the ruin probability Ψ(u) are given by using a generalized renewal technique developed in the paper.

  18. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235

    2010-01-01

    We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\

  19. Harmonizable Processes: Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-05

    a related result of Thomas ([39], p. 146). However, the Bourbaki set up of these papers is inconvenient here, and they will be converted to the set ...of processes. 1 2 2i 1. Introduction. Recently there have been significant attempts for extending the well-understood theory of stationary processes...characterizations of the respective classes. This involves a free use of some elementary aspects of vector measure theory ; and it already raises some interesting

  20. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  1. Digital signal processing: Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, L. M.; Matiushkin, B. D.; Poliak, M. N.

    The fundamentals of the theory and design of systems and devices for the digital processing of signals are presented. Particular attention is given to algorithmic methods of synthesis and digital processing equipment in communication systems (e.g., selective digital filtering, spectral analysis, and variation of the signal discretization frequency). Programs for the computer-aided analysis of digital filters are described. Computational examples are presented, along with tables of transfer function coefficients for recursive and nonrecursive digital filters.

  2. Diasporic Relationships and Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    How does moving across the geographical borders affect the relationships of diaspora members both here – in the country of residence and there- in the country of origin? The article delineates some of the processes through gendered experiences of the young adults perceived as active actors based...... an empirical longitudinal study. The results indicate transformations in belongings and longings indicating reinterpretation of the self, others and home in context of exclusion processes at various levels....

  3. Bank Record Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  4. Poststroke neuroplasticity processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Damulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers different aspects of neuroplasticity in patients with stroke. It underlines the dynamism of this process and the ambiguity of involvement of the structures of the contralateral cerebral hemisphere in the restorative process. It considers the periods after onset of stroke and the activation of different brain regions (of both the involved and intact hemisphere in the poststroke period. Particular emphasis is placed on the issues of neurorehabilitation in this category of patients. Delay in rehabilitation measures leads to a worse outcome, the patients must be at hospital longer. It is emphasized that the neurorehabilitaton measures should use strategies aimed at improving plasticity processes at the level of synaptic transmission and neuronal communications. At the same time, of great importance are the processes of structural and functional remodeling of neuronal communications with the involvement of surviving neurons that are located in the peri-infarct area and partially damaged during ischemia. To recover stroke-induced lost motor functions, measures are implemented to modulate the ipsilateral motor cortex, contralateral motor cortex, and sensory afferentation. Remodeling processes, one of the manifestations of neuroplasticity, vary with the size and location of an ischemic focus. The specific features of this process with subcortical and cortical foci are considered. It is stressed that there are genetically determined neurotrophic factors that may enhance remodeling processes in the peri-infarct area, as well as factors that inhibit these processes. The sensory system is noted to have a high potential of compensation, which is appreciably associated with the considerable extent of sensory fibers even at the level of the cerebral cortex.

  5. Cognitive Processes in Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2009-01-01

    Writing has become one of important topic to discuss in the new age.Its theories could be generally learnt,but its nature needs to handle in specific contents.In another words,every one who can write must generate his/her thinking or cognitive processes.Because writing thinking is to do meaningful activities,how to solove writing problems could be managed through cognitive process.

  6. Apple Image Processing Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  7. Metoda Analytic Network Process

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with Multi-Criteria Decision Making, in particular the Analytic Network Process method. The introductory part is dedicated to compile all the theory necessary to understand the method and utilized throughout the paper. The Analytic Hierarchy Process method is described and later generalized in the form of the ANP. Part of the paper is a description of available software products that are able to solve the ANP models. The main focus is on the application of the method, ...

  8. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  9. Cauchy cluster process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an instance of the well-know Neyman–Scott cluster process model with clusters having a long tail behaviour. In our model the offspring points are distributed around the parent points according to a circular Cauchy distribution. Using a modified Cramér-von Misses test st...... statistic and the simulated pointwise envelopes it is shown that this model fits better than the Thomas process to the frequently analyzed long-leaf pine data-set....

  10. Scramjet Combustion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    plan for these flights is as follows: Scramjet Combustion Processes RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 21 HyShot 5 – A Free-Flying Hypersonic Glider HyShot...5 will be a hypersonic glider designed to fly at Mach 8. It will separate from its rocket booster in space and perform controlled manoeuvres as it...RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 1 Scramjet Combustion Processes Michael Smart and Ray Stalker Centre for Hypersonics The University of Queensland

  11. Solution Processing - Rodlike Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    side it necessary and identify by block number) Para-ordered Polymers High Modulus Fibers and Films Polybenzobisoxazoles Polybenzobisthiazoles 20...considerations important in solution processing are considered, with special emphasis on the dry-jet wet spinning process used to form fibers . Pertinent...Company, Summit, N.J. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ................ .......................... .. 1 2. REMARKS ON DRY-JET WET SPUN FIBER

  12. Image Processing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    To convert raw data into environmental products, the National Weather Service and other organizations use the Global 9000 image processing system marketed by Global Imaging, Inc. The company's GAE software package is an enhanced version of the TAE, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center to support remote sensing and image processing applications. The system can be operated in three modes and is combined with HP Apollo workstation hardware.

  13. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    The Integrated Renovation Process (IRP) is a user customized methodology based on judiciously selected constructivist and interactive multi-criteria decision making methods (Galiotto, Heiselberg, & Knudstrup, 2014 (expected)). When applied for home renovation, the Integrated Renovation Process...... for the quantitative analyses and the generation of the renovation scenarios so they get more time for the cost optimisation and the qualitative analysis of the homeowners’ needs, wishes and behaviours....

  14. Privatisation Process in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hysni Terziu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing activities of the privatisation process in Kosovo, seeing that privatisation is treated as a fundamental factor of overall transformation of the whole society. It may be established that the primary aim of privatisation process is increasing economic efficiency, reflection of the current state and directions of development in general. Privatisation as a process has as primary aim of opening new areas of freedom, economic efficiency and individualism. Key aim of privatisation process in Kosovo must be increase of economic efficiency, preservation of the healthy economic potential created up to date, and ensuring of the long term concept, which enables growth and macroeconomic stability. The policy of privatisation should give a response related to strategic aspects of privatisation of these sectors: of models, procedures, potential investors, technological modernisation and overtaking of social barriers. Process of privatisation and transition which has now covered countries of the Eastern and Central Europe, aims at profound economic and political transformation of these countries. To achieve this, it is necessarily required to have some basic preconditions, which are related to incitement of general efficiency of the enterprises, expansion of the capital market, introduction of competition, development of business culture in private property and freedom of entrepreneurship. Impacts of privatisation in economic development of Kosovo take a considerable place compared to other countries, therefore our aim is that through this paper we analyse factors and methods of implementation in this process.

  15. PALSAR ground data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Heinrich; Palsetia, Marzban; Carande, Richard; Curlander, James C.

    2002-02-01

    The upcoming launches of new satellites like ALOS, Envisat, Radarsat2 and ECHO will pose a significant challenge for many ground stations, namely to integrate new SAR processing software into their existing systems. Vexcel Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has built a SAR processing system, named APEX -Suite, for spaceborne SAR satellites that can easily be expanded for the next generation of SAR satellites. APEX-Suite includes an auto-satellite-detecting Level 0 Processor that includes bit-error correction, data quality characterization, and as a unique feature, a sophisticated and very accurate Doppler centroid estimator. The Level 1 processing is divided into the strip mode processor FOCUST, based on the well-proven range-Doppler algorithm, and the SWATHT ScanSAR processor that uses the Chirp Z Trans-form algorithm. A high-accuracy ortho-rectification processor produces systematic and precision corrected Level 2 SAR image pro ducts. The PALSAR instrument is an L-band SAR with multiple fine and standard resolution beams in strip mode, and several wide-swath ScanSAR modes. We will address the adaptation process of Vexcel's APEX-Suite processing system for the PALSAR sensor and discuss image quality characteristics based on processed simulated point target phase history data.

  16. Helium process cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2007-10-09

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  17. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  18. Carbon dioxide reducing processes; Koldioxidreducerande processer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Fredrik

    1999-12-01

    This thesis discusses different technologies to reduce or eliminate the carbon dioxide emissions, when a fossil fuel is used for energy production. Emission reduction can be accomplished by separating the carbon dioxide for storage or reuse. There are three different ways of doing the separation. The carbon dioxide can be separated before the combustion, the process can be designed so that the carbon dioxide can be separated without any energy consumption and costly systems or the carbon dioxide can be separated from the flue gas stream. Two different concepts of separating the carbon dioxide from a combined cycle are compared, from the performance and the economical point of view, with a standard natural gas fired combined cycle where no attempts are made to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. One concept is to use absorption technologies to separate the carbon dioxide from the flue gas stream. The other concept is based on a semi-closed gas turbine cycle using carbon dioxide as working fluid and combustion with pure oxygen, generated in an air-separating unit. The calculations show that the efficiency (power) drop is smaller for the first concept than for the second, 8.7 % points compared to 13.7 % points, when power is produced. When both heat and power are produced, the relation concerning the efficiency (power) remains. Regarding the overall efficiency (heat and power) the opposite relation is present. A possible carbon dioxide tax must exceed 0.21 SEK/kg CO{sub 2} for it to be profitable to separate carbon dioxide with any of these technologies.

  19. Customer Innovation Process Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2007-01-01

    Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been on diffe......Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been...... to handle shorter and faster product life cycles. Continuously changing customer needs are pushing companies' competence of continuous innovation to a maximum - but still this seems not to be enough to stay competitive on the global market and reach the goals of growth. This article therefore suggests...... another outlook to future innovation leadership - Customer Innovation Process Leadership - CIP-leadership. CIP-leadership moves the company's innovation process closer to the customer innovation process and discusses how companies can be involved and innovate in customers' future needs and lead...

  20. VLSI signal processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Swartzlander, Earl

    1994-01-01

    This book is the first in a set of forthcoming books focussed on state-of-the-art development in the VLSI Signal Processing area. It is a response to the tremendous research activities taking place in that field. These activities have been driven by two factors: the dramatic increase in demand for high speed signal processing, especially in consumer elec­ tronics, and the evolving microelectronic technologies. The available technology has always been one of the main factors in determining al­ gorithms, architectures, and design strategies to be followed. With every new technology, signal processing systems go through many changes in concepts, design methods, and implementation. The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the main features of VLSI Signal Processing and the ongoing developments in this area. The focus of this book is on: • Current developments in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) pro­ cessors and architectures - several examples and case studies of existing DSP chips are discussed in...

  1. Due process traditionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  2. Fabrication of 80-nm T-gate high indium In0.7Ga0.3As/In0.6Ga0.4As composite channels mHEMT on GaAs substrate with simple technological process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Ji; Xiaodong, Zhang; Weihua, Kang; Zhili, Zhang; Jiahui, Zhou; Wenjun, Xu; Qi, Li; Gongli, Xiao; Zhijun, Yin; Yong, Cai; Baoshun, Zhang; Haiou, Li

    2016-02-01

    An 80-nm gate length metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (mHEMT) on a GaAs substrate with high indium composite compound-channels In0.7Ga0.3 As/In0.6Ga0.4 As and an optimized grade buffer scheme is presented. High 2-DEG Hall mobility values of 10200 cm2/(V·s) and a sheet density of 3.5 × 1012 cm-2 at 300 K have been achieved. The device's T-shaped gate was made by utilizing a simple three layers electron beam resist, instead of employing a passivation layer for the T-share gate, which is beneficial to decreasing parasitic capacitance and parasitic resistance of the gate and simplifying the device manufacturing process. The ohmic contact resistance Rc is 0.2 ω·mm when using the same metal system with the gate (Pt/Ti/Pt/Au), which reduces the manufacturing cycle of the device. The mHEMT device demonstrates excellent DC and RF characteristics. The peak extrinsic transconductance of 1.1 S/mm and the maximum drain current density of 0.86 A/mm are obtained. The unity current gain cut-off frequency (fT) and the maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) are 246 and 301 GHz, respectively. Project supported by the Key Laboratory of Nano-Devices and Applications, Nano-Fabrication Facility of SINANO, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61274077, 61474031, 61464003), the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 2013GXNSFGA019003, 2013GXNSFAA019335), the National Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2011CBA00605, 2010CB327501), the Project (No. 9140C140101140C14069), and the Innovation Project of GUET Graduate Education (Nos. GDYCSZ201448, GDYCSZ201449, YJCXS201529).

  3. Beyond the search process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    . It is concluded that the ISP-model does not fully comply with group members' problem solving process and the involved information seeking behavior. Further, complex academic problem solving seems to be even more complex when it is performed in a group based setting. The study contributes with a new conceptual......This paper reports on the findings from a longitudinal case study exploring Kuhlthau's information search process (ISP)-model in a group based academic setting. The research focus is on group members' activities and cognitive and emotional experiences during the task process of writing...... an assignment. It is investigated if group members' information behavior differ from the individual information seeker in the ISP-model and to what extent this behavior is influenced by contextual (work task) and social (group work) factors. Three groups of LIS students were followed during a 14 weeks period...

  4. Laser Processing and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bäuerle, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This book gives an overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser-matter interactions, in particular with regard to laser material processing. Special attention is given to laser-induced physical and chemical processes at gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces. Starting with the background physics, the book proceeds to examine applications of lasers in “standard” laser machining and laser chemical processing (LCP), including the patterning, coating, and modification of material surfaces. This fourth edition has been enlarged to cover the rapid advances in the understanding of the dynamics of materials under the action of ultrashort laser pulses, and to include a number of new topics, in particular the increasing importance of lasers in various different fields of surface functionalizations and nanotechnology. In two additional chapters, recent developments in biotechnology, medicine, art conservation and restoration are summarized. Graduate students, physicists, chemists, engineers, a...

  5. Processes for xanthomonas biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelskirchen, K.; Stein, W.; Bahn, M.; Schieferstein, L.; Schindler, J.

    1984-03-27

    A process is described for producing xanthan gum in which the use of a stable, water-in-oil emulsion in the fermentation medium markedly lowers the viscosity of the medium, resulting in lower energy requirements for the process, and also resulting in enhanced yields of the biopolymer. In such an emulsion, the aqueous fermentation phase, with its microbial growth and metabolic processes, takes place in a finely dispersed homogeneous oil phase. The viscosity increase in each droplet of the aqueous nutrient solution will not noticeably affect this mixture in the fermenter because the viscosity of the reaction mixture in the fermenter is determined primarily by the viscosity of the oil phase. 45 claims

  6. Identification of wastewater processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    -known theory of the processes with the significant effects found in data. These models are called grey box models, and they contain rate expressions for the processes of influent load of nutrients, transport of nutrients between the aeration tanks, hydrolysis and growth of biomass, nitrification...... function. The grey box models are estimated on data sets from the Lundtofte pilot scale plant and the Aalborg West wastewater treatment plant. Estimation of Monod- kinetic expressions is made possible through the application of large data sets. Parameter extimates from the two plants show a reasonable......The introduction of on-line sensors for monitoring of nutrient salts concentrations on wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal, opens a wide new area of modelling wastewater processes. The subject of this thesis is the formulation of operational dynamic models based on time series...

  7. Stochastic processes inference theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Malempati M

    2014-01-01

    This is the revised and enlarged 2nd edition of the authors’ original text, which was intended to be a modest complement to Grenander's fundamental memoir on stochastic processes and related inference theory. The present volume gives a substantial account of regression analysis, both for stochastic processes and measures, and includes recent material on Ridge regression with some unexpected applications, for example in econometrics. The first three chapters can be used for a quarter or semester graduate course on inference on stochastic processes. The remaining chapters provide more advanced material on stochastic analysis suitable for graduate seminars and discussions, leading to dissertation or research work. In general, the book will be of interest to researchers in probability theory, mathematical statistics and electrical and information theory.

  8. Process window metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Chu, William; Hadel, Linda M.; Ho, Hok; Talvi, Peter

    2000-06-01

    This paper is the third of a series that defines a new approach to in-line lithography control. The first paper described the use of optically measurable line-shortening targets to enhance signal-to-noise and reduce measurement time. The second described the dual-tone optical critical dimension (OCD) measurement and analysis necessary to distinguish dose and defocus. Here we describe the marriage of dual-tone OCD to SEM-CD metrology that comprises what we call 'process window metrology' (PWM), the means to locate each measured site in dose and focus space relative to the allowed process window. PWM provides in-line process tracking and control essential to the successful implementation of low-k lithography.

  9. Quartz resonator processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  10. Process of timbral composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Sam

    In this paper, I discuss the techniques and processes of timbral organization I developed while writing my chamber work, Afterimage. I compare my techniques with illustrative examples by other composers to place my work in historical context. I examine three elements of my composition process. The first is the process of indexing and cataloging basic sonic materials. The second consists of the techniques and mechanics of manipulating and assembling these collections into larger scale phrases, textures, and overall form in a musical work. The third element is the more elusive, and often extra-musical, source of inspiration and motivation. The evocative power of tone color is both immediately evident yet difficult to explain. What is timbre? This question cannot be answered solely in scientific terms; subjective factors affect our perception of it.

  11. The Nursing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hammond

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the nursing process can be summed up in this quotation by Sir Francis Bacon: “Human knowledge and human powers meet in one; for where the cause is not known the effect cannot be produced.” Arriving at a concise, accurate definition of the nursing process was, for me, an impossible task. It is altogether too vast and too personal a topic to contract down into a niftylooking, we-pay-lip-service-to-it cliché. So what I propose to do is to present my understanding of the nursing process throughout this essay, and then to leave the reader with some overall, general impression of what it all entails.

  12. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  13. A support design process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, J.; Scott, P.B. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    A workman suffered a fatal injury due to a fall of ground from the face of a development drivage, which was supported by passive supports supplemented with roof bolts. A working party was set up to review the support process and evaluate how protection of the workmen could be improved whilst setting supports.The working party included representatives from the trade unions, the mines inspectorate and mine operators.Visits were made to several mines and discussions were held with the workmen and management at these mines. The paper describes the results of the visits and how a support design process was evolved. The process will ensure that the support system is designed to reduce the inherent hazards associated with setting supports using either conventional or mixed support systems.

  14. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  15. COTS software selection process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, William M. (Strike Wire Technologies, Louisville, CO); Lin, Han Wei; McClelland, Kelly (U.S. Security Associates, Livermore, CA); Ullrich, Rebecca Ann; Khanjenoori, Soheil; Dalton, Karen; Lai, Anh Tri; Kuca, Michal; Pacheco, Sandra; Shaffer-Gant, Jessica

    2006-05-01

    Today's need for rapid software development has generated a great interest in employing Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products as a way of managing cost, developing time, and effort. With an abundance of COTS software packages to choose from, the problem now is how to systematically evaluate, rank, and select a COTS product that best meets the software project requirements and at the same time can leverage off the current corporate information technology architectural environment. This paper describes a systematic process for decision support in evaluating and ranking COTS software. Performed right after the requirements analysis, this process provides the evaluators with more concise, structural, and step-by-step activities for determining the best COTS software product with manageable risk. In addition, the process is presented in phases that are flexible to allow for customization or tailoring to meet various projects' requirements.

  16. NTP comparison process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, Robert

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  17. AERONET Version 3 processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Slutsker, I.; Giles, D. M.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) database has evolved in measurement accuracy, data quality products, availability to the scientific community over the course of 21 years with the support of NASA, PHOTONS and all federated partners. This evolution is periodically manifested as a new data version release by carefully reprocessing the entire database with the most current algorithms that fundamentally change the database and ultimately the data products used by the community. The newest processing, Version 3, will be released in 2015 after the entire database is reprocessed and real-time data processing becomes operational. All V 3 algorithms have been developed, individually vetted and represent four main categories: aerosol optical depth (AOD) processing, inversion processing, database management and new products. The primary trigger for release of V 3 lies with cloud screening of the direct sun observations and computation of AOD that will fundamentally change all data available for analysis and all subsequent retrieval products. This presentation will illustrate the innovative approach used for cloud screening and assesses the elements of V3 AOD relative to the current version. We will also present the advances in the inversion product processing with emphasis on the random and systematic uncertainty estimates. This processing will be applied to the new hybrid measurement scenario intended to provide inversion retrievals for all solar zenith angles. We will introduce automatic quality assurance criteria that will allow near real time quality assured aerosol products necessary for real time satellite and model validation and assimilation. Last we will introduce the new management structure that will improve access to the data database. The current version 2 will be supported for at least two years after the initial release of V3 to maintain continuity for on going investigations.

  18. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  19. Biomedical Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deserno, Thomas Martin

    2011-01-01

    In modern medicine, imaging is the most effective tool for diagnostics, treatment planning and therapy. Almost all modalities have went to directly digital acquisition techniques and processing of this image data have become an important option for health care in future. This book is written by a team of internationally recognized experts from all over the world. It provides a brief but complete overview on medical image processing and analysis highlighting recent advances that have been made in academics. Color figures are used extensively to illustrate the methods and help the reader to understand the complex topics.

  20. Exoplanet atmospheres physical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, astronomers have identified hundreds of extrasolar planets--planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Recent research in this burgeoning field has made it possible to observe and measure the atmospheres of these exoplanets. This is the first textbook to describe the basic physical processes--including radiative transfer, molecular absorption, and chemical processes--common to all planetary atmospheres, as well as the transit, eclipse, and thermal phase variation observations that are unique to exoplanets. In each chapter, Sara Seager offers a conceptual introdu

  1. Semantic and Process Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Oscar Fernández Peña

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management systems support education at different levels of the education. This is very important for the process in which the higher education of Cuba is involved. Structural transformations of teaching are focused on supporting the foundation of the information society in the country. This paper describes technical aspects of the designing of a model for the integration of multiple knowledgemanagement tools supporting teaching. The proposal is based on the definition of an ontology for the explicit formal description of the semantic of motivations of students and teachers in the learning process. Its target is to facilitate knowledge spreading.

  2. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  3. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  4. An Integrated Desgin Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Present paper is placed in the discussion about how sustainable measures are integrated in the design process by architectural offices. It presents results from interviews with four leading Danish architectural offices working with sustainable architecture and their experiences with it, as well...... as the requirements they meet in terms of how to approach the design process – especially focused on the early stages like a competition. The interviews focus on their experiences with working in multidisciplinary teams and using digital tools to support their work with sustainable issues. The interviews show...

  5. Research Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes the process used to collect, review, integrate, and assess research requirements desired to be a part of research and payload activities conducted on the ISS. The presentation provides a description of: where the requirements originate, to whom they are submitted, how they are integrated into a requirements plan, and how that integrated plan is formulated and approved. It is hoped that from completing the review of this presentation, one will get an understanding of the planning process that formulates payload requirements into an integrated plan used for specifying research activities to take place on the ISS.

  6. Multivariate Statistical Process Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat

    2013-01-01

    As sensor and computer technology continues to improve, it becomes a normal occurrence that we confront with high dimensional data sets. As in many areas of industrial statistics, this brings forth various challenges in statistical process control (SPC) and monitoring for which the aim...... is to identify “out-of-control” state of a process using control charts in order to reduce the excessive variation caused by so-called assignable causes. In practice, the most common method of monitoring multivariate data is through a statistic akin to the Hotelling’s T2. For high dimensional data with excessive...

  7. Solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  8. Thermal stir welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A welding method is provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  9. Genomic signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shmulevich, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    Genomic signal processing (GSP) can be defined as the analysis, processing, and use of genomic signals to gain biological knowledge, and the translation of that knowledge into systems-based applications that can be used to diagnose and treat genetic diseases. Situated at the crossroads of engineering, biology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science, GSP requires the development of both nonlinear dynamical models that adequately represent genomic regulation, and diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on these models. This book facilitates these developments by providing rigorous mathema

  10. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  11. Authenticizing the Research Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Elizondo-Schmelkes, MA, Ph.D. Candidate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the main concern of students (national and international who are trying to get a postgraduate degree in a third world (or “in means of development” country. The emergent problem found is that students have to finish their thesis or dissertation but they do not really know how to accomplish this goal. They resolve this problem by authenticizing the process as their own. The theory of authenticizing involves compassing their way to solve the problem of advancing in the research process. Compassing allows the student to authenticize his/her research process, making it a personal and „owned. process. The main categories of compassing are the intellectual, physical and emotional dimension patterns that the student has, learns and follows in order to finish the project and get a degree. Authenticizing implies to author with authenticity their thesis or dissertation. Compassing allows them to do this in their own way, at their own pace or time and with their own internal resources, strengths and weaknesses.

  12. Performance Evaluation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on the performance evaluation process and human resource development (HRD). "Assessing the Effectiveness of OJT (On the Job Training): A Case Study Approach" (Julie Furst-Bowe, Debra Gates) is a case study of the effectiveness of OJT in one of a high-tech manufacturing company's product…

  13. Advanced Biosignal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Nait-Ali, Amine

    2009-01-01

    Presents the principle of many advanced biosignal processing techniques. This title introduces the main biosignal properties and the acquisition techniques. It concerns one of the most intensively used biosignals in the clinical routine, namely the Electrocardiogram, the Elektroenzephalogram, the Electromyogram and the Evoked Potential

  14. Matchmaking for business processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas; Fankhauser, Peter; Mahleko, Bendick; Neuhold, Erich

    2003-01-01

    Web services have a potential to enhance B2B ecommerce over the Internet by allowing companies and organizations to publish their business processes on service directories where potential trading partners can find them. This can give rise to new business paradigms based on ad-hoc trading relations a

  15. Flax shive thermocatalytic processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, E. M.; Lugovoy, Yu. V.; Chalov, K. V.; Kosivtsov, Yu. Yu.; Stepacheva, A. A.; Shimanskaya, E. I.

    2016-11-01

    In the paper the thermogravimetric study of biomass waste thermodestruction process is presented. Metal chlorides have the highest influence on the flax shive thermodestruction. The results of kinetic modeling are also shown on the base of thermogravimetric analysis both of the samples of flax shive and flax shive with addition of 10% (wt.) nickel chloride at different heating rate.

  16. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-04-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, and hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi-level modulation formats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signals. In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral magnification of the OFDM signal. Utilising such telescopic arrangements, it has become possible to perform a number of interesting functionalities, which will be described in the presentation. This includes conversion from OFDM to Nyquist WDM, compression of WDM channels to a single Nyquist channel and WDM regeneration. These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platforms like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described.

  17. Obsolescence: the underlying processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.; Nieboer, N.E.T.; Van der Flier, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Obsolescence, defined as the process of declining performance of buildings, is a serious threat for the value, the usefulness and the life span of housing properties. Thomsen and van der Flier (2011) developed a model in which obsolescence is categorised on the basis of two distinctions, namely betw

  18. Cascaded Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kuniaki; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin Carl

    1982-12-01

    We investigate the counting statistics for stationary and nonstationary cascaded Poisson processes. A simple equation is obtained for the variance-to-mean ratio in the limit of long counting times. Explicit expressions for the forward-recurrence and inter-event-time probability density functions are also obtained. The results are expected to be of use in a number of areas of physics.

  19. Photonic curvilinear data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Clyde; Quaglio, Thomas; Figueiro, Thiago; Pauliac, Sébastien; Belledent, Jérôme; Fay, Aurélien; Bustos, Jessy; Marusic, Jean-Christophe; Schiavone, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    With more and more photonic data presence in e-beam lithography, the need for efficient and accurate data fracturing is required to meet acceptable manufacturing cycle time. Large photonic based layouts now create high shot count patterns for VSB based tools. Multiple angles, sweeping curves, and non-orthogonal data create a challenge for today's e-beam tools that are more efficient on Manhattan style data. This paper describes techniques developed and used for creating fractured data for VSB based pattern generators. Proximity Effect Correction is also applied during the fracture process, taking into account variable shot sizes to apply for accuracy and design style. Choosing different fracture routines for pattern data on-the-fly allows for fast and efficient processing. Data interpretation is essential for processing curvilinear data as to its size, angle, and complexity. Fracturing complex angled data into "efficient" shot counts is no longer practical as shot creation now requires knowledge of the actual data content as seen in photonic based pattern data. Simulation and physical printing results prove the implementations for accuracy and write times compared to traditional VSB writing strategies on photonic data. Geometry tolerance is used as part of the fracturing algorithm for controlling edge placement accuracy and tuning to different e-beam processing parameters.

  20. The magnetization process: Hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamel, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The magnetization process, hysteresis (the difference in the path of magnetization for an increasing and decreasing magnetic field), hysteresis loops, and hard magnetic materials are discussed. The fabrication of classroom projects for demonstrating hysteresis and the hysteresis of common magnetic materials is described in detail.

  1. Sustainability of abrasive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aurich, J.C.; Linke, B.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of research on sustainability of abrasive processes. It incorporates results from a round robin study on ‘‘energy-efficiency of abrasive processes’’ which has been carried out within the scientific technical committee ‘‘abrasive processes’’ (STC G) of CIRP...

  2. BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena LUCA (DEDIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering determines the change of organizational functions from an orientation focused on operations through a multidimensional approach. Former employees who were mere executors are now determined to take their own decisions and as a result the functional departments lose their reason to exist. Managers do not act anymore as supervisors, but mainly as mentors, while the employees focus more attention on customer needs and less than the head’s. Under these conditions, new organizational paradigms are required, the most important being that of learning organizations. In order to implement a reengineering of the economic processes and promoting a new organizational paradigm the information technology plays a decisive role. The article presents some results obtained in a research theme ANSTI funded by contract no. 501/2000. Economic and financial analysis is performed in order to know the current situation to achieve better results in the future. One of its objectives is the production analyzed as a labour process and the interaction elements of this process. The indicators investigated in the analysis of financial and economic activity of production reflect the development directions, the means and resources to accomplish predetermined objectives and express the results and effectiveness of what is expected.

  3. Attentional Processes in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gerald; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2001-01-01

    Attention processes in 103 children and adults with high functioning autism were compared with a matched control group using a battery of attention measures. Differences were found only on tasks which placed demands on cognitive flexibility or psychomotor speed, suggesting that purported attention deficits in autism may actually be primary…

  4. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  5. Communicating Process Achitectures 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Jan F.; Roebbers, Herman W.; Sunters, Johan P.E.; Welch, Peter H.; Wood, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The awareness of the ideas characterized by Communicating Processes Architecture and their adoption by industry beyond their traditional base in safety-critical systems and security is growing. The complexity of modern computing systems has become so great that no one person – maybe not even a small

  6. Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Diebold, Philipp; Münch, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Software process improvement (SPI) is around for decades: frameworks are proposed, success factors are studied, and experiences have been reported. However, the sheer mass of concepts, approaches, and standards published over the years overwhelms practitioners as well as researchers. What is out...

  7. ERGONOMICS AND PROCESS AUTOMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Muñoz, Rolando; Docente de la FII - UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the role that ergonomics in automation of processes, and the importance for Industrial Engineering.  El artículo nos muestra el papel que tiene la ergonomía en la automatización de los procesos, y la importancia para la Ingeniería Industrial.

  8. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  9. Restricted broadcast process theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassemi, F.; Fokkink, W.J.; Movaghar, A.; Cerone, A.; Gruner, S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a process algebra for modeling and reasoning about Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and their protocols. In our algebra we model the essential modeling concepts of ad hoc networks, i.e. local broadcast, connectivity of nodes and connectivity changes. Connectivity and connectivity changes a

  10. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina;

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...

  11. Audio Spectral Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Global Security & Engineering Solutions Division 1300-B Floyd Avenue Rome, NY 13440-4615 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...18 1 1. BACKGROUND This report is being submitted by L-3 Global Security...tasks. Utilized the Avid Xpress video enhancement system to process the Group 2, Phase II competency test A. This was done to attempt to recreate

  12. Qualitative Process Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    write a heat flow process that violates energy conservation and transfers " caloric fluid" between the source and destination. The assumptions made about...removed in ease of ex1-0ClCits. Seco nd, if’ thle program is drawNing concilsions that rely criticaillyoi atClrsum in, then1 it IIos’t test ss

  13. Food processing in action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a commonly used food processing technology that has been applied for drying and baking as well as thawing of frozen foods. Its use in pasteurization, as well as for sterilization and disinfection of foods, is more limited. This column will review various RF heating ap...

  14. Udfordringer for transkulturelle processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    at indskrænke mulighedsrummet for transkulturelle processer og for det at lære fra en terra nullius position. Der er fokus på empiriske undersøgelser af kultursyn i lovgivning om opholdstilladelse fra 2010, lovgivning om statsborgerskab fra 2006 samt kultursyn i den i 2003 indførte obligatoriske...

  15. Sparsity and Information Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many information processing methods utilizing the sparsity of the information source is studied. We have reported some results on this line of research. Here we pick up two results from our own works. One is an image reconstruction method for radio interferometory and the other is a motor command computation method for a two-joint arm.

  16. Image Processing for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Image Processing for Teaching project provides a powerful medium to excite students about science and mathematics, especially children from minority groups and others whose needs have not been met by traditional teaching. Using professional-quality software on microcomputers, students explore a variety of scientific data sets, including…

  17. Image-Processing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, D. J.; Hull, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    IMAGEP manipulates digital image data to effect various processing, analysis, and enhancement functions. It is keyboard-driven program organized into nine subroutines. Within subroutines are sub-subroutines also selected via keyboard. Algorithm has possible scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications in study of flows in materials, analysis of steels and ores, and pathology, respectively.

  18. The Serendipitous Research Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Ryder, Phyllis Mentzell

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory study asking faculty in the first-year writing program and instruction librarians about their research process focusing on results specifically related to serendipity. Steps to prepare for serendipity are highlighted as well as a model for incorporating serendipity into a first-year writing…

  19. Automated process planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, W.

    1978-01-01

    Program helps process engineers set up manufacturing plans for machined parts. System allows one to develop and store library of similar parts characteristics, as related to particular facility. Information is then used in interactive system to help develop manufacturing plans that meet required standards.

  20. Quantum image processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastriani, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a number of problems concerning the practical (real) implementation of the techniques known as quantum image processing. The most serious problem is the recovery of the outcomes after the quantum measurement, which will be demonstrated in this work that is equivalent to a noise measurement, and it is not considered in the literature on the subject. It is noteworthy that this is due to several factors: (1) a classical algorithm that uses Dirac's notation and then it is coded in MATLAB does not constitute a quantum algorithm, (2) the literature emphasizes the internal representation of the image but says nothing about the classical-to-quantum and quantum-to-classical interfaces and how these are affected by decoherence, (3) the literature does not mention how to implement in a practical way (at the laboratory) these proposals internal representations, (4) given that quantum image processing works with generic qubits, this requires measurements in all axes of the Bloch sphere, logically, and (5) among others. In return, the technique known as quantum Boolean image processing is mentioned, which works with computational basis states (CBS), exclusively. This methodology allows us to avoid the problem of quantum measurement, which alters the results of the measured except in the case of CBS. Said so far is extended to quantum algorithms outside image processing too.

  1. Electrochemical Discharge Machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali V. Kulkarni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical discharge machining process is evolving as a promising micromachiningprocess. The experimental investigations in the present work substantiate this trend. In the presentwork, in situ, synchronised, transient temperature and current measurements have been carriedout. The need for the transient measurements arose due to the time-varying nature of the dischargeformation and time varying circuit current. Synchronised and transient measurements revealedthe discrete nature of the process. It also helped in formulating the basic mechanism for thedischarge formation and the material removal in the process. Temperature profile on workpieceand in electrochemical discharge machining cell is experimentally measured using pyrometer,and two varieties of K-type thermocouples. Surface topography of the discharge-affected zoneson the workpiece has been carried out using scanning electron microscope. Measurements andsurface topographical studies reveal the potential use of this process for machining in micronregime. With careful experimental set-up design, suitable supply voltage and its polarity, theprocess can be applied for both micromachining and micro-deposition. It can be extended formachining and or deposition of wide range of materials.

  2. Food Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Risum, Jørgen

    to calculate the requirements of heat processing. Our goal is to put food engineering into a production context. Other courses teach food chemistry, food microbiology and food technology. Topics of great importance and all have to be seen in a broader context of producing good and safe food in a large scale...

  3. Pattern evaporation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Żółkiewicz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the process of thermal evaporation of a foundry pattern. At several research-development centres, studies have been carried out to examine the physico-chemical phenomena that take place in foundry mould filled with polystyrene pattern when it is poured with molten metal. In the technique of evaporative patterns, the process of mould filling with molten metal (the said mould holding inside a polystyrene pattern is interrelated with the process of thermal decomposition of this pattern. The transformation of an evaporative pattern (e.g. made from foamed polystyrene from the solid into liquid and then gaseous state occurs as a result of the thermal effect that the liquid metal exerts onto this pattern. Consequently, at the liquid metal-pattern-mould phase boundary some physico-chemical phenomena take place, which until now have not been fully explained. When the pattern is evaporating, some solid and gaseous products are evolved, e.g. CO, CO2, H2, N2, and hydrocarbons, e.g. styrene, toluene, ethane, methane, benzene [16, 23]. The process of polystyrene pattern evaporation in foundry mould under the effect of molten metal is of a very complex nature and depends on many different factors, still not fully investigated. The kinetics of pattern evaporation is also affected by the technological properties of foundry mould, e.g. permeability, thermophysical properties, parameters of the gating system, temperature of pouring, properties of pattern material, and the size of pattern-liquid metal contact surface.

  4. Biosphere Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schmitt

    2000-05-25

    To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor

  5. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  6. Retinomorphic image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kuntal; Bhaumik, Kamales; Sarkar, Sandip

    2008-01-01

    The present work is aimed at understanding and explaining some of the aspects of visual signal processing at the retinal level while exploiting the same towards the development of some simple techniques in the domain of digital image processing. Classical studies on retinal physiology revealed the nature of contrast sensitivity of the receptive field of bipolar or ganglion cells, which lie in the outer and inner plexiform layers of the retina. To explain these observations, a difference of Gaussian (DOG) filter was suggested, which was subsequently modified to a Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG) filter for computational ease in handling two-dimensional retinal inputs. Till date almost all image processing algorithms, used in various branches of science and engineering had followed LOG or one of its variants. Recent observations in retinal physiology however, indicate that the retinal ganglion cells receive input from a larger area than the classical receptive fields. We have proposed an isotropic model for the non-classical receptive field of the retinal ganglion cells, corroborated from these recent observations, by introducing higher order derivatives of Gaussian expressed as linear combination of Gaussians only. In digital image processing, this provides a new mechanism of edge detection on one hand and image half-toning on the other. It has also been found that living systems may sometimes prefer to "perceive" the external scenario by adding noise to the received signals in the pre-processing level for arriving at better information on light and shade in the edge map. The proposed model also provides explanation to many brightness-contrast illusions hitherto unexplained not only by the classical isotropic model but also by some other Gestalt and Constructivist models or by non-isotropic multi-scale models. The proposed model is easy to implement both in the analog and digital domain. A scheme for implementation in the analog domain generates a new silicon retina

  7. Privatization Process in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Florin Aliu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Privatization is considered an initial step toward market economy, restructuring financial and economic sector that enables competition in the economy. Privatization is the most painful process in economy where beside legal establishment and political will, it includes also the aspect of fairness and honesty. Analysis of this process is based on the models and comparisons between Kosovo and countries of central and Eastern Europe, in order to give a clearer picture on the overall process of privatization in Kosovo Methodology that is used to analyze this issue is based on empirical results and also qualitative interpretation of the models and also on studying particular asset privatization process. A widely discussed case of privatization in Kosovo is that of Post and Telecom of Kosovo (PTK. Since each company has its own value, I have focused my appraising analysis on the financial statements with a special observation on Cash Flow from Operation, as the most significant indicator on showing how company is using her physical and human recourses to generate money. I have based my research on using methodology of discounted cash flow from operation analysis, even though the company valuation was done using net cash flow from operation analysis. Cash Flow valuation then was discounted by the T-bonds interest rate. This paper tries to bring a conclusion that privatization process in Kosovo have not brought the results excepted, firstly by setting an inappropriate price of assets and lastly by restructuring overall privatization sector and the overall industry. Kosovo, consequently, lost a big opportunity to create a competitive environment of financial industry: starting from the banking industry followed the pension trust which remained at their initial steps of development

  8. Cassini science planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowski, Brian G.; Ray, Trina L.

    2004-01-01

    The mission design for Cassini-Huygens calls for a four-year orbital survey of the Saturnian system and the descent into the Titan atmosphere and eventual soft-landing of the Huygens probe. The Cassini orbiter tour consists of 76 orbits around Saturn with 44 close Titan flybys and 8 targeted icy satellite flybys. The Cassini orbiter spacecraft carries twelve scientific instruments that will perform a wide range of observations on a multitude of designated targets. The science opportunities, frequency of encounters, the length of the Tour, and the use of distributed operations pose significant challenges for developing the science plan for the orbiter mission. The Cassini Science Planning Process is the process used to develop and integrate the science and engineering plan that incorporates an acceptable level of science required to meet the primary mission objectives far the orbiter. The bulk of the integrated science and engineering plan will be developed prior to Saturn Orbit Insertion (Sol). The Science Planning Process consists of three elements: 1) the creation of the Tour Atlas, which identifies the science opportunities in the tour, 2) the development of the Science Operations Plan (SOP), which is the conflict-free timeline of all science observations and engineering activities, a constraint-checked spacecraft pointing profile, and data volume allocations to the science instruments, and 3) an Aftermarket and SOP Update process, which is used to update the SOP while in tour with the latest information on spacecraft performance, science opportunities, and ephemerides. This paper will discuss the various elements of the Science Planning Process used on the Cassini Mission to integrate, implement, and adapt the science and engineering activity plans for Tour.

  9. Vaccine process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory

  10. Modeling of biopharmaceutical processes. Part 2: Process chromatography unit operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltenbrunner, Oliver; McCue, Justin; Engel, Philip;

    2008-01-01

    Process modeling can be a useful tool to aid in process development, process optimization, and process scale-up. When modeling a chromatography process, one must first select the appropriate models that describe the mass transfer and adsorption that occurs within the porous adsorbent...

  11. Process and Post-Process: A Discursive History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Paul Kei

    2003-01-01

    Examines the history of process and post-process in composition studies, focusing on ways in which terms, such as "current-traditional rhetoric,""process," and "post-process" have contributed to the discursive construction of reality. Argues that use of the term post-process in the context of second language writing needs to be guided by a…

  12. Managing Process Variants in the Process Life Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallerbach, A.; Bauer, Th.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    When designing process-aware information systems, often variants of the same process have to be specified. Each variant then constitutes an adjustment of a particular process to specific requirements building the process context. Current Business Process Management (BPM) tools do not adequately supp

  13. 5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TSP is notified in writing that the legal process has been appealed, and that the effect of the filing... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing legal processes. 1653.13... PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Legal Process for the Enforcement of a Participant's...

  14. An Integrated Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Present paper is placed in the discussion about how sustainable measures are integrated in the design process by architectural offices. It presents results from interviews with four leading Danish architectural offices working with sustainable architecture and their experiences with it, as well...... as the requirements they meet in terms of how to approach the design process – especially focused on the early stages like a competition. The interviews focus on their experiences with working in multidisciplinary teams and using digital tools to support their work with sustainable issues. The interviews show...... that there is a difference in the experiences of the different offices. Architects taking an active part in the development of projects and tools in general have a better understanding of how to approach this. It is of course not surprising, because of a focused strategy towards this. However the most important thing...

  15. Instabilities in sensory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  16. The Player Engagement Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Engagement is an essential element of the player experience, and the concept is described in various ways in the literature. To gain a more detailed comprehension of this multifaceted concept, and in order to better understand what aspects can be used to evaluate engaging game play and to design...... engaging user experiences, this study investigates one dimension of player engagement by empirically identifying the components associated with the desire to continue playing. Based on a description of the characteristics of player engagement, a series of surveys were developed to discover the components......, categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...

  17. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  18. A Logical Process Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

  19. Integral Politics as Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Atlee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the definition proposed here, integral politics can be a process of integrating diverse perspectives into wholesome guidance for a community or society. Characteristics that follow from this definition have ramifications for understanding what such political processes involve. Politics becomes integral as it transcends partisan battle and nurtures generative conversation toward the common good. Problems, conflicts and crises become opportunities for new (or renewed social coherence. Conversational methodologies abound that can help citizen awareness temporarily expand during policy-making, thus helping raise society’s manifested developmental stage. Convening archetypal stakeholders or randomly selected citizens in conversations designed to engage the broader public enhances democratic legitimacy. With minimal issue- and candidate-advocacy, integral political leaders would develop society’s capacity to use integral conversational tools to improve its health, resilience, and collective intelligence. This both furthers and manifests evolution becoming conscious of itself.

  20. Yeast nuclear RNA processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jade; Bernstein; Eric; A; Toth

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear RNA processing requires dynamic and intricately regulated machinery composed of multiple enzymes and their cofactors.In this review,we summarize recent experiments using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system that have yielded important insights regarding the conversion of pre-RNAs to functional RNAs,and the elimination of aberrant RNAs and unneeded intermediates from the nuclear RNA pool.Much progress has been made recently in describing the 3D structure of many elements of the nuclear degradation machinery and its cofactors.Similarly,the regulatory mechanisms that govern RNA processing are gradually coming into focus.Such advances invariably generate many new questions,which we highlight in this review.

  1. Posttranslational processing of progastrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jens René; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are homologous hormones with important functions in the brain and the gut. Gastrin is the main regulator of gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal growth, whereas cholecystokinin regulates gall bladder emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion and besides acts...... as a major neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The tissue-specific expression of the hormones is regulated at the transcriptional level, but the posttranslational phase is also decisive and is highly complex in order to ensure accurate maturation of the prohormones in a cell...... processing progastrin is often greatly disturbed in neoplastic cells.The posttranslational phase of the biogenesis of gastrin and the various progastrin products in gastrin gene-expressing tissues is now reviewed here. In addition, the individual contributions of the processing enzymes are discussed...

  2. Process Improvement: Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the comment section of patient satisfaction surveys, Clark Memorial Hospital in Jeffersonville, IN went through a thoughtful process to arrive at an experience that patients said they wanted. Two Lean Six Sigma tools were used--the Voice of the Customer (VoC) and the Affinity Diagram. Even when using these tools, a facility will not be able to accomplish everything the patient may want. Guidelines were set and rules were established for the Process Improvement Team in order to lessen frustration, increase focus, and ultimately be successful. The project's success is driven by the team members carrying its message back to their areas. It's about ensuring that everyone is striving to improve the patients' experience by listening to what they say is being done right and what they say can be done better. And then acting on it.

  3. Thin film interconnect processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Farid

    Interconnects and associated photolithography and etching processes play a dominant role in the feature shrinkage of electronic devices. Most interconnects are fabricated by use of thin film processing techniques. Planarization of dielectrics and novel metal deposition methods are the focus of current investigations. Spin-on glass, polyimides, etch-back, bias-sputtered quartz, and plasma-enhanced conformal films are being used to obtain planarized dielectrics over which metal films can be reliably deposited. Recent trends have been towards chemical vapor depositions of metals and refractory metal silicides. Interconnects of the future will be used in conjunction with planarized dielectric layers. Reliability of devices will depend to a large extent on the quality of the interconnects.

  4. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  5. [In Process Citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ayhan; Metzler, Philipp; Lanzer, Martin; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; Yildirim, Vedat

    2015-01-01

    Solcoseryl® is a protein-free haemodialysate, containing a broad spectrum of low molecular components of cellular mass and blood serum obtained from veal calves. Solcoseryl® improves the transport of oxygen and glucose to cells that are under hypoxic conditions. It increases the synthesis of intracellular ATP and contributes to an increase in the level of aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. It activates the reparative and regenerative processes in tissues by stimulating fibroblast proliferation and repair of the collagen vascular wall. The formulations of Solcoseryl® are infusion, injection, gel and ointment, and it is also available as a dental paste for inflammatory processes of the mouth cavity, gums and lips.

  6. Plutonium dissolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Michael A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Karraker, David G.; Moore, Edwin N.; Holcomb, H. Perry

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  7. Youpi: YOUr processing PIpeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerville, Mathias; Sémah, Gregory

    2012-03-01

    Youpi is a portable, easy to use web application providing high level functionalities to perform data reduction on scientific FITS images. Built on top of various open source reduction tools released to the community by TERAPIX (http://terapix.iap.fr), Youpi can help organize data, manage processing jobs on a computer cluster in real time (using Condor) and facilitate teamwork by allowing fine-grain sharing of results and data. Youpi is modular and comes with plugins which perform, from within a browser, various processing tasks such as evaluating the quality of incoming images (using the QualityFITS software package), computing astrometric and photometric solutions (using SCAMP), resampling and co-adding FITS images (using SWarp) and extracting sources and building source catalogues from astronomical images (using SExtractor). Youpi is useful for small to medium-sized data reduction projects; it is free and is published under the GNU General Public License.

  8. Image processing occupancy sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-09-27

    A system and method of detecting occupants in a building automation system environment using image based occupancy detection and position determinations. In one example, the system includes an image processing occupancy sensor that detects the number and position of occupants within a space that has controllable building elements such as lighting and ventilation diffusers. Based on the position and location of the occupants, the system can finely control the elements to optimize conditions for the occupants, optimize energy usage, among other advantages.

  9. Fastdata processing with Spark

    CERN Document Server

    Karau, Holden

    2013-01-01

    This book will be a basic, step-by-step tutorial, which will help readers take advantage of all that Spark has to offer.Fastdata Processing with Spark is for software developers who want to learn how to write distributed programs with Spark. It will help developers who have had problems that were too much to be dealt with on a single computer. No previous experience with distributed programming is necessary. This book assumes knowledge of either Java, Scala, or Python.

  10. Sample Data Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    the relative practicality of compensating the channel with an approach of predistorting the masking sequence, by processing in a filter that...replicates the channel response, with a conventional approach of equal- izing the channel with an inverse filter. The predistortion method demonstrated a...compensate for the channel distortion is to predistort the encryption stream in the receiver by means of a fil- ter which replicates the impulse response of

  11. Near Shore Wave Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    given the offshore wave conditions. OBJECTIVES We hypothesize that the wave-induced kinematic, sediment and morphologic processes are nonlinearly... morphology , which acts as hydraulic roughness for the mean flows and perturbs the velocity-sediment fields, is measured as a function of time and over...REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT

  12. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  13. Topology and mental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeay, H

    2000-08-01

    The study reported here considers the effect of rotation on the decision time taken to compare nonrigid objects, presented as like and unlike pairs of knots and unknots. The results for 48 subjects, 21 to 45 years old, support the notion that images which have a characteristic 'foundation part' are more easily stored and accessed in the brain. Also, there is evidence that the comparison of deformable objects is processed by mental strategies other than self-evident mental rotation.

  14. Processing Nanostructured Structural Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    aspects of the processing of nanostructured ceramics, viz. • • • The production of a flowable and compactable dry nanopowder suitable for use in... composition due to the different synthesis routes used. Therefore, ‘industry-standard’ dispersants can cause flocculation rather than dispersion...stabilised zirconia (3-YSZ) were no higher than for conventional, micron-sized material of the same composition . However, detailed crystallographic

  15. Inelastic Light Scattering Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Daniel G.; Chang, Richard K.

    1973-01-01

    Five different inelastic light scattering processes will be denoted by, ordinary Raman scattering (ORS), resonance Raman scattering (RRS), off-resonance fluorescence (ORF), resonance fluorescence (RF), and broad fluorescence (BF). A distinction between fluorescence (including ORF and RF) and Raman scattering (including ORS and RRS) will be made in terms of the number of intermediate molecular states which contribute significantly to the scattered amplitude, and not in terms of excited state lifetimes or virtual versus real processes. The theory of these processes will be reviewed, including the effects of pressure, laser wavelength, and laser spectral distribution on the scattered intensity. The application of these processes to the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants will be discussed briefly. It will be pointed out that the poor sensitivity of the ORS technique cannot be increased by going toward resonance without also compromising the advantages it has over the RF technique. Experimental results on inelastic light scattering from I(sub 2) vapor will be presented. As a single longitudinal mode 5145 A argon-ion laser line was tuned away from an I(sub 2) absorption line, the scattering was observed to change from RF to ORF. The basis, of the distinction is the different pressure dependence of the scattered intensity. Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattered intensity was measured in going from ORF to RF. Forty-seven overtones were observed and their relative intensities measured. The ORF cross section of I(sub 2) compared to the ORS cross section of N2 was found to be 3 x 10(exp 6), with I(sub 2) at its room temperature vapor pressure.

  16. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kuei

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  17. The Caroline interrogatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degagne, D. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gibson, T. [Gecko Management, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Using the specific case study of the Caroline interrogatory process, an example is given of how an effective communications and public involvement program can re-establish trust and credibility levels within an community after an incident. The public is nervous about sour gas, especially about blowouts of gas from a pipeline. The post-approval period was marked by high expectations and a community consultation program which included a community advisory board, an emergency planning committee, socio-economic factors, and environmental monitoring and studies. Information and education involves newspaper articles, newsletters, tours, public consultation meetings, and weekly e-mail. Mercury was detected as a potential hazard at the site, and company actions are illustrated. Overall lessons learned included: starting early paid off, face to face resident contacts were the most effective, the willingness to make changes was the key to success, the community helped, knowing all the answers is not essential, and there is a need for empathy. The interrogatory process includes a hybrid technique that is comprised of four stages: 1) process review and public input, 2) identification and clarification of issues, 3) responses by industry and government, and 4) a public forum and follow-up action.

  18. The Caroline interrogatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degagne, D. (Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)); Gibson, T. (Gecko Management, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1999-01-01

    Using the specific case study of the Caroline interrogatory process, an example is given of how an effective communications and public involvement program can re-establish trust and credibility levels within an community after an incident. The public is nervous about sour gas, especially about blowouts of gas from a pipeline. The post-approval period was marked by high expectations and a community consultation program which included a community advisory board, an emergency planning committee, socio-economic factors, and environmental monitoring and studies. Information and education involves newspaper articles, newsletters, tours, public consultation meetings, and weekly e-mail. Mercury was detected as a potential hazard at the site, and company actions are illustrated. Overall lessons learned included: starting early paid off, face to face resident contacts were the most effective, the willingness to make changes was the key to success, the community helped, knowing all the answers is not essential, and there is a need for empathy. The interrogatory process includes a hybrid technique that is comprised of four stages: 1) process review and public input, 2) identification and clarification of issues, 3) responses by industry and government, and 4) a public forum and follow-up action.

  19. Processing of lateritic ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, D.E.; Ring, R.J. [Environment Division, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales (Australia); McGill, J.; Russell, H. [Energy Resources of Australia Ltd., Ranger Mine, Jabiru, Northern Territory (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    Highly weathered or lateritic ores that contain high proportions of fine clay minerals present specific problems when they are processed to extract uranium. Of perhaps the greatest significance is the potential of the fine minerals to adsorb dissolved uranium (preg-robbing) from leach liquors produced by processing laterites or blends of laterite and primary ores. These losses can amount to 25% of the readily soluble uranium. The clay components can also restrict practical slurry densities to relatively low values in order to avoid rheology problems in pumping and agitation. The fine fractions also contribute to relatively poor solid-liquid separation characteristics in settling and/or filtration. Studies at ANSTO have characterised the minerals believed to be responsible for these problems and quantified the effects of the fines in these types of ores. Processing strategies were also examined, including roasting, resin-in-leach and separate leaching of the laterite fines to overcome potential problems. The incorporation of the preferred treatment option into an existing mill circuit is discussed. (author)

  20. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  1. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  2. Laser processing of materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Dutta Majumdar; I Manna

    2003-06-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) is a coherent and monochromatic beam of electromagnetic radiation that can propagate in a straight line with negligible divergence and occur in a wide range of wavelength, energy/power and beam-modes/configurations. As a result, lasers find wide applications in the mundane to the most sophisticated devices, in commercial to purely scientific purposes, and in life-saving as well as life-threatening causes. In the present contribution, we provide an overview of the application of lasers for material processing. The processes covered are broadly divided into four major categories; namely, laser-assisted forming, joining, machining and surface engineering. Apart from briefly introducing the fundamentals of these operations, we present an updated review of the relevant literature to highlight the recent advances and open questions. We begin our discussion with the general applications of lasers, fundamentals of laser-matter interaction and classification of laser material processing. A major part of the discussion focuses on laser surface engineering that has attracted a good deal of attention from the scientific community for its technological significance and scientific challenges. In this regard, a special mention is made about laser surface vitrification or amorphization that remains a very attractive but unaccomplished proposition.

  3. Basic Social Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of grounded theory is to generate a theory that accounts for a pattern of behavior that is relevant and problematic for those involved. The goal is not voluminous description, nor clever verification. As with all grounded theory, the generation of a basic social process (BSP theory occurs around a core category. While a core category is always present in a grounded research study, a BSP may not be.BSPs are ideally suited to generation by grounded theory from qualitative research because qualitative research can pick up process through fieldwork that continues over a period of time. BSPs are a delight to discover and formulate since they give so much movement and scope to the analyst’s perception of the data. BSPs such as cultivating, defaulting, centering, highlighting or becoming, give the feeling of process, change and movement over time. They also have clear, amazing general implications; so much so, that it is hard to contain them within the confines of a single substantive study. The tendency is to refer to them as a formal theory without the necessary comparative development of formal theory. They are labeled by a “gerund”(“ing” which both stimulates their generation and the tendency to over-generalize them.

  4. Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parliament, Hugh A.

    1991-09-01

    The design and implementation of a system for the acquisition, processing, and analysis of signal data is described. The initial application for the system is the development and analysis of algorithms for excision of interfering tones from direct sequence spread spectrum communication systems. The system is called the Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed (ASPT) and is an integrated hardware and software system built around the TMS320C30 chip. The hardware consists of a radio frequency data source, digital receiver, and an adaptive signal processor implemented on a Sun workstation. The software components of the ASPT consists of a number of packages including the Sun driver package; UNIX programs that support software development on the TMS320C30 boards; UNIX programs that provide the control, user interaction, and display capabilities for the data acquisition, processing, and analysis components of the ASPT; and programs that perform the ASPT functions including data acquisition, despreading, and adaptive filtering. The performance of the ASPT system is evaluated by comparing actual data rates against their desired values. A number of system limitations are identified and recommendations are made for improvements.

  5. Spacelab Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Edward J.; Gaskins, Roger B.

    1982-02-01

    Spacelab (SL) ground processing is active at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The palletized payload for the second Shuttle launch is staged and integrated with interface verification active. The SL Engineering Model is being assembled for subsequent test and checkout activities. After delivery of SL flight elements from Europe, prelaunch operations for the first SL flight start with receipt of the flight experiment packages and staging of the SL hardware. Experiment operations consist of integrating the various experiment elements into the SL racks, floors and pallets. Rack and floor assemblies with the experiments installed, are integrated into the flight module. Aft end-cone installation, pallet connections, and SL subsystems interface verifications are accomplished, and SL-Orbiter interfaces verified. The Spacelab cargo is then transferred to the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) in a controlled environment using a canister/transporter. After the SL is installed into the Orbiter payload bay, physical and functional integrity of all payload-to-Orbiter interfaces are verified and final close-out operations conducted. Spacelab payload activities at the launch pad are minimal with the payload bay doors remaining closed. Limited access is available to the module through the Spacelab Transfer Tunnel. After mission completion, the SL is removed from the Orbiter in the OPF and returned to the SL processing facility for experiment equipment removal and reconfiguration for the subsequent mission.

  6. Process for protein PEGylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2014-04-28

    PEGylation is a versatile drug delivery technique that presents a particularly wide range of conjugation chemistry and polymer structure. The conjugated protein can be tuned to specifically meet the needs of the desired application. In the area of drug delivery this typically means to increase the persistency in the human body without affecting the activity profile of the original protein. On the other hand, because of the high costs associated with the production of therapeutic proteins, subsequent operations imposed by PEGylation must be optimized to minimize the costs inherent to the additional steps. The closest attention has to be given to the PEGylation reaction engineering and to the subsequent purification processes. This review article focuses on these two aspects and critically reviews the current state of the art with a clear focus on the development of industrial scale processes which can meet the market requirements in terms of quality and costs. The possibility of using continuous processes, with integration between the reaction and the separation steps is also illustrated.

  7. Process measuring techniques; Prozessmesstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberger, A.

    2000-07-01

    This introduction into measurement techniques for chemical and process-technical plant in science and industry describes in detail the methods used to measure basic quantities. Most prominent are modern measuring techniques by means of ultrasound, microwaves and the Coriolis effect. Alongside physical and measuring technique fundamentals, the practical applications of measuring devices are described. Calculation examples are given to illustrate the subject matter. The book addresses students of physical engineering, process engineering and environmental engineering at technical schools as well as engineers of other disciplines wishing to familiarize themselves with the subject of process measurement techniques. (orig.) [German] Diese Einfuehrung in die Messtechnik fuer chemische und verfahrens-technische Forschungs- und Produktionsanlagen beschreibt ausfuehrlich die Methoden zur Messung der Basisgroessen. Moderne Messverfahren mit Ultraschall, Mikrowellen und Coriolis-Effekt stehen dabei im Vordergrund. Beruecksichtigung finden sowohl die physikalischen und messtechnischen Grundlagen als auch die praktischen Anwendungen der Geraete. Berechnungsbeispiele dienen der Erlaeuterung und Vertiefung des Stoffes. Angesprochen sind Studenten der Ingenieurstufengaenge Physikalische Technik und Verfahrens- und Umwelttechnik an Fachhochschulen als auch Ingenieure anderer Fachrichtungen, die sich in das Gebiet der Prozessmesstechnik einarbeiten wollen. (orig.)

  8. RACORO aerosol data processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elisabeth Andrews

    2011-10-31

    The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

  9. Approximate simulation of Hawkes processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2006-01-01

    Hawkes processes are important in point process theory and its applications, and simulation of such processes are often needed for various statistical purposes. This article concerns a simulation algorithm for unmarked and marked Hawkes processes, exploiting that the process can be constructed...

  10. CONVERGENCE TO PROCESS ORGANIZATION BY MODEL OF PROCESS MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Piuković Babičković

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With modern business process orientation binds primarily, process of thinking and process organizational structure. Although the business processes are increasingly a matter of writing and speaking, it is a major problem among the business world, especially in countries in transition, where it has been found that there is a lack of understanding of the concept of business process management. The aim of this paper is to give a specific contribution to overcoming the identified problem, by pointing out the significance of the concept of business process management, as well as the representation of the model for review of process maturity and tools that are recommended for use in process management.

  11. Discovery as a process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1994-05-01

    The three great myths, which form a sort of triumvirate of misunderstanding, are the Eureka! myth, the hypothesis myth, and the measurement myth. These myths are prevalent among scientists as well as among observers of science. The Eureka! myth asserts that discovery occurs as a flash of insight, and as such is not subject to investigation. This leads to the perception that discovery or deriving a hypothesis is a moment or event rather than a process. Events are singular and not subject to description. The hypothesis myth asserts that proper science is motivated by testing hypotheses, and that if something is not experimentally testable then it is not scientific. This myth leads to absurd posturing by some workers conducting empirical descriptive studies, who dress up their study with a ``hypothesis`` to obtain funding or get it published. Methods papers are often rejected because they do not address a specific scientific problem. The fact is that many of the great breakthroughs in silence involve methods and not hypotheses or arise from largely descriptive studies. Those captured by this myth also try to block funding for those developing methods. The third myth is the measurement myth, which holds that determining what to measure is straightforward, so one doesn`t need a lot of introspection to do science. As one ecologist put it to me ``Don`t give me any of that philosophy junk, just let me out in the field. I know what to measure.`` These myths lead to difficulties for scientists who must face peer review to obtain funding and to get published. These myths also inhibit the study of science as a process. Finally, these myths inhibit creativity and suppress innovation. In this paper I first explore these myths in more detail and then propose a new model of discovery that opens the supposedly miraculous process of discovery to doser scrutiny.

  12. Solar Flares: Magnetohydrodynamic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunari Shibata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the current understanding of solar flares, mainly focused on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD processes responsible for producing a flare. Observations show that flares are one of the most explosive phenomena in the atmosphere of the Sun, releasing a huge amount of energy up to about 10^32 erg on the timescale of hours. Flares involve the heating of plasma, mass ejection, and particle acceleration that generates high-energy particles. The key physical processes for producing a flare are: the emergence of magnetic field from the solar interior to the solar atmosphere (flux emergence, local enhancement of electric current in the corona (formation of a current sheet, and rapid dissipation of electric current (magnetic reconnection that causes shock heating, mass ejection, and particle acceleration. The evolution toward the onset of a flare is rather quasi-static when free energy is accumulated in the form of coronal electric current (field-aligned current, more precisely, while the dissipation of coronal current proceeds rapidly, producing various dynamic events that affect lower atmospheres such as the chromosphere and photosphere. Flares manifest such rapid dissipation of coronal current, and their theoretical modeling has been developed in accordance with observations, in which numerical simulations proved to be a strong tool reproducing the time-dependent, nonlinear evolution of a flare. We review the models proposed to explain the physical mechanism of flares, giving an comprehensive explanation of the key processes mentioned above. We start with basic properties of flares, then go into the details of energy build-up, release and transport in flares where magnetic reconnection works as the central engine to produce a flare.

  13. Time processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marinella eCappelletti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To test whether atypical number development may affect other types of quantity processing, we investigated temporal discrimination in adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD. This also allowed us to test whether (1 number and time may be sub-served by a common quantity system or decision mechanisms –in which case they may both be impaired, or (2 whether number and time are distinct –and therefore they may dissociate. Participants judged which of two successively presented horizontal lines was longer in duration, the first line being preceded by either a small or a large number prime (‘1’ or ‘9’ or by a neutral symbol (‘#’, or in third task decide which of two Arabic numbers (either ‘1’, ‘5’, ’9’ lasted longer. Results showed that (i DD’s temporal discriminability was normal as long as numbers were not part of the experimental design even as task-irrelevant stimuli; however (ii task-irrelevant numbers dramatically disrupted DD’s temporal discriminability, the more their salience increased, though the actual magnitude of the numbers had no effect; and in contrast (iii controls’ time perception was robust to the presence of numbers but modulated by numerical quantity such that small number primes or numerical stimuli made durations appear shorter than veridical and the opposite for larger numerical prime or numerical stimuli. This study is the first to investigate continuous quantity as time in a population with a congenital number impairment and to show that atypical development of numerical competence leaves continuous quantity processing spared. Our data support the idea of a partially shared quantity system across numerical and temporal dimensions, which allows dissociations and interactions among dimensions; furthermore, they suggest that impaired number in DD is unlikely to originate from systems initially dedicated to continuous quantity processing like time.

  14. Stone dusting process advance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Ryan; David Humphreys [Mining Attachments (Qld.) Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    The coal mining industry has, for many years, used dry stone dust or calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) in the prevention of the propagation of coal dust explosions throughout their underground mines in Australia. In the last decade wet stone dusting has been introduced. This is where stone dust and water are mixed together to form a paste like slurry. This mixture is pumped and sprayed on to the underground roadway surfaces. This method solved the contamination of the intake airways but brought with it a new problem known as 'caking'. Caking is the hardened layer that is formed as the stone dust slurry dries. It was proven that this hardened layer compromises the dispersal characteristics of the stone dust and therefore its ability to suppress a coal dust explosion. This project set out to prove a specially formulated, non toxic slurry additive and process that could overcome the caking effect. The slurry additive process combines dry stone dust with water to form a slurry. The slurry is then treated with the additive and compressed air to create a highly vesicular foam like stone dusted surface. The initial testing on a range of additives and the effectiveness in minimising the caking effect of wet dusting were performed at Applied Chemical's research laboratory in Melbourne, Victoria and independently tested at the SGS laboratory in Paget, Queensland. The results from these tests provided the platform to conduct full scale spraying trials at the Queensland Mines Rescue Station and Caledon Coal's Cook Colliery, Blackwater. The project moved into the final stage of completion with the collection of data. The intent was to compare the slurry additive process to dry stone dusting in full-scale methane explosions at the CSIR Kloppersbos explosion facility in Kloppersbos, South Africa.

  15. Multivariate Statistical Process Control Process Monitoring Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

      Given their key position in the process control industry, process monitoring techniques have been extensively investigated by industrial practitioners and academic control researchers. Multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) is one of the most popular data-based methods for process monitoring and is widely used in various industrial areas. Effective routines for process monitoring can help operators run industrial processes efficiently at the same time as maintaining high product quality. Multivariate Statistical Process Control reviews the developments and improvements that have been made to MSPC over the last decade, and goes on to propose a series of new MSPC-based approaches for complex process monitoring. These new methods are demonstrated in several case studies from the chemical, biological, and semiconductor industrial areas.   Control and process engineers, and academic researchers in the process monitoring, process control and fault detection and isolation (FDI) disciplines will be inter...

  16. Process for soil consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, F.W.; Brandstrom, R.I.

    1967-01-09

    In this process for the formation of a consolidated aggregate, a mass of solid particles is combined with an aqueous alkaline consolidating compound which forms a gel. This gel consists principally of a mixture of the following: a vegetable polyphenolic material; one of the group of catechins; condensed tannins and extract of the bark of coniferous trees; with 1-10% by weight of formaldehyde; and a catalyst of the group of water-soluble salts of chromium, iron, and aluminum. This catalyst serves to catalyze the reaction of formation of the gel.

  17. Phonocardiography Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Abbas K

    2009-01-01

    The auscultation method is an important diagnostic indicator for hemodynamic anomalies. Heart sound classification and analysis play an important role in the auscultative diagnosis. The term phonocardiography refers to the tracing technique of heart sounds and the recording of cardiac acoustics vibration by means of a microphone-transducer. Therefore, understanding the nature and source of this signal is important to give us a tendency for developing a competent tool for further analysis and processing, in order to enhance and optimize cardiac clinical diagnostic approach. This book gives the

  18. Bismuth vanadate process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.M.

    1990-06-26

    This patent describes the process for the preparation of bismuth vanadate and bismuth vanadate-containing compounds wherein the precursor materials are calcined in the solid state at temperatures sufficient to react the precursor materials to prepare the vanadate compounds. It comprises: wet grinding the calcined product, contacting the calcined product with sufficient alkaline material to provide a pH level of 7.0-13.0 and recovering the treated product, the wet grinding of the calcined product being conducted either in the presence of the alkaline material or prior to the contacting with the alkaline material.

  19. Medical image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    This book is designed for end users in the field of digital imaging, who wish to update their skills and understanding with the latest techniques in image analysis. This book emphasizes the conceptual framework of image analysis and the effective use of image processing tools. It uses applications in a variety of fields to demonstrate and consolidate both specific and general concepts, and to build intuition, insight and understanding. Although the chapters are essentially self-contained they reference other chapters to form an integrated whole. Each chapter employs a pedagogical approach to e

  20. FHR Process Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactors (FHRs) are entering into early phase engineering development. Initial candidate technologies have been identified to measure all of the required process variables. The purpose of this paper is to describe the proposed measurement techniques in sufficient detail to enable assessment of the proposed instrumentation suite and to support development of the component technologies. This paper builds upon the instrumentation chapter of the recently published FHR technology development roadmap. Locating instruments outside of the intense core radiation and high-temperature fluoride salt environment significantly decreases their environmental tolerance requirements. Under operating conditions, FHR primary coolant salt is a transparent, low-vapor-pressure liquid. Consequently, FHRs can employ standoff optical measurements from above the salt pool to assess in-vessel conditions. For example, the core outlet temperature can be measured by observing the fuel s blackbody emission. Similarly, the intensity of the core s Cerenkov glow indicates the fission power level. Short-lived activation of the primary coolant provides another means for standoff measurements of process variables. The primary coolant flow and neutron flux can be measured using gamma spectroscopy along the primary coolant piping. FHR operation entails a number of process measurements. Reactor thermal power and core reactivity are the most significant variables for process control. Thermal power can be determined by measuring the primary coolant mass flow rate and temperature rise across the core. The leading candidate technologies for primary coolant temperature measurement are Au-Pt thermocouples and Johnson noise thermometry. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow measurement, that includes high-temperature tolerant standoffs, is a potential coolant flow measurement technique. Also, the salt redox condition will be monitored as an indicator of its corrosiveness. Both

  1. Coupled Diffusion Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章复熹

    2004-01-01

    @@ Coupled diffusion processes (or CDP for short) model the systems of molecular motors,which attract much interest from physicists and biologists in recent years[1,2,9,14,4,7,21]. The protein moves along a filament called the track, and it is crucial that there are several inner states of the protein and the underlying chemical reaction causes transitions among different inner states,while chemical energy can be converted to mechanical energy by rachet effects[5,3,2,14,12].

  2. Image Processing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-30

    Technical Journal, Vol. 36, pp. 653-709, May 1957. -50- 4. Image Restoration anJ Enhdikcement Projects Imaje restoration ani image enhancement are...n (9K =--i_ (9) -sn =0- 2. where o is the noise energy ani I is an identity matrix. n Color Imaje Scanner Calibration: A common problem in the...line of the imaje , and >at. The statistics cf the process N(k) can now be given in terms of the statistics of m , 8 2 , and the sequence W= (cLe (5

  3. Process for treating biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Timothy J; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-11-04

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  4. Industrial Information Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates, how cross-functional business processes may be aligned with product specification systems in an intra-organizational environment by integrating planning systems and expert systems, thereby providing an end-to-end integrated and an automated solution to the “build......-to-order” challenge. An outcome of this capability is that the potential market for customized products will expand, resulting in a reduction in administrative and manufacturing costs. This potential for cost reduction, simultaneous with market expansion, is a source of competitive advantage; hence manufacturers have...

  5. Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Konopka, Claudia; Nellemann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Software process improvement (SPI) is around for decades: frameworks are proposed, success factors are studied, and experiences have been reported. However, the sheer mass of concepts, approaches, and standards published over the years overwhelms practitioners as well as researchers. What is out...... directions. An analysis of 635 publications draws a big picture of SPI-related research of the past 25 years. Our study shows a high number of solution proposals, experience reports, and secondary studies, but only few theories. In particular, standard SPI models are analyzed and evaluated for applicability...

  6. Process Principle of Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高锋; 任君

    2006-01-01

    Ⅰ.IntroductionInformation structure is the organization modelof given and New information in the course ofinformation transmission.A discourse contains avariety of information and not all the informationlisted in the discourse is necessary and useful to us.When we decode a discourse,usually,we do not needto read every word in the discourse or text but skimor scan the discourse or text to search what we thinkis important or useful to us in the discourse as quicklyas possible.Ⅱ.Process Principles of Informati...

  7. Process Analytical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltkamp, David J.(VISITORS); Doherty, Steve D.(BCO); Anderson, B B.(VISITORS); Koch, Mel (University of Washington); Bond, Leonard J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Burgess, Lloyd W.(VISITORS); Ullman, Alan H.(UNKNOWN); Bamberger, Judith A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Greenwood, Margaret S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    1999-06-15

    This review of process analytical chemistry is an update to the previous review on this subject published in 1995(A2). The time period covered for this review includes publications written or published from late 1994 until early 1999, with the addition of a few classic references pointing to background information critical to an understanding of a specific topic area. These older references have been critically included as established fundamental works. New topics covered in this review not previously treated as separate subjects in past reviews include sampling systems, imaging (via optical spectroscopy), and ultrasonic analysis.

  8. Sea Ice Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    aq pnoiqs suol)0!pOid AixoolQA 00! 191100 (1I ’uoTow poAlosqo aql jo lqlgti 04) ol a~xe juqp suotioaJip 4)!A% parto s~t S stqi pule ’spoods 001 a)tUJT...to provide information as ating characteristics of PIPS. These factors in- to processes and their scales (as ascertained by elude the vertical grid...warranted horizontal compression being compensated by at this time. Further investigation is needed. vertical motion. In the case of ice, upward The space

  9. Introduction to information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dietel, Harvey M

    2014-01-01

    An Introduction to Information Processing provides an informal introduction to the computer field. This book introduces computer hardware, which is the actual computing equipment.Organized into three parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the evolution of personal computing and includes detailed case studies on two of the most essential personal computers for the 1980s, namely, the IBM Personal Computer and Apple's Macintosh. This text then traces the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. Other chapte

  10. Computers and data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1985-01-01

    Computers and Data Processing provides information pertinent to the advances in the computer field. This book covers a variety of topics, including the computer hardware, computer programs or software, and computer applications systems.Organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of some of the fundamental computing concepts. This text then explores the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. Other chapters consider how computers present their results and explain the storage and retrieval of

  11. Stochastic conditional intensity processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauwens, Luc; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the so-called stochastic conditional intensity (SCI) model by extending Russell’s (1999) autoregressive conditional intensity (ACI) model by a latent common dynamic factor that jointly drives the individual intensity components. We show by simulations that the proposed...... model allows for a wide range of (cross-)autocorrelation structures in multivariate point processes. The model is estimated by simulated maximum likelihood (SML) using the efficient importance sampling (EIS) technique. By modeling price intensities based on NYSE trading, we provide significant evidence...

  12. Hyperspectral image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liguo

    2016-01-01

    Based on the authors’ research, this book introduces the main processing techniques in hyperspectral imaging. In this context, SVM-based classification, distance comparison-based endmember extraction, SVM-based spectral unmixing, spatial attraction model-based sub-pixel mapping, and MAP/POCS-based super-resolution reconstruction are discussed in depth. Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of these cutting-edge hyperspectral imaging techniques. Researchers and graduate students in fields such as remote sensing, surveying and mapping, geosciences and information systems will benefit from this valuable resource.

  13. Digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M

    2011-01-01

    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  14. Digital signal processing laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Preetham

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Brief Theory of DSP ConceptsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Introduction to MATLAB®/SIMULINK®Hardware Laboratory: Working with Oscilloscopes, Spectrum Analyzers, Signal SourcesDigital Signal Processors (DSPs)ReferencesDISCRETE-TIME LTI SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Simulation of Continuous Time and Discrete-Time Signals and Systems ReferencesTIME AND FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF COMMUNICATION SIGNALS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT), Discrete Fourier Transform

  15. Koenigs function and branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chikilev, O G

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  16. Perfect simulation of Hawkes processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    This article concerns a perfect simulation algorithm for unmarked and marked Hawkes processes. The usual stratihtforward simulation algorithm suffers from edge effects, whereas our perfect simulation algorithm does not. By viewing Hawkes processes as Poisson cluster processes and using...

  17. FORMATIVE ADAPTIVE TESTING SERVICE WEB TO INDIVIDUALIZE ELEARNING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOUR-EDDINE El FADDOULI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In most of the existing E-learning systems, the content and the order of activities are presented in a static manner without taking into consideration the learner’s characteristics. Therefore, customizing and adapting the environment to the learner’s profile has shown important improvement in education quality. There are several adaptation approaches of E-learning environments, such as, adaptive hypermedia system, semantic web, etc. In our proposed system (RIMEV, we adopted a Competency Based Approach (CBA, and we found that a welladapted system depends mainly on the adequacy of the information collected through a personal diagnostic. This diagnostic takes place via an adaptive test using the Item Response Theory (IRT in a formative approach. This Intelligent test administers optimal items in an appropriate order in a short time and produces a goodassessment of the learner’s skills with accurate results. Thus the e-learning systems can lead the learner to gradually acquire a skill by taking into account his/her characteristics and predispositions.Concerning the technological aspect, the system is implemented as a composed web service, which calls several basic services that coordinate according to an orchestration plan. This allows interoperability with heterogeneous learning systems.

  18. NANOSCALE PROCESS ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qixiang Wang; Fei Wei

    2003-01-01

    The research of nanoscale process engineering (NPE) is based on the interdisciplinary nature of nanoscale science and technology. It mainly deals with transformation of materials and energy into nanostructured materials and nanodevices, and synergizes the multidisciplinary convergence between materials science and technology, biotechnology, and information technology. The core technologies of NPE concern all aspects of nanodevice construction and operation, such as manufacture of nanomaterials "by design", concepts and design of nanoarchitectures, and manufacture and control of customizable nanodevices. Two main targets of NPE at present are focused on nanoscale manufacture and concept design of nanodevices. The research progress of nanoscale manufacturing processes focused on creating nanostructures and assembling them into nanosystems and larger scale architectures has built the interdiscipline of NPE. The concepts and design of smart, multi-functional, environmentally compatible and customizable nanodevice prototypes built from the nanostructured systems of nanocrystalline, nanoporous and microemulsion systems are most challenging tasks of NPE. The development of NPE may also impel us to consider the curriculum and educational reform of chemical engineering in universities.

  19. Oxytocin and emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Simplicio, Martina; Harmer, Catherine J

    2016-11-01

    Since the observation that oxytocin has key effects on social decision making, research on this exciting neuropeptide has doubled in volume: hundreds of studies have pursued the promise of a specific oxytocin action on high-level cognition and social function with wide potential translational implications (from autism to social anxiety to dementia). Here we review the evidence on whether the complex behavioural effects observed in humans after exogenous oxytocin administration build on changes in basic emotional information processing, in particular emotional facial expressions recognition, and attention and memory for emotionally-valenced stimuli.We observe that recent studies confirm a facilitatory effect of oxytocin to more accurate emotion processing, irrespective of emotion type. However, it remains unclear whether this action precedes, is independent of or even secondary to the neuropeptide promoting a greater salience of social stimuli. Overall, this growing research area has shown that oxytocin produces behavioural and neurofunctional outcomes that are highly dependent on the experimental context and on individual differences (gender, personality, life experiences). This poses an exciting challenge for future experimental medicine designs to address and unpack complex interactions between individual and context characteristic, which is needed for the development of more precise clinical applications.

  20. Mastering the diesel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antila, E.; Kaario, O.; Lahtinen, T. (and others)

    2004-07-01

    This is the final report of the research project 'Mastering the Diesel Process'. The project has been a joint research effort of the Helsinki University of Technology, the Tampere University of Technology, the Technical Research Centre of Finland, and the Aabo Akademi University. Moreover, the contribution of the Michigan Technological University has been important. The project 'Mastering the Diesel Process' has been a computational research project on the physical phenomena of diesel combustion. The theoretical basis of the project lies on computational fluid dynamics. Various submodels for computational fluid dynamics have been developed or tested within engine simulation. Various model combinations in three diesel engines of different sizes have been studied. The most important submodels comprise fuel spray drop breakup, fuel evaporation, gas-fuel interaction in the spray, mixing model of combustion, heat transfer, emission mechanisms. The boundary conditions and flow field modelling have been studied, as well. The main simulation tool have been Star-CD. KIVA code have been used in the model development, as well. By the help of simulation, we are able to investigate the effect of various design parameters or operational parameters on diesel combustion and emission formation. (orig.)

  1. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  2. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  3. Ambiguity in sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, G T

    1998-04-01

    As listeners and readers, we rarely notice the ambiguities that pervade our everyday language. When we hear the proverb `Time flies like an arrow' we might ponder its meaning, but not the fact that there are almost 100 grammatically permissible interpretations of this short sentence. On occasion, however, we do notice sentential ambiguity: headlines, such as `Two Sisters Reunited After 18 Years in Checkout Counter', are amusing because they so consistently lead to the unintended interpretation (presumably, the sisters did not spend 18 years at the checkout). It is this consistent preference for one interpretation-and one grammatical structure-rather than another that has fuelled research into sentence processing for more than 20 years. Until relatively recently, the dominant belief had been that these preferences arise from general principles that underlie our use of grammar, with certain grammatical constructions being preferred over others. There has now accrued, however, a considerable body of evidence demonstrating that these preferences are not absolute, but can change in particular circumstances. With this evidence have come new theories of sentence processing, some of which, at first glance, radically question the standard notions of linguistic representation, grammar and understanding.

  4. Multidimensional diffusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Stroock, Daniel W

    1997-01-01

    From the reviews: "… Both the Markov-process approach and the Itô approach … have been immensely successful in diffusion theory. The Stroock-Varadhan book, developed from the historic 1969 papers by its authors, presents the martingale-problem approach as a more powerful - and, in certain regards, more intrinsic-means of studying the foundations of the subject. […] … the authors make the uncompromising decision not "to proselytise by intimidating the reader with myriad examples demonstrating the full scope of the techniques", but rather to persuade the reader "with a careful treatment of just one problem to which they apply". […] Most of the main tools of stochastic-processes theory are used, ..but it is the formidable combination of probability theory with analysis … which is the core of the work. […] I have emphasized the great importance of the Stroock-Varadhan book. It contains a lot more than I have indicated; in particular, its many exercises conain much interesting material. For immediat...

  5. Mindfulness and psychological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J Mark G

    2010-02-01

    The author reviews the articles in the Special Section on Mindfulness, starting from the assumption that emotions evolved as signaling systems that need to be sensitive to environmental contingencies. Failure to switch off emotion is due to the activation of mental representations of present, past, and future that are created independently of external contingencies. Mindfulness training can be seen as one way to teach people to discriminate such "simulations" from objects and contingencies as they actually are. The articles in this Special Section show how even brief laboratory training can have effects on processing affective stimuli; that long-term meditation practitioners show distinct reactions to pain; that longer meditation training is associated with differences in brain structure; that 8 weeks' mindfulness practice brings about changes in the way emotion is processed showing that participants can learn to uncouple the sensory, directly experienced self from the "narrative" self; that mindfulness training can affect working memory capacity, and enhance the ability of participants to talk about past crises in a way that enables them to remain specific and yet not be overwhelmed. The implications of these findings for understanding emotion and for further research is discussed.

  6. Turbulence and Stochastic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celani, Antonio; Mazzino, Andrea; Pumir, Alain

    sec:08-1In 1931 the monograph Analytical Methods in Probability Theory appeared, in which A.N. Kolmogorov laid the foundations for the modern theory of Markov processes [1]. According to Gnedenko: "In the history of probability theory it is difficult to find other works that changed the established points of view and basic trends in research work in such a decisive way". Ten years later, his article on fully developed turbulence provided the framework within which most, if not all, of the subsequent theoretical investigations have been conducted [2] (see e.g. the review by Biferale et al. in this volume [3]. Remarkably, the greatest advances made in the last few years towards a thorough understanding of turbulence developed from the successful marriage between the theory of stochastic processes and the phenomenology of turbulent transport of scalar fields. In this article we will summarize these recent developments which expose the direct link between the intermittency of transported fields and the statistical properties of particle trajectories advected by the turbulent flow (see also [4], and, for a more thorough review, [5]. We also discuss the perspectives of the Lagrangian approach beyond passive scalars, especially for the modeling of hydrodynamic turbulence.

  7. Natural gas conversion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  8. Grants Process Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the steps in the National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute Grants Process. The graphic shows which steps are done by the Principle Investigator, Grantee Institution, and by NIH. The process is represented by a circular flow of steps. Starting from the top and reading clockwise: The Principle Investigator “Initiates Research Idea and Prepares Application” The Grantee Institution “Submits Application” NIH “NIH Center For Scientific Review, Assigns To NCI And To Study Section” NIH “Scientific Review Group (NCI OR CSR) Evaluates for Scientific Merit” NIH “National Cancer Advisory Board Recommends Action” NIH “NCI Evaluates Program Relevance And Need” NIH “NCI Makes Funding Selections And Issues Grant Awards” (NIH) NIH “NCI Monitors Programmatic and Business Management Performance of the Grant” The Grantee Institution “Manages Funds” The Principle Investigator “Conducts Research” Source: www.cancer.gov Icons made by Freepik from http://www.flaticon.com is licensed by CC BY3.0”

  9. Poultry Slaughtering and Processing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Agriculture Production Poultry Slaughtering and Processing in the United States This dataset consists of facilities which engage in slaughtering, processing, and/or...

  10. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  11. Fundamentals of process intensification: A process systems engineering view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Sales Cruz, Alfonso Mauricio; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    at different scales of size, that is, the unit operation scale, the task scale, and the phenomena scale. The roles of process intensification with respect to process improvements and the generation of more sustainable process designs are discussed and questions related to when to apply process intensification...

  12. Brownian semi-stationary processes, turbulence and smooth processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbina, José Ulises Márquez

    process a bounded variation process with differentiable paths. It is natural to inquire if it is possible to obtain an asymptotic theory for this class of BSS processes. This problem is investigated and some partial results are presented. The asymptotic theory for BSS processes naturally leads...

  13. Particle processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshio, Sakka

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, there has been strong demand for the development of novel devices and equipment that support advanced industries including IT/semiconductors, the environment, energy and aerospace along with the achievement of higher efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Many studies have been conducted on the fabrication of innovative inorganic materials with novel individual properties and/or multifunctional properties including electrical, dielectric, thermal, optical, chemical and mechanical properties through the development of particle processing. The fundamental technologies that are key to realizing such materials are (i) the synthesis of nanoparticles with uniform composition and controlled crystallite size, (ii) the arrangement/assembly and controlled dispersion of nanoparticles with controlled particle size, (iii) the precise structural control at all levels from micrometer to nanometer order and (iv) the nanostructural design based on theoretical/experimental studies of the correlation between the local structure and the functions of interest. In particular, it is now understood that the application of an external stimulus, such as magnetic energy, electrical energy and/or stress, to a reaction field is effective in realizing advanced particle processing [1-3]. This special issue comprises 12 papers including three review papers. Among them, seven papers are concerned with phosphor particles, such as silicon, metals, Si3N4-related nitrides, rare-earth oxides, garnet oxides, rare-earth sulfur oxides and rare-earth hydroxides. In these papers, the effects of particle size, morphology, dispersion, surface states, dopant concentration and other factors on the optical properties of phosphor particles and their applications are discussed. These nanoparticles are classified as zero-dimensional materials. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene are well-known one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials, respectively. This special issue also

  14. Business process modeling for processing classified documents using RFID technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszela Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the application of the processing approach to the functional description of the designed IT system supporting the operations of the secret office, which processes classified documents. The article describes the application of the method of incremental modeling of business processes according to the BPMN model to the description of the processes currently implemented (“as is” in a manual manner and target processes (“to be”, using the RFID technology for the purpose of their automation. Additionally, the examples of applying the method of structural and dynamic analysis of the processes (process simulation to verify their correctness and efficiency were presented. The extension of the process analysis method is a possibility of applying the warehouse of processes and process mining methods.

  15. Process dissociation, single-process theories, and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, R; Van Zandt, T; McKoon, G

    1995-12-01

    According to the assumptions of L. L. Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation method, performance in recognition memory is determined by the combination of an unconscious familiarity process and a conscious intentional recollection process. The process dissociation method is used to produce estimates of the contributions of the 2 components to recognition performance. This article investigates whether the method provides the correct estimates of components if performance actually depends on only a single process or on 2 processes different from those assumed by the method. The SAM model (G. Gillund & R. M. Shiffrin, 1984) was used to produce simulated data based on a single process. Variants of SAM with 2 processes and R. C. Atkinson and J. F. Juola's (1973) 2-process model were used to produce data based on 2 processes.

  16. Titan's global geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaska, Michael; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Schoenfeld, Ashley; Birch, Samuel; Hayes, Alexander; Williams, David A.; Solomonidou, Anezina; Janssen, Michael A.; Le Gall, Alice; Soderblom, Jason M.; Neish, Catherine; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2016-10-01

    We have mapped the Cassini SAR imaged areas of Saturn's moon Titan in order to determine the geological properties that modify the surface [1]. We used the SAR dataset for mapping, but incorporated data from radiometry, VIMS, ISS, and SARTopo for terrain unit determination. This work extends our analyses of the mid-latitude/equatorial Afekan Crater region [2] and in the southern and northern polar regions [3]. We placed Titan terrains into six broad terrain classes: craters, mountain/hummocky, labyrinth, plains, dunes, and lakes. We also extended the fluvial mapping done by Burr et al. [4], and defined areas as potential cryovolcanic features [5]. We found that hummocky/mountainous and labyrinth areas are the oldest units on Titan, and that lakes and dunes are among the youngest. Plains units are the largest unit in terms of surface area, followed by the dunes unit. Radiometry data suggest that most of Titan's surface is covered in high-emissivity materials, consistent with organic materials, with only minor exposures of low-emissivity materials that are consistent with water ice, primarily in the mountain and hummocky areas and crater rims and ejecta [6, 7]. From examination of terrain orientation, we find that landscape evolution in the mid-latitude and equatorial regions is driven by aeolian processes, while polar landscapes are shaped by fluvial, lacrustine, and possibly dissolution or volatilization processes involving cycling organic materials [3, 8]. Although important in deciphering Titan's terrain evolution, impact processes play a very minor role in the modification of Titan's landscape [9]. We find no evidence for large-scale aqueous cryovolcanic deposits.References: [1] Lopes, R.M.C. et al. (2010) Icarus, 205, 540–558. [2] Malaska, M.J. et al. (2016) Icarus, 270, 130–161. [3] Birch et al., in revision. [4] Burr et al. (2013) GSA Bulletin 125, 299–321. [5] Lopes et al. JGR: Planets, 118, 1–20. [6] Janssen et al., (2009) Icarus, 200, 222–239. [7

  17. Sensors in Spray Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents what is our actual knowledge about sensors, used in the harsh environment of spray booths, to improve the reproducibility and reliability of coatings sprayed with hot or cold gases. First are described, with their limitations and precisions, the different sensors following the in-flight hot particle parameters (trajectories, temperatures, velocities, sizes, and shapes). A few comments are also made about techniques, still under developments in laboratories, to improve our understanding of coating formation such as plasma jet temperature measurements in non-symmetrical conditions, hot gases heat flux, particles flattening and splats formation, particles evaporation. Then are described the illumination techniques by laser flash of either cold particles (those injected in hot gases, or in cold spray gun) or liquid injected into hot gases (suspensions or solutions). The possibilities they open to determine the flux and velocities of cold particles or visualize liquid penetration in the core of hot gases are discussed. Afterwards are presented sensors to follow, when spraying hot particles, substrate and coating temperature evolution, and the stress development within coatings during the spray process as well as the coating thickness. The different uses of these sensors are then described with successively: (i) Measurements limited to particle trajectories, velocities, temperatures, and sizes in different spray conditions: plasma (including transient conditions due to arc root fluctuations in d.c. plasma jets), HVOF, wire arc, cold spray. Afterwards are discussed how such sensor data can be used to achieve a better understanding of the different spray processes, compare experiments to calculations and improve the reproducibility and reliability of the spray conditions. (ii) Coatings monitoring through in-flight measurements coupled with those devoted to coatings formation. This is achieved by either maintaining at their set point both in-flight and

  18. Process technology implications of procurement process: some initial observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ellmer, E.; Emmerich, W.; Finkelstein, A

    1998-01-01

    We report on a study of procurement processes in a large organization. The purpose of the study was to identify problems in the organization’s procurement processesand to suggestimprovement actions.Procurement processesdetermine the characteristics of software processes. Procurement processes are themselves complex and amenable to process technology. Cost and scheduling benefits can be realised if procurement and contracting organizations integrate their respective processes...

  19. Learning Determinantal Point Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kulesza, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Determinantal point processes (DPPs), which arise in random matrix theory and quantum physics, are natural models for subset selection problems where diversity is preferred. Among many remarkable properties, DPPs offer tractable algorithms for exact inference, including computing marginal probabilities and sampling; however, an important open question has been how to learn a DPP from labeled training data. In this paper we propose a natural feature-based parameterization of conditional DPPs, and show how it leads to a convex and efficient learning formulation. We analyze the relationship between our model and binary Markov random fields with repulsive potentials, which are qualitatively similar but computationally intractable. Finally, we apply our approach to the task of extractive summarization, where the goal is to choose a small subset of sentences conveying the most important information from a set of documents. In this task there is a fundamental tradeoff between sentences that are highly relevant to th...

  20. Signal processing unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J.

    1983-01-01

    The architecture of the signal processing unit (SPU) comprises an ROM connected to a program bus, and an input-output bus connected to a data bus and register through a pipeline multiplier accumulator (pmac) and a pipeline arithmetic logic unit (palu), each associated with a random access memory (ram1,2). The system pulse frequency is from 20 mhz. The pmac is further detailed, and has a capability of 20 mega operations per second. There is also a block diagram for the palu, showing interconnections between the register block (rbl), separator for bus (bs), register (reg), shifter (sh) and combination unit. The first and second rams have formats 64*16 and 32*32 bits, respectively. Further data are a 5-v power supply and 2.5 micron n-channel silicon gate mos technology with about 50000 transistors.

  1. Forward Osmosis Process

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2013-12-05

    A process that can alleviate the internal concentration polarization and can enhance membrane performance of a forward osmosis system includes the steps of passing a fluid in a forward osmosis system from a feed solution with a first osmotic pressure, through a membrane into a draw solution comprising a draw solute with a second osmotic pressure, where the first osmotic pressure is lower than the second osmotic pressure, the membrane includes an active layer and a support layer, and the membrane is oriented such that the active layer of the membrane faces a draw side, and the support layer faces a feed side; and applying an external force to the fluid on the feed side of the membrane.

  2. Catalyzing alignment processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how environmental management systems (EMS) spur the circulation of processes that support the constitution of environmental issues as specific environ¬mental objects and objectives. EMS catalyzes alignmentprocesses that produce coherence among the different elements involved......, the networks of environmental professionals that work in the environmental organisation, in consulting and regulatory enforcement, and dominating business cultures. These have previously been identified in the literature as individually significant in relation to the evolving environmental agendas....... They are here used to describe the context in which environmental management is implemented. Based on findings from contributions to a research program studying the implementation and impact of EMS in different settings, we highlight the diverse roles that these systems play in the Thai context. EMS may over...

  3. Plutonium dissolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving Pu metal is disclosed in which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Pu metal is exposed to a first mixture of 1.0-1.67 M sulfamic acid and 0.0025-0.1 M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to 45-70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the Pu metal but leave a portion of the Pu in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alternatively, nitric acid between 0.05 and 0.067 M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution is diluted with nitrogen.

  4. Additive Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duvenaud, David; Rasmussen, Carl Edward

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a Gaussian process model of functions which are additive. An additive function is one which decomposes into a sum of low-dimensional functions, each depending on only a subset of the input variables. Additive GPs generalize both Generalized Additive Models, and the standard GP models which use squared-exponential kernels. Hyperparameter learning in this model can be seen as Bayesian Hierarchical Kernel Learning (HKL). We introduce an expressive but tractable parameterization of the kernel function, which allows efficient evaluation of all input interaction terms, whose number is exponential in the input dimension. The additional structure discoverable by this model results in increased interpretability, as well as state-of-the-art predictive power in regression tasks.

  5. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    The Integrated Renovation Process (IRP) is a user customized methodology based on judiciously selected constructivist and interactive multi-criteria decision making methods (Galiotto, Heiselberg, & Knudstrup, 2014 (expected)). The IRP supports, informs and reassures building owners to decide...... they get more time for the cost optimization and the qualitative analysis of the users’ needs and behaviours. In order to reach a fossil free energy building stock within an acceptable time frame, it is primordial that researchers, politicians and the building industry work hand in hand. Indeed, in order...... to overcome the financial barriers to energy renovation and bring a new type of building experts in the building renovation sector, cost optimization tools for building renovation have been and can be developed but new legislation and politico-economic supports are still much needed. We present in this report...

  6. PROCESSING OF MONAZITE SAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, G.D.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1957-12-01

    A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution. The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. The thorium and uranium containing precipitate is redissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and the two elements are separated by extraction into tributyl phosphate and back extraction with a weakly acidic solution to remove the thorium.

  7. Fractal Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) and Extreme Value Theory (EVT) study, respectively, the stochastic limit-laws of sums and maxima of sequences of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables via an affine scaling scheme. In this research we study the stochastic limit-laws of populations of i.i.d. random variables via nonlinear scaling schemes. The stochastic population-limits obtained are fractal Poisson processes which are statistically self-similar with respect to the scaling scheme applied, and which are characterized by two elemental structures: (i) a universal power-law structure common to all limits, and independent of the scaling scheme applied; (ii) a specific structure contingent on the scaling scheme applied. The sum-projection and the maximum-projection of the population-limits obtained are generalizations of the classic CLT and EVT results - extending them from affine to general nonlinear scaling schemes.

  8. Paretian Poisson Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2008-05-01

    Many random populations can be modeled as a countable set of points scattered randomly on the positive half-line. The points may represent magnitudes of earthquakes and tornados, masses of stars, market values of public companies, etc. In this article we explore a specific class of random such populations we coin ` Paretian Poisson processes'. This class is elemental in statistical physics—connecting together, in a deep and fundamental way, diverse issues including: the Poisson distribution of the Law of Small Numbers; Paretian tail statistics; the Fréchet distribution of Extreme Value Theory; the one-sided Lévy distribution of the Central Limit Theorem; scale-invariance, renormalization and fractality; resilience to random perturbations.

  9. Supplier Evaluation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Ellegaard, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to illuminate how supplier evaluation practices are linked to supplier performance improvements. Specifically, the paper investigates how performance information travelling between the evaluating buyer and the evaluated suppliers is shaped and reshaped...... in the evaluation process. Design/methodology/approach – The paper relies on a multiple, longitudinal case research methodology. The two cases show two companies' efforts in designing, implementing, and using supplier evaluation in order to improve supplier performance. Findings – The findings show how the dynamics...... of representing, reducing, amplifying, dampening, and directing shape and reshape supplier evaluation information. In both companies, evaluation practices were defined, redefined, and re-directed by the involved actors' perception and decision making, as well as organisational structures, IT systems...

  10. Process and plant safety

    CERN Document Server

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Accidents in technical installations are random events. Hence they cannot be totally avoided. Only the probability of their occurrence may be reduced and their consequences be mitigated. The book proceeds from hazards caused by materials and process conditions to indicating technical and organizational measures for achieving the objectives of reduction and mitigation. Qualitative methods for identifying weaknesses of design and increasing safety as well as models for assessing accident consequences are presented. The quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of safety measures is explained. The treatment of uncertainties plays a role there. They stem from the random character of the accident and from lacks of knowledge on some of the phenomena to be addressed. The reader is acquainted with the simulation of accidents, safety and risk analyses and learns how to judge the potential and limitations of mathematical modelling. Risk analysis is applied amongst others to “functional safety” and the determinat...

  11. Advanced powder processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  12. Welding processes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Weman, Klas

    2011-01-01

    Offers an introduction to the range of available welding technologies. This title includes chapters on individual techniques that cover principles, equipment, consumables and key quality issues. It includes material on such topics as the basics of electricity in welding, arc physics, and distortion, and the weldability of particular metals.$bThe first edition of Welding processes handbook established itself as a standard introduction and guide to the main welding technologies and their applications. This new edition has been substantially revised and extended to reflect the latest developments. After an initial introduction, the book first reviews gas welding before discussing the fundamentals of arc welding, including arc physics and power sources. It then discusses the range of arc welding techniques including TIG, plasma, MIG/MAG, MMA and submerged arc welding. Further chapters cover a range of other important welding technologies such as resistance and laser welding, as well as the use of welding techniqu...

  13. Electro Processing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Electroprocessing which is concerned with fluid dynamics of the electroreduction process to determine how it may be modified to improve the quality of the deposit was studied. Experimental techniques are used in this research. These techniques include laser Schlieren photography, laser Doppler velocimetry, and frequency spectrum analysis. Projects involve fluid flow studies of zinc plating in aqueous and molten salt electrolytes, study of cell design for magnesium chlorides electrolysis, digital signal analysis of manganese electrodeposition in molten chlorides, and electroplating of molybdenum from low melting salts. It is anticipated that the use of refractory metals as constructed materials in engineering will increase. Their electrodeposition from molten salt electrolytes is important in the extraction metallurgy of refractory metals.

  14. Experiencing Historical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    ” are involved in guided tours: the visitors (in this case primary school children), the guides, and museum practitioners responsible for planning exhibitions. Current studies tend to focus on one user group; this means that the proposed solutions do not take into account the needs of the other groups. Instead......, which is discussed in the second paper, based on the framework of apprenticeship in thinking (Rogoff 1990) and 4 play as a resource for conceptual thinking (Vygotsky 1978). Play is also seen as a state of mind (Apter 2007; Sutton-Smith 1997) allowing children to reconfigure the hierarchical relationship...... emerging with the guides. Moreover, as discussed in the third paper presented in this thesis, the design process takes into account children’s individual needs, regarding play and museum experience. Final evaluations with MicroCulture (fourth paper) show that digital technologies allow for compelling...

  15. Continuous coal processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryason, P. R.

    1980-06-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  16. Fluorination process using catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochel, R.C.; Saturday, K.A.

    1983-08-25

    A process is given for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/, AgF/sub 2/ and NiF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/ and AgF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  17. Fluorination process using catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochel, Robert C.; Saturday, Kathy A.

    1985-01-01

    A process for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3, AgF.sub.2 and NiF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3 and AgF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  18. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  19. Evaluating Discourse Processing Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M A

    1994-01-01

    In order to take steps towards establishing a methodology for evaluating Natural Language systems, we conducted a case study. We attempt to evaluate two different approaches to anaphoric processing in discourse by comparing the accuracy and coverage of two published algorithms for finding the co-specifiers of pronouns in naturally occurring texts and dialogues. We present the quantitative results of hand-simulating these algorithms, but this analysis naturally gives rise to both a qualitative evaluation and recommendations for performing such evaluations in general. We illustrate the general difficulties encountered with quantitative evaluation. These are problems with: (a) allowing for underlying assumptions, (b) determining how to handle underspecifications, and (c) evaluating the contribution of false positives and error chaining.

  20. Entrepreneurship and Process Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel; Holt, Robin; Steyaert, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Process studies put movement, change and flow first; to study processually is to consider the world as restless, something underway, becoming and perishing, without end. To understand firms processually is to accept but also – and this is harder perhaps – to absorb this fluidity, to treat...... a variable as just that, a variable. The resonance with entrepreneurship studies is obvious. If any field is alive to, and fully resonant with, a processual understanding of, for example, the creation of firms, it is entrepreneurship studies. This special issue is an attempt to consider the promise...... and potential of processual approaches to studying, researching and practising entrepreneurship. The articles in the issue attest to an increasing sensitivity to processual thinking. We argue that appreciating entrepreneurial phenomena processually opens up the field to an understanding of entrepreneurship...

  1. Perception and information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    : as consumers, we can only respond to a stimulus if our senses are actually stimulated by it. Psychologically speaking, a stimulus only exists for us once we have formed an internal representation of it. The objective of this chapter is to introduce the systems that are involved in this processing of perceptual...... information and to characterise the operations they perform. To avoid confusion, it should be stressed that the term "perception" is often used in a colloquial sense in consumer research. In concepts like perceived quality, perceived value, or perceived risk, the modifier "perceived" simply highlights...... ("psychophysics") can be considered the birth of experimental psychology. Today, most perception research is carried out in the interdisciplinary field of cognitive neuroscience. Only selected issues have made their way into consumer research. After a short general introduction, we will therefore focus...

  2. COMMUNICATION PROCESSES AND STRATEGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionThe main goal of studying a foreign language is to be able to communicate.The essence ofcommunication is sending and receiving messages and negotiating meaning.During the communicationprocess,learners may meet problems which hinder their understanding.In order to overcome theselimitations,it is very.important to know and use certain strategies involved in the communicationprocesses.There are three basic activities in the communication process-expressing intensions,interpretation andnegotiation.Expressing intentions is giving information.During communication,every speaker has tofirst send his or her messages and the listener must decode what he or she has heard.This activity may becalled interpretation.During conversation,both listener and speaker must do some negotiation in orderto make sure that they understand each other.Negotiation could be called communication exchange.

  3. Business Process Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina FOTACHE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Process Outsourcing (BPO is gaining widespread acceptance throughout the US, Europe, South America and Asia Pacific as the top executives of leading multinationals turn to outsourcing as a strategic management tool for improving corporate performance, profitability and shareholder value. BPO started to emerge a few years ago as follow-on to IT outsourcing. The concept is not new; BPO is the contracting of a specific business task. Outsourcing focuses on adding value typically to non-core and non-complex activities by buying in best practices and economies of scale. Because reduce costs, focus on core strategic activities and improve customer service, an increasing number of organizations in both the public and the private sector are looking toward BPO as a solution to their needs.

  4. Experimental adaptive process tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelov, I. A.; Struchalin, G. I.; Straupe, S. S.; Radchenko, I. V.; Kravtsov, K. S.; Kulik, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive measurements were recently shown to significantly improve the performance of quantum state tomography. Utilizing information about the system for the online choice of optimal measurements allows one to reach the ultimate bounds of precision for state reconstruction. In this article we generalize an adaptive Bayesian approach to the case of process tomography and experimentally show its superiority in the task of learning unknown quantum operations. Our experiments with photonic polarization qubits cover all types of single-qubit channels. We also discuss instrumental errors and the criteria for evaluation of the ultimate achievable precision in an experiment. It turns out that adaptive tomography provides a lower noise floor in the presence of strong technical noise.

  5. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  6. Innovation Processes and Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte; Austin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver, diskuterer og illustrerer en lang række forskellige innovationsprocesmodeller med fokus på hvordan (og hvornår) innovative teams håndterer at stoppe processen. Sommetider er der tale om forceret lukning fx pga deadlines eller andet, andre gange sker der en tydelig krystalliser......Artiklen beskriver, diskuterer og illustrerer en lang række forskellige innovationsprocesmodeller med fokus på hvordan (og hvornår) innovative teams håndterer at stoppe processen. Sommetider er der tale om forceret lukning fx pga deadlines eller andet, andre gange sker der en tydelig...... krystallisering af et koncept. Der peges også på nye typer af modeller, hvor udviklingsprocessen holdes åben, fordi produktet aldrig bliver "færdigt". Endelig sammenholdes innovationsprocessen med kunstneriske og kreative processer....

  7. Uncloaking the Scientific Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzell, K.; Meier, W.

    2009-12-01

    Since April 2008, NSIDC has offered daily updates of sea ice data on our Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis Web page (http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews). The images provide near-real-time data to the general public and policy makers, accompanied by monthly or more frequent analysis updates. In February 2009, a crucial channel of the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) sensor on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F15 satellite, from which NSIDC was obtaining near-real-time Arctic sea ice data, suddenly failed. The daily image, which is automatically updated, showed a sudden drop in ice extent of over 50,000 square kilometers. Even after taking the images down, skeptical blogs jumped on the event, posting headlines such as “Errors in publicly presented data - Worth blogging about?” and “NSIDC pulls the plug on sea ice data.” In fact, NSIDC data managers and scientists were well aware that the F15 satellite sensor would eventually fail. NSIDC switched to a previously used back-up sensor, F13, and work to transition to a newer sensor on the F17 satellite had been underway for several weeks. While the deluge of questions from readers and bloggers were frustrating to NSIDC communications staff and scientists, they also presented a chance to give readers a window into the scientific process, and specifically into the collection of satellite data. We decided to publish a clear account of the process used to transition between sensors, as well as a basic explanation of the satellites used to measure sea ice data. While most scientists are familiar with the limitations of near-real-time data, the concept is unfamiliar to many in the general public. The Web page includes links to information on near-real-time data, including notes that images sometimes contain missing or erroneous data, and that delays can occur. However, to a skeptical person, the words that scientists use to describe the processing of final data, including “adjustment,”

  8. Foam process models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, Harry K.; Noble, David R.; Baer, Thomas A. (Procter & Gamble Co., West Chester, OH); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2008-09-01

    In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level foam processing computational model suitable for predicting the self-expansion of foam in complex geometries. The model is based on a finite element representation of the equations of motion, with the movement of the free surface represented using the level set method, and has been implemented in SIERRA/ARIA. An empirically based time- and temperature-dependent density model is used to encapsulate the complex physics of foam nucleation and growth in a numerically tractable model. The change in density with time is at the heart of the foam self-expansion as it creates the motion of the foam. This continuum-level model uses an homogenized description of foam, which does not include the gas explicitly. Results from the model are compared to temperature-instrumented flow visualization experiments giving the location of the foam front as a function of time for our EFAR model system.

  9. Mulighedsbetingelser for transkulturelle processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    En tiltagende neoliberal diskurs ikke kun i international uddannelsespolitik i de seneste årtier, men også i skandinaviske lande som fx Danmark i 2000-tallet indikerer betydningsfulde ændringer i forståelsen af formålet med kulturelle processer som læring og undervisning. Eksemplificeret gennem...... læringsprocesser, men tillige synes at have ændret også konkrete kulturelle læringsprocesser i uhensigtsmæssig retning. Da en neoliberal uddannelsespolitik er relativt ny i Danmark er formålet med artiklen 1. at diskutere udviklingen i den konkrete case og sammenholde dette med internationale tendenser i fx...

  10. Weather Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

  11. Irradiation and food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B; Loaharanu, P

    1989-01-01

    After more than four decades of research and development, food irradiation has been demonstrated to be safe, effective and versatile as a process of food preservation, decontamination or disinfection. Its various applications cover: inhibition of sprouting of root crops; insect disinfestation of stored products, fresh and dried food; shelf-life extension of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish; destruction of parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms in food of animal origin; decontamination of spices and food ingredients, etc. Such applications provide consumers with the increase in variety, volume and value of food. Although regulations on food irradiation in different countries are largely unharmonized, national authorities have shown increasing recognition and acceptance of this technology based on the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and its associated Code of Practice. Harmonization of national legislations represents an important prerequisite to international trade in irradiated food. Consumers at large are still not aware of the safety and benefits that food irradiation has to offer. Thus, national and international organizations, food industry, trade associations and consumer unions have important roles to play in introducing this technology based on its scientific values. Public acceptance of food irradiation may be slow at the beginning, but should increase at a faster rate in the foreseeable future when consumers are well informed of the safety and benefits of this technology in comparison with existing ones. Commercial applications of food irradiation has already started in 18 countries at present. The volume of food or ingredients treated on a commercial scale varies from country to country ranging from several tons of spices to hundreds of thousands of tons of grains per annum. With the increasing interest of national authorities and the food industry in applying the process, it is anticipated that some 25 countries will use some 55 commercial

  12. Time processing in dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Freeman, Elliot D; Butterworth, Brian L

    2011-01-01

    To test whether atypical number development may affect other types of quantity processing, we investigated temporal discrimination in adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). This also allowed us to test whether number and time may be sub-served by a common quantity system or decision mechanisms: if they do, both should be impaired in dyscalculia, but if number and time are distinct they should dissociate. Participants judged which of two successively presented horizontal lines was longer in duration, the first line being preceded by either a small or a large number prime ("1" or "9") or by a neutral symbol ("#"), or in a third task participants decided which of two Arabic numbers (either "1," "5," "9") lasted longer. Results showed that (i) DD's temporal discriminability was normal as long as numbers were not part of the experimental design, even as task-irrelevant stimuli; however (ii) task-irrelevant numbers dramatically disrupted DD's temporal discriminability the more their salience increased, though the actual magnitude of the numbers had no effect; in contrast (iii) controls' time perception was robust to the presence of numbers but modulated by numerical quantity: therefore small number primes or numerical stimuli seemed to make durations appear shorter than veridical, but longer for larger numerical prime or numerical stimuli. This study is the first to show spared temporal discrimination - a dimension of continuous quantity - in a population with a congenital number impairment. Our data reinforce the idea of a partially shared quantity system across numerical and temporal dimensions, which supports both dissociations and interactions among dimensions; however, they suggest that impaired number in DD is unlikely to originate from systems initially dedicated to continuous quantity processing like time.

  13. Laundry process intensification by ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G.; Vlist, van der P.; Moholkar, V.S.; Nierstrasz, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    In domestic textile laundering processes, mass transfer and mass transport are often rate limiting. Therefore, these processes require a long processing time, large amounts of water and chemicals, and they are energy consuming. In most of these processes, diffusion and convection in the inter-yarn a

  14. Process algebra for Hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by extending a combination of the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg [Process Algebra with Timing, Springer, Chap. 4, 2002] and the process algebra with propositional signals from Baeten and Bergstra [Theoretical Computer

  15. Process algebra for hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by extending a combination of the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg (Process Algebra with Timing, Springer,Berlin, 2002, Chapter 4), and the process algebra with propositional signals from Baeten and Bergstra(Theoret. Com

  16. Multivariate supOU processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Stelzer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Univariate superpositions of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-type processes (OU), called supOU processes, provide a class of continuous time processes capable of exhibiting long memory behavior. This paper introduces multivariate supOU processes and gives conditions for their existence and finiteness of momen...

  17. Perspectives on Multienzyme Process Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santacoloma, Paloma A.; Woodley, John M.

    2014-01-01

    There is little doubt that chemical processing of the future will involve an increasing number of biocatalytic processes using more than one enzyme. There are good reasons for developing such innovative biocatalytic processes and interesting new biocatalyst and process options will be introduced....

  18. BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING AS THE METHOD OF PROCESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Honcharova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of process management approach. The main understanding of process management approach has been researched in the article. The definition of process and process management has been given. Also the methods of business process improvement has been analyzed, among them are fast-analysis solution technology (FAST, benchmarking, reprojecting and reengineering. The main results of using business process improvement have been described in figures of reducing cycle time, costs and errors. Also the tasks of business process reengineering have been noticed. The main stages of business process reengineering have been noticed. The main efficiency results of business process reengineering and its success factors have been determined.

  19. Process correlation analysis model for process improvement identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su-jin; Kim, Dae-Kyoo; Park, Sooyong

    2014-01-01

    Software process improvement aims at improving the development process of software systems. It is initiated by process assessment identifying strengths and weaknesses and based on the findings, improvement plans are developed. In general, a process reference model (e.g., CMMI) is used throughout the process of software process improvement as the base. CMMI defines a set of process areas involved in software development and what to be carried out in process areas in terms of goals and practices. Process areas and their elements (goals and practices) are often correlated due to the iterative nature of software development process. However, in the current practice, correlations of process elements are often overlooked in the development of an improvement plan, which diminishes the efficiency of the plan. This is mainly attributed to significant efforts and the lack of required expertise. In this paper, we present a process correlation analysis model that helps identify correlations of process elements from the results of process assessment. This model is defined based on CMMI and empirical data of improvement practices. We evaluate the model using industrial data.

  20. Process of Petri Nets Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To describe the dynamic semantics for the network computing, the concept on process is presented based on the semantic model with variable, resource and relation. Accordingly, the formal definition of process and the mapping rules from the specification of Petri nets extension to process are discussed in detail respectively. Based on the collective concepts of process, the specification of dynamic semantics also is constructed as a net system. Finally, to illustrate process intuitively, an example is specified completely.