WorldWideScience

Sample records for cavity qed system

  1. Decoherence in semiconductor cavity QED systems due to phonon couplings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of electron-phonon interactions on the coherence properties of single photons emitted from a semiconductor cavity QED (quantum electrodynamics) system, i.e., a quantum dot embedded in an optical cavity. The degree of indistinguishability, governing the quantum mechanical...... diagonalization approach. We find that for large cavity decay rates the perturbation theory may break down....

  2. Call for Papers: Cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, W.; Gerard, J.-M.

    2003-06-01

    Cavity QED interactions of light and matter have been investigated in a wide range of systems covering the spectrum from microwaves to optical frequencies, using media as diverse as single atoms and semiconductors. Impressive progress has been achieved technologically as well as conceptually. This topical issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is intended to provide a comprehensive account of the current state of the art of cavity QED by uniting contributions from researchers active across this field. As Guest Editors of this topical issue, we invite manuscripts on current theoretical and experimental work on any aspects of cavity QED. The topics to be covered will include, but are not limited to: bulletCavity QED in optical microcavities bulletSemiconductor cavity QED bulletQuantum dot cavity QED bulletRydberg atoms in microwave cavities bulletPhotonic crystal cavity QED bulletMicrosphere resonators bulletMicrolasers and micromasers bulletMicrodroplets bulletDielectric cavity QED bulletCavity QED-based quantum information processing bulletQuantum state engineering in cavities The DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 31 July 2003 to allow the topical issue to appear in about February 2004. All papers will be peer-reviewed in accordance with the normal refereeing procedures and standards of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics. Advice on publishing your work in the journal may be found at www.iop.org/journals/authors/jopb. Submissions should ideally be in either standard LaTeX form or Microsoft Word. There are no page charges for publication. In addition to the usual 50 free reprints, the corresponding author of each paper published will receive a complimentary copy of the topical issue. Contributions to the topical issue should if possible be submitted electronically at www.iop.org/journals/jopb. or by e-mail to jopb@iop.org. Authors unable to submit online or by e-mail may send hard copy contributions (enclosing the

  3. Selective Transfer of Superposition of Coherent States by Exploiting a Cavity QED System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, N.; Rudsary, S. Kazemi

    2015-05-01

    We propose a scheme on the basis of a N + 2 identical single-mode coupled-cavity QED system for selective transfer of a qubit constructed from superposition of standard coherent states. The cavities arranged in such way that the intermediate or channel cavity is connected uniformly to the sender and N receiver cavities. We consider N different ternary sets of identical QDs whose QDs have been distributed in the sender, channel and one of the receiver cavities respectively. We demonstrate a situation in which the dynamics of the system is confined selectively in a sub sector belongs to one of the ternary set of QDs. This selective dynamics is able to transfer the coherent state-constructed qubit (CSCQ) from the sender party to the desired receiver one reliably. Also, we illustrate that the scheme is optimally robust due to dissipations arises from photon losses in the cavities.

  4. Mølmer-Sørensen entangling gate for cavity QED systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Nevado, Pedro; Keller, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    The Mølmer-Sørensen gate is a state-of-the-art entangling gate in ion trap quantum computing where the gate fidelity can exceed 99%. Here we propose an analogous implementation in the setting of cavity QED. The cavity photon mode acts as the bosonic degree of freedom in the gate in contrast to that played by the phonon mode in ion traps. This is made possible by utilising cavity assisted Raman transitions interconnecting the logical qubit states embedded in a four-level energy structure, making the ‘anti-Jaynes-Cummings’ term available under the rotating-wave approximation. We identify practical sources of infidelity and discuss their effects on the gate performance. Our proposal not only demonstrates an alternative entangling gate scheme but also sheds new light on the relationship between ion traps and cavity QED, in the sense that many techniques developed in the former are transferable to the latter through our framework.

  5. Mølmer–Sørensen entangling gate for cavity QED systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Nevado, Pedro; Keller, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The Mølmer–Sørensen gate is a state-of-the-art entangling gate in ion trap quantum computing where the gate fidelity can exceed 99%. Here we propose an analogous implementation in the setting of cavity QED. The cavity photon mode acts as the bosonic degree of freedom in the gate in contrast to that played by the phonon mode in ion traps. This is made possible by utilising cavity assisted Raman transitions interconnecting the logical qubit states embedded in a four-level energy structure, making the ‘anti-Jaynes–Cummings’ term available under the rotating-wave approximation. We identify practical sources of infidelity and discuss their effects on the gate performance. Our proposal not only demonstrates an alternative entangling gate scheme but also sheds new light on the relationship between ion traps and cavity QED, in the sense that many techniques developed in the former are transferable to the latter through our framework. (paper)

  6. Cavity QED experiments with ion Coulomb crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Marler, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained.......Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained....

  7. Hardware-efficient fermionic simulation with a cavity-QED system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guanyu; Subaşı, Yiǧit; Whitfield, James D.; Hafezi, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    In digital quantum simulation of fermionic models with qubits, non-local maps for encoding are often encountered. Such maps require linear or logarithmic overhead in circuit depth which could render the simulation useless, for a given decoherence time. Here we show how one can use a cavity-QED system to perform digital quantum simulation of fermionic models. In particular, we show that highly nonlocal Jordan-Wigner or Bravyi-Kitaev transformations can be efficiently implemented through a hardware approach. The key idea is using ancilla cavity modes, which are dispersively coupled to a qubit string, to collectively manipulate and measure qubit states. Our scheme reduces the circuit depth in each Trotter step of the Jordan-Wigner encoding by a factor of N2, comparing to the scheme for a device with only local connectivity, where N is the number of orbitals for a generic two-body Hamiltonian. Additional analysis for the Fermi-Hubbard model on an N × N square lattice results in a similar reduction. We also discuss a detailed implementation of our scheme with superconducting qubits and cavities.

  8. Circuit QED with 3D cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Edwar; Baust, Alexander; Zhong, Ling; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Anderson, Gustav; Wang, Lujun; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Huebl, Hans; Menzel, Edwin [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In typical circuit QED systems on-chip superconducting qubits are coupled to integrated coplanar microwave resonators. Due to the planar geometry, the resonators are often a limiting factor regarding the total coherence of the system. Alternatively, similar hybrid systems can be realized using 3D microwave cavities. Here, we present design considerations for the 3D microwave cavity as well as the superconducting transmon qubit. Moreover, we show experimental data of a high purity aluminum cavity demonstrating quality factors above 1.4 .10{sup 6} at the single photon level and a temperature of 50 mK. Our experiments also demonstrate that the quality factor is less dependent on the power compared to planar resonator geometries. Furthermore, we present strategies for tuning both the cavity and the qubit individually.

  9. Circuit QED with 3D cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Edwar; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Deppe, Frank; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), 80799 Muenchen (Germany); Haeberlein, Max; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In typical circuit QED systems, on-chip superconducting qubits are coupled to integrated coplanar microwave resonators. Due to the planar geometry, the resonators are often a limiting factor regarding the total coherence of the system. Alternatively, similar hybrid systems can be realized using 3D microwave cavities. Here, we present studies on transmon qubits capacitively coupled to 3D cavities. The internal quality factors of our 3D cavities, machined out of high purity aluminum, are above 1.4 .10{sup 6} at the single photon level and a temperature of 50 mK. For characterization of the sample, we perform dispersive shift measurements up to the third energy level of the qubit. We show simulations and data describing the effect of the transmon geometry on it's capacitive properties. In addition, we present progress towards an integrated quantum memory application.

  10. Cavity QED with atomic mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, D. E.; Jiang, L.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Kimble, H. J.

    2012-06-01

    A promising approach to merge atomic systems with scalable photonics has emerged recently, which consists of trapping cold atoms near tapered nanofibers. Here, we describe a novel technique to achieve strong, coherent coupling between a single atom and photon in such a system. Our approach makes use of collective enhancement effects, which allow a lattice of atoms to form a high-finesse cavity within the fiber. We show that a specially designated ‘impurity’ atom within the cavity can experience strongly enhanced interactions with single photons in the fiber. Under realistic conditions, a ‘strong coupling’ regime can be reached, wherein it becomes feasible to observe vacuum Rabi oscillations between the excited impurity atom and a single cavity quantum. This technique can form the basis for a scalable quantum information network using atom-nanofiber systems.

  11. Fast quantum search algorithm for databases of arbitrary size and its implementation in a cavity QED system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.Y.; Wu, C.W.; Liu, W.T.; Chen, P.X.; Li, C.Z.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method for implementing the Grover search algorithm directly in a database containing any number of items based on multi-level systems. Compared with the searching procedure in the database with qubits encoding, our modified algorithm needs fewer iteration steps to find the marked item and uses the carriers of the information more economically. Furthermore, we illustrate how to realize our idea in cavity QED using Zeeman's level structure of atoms. And the numerical simulation under the influence of the cavity and atom decays shows that the scheme could be achieved efficiently within current state-of-the-art technology. -- Highlights: ► A modified Grover algorithm is proposed for searching in an arbitrary dimensional Hilbert space. ► Our modified algorithm requires fewer iteration steps to find the marked item. ► The proposed method uses the carriers of the information more economically. ► A scheme for a six-item Grover search in cavity QED is proposed. ► Numerical simulation under decays shows that the scheme can be achieved with enough fidelity.

  12. Constructing Robust Entangled Coherent GHZ and W States via a Cavity QED System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, N.; Ahansaz, B.; Kazemi, S.

    2016-03-01

    Using a system of three distant cavities, we propose a method for constructing tripartite entangled coherent GHZ and W states which are robust due to the photon losses in the cavities. Each of cavities is doped with a semiconductor quantum dot. By the dynamics, the excitonic modes of quantum dots are enabled to exhibit entangled coherent GHZ and W states. Apart from the exciton losses, the master equation approach shows that when the populations of the field modes in the cavities are negligible the destruction of entanglement due to dissipation arises from photon losses, is effectively suppressed.

  13. Perfect routing of quantum information in regular cavity QED networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Naghi; Rudsary, Sobhan Kazemi; Salmasi, Bahram Ahansaz

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a scheme for perfect routing of quantum states and entanglement in regular cavity QED networks. The couplings between the cavities are quasi-uniform and each cavity is doped with a two-level atom. Quasi-uniform couplings leads the system to evolve in invariant subspaces. Combination the evolutions of the system in its invariant subspaces with quite simple local operations on atoms in the networks, gives the perfect routing of quantum states and entanglement through the network. To provide the protocol be robust due to decoherence arisen from photon loss, the field mode of the cavities are only virtually excited.

  14. Sensitive Detection of Individual Neutral Atoms in a Strong Coupling Cavity QED System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peng-Fei; Zhang Yu-Chi; Li Gang; Du Jin-Jin; Zhang Yan-Feng; Guo Yan-Qiang; Wang Jun-Min; Zhang Tian-Cai; Li Wei-Dong

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate real-time detection of individual cesium atoms by using a high-finesse optical micro-cavity in a strong coupling regime. A cloud of cesium atoms is trapped in a magneto-optical trap positioned at 5 mm above the micro-cavity center. The atoms fall down freely in gravitation after shutting off the magneto-optical trap and pass through the cavity. The cavity transmission is strongly affected by the atoms in the cavity, which enables the micro-cavity to sense the atoms individually. We detect the single atom transits either in the resonance or various detunings. The single atom vacuum-Rabi splitting is directly measured to be Ω = 2π × 23.9 MHz. The average duration of atom-cavity coupling of about 110 μs is obtained according to the probability distribution of the atom transits. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  15. Single atoms on demand for cavity QED experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, I.

    2007-09-06

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) describes electromagnetic fields in a confined space and the radiative properties of atoms in such fields. The simplest example of such system is a single atom interacting with one mode of a high-finesse resonator. Besides observation and exploration of fundamental quantum mechanical effects, this system bears a high potential for applications quantum information science such as, e.g., quantum logic gates, quantum communication and quantum teleportation. In this thesis I present an experiment on the deterministic coupling of a single neutral atom to the mode of a high-finesse optical resonator. In Chapter 1 I describe our basic techniques for trapping and observing single cesium atoms. As a source of single atoms we use a high-gradient magneto-optical trap, which captures the atoms from background gas in a vacuum chamber and cools them down to millikelvin temperatures. The atoms are then transferred without loss into a standing-wave dipole trap, which provides a conservative potential required for experiments on atomic coherence such as quantum information processing and metrology on trapped atoms. Moreover, shifting the standing-wave pattern allows us to deterministically transport the atoms (Chapter 2). In combination with nondestructive fluorescence imaging of individual trapped atoms, this enables us to control their position with submicrometer precision over several millimeters along the dipole trap. The cavity QED system can distinctly display quantum behaviour in the so-called strong coupling regime, i.e., when the coherent atom-cavity coupling rate dominates dissipation in the system. This sets the main requirements on the resonator's properties: small mode volume and high finesse. Chapter 3 is devoted to the manufacturing, assembling, and testing of an ultra-high finesse optical Fabry-Perot resonator, stabilized to the atomic transition. In Chapter 4 I present the transportation of single atoms into the

  16. Single atoms on demand for cavity QED experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotsenko, I.

    2007-01-01

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) describes electromagnetic fields in a confined space and the radiative properties of atoms in such fields. The simplest example of such system is a single atom interacting with one mode of a high-finesse resonator. Besides observation and exploration of fundamental quantum mechanical effects, this system bears a high potential for applications quantum information science such as, e.g., quantum logic gates, quantum communication and quantum teleportation. In this thesis I present an experiment on the deterministic coupling of a single neutral atom to the mode of a high-finesse optical resonator. In Chapter 1 I describe our basic techniques for trapping and observing single cesium atoms. As a source of single atoms we use a high-gradient magneto-optical trap, which captures the atoms from background gas in a vacuum chamber and cools them down to millikelvin temperatures. The atoms are then transferred without loss into a standing-wave dipole trap, which provides a conservative potential required for experiments on atomic coherence such as quantum information processing and metrology on trapped atoms. Moreover, shifting the standing-wave pattern allows us to deterministically transport the atoms (Chapter 2). In combination with nondestructive fluorescence imaging of individual trapped atoms, this enables us to control their position with submicrometer precision over several millimeters along the dipole trap. The cavity QED system can distinctly display quantum behaviour in the so-called strong coupling regime, i.e., when the coherent atom-cavity coupling rate dominates dissipation in the system. This sets the main requirements on the resonator's properties: small mode volume and high finesse. Chapter 3 is devoted to the manufacturing, assembling, and testing of an ultra-high finesse optical Fabry-Perot resonator, stabilized to the atomic transition. In Chapter 4 I present the transportation of single atoms into the cavity

  17. Non-markovian effects in semiconductor cavity QED: Role of phonon-mediated processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, Peter

    We show theoretically that the non-Markovian nature of the carrier-phonon interaction influences the dynamical properties of a semiconductor cavity QED system considerably, leading to asymmetries with respect to detuning in carrier lifetimes. This pronounced phonon effect originates from the pola......We show theoretically that the non-Markovian nature of the carrier-phonon interaction influences the dynamical properties of a semiconductor cavity QED system considerably, leading to asymmetries with respect to detuning in carrier lifetimes. This pronounced phonon effect originates from...

  18. Two-channel interaction models in cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.

    1993-01-01

    The authors introduce four fully quantized models of light-matter interactions in optical or microwave cavities. These are the first exactly soluble models in cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) that provide two transition channels for the flipping of atomic states. In these models a loss-free cavity is assumed to support three or four quantized field modes, which are coupled to a single atom. The atom exchanges photons with the cavity, in either the Raman configuration including both Stokes and anti-Stokes modes, or through two-photon cascade processes. The authors obtain the effective Hamiltonians for these models by adiabatically eliminating an off-resonant intermediate atomic level, and discuss their novel properties in comparison to the existing one-channel Jaynes-Cummings models. They give a detailed description of a method to find exact analytic solutions for the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for the Hamiltonians of four models. These are also valid when the AC Stark shifts are included. It is shown that the eigenvalues can be expressed in very simple terms, and formulas for normalized eigenvectors are also given, as well as discussions of some of their simple properties. Heisenberg picture equations of motions are derived for several operators with solutions provided in a couple of cases. The dynamics of the systems with both Fock state and coherent state fields are demonstrated and discussed using the model's two key variables, the atomic inversion and the expectation value of photon number. Clear evidences of high efficiency mode-mixing are seen in both the Raman and cascade configurations, and different kinds of collapses and revivals are encountered in the atomic inversions. Effects of several factors like the AC Stark shift and variations in the complex coupling constants are also illustrated

  19. Analysis and Revision of Secure Quantum Dialogue via Cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Han-Wu

    2017-07-01

    It is found that there is the information leakage problem in the secure quantum dialogue (QD) protocol via cavity QED [Int J Theor Phys 54(3):772-779 (2015)]. To be specific, one out of the four bits about the secret messages is leaked out. Finally, an improved QD protocol without information leakage is put forward. It is sincerely hoped that researchers pay more attention to the information leakage problem in quantum secure communication to design truly secure protocols.

  20. On the phase transition of light in cavity QED lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, Marco; Bordyuh, Mykola; Oztop, Baris; Tureci, Hakan

    2013-03-01

    Systems of strongly interacting atoms and photons, that can be realized wiring up individual cavity QED systems into lattices, are perceived as a new platform for quantum simulation. While sharing important properties with other systems of interacting quantum particles here we argue that the nature of light-matter interaction gives rise to unique features with no analogs in condensed matter or atomic physics setups. By discussing the physics of a lattice model of delocalized photons coupled locally with two-level systems through the elementary light-matter interaction described by the Rabi model, we argue that the inclusion of counter rotating terms, so far neglected, is crucial to stabilize finite-density quantum phases of correlated photons out of the vacuum, with no need for an artificially engineered chemical potential. We show that the competition between photon delocalization and Rabi non-linearity drives the system across a novel Z2 parity symmetry-breaking quantum criticality between two gapped phases which shares similarities with the Dicke transition of quantum optics and the Ising critical point of quantum magnetism. We discuss the phase diagram as well as the low-energy excitation spectrum and present analytic estimates for critical quantities.

  1. Phase Transition of Light in Cavity QED Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiró, M.; Bordyuh, M.; Öztop, B.; Türeci, H. E.

    2012-08-01

    Systems of strongly interacting atoms and photons, which can be realized wiring up individual cavity QED systems into lattices, are perceived as a new platform for quantum simulation. While sharing important properties with other systems of interacting quantum particles, here we argue that the nature of light-matter interaction gives rise to unique features with no analogs in condensed matter or atomic physics setups. By discussing the physics of a lattice model of delocalized photons coupled locally with two-level systems through the elementary light-matter interaction described by the Rabi model, we argue that the inclusion of counterrotating terms, so far neglected, is crucial to stabilize finite-density quantum phases of correlated photons out of the vacuum, with no need for an artificially engineered chemical potential. We show that the competition between photon delocalization and Rabi nonlinearity drives the system across a novel Z2 parity symmetry-breaking quantum criticality between two gapped phases that share similarities with the Dicke transition of quantum optics and the Ising critical point of quantum magnetism. We discuss the phase diagram as well as the low-energy excitation spectrum and present analytic estimates for critical quantities.

  2. Multipartite quantum correlations among atoms in QED cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batle, J.; Farouk, A.; Tarawneh, O.; Abdalla, S.

    2018-02-01

    We study the nonlocality dynamics for two models of atoms in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED); the first model contains atoms in a single cavity undergoing nearest-neighbor interactions with no initial correlation, and the second contains atoms confined in n different and noninteracting cavities, all of which were initially prepared in a maximally correlated state of n qubits corresponding to the atomic degrees of freedom. The nonlocality evolution of the states in the second model shows that the corresponding maximal violation of a multipartite Bell inequality exhibits revivals at precise times, defining, nonlocality sudden deaths and nonlocality sudden rebirths, in analogy with entanglement. These quantum correlations are provided analytically for the second model to make the study more thorough. Differences in the first model regarding whether the array of atoms inside the cavity is arranged in a periodic or open fashion are crucial to the generation or redistribution of quantum correlations. This contribution paves the way to using the nonlocality multipartite correlation measure for describing the collective complex behavior displayed by slightly interacting cavity QED arrays.

  3. Quantum networks based on cavity QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, Stephan; Bochmann, Joerg; Figueroa, Eden; Hahn, Carolin; Kalb, Norbert; Muecke, Martin; Neuzner, Andreas; Noelleke, Christian; Reiserer, Andreas; Uphoff, Manuel; Rempe, Gerhard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Quantum repeaters require an efficient interface between stationary quantum memories and flying photons. Single atoms in optical cavities are ideally suited as universal quantum network nodes that are capable of sending, storing, retrieving, and even processing quantum information. We demonstrate this by presenting an elementary version of a quantum network based on two identical nodes in remote, independent laboratories. The reversible exchange of quantum information and the creation of remote entanglement are achieved by exchange of a single photon. Quantum teleportation is implemented using a time-resolved photonic Bell-state measurement. Quantum control over all degrees of freedom of the single atom also allows for the nondestructive detection of flying photons and the implementation of a quantum gate between the spin state of the atom and the polarization of a photon upon its reflection from the cavity. Our approach to quantum networking offers a clear perspective for scalability and provides the essential components for the realization of a quantum repeater.

  4. Understanding cavity QED effects from cavity classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, M.M.; Kort-Kamp, W.J.M.; Farina, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Our work intends to show how cavity classical electrodynamics can be used for achieving results with direct quantum analogues. It is shown how the classical interaction between a real radiating electric dipole and a perfectly-conducting surface can be used to obtain information about some cavity quantum electrodynamics effects related to radiative properties of atomic systems. Based on the case of an oscillating electric dipole (a classical representation of an excited atom) in front of a perfectly-conducting sphere, two main physical quantities can be computed, the classical dipole frequency shift and the change in the rate of energy loss from radiation reaction, both due to the presence of the sphere. The link from classical to quantum can be made via interpreting, for example, the dipole frequency as the atom's dominant transition frequency. The frequency shift due to the sphere can be related through E = (h/2π) to the energy shift of the system, i.e., the dispersive interaction between the atom and the sphere; while the change in energy loss can be related to the alteration of the atom's spontaneous emission due to the sphere. The amazing result is that this classical method, once corresponded classical quantities to quantum ones such as exemplified above with frequency, can predict the two above-mentioned quantum effects analytically with the correct functional dependencies on all geometric and atomic parameters, being off only by a constant pre factor. (author)

  5. Tunable-Range, Photon-Mediated Atomic Interactions in Multimode Cavity QED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun D. Vaidya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical cavity QED provides a platform with which to explore quantum many-body physics in driven-dissipative systems. Single-mode cavities provide strong, infinite-range photon-mediated interactions among intracavity atoms. However, these global all-to-all couplings are limiting from the perspective of exploring quantum many-body physics beyond the mean-field approximation. The present work demonstrates that local couplings can be created using multimode cavity QED. This is established through measurements of the threshold of a superradiant, self-organization phase transition versus atomic position. Specifically, we experimentally show that the interference of near-degenerate cavity modes leads to both a strong and tunable-range interaction between Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs trapped within the cavity. We exploit the symmetry of a confocal cavity to measure the interaction between real BECs and their virtual images without unwanted contributions arising from the merger of real BECs. Atom-atom coupling may be tuned from short range to long range. This capability paves the way toward future explorations of exotic, strongly correlated systems such as quantum liquid crystals and driven-dissipative spin glasses.

  6. Continuous pumping and control of mesoscopic superposition state in a lossy QED cavity

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, M. C.; Moussa, M. H. Y.; Mizrahi, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    Here we consider the continuous pumping of a dissipative QED cavity and derive the time-dependent density operator of the cavity field prepared initially as a superposition of mesoscopic coherent states. The control of the coherence of this superposition is analyzed considering the injection of a beam of two-level Rydberg atoms through the cavity. Our treatment is compared to other approaches.

  7. Scheme for the implementation of a universal quantum cloning machine via cavity-assisted atomic collisions in cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xubo; Pahlke, K.; Mathis, W.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme to implement the 1→2 universal quantum cloning machine of Buzek and Hillery [Phys. Rev. A 54, 1844 (1996)] in the context of cavity QED. The scheme requires cavity-assisted collision processes between atoms, which cross through nonresonant cavity fields in the vacuum states. The cavity fields are only virtually excited to face the decoherence problem. That's why the requirements on the cavity quality factor can be loosened

  8. Implementation of quantum partial search with superconducting quantum interference device qudits in cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong-Yi; Wu Chun-Wang; Chen Yu-Bo; Lin Yuan-Gen; Chen Ping-Xing; Li Cheng-Zu

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to implement the quantum partial search of the database separated into any number of blocks with qudits, D-level quantum systems. Compared with the partial search using qubits, our method needs fewer iteration steps and uses the carriers of the information more economically. To illustrate how to realize the idea with concrete physical systems, we propose a scheme to carry out a twelve-dimensional partial search of the database partitioned into three blocks with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) in cavity QED. Through the appropriate modulation of the amplitudes of the microwave pulses, the scheme can overcome the non-identity of the cavity—SQUID coupling strengths due to the parameter variations resulting from the fabrication processes. Numerical simulation under the influence of the cavity and SQUID decays shows that the scheme could be achieved efficiently within current state-of-the-art technology

  9. Cavity QED with hybrid nanocircuits: from atomic-like physics to condensed matter phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Audrey; Dartiailh, Matthieu C.; Desjardins, Matthieu M.; Cubaynes, Tino; Contamin, Lauriane C.; Delbecq, Matthieu; Viennot, Jérémie J.; Bruhat, Laure E.; Douçot, Benoit; Kontos, Takis

    2017-11-01

    Circuit QED techniques have been instrumental in manipulating and probing with exquisite sensitivity the quantum state of superconducting quantum bits coupled to microwave cavities. Recently, it has become possible to fabricate new devices in which the superconducting quantum bits are replaced by hybrid mesoscopic circuits combining nanoconductors and metallic reservoirs. This mesoscopic QED provides a new experimental playground to study the light–matter interaction in electronic circuits. Here, we present the experimental state of the art of mesoscopic QED and its theoretical description. A first class of experiments focuses on the artificial atom limit, where some quasiparticles are trapped in nanocircuit bound states. In this limit, the circuit QED techniques can be used to manipulate and probe electronic degrees of freedom such as confined charges, spins, or Andreev pairs. A second class of experiments uses cavity photons to reveal the dynamics of electron tunneling between a nanoconductor and fermionic reservoirs. For instance, the Kondo effect, the charge relaxation caused by grounded metallic contacts, and the photo-emission caused by voltage-biased reservoirs have been studied. The tunnel coupling between nanoconductors and fermionic reservoirs also enable one to obtain split Cooper pairs, or Majorana bound states. Cavity photons represent a qualitatively new tool to study these exotic condensed matter states.

  10. Photon routing in cavity QED: Beyond the fundamental limit of photon blockade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblum, Serge; Dayan, Barak [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Parkins, Scott [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2011-09-15

    The most simple and seemingly straightforward application of the photon blockade effect, in which the transport of one photon prevents the transport of others, would be to separate two incoming indistinguishable photons to different output ports. We show that time-energy uncertainty relations inherently prevent this ideal situation when the blockade is implemented by a two-level system. The fundamental nature of this limit is revealed in the fact that photon blockade in the strong coupling regime of cavity QED, resulting from the nonlinearity of the Jaynes-Cummings energy level structure, exhibits efficiency and temporal behavior identical to those of photon blockade in the bad cavity regime, where the underlying nonlinearity is that of the atom itself. We demonstrate that this limit can be exceeded, yet not avoided, by exploiting time-energy entanglement between the incident photons. Finally, we show how this limit can be circumvented completely by using a three-level atom coupled to a single-sided cavity, enabling an ideal and robust photon routing mechanism.

  11. Experiments on a three mode circuit QED system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmair, Gerhard; Vlastakis, Brian; Paik, Hanhee; Nigg, Simon; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, Steven; Devoret, Michel; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Current research in superconducting circuit QED is working towards combining an increasing number of cavities and qubits to investigate larger scale quantum systems. Here we will discuss measurements on a system consisting of two three-dimensional microwave resonators coupled to a single transmon qubit. We demonstrate that each mode of the system has sufficient anharmonicity to coherently manipulate the state of the lowest two energy levels. This allows us to measure the coherence of a single excitation in a mode and detect the frequency shift due to excitations of the other modes. These effects are important to consider when using a resonator as a quantum memory to decouple the quantum state from the rest of the system. Furthermore we show that we can use the state dependent shifts to detect the quantum state of one mode with another. The full characterization of the system allows us to determine the Hamiltonian and compare it to the theoretical predictions obtained with a nonlinear circuit QED model.

  12. Novel High Cooperativity Photon-Magnon Cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Michael; Bourhill, Jeremy; Kostylev, Nikita; G, Maxim; Creedon, Daniel

    Novel microwave cavities are presented, which couple photons and magnons in YIG spheres in a super- and ultra-strong way at around 20 mK in temperature. Few/Single photon couplings (or normal mode splitting, 2g) of more than 6 GHz at microwave frequencies are obtained. Types of cavities include multiple post reentrant cavities, which co-couple photons at different frequencies with a coupling greater that the free spectral range, as well as spherical loaded dielectric cavity resonators. In such cavities we show that the bare dielectric properties can be obtained by polarizing all magnon modes to high energy using a 7 Tesla magnet. We also show that at zero-field, collective effects of the spins significantly perturb the photon modes. Other effects like time-reversal symmetry breaking are observed.

  13. Realization of Arbitrary Positive-Operator-Value Measurement of Single Atomic Qubit via Cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han; Wei, Wu; Chun-Wang, Wu; Hong-Yi, Dai; Cheng-Zu, Li

    2008-01-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given

  14. Realization of arbitrary positive-operator-value measurement of single atomic qubit via cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yang; Wu Wei; Wu Chunwang; Dai Hongyi; Li Chengzu

    2008-01-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given. (authors)

  15. Realization of Arbitrary Positive-Operator-Value Measurement of Single Atomic Qubit via Cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Chun-Wang; Dai, Hong-Yi; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2008-12-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given.

  16. Bloch-wave engineered submicron-diameter quantum-dot micropillars for cavity QED experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Lermer, Matthias; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The semiconductor micropillar is attractive for cavity QED experiments. For strong coupling, the figure of merit is proportional to Q/√V, and a design combining a high Q and a low mode volume V is thus desired. However, for the standard submicron diameter design, poor mode matching between the ca...... the cavity and the DBR Bloch mode limits the Q. We present a novel adiabatic design where Bloch-wave engineering is employed to improve the mode matching, allowing the demonstration of a record-high vacuum Rabi splitting of 85 μeV and a Q of 13600 for a 850 nm diameter micropillar....

  17. Strong Coupling Cavity QED with Gate-Defined Double Quantum Dots Enabled by a High Impedance Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stockklauser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The strong coupling limit of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED implies the capability of a matterlike quantum system to coherently transform an individual excitation into a single photon within a resonant structure. This not only enables essential processes required for quantum information processing but also allows for fundamental studies of matter-light interaction. In this work, we demonstrate strong coupling between the charge degree of freedom in a gate-defined GaAs double quantum dot (DQD and a frequency-tunable high impedance resonator realized using an array of superconducting quantum interference devices. In the resonant regime, we resolve the vacuum Rabi mode splitting of size 2g/2π=238  MHz at a resonator linewidth κ/2π=12  MHz and a DQD charge qubit decoherence rate of γ_{2}/2π=40  MHz extracted independently from microwave spectroscopy in the dispersive regime. Our measurements indicate a viable path towards using circuit-based cavity QED for quantum information processing in semiconductor nanostructures.

  18. Characterization of coherent population-trapped states in a circuit-QED Λ system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratne, Shavindra P.; Wellstood, F. C.; Palmer, B. S.

    2017-10-01

    We examine coherent population trapping in a circuit-QED system consisting of an Al/AlOx/Al transmon qubit embedded in an Al three-dimensional cavity. By engineering the dissipation rate of the cavity to be much larger than that of the qubit and continuously pumping a two-photon process to an excited state of the cavity-qubit system, we are able to invert the population into the qubit excited state with a fidelity of 94%. Applying a second continuous drive tone at the dressed cavity frequency forms an effective Λ system and enables us to coherently trap the system in a dark state formed from a superposition of the excited and ground states of the qubit. By performing quantum state tomography we demonstrate that the position of the dark state on the Bloch sphere can be controlled by changing the relative amplitudes and phases of the two drives.

  19. Influence from cavity decay on geometric quantum computation in the large-detuning cavity QED model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changyong; Zhang Xiaolong; Deng Zhijiao; Gao Kelin; Feng Mang

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a general displacement operator to investigate the unconventional geometric quantum computation with dissipation under the model of many identical three-level atoms in a cavity, driven by a classical field. Our concrete calculation is made for the case of two atoms, based on a previous scheme [S.-B. Zheng, Phys. Rev. A 70, 052320 (2004)] for the large-detuning interaction of the atoms with the cavity mode. The analytical results we present will be helpful for experimental realization of geometric quantum computation in real cavities

  20. Remote Three-Party Quantum State Sharing Based on Three-Atom Entangled States Assisted by Cavity QED and Flying Qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tiejun; Deng Fuguo

    2011-01-01

    We present a remote three-party quantum state sharing (QSTS) scheme with three-atom Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states assisted by cavity QED and flying qubits. It exploits some photons to act as the flying qubits for setting up the quantum channel securely with three-atom systems in a GHZ state, which maybe make this remote QSTS scheme more practical than some other schemes based on atom systems only or ion-trap systems as photons interact with their environments weakly. The coherence of the stationary atom qubits in cavities provides the convenience for the parties in QSTS to check eavesdropping, different from entangled photon systems. Moreover, the present scheme works in a collective-noise condition and it may be more practical than others in applications in future. (general)

  1. Output field-quadrature measurements and squeezing in ultrastrong cavity-QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassi, Roberto; Savasta, Salvatore; Garziano, Luigi; Spagnolo, Bernardo; Nori, Franco

    2016-12-01

    We study the squeezing of output quadratures of an electro-magnetic field escaping from a resonator coupled to a general quantum system with arbitrary interaction strengths. The generalized theoretical analysis of output squeezing proposed here is valid for all the interaction regimes of cavity-quantum electrodynamics: from the weak to the strong, ultrastrong, and deep coupling regimes. For coupling rates comparable or larger then the cavity resonance frequency, the standard input-output theory for optical cavities fails to calculate the variance of output field-quadratures and predicts a non-negligible amount of output squeezing, even if the system is in its ground state. Here we show that, for arbitrary interaction strength and for general cavity-embedded quantum systems, no squeezing can be found in the output-field quadratures if the system is in its ground state. We also apply the proposed theoretical approach to study the output squeezing produced by: (i) an artificial two-level atom embedded in a coherently-excited cavity; and (ii) a cascade-type three-level system interacting with a cavity field mode. In the latter case the output squeezing arises from the virtual photons of the atom-cavity dressed states. This work extends the possibility of predicting and analyzing the results of continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography when optical resonators interact very strongly with other quantum systems.

  2. Enhancing Quantum Discord in Cavity QED by Applying Classical Driving Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yi; Xu Jing-Bo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the quantum discord dynamics in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system, which consists of two noninteracting two-level atoms driven by independent optical fields and classical fields, and find that the quantum discord vanishes only asymptotically although entanglement disappears suddenly during the time evolution in the absence of classical fields. It is shown that the amount of quantum discord can be increased by adjusting the classical driving fields because the increasing degree of the amount of quantum mutual information is greater than classical correlation by applying the classical driving fields. Finally, the influence of the classical driving field on the fidelity of the system is also examined. (general)

  3. Density Operator Description of Atomic Ordered Spatial Modes in Cavity QED

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Zhen; Yang, Baoguo; Chen, Xuzong; Zhou, Xiaoji

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantum Monte-Carlo simulation for a pumped atom in a strong coupling cavity with dissipation, where two ordered spatial modes are formed for the atomic probability density, with the peaks distributed either only in the odd sites or only in the even ones of the lattice formed by the cavity field. A mixed state density operator model, which describes the coupling between different atomic spatial modes and the corresponding cavity field components, is proposed, which goes beyond th...

  4. High-Q submicron-diameter quantum-dot microcavity pillars for cavity QED experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Lermer, Matthias; Dunzer, Florian

    As/AlAs micropillar design where Bloch-wave engineering is employed to significally enhance the cavity mode confinement in the submicron diameter regime. We demonstrate a record-high vacuum Rabi splitting of 85 µeV of the strong coupling for pillars incorporating quantum dots with modest oscillator strength f ≈ 10....... It is well-known that light-matter interaction depends on the photonic environment, and thus proper engineering of the optical mode in microcavity systems is central to obtaining the desired functionality. In the strong coupling regime, the visibility of the Rabi splitting is described by the light...... coupling in micropillars relied on quantum dots with high oscillator strengths f > 50, our advanced design allows for the observation of strong coupling for submicron diameter quantum dot-pillars with standard f ≈ 10 oscillator strength. A quality factor of 13600 and a vacuum Rabi splitting of 85 µe...

  5. Dipole-dipole interaction in cavity QED: The weak-coupling, nondegenerate regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaire, M.; Muñoz-Castañeda, J. M.; Nieto, L. M.

    2017-10-01

    We compute the energies of the interaction between two atoms placed in the middle of a perfectly reflecting planar cavity, in the weak-coupling nondegenerate regime. Both inhibition and enhancement of the interactions can be obtained by varying the size of the cavity. We derive exact expressions for the dyadic Green's function of the cavity field which mediates the interactions and apply time-dependent quantum perturbation theory in the adiabatic approximation. We provide explicit expressions for the van der Waals potentials of two polarizable atomic dipoles and the electrostatic potential of two induced dipoles. We compute the van der Waals potentials in three different scenarios: two atoms in their ground states, two atoms excited, and two dissimilar atoms with one of them excited. In addition, we calculate the phase-shift rate of the two-atom wave function in each case. The effect of the two-dimensional confinement of the electromagnetic field on the dipole-dipole interactions is analyzed. This effect depends on the atomic polarization. For dipole moments oriented parallel to the cavity plates, both the electrostatic and the van der Waals interactions are exponentially suppressed for values of the cavity width much less than the interatomic distance, whereas for values of the width close to the interatomic distance, the strength of both interactions is higher than their values in the absence of cavity. For dipole moments perpendicular to the plates, the strength of the van der Waals interaction decreases for values of the cavity width close to the interatomic distance, while it increases for values of the width much less than the interatomic distance with respect to its strength in the absence of cavity. We illustrate these effects by computing the dipole-dipole interactions between two alkali atoms in circular Rydberg states.

  6. Microscopic theory of phonon-induced effects on semiconductor quantum dot decay dynamics in cavity QED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, P.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the electron-phonon interaction on the decay dynamics of a quantum dot coupled to an optical microcavity. We show that the electron-phonon interaction has important consequences on the dynamics, especially when the quantum dot and cavity are tuned out of resonance...

  7. Nondestructive cavity QED probe of Bloch oscillations in a gas of ultracold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, B. M.; Meiser, D.; Holland, M. J.; Chiofalo, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a scheme for probing a gas of ultracold atoms trapped in an optical lattice and moving in the presence of an external potential. The probe is nondestructive and uses the existing lattice fields as the measurement device. Two counterpropagating cavity fields simultaneously set up a conservative lattice potential and a weak quantum probe of the atomic motion. Balanced heterodyne detection of the probe field at the cavity output along with integration in time and across the atomic cloud yield information about the atomic dynamics in a single run. The scheme is applied to a measurement of the Bloch oscillation frequency for atoms moving in the presence of the local gravitational potential. Signal-to-noise ratios are estimated to be as high as 10 4 .

  8. From strong to ultrastrong coupling in circuit QED architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemczyk, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The field of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) studies the interaction between light and matter on a fundamental level: a single atom interacts with a single photon. If the atom-photon coupling is larger than any dissipative effects, the system enters the strong-coupling limit. A peculiarity of this regime is the possibility to form coherent superpositions of light and matter excitations - a kind of 'molecule' consisting of an atomic and a photonic contribution. The novel research field of circuit QED extends cavity QED concepts to solid-state based system. Here, a superconducting quantum bit is coupled to an on-chip superconducting one-dimensional waveguide resonator. Owing to the small mode-volume of the resonant cavity, the large dipole moment of the 'artificial atom' and the enormous engineering potential inherent to superconducting quantum circuits, remarkable atom-photon coupling strengths can be realized. This thesis describes the theoretical framework, the development of fabrication techniques and the implementation of experimental characterization techniques for superconducting quantum circuits for circuit QED applications. In particular, we study the interaction between superconducting flux quantum bits and high-quality coplanar waveguide resonators in the strong-coupling limit. Furthermore, we report on the first experimental realization of a circuit QED system operating in the ultrastrong-coupling regime, where the atom-photon coupling rate reaches a considerable fraction of the relevant system frequencies. In these experiments we could observe phenomena that can not be explained within the renowned Jaynes-Cummings model. (orig.)

  9. Genuine entanglement among coherent excitonic states of three quantum dots located individually in separated coupled QED cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Naghi; Ahansaz, Bahram; Shojaei, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    New scheme for generating genuine three-partite entanglement among three quantum dots (QDs) is proposed. The QDs are trapped in an one-dimensional (1D) array of three equidistance single-mode coupled cavities. Photon hopping is considered to be responsible for coupling between the cavities. The effective dynamics of the system leads to generate genuine three-partite entangled coherent excitonic states in QDs. The entanglement of these states, after encoding as three-qubit system, can be detected by entanglement witnesses (EWs) based on GHZ-states. It is shown that the generated entangled states can be arbitrarily very close to the GHZ-states.

  10. Cavity QED experiments with a whispering-gallery-mode bottle resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, D.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of a two-level atom with a single mode of the quantized electromagnetic field constitutes one of the most fundamental systems investigated in quantum optics. We have pursued such an investigation where rubidium atoms are strongly coupled to the modes of a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonator that is itself interfaced with an optical fiber. In order to facilitate studies of this atom-light interaction, an experimental apparatus was constructed around a novel type of WGM resonator developed in our group. The spectral and spatial mode structure of this resonator yield an intriguing atom-light response arising principally from the existence of two frequency-degenerate modes. This thesis reports on high resolution experiments studying the transmission and reflection spectra of modes with a high quality factor (Q=10 7 -10 8 ) in our WGM resonator. Light is coupled into and out of WGMs by frustrated total internal reflection using an optical nanofiber. The atom-light interaction is facilitated by an atomic fountain that delivers a cloud of atoms to the location of the resonator. At random moments, single-atoms are clearly observed transiting the evanescent field of the resonator modes with a transit time of a few microseconds. A high-speed experimental control system was developed to firstly detect the coupling of individual atoms to the resonator and secondly to perform time-resolved spectroscopy on the strongly coupled atom-resonator system. Spectral measurements clearly resolve an atom-induced change in the resonant transmission of the coupled system (65% absolute change) that is much larger than predicted in the standard Jaynes-Cummings model (25% absolute change) and that has thus far not been observed. To gain further insight, we experimentally explored the properties of the interaction and performed supporting simulations. Spectroscopy was performed on the atom-resonator system using two nanofibers to in- and out-couple light for probing

  11. From strong to ultrastrong coupling in circuit QED architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczyk, Thomas

    2011-08-10

    The field of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) studies the interaction between light and matter on a fundamental level: a single atom interacts with a single photon. If the atom-photon coupling is larger than any dissipative effects, the system enters the strong-coupling limit. A peculiarity of this regime is the possibility to form coherent superpositions of light and matter excitations - a kind of 'molecule' consisting of an atomic and a photonic contribution. The novel research field of circuit QED extends cavity QED concepts to solid-state based system. Here, a superconducting quantum bit is coupled to an on-chip superconducting one-dimensional waveguide resonator. Owing to the small mode-volume of the resonant cavity, the large dipole moment of the 'artificial atom' and the enormous engineering potential inherent to superconducting quantum circuits, remarkable atom-photon coupling strengths can be realized. This thesis describes the theoretical framework, the development of fabrication techniques and the implementation of experimental characterization techniques for superconducting quantum circuits for circuit QED applications. In particular, we study the interaction between superconducting flux quantum bits and high-quality coplanar waveguide resonators in the strong-coupling limit. Furthermore, we report on the first experimental realization of a circuit QED system operating in the ultrastrong-coupling regime, where the atom-photon coupling rate reaches a considerable fraction of the relevant system frequencies. In these experiments we could observe phenomena that can not be explained within the renowned Jaynes-Cummings model. (orig.)

  12. PREFACE: Heavy-Ion Spectroscopy and QED Effects in Atomic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Ingvar; Martinson, Indrek; Schuch, Reinhold

    1993-01-01

    Experimental studies of heavy and highly charged ions have made remarkable progress in recent years. Today it is possible to produce virtually any ion up to hydrogen-like uranium; to study collisions of those ions with atoms, electrons, and solid surfaces; to excite such an ion and accurately measure the radiation emitted. This progress is largely due to the development of new experimental methods, for instance, the high-energy ion accelerators, laser-produced plasmas, advanced ion sources and ion traps (such as EBIS, EBIT, ECR, etc.), high temperature magnetically confined plasmas and heavy-ion storage rings. The motivations for studies of collisions with highly charged ions and for the understanding of the structure of heavy atomic systems are multi-faceted. Besides of the basic scientific aspects which are mainly the subject of this symposium, much incentive is experienced by applications, e.g., the interpretation of spectra from space (solar corona, solar flares and hot stars), the modelling of stellar atmospheres, the diagnostics of fusion plasma impurities, and the development of X-ray lasers. Since quite some time highly charged ions play a key role for high-precision metrology of atomic structure. These studies have been benchmarks for tests of advanced theories, including many-body theories of interelectronic correlations, relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic (QED) effects, effects due to the finite size of the nucleus and to parity non-conservation (PNC). The interest in QED effects in heavy ions has increased drastically in the last few years. The remarkable experiment on Li-like uranium, recently reported from Berkeley, has stimulated several groups to perform very accurate Lamb-shift calculations on such systems, and reports from three groups were given about such work. The agreement between the calculations as well as with experiment was generally very good, which implies that the problem of evaluating the first-order Lamb shift for any element is

  13. High-Q AlAs/GaAs adiabatic micropillar cavities with submicron diameters for cQED experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lermer, M.; Gregersen, Niels; Dunzer, F.

    microcavity design [1, 2]. To overcome the trade-off between high Q and low Vmode, we designed and implemented a novel adiabatic AlAs/GaAs cavity design (MC1) with 3 taper segments (Fig. 1 (a)) as it was suggested by Zhang et al. for SiO2/TiO2 micropillar cavities [3]. Comparative measurements of the Q factor...

  14. QED revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We perform the stochastic quantization of scalar as well as of fermionic QED based on a generalization of the stochastic gauge fixing scheme and its geometrical interpretation. It is shown that the stochastic quantization scheme agrees exactly with the usual path integral formulation. (author)

  15. Conduction cooling systems for linear accelerator cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Robert

    2017-05-02

    A conduction cooling system for linear accelerator cavities. The system conducts heat from the cavities to a refrigeration unit using at least one cavity cooler interconnected with a cooling connector. The cavity cooler and cooling connector are both made from solid material having a very high thermal conductivity of approximately 1.times.10.sup.4 W m.sup.-1 K.sup.-1 at temperatures of approximately 4 degrees K. This allows for very simple and effective conduction of waste heat from the linear accelerator cavities to the cavity cooler, along the cooling connector, and thence to the refrigeration unit.

  16. Schrodinger Cat States in Circuit QED

    OpenAIRE

    Girvin, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Circuit quantum electrodynamics ('circuit QED') describes the quantum mechanics and quantum field theory of superconducting electrical circuits operating in the microwave regime near absolute zero temperature. It is the analog of cavity QED in quantum optics with the role of the atoms being played by superconducting qubits. The present lecture notes focus primarily on novel quantum states that can be produced and measured using the strong coupling between an artificial atom and one or more ca...

  17. Simple scheme for information transfer of a qutrit in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Li; Su, Qi-Ping; Yang, Chui-Ping

    2017-07-01

    We propose a simple scheme for quantum state transfer between two qutrits in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). Other than the two qutrits, only one coupling cavity is adopted, and there is no requirement for a classical pulse or measurement. In the whole process, the cavity is virtually excited so that the decoherence caused by photon leakage of the cavity can be greatly suppressed. Numerical simulation shows that high fidelities (˜0.984 on average) can be achieved with present circuit QED technology, in which a low quality factor (Q≈4.1×104) for the cavity has been adopted. Due to its simplicity, this scheme is quite general and can be applied to other quantum systems.

  18. Non-markovian model of photon-assisted dephasing by electron-phonon interactions in a coupled quantum-dot-cavity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    treatments. A pronounced consequence is the emergence of a phonon induced spectral asymmetry when detuning the cavity from the quantum-dot resonance. The asymmetry can only be explained when considering the polaritonic quasiparticle nature of the quantum-dot-cavity system. Furthermore, a temperature induced......We investigate the influence of electron-phonon interactions on the dynamical properties of a quantum-dot-cavity QED system. We show that non-Markovian effects in the phonon reservoir lead to strong changes in the dynamics, arising from photon-assisted dephasing processes, not present in Markovian...

  19. Some experience in applying the REDUCE algebraic system to the calculation of scattering processes in QED and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohring, H.J.; Schiller, A.

    1980-01-01

    The problems arising in the use of the REDUCE algebraic system for calculating traces of the Dirac matrix products describing scattering processes in quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are considered. Application of the REDUCE system for describing two-photon processes in e + e - reactions is discussed. An example of using the REDUCE system for calculating matrix elements of elementary processes of hard scattering is described. The calculations were performed by means of the REDUCE2 version on an EC1040 computer. The computations take almost 10 minutes of machine time and computer storage capacity of abo t 800 kiuobites

  20. Design of the ILC Crab Cavity System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphsen, C.; Beard, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Burt, G.; Carter, R.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Dexter, A.; Dykes, M.; Edwards, H.; Goudket, P; Jenkins, R.; Jones, R.M.; Kalinin,; Khabiboulline, T.; Ko, K.; Latina, A.; Li, Z.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Ng, C.; /SLAC /Daresbury /Fermilab /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /CERN

    2007-08-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) has a 14 mrad crossing angle in order to aid extraction of spent bunches. As a result of the bunch shape at the interaction point, this crossing angle at the collision causes a large luminosity loss which can be recovered by rotating the bunches prior to collision using a crab cavity. The ILC baseline crab cavity is a 9-cell superconducting dipole cavity operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz. In this paper the design of the ILC crab cavity and its phase control system, as selected for the RDR in February 2007 is described in fuller detail.

  1. Circuit QED scheme for realization of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme in which the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model is realized within a circuit QED system. An array of N superconducting qubits interacts with a driven cavity mode. In the dispersive regime, the cavity mode is adiabatically eliminated generating an effective model for the qubits alone. The characteristic long-range order of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model is here mediated by the cavity field. For a closed qubit system, the inherent second order phase transition of the qubits is refle...

  2. The CEBAF separator cavity resonance control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wissmann; C. Hovater; A. Guerra; T. Plawski

    2005-01-01

    The CEBAF energy upgrade will increase the maximum beam energy from 6 GeV to 12 GeV available to the experimental halls. RF deflection cavities (separators) are used to direct the electron beam to the three halls. The resulting increase in RF separator cavity gradient and subsequent increase in RF power needed for these higher energies will require the cavities to have active resonance control. Currently, at the present 4 to 6 GeV energies, the cavities are tuned mechanically and then stabilized with Low Conductivity Water (LCW) which is maintained at a constant temperature of 95 Fahrenheit. This approach is no longer feasible and an active resonance control system that controls both water temperature and flow has been designed and built. The system uses a commercial PLC with embedded PID controls to regulate water temperature and flow to the cavities. The system allows the operator to remotely adjust temperature/flow and consequently cavity resonance for the full range of beam energies. Ultimately, closed loop control will be maintained by monitoring each cavity's reflected power. This paper describes this system

  3. Engineering interactions between long-lived cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yvonne; Rosenblum, Serge; Reinhold, Philip; Wang, Chen; Axline, Christopher; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, Steven M.; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, Michel H.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.

    The availability of large Hilbert dimensions and outstanding coherence properties make superconducting cavities promising systems for storing quantum information. Recent experiments in cQED has demonstrated that redundantly encoding logical qubits in such cavities is a hardware-efficient approach toward error-correctable quantum memories. In order to tap into the power of these protected memories for quantum information processing, robust inter-cavity operations are required. A simple way to realise such operations between two cavities is using the non-linearity of the Josephson junction. To do so, we adopt a multi-cavity architecture where a fixed-frequency, single junction transmon simultaneously couples to two highly coherent 3D cavities. Using only external RF drives, we demonstrate transmon-cavity as well as cavity-cavity SWAP operations and show that such interactions are essential building blocks for implementing multi-cavity conditional logics.

  4. Quasiparadoxes of massless QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilga, A.V.

    1990-04-01

    We show that the limit m e =0 in the conventional QED is not smooth. In contrast to the massless QED the massive QED, however small the mass is, involves finite probability chirality breaking processes. The chirality breaking effects may be observed provided the size of experimental installation is greater than the formation length ∼ E/m 2 . We discuss also the finite cross sections of virtual longitudinal photon production and scattering in massless QED recently found by Gorsky, Ioffe and Khodjamirian and argue that real longitudinal photons do not interact while the limit of zero virtuality is not smooth. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs

  5. The CEBAF Separator Cavity Resonance Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Wissmann, Mark J; Hovater, Curt; Plawski, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The CEBAF energy upgrade from 6 GeV to 12GeV will increase the range of beam energies available to the experimental halls. RF deflection cavities (separators) are used to direct the electron beam to the three experimental halls. Consequently with the increase in RF separator cavity gradient needed for the higher energies, RF power will also increase requiring the cavities to have active resonance control. At the 6 GeV energy, the cavities are tuned mechanically and then stabilized with Low Conductivity Water (LCW), which is maintained at constant temperature of 95o Fahrenheit. This is no longer feasible and an active resonance control system, that controls both water temperature and flow has been built. The system uses a commercial PLC with embedded PID controls to control water temperature and flow to the cavities. The system allows the operator to remotely adjust temperature/flow and consequently cavity resonance for the full range of beam energies. Ultimately closed loop control will be maintained by monit...

  6. The role of phonon scattering in the indistinguishability of photons emitted from semiconductor cavity QED systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Gregersen, Niels; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    , we present a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the influence of phonon scattering on the coherence properties of single photons emitted from semiconductor quantum dots. We model decoherence using a full microscopic theory and compare with standard Markovian approximations employing Lindblad-type...

  7. An introduction to QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The lecture concerns quantum electrodynamics (QED), the relativistic quantum theory of electromagnetic interactions. Antiparticles, electrodynamics of spinless particles, the dirac equation and electrodynamics of spin 1/2 particles are discussed in detail. (U.K.)

  8. An architecture for integrating planar and 3D cQED devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axline, C.; Reagor, M.; Heeres, R.; Reinhold, P.; Wang, C.; Shain, K.; Pfaff, W.; Chu, Y.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2016-07-25

    Numerous loss mechanisms can limit coherence and scalability of planar and 3D-based circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) devices, particularly due to their packaging. The low loss and natural isolation of 3D enclosures make them good candidates for coherent scaling. We introduce a coaxial transmission line device architecture with coherence similar to traditional 3D cQED systems. Measurements demonstrate well-controlled external and on-chip couplings, a spectrum absent of cross-talk or spurious modes, and excellent resonator and qubit lifetimes. We integrate a resonator-qubit system in this architecture with a seamless 3D cavity, and separately pattern a qubit, readout resonator, Purcell filter, and high-Q stripline resonator on a single chip. Device coherence and its ease of integration make this a promising tool for complex experiments.

  9. High fidelity all-microwave controlled-phase gate for superconducting qubits by cavity vacuum displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Hanhee; Zhou, D.; Reed, M. D.; Kirchmair, G.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S. M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a new all-microwave controlled phase entangling gate for the superconducting qubits in the three-dimensional circuit QED (3D cQED) architecture. The gate exploits the strong coupling between qubits and a cavity, wherein the cavity frequency dispersively shifts depending on the qubit register state. We off-resonantly displace the cavity vacuum state; each computational state evolves a different phase due to the dispersive coupling, yielding a conditional phase. While designed to exploit the advantages of the 3D cQED architecture, the gate requires only dispersive coupling, making the gate applicable to a wide variety of superconducting qubit architectures. We demonstrate 98% gate fidelity evaluated by quantum process tomography, and will discuss how appropriate choices of system parameters could increase this number and how we could minimize the gate infidelity due to measurement induced dephasing and non-adiabatic gate procedure.

  10. Beyond strong coupling in a massively multimode cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Neereja; Liu, Yanbing; Sadri, Darius; Szocs, Laszlo; Underwood, Devin; Malekakhlagh, Moein; Tureci, Hakan; Houck, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    We present experiments in a new regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED), the multimode strong coupling regime, in which the qubit-cavity coupling is comparable to the free spectral range, thus requiring the collective treatment of all modes along with the qubit. Here we show that this regime is accessible in circuit QED by coupling a 90MHz microwave cavity with a transmon qubit, resonant with the 75th harmonic with a coupling strength exceeding 30MHz. When driving this system, we observe multimode fluorescence consistent with cavity-enhanced sideband emission, with unexpected multi-photon processes and the emergence of ultra-narrow linewidths. This multimode coupling opens the door for a wide range of potential experiments, including studying the manifestation of complex many-body phenomena, the breakdown of the rotating wave approximation, and the bridge between discrete and continuous Hilbert spaces.

  11. Development of oral cavity inspecting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Wu, Di; Jia, Dagong; Zhang, Yimo

    2009-11-01

    An oral cavity inspecting system is designed and developed to inspect the detail of teeth. The inspecting system is composed of microscopic imaging part, illuminating part, image capture and processing, display part. The two groups of cemented lenses were optimized to minimize the optical aberration and the collimated beam light is gotten between the two lenses. A relay lens is adopted to allow the probe to access the oral cavity depth. The illumination optic fiber is used and the brightness and color temperature can be adjustable. The illumination fiber end surface is oblique cut and the optimum angle is 37°. The image of teeth is imaged on CMOS and captured into computer. The illumination intensity and uniformity were tested and the proper parameter is set. Foucault chart was observed and the system resolution is higher than 100lp/mm. The oral inspecting system is used to test standard tooth model and patho-teeth model. The tooth image is clear and the details can be observed. The experimental results show that the system could meet dental medical application requirements.

  12. Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mother's bacteria from being passed to the child. Treatment of Cavities Fluoride Fillings Root canal or tooth extraction If ... to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people ...

  13. Tunable 3D cQED: Implementation and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kevin; Reed, Matthew; Ofek, Nissim; Blumoff, Jacob; Vlastakis, Brian; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Nigg, Simon; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, Steven; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Significant progress has recently been made in improving the coherence of superconducting qubits by using the 3D cQED architecture. This current design is static, not allowing for the modulation of couplings and nonlinearities in situ. This limitation may prove to be an obstacle toward scaling this implementation into more complex systems. We present a new architecture which integrates high Q-factor 3D resonators with flux-tunable superconducting transmon qubits. In this talk, we will demonstrate full control over qubit frequency with minimal degradation to qubit and cavity lifetime. This capability allows the rapid and precise control over the system Hamiltonian to choose optimal couplings and nonlinearities as dictated by the experiment.

  14. Circuit QED with transmon qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Puertas, Javier; Baust, Alexander; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Xie, Edwar; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim; Menzel, Edwin; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Weides, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting quantum bits are basic building blocks for circuit QED systems. Applications in the fields of quantum computation and quantum simulation require long coherence times. We have fabricated and characterized superconducting transmon qubits which are designed to operate at a high ratio of Josephson energy and charging energy. Due to their low sensitivity to charge noise transmon qubits show good coherence properties. We couple transmon qubits to coplanar waveguide resonators and coplanar slotline resonators and characterize the devices at mK-temperatures. From the experimental data we derive the qubit-resonator coupling strength, the qubit relaxation time and calibrate the photon number in the resonator via Stark shifts.

  15. Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional Content Medical News Cavities ˈkav-ət-ē (Dental Caries) By James T. Ubertalli, DMD, Private Practice, Hingham, ... access to dental care, and better treatment for tooth decay and periodontal disease. When teeth are lost, chewing is greatly hindered, and speaking ...

  16. Eliminating the Purcell Effect in Circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Matthew; Bishop, Lev; Dicarlo, Leonardo; Frunzio, Luigi; Ginossar, Eran; Houck, Andrew; Johnson, Blake; Schuster, David; Girvin, Steven; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2010-03-01

    In circuit QED, it is desirable to have both a long qubit coherence time and a short microwave cavity lifetime in order to perform a high fidelity qubit measurement [1]. However, when a qubit is strongly coupled to a fast cavity, its lifetime is limited by spontaneous emission due to the multi-mode Purcell effect [2]. We present measurements of a new device in which the normal rate of spontaneous emission is reduced by more than an order of magnitude over a wide range of qubit frequencies. The single-shot readout fidelity of the transmon qubit in this device, which is strongly coupled (g/2π˜300MHz) to a fast cavity (κ/2π˜20MHz), will also be discussed. 1. Gambetta, Jay et al. Phys. Rev. A 76, 012325 (2007). 2. Houck, A. A. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 080502 (2008).

  17. Circuit QED: generation of two-transmon-qutrit entangled states via resonant interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xi-Mei; Zheng, Zhen-Fei; Lu, Dao-Ming; Yang, Chui-Ping

    2018-04-01

    We present a way to create entangled states of two superconducting transmon qutrits based on circuit QED. Here, a qutrit refers to a three-level quantum system. Since only resonant interaction is employed, the entanglement creation can be completed within a short time. The degree of entanglement for the prepared entangled state can be controlled by varying the weight factors of the initial state of one qutrit, which allows the prepared entangled state to change from a partially entangled state to a maximally entangled state. Because a single cavity is used, only resonant interaction is employed, and none of identical qutrit-cavity coupling constant, measurement, and auxiliary qutrit is needed, this proposal is easy to implement in experiments. The proposal is quite general and can be applied to prepare a two-qutrit partially or maximally entangled state with two natural or artificial atoms of a ladder-type level structure, coupled to an optical or microwave cavity.

  18. Hammering towards QED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin C. Blanchette

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the emerging methods to automate reasoning over large libraries developed with formal proof assistants. We call these methods hammers. They give the authors of formal proofs a strong "one-stroke" tool for discharging difficult lemmas without the need for careful and detailed manual programming of proof search.The main ingredients underlying this approach are efficient automatic theorem provers that can cope with hundreds of axioms, suitable translations of richer logics to their formalisms, heuristic and learning methods that select relevant facts from large libraries, and methods that reconstruct the automatically found proofs inside the proof assistants.We outline the history of these methods, explain the main issues and techniques, and show their strength on several large benchmarks. We also discuss the relation of this technology to the QED Manifesto and consider its implications for QED-style efforts.

  19. Rf drive system for the CEBAF superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fugitt, J.A.; Moore, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    To obtain the maximum accelerating gradient, the CEBAF RF system uses an individually controlled RF drive chain for each superconducting cavity. This allows one to adjust each cavity to its individual maximum field. Due to material purity and manufacturing tolerances of the cavities, it is expected that this maximum value will be distributed over an almost 2 to 1 gradient range. The requirement for precise individual phase and gradient control of 420 superconducting accelerating cavities, is accomplished through the use of individual fault tolerant RF drive chains and self monitoring control electronics. This might be thought of as the Phased Array approach to accelerator RF systems

  20. Quantum Bayesian rule for weak measurements of qubits in superconducting circuit QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peiyue; Qin, Lupei; Li, Xin-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Compared with the quantum trajectory equation (QTE), the quantum Bayesian approach has the advantage of being more efficient to infer a quantum state under monitoring, based on the integrated output of measurements. For weak measurement of qubits in circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED), properly accounting for the measurement backaction effects within the Bayesian framework is an important problem of current interest. Elegant work towards this task was carried out by Korotkov in ‘bad-cavity’ and weak-response limits (Korotkov 2011 Quantum Bayesian approach to circuit QED measurement (arXiv:1111.4016)). In the present work, based on insights from the cavity-field states (dynamics) and the help of an effective QTE, we generalize the results of Korotkov to more general system parameters. The obtained Bayesian rule is in full agreement with Korotkov's result in limiting cases and as well holds satisfactory accuracy in non-limiting cases in comparison with the QTE simulations. We expect the proposed Bayesian rule to be useful for future cQED measurement and control experiments. (paper)

  1. Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopic System And Method

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad Bin Saud

    2015-05-14

    A system and method for cavity ring-down spectroscopy can include a pulsed quantum cascade laser, an optical ring-down cavity, a photodetector, and an oscilloscope. The system and method can produce pulse widths of less than 200 ns with bandwidths greater than 300 pm, as well as provide temporal resolution of greater than 10 .mu.s.

  2. Non-equilibrium correlations and entanglement in a semiconductor hybrid circuit-QED system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Pulido, L D; Emary, C; Brandes, T; Aguado, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of a hybrid circuit-quantum electrodynamics system composed of two semiconducting charge-qubits confined in a microwave resonator. The qubits are defined in terms of the charge states of two spatially separated double quantum dots (DQDs) which are coupled to the same photon mode in the microwave resonator. We analyse a transport setup where each DQD is attached to electronic reservoirs and biased out-of-equilibrium by a large voltage, and study how electron transport across each DQD is modified by the coupling to the common resonator. In particular, we show that the inelastic current through each DQD reflects an indirect qubit–qubit interaction mediated by off-resonant photons in the microwave resonator. As a result of this interaction, both charge qubits stay entangled in the steady (dissipative) state. Finite shot noise cross-correlations between currents across distant DQDs are another manifestation of this nontrivial steady-state entanglement. (paper)

  3. Environment-Assisted Speed-up of the Field Evolution in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmarusti, A D; Yan, Z; Patterson, B D; Corcos, L P; Orozco, L A; Deffner, S

    2015-06-12

    We measure the quantum speed of the state evolution of the field in a weakly driven optical cavity QED system. To this end, the mode of the electromagnetic field is considered as a quantum system of interest with a preferential coupling to a tunable environment: the atoms. By controlling the environment, i.e., changing the number of atoms coupled to the optical cavity mode, an environment-assisted speed-up is realized: the quantum speed of the state repopulation in the optical cavity increases with the coupling strength between the optical cavity mode and this non-Markovian environment (the number of atoms).

  4. Design and Performance of the LCLS Cavity BPM System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, R.M.; Morrison, L.H.; Norum, W.E.; Sereno, N.; Waldschmidt, G.J.; Walters, D.R.; /Argonne; Smith, S.; Straumann, T.; /SLAC

    2008-01-23

    In this paper we present the design of the beam position monitor (BPM) system for the LCLS undulator, which features a high-resolution X-band cavity BPM. Each BPM has a TM{sub 010} monopole reference cavity and a TM{sub 110} dipole cavity designed to operate at a center frequency of 11.384 GHz. The signal processing electronics features a low noise single-stage three-channel heterodyne receiver that has selectable gain and a phase locking local oscillator. We will discuss the system specifications, design, and prototype test results.

  5. Design and performance of the LCLS cavity BPM system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, R.; Norum, E.; Morrison, L.; Sereno, N.; Waldschmidt, G.; Walters, D.; Smith, S.; Straumann, T.; SLAC

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the design of the beam position monitor (BPM) system for the LCLS undulator, which features a high-resolution X-band cavity BPM. Each BPM has a TM{sub 010} monopole reference cavity and a TM{sub 110} dipole cavity designed to operate at a center frequency of 11.384 GHz. The signal processing electronics features a low- noise single-stage three-channel heterodyne receiver that has selectable gain and a phase locking local oscillator. We will discuss the system specifications, design, and prototype test results.

  6. Design and Performance of the LCLS Cavity BPM System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, R.M.; Morrison, L.H.; Norum, W.E.; Sereno, N.; Waldschmidt, G.J.; Walters, D.R.; Argonne; Smith, S.; Straumann, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the design of the beam position monitor (BPM) system for the LCLS undulator, which features a high-resolution X-band cavity BPM. Each BPM has a TM 010 monopole reference cavity and a TM 110 dipole cavity designed to operate at a center frequency of 11.384 GHz. The signal processing electronics features a low noise single-stage three-channel heterodyne receiver that has selectable gain and a phase locking local oscillator. We will discuss the system specifications, design, and prototype test results

  7. Design and performance of the LCLS cavity BPM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, R.; Norum, E.; Morrison, L.; Sereno, N.; Waldschmidt, G.; Walters, D.; Smith, S.; Straumann, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the design of the beam position monitor (BPM) system for the LCLS undulator, which features a high-resolution X-band cavity BPM. Each BPM has a TM 010 monopole reference cavity and a TM 110 dipole cavity designed to operate at a center frequency of 11.384 GHz. The signal processing electronics features a low- noise single-stage three-channel heterodyne receiver that has selectable gain and a phase locking local oscillator. We will discuss the system specifications, design, and prototype test results.

  8. Design and Optimization of Thermophotovoltaic System Cavity with Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermophotovoltaic (TPV systems can convert radiant energy into electrical power. Here we explore the design of the TPV system cavity, which houses the emitter and the photovoltaic (PV cells. Mirrors are utilized in the cavity to modify the spatial and spectral distribution within. After discussing the basic concentric tubular design, two novel cavity configurations are put forward and parametrically studied. The investigated variables include the shape, number, and placement of the mirrors. The optimization objectives are the optimized efficiency and the extended range of application of the TPV system. Through numerical simulations, the relationship between the design parameters and the objectives are revealed. The results show that careful design of the cavity configuration can markedly enhance the performance of the TPV system.

  9. Squeezing-enhanced measurement sensitivity in a cavity optomechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerdoncuff, Hugo; Hoff, Ulrich Busk; Harris, Glen I.

    2015-01-01

    We determine the theoretical limits to squeezing-enhanced measurement sensitivity of mechanical motion in a cavity optomechanical system. The motion of a mechanical resonator is transduced onto quadrature fluctuations of a cavity optical field and a measurement is performed on the optical field...... exiting the cavity. We compare measurement sensitivities obtained with coherent probing and quantum-enhanced probing of the mechanical motion, i.e. the coherent probe field carries vacuum states and quadrature squeezed vacuum states at sideband frequencies, respectively. We find that quantum...

  10. Engineering stabilizer measurements in circuit QED: I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kevin; Blumoff, Jacob; Reagor, M.; Axline, C.; Brierley, R.; Nigg, S.; Reinhold, P.; Heeres, R.; Wang, C.; Sliwa, K.; Narla, A.; Hatridge, M.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Girvin, S. M.; Schoekopf, R. J.

    Quantum error correction based on stabilizer codes has emerged as an attractive approach towards building a practical quantum information processor. One requirement for such a device is the ability to perform hardware efficient measurements on registers of qubits. We demonstrate a new protocol to realize such multi-qubit measurements. A key feature of our approach is that it enables arbitrary stabilizer measurements to be selected in software, and requires a relatively small number of buses, ancillae, and control lines. This allows for a minimally complex sample realizing a simple dispersive hamiltonian while maintaining a high degree of decoupling between our fixed-tuned qubits. We experimentally implement these measurements in 3D circuit QED using transmon qubits coupled to a common bus resonator. In this first of two talks, we introduce our 3D cQED system and describe the protocol for measuring n-qubit parities of a three qubit register. We acknowledge funding from ARO.

  11. Designing a three mode circuit QED experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastakis, Brian; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Paik, Hanhee; Nigg, Simon; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, Steven; Devoret, Michel; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Circuit QED employs the coupling of nonlinear elements to resonant modes of an electronic circuit. We demonstrate that all resonant modes will attain some degree of nonlinearity from even a single nonlinear element. This can result in individually addressable transitions for each mode and allow direct control of each quantum state. Furthermore, we show that the transition frequency of any one mode will depend on the state of all other modes. These state dependent shifts can be used to directly readout the quantum state of one mode probing another. We illustrate this behavior by coupling two three-dimensional resonators to a superconducting transmon qubit and present a method to determine the Hamiltonian for this system using a nonlinear circuit QED model.

  12. Resonator QED experiments with single {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ions; Resonator-QED-Experimente mit einzelnen {sup 40}Ca{sup +}-Ionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, B.

    2006-12-20

    Combining an optical resonator with an ion trap provides the possibility for QED experiments with single or few particles interacting with a single mode of the electro-magnetic field (Cavity-QED). In the present setup, fluctuations in the count rate on a time scale below 30 seconds were purely determined by the photon statistics due to finite emission and detection efficiency, whereas a marginal drift of the system was noticeable above 200 seconds. To find methods to increase the efficiency of the photon source, investigations were conducted and experimental improvements of the setup implemented in the frame of this thesis. Damping of the resonator field and coupling of ion and field were considered as the most important factors. To reduce the damping of the resonator field, a resonator with a smaller transmissivity of the output mirror was set up. The linear trap used in the experiment allows for the interaction of multiple ions with the resonator field, so that more than one photon may be emitted per pump pulse. This was investigated in this thesis with two ions coupled to the resonator. The cross correlation of the emitted photons was measured with the Hanbury Brown-Twiss method. (orig.)

  13. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  14. A New RF System for the CEBAF Normal Conducting Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Hovater, C; Hofler, A; Lahti, G; Musson, J; Plawski, T

    2004-01-01

    The CEBAF Accelerator at Jefferson Lab is a 6 GeV five pass electron accelerator consisting of two superconducting linacs joined by independent magnetic transport arcs. CEBAF also has numerous normal conducting cavities for beam conditioning in the injector and for RF extraction to the experimental halls. The RF systems that presently control these cavities are becoming expensive to maintain, therefore a replacement RF control system is now being developed. For the new RF system, cavity field control is maintained digitally using an FPGA which contains the feedback algorithm. The system incorporates digital down conversion, using quadrature under-sampling at an IF frequency of 70 MHz. The VXI bus-crate was chosen as the operating platform because of its excellent RFI/EMI properties and its compatibility with the EPICS control system. The normal conducting cavities operate at both the 1497 MHz accelerating frequency and the sub-harmonic frequency of 499 MHz. To accommodate this, the new design will use differe...

  15. QED Reloaded: Towards a Pluralistic Formal Library of Mathematical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kohlhase

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed in 1994, the ``QED project'' was one of the seminally influential initiatives in automated reasoning: It envisioned the formalization of ``all of mathematics'' and the assembly of these formalizations in a single coherent database. Even though it never led to the concrete system, communal resource, or even joint research envisioned in the QED manifesto, the idea lives on and shapes the research agendas of a significant part of the communityThis paper surveys a decade of work on representation languages and knowledge management tools for mathematical knowledge conducted in the KWARC research group at Jacobs University Bremen.It assembles the various research strands into a coherent agenda for realizing the QED dream with modern insights and technologies.

  16. Nonlinear optics quantum computing with circuit QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J M

    2013-02-08

    One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducting flux qubit to implement a nonlinear coupling. Compared to the self-Kerr nonlinearity, we find that our approach has improved tolerance to noise in the qubit while maintaining fast operation.

  17. Exciton-polariton dynamics in quantum dot-cavity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Antonio F.; Lima, William J.; Villas-Boas, Jose M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: One of the basic requirement for quantum information processing systems is the ability to completely control the state of a single qubit. This imply in know all sources of decoherence and elaborate ways to avoid them. In recent work, A. Laucht et al. [1] presented detailed theoretical and experimental investigations of electrically tunable single quantum dot (QD) - photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity systems operating in the strong coupling regime of the light matter interaction. Unlike previous studies, where the exciton-cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, they employ the quantum confined Stark-effect to electro-optically control the exciton-cavity detuning. The new built device enabled them to systematically probe the emission spectrum of the strongly coupled system as a function of external control parameters, as for example the incoherent excitation power density or the lattice temperature. Those studies reveal for the first time insights in dephasing mechanisms of 0D exciton polaritons [1]. In another study [2], using a similar device, they investigate the coupling between two different QDs with a single cavity mode. In both works, incoherent pumping was used, but for quantum information, coherent and controlled excitations are necessary. Here, we theoretically investigate the dynamics a single quantum dot inside a cavity under coherent pulse excitation and explore a wide range of parameters, as for example, the exciton-cavity detunings, the excitation power, the spontaneous decay, and pure dephasing. We use density matrix formalism in the Lindblad form, and we solve it numerically. Our results show that coherent excitation can be used to probe strong coupling between exciton and cavity mode by monitoring the exciton Rabi oscillation as function of the cavity detuning. This can give new insights for future experimental measurement focusing on quantum

  18. QED effects on individual atomic orbital energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozioł, Karol; Aucar, Gustavo A.

    2018-04-01

    Several issues, concerning QED corrections, that are important in precise atomic calculations are presented. The leading QED corrections, self-energy and vacuum polarization, to the orbital energy for selected atoms with 30 ≤ Z ≤ 118 have been calculated. The sum of QED and Breit contributions to the orbital energy is analyzed. It has been found that for ns subshells the Breit and QED contributions are of comparative size, but for np and nd subshells the Breit contribution takes a major part of the QED+Breit sum. It has also, been found that the Breit to leading QED contributions ratio for ns subshells is almost independent of Z. The Z-dependence of QED and Breit+QED contributions per subshell is shown. The fitting coefficients may be used to estimate QED effects on inner molecular orbitals. We present results of our calculations for QED contributions to orbital energy of valence ns-subshell for group 1 and 11 atoms and discuss about the reliability of these numbers by comparing them with experimental first ionization potential data.

  19. Supporting Cavity Production Using an Engineering Data Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Bürger, Jochen; Hagge, Lars; Iversen, Jens; Matheisen, Axel; Singer, Waldemar

    2005-01-01

    The reliable production of superconducting cavities is an essential issue for any future accelerator applying the “cold” technology. At DESY the complex manufacturing process is supported by an engineering data management system (EDMS). During the mechanical manufacturing process many quality checks are performed and their results are documented in inspection sheets, which are stored in the system and used for controlling. The EDMS further controls the subsequent preparation process by automatically creating and issuing work instructions for the treatment of the surfaces of the cavities. In parallel the necessary documentation for quality assurance is generated. The documentation is linked to the product breakdown structure; this enables users to easily navigate from inspection sheets of selected components forward to their 3D CAD model as well as back to the results of the examination of the original niobium sheet. The poster presents the structural approach for the documentation using a ...

  20. Nuclear reactor cavity floor passive heat removal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Tyler A.; Neeley, Gary W.; Inman, James B.

    2018-03-06

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor core disposed in a reactor pressure vessel. A radiological containment contains the nuclear reactor and includes a concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor. An ex vessel corium retention system includes flow channels embedded in the concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor, an inlet in fluid communication with first ends of the flow channels, and an outlet in fluid communication with second ends of the flow channels. In some embodiments the inlet is in fluid communication with the interior of the radiological containment at a first elevation and the outlet is in fluid communication with the interior of the radiological containment at a second elevation higher than the first elevation. The radiological containment may include a reactor cavity containing a lower portion of the pressure vessel, wherein the concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor is the reactor cavity floor.

  1. Software layer for FPGA-based TESLA cavity control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprek, Waldemar; Kaleta, Pawel; Szewinski, Jaroslaw; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Czarski, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2005-02-01

    The paper describes design and practical realization of software for laboratory purposes to control FPGA-based photonic and electronic equipment. There is presented a universal solution for all relevant devices with FPGA chips and gigabit optical links. The paper describes architecture of the software layers and program solutions of hardware communication based on Internal Interface (II) technology. Such a solution was used for superconducting Cavity Controller and Simulator (SIMCON) for the TESLA experiment in DESY (Hamburg). A number of practical examples of the software solutions for the SIMCON system were given in this paper.

  2. Tailoring multi-qubit measurement operators through dynamic cavity states (Part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K.; Blumoff, J.; Nigg, S.; Reed, M.; Vlastakis, B.; Heeres, R.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2014-03-01

    Recent improvements in cavity coherence in cQED have allowed high precision manipulation of photonic cavity states, illustrating a powerful toolbox for manipulating and encoding quantum information in either superconducting qubits or cavity states. In order for this architecture to become a viable system for computation, it will be necessary to have the flexibility to probe both global as well as limited properties of a register of qubits. In particular, the ability to tailor measurement operators is a technology that will be required for error correction. Extending the theoretical framework discussed in the previous talk, we will show experimental work toward realizing this goal. Our design consists of a register of qubits coupled to a high Q storage cavity and ancilla qubit enabled fast readout through a low Q cavity. Work supported by IARPA and ARO.

  3. TESLA cavity modeling and digital implementation in FPGA technology for control system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarski, T.; Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland); Simrock, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The electromechanical model of the TESLA cavity has been implemented in FPGA technology for real-time testing of the control system. The model includes Lorentz force detuning and beam loading effects. Step operation and vector stimulus operation modes are applied for the evaluation of a FPGA cavity simulator operated by a digital controller. The performance of the cavity hardware model is verified by comparing with a software model of the cavity implemented in the MATLAB system. The numerical aspects are considered for an optimal DSP calculation. Some experimental results are presented for different cavity operational conditions. (orig.)

  4. Thermal modeling of a pressurized air cavity receiver for solar dish Stirling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chongzhe; Zhang, Yanping; Falcoz, Quentin; Neveu, Pierre; Li, Jianlan; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-06-01

    A solar cavity receiver model for the dish collector system is designed in response to growing demand of renewable energy. In the present research field, no investigations into the geometric parameters of a cavity receiver have been performed. The cylindrical receiver in this study is composed of an enclosed bottom at the back, an aperture at the front, a helical pipe inside the cavity and an insulation layer on the external surface of the cavity. The influence of several critical receiver parameters on the thermal efficiency is analyzed in this paper: cavity inner diameter and cavity length. The thermal model in this paper is solved considering the cavity dimensions as variables. Implementing the model into EES, each parameter influence is separately investigated, and a preliminary optimization method is proposed.

  5. Transverse Momentum Distributions of Electron in Simulated QED Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navdeep; Dahiya, Harleen

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we have studied the transverse momentum distributions (TMDs) for the electron in simulated QED model. We have used the overlap representation of light-front wave functions where the spin-1/2 relativistic composite system consists of spin-1/2 fermion and spin-1 vector boson. The results have been obtained for T-even TMDs in transverse momentum plane for fixed value of longitudinal momentum fraction x.

  6. Circulation system for flowing uranium hexafluoride cavity reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaminet, J.F.; Kendall, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Accomplishment of the UF 6 critical cavity experiments, currently in progress, and planned confined flowing UF 6 initial experiments requires development of reliable techniques for handling heated UF 6 throughout extended ranges of temperature, pressure, and flow rate. The development of three laboratory-scale flow systems for handling gaseous UF 6 at temperatures up to 500 K, pressures up to approximately 40 atm, and continuous flow rates up to approximately 50 g/s is presented. A UF 6 handling system fabricated for static critical tests currently being conducted at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is described. The system was designed to supply UF 6 to a double-walled aluminum core canister assembly at temperatures between 300 K and 400 K and pressures up to 4 atm. A second UF 6 handling system designed to provide a circulating flow of up to 50 g/s of gaseous UF 6 in a closed-loop through a double-walled aluminum core canister with controlled temperature and pressure is described

  7. Reducing dephasing in coupled quantum dot-cavity systems by engineering the carrier wavefunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically how photon-assisted dephasing by the electron-phonon interaction in a coupled cavity-quantum dot system can be significantly reduced for specific QD-cavity detunings. Our starting point is a recently published theory,1 which considers longitudinal acoustic phonons......, described by a non-Markovian model, interacting with a coupled quantum dot-cavity system. The reduction of phonon-induced dephasing is obtained by placing the cavity-quantum dot system inside an infinite slab, assuming spherical electronic wavefunctions. Based on our calculations, we expect this to have...

  8. Quantum Correlation in Circuit QED Under Various Dissipative Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying-Hua, Ji; Yong-Mei, Liu

    2017-02-01

    Dynamical evolutions of quantum correlations in circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit-QED) are investigated under various dissipative modes. The influences of photon number, coupling strength, detuning and relative phase angle on quantum entanglement and quantum discord are compared as well. The results show that quantum discord may be less robust to decoherence than quantum entanglement since the death and revival also appears. Under certain dissipative mode, the decoherence subspace can be formed in circuit-QED due to the cooperative action of vacuum field. Whether a decoherence subspace can be formed not only depends on the form of quantum system but also relates closely to the dissipative mode of environment. One can manipulate decoherence through manipulating the correlation between environments, but the effect depends on the choice of initial quantum states and dissipative modes. Furthermore, we find that proper relative phase of initial quantum state provides one means of suppressing decoherence.

  9. Phenomenological Consequences of Non-commutative QED

    OpenAIRE

    Arfaei, H.; Yavartanoo, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the noncommutative QED we consider few phenomena which reflect the noncommutativity. In all of them the new interactions in the Feynmann diagrams that are responsible for the deviation from the standard QED results. These deviations appear as the violations of Lorentz symmetry. We suggest experimental situations where these effects may be observed. The extra phases have far reaching consequences including violation of crossing symmetry. Considering the e-p scattering and Com...

  10. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  11. Quantum coherence and entanglement control for atom-cavity systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Wenchong

    Coherence and entanglement play a significant role in the quantum theory. Ideal quantum systems, "closed" to the outside world, remain quantum forever and thus manage to retain coherence and entanglement. Real quantum systems, however, are open to the environment and are therefore susceptible to the phenomenon of decoherence and disentanglement which are major hindrances to the effectiveness of quantum information processing tasks. In this thesis we have theoretically studied the evolution of coherence and entanglement in quantum systems coupled to various environments. We have also studied ways and means of controlling the decay of coherence and entanglement. We have studied the exact qubit entanglement dynamics of some interesting initial states coupled to a high-Q cavity containing zero photon, one photon, two photons and many photons respectively. We have found that an initially correlated environmental state can serve as an enhancer for entanglement decay or generation processes. More precisely, we have demonstrated that the degree of entanglement, including its collapse as well as its revival times, can be significantly modified by the correlated structure of the environmental modes. We have also studied dynamical decoupling (DD) technique --- a prominent strategy of controlling decoherence and preserving entanglement in open quantum systems. We have analyzed several DD control methods applied to qubit systems that can eliminate the system-environment coupling and prolong the quantum coherence time. Particularly, we have proposed a new DD sequence consisting a set of designed control operators that can universally protected an unknown qutrit state against colored phase and amplitude environment noises. In addition, in a non-Markovian regime, we have reformulated the quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to incorporate the effect of the external control fields. Without any assumptions on the system-environment coupling and the size of environment, we have

  12. Developing magnonic architectures in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenowska, Alexy; van Loo, Arjan; Morris, Richard; Kosen, Sandoko

    The development of low-temperature experiments aimed at exploring and exploiting magnonic systems at the quantum level is rapidly becoming a highly active and innovative area of microwave magnetics research. Magnons are easily excited over the microwave frequency range typical of established solid-state quantum circuit technology, and couple readily to electromagnetic fields. These facts, in combination with the highly tunable dispersion of the excitations, make them a particularly interesting proposition in the context of quantum device design. In this talk, we survey recent progress made in our group in the area of the hybridization of planar superconducting circuit technology (circuit-QED) with magnon systems. We discuss the technical requirements of successful experiments, including the choice of suitable materials. We go on to describe the results of investigations including the study spin-wave propagation in magnetic waveguides at the single magnon level, the investigation of magnon modes in spherical magnetic resonators, and the development of systems incorporating Josephson-junction based qubits. The authors would like to acknowledge funding by the EPSRC through Grant EP/K032690/1.

  13. Controllable optical bistability in a three-mode optomechanical system with atom-cavity-mirror couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Yan, Jia-Kai; Zhu, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistable behavior in a three-mode optomechanical system with atom-cavity-mirror couplings. The effects of the cavity-pump detuning and the pump power on the bistable behavior are discussed detailedly, the impacts of the atom-pump detuning and the atom-cavity coupling strength on the bistability of the system are also explored, and the influences of the cavity-resonator coupling strength and the cavity decay rate are also taken into consideration. The numerical results demonstrate that by tuning these parameters the bistable behavior of the system can be freely switched on or off, and the threshold of the pump power for the bistability as well as the bistable region width can also be effectively controlled. These results can find potential applications in optical bistable switch in the quantum information processing.

  14. Theory of microwave parametric down-conversion and squeezing using circuit QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, K; Girvin, S M

    2005-09-30

    We study theoretically the parametric down-conversion and squeezing of microwaves using cavity quantum electrodynamics of a superconducting Cooper-pair box (CPB) qubit located inside a transmission line resonator. The nonlinear susceptibility chi2 describing three-wave mixing can be tuned by dc gate voltage applied to the CPB and vanishes by symmetry at the charge degeneracy point. We show that the coherent coupling of different cavity modes through the qubit can generate a squeezed state. Based on parameters realized in recent successful circuit QED experiments, squeezing of 95% approximately 13 dB below the vacuum noise level should be readily achievable.

  15. Entanglement of a two-atom system driven by the quantum vacuum in arbitrary cavity size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Hidalgo, G., E-mail: gfloreshidalgo@unifei.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rojas, M., E-mail: moises.leyva@dfi.ufla.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Lavras, CP 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Rojas, Onofre, E-mail: ors@dfi.ufla.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Lavras, CP 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, MG (Brazil)

    2017-05-10

    We study the entanglement dynamics of two distinguishable atoms confined into a cavity and interacting with a quantum vacuum field. As a simplified model for this system, we consider two harmonic oscillators linearly coupled to a massless scalar field which are inside a spherical cavity of radius R. Through the concurrence, the entanglement dynamics for the two-atom system is discussed for a range of initial states composed of a superposition of atomic states. Our results reveal how the entanglement of the two atoms behaves through the time evolution, in a precise way, for arbitrary cavity size and for arbitrary coupling constant. All our computations are analytical and only the final step is numerical. - Highlights: • Entanglement time evolution in arbitrary cavity size is considered. • In free space concurrence approaches a fixed value at large time. • For finite cavity, concurrence behaves almost as a periodic function of time.

  16. Faithful state transfer between two-level systems via an actively cooled finite-temperature cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárkány, Lőrinc; Fortágh, József; Petrosyan, David

    2018-03-01

    We consider state transfer between two qubits—effective two-level systems represented by Rydberg atoms—via a common mode of a microwave cavity at finite temperature. We find that when both qubits have the same coupling strength to the cavity field, at large enough detuning from the cavity mode frequency, quantum interference between the transition paths makes the swap of the excitation between the qubits largely insensitive to the number of thermal photons in the cavity. When, however, the coupling strengths are different, the photon-number-dependent differential Stark shift of the transition frequencies precludes efficient transfer. Nevertheless, using an auxiliary cooling system to continuously extract the cavity photons, we can still achieve a high-fidelity state transfer between the qubits.

  17. Entangling movable mirrors in a double cavity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinard, Michel; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Vitali, David

    2005-01-01

    We propose a double-cavity set-up capable of generating a stationary entangled state of two movable mirrors at cryogenic temperatures. The scheme is based on the optimal transfer of squeezing of input optical fields to mechanical vibrational modes of the mirrors, realized by the radiation pressure...

  18. From the atomic nucleus to mesoscopic systems to microwave cavities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nuclear- reaction theory is equivalent to the theory of waveguides . We will concentrate on processes in which the incident wave goes through a highly complicated motion in the nu- cleus . We will picture the nucleus as a closed cavity, with ...

  19. A Feasibility Study on the Inspection System Development of Underground Cavities Using Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Che Wook; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The detection efficiency using the gravimetry method is significantly low; therefore, it requires large surveying time. The magnetometry method detects the cavities by the magnitude of the magnetic field. However, the magnetometry method is problematical in urban areas due to pipes and electrical installations. GPR is the method that uses high frequency electromagnetic wave. This method is widely used for the inspection; however, the detection accuracy of sinkholes can be low in specific soil types. In this study, to verify the feasibility of the neutron source-based inspection system to detect the cavity detection, the Monte Carlo simulation was performed using neutron source. The analysis shows that the detection of the cavity with the given condition is possible when the diameter of cavity is over 100 cm. However, the detection efficiency can be enough increased if some optimization strategies for the inspection are developed. Also, it is expected that the proposed inspection method can detect the expected locations of the cavities.

  20. Digital Measurement System for the HIE-Isolde Superconducting Accelerating Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, Michal

    Extensive R&D efforts are being invested at CERN into the fundamental science of the RF superconductivity, cavity design, niobium sputtering, coating and RF properties of superconducting cavities. Fast and precise characterization and measurements of RF parameters of the newly produced cavities is essential for advances with the cavity production. The currently deployed analogue measurement system based on an analogue phase discriminators and tracking RF generators is not optimal for efficient work at the SM18 superconducting cavity test stand. If exact properties of the cavity under test are not known a traditional feedback loop will not be able to find resonant frequency in a reasonable time or even at all. This is mainly due to a very high Q factor. The resonance peak is very narrow (fraction of a Hz at 100 MHz). If the resonant frequency is off by several bandwidths, small changes of the cavity field during the tuning will not be measureable. Also cavity field will react only very slowly to any change...

  1. Generation of robust tripartite entanglement with a single-cavity optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xihua; Ling, Yang; Shao, Xuping; Xiao, Min

    2017-05-01

    We present a proposal to generate robust tripartite optomechanical entanglement with a single-cavity optomechanical system driven by a single input laser field. The produced stationary tripartite entanglement among two longitudinal cavity modes and a mirror oscillation mode via radiation pressure force exhibits robustness to the variation of the environment temperature when the cavity free spectral range is close to the mechanical oscillation frequency. The present optomechanical system can serve as an alternative intermediary for quantum-state exchange between two microwave (or optical) fields as well as between photons and the macroscopic mechanical oscillator, and may be potentially useful for quantum information processing and quantum networks.

  2. Performance of a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2007-01-01

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than 1nm. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1μrad over a dynamic range of approximately +/-20μm

  3. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walston, S; Boogert, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Frisch, J; Gronberg, J; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Kolomensky, Y; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Meller, R; Miller, D; Orimoto, T; Ross, M; Slater, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Terunuma, N; Thomson, M; Urakawa, J; Vogel, V; Ward, D; White, G

    2006-12-18

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {micro}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {micro}m.

  4. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Joe; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David John; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; /Fermilab /UC,

    2007-06-08

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {mu}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {mu}m.

  5. Cavity beam position monitor system for the Accelerator Test Facility 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2 is a scaled demonstrator system for final focus beam lines of linear high energy colliders. This paper describes the high resolution cavity beam position monitor (BPM system, which is a part of the ATF2 diagnostics. Two types of cavity BPMs are used, C-band operating at 6.423 GHz, and S-band at 2.888 GHz with an increased beam aperture. The cavities, electronics, and digital processing are described. The resolution of the C-band system with attenuators was determined to be approximately 250 nm and 1  μm for the S-band system. Without attenuation the best recorded C-band cavity resolution was 27 nm.

  6. Fiber Optic Based Thermometry System for Superconducting RF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [Microxact Inc.

    2013-05-06

    Thermometry is recognized as the best technique to identify and characterize losses in SRF cavities. The most widely used and reliable apparatus for temperature mapping at cryogenic temperatures is based on carbon resistors (RTDs). The use of this technology on multi-cell cavities is inconvenient due to the very large number of sensors required to obtain sufficient spatial resolution. Recent developments make feasible the use of multiplexible fiber optic sensors for highly distributed temperature measurements. However, sensitivity of multiplexible cryogenic temperature sensors was found extending only to 12K at best and thus was not sufficient for SRF cavity thermometry. During the course of the project the team of MicroXact, JLab and Virginia Tech developed and demonstrated the multiplexible fiber optic sensor with adequate response below 20K. The demonstrated temperature resolution is by at least a factor of 60 better than that of the best multiplexible fiber optic temperature sensors reported to date. The clear path toward at least 10times better temperature resolution is shown. The first to date temperature distribution measurements with ~2.5mm spatial resolution was done with fiber optic sensors at 2K to4K temperatures. The repeatability and accuracy of the sensors were verified only at 183K, but at this temperature both parameters significantly exceeded the state of the art. The results of this work are expected to find a wide range of applications, since the results are enabling the whole new testing capabilities, not accessible before.

  7. Cryogenic sub-system for the 56 MHz SRF storage cavity for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.; Than, R.; Orfin, P.; Lederle, D.; Tallerico, T.; Masi L.; Talty, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-03-28

    A 56 MHz Superconducting RF Storage Cavity is being constructed for the RHIC collider. This cavity is a quarter wave resonator that will be operated in a liquid helium bath at 4.4 K. The cavity requires an extremely quiet environment to maintain its operating frequency. The cavity, besides being engineered for a mechanically quiet system, also requires a quiet cryogenic system. The helium is taken from RHIC's main helium supply header at 3.5 atm, 5.3K at a phase separator tank. The boil-off is sent back to the RHIC refrigeration system to recover the cooling. To acoustically separate the RHIC helium supply and return lines, a condenser/boiler heat exchanger condenses the helium vapor generated in the RF cavity bath. A system description and operating parameters are given about the cryogen delivery system. The 56 MHz superconducting storage RF cavity project is making progress. The cryogenic system design is in its final stage. The helium supply lines have been tapped into the RHIC helium distribution lines. The plate-and-fin heat exchanger design is near completion and specification will be sent out for bid soon. The cold helium vapor heating system design will start soon as well. A booster compressor specification is underway. The first phase separator and transfer line design work is near completion and will be sent out for bid soon.

  8. Role of Streptococcus mutans two-component systems in antimicrobial peptide resistance in the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Summary Approximately 100 trillion microorganisms exist in the oral cavity. For the commensal bacteria of the oral cavity, it is important to adapt to environmental stimuli, including human- or bacteria-derived antimicrobial agents. Recently, bacterial-specific signal transduction regulatory systems, called two-component systems (TCSs), which appear to be focused on sensing and adapting to the environment, were discovered. Streptococcus mutans is an oral commensal bacteria and is also known a...

  9. Measurements of Conversion Efficiency for a Flat Plate Thermophotovoltaic System Using a Photonic Cavity Test System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.J.; Ballinger, C.T.; Burger, S.R.; Charache, G.W.; Danielson, L.R.; DePoy, D.M.; Donovan, T.J.; LoCascio, M.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a 1 cm 2 thermophotovoltaic (TPV) module was recently measured in a photonic cavity test system. A conversion efficiency of 11.7% was measured at a radiator temperature of 1076 C and a module temperature of 29.9 C. This experiment achieved the highest direct measurement of efficiency for an integrated TPV system. Efficiency was calculated from the ratio of the peak (load matched) electrical power output and the heat absorption rate. Measurements of these two parameters were made simultaneously to assure the validity of the measured efficiency value. This test was conducted in a photonic cavity which mimicked a typical flat-plate TPV system. The radiator was a large, flat graphite surface. The module was affixed to the top of a copper pedestal for heat absorption measurements. The heat absorption rate was proportional to the axial temperature gradient in the pedestal under steady-state conditions. The test was run in a vacuum to eliminate conductive and convective heat transfer mechanisms. The photonic cavity provides the optimal test environment for TPV efficiency measurements because it incorporates all important physical phenomena found in an integrated TPV system: high radiator emissivity and blackbody spectral shape, photon recycling, Lambertian distribution of incident radiation and complex geometric effects. Furthermore, the large aspect ratio between radiating surface area and radiator/module spacing produces a view factor approaching unity with minimal photon leakage

  10. Meson-meson scattering in lattice QED2+1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiebig, H.R.; Woloshyn, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Scattering phase shifts of a meson-meson system in staggered 3-dimensional lattice QED are computed. The main task of the simulation is to obtain a discrete set of two-body energy levels. These are extracted from a 4-point time correlation matrix and then used to obtain scattering phase shifts. The results for the l = 0 and l = 2 partial waves are consistent with short-range repulsion and intermediate-range attraction of the residual meson-meson interaction. (orig.)

  11. Quantum iSWAP gate in optical cavities with a cyclic three-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guo-an; Qiao, Hao-xue; Lu, Hua

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we present a scheme to directly implement the iSWAP gate by passing a cyclic three-level system across a two-mode cavity quantum electrodynamics. In the scheme, a three-level Δ -type atom ensemble prepared in its ground state mediates the interaction between the two-cavity modes. For this theoretical model, we also analyze its performance under practical noise, including spontaneous emission and the decay of the cavity modes. It is shown that our scheme may have a high fidelity under the practical noise.

  12. Invariant-based inverse engineering for fluctuation transfer between membranes in an optomechanical cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, by invariant-based inverse engineering, we design classical driving fields to transfer quantum fluctuations between two suspended membranes in an optomechanical cavity system. The transfer can be quickly attained through a nonadiabatic evolution path determined by a so-called dynamical invariant. Such an evolution path allows one to optimize the occupancies of the unstable "intermediate" states; thus, the influence of cavity decays can be suppressed. Numerical simulation demonstrates that a perfect fluctuation transfer between two membranes can be rapidly achieved in one step, and the transfer is robust to both the amplitude noises and cavity decays.

  13. One-loop nonlinear correction for QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, J. S. N.; Silva, G. R.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we study the generation of a nonlinear correction for QED, namely, the Euler-Heisenberg effective action. In order to achieve this, we consider two methods. The first method employed consists in make use of Feynman parametrization to solve the integrals properly, while in the second method a derivative expansion in the external momentum was considered.

  14. Statistical wave scattering: from the atomic nucleus to mesoscopic systems to microwave cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, P.A. [IFUNAM, 01000 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2007-12-15

    Universal statistical aspects of wave scattering by a variety of physical systems ranging from atomic nuclei to mesoscopic systems and microwave cavities are described. A statistical model for the scattering matrix is employed to address the problem of quantum chaotic scattering. The model, introduced in the past in the context of nuclear physics, discusses the problem in terms of a prompt and an equilibrated component: it incorporates the average value of the scattering matrix to account for the prompt processes and satisfies the requirements of flux conservation, causality and ergodicity. The main application of the model is the analysis of electronic transport through ballistic mesoscopic cavities whose classical dynamics is chaotic, although it can be applied to the propagation of microwaves through cavities of a similar shape. The model describes well the results from the numerical solutions of the Schrodinger equation for two-dimensional cavities. (Author)

  15. The system of enclosed optical cavities as a tool for laser photons storing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.P.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    2004-01-01

    The calculation of the system consisting of two optical cavities enclosed one into another is performed in the plane-wave approximation. It is shown that under definite conditions one can obtain an enhancement of the electromagnetic field in the internal cavity as compared to the case of direct excitation of the cavity with an electromagnetic wave of the same amplitude. The comparative analysis of these two approaches is carried out. We suppose to apply the proposed system with moderate-reflectivity mirrors (R=0.99) for accumulating laser photons in the optical cavity of the X-ray source LESR-N100 based on Compton scattering of the laser beam on relativistic electrons stored in the ring

  16. Auto-tuning systems for J-PARC LINAC RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Z.; Kobayashi, T.; Fukui, Y.; Futatsukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Anami, S.; Suzuki, H.; Sato, F.; Shinozaki, S.; Chishiro, E.

    2014-01-01

    The 400-MeV proton linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) consists of 324-MHz low-β and 972-MHz high-β accelerator sections. From October 2006 to May 2013, only the 324-MHz low-β accelerator section was in operation. From the summer of 2013 the J-PARC LINAC was upgraded by installing the 972-MHz high-β accelerator section, and the proton beam was successfully accelerated to 400 MeV in January 2014. Auto-tuning systems for the J-PARC LINAC RF cavities have been successfully developed. A first generation design, an auto-tuning system using a mechanical tuner controller, was developed and operated for the first 3 years. Then the second-generation auto-tuning system was developed using a new approach to the RF cavity warm-up process, and this was applied to the accelerator operation for the subsequent 4 years. During the RF cavity warm-up process in this system, the mechanical tuner is constantly fixed and the input RF frequency is automatically tuned to the cavity resonance frequency using the FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) of the digital feedback RF control system. After the input power level reaches the required value, input RF frequency tuning is stopped and it is switched to the operation frequency. Then, the mechanical tuner control begins operation. This second-generation auto-tuning system was extremely effective for the 324-MHz cavity operation. However, if we apply this approach to the 972-MHz RF cavities, an interlock due to the RF cavity reflection amplitude occasionally occurs at the end of the warm-up process. In order to solve this problem a third generation novel auto-tuning system was successfully developed in December 2013 and applied to the operation of the J-PARC LINAC, including the 972-MHz ACS RF cavities. During the warm-up process both the mechanical tuner controller and the input RF frequency tuning are in operation, and good matching between the input RF frequency and the RF cavity is

  17. Thermal Protection System Cavity Heating for Simplified and Actual Geometries Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations with Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal Protection System (TPS) Cavity Heating is predicted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) on unstructured grids for both simplified cavities and actual cavity geometries. Validation was performed using comparisons to wind tunnel experimental results and CFD predictions using structured grids. Full-scale predictions were made for simplified and actual geometry configurations on the Space Shuttle Orbiter in a mission support timeframe.

  18. Phonon Routing in Integrated Optomechanical Cavity-waveguide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    k ~ωk b̂†k b̂k + ∑ k ~(gLk b̂†Lb̂k + g ? Lk b̂Lb̂ † k) + ∑ k ~(gRk b̂†Rb̂k + g ? Rk b̂Rb̂ † k), (E1) where b†k(bk) is the creation ( annihilation ...together to form optomechanical circuits. Using a pair of optomechanical cavities coupled together via a phonon waveguide we demonstrate a tunable delay and...period is set by the free spectral range of the waveguide modes. V. DISCUSSION The devices presented in this work, involving pairs of optomechanical

  19. Lasing by driven atoms-cavity system in collective strong coupling regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Rahul; Rangwala, S A

    2017-09-12

    The interaction of laser cooled atoms with resonant light is determined by the natural linewidth of the excited state. An optical cavity is another optically resonant system where the loss from the cavity determines the resonant optical response of the system. The near resonant combination of an optical Fabry-Pérot cavity with laser cooled and trapped atoms couples two distinct optical resonators via light and has great potential for precision measurements and the creation of versatile quantum optics systems. Here we show how driven magneto-optically trapped atoms in collective strong coupling regime with the cavity leads to lasing at a frequency red detuned from the atomic transition. Lasing is demonstrated experimentally by the observation of a lasing threshold accompanied by polarization and spatial mode purity, and line-narrowing in the outcoupled light. Spontaneous emission into the cavity mode by the driven atoms stimulates lasing action, which is capable of operating as a continuous wave laser in steady state, without a seed laser. The system is modeled theoretically, and qualitative agreement with experimentally observed lasing is seen. Our result opens up a range of new measurement possibilities with this system.

  20. Parton distribution functions with QED corrections in the valon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghizadeh, Marzieh; Taghavi Shahri, Fatemeh; Eslami, Parvin

    2017-10-01

    The parton distribution functions (PDFs) with QED corrections are obtained by solving the QCD ⊗QED DGLAP evolution equations in the framework of the "valon" model at the next-to-leading-order QCD and the leading-order QED approximations. Our results for the PDFs with QED corrections in this phenomenological model are in good agreement with the newly related CT14QED global fits code [Phys. Rev. D 93, 114015 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.114015] and APFEL (NNPDF2.3QED) program [Comput. Phys. Commun. 185, 1647 (2014), 10.1016/j.cpc.2014.03.007] in a wide range of x =[10-5,1 ] and Q2=[0.283 ,108] GeV2 . The model calculations agree rather well with those codes. In the latter, we proposed a new method for studying the symmetry breaking of the sea quark distribution functions inside the proton.

  1. The lattice spinor QED Hamiltonian critique of the continuous space approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, A.V.; Zastavenko, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    We give the irreproachable, from the point of view of gauge invariance, derivation of the lattice spinor QED Hamiltonian. Our QED Hamiltonian is manifestly gauge invariant. We point out important defects of the continuous space formulation of the QED that make, in our opinion, the lattice QED obviously preferable to the continuous space QED. We state that it is impossible to give a continuous space QED formulation which is compatible with the condition of gauge invariance. 17 refs

  2. Development of optical inspection system of L-band SRF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Yujiro; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Hayano, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will require about 15,000 1.3 GHz superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerating cavities with high accelerating gradient (>35 MV/m) in its main linac. The high yield (80%) of successful high gradient cavities is necessary. Both of the yield and the accelerating gradient of SRF cavities does not reach the required level at present. We think that the gradient of the SRF cavities is limited by irregularities on the interior surface of the cavities, for example, fine dusts (1μm), balls (100μm) and pits (100μm): electrons emitted from the fine dusts by the tunnel effect are accelerated in the electric field, and consume the stored energy of the cavities (Field Emission). The balls and pits cause a breakdown by a magnetic field enhancement or a thermal current concentration (Thermal Breakdown). To prevent these problems the interior surface are treated by polishing and rinsing. The relation between the surface states and the gradient limitations, however, is still not clarified. To study the relation, we are developing an optical inspection system of the interior surface. (author)

  3. Solar power conversion system with directionally- and spectrally-selective properties based on a reflective cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana; Kraemer, Daniel; McEnaney, Kenneth; Weinstein, Lee A.; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-13

    Solar power conversion system. The system includes a cavity formed within an enclosure having highly specularly reflecting in the IR spectrum inside walls, the enclosure having an opening to receive solar radiation. An absorber is positioned within the cavity for receiving the solar radiation resulting in heating of the absorber structure. In a preferred embodiment, the system further contains an energy conversion and storage devices thermally-linked to the absorber by heat conduction, convection, far-field or near-field thermal radiation.

  4. Flange joint system for SRF cavities utilizing high force spring clamps for low particle generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-05

    A flange joint system for SRF cavities. The flange joint system includes a set of high force spring clamps that produce high force on the simple flanges of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities to squeeze conventional metallic seals. The system establishes the required vacuum and RF-tight seal with minimum particle contamination to the inside of the cavity assembly. The spring clamps are designed to stay within their elastic range while being forced open enough to mount over the flange pair. Upon release, the clamps have enough force to plastically deform metallic seal surfaces and continue to a new equilibrium sprung dimension where the flanges remain held against one another with enough preload such that normal handling will not break the seal.

  5. Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology. PMID:27067992

  6. Strong coupling QED with two fermionic flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K.C.

    1990-11-01

    We report the recent results of our simulation of strong coupling QED, with non-compact action, on lattices 10{sup 4} and 16{sup 4}. Since we are dealing with two staggered fermionic flavors, we use hybrid algorithm to do the simulation. In addition to the measurement of the chiral order parameter {l angle}{bar {psi}}{psi}{r angle}, we also measure magnetic monopole susceptibility, {chi}, throughout the region of chiral transition. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Asymptotic Behaviour of the QED Perturbation Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrish Huet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available I will summarize the present state of a long-term effort to obtain information on the large-order asymptotic behaviour of the QED perturbation series through the effective action. Starting with the constant-field case, I will discuss the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian in various dimensions and up to the three-loop level. This Lagrangian holds the information on the N-photon amplitudes in the low-energy limit, and combining it with Spinor helicity methods explicit all-N results can be obtained at the one-loop and, for the “all +” amplitudes, also at the two-loop level. For the imaginary part of the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian, an all-loop formula has been conjectured independently by Affleck, Alvarez, and Manton for Scalar QED and by Lebedev and Ritus for Spinor QED. This formula can be related through a Borel dispersion relation to the leading large-N behaviour of the N-photon amplitudes. It is analytic in the fine structure constant, which is puzzling and suggests a diagrammatic investigation of the large-N limit in perturbation theory. Preliminary results of such a study for the 1+1 dimensional case throw doubt on the validity of the conjecture.

  8. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of electronics for the temperature control of cavity windows and helium gas return lines for the superconducting cavities of the LEP200 radio frequency system

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of electronics for the temperature control of cavity windows and helium gas return lines for the superconducting cavities of the LEP200 radio frequency system

  9. Optomechanically induced transparency with Bose–Einstein condensate in double-cavity optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Wei; Gengzang, Duo-Jie; An, Xiu-Jia; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2018-03-01

    We propose a novel technique of generating multiple optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) of a weak probe field in hybrid optomechanical system. This system consists of a cigar-shaped Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC), trapped inside each high finesse Fabry-Pérot cavity. In the resolved sideband regime, the analytic solutions of the absorption and the dispersion spectrum are given. The tunneling strength of the two resonators and the coupling parameters of the each BEC in combination with the cavity field have the appearance of three distinct OMIT windows in the absorption spectrum. Furthermore, whether there is BEC in each cavity is a key factor in the number of OMIT windows determination. The technique presented may have potential applications in quantum engineering and quantum information networks. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11564034, 11105062, and 21663026) and the Scientific Research Funds of College of Electrical Engineering, Northwest University, China (Grant No. xbmuyjrc201115).

  10. Large gain quantum-limited qubit measurement using a two-mode nonlinear cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S; Clerk, A A; Vijay, R; Siddiqi, I

    2014-01-01

    We provide a thorough theoretical analysis of qubit state measurement in a setup where a driven, parametrically-coupled cavity system is directly coupled to the qubit, with one of the cavities having a weak Kerr nonlinearity. Such a system could be readily realized using circuit QED architectures. We demonstrate that this setup is capable in the standard linear-response regime of both producing a highly amplified output signal while at the same time achieving near quantum-limited performance: the measurement backaction on the qubit is near the minimal amount required by the uncertainty principle. This setup thus represents a promising route for performing efficient large-gain qubit measurement that is completely on-chip, and that does not rely on the use of circulators or complex non-reciprocal amplifiers. (paper)

  11. Theory and simulation of cavity quantum electro-dynamics in multi-partite quantum complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidoosty Shahraki, Moslem; Khorasani, Sina; Aram, Mohammad Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The cavity quantum electrodynamics of various complex systems is here analyzed using a general versatile code developed in this research. Such quantum multi-partite systems normally consist of an arbitrary number of quantum dots in interaction with an arbitrary number of cavity modes. As an example, a nine-partition system is simulated under different coupling regimes, consisting of eight emitters interacting with one cavity mode. Two-level emitters (e.g. quantum dots) are assumed to have an arrangement in the form of a linear chain, defining the mutual dipole-dipole interactions. It was observed that plotting the system trajectory in the phase space reveals a chaotic behavior in the so-called ultrastrong-coupling regime. This result is mathematically confirmed by detailed calculation of the Kolmogorov entropy, as a measure of chaotic behavior. In order to study the computational complexity of our code, various multi-partite systems consisting of one to eight quantum dots in interaction with one cavity mode were solved individually. Computation run times and the allocated memory for each system were measured.

  12. Many-body effects in coupled light-matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordyuh, Mykola

    Interaction between light and matter is one of the most basic processes in nature and represents a cornerstone in our understanding of a broad range of physical phenom- ena. The increasing level of control over light-matter interactions with atomic and solid-state systems has brought forth a new class of quantum many-body systems realized on photon lattices where light and matter play equally important roles in emergent phenomena. Systems of strongly interacting atoms and photons, that can be realized by wiring up individual cavity QED systems into lattices, are perceived as a new platform for engineering synthetic hybrid light-matter systems. While sharing important properties with other systems of interacting quantum particles, here we argue that the nature of light-matter interaction gives rise to unique features with no analogs in condensed matter or atomic physics setups. The central topic of the thesis is a lattice of cavity QED systems described by the Rabi-Hubbard model. We de- scribe the most prominent features of the model associated with quantum criticality. We consider a realistic case of the system open to the environment and investigate thermal radiation from a lattice of cavity QED systems. Next, we demonstrate that the output radiation displays unique features associated with collective excitations of light and matter. Further, we consider a non-equilibrium lattice of cavity QED systems and demonstrate exotic attractors in the phase diagram, associated with the action of the environment, not present in the equilibrium analogs. We conclude the discussions with a theory of measurement applied to the non-equilibrium Dicke model and compare our findings to a recent experiment.

  13. QED representation for the net of causal loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolli, Fabio; Ruzzi, Giuseppe; Vasselli, Ezio

    2015-06-01

    The present work tackles the existence of local gauge symmetries in the setting of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). The net of causal loops, previously introduced by the authors, is a model independent construction of a covariant net of local C*-algebras on any 4-dimensional globally hyperbolic space-time, aimed to capture structural properties of any reasonable quantum gauge theory. Representations of this net can be described by causal and covariant connection systems, and local gauge transformations arise as maps between equivalent connection systems. The present paper completes these abstract results, realizing QED as a representation of the net of causal loops in Minkowski space-time. More precisely, we map the quantum electromagnetic field Fμν, not free in general, into a representation of the net of causal loops and show that the corresponding connection system and the local gauge transformations find a counterpart in terms of Fμν.

  14. Cavity-enhanced eigenmode and angular hybrid multiplexing in holographic data storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bo E; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2016-12-26

    Resonant optical cavities have been demonstrated to improve energy efficiencies in Holographic Data Storage Systems (HDSS). The orthogonal reference beams supported as cavity eigenmodes can provide another multiplexing degree of freedom to push storage densities toward the limit of 3D optical data storage. While keeping the increased energy efficiency of a cavity enhanced reference arm, image bearing holograms are multiplexed by orthogonal phase code multiplexing via Hermite-Gaussian eigenmodes in a Fe:LiNbO3 medium with a 532 nm laser at two Bragg angles. We experimentally confirmed write rates are enhanced by an average factor of 1.1, and page crosstalk is about 2.5%. This hybrid multiplexing opens up a pathway to increase storage density while minimizing modification of current angular multiplexing HDSS.

  15. The covariant-evolution-operator method in bound-state QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, Ingvar; Salomonson, Sten; Aasen, Bjoern

    2004-01-01

    The methods of quantum-electrodynamical (QED) calculations on bound atomic systems are reviewed with emphasis on the newly developed covariant-evolution-operator method. The aim is to compare that method with other available methods and also to point out possibilities to combine that with standard many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) in order to perform accurate numerical QED calculations, including quasi-degeneracy, also for light elements, where the electron correlation is relatively strong. As a background, the time-independent many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) is briefly reviewed, particularly the method with extended model space. Time-dependent perturbation theory is discussed in some detail, introducing the time-evolution operator and the Gell-Mann-Low relation, generalized to an arbitrary model space. Three methods of treating the bound-state QED problem are discussed. The standard S-matrix formulation, which is restricted to a degenerate model space, is discussed only briefly. Two methods applicable also to the quasi-degenerate problem are treated in more detail, the two-times Green's-function and the covariant-evolution-operator techniques. The treatment is concentrated on the latter technique, which has been developed more recently and which has not been discussed in more detail before. A comparison of the two-times Green's-function and the covariant-evolution-operator techniques, which have great similarities, is performed. In the appendix a simple procedure is derived for expressing the evolution-operator diagrams of arbitrary order. The possibilities of merging QED in the covariant evolution-operator formulation with MBPT in a systematic way is indicated. With such a technique it might be feasible to perform accurate QED calculations also on light elements, which is presently not possible with the techniques available

  16. Permanent spin currents in cavity-qubit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manas; Hein, Sven M.; Kapit, Eliot; Aron, Camille

    2018-02-01

    In a recent experiment [P. Roushan et al., Nat. Phys. 13, 146 (2017), 10.1038/nphys3930], a spin current in an architecture of three superconducting qubits was produced during a few microseconds by creating synthetic magnetic fields. The lifetime of the current was set by the typical dissipative mechanisms that occur in those systems. We propose a scheme for the generation of permanent currents, even in the presence of such imperfections, and scalable to larger system sizes. It relies on striking a subtle balance between multiple nonequilibrium drives and the dissipation mechanisms, in order to engineer and stimulate chiral excited states which can carry current.

  17. Euler-Heisenberg-Weiss action for QCD +QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Sho; Arai, Takashi; Hattori, Koichi; Itakura, Kazunori

    2015-07-01

    We derive an analytic expression for one-loop effective action of QCD +QED at zero and finite temperatures by using the Schwinger proper time method. The result is a nonlinear effective action not only for electromagnetic and chromo-electromagnetic fields but also for the Polyakov loop, and thus reproduces the Euler-Heisenberg action in QED, QCD, and QED +QCD , and also the Weiss potential for the Polyakov loop at finite temperature. As applications of this "Euler-Heisenberg-Weiss" action in QCD +QED , we investigate quark pair productions induced by QCD +QED fields at zero temperature and the Polyakov loop in the presence of strong electromagnetic fields. Quark one-loop contribution to the effective potential of the Polyakov loop explicitly breaks the center symmetry, and is found to be enhanced by the magnetic field, which is consistent with the inverse magnetic catalysis observed in lattice QCD simulation.

  18. Quenched QED in the chiral limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermark, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    The main goal in this project has been to understand, through analytical methods, whether there could be a continuum limit for QED. This possibility is motivated by recent lattice simulations on quenched QED which apparently exhibit a chiral phase transition at strong coupling in the chiral limit. Another goal is to develop a novel perturbation expansion which may also be usefully applied to other theories. The author begins with the general expression for the chiral order parameter, (bar ψψ), in the quenched limit of euclidean QED, where the number of fermion flavors goes to zero, using the path integral formulation. A cutoff scale, Λ, is introduced into the photon propagator and a new expansion, the open-quotes wormhole expansion,close quotes in powers of Λ 2 /m 2 , where m is the fermion mass, is derived. Graphical rules for the wormhole expansion of left-angle bar ψψ right-angle are described in detail. The author then devises algorithms to generate recursively the graphs at each successive order and to perform the loop momentum integral and γ matrix trace involved in the evaluation of each graph. These algorithms are implemented in Mathmatica and the left-angle bar ψψ right-angle expansion is carried out to order (Λ 2 / m 2 ) 6 . The author employs pade techniques to extrapolate this expansion to the chiral limit (Λ 2 /m 2 → ∞) and looks for a singularity at strong coupling to signal a phase transition. Indications have been found that there may be a phase transition but apparently there are not enough terms in the wormhole expansion to attain stability in our pade analysis. The author therefore cannot conclude that there is a chiral phase transition, although the results are consistent with the existence of one

  19. Tunable 3D cQED: Applications to Quantum Optics and Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Matthew; Chou, Kevin; Ofek, Nissim; Blumoff, Jacob; Vlastakis, Brian; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Leghtas, Zaki; Nigg, Simon; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, Steven; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2013-03-01

    The ability to control the frequency of a superconducting qubit on nanosecond timescales has been used, among other things, to generate multi-qubit entanglement. The recently developed 3D cQED architecture has yielded dramatic coherence improvements and novel methods of entangling fixed-tuned qubits, but has until now has lacked the ability to control qubit frequencies in situ. Adding this would grant several abilities. First, the coupling of a qubit to the cavity bus could be modulated to control both the inherited nonlinearity and the dispersive shift of the oscillator. Second, controlling the interactions between individual qubits, particularly those coupled to more than one cavity, could be used to shuttle quantum information between subsystems. Third, a small change to the physical implementation could yield efficient individual qubit QND readout or reset. These abilities are readily applicable to demonstrations of hardware-efficient quantum error correction, entanglement distillation between distant pairs of qubits, and teleportation of quantum information. In this talk, we will discuss our recent results toward achieving these capabilities using the tunable 3D cQED architecture introduced previously.

  20. Towards bootstrapping QED{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, Shai M.; Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-08-02

    We initiate the conformal bootstrap study of Quantum Electrodynamics in 2+1 space-time dimensions (QED{sub 3}) with N flavors of charged fermions by focusing on the 4-point function of four monopole operators with the lowest unit of topological charge. We obtain upper bounds on the scaling dimension of the doubly-charged monopole operator, with and without assuming other gaps in the operator spectrum. Intriguingly, we find a (gap-dependent) kink in these bounds that comes reasonably close to the large N extrapolation of the scaling dimensions of the singly-charged and doubly-charged monopole operators down to N=4 and N=6.

  1. CP Violation from 5-dimensional QED

    CERN Document Server

    Grzadkowski, B; Grzadkowski, Bohdan; Wudka, Jose

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that QED in (1+4)-dimensional space-time, with the fifth dimension compactified on a circle, leads to CP violation (CPV). Depending on fermionic boundary conditions, CPV may be either explicit (through the Scherk--Schwarz mechanism), or spontaneous (via the Hosotani mechanism). The fifth component of the gauge field acquires (at the one-loop level) a non-zero vacuum expectation value. In the presence of two fermionic fields, this leads to spontaneous CPV in the case of CP-symmetric boundary conditions. Phenomenological consequences are illustrated by a calculation of the electric dipole moment for the fermionic zero-modes.

  2. Oblique photon expansion of QED structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, C.

    1986-01-01

    In the oblique photon expansion, the collinear part of photon emission is summed up to all orders in perturbation theory. The number of oblique or non-collinear photons is the expansion order. Unlike in perturbation theory, every term of the expansion is both infrared finite and gauge invariant. The zero oblique photon contribution to the electromagnetic structure tensor in QED is computed in detail. The behaviors of the structure functions F1 and F2 are discussed in the soft and ultra-soft limits

  3. High order QED corrections in Z physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marck, S.C. van der.

    1991-01-01

    In this thesis a number of calculations of higher order QED corrections are presented, all applying to the standard LEP/SLC processes e + e - → f-bar f, where f stands for any fermion. In cases where f≠ e - , ν e , the above process is only possible via annihilation of the incoming electron positron pair. At LEP/SLC this mainly occurs via the production and the subsequent decay of a Z boson, i.e. the cross section is heavily dominated by the Z resonance. These processes and the corrections to them, treated in a semi-analytical way, are discussed (ch. 2). In the case f = e - (Bhabha scattering) the process can also occur via the exchange of a virtual photon in the t-channel. Since the latter contribution is dominant at small scattering angles one has to exclude these angles if one is interested in Z physics. Having excluded that region one has to recalculate all QED corrections (ch. 3). The techniques introduced there enables for the calculation the difference between forward and backward scattering, the forward backward symmetry, for the cases f ≠ e - , ν e (ch. 4). At small scattering angles, where Bhabha scattering is dominated by photon exchange in the t-channel, this process is used in experiments to determine the luminosity of the e + e - accelerator. hence an accurate theoretical description of this process at small angles is of vital interest to the overall normalization of all measurements at LEP/SLC. Ch. 5 gives such a description in a semi-analytical way. The last two chapters discuss Monte Carlo techniques that are used for the cases f≠ e - , ν e . Ch. 6 describes the simulation of two photon bremsstrahlung, which is a second order QED correction effect. The results are compared with results of the semi-analytical treatment in ch. 2. Finally ch. 7 reviews several techniques that have been used to simulate higher order QED corrections for the cases f≠ e - , ν e . (author). 132 refs.; 10 figs.; 16 tabs

  4. Large-scale helium refrigeration system for KEKB/TRISTAN superconducting cavities. Operation experience for 27 years and next operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Hirotaka; Kojima, Yuuji; Nakanishi, Kota; Hara, Kazufumi; Hosoyama, Kenji; Honma, Teruya; Morita, Yoshiyuki; Kanekiyo, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the configuration and heat loads of the large-scale helium refrigeration system for the superconducting cavities utilized for the TRISTAN and KEKB Factory accelerators. The control system of the refrigeration system is also introduced. The fatal failures of the refrigeration system during the past long-term operation are summarized to entice discussions on future stable operation of the refrigeration system, since the refrigeration system will also be used for the SuperKEKB superconducting cavities. (author)

  5. Exploring photonic topological insulator states in a circuit-QED lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Ling; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Zhao, Feng

    2018-04-01

    We propose a simple protocol to explore the topological properties of photonic integer quantum Hall states in a one-dimensional circiut-QED lattice. By periodically modulating the on-site photonic energies in such a lattice, we demonstrate that this one-dimensional lattice model can be mapped into a two-dimensional integer quantum Hall insulator model. Based on the lattice-based cavity input-output theory, we show that both the photonic topological protected edge states and topological invariants can be clearly measured from the final steady state of the resonator lattice after taking into account cavity dissipation. Interestingly, we also find that the measurement signals associated with the above topological features are quite unambitious even in five coupled dissipative resonators. Our work opens up a new prospect of exploring topological states with a small-size dissipative quantum artificial lattice, which is quite attractive to the current quantum optics community.

  6. Beam Pipe HOM Absorber for 750 MHz RF Cavity Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland; Neubauer, Michael

    2014-10-29

    This joint project of Muons, Inc., Cornell University and SLAC was supported by a Phase I and Phase II grant monitored by the SBIR Office of Science of the DOE. Beam line HOM absorbers are a critical part of future linear colliders. The use of lossy materials at cryogenic temperatures has been incorporated in several systems. The design in beam pipes requires cylinders of lossy material mechanically confined in such a way as to absorb the microwave energy from the higher-order modes and remove the heat generated in the lossy material. Furthermore, the potential for charge build-up on the surface of the lossy material requires the conductivity of the material to remain consistent from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. In this program a mechanical design was developed that solved several design constraints: a) fitting into the existing Cornell load vacuum component, b) allowing the use of different material compositions, c) a thermal design that relied upon the compression of the lossy ceramic material without adding stress. Coating experiments were performed that indicated the design constraints needed to fully implement this approach for solving the charge build-up problem inherent in using lossy ceramics. In addition, the ACE3P program, used to calculate the performance of lossy cylinders in beam pipes in general, was supported by this project. Code development and documentation to allow for the more wide spread use of the program was a direct result of this project was well.

  7. Optomechanically induced transparency in multi-cavity optomechanical system with and without one two-level atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Amjad; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-Shui

    2016-06-28

    We analytically study the optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) in the N-cavity system with the Nth cavity driven by pump, probing laser fields and the 1st cavity coupled to mechanical oscillator. We also consider that one atom could be trapped in the ith cavity. Instead of only illustrating the OMIT in such a system, we are interested in how the number of OMIT windows is influenced by the cavities and the atom and what roles the atom could play in different cavities. In the resolved sideband regime, we find that, the number of cavities precisely determines the maximal number of OMIT windows. It is interesting that, when the two-level atom is trapped in the even-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is split and forms an extra OMIT window, but if the atom is trapped in the odd-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is only broadened and thus changes the width of the OMIT windows rather than induces an extra window.

  8. An object-oriented implementation of the TRIUMF 92 MHz booster cavity control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, N.A.; Ludgate, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    A 92 MHz auxiliary accelerating cavity has been designed for installation inside the TRIUMF cyclotron, operating up to a maximum peak voltage of 200 kV. The cavity doubles the energy gain per turn for accelerating hydrogen ions in the energy region of 400-500 MeV, and reduces by 50% the stripping loss of the ion beam. The control system for the booster comprises a PC-based processor in a VME crate, for local control, and a 68030 processor with an ethernet connection as the interface to the TRIUMF Central Control System. The requirements for the booster control system were established by an object-oriented requirements analysis. Afterward, an object-oriented architectural design step was used to produce the processor allocation of the design, which was then implemented using C, for the VME processor, and a commercial database and screen generator product, for the VAX user interface. (author)

  9. Digital Design Of The LHC Low Level rf The Tuning System For The Superconducting Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, P; Ciapala, Edmond; Molendijk, J C; Olsen, R; Sorokoletov, R; Weierud, F

    2006-01-01

    The low level RF systems for the LHC are based extensively on digital technology, not only to achieve the required performance and stability but also to provide full remote control and diagnostics facilities needed since most of the RF system is inaccessible during operation. The hardware is based on modular VME with a specially designed P2 backplane for timing distribution, fast data interchange and low noise linear power supplies. Extensive design re-use and the use of graphic FPGA design tools have streamlined the design process. A milestone was the test of the tuning system for the superconducting cavities. The tuning control module is based on a 2M gate FPGA with on-board DSP. Its design and functionality are described, including features such as automatic cavity measurements. Work is ongoing on completion of other modules and building up complete software and diagnostics facilities.

  10. QED effects in the pseudoscalar meson sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047 (Japan); Perlt, H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstrasse 16, Leipzig, 04109 (Germany); Pleiter, D. [Jülich Supercomputer Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, 52425 (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, Regensburg, 93040 (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Theoretical Physics Division, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Peach Street , Liverpool, L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, 22603 (Germany); Schiller, A. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstrasse 16, Leipzig, 04109 (Germany); Stokes, R. [CSSM, Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia); Stüben, H. [Regionales Rechenzentrum, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, 20146 (Germany); Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M. [CSSM, Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005 (Australia); Collaboration: the QCDSF and UKQCD collaboration

    2016-04-15

    In this paper we present results on the pseudoscalar meson masses from a fully dynamical simulation of QCD+QED, concentrating particularly on violations of isospin symmetry. We calculate the π{sup +}–π{sup 0} splitting and also look at other isospin violating mass differences. We have presented results for these isospin splittings in http://arxiv.org/abs/1508.06401. In this paper we give more details of the techniques employed, discussing in particular the question of how much of the symmetry violation is due to QCD, arising from the different masses of the u and d quarks, and how much is due to QED, arising from the different charges of the quarks. This decomposition is not unique, it depends on the renormalisation scheme and scale. We suggest a renormalisation scheme in which Dashen’s theorem for neutral mesons holds, so that the electromagnetic self-energies of the neutral mesons are zero, and discuss how the self-energies change when we transform to a scheme such as (MS)-bar , in which Dashen’s theorem for neutral mesons is violated.

  11. Variations of QED in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronsdal, C.

    1991-01-01

    The quantization of three-dimensional electrodynamics in 2 + 2 De Sitter space is carried out in detail. In three dimensions the author finds completely different types of quantum electrodynamics. The most interesting versions have spins +1 and/or -1. When both spins are combined as modes of a single vector potential with definite parity, then the field strength vanishes; nevertheless the theory has an infinite space of propagating physical modes. This version of three-dimensional QED is equivalent to three-dimensional singleton theory. The requirements of gauge invariance prohibit local interactions, in the classical theory and within the framework of canonical quantization, and interactions are thus limited to the boundary at spatial infinity, a torus. There are also two chiral theories, in which the physical modes have spin +1 only, or -1 only; here the field strength is not identically zero, though it vanishes on the physical subspace. The chiral theories do not have smooth limits as the curvature tends to zero. All these versions of electrodynamics are smooth limits as the curvature tends to zero. All these versions of electrodynamics are smooth limits of massive vector theories, and all can be regarded as quantized counterparts of classical Chern-Simons theory. The most standard form of three-dimensional QED has physical modes with spin zero; it is in a sense a limit of a massive theory with spin zero. In two dimensions the only physical degree of freedom is an excitation with vanishing energy and momentum, a topological mode

  12. Simple atoms: QED tests and fundamental constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karshenboim, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Study of simple atoms can be performed theoretically and experimentally with a high accuracy and a comparison of theory and experiment provide us with several high precision tests of bound state QED. Theory cannot actually leads to a figure to compare with experiment, but it only can present some measurable quantities in terms of fundamental and auxiliary constants. That offers an opportunity to obtain new accurate values of some fundamental constants. Theory of simple atoms is based on Quantum electrodynamics but also involves an essential part of nuclear and particle physics. A significant part of experiments are related to high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Present status of the precision physics of simple atoms is presented in detail. We overview a comparison of the theory of such atoms, bound state QED, and the experiment. In particular, we consider the hyperfine structure in light atoms and the g-factor of a bound electron in hydrogen-like ions at low and medium Z. We discuss a project on optical measurement of of 2s hyperfine interval in atomic hydrogen. We also pay attention to determination of the fundamental constants from study of simple atoms. The constants under consideration includes alpha, electron-to-proton mass ratio and electron-to-muon mass ratio

  13. Investigation of Dispersion and Performance Based on Ring Cavity by Birefringent Interleaver for DWDM Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsair-Chun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate a 25 GHz multichannel filter based on ring cavity birefringent optical interleaver for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM transmission systems. The simulation tool used in this work is the Advanced System Analysis Program (ASAP optical modeling software. We improve the dispersion performance by employing λ/6 and λ/4 wave plates as birefringent compensators for interleavers. The new structure exhibits a high performance with nearly zero ripple, a channel isolation greater than 102 dB, and a passband utilization of 86% within the C-band. The research results illustrate that our modified scheme can improve the dispersion of more than 76.6% in comparison with the previous studies of optical interleaver with birefringent crystal and ring cavity structures.

  14. Semiconductor laser with a birefringent external cavity for information systems with wavelength division multiplexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranin, V D; Matyunin, S A; Tukmakov, K N [S.P. Korolev Samara State Aerospace University, Samara (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-31

    The spectrum of a semiconductor laser with a birefringent external Gires – Tournois cavity is studied. The generation of two main laser modes corresponding to the ordinary and extraordinary wave resonances is found. It is shown that the radiation spectrum is controlled with a high energy efficiency without losses for spectral filtration. The possibility of using two-mode lasing in optical communication systems with wavelength division multiplexing is shown. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  15. Investigation of a metamaterial slab lens and an imaging system based on an ellipsoidal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Mahdi; Mirsalehi, Mir Mojtaba

    2017-06-01

    A slab metamaterial lens with a refractive index of -1 is capable of producing a perfect image, since it transfers all the plane waves from the object plane to the image plane without creating any distortion in their amplitudes and phases. However, its practical implementation encounters several challenges. In this paper, a lossless slab metamaterial lens is investigated using the ray-tracing technique. We also discuss propagating waves and evanescent waves and investigate an imaging system based on an ellipsoidal cavity. It is shown that since an ellipsoidal cavity transfers the beams from one of its foci to the other with the same amplitude and phase, it acts similarly to a metamaterial slab lens of n=-1. Therefore, this structure can be used as a subwavelength resolution imaging system. Also, it does not suffer from chromatic aberration, since all the rays transmitted from one focus pass through the other independent of the wavelength. Another important advantage of this system, compared to metamaterial-based superlenses, is that it can operate at any frequency as long as the dimensions of the cavity are much larger than the wavelength.

  16. Parameter estimation in plasmonic QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, H. Rangani

    2018-03-01

    We address the problem of parameter estimation in the presence of plasmonic modes manipulating emitted light via the localized surface plasmons in a plasmonic waveguide at the nanoscale. The emitter that we discuss is the nitrogen vacancy centre (NVC) in diamond modelled as a qubit. Our goal is to estimate the β factor measuring the fraction of emitted energy captured by waveguide surface plasmons. The best strategy to obtain the most accurate estimation of the parameter, in terms of the initial state of the probes and different control parameters, is investigated. In particular, for two-qubit estimation, it is found although we may achieve the best estimation at initial instants by using the maximally entangled initial states, at long times, the optimal estimation occurs when the initial state of the probes is a product one. We also find that decreasing the interqubit distance or increasing the propagation length of the plasmons improve the precision of the estimation. Moreover, decrease of spontaneous emission rate of the NVCs retards the quantum Fisher information (QFI) reduction and therefore the vanishing of the QFI, measuring the precision of the estimation, is delayed. In addition, if the phase parameter of the initial state of the two NVCs is equal to πrad, the best estimation with the two-qubit system is achieved when initially the NVCs are maximally entangled. Besides, the one-qubit estimation has been also analysed in detail. Especially, we show that, using a two-qubit probe, at any arbitrary time, enhances considerably the precision of estimation in comparison with one-qubit estimation.

  17. Deterministic creation and stabilization of entanglement in circuit QED by homodyne-mediated feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhuo; Kuang Luelin; Hu Kai; Xu Luting; Wei Suhua; Guo Lingzhen; Li Xinqi

    2010-01-01

    In a solid-state circuit QED system, we demonstrate that a homodyne-current-based feedback can create and stabilize highly entangled two-qubit states in the presence of a moderate noisy environment. Particularly, we present an extended analysis for the current-based Markovian feedback, which leads to an improved feedback scheme. We show that this is essential to achieve a desirable control effect by the use of dispersive measurement.

  18. Evolution Properties of Atomic Fidelity in the Combined Multi-Atom-Cavity Field System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju-Xia; Zhang Xiao-Juan; Zhang Xiu-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The atom fidelity is investigated in a system consisting of Mtwo-level atoms and M single-mode fields by use of complete quantum theory and numerical evaluation method. The influences of various system parameters on the evolution of atomic fidelity are studied. The results show that the atomic fidelity evolves in a Rabi oscillation manner. The oscillation frequency is mainly modulated by the coupling strength between atoms and light field, the atomic transition probabilities and the average photon numbers. Other factors hardly impact on the atomic fidelity. The present results may provide a useful approach to the maintenance of the atomic fidelity in the atom cavity field systems. (paper)

  19. Evaluation of microwave cavity gas sensor for in-vessel monitoring of dry cask storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, S.; Gonnot, T.; Elmer, T.; Chien, H.-T.; Engel, D.; Koehl, E.; Heifetz, A.

    2018-04-01

    Results are reported of research activities conducted at Argonne to assess the viability of microwave resonant cavities for extended in-vessel monitoring of dry cask storage system (DCSS) environment. One of the gases of concern to long-term storage in canisters is water vapor, which appears due to evaporation of residual moisture from incompletely dried fuel assembly. Excess moisture could contribute to corrosion and deterioration of components inside the canister, which would in turn compromise maintenance and safe transportation of such systems. Selection of the sensor type in this work was based on a number of factors, including good sensitivity, fast response time, small form factor and ruggedness of the probing element. A critical design constraint was the capability to mount and operate the sensor using the existing canister penetrations-use of existing ports for thermocouple lances. Microwave resonant cavities operating at select resonant frequency matched to the rotational absorption line of the molecule of interest offer the possibility of highly sensitive detection. In this study, two prototype K-band microwave cylindrical cavities operating at TE01n resonant modes around the 22 GHz water absorption line were developed and tested. The sensors employ a single port for excitation and detection and a novel dual-loop inductive coupling for optimized excitation of the resonant modes. Measurement of the loaded and unloaded cavity quality factor was obtained from the S11 parameter. The acquisition and real-time analysis of data was implemented using software based tools developed for this purpose. The results indicate that the microwave humidity sensors developed in this work could be adapted to in-vessel monitoring applications that require few parts-per-million level of sensitivity. The microwave sensing method for detection of water vapor can potentially be extended to detection of radioactive fission gases leaking into the interior of the canister through

  20. Nonlinear QED effects in X-ray emission of pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakeri, Soroush [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighat, Mansour [Department of Physics, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71946-84795 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Xue, She-Sheng, E-mail: Soroush.Shakeri@ph.iut.ac.ir, E-mail: m.haghighat@shirazu.ac.ir, E-mail: xue@icra.it [ICRANet, Piazzale della Repubblica 10, 65122, Pescara (Italy)

    2017-10-01

    In the presence of strong magnetic fields near pulsars, the QED vacuum becomes a birefringent medium due to nonlinear QED interactions. Here, we explore the impact of the effective photon-photon interaction on the polarization evolution of photons propagating through the magnetized QED vacuum of a pulsar. We solve the quantum Boltzmann equation within the framework of the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian to find the evolution of the Stokes parameters. We find that linearly polarized X-ray photons propagating outward in the magnetosphere of a rotating neutron star can acquire high values for the circular polarization parameter. Meanwhile, it is shown that the polarization characteristics of photons besides photon energy depend strongly on parameters of the pulsars such as magnetic field strength, inclination angle and rotational period. Our results are clear predictions of QED vacuum polarization effects in the near vicinity of magnetic stars which can be tested with the upcoming X-ray polarimetric observations.

  1. Renormalization of extended QED with spontaneously broken supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibold, K.

    1980-01-01

    Using the BPHZ subtraction scheme in the version of Lowenstein and Zimmermann gauge and supersymmetry Ward identities are proved to all orders of perturbation theory for the super QED where supersymmetry is spontaneously broken. (orig.)

  2. Two-loop renormalization of Feynman gauge QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, Gregory S.; Fell, Richard N.; Sapirstein, J.

    2001-01-01

    We calculate the two-loop renormalization constants deltam, Z 1 , and Z 2 in Feynman gauge QED using dimensional regularization to control ultraviolet divergences and a non-zero photon mass to regulate infrared divergences

  3. Endemic infrared divergences in QED3 at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Pok Man; Swanson, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that massless QED in three dimensions contains endemic infrared divergences. It is argued that these divergences do not affect observables; furthermore, it is possible to choose a gauge that renders the theory finite.

  4. A digital frequency stabilization system of external cavity diode laser based on LabVIEW FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuohuan; Hu, Zhaohui; Qi, Lu; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Frequency stabilization for external cavity diode laser has played an important role in physics research. Many laser frequency locking solutions have been proposed by researchers. Traditionally, the locking process was accomplished by analog system, which has fast feedback control response speed. However, analog system is susceptible to the effects of environment. In order to improve the automation level and reliability of the frequency stabilization system, we take a grating-feedback external cavity diode laser as the laser source and set up a digital frequency stabilization system based on National Instrument's FPGA (NI FPGA). The system consists of a saturated absorption frequency stabilization of beam path, a differential photoelectric detector, a NI FPGA board and a host computer. Many functions, such as piezoelectric transducer (PZT) sweeping, atomic saturation absorption signal acquisition, signal peak identification, error signal obtaining and laser PZT voltage feedback controlling, are totally completed by LabVIEW FPGA program. Compared with the analog system, the system built by the logic gate circuits, performs stable and reliable. User interface programmed by LabVIEW is friendly. Besides, benefited from the characteristics of reconfiguration, the LabVIEW program is good at transplanting in other NI FPGA boards. Most of all, the system periodically checks the error signal. Once the abnormal error signal is detected, FPGA will restart frequency stabilization process without manual control. Through detecting the fluctuation of error signal of the atomic saturation absorption spectrum line in the frequency locking state, we can infer that the laser frequency stability can reach 1MHz.

  5. Engineering stabilizer measurements in circuit QED: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumoff, Jacob; Chou, Kevin; Reagor, M.; Axline, C.; Brierly, R.; Nigg, S.; Reinhold, P.; Heeres, R.; Wang, C.; Sliwa, K.; Narla, A.; Hatridge, M.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Girvin, S. M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    Quantum error correction based on stabilizer codes has emerged as an attractive approach towards building a practical quantum information processor. One requirement for such a device is the ability to perform hardware efficient measurements on registers of qubits. We demonstrate a new protocol to realize such multi-qubit measurements. A key feature of our approach is that it enables arbitrary stabilizer measurements to be selected in software, and requires a relatively small number of buses, ancillae, and control lines. This allows for a minimally complex sample realizing a simple dispersive hamiltonian while maintaining a high degree of decoupling between our fixed-tuned qubits. We experimentally implement these measurements in 3D circuit QED using transmon qubits coupled to a common bus resonator. In the second of two talks, we present a full characterization of the algorithm describing the outcome dependent projections via quantum process tomography. We acknowledge funding from ARO.

  6. Quantum chaos in compact lattice QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, B.A.; Markum, H.; Pullirsch, R.

    1999-01-01

    Complete eigenvalue spectra of the staggered Dirac operator in quenched 4D compact QED are studied on 8 3 x4 and 8 3 x6 lattices. We investigate the behavior of the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution P(s) as a measure of the fluctuation properties of the eigenvalues in the strong coupling and the Coulomb phase. In both phases we find agreement with the Wigner surmise of the unitary ensemble of random-matrix theory indicating quantum chaos. Combining this with previous results on QCD, we conjecture that quite generally the non-linear couplings of quantum field theories lead to a chaotic behavior of the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  7. Renormalization of QED with planar binary trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouder, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Dyson relations between renormalized and bare photon and electron propagators Z 3 anti D(q)=D(q) and Z 2 anti S(q)=S(q) are expanded over planar binary trees. This yields explicit recursive relations for the terms of the expansions. When all the trees corresponding to a given power of the electron charge are summed, recursive relations are obtained for the finite coefficients of the renormalized photon and electron propagators. These relations significantly decrease the number of integrals to carry out, as compared to the standard Feynman diagram technique. In the case of massless quantum electrodynamics (QED), the relation between renormalized and bare coefficients of the perturbative expansion is given in terms of a Hopf algebra structure. (orig.)

  8. Gauge dependences of the covariant effective action in QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbagauer, Herbert; Kraemmer, Ulrike; Rebhan, Anton

    1989-07-01

    A recent computation of the (nonlocal) covariant effective action of QED in weak constant external electromagnetic fields is generalized to general Lorentz gauges and its gauge dependence is displayed, and it is then removed by the prescription for a gauge and parametrization independent effective action according to Vilkovisky. The geometry, which in this framework is ascribed to the field configuration space of QED, is made explicit, and it is shown that Vilkovisky's effective action coincides with the conventional Landau gauge case.

  9. A convergent series for the QED effective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y M; Pak, D G

    2001-03-05

    The one-loop effective action of QED obtained by Heisenberg and Euler and by Schwinger has been expressed by an asymptotic perturbative series which is divergent. In this Letter we present a nonperturbative but convergent series of the effective action. With the convergent series we establish the existence of the manifest electric-magnetic duality in the one-loop effective action of QED.

  10. One-loop renormalization of Coulomb-gauge QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    In this article I present a physically motivated renormalization scheme for Coulomb-gauge QED. This scheme is useful in calculations involving QED bound states. I implement this scheme to one loop by calculating the electron self-energy, the electron self-mass, and the renormalization constants Z 1 and Z 2 . Formulas for the dimensional regularization of some noncovariant integrals useful in one-loop Coulomb-gauge calculations are given

  11. A digital closed loop control system for automatic phase locking of superconducting cavities of IUAC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, R.N.; Rai, A.; Pandey, A.; Sahu, B.K.; Patra, P.; Karmakar, J.; Chaudhari, G.K.; Mathur, Y.; Ghosh, S.; Kanjilal, D.

    2013-01-01

    A closed loop digital control system has been designed and tested to automate the tuning process of superconducting resonators of LINAC at Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. The mechanism controls the proportional valves of the He gas based pneumatic tuner in response to the phase and frequency errors of the cavity RF field. The main RF phase lock loop (PLL) is automatically closed once the resonant frequency is within locking range of the resonator PLL. The digital control scheme was successfully tested on few resonators of LINAC cryostat 1. A high stability of phase lock was observed. The details of the digital automation system are presented in the paper. (author)

  12. An analysis of system pressure and temperature distribution in self-pressurizer of SMART considering thermal stratification at intermediate cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeon Moon; Lee, Doo Jeong; Yoon, Ju Hyun; Kim, Hwan Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Because the pressurizer is in reactor vessel, the heat transfer from primary water would increase the temperatures of fluids in pressurizer to same temperature of hotleg, if no cooling equipment were supplied. Thus, heat exchanger and thermal insulator are needed to minimize heat transferred from primary water and to remove heat in pressurizer. The temperatures in cavities of pressurizer for normal operation are 70 deg C and 74 deg C for intermediate and end cavity, respectively, which considers the solubility of nitrogen gas in water. Natural convection is the mechanism of heat balance in pressurizer of SMART. In SMART, the heat exchanger in pressurizer is placed in lower part of intermediate cavity, so the heat in upper part of intermediate cavity can't be removed adequately and it can cause thermal stratification. If thermal stratification occurred, it increases heat transfers to nitrogen gas and system pressure increases as the result. Thus, proper evaluation of those effects on system pressure and ways to mitigate thermal stratification should be established. This report estimates the system pressure and temperatures in cavities of pressurizer with considering thermal stratification in intermediate cavity. The system pressure and temperatures for each cavities considered size of wet thermal insulator, temperature of upper plate of reactor vessel, parameters of heat exchanger in intermediate cavity such as flow rate and temperature of cooling water, heat transfer area, effective tube height, and location of cooling tube. In addition to the consideration of thermal stratification thermal mixing of all water in intermediate cavity also considered and compared in this report. (author). 6 refs., 60 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. A Non-Hermitian Approach to Non-Linear Switching Dynamics in Coupled Cavity-Waveguide Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We present a non-Hermitian perturbation theory employing quasi-normal modes to investigate non-linear all-optical switching dynamics in a photonic crystal coupled cavity-waveguide system and compare with finite-difference-time-domain simulations.......We present a non-Hermitian perturbation theory employing quasi-normal modes to investigate non-linear all-optical switching dynamics in a photonic crystal coupled cavity-waveguide system and compare with finite-difference-time-domain simulations....

  14. Effects of cavity-cavity interaction on the entanglement dynamics of a generalized double Jaynes-Cummings model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Mahasweta; Das, Sreetama; Singha Roy, Sudipto; Shekhar Dhar, Himadri; Sen, Ujjwal

    2018-02-01

    We consider a generalized double Jaynes-Cummings model consisting of two isolated two-level atoms, each contained in a lossless cavity that interact with each other through a controlled photon-hopping mechanism. We analytically show that at low values of such a mediated cavity-cavity interaction, the temporal evolution of entanglement between the atoms, under the effects of cavity perturbation, exhibits the well-known phenomenon of entanglement sudden death (ESD). Interestingly, for moderately large interaction values, a complete preclusion of ESD is achieved, irrespective of its value in the initial atomic state. Our results provide a model to sustain entanglement between two atomic qubits, under the adverse effect of cavity induced perturbation, by introducing a non-intrusive inter-cavity photon exchange that can be physically realized through cavity-QED setups in contemporary experiments.

  15. The two-photon self-energy and other QED radiative corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschocke, S.

    2001-07-01

    One of the main issues in current nuclear physics is the precise measurement of the Lamb shift of strongly bound electrons in quantum electrodynamic (QED) tests in strong fields in highly charged ions. The currently performed high-precision measurements require extreme accuracy in the theoretical calculation of Lamb shift. This requires consideration of all α and α 2 order QED corrections as well as of precisely all orders in Zα. In the past years most of these QED corrections have been calculated both in 1st order and in 2nd order interference theory. As yet however, it has not been possible to assess the contribution of the two-photon self-energy, which has therefore been the greatest uncertainty factor in predicting Lamb shift in hydrogen-like systems. This study examines the contribution of these processes to Lamb shift. It also provides the first ever derivation of renormalized terms of two-photon vacuum polarisation and self-energy vacuum polarisation. Until now it has only been possible to evaluate these contributions by way of an Uehling approximation [de

  16. Circuit QED Simulation of Interacting Bosons with Microwave Polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, Steven

    2012-02-01

    A polariton is a coherent superposition of a photon and an electronic excitation such as an exciton. Polaritons can have very low mass (associated with the photon component) and repulsive interactions (associated with the exciton component). Recent experimental progress has observed Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity in polaritons in semiconductor quantum wells. In this talk I will discuss the possibility that many-body physics and quantum phase transitions of interacting polaritons [1-3] can be observed in arrays of microwave resonators containing superconducting qubits [4-6]. If the qubits are not far-detuned from the cavities, the natural excitations are coherent superpositions of cavity and qubit excitations and they have interactions acquired from the anharmonicity of the qubits. These interactions can lead to quantum phase transitions in the limit of weak dissipation. It may even be possible to simulate the fractional quantum Hall effect for bosons by coupling the polaritons between sites using superconducting structures which act as `circulators' that break time-reversal and charge-conjugation symmetry. In light of recent progress in achieving very long-coherence times for superconducting qubits and strong qubit coupling to microwave photons, experimental prospects for observing quantum phase transitions in microwave resonator lattices will be described. [4pt] [1] A. D. Greentree, et al., Nat. Phys. 2, 856 (2006).[0pt] [2] M. J. Hartmann et al., Nat. Phys. 2, 849 (2006).[0pt] [3] D. G. Angelakis, M. F. Santos, and S. Bose, Phys. Rev. A 76, 031805 (2007).[0pt] [4] J. Koch and K. Le Hur, Phys. Rev. A 80, 023811 (2009).[0pt] [5] `Time-reversal symmetry breaking in circuit-QED based photon lattices,'Jens Koch, Andrew A. Houck, Karyn Le Hur, and S. M. Girvin, Phys. Rev. A 82, 043811 (2010).[0pt] [6] `Synthetic gauge fields and homodyne transmission in Jaynes-Cummings lattices,' A. Nunnenkamp, Jens Koch, and S. M. Girvin, New J. Phys. 13 095008 (2011).

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisani, Angelo; Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M

    2010-11-02

    The design of passive heat removal systems is one of the main concerns for the modular very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTR) vessel cavity. The reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) is a key heat removal system during normal and off-normal conditions. The design and validation of the RCCS is necessary to demonstrate that VHTRs can survive to the postulated accidents. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) STAR-CCM+/V3.06.006 code was used for three-dimensional system modeling and analysis of the RCCS. A CFD model was developed to analyze heat exchange in the RCCS. The model incorporates a 180-deg section resembling the VHTR RCCS experimentally reproduced in a laboratory-scale test facility at Texas A&M University. All the key features of the experimental facility were taken into account during the numerical simulations. The objective of the present work was to benchmark CFD tools against experimental data addressing the behavior of the RCCS following accident conditions. Two cooling fluids (i.e., water and air) were considered to test the capability of maintaining the RCCS concrete walls' temperature below design limits. Different temperature profiles at the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall obtained from the experimental facility were used as boundary conditions in the numerical analyses to simulate VHTR transient evolution during accident scenarios. Mesh convergence was achieved with an intensive parametric study of the two different cooling configurations and selected boundary conditions. To test the effect of turbulence modeling on the RCCS heat exchange, predictions using several different turbulence models and near-wall treatments were evaluated and compared. The comparison among the different turbulence models analyzed showed satisfactory agreement for the temperature distribution inside the RCCS cavity medium and at the standpipes walls. For such a complicated geometry and flow conditions, the tested turbulence models demonstrated that the

  18. Probing the energy structure of positronium with a 203 GHz Fabry-Perot Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehara, T; Namba, T; Kobayashi, T [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP), University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Miyazaki, A; Ishida, A; Asai, S [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 133-0033 (Japan); Saito, H [Department of General Systems Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8902 (Japan); Yoshida, M [Accelerator Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan); Idehara, T; Ogawa, I; Kobayashi, S; Urushizaki, Y [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui (FIR-FU), 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, Fukui, 910-8507 (Japan); Sabchevski, S, E-mail: suehara@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.j [Bulgarian Academy of Science, 1, 15 Noemvri Str., 1040 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-01-01

    Positronium is an ideal system for the research of the bound state QED. The hyperfine splitting of positronium (Ps-HFS: about 203 GHz) is sensitive to new physics beyond the Standard Model via a vacuum oscillation between an ortho-Ps and a virtual photon. Previous experimental results of the Ps-HFS show 3.9 {sigma} (15 ppm) discrepancy from the QED calculation. All previous experiments used an indirect method with static magnetic field to cause Zeeman splitting (a few GHz) between triplet states of ortho-Ps, from which the HFS value was derived. One possible systematic error source of the indirect method is the static magnetic field. We are developing a new direct measurement system of the Ps-HFS without static magnetic field. In this measurement we use a gyrotron, a novel sub-THz light source, with a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity to obtain enough radiation power at 203 GHz. The present status of the optimization studies and current design of the experiment are described.

  19. Controllable spiking patterns in long-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for neuromorphic photonics systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.hurtado@strath.ac.uk [Institute of Photonics, SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, TIC Centre, 99 George Street, Glasgow G1 1RD (United Kingdom); Javaloyes, Julien [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, c/Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Mallorca (Spain)

    2015-12-14

    Multiple controllable spiking patterns are achieved in a 1310 nm Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in response to induced perturbations and for two different cases of polarized optical injection, namely, parallel and orthogonal. Furthermore, reproducible spiking responses are demonstrated experimentally at sub-nanosecond speed resolution and with a controlled number of spikes fired. This work opens therefore exciting research avenues for the use of VCSELs in ultrafast neuromorphic photonic systems for non-traditional computing applications, such as all-optical binary-to-spiking format conversion and spiking information encoding.

  20. A modal approach to light emission and propagation in coupled cavity waveguide systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Kristensen, P. T.; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate systems of optical cavities coupled to waveguides,which necessitates the introduction of non-trivial radiation conditions and normalization procedures. In return, the approach provides simple and accurate modeling of Green functions,Purcell factors and perturbation...... corrections, as well as an alternative approach to the so-calledcoupled mode theory. In combination, these results may form part of the foundations for highly efficient, yet physically transparent models of light emission and propagation in both classical and quantum integrated photonic circuits....

  1. DOOCS environment for FPGA-based cavity control system and control algorithms development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucyk, P.; Koprek, W.; Kaleta, P.; Szewinski, J.; Pozniak, K.T.; Czarski, T.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Technical Univ. Warsaw (PL). Inst. of Electronic Systems (ISE)

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the concept and realization of the DOOCS control software for FPGAbased TESLA cavity controller and simulator (SIMCON). It bases on universal software components, created for laboratory purposes and used in MATLAB based control environment. These modules have been recently adapted to the DOOCS environment to ensure a unified software to hardware communication model. The presented solution can be also used as a general platform for control algorithms development. The proposed interfaces between MATLAB and DOOCS modules allow to check the developed algorithm in the operation environment before implementation in the FPGA. As the examples two systems have been presented. (orig.)

  2. Software layer for FPGA-based TESLA cavity control system. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koprek, W.; Kaleta, P.; Szewinski, J.; Pozniak, K.T.; Czarski, T.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Institute of Electronic Systems, WUT, Warsaw (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    The paper describes design and practical realization of software for laboratory purposes to control FPGA-based photonic and electronic equipment. There is presented a universal solution for all relevant devices with FPGA chips and gigabit optical links. The paper describes architecture of the software layers and program solutions of hardware communication based on internal interface (II) technology. Such a solution was used for superconducting cavity controller and simulator (SIMCON) for the TESLA experiment in DESY (Hamburg). A number of practical examples of the software solutions for the SIMCON system were given in this paper. (orig.)

  3. Microtensile Bond Strength of Adhesive Systems in Different Dentin Regions on a Class II Cavity Configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Soares, Eveline Freitas; Abuna, Gabriel Flores; Correr, Lourenço; Roulet, Jean-François; Geraldeli, Saulo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesives systems compared in different dentin regions (central-CD or proximal-PD) in a class II cavity configuration. A class II (mesial-oclusal-distal) cavity configuration was simulated on 20 extracted human third-molars (4 mm wide/3 mm deep). Etch-and-rinse adhesive (Scotchbond Multi Purpose, n=5, SBMP and Optibond FL, n=5, OPFL) and self-etch adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, n=5, CSE and Optibond XTR, n=5, OPXTR) were applied. Class II restorations were performed by incremental technique and photo-activated (Bluephase/G2). Samples were sectioned to beam shape (1 mm² cross-section), placed on Geraldeli's device for µTBS test (0.5 mm/min cross-head speed). Fracture patterns were analyzed on stereomicroscope and classified as cohesive-resin, adhesive, mixed/resin or mixed/dentin. Samples (n=4) were prepared for scanning electron microscope observation. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA with Split-Plot arrangement and Tukey's test (α=0.05). There were no statistically significant differences among SBMP, OPFL, CSE and OPXTR on CD (p>0.05). However, on PD for SBMP and OPFL, µTBS values were significantly lower compared to CSE and OPXTR (padhesive). In class II type cavity configuration, PD location negatively influenced bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Opposite to self-etching adhesives, which presented higher bond strength values compared to etch-and-rinse adhesives in PD.

  4. CFD Model Development and validation for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Yassin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Corradini, Michael; Tokuhiro, Akira; Wei, Thomas Y.C.

    2014-07-14

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems (RCCS) is a passive safety system that will be incorporated in the VTHR design. The system was designed to remove the heat from the reactor cavity and maintain the temperature of structures and concrete walls under desired limits during normal operation (steady-state) and accident scenarios. A small scale (1:23) water-cooled experimental facility was scaled, designed, and constructed in order to study the complex thermohydraulic phenomena taking place in the RCCS during steady-state and transient conditions. The facility represents a portion of the reactor vessel with nine stainless steel coolant risers and utilizes water as coolant. The facility was equipped with instrumentation to measure temperatures and flow rates and a general verification was completed during the shakedown. A model of the experimental facility was prepared using RELAP5-3D and simulations were performed to validate the scaling procedure. The experimental data produced during the steady-state run were compared with the simulation results obtained using RELAP5-3D. The overall behavior of the facility met the expectations. The facility capabilities were confirmed to be very promising in performing additional experimental tests, including flow visualization, and produce data for code validation.

  5. Toxicological impact of waterpipe smoking and flavorings in the oral cavity and respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; ALHarthi, Shatha Subhi; BinShabaib, Munerah Saleh; Gajendra, Sangeeta; Romanos, Georgios E; Rahman, Irfan

    2017-08-01

    Waterpipe smoking (WS), an emerging trend has major health concerns. It is prevalent worldwide as a recreational activity both indoors and outdoors. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of waterpipe smoke on the oral and respiratory system (oral cavity and pulmonary tissues). A number of studies have shown that periodontal health status is compromised in waterpipe smokers when compared with nonsmokers. Some studies have associated WS with oral premalignant and malignant lesions; however, due to the poor quality of these studies, the presented outcomes should be interpreted with caution. Although cigarette smoking has been considered as a potential risk factor for dental caries; there are no studies in indexed literature that have shown an association to exist between dental caries and WS. Inhaled waterpipe smoke imposes oxidative stress and inflammatory responses and compromises the ventilatory capacity of the lungs and may lead to an increased risk of decline in lung function. WS may cause oral and pulmonary diseases, such as periodontal disease and chronic obstructive airway disease, respectively. The association between WS and development of dental caries and oral pre-cancer and their relationships with chronic airways disease requires investigations. This review discusses the current evidence of waterpipe smoke effects on the oral health and respiratory system based on basic and clinical science and provides future directions for research and regulatory science on how WS can affect the oral cavity and the respiratory/pulmonary system.

  6. Experimental observation of stochastic, periodic, and localized light structures in a brillouin cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yingchun; Feng, Qi; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Zhongxuan; Tang, Xin; Lin, Chengyou; Chen, Zhaoyang

    2017-06-01

    It has been an important research subject to find new nonlinear optical phenomena. In this paper, we report the experimental observation of stochastic, periodic, and localized light structures in a super long single-mode standard fiber with external optical feedback provided by the fiber end. The end facet reflection provides an analogous Fabry-Perot stimulated Brillouin resonator cavity. By increasing the pump power to exceed stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold, we observed light structures exhibiting extremely rich temporal-pulse characteristics that had never been reported in literature before, including supercontinuum background generation, the localization of periodic optical structure formation, fission, and compression. These optical structures are of period-doubling distribution and have different recurrence rates. What is more interesting is that we have observed sets of low frequency bipolar cycle-pulse trains that is often seen in the electrical field and hardly seen in pure optical system. Real-time specification of dynamical temporal regimes of laser operation may bring new insight into rich underlying nonlinear physics of practical fiber cavity systems. Therefore, some new nonlinear optical phenomena have been observed.

  7. Flying relativistic mirrors for nonlinear QED studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, Stepan; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2017-10-01

    Recent progress in laser technology has led to a dramatic increase of laser power and intensity. As a result, the laser-matter interaction will happen in the radiation dominated regimes. In a strong electromagnetic field, electrons can be accelerated to such high velocities that the radiation reaction starts to play an important role. The radiation effects change drastically the laser-plasma interaction leading to fast energy losses. Moreover, previously unexplored regimes of the interaction will be entered into, in which quantum electrodynamics (QED) can occur. Depending on the laser intensity and wavelength, either classical or quantum mode of radiation reaction prevail. In order to study different regimes of interaction as well as the transition from one into another the utilization of flying relativistic mirrors, which can generate electromagnetic pulses with varying frequency and intensity, is proposed. The scheme is demonstrated for multiphoton Compton scattering. Work supported by U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  8. Critical number of flavors in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Calcaneo-Roldan, C.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that in unquenched quantum electrodynamics (QED), chiral symmetry breaking ceases to exist above a critical number of fermion flavors N f . This is a necessary and sufficient consequence of the fact that there exists a critical value of electromagnetic coupling α beyond which dynamical mass generation gets triggered. We employ a multiplicatively renormalizable photon propagator involving leading logarithms to all orders in α to illustrate this. We study the flavor and coupling dependence of the dynamically generated mass analytically as well as numerically. We also derive the scaling laws for the dynamical mass as a function of α and N f . Up to a multiplicative constant, these scaling laws are related through (α,α c )↔(1/N f ,1/N f c ). Calculation of the mass anomalous dimension γ m shows that it is always greater than its value in the quenched case. We also evaluate the β function. The criticality plane is drawn in the (α,N f ) phase space which clearly depicts how larger N f is required to restore chiral symmetry for an increasing interaction strength.

  9. Bern-Kosower rule for scalar QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daikouji, K.; Shino, M.; Sumino, Y.

    1996-01-01

    We derive a full Bern-Kosower-type rule for scalar QED starting from quantum field theory: we derive a set of rules for calculating S-matrix elements for any processes at any order of the coupling constant. A gauge-invariant set of diagrams in general is first written in the world line path-integral expression. Then we integrate over x(τ), and the resulting expression is given in terms of a correlation function on the world line left-angle x(τ)x(τ ' )right-angle. Simple rules to decompose the correlation function into basic elements are obtained. A gauge transformation known as the integration by parts technique can be used to reduce the number of independent terms before integration over proper-time variables. The surface terms can be omitted provided the external scalars are on shell. Also, we clarify correspondence to the conventional Feynman rule, which enabled us to avoid any ambiguity coming from the infinite dimensionality of the path-integral approach. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. On a possibility of using a superconducting cavity in the RF system of the storage ring LESR-N100

    CERN Document Server

    Androsov, V P; Telegin, Yu P

    2002-01-01

    In the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology the design project of the 200 MeV electron storage ring LESR-N100 is under development. The essential feature of this facility is the large beam energy spread (of about 1%). To ensure a reasonable beam lifetime the RF-system should provide the accelerating voltage of about 0.5 MV, while the total energy losses do not exceed approx 700 eV/turn. The power dissipated in two 700 MHz normal-conducting (NC) cavities much exceeds the power transmitted to the beam. We considered a possibility to use in LESR-N100 a high-Q superconducting RF-cavity (SRF-cavity) in which the dissipated power is the same order of magnitude as the beam-transmitted power. The studies show that the system with SRF-cavity cannot operate in the standard mode when the cavity is matched to the power transmission line at some nominal beam current. The optimal operation mode with high overcoupling is proposed that requires the RF-power one order of magnitude less than in the case of Nc-cavities.

  11. DOOCS based control system for FPGA based cavity simulator and controller in VUV FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucyk, P.

    2005-09-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser XFEL that is being planned at the DESY research center in cooperation with European partners will produce high-intensity ultra-short X-ray flashes with the properties of laser light. This new light source, which can only be described in terms of superlatives, will open up a whole range of new perspectives for the natural sciences. It could also offer very promising opportunities for industrial users. SIMCON (SIMulator and CONtroller) is the project of the fast, low latency digital controller dedicated for LLRF 1 system in VUV FEL experiment It is being developed by ELHEP 2 group in Institute of Electronic Systems at Warsaw University of Technology. The main purpose of the project is to create a controller for stabilizing the vector sum of fields in cavities of one cryo module in the experiment. The device can be also used as the simulator of the cavity and test bench for other devices. Ths paper describes the concept, implementation and tests of the DOOCS based control system for SIMCON. The designed system is based the concept of autonomic and extendable modules connected by well defined, unified interfaces. The communication module controls the access to the hardware. It is crucial, that all modules (this presented in thesis and developed in the future) use this interface. Direct access to the control tables let the engineers to perform algorithm development or diagnostic measurements of the LLRF system. Default control tables generator makes the whole SIMCON an autonomic device, which can start immediately the operation without any additional tools. (orig.)

  12. DOOCS based control system for FPGA based cavity simulator and controller in VUV FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucyk, P.D.

    2006-03-15

    The X-ray free-electron laser XFEL that is being planned at the DESY research center in cooperation with European partners will produce high-intensity ultra-short X-ray flashes with the properties of laser light. This new light source, which can only be described in terms of superlatives, will open up a whole range of new perspectives for the natural sciences. It could also offer very promising opportunities for industrial users. SIMCON (SIMulator and CONtroller) is the project of the fast, low latency digital controller dedicated for LLRF 1 system in VUV FEL experiment It is being developed by ELHEP 2 group in Institute of Electronic Systems at Warsaw University of Technology. The main purpose of the project is to create a controller for stabilizing the vector sum of fields in cavities of one cryo module in the experiment. The device can be also used as the simulator of the cavity and test bench for other devices. This paper describes the concept, implementation and tests of the DOOCS based control system for SIMCON. The designed system is based the concept of autonomic and extendable modules connected by well defined, unified interfaces. The communication module controls the access to the hardware. It is crucial, that all modules (this presented in thesis and developed in the future) use this interface. Direct access to the control tables let the engineers to perform algorithm development or diagnostic measurements of the LLRF system. Default control tables generator makes the whole SIMCON an autonomic device, which can start immediately the operation without any additional tools. (Orig.)

  13. Longleaf Pine Root System Development and Seedling Quality in Response to Copper Root Pruning and Cavity Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Shi-Jean Susana Sung; James D. Haywood

    2011-01-01

    Cultural practices that modify root system structure in the plug of container-grown seedlings have the potential to improve root system function after planting. Our objective was to assess how copper root pruning affects the quality and root system development of longleaf pine seedlings grown in three cavity sizes in a greenhouse. Copper root pruning increased seedling...

  14. Simplicity in the structure of QED and gravity amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Simon [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Vanhove, Pierre [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques IHES, Bures sur Yvette (France); CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA, Gif-sur-Yvette, (France). Inst. de Physique Theorique

    2008-11-15

    We investigate generic properties of one-loop amplitudes in unordered gauge theories in four dimensions. For such theories the organisation of amplitudes in manifestly crossing symmetric expressions poses restrictions on their structure and results in remarkable cancellations. We show that one-loop multi-photon amplitudes in QED with at least eight external photons are given only by scalar box integral functions. This QED 'no-triangle' property is true for all helicity configurations and has similarities to the 'notriangle' property found in the case of maximal N=8 supergravity. Results are derived both via a world-line formalism as well as using on-shell unitarity methods. We show that the simple structure of the loop amplitude originates from the extremely good BCFW scaling behaviour of the QED tree-amplitude. (orig.)

  15. Vacuum-induced Stark shifts for quantum logic using a collective system in a high-quality dispersive cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabris, A.; Agarwal, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    A collective system of atoms in a high-quality cavity can be described by a nonlinear interaction which arises due to the Lamb shift of the energy levels due to the cavity vacuum [Agarwal et al., Phys. Rev. A 56, 2249 (1997)]. We show how this collective interaction can be used to perform quantum logic. In particular we produce schemes to realize controlled-NOT gates not only for two-qubit but also for three-qubit systems. We also discuss realizations of Toffoli gates. Our effective Hamiltonian is also realized in other systems such as trapped ions or magnetic molecules

  16. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  17. Simulations of QCD and QED with C* boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Martin; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Tantalo, Nazario

    2017-01-01

    We present exploratory results from dynamical simulations of QCD in isolation, as well as QCD coupled to QED, with C* boundary conditions. In finite volume, the use of C* boundary conditions allows for a gauge invariant and local formulation of QED without zero modes. In particular we show that the simulations reproduce known results and that masses of charged mesons can be extracted in a completely gauge invariant way. For the simulations we use a modified version of the HiRep code. The prim...

  18. Quantising general relativity using QED theory, an overview and extension

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Sarah B. M.

    2004-01-01

    We summarise and discuss some of our previous results, which show that Bohr's theory of the one-electron atom may be derived from the theory underpinning Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) or vice versa, and that General Relativity may also be derived from QED theory in the classical limit, if we use Newtonian mechanics in the right frame and self-similar tesseral hierarchies. We circumvent Newton's arguments against Descartes' vortex theory to show that the inverse square law for a force combined...

  19. The QED engine spectrum - Fusion-electric propulsion for air-breathing to interstellar flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussard, Robert W.; Jameson, Lorin W.

    1993-01-01

    A new inertial-electrostatic-fusion direct electric power source can be used to drive a relativistic e-beam to heat propellant. The resulting system is shown to yield specific impulse and thrust/mass ratio 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than from other advanced propulsion concepts. This QED system can be applied to aerospace vehicles from air-breathing to near-interstellar flight. Examples are given for Earth/Mars flight missions, that show transit times of 40 d with 20 percent payload in single-stage vehicles.

  20. The QED engine - Fusion-electric propulsion for Cis-Oort/Quasi-Interstellar (QIS) flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussard, Robert W.; Jameson, Lorin W.; Froning, H. D., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of QED fusion-direct-electric engine systems, their features, and performance ranges. The principles and characteristics of inertial-electrostatic-fusion (IEF) power source systems are then reviewed, and their application to the diluted-fusion-product (DFP) engine concept for QIS missions is discussed. Particular attention is given to vehicle performance over a range of very high specific impulses and to specifications of a typical candidate DFP/IEF engine and a single-stage vehicle for rapid flight to 550 AU.

  1. Olfactory and solitary chemosensory cells: two different chemosensory systems in the nasal cavity of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Anne

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nasal cavity of all vertebrates houses multiple chemosensors, either innervated by the Ist (olfactory or the Vth (trigeminal cranial nerve. Various types of receptor cells are present, either segregated in different compartments (e.g. in rodents or mingled in one epithelium (e.g. fish. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells have been reported for several species. Alligators which seek their prey both above and under water have only one nasal compartment. Information about their olfactory epithelium is limited. Since alligators seem to detect both volatile and water-soluble odour cues, I tested whether different sensory cell types are present in the olfactory epithelium. Results Electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the sensory epithelium of the nasal cavity of the American alligator. Almost the entire nasal cavity is lined with olfactory (sensory epithelium. Two types of olfactory sensory neurons are present. Both types bear cilia as well as microvilli at their apical endings and express the typical markers for olfactory neurons. The density of these olfactory neurons varies along the nasal cavity. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells innervated by trigeminal nerve fibres, are intermingled with olfactory sensory neurons. Solitary chemosensory cells express components of the PLC-transduction cascade found in solitary chemosensory cells in rodents. Conclusion The nasal cavity of the American alligator contains two different chemosensory systems incorporated in the same sensory epithelium: the olfactory system proper and solitary chemosensory cells. The olfactory system contains two morphological distinct types of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons.

  2. Note: Demonstration of an external-cavity diode laser system immune to current and temperature fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xinyu; Yin, Longfei; Zhuang, Wei; Luo, Bin; Dang, Anhong; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate an external-cavity laser system using an anti-reflection coated laser diode as gain medium with about 60 nm fluorescence spectrum, and a Rb Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) as frequency-selecting element with a transmission bandwidth of 1.3 GHz. With 6.4% optical feedback, a single stable longitudinal mode is obtained with a linewidth of 69 kHz. The wavelength of this laser is operating within the center of the highest transmission peak of FADOF over a diode current range from 55 mA to 142 mA and a diode temperature range from 15 °C to 35 °C, thus it is immune to the fluctuations of current and temperature.

  3. Magnetic-field-dependent slow light in strontium atom-cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zeng-Xing; Wang, Bao; Kong, Cui; Xiong, Hao; Wu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Realizing and controlling a long-lived slow light is of fundamental importance in physics and may find applications in quantum router and quantum information processing. In this work, we propose a feasible scheme to realize the slow light in a strontium atom-cavity system, in which the value of group delay can be continuously adjusted within a range of different Zeeman splittings and vacuum Rabi frequencies by varying the applied static magnetic field and the atom number instead of a strong coherent field. In our scheme, the major limitations of the slow-light structure, namely, dispersion and loss, can be effectively resolved, and so our scheme may help to achieve the practical application of slow light relevant to the optical communication network.

  4. Design and Development of an Octopus Thermometric system for the 704 MHZ Single-Cell SPL Cavity at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, K; Brunner, O; Ciapala, E; Glenat, D; Weingarten, W

    2012-01-01

    The octopus thermometric system is designed for the 704 MHz superconducting proton linac (SPL) cavity to detect hot spots and X-rays caused by normal conducting defects and the impact of emission electrons. This system features an octopus body and tentacle structure for good contact with the cavity and easy assembly, a multiplexing circuit with integrated microprocessor for efficient readout and a high density temperature sensor arrangement in order to complete a high resolution temperature and X-ray map. The first prototype is being manufactured and investigations are undergoing for further development.

  5. Dental cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acids in plaque damage the enamel covering your teeth. It also creates holes in the tooth called cavities. Cavities usually do not hurt, unless they grow very large and affect nerves or cause a tooth fracture. An untreated cavity can lead to an infection ...

  6. Quantum Simulation with Circuit-QED Lattices: from Elementary Building Blocks to Many-Body Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guanyu

    Recent experimental and theoretical progress in superconducting circuits and circuit QED (quantum electrodynamics) has helped to develop high-precision techniques to control, manipulate, and detect individual mesoscopic quantum systems. A promising direction is hence to scale up from individual building blocks to form larger-scale quantum many-body systems. Although realizing a scalable fault-tolerant quantum computer still faces major barriers of decoherence and quantum error correction, it is feasible to realize scalable quantum simulators with state-of-the-art technology. From the technological point of view, this could serve as an intermediate stage towards the final goal of a large-scale quantum computer, and could help accumulating experience with the control of quantum systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. From the physical point of view, this opens up a new regime where condensed matter systems can be simulated and studied, here in the context of strongly correlated photons and two-level systems. In this thesis, we mainly focus on two aspects of circuit-QED based quantum simulation. First, we discuss the elementary building blocks of the quantum simulator, in particular a fluxonium circuit coupled to a superconducting resonator. We show the interesting properties of the fluxonium circuit as a qubit, including the unusual structure of its charge matrix elements. We also employ perturbation theory to derive the effective Hamiltonian of the coupled system in the dispersive regime, where qubit and the photon frequencies are detuned. The observables predicted with our theory, including dispersive shifts and Kerr nonlinearity, are compared with data from experiments, such as homodyne transmission and two-tone spectroscopy. These studies also relate to the problem of detection in a circuit-QED quantum simulator. Second, we study many-body physics of circuit-QED lattices, serving as quantum simulators. In particular, we focus on two different

  7. Quantum dynamics of a Josephson junction driven cavity mode system in the presence of voltage bias noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Blencowe, M. P.; Armour, A. D.; Rimberg, A. J.

    2017-09-01

    We give a semiclassical analysis of the average photon number as well as photon number variance (Fano factor F ) for a Josephson junction (JJ) embedded microwave cavity system, where the JJ is subject to a fluctuating (i.e., noisy) bias voltage with finite dc average. Through the ac Josephson effect, the dc voltage bias drives the effectively nonlinear microwave cavity mode into an amplitude squeezed state (F Armour et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 247001 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.247001], but bias noise acts to degrade this squeezing. We find that the sensitivity of the Fano factor to bias voltage noise depends qualitatively on which stable fixed point regime the system is in for the corresponding classical nonlinear steady-state dynamics. Furthermore, we show that the impact of voltage bias noise is most significant when the cavity is excited to states with large average photon number.

  8. The application of system identification techniques to an R.F. Cavity tuning loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestha, L.K.

    1989-09-01

    System identification is the terminology used for the process of characterising a given control system. A mathematical representation of the frequency response characteristic is obtained to utilise all the known design techniques to arrange the feed-back loop to meet required control performance criterion. This is known as parametric system identification. The intention of this paper is to speed up the process of identifying the R.F. Cavity tuning system of the 800 MeV accelerator, ISIS. While achieving this goal the computer must not disturb noticeably the normal function set out by the system. This task of automatic characterisation is necessary so that a self-adapting feed-back loop can be arranged to adjust itself without human interference and meet severe R.F. tuning requirements on ISIS. In any case the results of parametric identifications are useful in designing a robust feed-back loop with appropriate gain and phase margins. The approach using a Pseudo Random Signal is currently practised in Process Industries. (author)

  9. Cavity-cavity conditional logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Serge; Gao, Yvonne Y.; Reinhold, Philip; Wang, Chen; Axline, Christopher; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, Steven M.; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, Michel H.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.

    In a superconducting circuit architecture, the highest coherence times are typically offered by 3D cavities. Moreover, these cavities offer a hardware-efficient way of redundantly encoding quantum information. While single-qubit control on a cavity has already been demonstrated, there is a need for a universal two-qubit gate between such cavities. In this talk, we demonstrate a cavity-cavity gate by parametric pumping on a fixed-frequency transmon interacting with the two cavities. Every gate application lowers the state fidelity by only 1%, while maintaining an entangling rate on-off ratio of 29dB. Additionally, we show that the gate is applicable not only to qubits consisting of single photons, but also to more complex encodings. These results illustrate the usefulness of cavities beyond the mere storage of quantum information, and pave the way towards gates between error-corrected logical qubits.

  10. Dependence of transmon qubit relaxation rate on cavity photon population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhada, S. O.; Shankar, S.; Liu, Y.; Hatridge, M.; Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Girvin, S. M.; Devoret, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    In circuit QED experiments, a qubit is dispersively coupled to a cavity such that the cavity frequency depends on the qubit state. This dispersive shift enables quantum non-demolition readout of the qubit by exciting the cavity with a microwave pulse and detecting the phase shift of the reflected signal. However, this cavity excitation has been observed in experiments to increase the qubit relaxation rate, hence demolishing the qubit state and limiting the maximum measurement strength. Here we experimentally study this effect in a transmon qubit coupled to a three-dimensional superconducting cavity. We also explore alternate qubit circuits designed to mitigate this demolition effect. Work supported by: IARPA, ARO, and NSF.

  11. The LHC superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Häbel, E; Kindermann, H P; Losito, R; Marque, S; Rödel, V; Stirbet, M

    1999-01-01

    The LHC RF system, which must handle high intensity (0.5 A d.c.) beams, makes use of superconducting single-cell cavities, best suited to minimizing the effects of periodic transient beam loading. There will be eight cavities per beam, each capable of delivering 2 MV (5 MV/m accelerating field) at 400 MHz. The cavities themselves are now being manufactured by industry, using niobium-on-copper technology which gives full satisfaction at LEP. A cavity unit includes a helium tank (4.5 K operating temperature) built around a cavity cell, RF and HOM couplers and a mechanical tuner, all housed in a modular cryostat. Four-unit modules are ultimately foreseen for the LHC (two per beam), while at present a prototype version with two complete units is being extensively tested. In addition to a detailed description of the cavity and its ancillary equipment, the first test results of the prototype will be reported.

  12. New uncertainties in QCD–QED rescaling factors using quadrature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mf ). This is true for heavier quarks ... mass scale down to the physical quark mass scale is parametrised by the QCD–. QED rescaling factors ηf ... It will be an important numerical exercise to estimate the uncertainties in ηf using the quadrature ...

  13. APFEL : A PDF Evolution Library with QED corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Rojo, Juan

    Quantum electrodynamics and electroweak corrections are important ingredients for many theoretical predictions at the LHC. This paper documents APFEL, a new PDF evolution package that allows for the first time to perform DGLAP evolution up to NNLO in QCD and to LO in QED, in the

  14. APFEL: A PDF Evolution Library with QED corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Bertone, Valerio; Rojo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics and electroweak corrections are important ingredients for many theoretical predictions at the LHC. This paper documents APFEL, a new PDF evolution package that allows for the first time to perform DGLAP evolution up to NNLO in QCD and to LO in QED, in the variable-flavor-number scheme and with either pole or MSbar heavy quark masses. APFEL consistently accounts for the QED corrections to the evolution of quark and gluon PDFs and for the contribution from the photon PDF in the proton. The coupled QCD+QED equations are solved in x-space by means of higher order interpolation, followed by Runge-Kutta solution of the resulting discretized evolution equations. APFEL is based on an innovative and flexible methodology for the sequential solution of the QCD and QED evolution equations and their combination. In addition to PDF evolution, APFEL provides a module that computes Deep-Inelastic Scattering structure functions in the FONLL general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme up to O($\\alpha_s^2...

  15. Physical pictures of symmetry breaking in quenched QED4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogut, J.B.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1989-01-01

    We discuss 'collapse of the wavefunction' as the phenomenon underlying chiral symmetry breaking in quenched QED4. The 1/r singularity in the 'collapsed' qanti q wavefunction causes 'catalyzed symmetry breaking' which is the field theoretic analog of 'monopole induced proton decay'. The evasion of mean field exponents by the quenched theory's chiral phase transition is emphasized. (orig.)

  16. Three-loop Phi-derivable approximation in QED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, J.O.; Strickland, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine 9Φ-derivable approximations in QED, General theorems tell us that the gauge dependence of the n-loop Φ-derivable approximation shows up at order g2n where g is the coupling constant. We consider the gauge dependence of the two-loop Φ-derivable approximation to the Debye mass

  17. OpenQ∗D simulation code for QCD+QED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Isabel; Fritzsch, Patrick; Hansen, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The openQ∗D code for the simulation of QCD+QED with C∗ boundary conditions is presented. This code is based on openQCD-1.6, from which it inherits the core features that ensure its efficiency: the locally-deflated SAP-preconditioned GCR solver, the twisted-mass frequency splitting of the fermion...

  18. Drug delivery from the oral cavity: a focus on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkar, Dattatraya Manohar; Dhake, Avinash Sridhar; Setty, Chitral Mallikarjuna

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1980s the concept of mucoadhesion has gained considerable interest in pharmaceutical technology. The various advantages associated with these systems made buccal drug delivery as a novel route of drug administration. It prolongs the residence time of the dosage form at the site of application. These systems remain in close contact with the absorption tissue, the mucous membrane, and thus contribute to improved and/or better therapeutic performance of the drug and of both local and systemic effects. This review highlights the anatomy and structure of oral mucosa, mechanism and theories of mucoadhesion, factors affecting mucoadhesion, characteristics and properties of desired mucoadhesive polymers, various types of dosage forms, and general considerations in design of mucoadhesive buccal dosage forms, permeation enhancers, and evaluation methods. Over the past few decades the mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system has received a great deal of attention to develop mucoadhesive dosage forms to enable the prolonged retention at the site of action, providing a controlled release of drug for improved therapeutic outcome. Mucoadhesive drug delivery gives facility to include a permeation enhancer/enzyme inhibitor or pHmodifier in the formulation and versatility in designing as multidirectional or unidirectional release systems for local and systemic action. Local delivery to tissues of the oral cavity has a number of applications, including treatment of local conditions such as periodontal disease, bacterial and fungal infections, and aphthous stomatitis and vesiculo bullous diseases. For the treatment of chronic diseases, the mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system allows easily accessibility and is generally well-accepted for administeringdrugs by systemic action.

  19. Cavity Born-Oppenheimer Approximation for Correlated Electron-Nuclear-Photon Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, Johannes; Appel, Heiko; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Rubio, Angel

    2017-04-11

    In this work, we illustrate the recently introduced concept of the cavity Born-Oppenheimer approximation [ Flick et al. PNAS 2017 , 10.1073/pnas.1615509114 ] for correlated electron-nuclear-photon problems in detail. We demonstrate how an expansion in terms of conditional electronic and photon-nuclear wave functions accurately describes eigenstates of strongly correlated light-matter systems. For a GaAs quantum ring model in resonance with a photon mode we highlight how the ground-state electronic potential-energy surface changes the usual harmonic potential of the free photon mode to a dressed mode with a double-well structure. This change is accompanied by a splitting of the electronic ground-state density. For a model where the photon mode is in resonance with a vibrational transition, we observe in the excited-state electronic potential-energy surface a splitting from a single minimum to a double minimum. Furthermore, for a time-dependent setup, we show how the dynamics in correlated light-matter systems can be understood in terms of population transfer between potential energy surfaces. This work at the interface of quantum chemistry and quantum optics paves the way for the full ab initio description of matter-photon systems.

  20. Effect of quantum lattice fluctuations on quantum coherent oscillations in a coherently driven quantum dot-cavity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ka-Di; Li, Wai-Sang

    2003-01-01

    The quantum coherent oscillations in a coherently driven quantum dot-cavity system with the presence of strong exciton-phonon interactions are investigated theoretically in a fully quantum treatment. It is shown that even at zero temperature, the strong exciton-phonon interactions still affect the quantum coherent oscillations significantly

  1. Gamma-ray generation from laser-driven electron resonant acceleration: In the non-QED and the QED regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, B.; Chang, H. X.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; He, X. T.

    2017-12-01

    Electron acceleration and γ-ray emission by circularly polarized laser pulses interacting with near-critical-density plasmas are systematically investigated for both the non-quantum-electrodynamic (non-QED) and QED regimes. In the non-QED regime, since electron density in the plasma channel is small and the self-generated electromagnetic fields are weak, only a few electrons can achieve the resonant acceleration, leading to weak γ-ray emission. However, when it comes to the QED regime, the radiation recoil force significantly affects the electron dynamics, which helps in not only the trapping of electrons, but also the relaxing of the condition for electrons to hit the resonance with laser fields, resulting in the formation of an ultradense helical electron bunch under resonant acceleration in the plasma channel. Therefore, an intense γ-ray pulse with unprecedented flux can be generated. Theoretical analysis and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are carried out to compare the dynamics in two different regimes.

  2. High Power Optical Cavity Design and Concept of Operations for a Shipboard Free Electron Laser Weapon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    CAVITY DESIGN AND CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS FOR A SHIPBOARD FREE ELECTRON LASER WEAPON SYSTEM by Timothy S. Fontana December 2003 Thesis...Free Electron Laser Weapon System 6. AUTHOR(S) LT Timothy S. Fontana, USN 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...OPERATIONS FOR A SHIPBOARD FREE ELECTRON LASER WEAPON SYSTEM Timothy S. Fontana Lieutenant, United States Navy B.S., United States Naval Academy

  3. Combining NNPDF3.0 and NNPDF2.3QED through the APFEL evolution code

    CERN Document Server

    Bertone, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    We present sets of parton distribution functions (PDFs), based on the NNPDF3.0 family, which include the photon PDF from the NNPDF2.3QED sets, and leading-order QED contributions to the DGLAP evolution as implemented in the public code APFEL. The aim is to combine our state-of-the-art determination of quark and gluon PDFs with the so far only direct determination of the photon PDF from LHC data. In addition, the use of APFEL allowed us to employ a solution of the DGLAP equation that, differently from that used for the NNPDF2.3QED sets, includes QED corrections in a more accurate way. We briefly discuss how these sets are constructed and investigate the effect of the inclusion of the QED corrections on PDFs and parton luminosities. Finally, we compare the resulting sets, which we dubbed NNPDF3.0QED, to the older NNPDF2.3QED sets and to all presently available PDF sets that include QED corrections, namely CT14QED and MRST2004QED.

  4. Resilience of the quantum Rabi model in circuit QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manucharyan, Vladimir E; Baksic, Alexandre; Ciuti, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    In circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit QED), an artificial ‘circuit atom’ can couple to a quantized microwave radiation much stronger than its real atomic counterpart. The celebrated quantum Rabi model describes the simplest interaction of a two-level system with a single-mode boson field. When the coupling is large enough, the bare multilevel structure of a realistic circuit atom cannot be ignored even if the circuit is strongly anharmonic. We explored this situation theoretically for flux (fluxonium) and charge (Cooper pair box) type multi-level circuits tuned to their respective flux/charge degeneracy points. We identified which spectral features of the quantum Rabi model survive and which are renormalized for large coupling. Despite significant renormalization of the low-energy spectrum in the fluxonium case, the key quantum Rabi feature—nearly-degenerate vacuum consisting of an atomic state entangled with a multi-photon field—appears in both types of circuits when the coupling is sufficiently large. Like in the quantum Rabi model, for very large couplings the entanglement spectrum is dominated by only two, nearly equal eigenvalues, in spite of the fact that a large number of bare atomic states are actually involved in the atom-resonator ground state. We interpret the emergence of the two-fold degeneracy of the vacuum of both circuits as an environmental suppression of flux/charge tunneling due to their dressing by virtual low-/high-impedance photons in the resonator. For flux tunneling, the dressing is nothing else than the shunting of a Josephson atom with a large capacitance of the resonator. Suppression of charge tunneling is a manifestation of the dynamical Coulomb blockade of transport in tunnel junctions connected to resistive leads. (paper)

  5. Cavity types

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In the field of particle accelerators the most common use of RF cavities is to increase the particle velocity of traversing particles. This feature makes them one of the core ingredients of every accelerator, and in the case of linear accelerators they are even the dominant machine component. Since there are many different types of accelerator, RF cavities have been optimized for different purposes and with different abilities, e.g., cavities with fixed or variable RF frequency, cavities for short or long pulses/CW operation, superconducting and normal-conducting cavities. This lecture starts with a brief historical introduction and an explanation on how to get from Maxwell's equations to a simple cavity. Then, cavities will be classified by the type of mode that is employed for acceleration, and an explanation is given as to why certain modes are used in particular cavity types. The lecture will close with a comparison of normal versus superconducting cavities and a few words on the actual power consumption ...

  6. Study and design of a new over-damped cavity kicker for the PEP II longitudinal feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcellini, F.; Tobiyama, M.; MacIntosh, P.; Fox, J.; Schwarz, H.; Teytelman, D.; Young, A.

    2002-01-01

    PEP-II has been running for several years using drift-tube style longitudinal kickers. They have functioned well at the design current in the HER and LER. Machine upgrade plans for PEP-II have encouraged the analysis and design of cavity kickers for the longitudinal feedback systems in PEP-II. The cavity kicker design is based on the use of an extremely low Q cavity, where the Q of the system is determined primarily by ridged waveguides coupling to external loads. This kicker design has originally developed at LNF-INFN, and is attractive for use at PEP- II to reduce the kicker impedance at frequencies outside the working bandwidth and consequently reduce the strong beam-heating of the structure and the feedthroughs. The cavity-style kicker is also better suited to external cooling, as it is without internal elements which must be cooled through either radiation or conduction out through some path. The design options, including the choice of operating frequency (9/4*RF vs. 13/4*RF), the kicker shunt impedance, the number of external coupling ports (4 vs. 8) and the selection of the kicker bandwidth, are briefly described and three different solutions are proposed. Results are presented estimating the shunt impedance, bandwidth and HOM impedances via the use of the Ansoft HFSS code

  7. Single-photon blockade in a hybrid cavity-optomechanical system via third-order nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bijita; Sarma, Amarendra K.

    2018-04-01

    Photon statistics in a weakly driven optomechanical cavity, with Kerr-type nonlinearity, are analyzed both analytically and numerically. The single-photon blockade effect is demonstrated via calculations of the zero-time-delay second-order correlation function g (2)(0). The analytical results obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation are in complete conformity with the results obtained through numerical solution of the quantum master equation. A systematic study on the parameter regime for observing photon blockade in the weak coupling regime is reported. The parameter regime where the photon blockade is not realizable due to the combined effect of nonlinearities owing to the optomechanical coupling and the Kerr-effect is demonstrated. The experimental feasibility with state-of-the-art device parameters is discussed and it is observed that photon blockade could be generated at the telecommunication wavelength. An elaborate analysis of the thermal effects on photon antibunching is presented. The system is found to be robust against pure dephasing-induced decoherences and thermal phonon number fluctuations.

  8. Experimental Study of the Effect of Graphite Dispersion on the Heat Transfer Phenomena in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaghetto, Rodolfo; Capone, Luigi; Hassan, Yassin A

    2011-05-31

    An experimental activity was performed to observe and study the effects of graphite dispersion and deposition on thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). The small-scale RCCS experimental facility (16.5 x 16.5 x 30.4 cm) used for this activity represents half of the reactor cavity with an electrically heated vessel. Water flowing through five vertical pipes removes the heat produced in the vessel and releases it into the environment by mixing with cold water in a large tank. The particle image velocimetry technique was used to study the velocity field of the air inside the cavity. A set of 52 thermocouples was installed in the facility to monitor the temperature profiles of the vessel, pipe walls, and air. Ten grams of a fine graphite powder (average particle size 2 m) was injected into the cavity through a spraying nozzle placed at the bottom of the vessel. The temperatures and air velocity field were recorded and compared with the measurements obtained before the graphite dispersion, showing a decrease of the temperature surfaces that was related to an increase in their emissivity. The results contribute to the understanding of RCCS capability in an accident scenario.

  9. CAVE: A package for detection and quantitative analysis of internal cavities in a system of overlapping balls: Application to proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buša, Ján; Hayryan, Shura; Hu, Chin-Kun; Skřivánek, Jaroslav; Wu, Ming-Chya

    2010-12-01

    We developed a software package ( CAVE) in Fortran language to detect internal cavities in proteins which can be applied also to an arbitrary system of balls. The volume, the surface area and other quantitative characteristics of the cavities can be calculated. The code is based on the recently suggested enveloping triangulation algorithm [J. Buša et al., J. Comp. Chem. 30 (2009) 346] for computing volume and surface area of the cavity by analytical equations. Different standard sets of atomic radii can be used. The PDB compatible file containing the atomic coordinates must be stored on the disk in advance. Testing of the code on different proteins and artificial ball systems showed efficiency and accuracy of the algorithm. The program is fast. It can handle a system of several thousands of balls in the order of seconds on contemporary PC's. The code is open source and free. Program summaryProgram title: CAVE Catalogue identifier: AEHC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8670 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 100 131 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran Computer: PC Pentium and Core Operating system: Linux system and Windows XP system Classification: 16.1 Nature of problem: Molecular structure analysis. Solution method: Analytical method for cavities detection, and numerical algorithm for volume and surface area calculation based on the analytical formulas, after using the stereographic transformation. Running time: Depends on the size of the molecule under consideration. The test example included in the distribution takes about 1 minute to run.

  10. QED blue-sheet effects inside black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burko, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the unboundedly blueshifted photons of the cosmic microwave background radiation with a physical object falling towards the inner horizon of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole is analyzed. To evaluate this interaction we consider the QED effects up to the second order in the perturbation expansion. We then extrapolate the QED effects up to a cutoff, which we introduce at the Planckian level. (Our results are not sensitive to the cutoff energy.) We find that the energy absorbed by an infalling observer is finite, and for typical parameters would not lead to a catastrophic heating. However, this interaction would almost certainly be fatal for a human being, or other living organisms of similar size. On the other hand, we find that smaller objects may survive the interaction. Our results do not provide support for the idea that the Cauchy horizon is to be regarded as the boundary of spacetime. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Chiral anomalies in QED and QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    Chiral anomalies (a) for QED and QCD at finite temperature are analyzed in imaginary- and real-time formalisms. Both triangle diagrams and functional methods are used. It is found that the expressions for a in terms of finite-temperature fields are formally similar to that for the zero-temperature anomaly as a function of zero-temperature fields, thereby generalizing previous work by other authors. (author). 20 refs.; 1 fig

  12. QED the strange theory of light and matter

    CERN Document Server

    Feynman, Richard Phillips

    2006-01-01

    Celebrated for his brilliantly quirky insights into the physical world, Nobel laureate Richard Feynman also possessed an extraordinary talent for explaining difficult concepts to the general public. Here Feynman provides a classic and definitive introduction to QED (namely quantum electrodynamics), that part of quantum field theory describing the interactions of light with charged particles. Using everyday language, spatial concepts, visualizations, and his renowned ""Feynman diagrams"" instead of advanced mathematics, Feynman clearly and humorously communicates both the substance and spiri

  13. Quantum state transfer between hybrid qubits in a circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-Bo

    2012-01-01

    In this Brief Report, we propose a theoretical scheme to transfer quantum states between superconducting charge qubits and semiconductor spin qubits in a circuit QED device. Under dispersive conditions, resonator-assisted state transfer between qubits can be performed controllably only by addressing the flux bias applied to the charge qubits. The low infidelity and existing advantages show that the proposal may provide an effective route toward scalable quantum-information transfer with solid-state hybrid qubits.

  14. Theory and modelling of light-matter interactions in photonic crystal cavity systems coupled to quantum dot ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartar, William K.

    Photonic crystal microcavity quantum dot lasers show promise as high quality-factor, low threshold lasers, that can be integrated on-chip, with tunable room temperature opera- tions. However, such semiconductor microcavity lasers are notoriously difficult to model in a self-consistent way and are primarily modelled by simplified rate equation approxima- tions, typically fit to experimental data, which limits investigations of their optimization and fundamental light-matter interaction processes. Moreover, simple cavity mode optical theory and rate equations have recently been shown to fail in explaining lasing threshold trends in triangular lattice photonic crystal cavities as a function of cavity size, and the potential impact of fabrication disorder is not well understood. In this thesis, we develop a simple but powerful numerical scheme for modelling the quantum dot active layer used for lasing in these photonic crystal cavity structures, as an ensemble of randomly posi- tioned artificial two-level atoms. Each two-level atom is defined by optical Bloch equations solved by a quantum master equation that includes phenomenological pure dephasing and an incoherent pump rate that effectively models a multi-level gain system. Light-matter in- teractions of both passive and lasing structures are analyzed using simulation defined tools and post-simulation Green function techniques. We implement an active layer ensemble of up to 24,000 statistically unique quantum dots in photonic crystal cavity simulations, using a self-consistent finite-difference time-domain method. This method has the distinct advantage of capturing effects such as dipole-dipole coupling and radiative decay, without the need for any phenomenological terms, since the time-domain solution self-consistently captures these effects. Our analysis demonstrates a powerful ability to connect with recent experimental trends, while remaining completely general in its set-up; for example, we do not invoke common

  15. Spontaneous Lorentz violation: the case of infrared QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, A.P. [Syracuse University, Physics Department, Syracuse, NY (United States); Kuerkcueoglu, S. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Physics, Ankara (Turkey); Queiroz, A.R. de [Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Fisica, Brasilia (Brazil); Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza (Spain); Vaidya, S. [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Bangalore (India)

    2015-02-01

    It is by now clear that the infrared sector of quantum electrodynamics (QED) has an intriguingly complex structure. Based on earlier pioneering work on this subject, two of us recently proposed a simple modification of QED by constructing a generalization of the U(1) charge group of QED to the ''Sky'' group incorporating the well-known spontaneous Lorentz violation due to infrared photons, but still compatible in particular with locality (Balachandran and Vaidya, Eur Phys J Plus 128:118, 2013). It was shown that the ''Sky'' group is generated by the algebra of angle-dependent charges and a study of its superselection sectors has revealed a manifest description of spontaneous breaking of the Lorentz symmetry. We further elaborate this approach here and investigate in some detail the properties of charged particles dressed by the infrared photons. We find that Lorentz violation due to soft photons may be manifestly codified in an angle-dependent fermion mass, modifying therefore the fermion dispersion relations. The fact that the masses of the charged particles are not Lorentz invariant affects their spin content, and time dilation formulas for decays should also get corrections. (orig.)

  16. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  17. Waveguide and articulated arm for Er:YAG laser system: shape and depth of laser cavity in hard dental tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Dostalova, Tatjana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Wang, You; Shi, Yi-Wei; Dolezalova, Libuse; Hamal, Karel; Krejsa, Otakar; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav

    1998-04-01

    The aim of our study was to verify the efficiency of delivery systems for Er:YAG laser radiation which could be used in dentistry. The influence of increasing energy and number of pulses on a profile and depth of drilled holes was investigated. Er:YAG laser was operating in a free-running mode, generating a length of pulses 200 microsecond with a maximum energy of 500 mJ. The delivery systems investigated were an articulated arm and a fluorocarbon polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide. The prepared hard tissues were a sliced part of enamel, dentine and ivory. The laser radiation was directed on them by focusing optics (CaF2 lens) together with the cooling water to ensure that the tissues will not be burned. For the evaluation of shapes, depth and profiles of the prepared cavities the metallographic microscope, x-ray microtomograph and scanning electron microscope were used. From the results it was observed that the profile and depth of the cavities prepared by the laser radiation delivered by the various systems (waveguide or articulated arm) are not the same. The laser radiation delivered by waveguide produces a larger diameter cavity with a lower depth. The holes are smoother and without side effects.

  18. Optical properties of organic-silicon photonic crystal nanoslot cavity light source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jay Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically study a dielectric photonic crystal nanoslot cavity immersed in an organic fluid containing near-infrared dyes by means of a full rate equation model including the complete cavity QED effects. Based on the modeling results, we numerically design an organic-silicon cavity light source in which its mode volume, quality factor, and far-field emission pattern are optimized for energy-efficient, high-speed applications. Dye quantum efficiency improved by two orders of magnitude and 3dB modulation bandwidth of a few hundred GHz can be obtained.

  19. Calculation, normalization and perturbation of quasinormal modes in coupled cavity-waveguide systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Gregersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    We show how one can use a non-local boundary condition, which is compatible with standard frequency domain methods, for numerical calculation of quasinormal modes in optical cavities coupled to waveguides. In addition, we extend the definition of the quasinormal mode norm by use of the theory...

  20. Studies of niobium and development of niobium resonant RF cavities for accelerator driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Jayanta

    2013-01-01

    The present approach for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities is to roll and deep draw sheets of polycrystalline high-purity niobium. Jefferson Laboratory pioneered the use of large-grain/single-crystal Nb directly sliced from an ingot for the fabrication of single-crystal high-purity Nb SRF cavities. The large grain/single crystal niobium has several potential advantages over the polycrystalline niobium and has become a viable alternative to the standard fine grain (ASTM grain size>6 μm), high purity (RRR ≥ 250 ) niobium for the fabrication of high-performance SRF cavities for particle accelerators. The present study includes the prototype single cell low beta cavity design, fabrication, EB welding and low temperature RF test at 2K. In this study also the medium field Q-Slope has been analyzed with the help of an added non linear term in Heabel's analytical model and a linear increase of surface resistance Rs with the magnetic field

  1. radiofrequency cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  2. A millikelvin all-fiber cavity optomechanical apparatus for merging with ultra-cold atoms in a hybrid quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H.; Fläschner, G.; Schwarz, A.; Wiesendanger, R.; Christoph, P.; Wagner, T.; Bick, A.; Staarmann, C.; Abeln, B.; Sengstock, K.; Becker, C.

    2017-02-01

    We describe the construction of an apparatus designed to realize a hybrid quantum system comprised of a cryogenically cooled mechanical oscillator and ultra-cold 87Rb atoms coupled via light. The outstanding feature of our instrument is an in situ adjustable asymmetric all-fiber membrane-in-the-middle cavity located inside an ultra-high vacuum dilution refrigerator based cryostat. We show that Bose-Einstein condensates of N = 2 × 10 6 atoms can be produced in less than 20 s and demonstrate a single photon optomechanical coupling strength of g 0 = 2 π × 9 kHz employing a high-stress Si3N4 membrane with a mechanical quality factor Q m > 10 7 at a cavity setup temperature of TMiM = 480 mK.

  3. Modeling and performance of the MHTGR [Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor] reactor cavity cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, J.C.

    1990-04-01

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) of the Modular High- Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy is designed to remove the nuclear afterheat passively in the event that neither the heat transport system nor the shutdown cooling circulator subsystem is available. A computer dynamic simulation for the physical and mathematical modeling of and RCCS is described here. Two conclusions can be made form computations performed under the assumption of a uniform reactor vessel temperature. First, the heat transferred across the annulus from the reactor vessel and then to ambient conditions is very dependent on the surface emissivities of the reactor vessel and RCCS panels. These emissivities should be periodically checked to ensure the safety function of the RCCS. Second, the heat transfer from the reactor vessel is reduced by a maximum of 10% by the presence of steam at 1 atm in the reactor cavity annulus for an assumed constant in the transmission of radiant energy across the annulus can be expected to result in an increase in the reactor vessel temperature for the MHTGR. Further investigation of participating radiation media, including small particles, in the reactor cavity annulus is warranted. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  4. SPS RF Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The picture shows one of the two initially installed cavities. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also gradually increased: by end 1980 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412017X, 7411048X, 7505074.

  5. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  6. Passive cavity surface-emitting lasers: option of temperature-insensitive lasing wavelength for uncooled dense wavelength division multiplexing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, V. A.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Slight, T.; Meredith, W.; Gordeev, N. Y.; Nadtochy, A. M.; Payusov, A. S.; Maximov, M. V.; Blokhin, S. A.; Blokhin, A. A.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Maleev, N. A.; Ustinov, V. M.; Choquette, K. D.

    2016-03-01

    A concept of passive cavity surface-emitting laser is proposed aimed to control the temperature shift of the lasing wavelength. The device contains an all-semiconductor bottom distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), in which the active medium is placed, a dielectric resonant cavity and a dielectric top DBR, wherein at least one of the dielectric materials has a negative temperature coefficient of the refractive index, dn/dT < 0. This is shown to be the case for commonly used dielectric systems SiO2/TiO2 and SiO2/Ta2O5. Two SiO2/TiO2 resonant structures having a cavity either of SiO2 or TiO2 were deposited on a substrate, their optical power reflectance spectra were measured at various temperatures, and refractive index temperature coefficients were extracted, dn/dT = 0.0021 K-1 for SiO2 and dn/dT = -0.0092 K-1 for TiO2. Using such dielectric materials allows designing passive cavity surface-emitting lasers having on purpose either positive, or zero, or negative temperature shift of the lasing wavelength dλ/dT. A design for temperature-insensitive lasing wavelength (dλ/dT = 0) is proposed. Employing devices with temperature-insensitive lasing wavelength in wavelength division multiplexing systems may allow significant reducing of the spectral separation between transmission channels and an increase in number of channels for a defined spectral interval enabling low cost energy efficient uncooled devices.

  7. Rabi splitting in a quantum well system with Rashba spin-orbital coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Wang, Zhihai; Zhu, Hongbo

    2017-01-01

    We study the Rabi splitting phenomenon in a quantum well system with Rashba spin-orbital coupling where the spin degree of freedom is driven weakly by an external field. The dynamics of the system can be described by the Jaynes-Cummings model. As we increase the strength of spin-orbital coupling, the system undergoes an energy-level crossing which does not occure in the traditional cavity and circuit QED setups. We find that the intuitive rotating wave approximation in the driving Hamiltonian is ineffective when the energy-level crossing occurs. We also give a physical understanding based on the dressed-state representation.

  8. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for measuring atmospheric mercury using differential absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A.; Obrist, D.; Moosmuller, H.; Moore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric elemental mercury (Hg0) is a globally pervasive element that can be transported and deposited to remote ecosystems where it poses — particularly in its methylated form — harm to many organisms including humans. Current techniques for measurement of atmospheric Hg0 require several liters of sample air and several minutes for each analysis. Fast-response (i.e., 1 second or faster) measurements would improve our ability to understand and track chemical cycling of mercury in the atmosphere, including high frequency Hg0 fluctuations, sources and sinks, and chemical transformation processes. We present theory, design, challenges, and current results of our new prototype sensor based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for fast-response measurement of Hg0 mass concentrations. CRDS is a direct absorption technique that implements path-lengths of multiple kilometers in a compact absorption cell using high-reflectivity mirrors, thereby improving sensitivity and reducing sample volume compared to conventional absorption spectroscopy. Our sensor includes a frequency-doubled, dye-laser emitting laser pulses tunable from 215 to 280 nm, pumped by a Q-switched, frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser with a pulse repetition rate of 50 Hz. We present how we successfully perform automated wavelength locking and stabilization of the laser to the peak Hg0 absorption line at 253.65 nm using an external isotopically-enriched mercury (202Hg0) cell. An emphasis of this presentation will be on the implementation of differential absorption measurement whereby measurements are alternated between the peak Hg0 absorption wavelength and a nearby wavelength "off" the absorption line. This can be achieved using a piezo electric tuning element that allows for pulse-by-pulse tuning and detuning of the laser "online" and "offline" of the Hg absorption line, and thereby allows for continuous correction of baseline extinction losses. Unexpected challenges with this approach included

  9. Generation of an N-qubit phase gate via atom—cavity nonidentical coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying-Qiao, Zhang; Shou, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A scheme for approximate generation of an N-qubit phase gate is proposed in cavity QED based on nonidentical coupling between the atoms and the cavity. The atoms interact with a highly detuned cavity-field mode, but quantum information does not transfer between the atoms and cavity field, and thus the cavity decay is negligible. The gate time does not rise with an increase in the number of qubits. With the choice of a smaller odd number l (related to atom–cavity coupling constants), the phase gate can be generated with a higher fidelity and a higher success probability in a shorter time (the gate time is much shorter than the atomic radiative lifetime and photon lifetime). When the number of qubits N exceeds certain small values, the fidelity and success probability rise slowly with an increase in the number of qubits N. When N → ∞, the fidelity and success probability infinitely approach 1, but never exceed 1. (general)

  10. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The SPS started up with 2 accelerating cavities (each consisting of 5 tank sections) in LSS3. They have a 200 MHz travelling wave structure (see 7411032 and 7802190) and 750 kW of power is fed to each of the cavities from a 1 MW tetrode power amplifier, located in a surface building above, via a coaxial transmission line. Clemens Zettler, builder of the SPS RF system, is standing at the side of one of the cavities. In 1978 and 1979 another 2 cavities were added and entered service in 1980. These were part of the intensity improvement programme and served well for the new role of the SPS as proton-antiproton collider. See also 7411032, 8011289, 8104138, 8302397.

  11. Computer-simulation study on fire behaviour in the ventilated cavity of ventilated façade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo María P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fire spread through the façades is widely recognized as one of the fastest pathways of fire spreading in the buildings. Fire may spread through the façade in different ways depending on the type of façade system and on the elements and materials from which it is constructed. Ventilated façades are multilayer systems whose main feature is the creation of an air chamber of circulating air between the original building wall and the external cladding. The “chimney effect” in the air cavity is a mechanism that improves the façade's thermal behaviour and avoids the appearance of moisture from rain or condensation. However, in a event of fire, it may contribute to the quickest spreading of fire, representing a significant risk to the upper floors of a building. This study deals with some aspects of fire propagation through the ventilated cavity in ventilated façade systems. Also we review the provisions stipulated by the Spanish building code (Código Técnico de la Edificación, CTE [1] to avoid fire spread outside the building. The results highlight the importance of the use of proper fire barriers to ensure the compartmentalization of the ventilated cavity, as well as the use of non-combustible thermal insulation materials, among others. In addition, based on the results, it might be considered that the measures stipulated by the CTE are insufficient to limit the risks associated with this kind of façades systems. The study has been performed using field models of computational fluid-dynamics. In particular, the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS software has been used to numerically solve the mathematical integration models.

  12. Beyond Quantum Fields: A Classical Fields Approach to QED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafin C.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A classical field theory is introduced that is defined on a tower of dimensionally in- creasing spaces and is argued to be equivalent to QED. The domain of dependence is discussed to show how an equal times picture of the many coordinate space gives QED results as part of a well posed initial value formalism. Identical particle symmetries are not, a priori, required but when introduced are clearly propagated. This construc- tion uses only classical fields to provide some explanation for why quantum fields and canonical commutation results have been successful. Some old and essential questions regarding causality of propagators are resolved. The problem of resummation, gener- ally forbidden for conditionally convergent series, is dis cussed from the standpoint of particular truncations of the infinite tower of functions an d a two step adiabatic turn on for scattering. As a result of this approach it is shown that the photon inherits its quantization ~ ω from the free lagrangian of the Dirac electrons despite the fact that the free electromagnetic lagrangian has no ~ in it. This provides a possible explanation for the canonical commutation relations for quantum operators , [ ˆ P , ˆ Q ] = i ~ , without ever needing to invoke such a quantum postulate. The form of the equal times conservation laws in this many particle field theory suggests a simplification of the radiation reaction process for fields that allows QED to arise from a sum of path integrals in the various particle time coordinates. A novel method of unifying this theory with gravity, but that has no obvious quantum field theoretic computational scheme , is introduced.

  13. Pair production by a constant external field in noncommutative QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chair, N.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.

    2000-09-01

    In this paper we study QED on the noncommutative space in the constant electro-magnetic field background. Using the explicit solutions of the noncommutative version of Dirac equation in such background, we show that there are well-defined in and out-going asymptotic states and also there is a causal Green's function. We calculate the pair production rate in this case. We show that at tree level noncommutativity will not change the pair production and the threshold electric field. We also calculate the pair production rate considering the first loop corrections. In this case we show that the threshold electric field is decreased by the noncommutativity effects. (author)

  14. Circuit QED and engineering charge-based superconducting qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girvin, S M; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208284, New Haven, CT 06520-8248 (United States)], E-mail: steven.girvin@yale.edu, E-mail: michel.devoret@yale.edu, E-mail: robert.schoelkopf@yale.edu

    2009-12-15

    The last two decades have seen tremendous advances in our ability to generate and manipulate quantum coherence in mesoscopic superconducting circuits. These advances have opened up the study of quantum optics of microwave photons in superconducting circuits as well as providing important hardware for the manipulation of quantum information. Focusing primarily on charge-based qubits, we provide a brief overview of these developments and discuss the present state of the art. We also survey the remarkable progress that has been made in realizing circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) in which superconducting artificial atoms are strongly coupled to individual microwave photons.

  15. Power corrections to the HTL effective Lagrangian of QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignano, Stefano; Manuel, Cristina; Soto, Joan

    2018-05-01

    We present compact expressions for the power corrections to the hard thermal loop (HTL) Lagrangian of QED in d space dimensions. These are corrections of order (L / T) 2, valid for momenta L ≪ T, where T is the temperature. In the limit d → 3 we achieve a consistent regularization of both infrared and ultraviolet divergences, which respects the gauge symmetry of the theory. Dimensional regularization also allows us to witness subtle cancellations of infrared divergences. We also discuss how to generalize our results in the presence of a chemical potential, so as to obtain the power corrections to the hard dense loop (HDL) Lagrangian.

  16. Low's subleading soft theorem as a symmetry of QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysov, Vyacheslav; Pasterski, Sabrina; Strominger, Andrew

    2014-09-12

    It was shown by Low in the 1950s that the subleading terms of soft-photon S-matrix elements obey a universal linear relation. In this Letter, we give a new interpretation to this old relation, for the case of massless QED, as an infinitesimal symmetry of the S matrix. The symmetry is shown to be locally generated by a vector field on the conformal sphere at null infinity. Explicit expressions are constructed for the associated charges as integrals over null infinity and shown to generate the symmetry. These charges are local generalizations of electric and magnetic dipole charges.

  17. All-solid-state cavity QED using Anderson-localized modes in disordered photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter; Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    2010-01-01

    We employ Anderson-localized modes in deliberately disordered photonic crystal waveguides to confine light and enhance the interaction with matter. A 15-fold enhancement of the decay rate of a single quantum dot is observed meaning that 94% of the emitted single photons are coupled to an Anderson...

  18. Combining lattice clocks with cavity QED: Prospects for a mHz-linewidth laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, Dominic; Ye, Jun; Holland, Murray

    2009-05-01

    Optical atomic clocks based on ultracold alkaline-earth atoms confined in a lattice potential are competitive with the most stable and accurate time and frequency standards. The main bottleneck that prevents these clocks from achieving still better precision is the linewidth of the laser used to interrogate the clock transition. We propose to utilize the ultra-narrow atomic transition by making the atoms emit photons on that line collectively into the mode of a high Q-resonator in a laser-like fashion. A power level of order 10-12 W is possible, sufficient for phase-locking a slave optical local oscillator. We find that the linewidth of the radiation can be on the order of or even narrower than that of the clock transition due to collective effects. Achieving this major breakthrough will improve the stability of the best clocks by two orders of magnitude.

  19. Nonpeturbative cavity-QED between a single quantum dot and a metal nanoparticle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vlack, C.; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Hughes, S.

    2012-01-01

    modes. The vacuum Rabi doublet becomes a rich spectral quartet with two of the four peaks anticrossing, and surviving in spite of significant non-radiative decays. We also discuss the role of optical quenching and highlight the importance of accounting for photon transport from the dot to the detector...

  20. Flexible, low-latency architecture for qubit control and measurement in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlothuizen, Wouter; Deurloo, D.; Sterke, J. De; Vermeulen, R.; Schouten, R. N.; Dicarlo, Leo

    Increasing qubit numbers in circuit QED requires an extensible architecture for digital waveform generation of qubit control and measurement signals. For quantum error correction, the ability to select from a number of predetermined waveforms based on measurement results will become paramount. We present a room-temperature architecture with very low latency from measurement to waveform output. This modular FPGA-based system can generate both baseband and RF modulated signals using DACs clocked at 1 GHz. A backplane that interconnects several modules allows exchange of (measurement) information between modules and maintains deterministic timing across those modules. We replace the typical line based sequencer used in arbitrary waveform generators by a user programmable processor that treats waveforms and measurements as instructions added to a conventional CPU architecture. This allows for flexible coding of triggering, repetitions, delays and interactions between measurement and signal generation. We acknowledge funding from the Dutch Research Organization (NWO), an ERC Synergy Grant, and European project SCALEQIT.

  1. Protocol for high-fidelity readout in the photon-blockade regime of circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, E.; Bishop, Lev S.; Schuster, D. I.; Girvin, S. M.

    2010-08-01

    The driven-damped Jaynes-Cummings model in the regime of strong coupling is found to exhibit a coexistence between the quantum photon blockaded state and a quasicoherent bright state. We characterize the slow time scales and the basin of attraction of these metastable states using full quantum simulations. This form of bistability can be useful for implementing a qubit readout scheme that does not require additional circuit elements. We propose a coherent control sequence that makes use of a simple linear chirp of drive amplitude and frequency as well as qubit frequency. By optimizing the parameters of the system and the control pulse, we demonstrate theoretically very high readout fidelities (>98%) and high contrast with experimentally realistic parameters for qubits implemented in the circuit QED architecture.

  2. 2D massless QED Hall half-integer conductivity and graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, A Pérez; Querts, E Rodriguez; Rojas, H Pérez; Gaitan, R; Rodriguez-Romo, S

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the photon self-energy tensor in a magnetized medium, the 3D complete antisymmetric form of the conductivity tensor is found in the static limit of a fermion system C-non-invariant under fermion–antifermion exchange. The massless relativistic 2D fermion limit in QED is derived by using the compactification along the dimension parallel to the magnetic field. In the static limit and at zero temperature, the main features of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) are obtained: the half-integer QHE and the minimum value proportional to e 2 /h for the Hall conductivity. For typical values of graphene the plateaus of the Hall conductivity are also reproduced. (paper)

  3. Condensation phenomena in two-flavor scalar QED at finite chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Alexander; Gattringer, Christof

    2014-01-01

    We study condensation in two-flavored, scalar QED with non-degenerate masses at finite chemical potential. The conventional formulation of the theory has a sign problem at finite density which can be solved using an exact reformulation of the theory in terms of dual variables. We perform a Monte Carlo simulation in the dual representation and observe a condensation at a critical chemical potential $\\mu_c$. After determining the low-energy spectrum of the theory we try to establish a connection between $\\mu_c$ and the mass of the lightest excitation of the system, which are naively expected to be equal. It turns out, however, that the relation of the critical chemical potential to the mass spectrum in this case is non-trivial: Taking into account the form of the condensate and making some simplifying assumptions we suggest an adequate explanation which is supported by numerical results.

  4. Optical Design of Dilute Nitride Quantum Wells Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers for Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten A. Chaqmaqchee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available III-V semiconductors components such as Gallium Arsenic (GaAs, Indium Antimony (InSb, Aluminum Arsenic (AlAs and Indium Arsenic (InAs have high carrier mobilities and direct energy gaps. This is making them indispensable for today’s optoelectronic devices such as semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers at 1.3 μm wavelength operation. In fact, these elements are led to the invention of the Gallium Indium Nitride Arsenic (GaInNAs, where the lattice is matched to GaAs for such applications. This article is aimed to design dilute nitride GaInNAs quantum wells (QWs enclosed between top and bottom of Aluminum (Gallium Arsenic Al(GaAs distributed bragg mirrors (DBRs using MATLAB® program. Vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs structures are based on Fabry Perot (FP method to design optical gain and bandwidth gain to be operated in reflection and transmission modes. The optical model gives access to the contact layer of epitaxial structure and the reflectivity for successive radiative modes, their lasing thresholds, emission wavelengths and optical field distributions in the laser cavity.

  5. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy Systems for Ammonia Monitoring in Stack Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) technology test and quality assurance plan is to specify procedures for a verification test applicable to commercial cavity ringdown spectroscopy technologies. The purpose of the verification test is to evaluate the performa...

  6. A waveguide overloaded cavity as longitudinal kicker for the DA{Phi}NE bunch-by-bunch feedback system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, A.; Boni, R.; Ghigo, A.; Marcellini, F.; Serio, M.; Zobov, M. [Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati

    1996-08-01

    The multibunch operation of DA{Phi}NE calls for a very efficient feedback system to damp the coupled-bunch longitudinal instabilities. A collaboration program among SLAC, LBL and LNF laboratories on this subject led to the development of a time domain, digital system based on digital signal processors that has been already successfully tested at ALS. The feedback chain ends with the longitudinal kicker, an electromagnetic structure capable of transferring the proper energy correction to each bunch. A cavity kicker for the DA{Phi}NE bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system based on a pill-box loaded by six waveguides has been designed and a full-scale aluminium prototype has been fabricated at LNF. Both simulations and measurements have shown a peak shunt impedance of about 750 ohm and a bandwidth of about 220 MHz. The large shunt impedance allows to economize on the costly feedback power. Moreover, the damping waveguides drastically reduce the device HOM longitudinal and transverse impedances. One cavity pre ring will be sufficient to operate the machine up to 30 bunches while a second device per ring together with a feedback power improvement will be necessary to reach the ultimate current. (G.T.)

  7. Development of Control System for Fast Frequency Tuners of Superconducting Resonant Cavities for FLASH and XFEL Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Przygoda, K

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation covers the recent research and development (R&D) activities of control systems for the fast frequency tuners of TESLA cavities and predicts the implications foreseen for large scale machines such as the FLASH and the planned XFEL. In particular, the framework of the presented activities is the effort toward the: 1. R&D of the driving circuit, 2. R&D of the control algorithm, 3. R&D of the control system. The main result of these activities is the permanent installation of the target piezo control system and its commissioning for 40 cavities divided into 5 accelerating modules at the DESY FLASH facility. The author’s contribution was the study of possible designs of high-voltage, high-current power amplifiers, used for driving the fast frequency tuners, shows that several parameters of such a device needs to be considered. The most important parameter is the input and output power estimation. This arises from the fact that the estimation is the most crucial issue for both po...

  8. Cavity simulator and controller for VUV free electron laser SIMCON 2.1, part I: algorithms and SIMCON system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Czarski, Tomasz; Koprek, Waldemar; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2006-02-01

    The paper describes integrated system of hardware controller and simulator of the resonant superconducting, narrowband niobium cavity, originally considered for the TTF and TESLA in DESY, Hamburg (now predicted for the VUV and X-Ray FEL). The controller bases on a programmable circuit Xilinx VirtexII V3000 embedded on a PCB XtremeDSP Development Kit by Nallatech. The FPGA circuit configuration was done in the VHDL language. The internal hardware multiplication components, present in Virtex II chips, were used, to improve the floating point calculation efficiency. The implementation was achieved of a device working in the real time, according to the demands of the LLRF control system for the TESLA Test Facility. The device under consideration will be referred to as superconducting cavity (SCCav) SIMCON throughout this work. The following components are described here in detail: functional layer, parameter programming, foundations of control of particular blocks and monitoring of the real time processes. This note is accompanied by the one describing the DOOCS interface for the described hardware system. The interface was prepared in DOOCS and in Windows. The hardware and software of SIMCON was tested in CHECIA. The results were presented. While giving all necessary technical details required to understand the work of the integrated hardware controller and simulator and to enable its practical copying, this document is a unity with other TESLA technical notes published by the same team on the subject. Modeling was omitted, as it is addressed in detail in the quoted references.

  9. Refined hyperentanglement purification of two-photon systems for high-capacity quantum communication with cavity-assisted interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Fang-Fang; Li, Tao; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperentanglement, defined as the entanglement in multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a photonic quantum system, has attracted much attention recently as it can improve the channel capacity of quantum communication largely. Here we present a refined hyperentanglement purification protocol (hyper-EPP) for two-photon systems in mixed hyperentangled states in both the spatial-mode and polarization DOFs, assisted by cavity quantum electrodynamics. By means of the spatial (polarization) quantum state transfer process, the quantum states that are discarded in the previous hyper-EPPs can be preserved. That is, the spatial (polarization) state of a four-photon system with high fidelity can be transformed into another four-photon system with low fidelity, not disturbing its polarization (spatial) state, which makes this hyper-EPP take the advantage of possessing a higher efficiency.

  10. Chiral current generation in QED by longitudinal photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Acosta Avalo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the generation of a pseudovector electric current having imbalanced chirality in an electron–positron strongly magnetized gas in QED. It propagates along the external applied magnetic field B as a chiral magnetic effect in QED. It is triggered by a perturbative electric field parallel to B, associated to a pseudovector longitudinal mode propagating along B. An electromagnetic chemical potential was introduced, but our results remain valid even when it vanishes. A nonzero fermion mass was assumed, which is usually considered vanishing in the literature. In the quantum field theory formalism at finite temperature and density, an anomaly relation for the axial current was found for a medium of massive fermions. It bears some analogy to the Adler–Bell–Jackiw anomaly. From the expression for the chiral current in terms of the photon self-energy tensor in a medium, it is obtained that electrons and positrons scattered by longitudinal photons (inside the light cone contribute to the chiral current, as well as the to pair creation due to longitudinal photons (out of light cone. In the static limit, an electric pseudovector current is obtained in the lowest Landau level.

  11. Scaling dimensions in QED3 from the ɛ-expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Lorenzo; Stamou, Emmanuel

    2017-12-01

    We study the fixed point that controls the IR dynamics of QED in d = 4 - 2 ɛ dimensions. We derive the scaling dimensions of four-fermion and bilinear operators beyond leading order in the ɛ-expansion. For the four-fermion operators, this requires the computation of a two-loop mixing that was not known before. We then extrapolate these scaling dimensions to d = 3 to estimate their value at the IR fixed point of QED3 as function of the number of fermions N f . The next-to-leading order result for the four-fermion operators corrects significantly the leading one. Our best estimate at this order indicates that they do not cross marginality for any value of N f , which would imply that they cannot trigger a departure from the conformal phase. For the scaling dimensions of bilinear operators, we observe better convergence as we increase the order. In particular, the ɛ-expansion provides a convincing estimate for the dimension of the flavor-singlet scalar in the full range of N f .

  12. Large gauge symmetries and asymptotic states in QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabai, Barak; Sever, Amit [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University,Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2016-12-19

    Large Gauge Transformations (LGT) are gauge transformations that do not vanish at infinity. Instead, they asymptotically approach arbitrary functions on the conformal sphere at infinity. Recently, it was argued that the LGT should be treated as an infinite set of global symmetries which are spontaneously broken by the vacuum. It was established that in QED, the Ward identities of their induced symmetries are equivalent to the Soft Photon Theorem. In this paper we study the implications of LGT on the S-matrix between physical asymptotic states in massive QED. In appose to the naively free scattering states, physical asymptotic states incorporate the long range electric field between asymptotic charged particles and were already constructed in 1970 by Kulish and Faddeev. We find that the LGT charge is independent of the particles’ momenta and may be associated to the vacuum. The soft theorem’s manifestation as a Ward identity turns out to be an outcome of not working with the physical asymptotic states.

  13. Chiral current generation in QED by longitudinal photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Avalo, J.L., E-mail: jlacosta@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas (INSTEC), Ave Salvador Allende, No. 1110, Vedado, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Pérez Rojas, H., E-mail: hugo@icimaf.cu [Instituto de Cibernética, Matemática y Física (ICIMAF), Calle E esq 15, No. 309, Vedado, La Habana 10400 (Cuba)

    2016-08-15

    We report the generation of a pseudovector electric current having imbalanced chirality in an electron–positron strongly magnetized gas in QED. It propagates along the external applied magnetic field B as a chiral magnetic effect in QED. It is triggered by a perturbative electric field parallel to B, associated to a pseudovector longitudinal mode propagating along B. An electromagnetic chemical potential was introduced, but our results remain valid even when it vanishes. A nonzero fermion mass was assumed, which is usually considered vanishing in the literature. In the quantum field theory formalism at finite temperature and density, an anomaly relation for the axial current was found for a medium of massive fermions. It bears some analogy to the Adler–Bell–Jackiw anomaly. From the expression for the chiral current in terms of the photon self-energy tensor in a medium, it is obtained that electrons and positrons scattered by longitudinal photons (inside the light cone) contribute to the chiral current, as well as the to pair creation due to longitudinal photons (out of light cone). In the static limit, an electric pseudovector current is obtained in the lowest Landau level.

  14. The Role of Zero-Modes in the Canonical Quantization of Heavy-Fermion QED in Light-Cone Coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert W.; Jun, Jin Woo; Shvartsman, Shmaryu M.; Taylor, Cyrus C.

    1993-01-01

    Four-dimensional heavy-fermion QED is studied in light-cone coordinates with (anti-)periodic field boundary conditions. We carry out a consistent light-cone canonical quantization of this model using the Dirac algorithm for a system with first- and second-class constraints. To examine the role of the zero modes, we consider the quantization procedure in {the }zero-mode {and the non-zero-mode} sectors separately. In both sectors we obtain the physical variables and their canonical commutation ...

  15. Self energy QED: Multipole spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamin, Y.I.

    1990-08-01

    Within the context of Barut's self-field approach, we write the exact expression of the spontaneous atomic decay rate (Phys. Rev. A37, 2284 (1988)), in the long wavelength approximation, in terms of electric- and magnetic-like multipole contributions which are related to the matrix elements of the transition charge and current distributions of the relativistic electron. A number of features of these expressions are discussed and their generalization to interacting composite systems is also pointed out. (author). 8 refs

  16. Evaluating the systemic right ventricle by CMR: the importance of consistent and reproducible delineation of the cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Arie PJ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The method used to delineate the boundary of the right ventricle (RV, relative to the trabeculations and papillary muscles in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR ventricular volume analysis, may matter more when these structures are hypertrophied than in individuals with normal cardiovascular anatomy. This study aimed to compare two methods of cavity delineation in patients with systemic RV. Methods Twenty-nine patients (mean age 34.7 ± 12.4 years with a systemic RV (12 with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA and 17 with atrially switched (TGA underwent CMR. We compared measurements of systemic RV volumes and function using two analysis protocols. The RV trabeculations and papillary muscles were either included in the calculated blood volume, the boundary drawn immediately within the apparently compacted myocardial layer, or they were manually outlined and excluded. RV stroke volume (SV calculated using each method was compared with corresponding left ventricular (LV SV. Additionally, we compared the differences in analysis time, and in intra- and inter-observer variability between the two methods. Paired samples t-test was used to test for differences in volumes, function and analysis time between the two methods. Differences in intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were tested using an extension of the Bland-Altman method. Results The inclusion of trabeculations and papillary muscles in the ventricular volume resulted in higher values for systemic RV end diastolic volume (mean difference 28.7 ± 10.6 ml, p Conclusion The choice of method for systemic RV cavity delineation significantly affected volume measurements, given the CMR acquisition and analysis systems used. We recommend delineation outside the trabeculations for routine clinical measurements of systemic RV volumes as this approach took less time and gave more reproducible measurements.

  17. Conceptual design studies and experiments related to cavity exhaust systems for nuclear light bulb configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J. S.; Stoeffler, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of various phases of gaseous nuclear rocket technology have been conducted. The principal research efforts have recently been directed toward the closed-cycle, vortex-stabilized nuclear light bulb engine and toward a small-scale fissioning uranium plasma experiment that could be conducted in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Nuclear Furnace. The engine concept is based on the transfer of energy by thermal radiation from gaseous fissioning uranium, through a transparent wall, to hydrogen propellant. The reference engine configuration is comprised of seven unit cavities, each having its own fuel transparent wall and propellant duct. The basic design of the engine is described. Subsequent studies performed to supplement and investigate the basic design are reported. Summaries of other nuclear light bulb research programs are included.

  18. RFTech report on cavity design, LLRF & HPRF systems and design integration, & costing

    CERN Document Server

    De Conto, J M; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    This report highlights results from the EuCARD WP4.3 RFTech network, which was active from April 2009 to July 2013. The objective of RFTech was bringing together RF experts from different laboratories and communities, e.g. proton & electron accelerators, or storage rings & linacs, to exchange ideas and to promote innovation on all aspects of RF technology. RFTech organized 4 primary annual workshops and the organized or co-organized several topical workshops or dedicated sessions in larger conferences, like MIXDES, ICAP 12 etc. The present document highlights the main topics covered during this networking activity. The RFTech activities related to superconducting RF infrastructures are described in the EuCARD report “European Infrastructures for R&D and Test of Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities and Cryo-modules” (Wolfgang Weingarten, ISBN 978-83-7207-952-7).

  19. Cavity Optomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Kippenberg, T. J.; Vahala, K. J.

    2007-01-01

    The coupling of mechanical and optical degrees of freedom via radiation pressure has been a subject of early research in the context of gravitational wave detection. Recent experimental advances have allowed studying for the first time the modifications of mechanical dynamics provided by radiation pressure. This paper reviews the consequences of back-action of light confined in whispering-gallery dielectric micro-cavities, and presents a unified treatment of its two manifestations: notably th...

  20. A SURVEY OF CORONAL CAVITY DENSITY PROFILES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.; Gibson, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    Coronal cavities are common features of the solar corona that appear as darkened regions at the base of coronal helmet streamers in coronagraph images. Their darkened appearance indicates that they are regions of lowered density embedded within the comparatively higher density helmet streamer. Despite interfering projection effects of the surrounding helmet streamer (which we refer to as the cavity rim), Fuller et al. have shown that under certain conditions it is possible to use a Van de Hulst inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) data to calculate the electron density of both the cavity and cavity rim plasma. In this article, we apply minor modifications to the methods of Fuller et al. in order to improve the accuracy and versatility of the inversion process, and use the new methods to calculate density profiles for both the cavity and cavity rim in 24 cavity systems. We also examine trends in cavity morphology and how departures from the model geometry affect our density calculations. The density calculations reveal that in all 24 cases the cavity plasma has a flatter density profile than the plasma of the cavity rim, meaning that the cavity has a larger density depletion at low altitudes than it does at high altitudes. We find that the mean cavity density is over four times greater than that of a coronal hole at an altitude of 1.2 R sun and that every cavity in the sample is over twice as dense as a coronal hole at this altitude. Furthermore, we find that different cavity systems near solar maximum span a greater range in density at 1.2 R sun than do cavity systems near solar minimum, with a slight trend toward higher densities for systems nearer to solar maximum. Finally, we found no significant correlation of cavity density properties with cavity height-indeed, cavities show remarkably similar density depletions-except for the two smallest cavities that show significantly greater depletion.

  1. Cavity Design, Fabrication and Commission Performance of a 750MHz, 4-rod Separator for CEBAF 4-Hall Beam Delivery System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Cheng, Guangfeng [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Turlington, Larry T. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Wissmann, Mark J. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA

    2015-09-01

    A short version of the original CEBAF normal conducting 4-rod separator cavity has been developed into a 750MHz one * since the concept of simultaneous 4-hall operation for CEBAF is introduced **. This work has been advanced further based on the EM design optimization, bench measurement and by conducting RF-thermal coupled simulation using CST and ANSYS to confirm the cavity tuning and thermal performance. The cavity fabrication used matured technology like copper plating and machining. The cavity flanges, couplers, tuners and cooling channels adopted consistent/compatible hardware with the existing 500MHz cavities. The electromagnetic and thermal design simulations have greatly reduced the prototyping and bench tuning time of the first prototype. Four production cavities have reached a typical 1.94MV kick voltage or 3.0kW wall loss on each cavity after a minor multipactoring or no processing, 7.5% overhead power than the design specification.

  2. Piezo activated mode tracking system for widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity mid-IR semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Gerard (Inventor); Tittel, Frank K. (Inventor); Curl, Robert F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A widely tunable, mode-hop-free semiconductor laser operating in the mid-IR comprises a QCL laser chip having an effective QCL cavity length, a diffraction grating defining a grating angle and an external cavity length with respect to said chip, and means for controlling the QCL cavity length, the external cavity length, and the grating angle. The laser of claim 1 wherein said chip may be tuned over a range of frequencies even in the absence of an anti-reflective coating. The diffraction grating is controllably pivotable and translatable relative to said chip and the effective QCL cavity length can be adjusted by varying the injection current to the chip. The laser can be used for high resolution spectroscopic applications and multi species trace-gas detection. Mode-hopping is avoided by controlling the effective QCL cavity length, the external cavity length, and the grating angle so as to replicate a virtual pivot point.

  3. THE Low-level Radio Frequency System for the superconducting cavities of National Synchrotron Light Source II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, H.; Rose, J.; Holub, B.; Cupolo, J.; Oliva, J.; Sikora, R.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    A digital low-level radio frequency (LLRF) field controller has been developed for the storage ring of The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II). The primary performance goal for the LLRF is to support the required RF operation of the superconducting cavities with a beam current of 500mA and a 0.14 degree or better RF phase stability. The digital field controller is FPGA-based, in a standard format 19-inch/I-U chassis. It has an option of high-level control support with MATLAB running on a local host computer through a USB2.0 port. The field controller has been field tested with the high-power superconducting RF (SRF) at Canadian light Source, and successfully stored a high beam current of 250 mA. The test results show that required specifications for the cavity RF field stability are met. This digital field controller is also currently being used as a development platform for other functional modules in the NSLS-II RF systems.

  4. HIE-Isolde: Commissioning and first results of the Mathilde system monitoring the positions of cavities and solenoids inside cryomodules

    CERN Document Server

    Kautzmann, Guillaume; Klumb, Francis; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The new superconducting HIE-ISOLDE Linac replaced most of pre-existing REX ISOLDE facility at CERN. This upgrade involves the design, construction, installation and commissioning of 4 high-β cryomodules. Each high-β cryomodule houses five superconducting cavities and one superconducting solenoid. Beam-physics simulations show that the optimum linac working conditions are obtained when the main axes of the active components, located inside the cryostats, are aligned and permanently monitored on the REX Nominal Beam Line (NBL) within a precision of 0.3 mm for the cavities and 0.15 mm for the solenoids at one sigma level along directions perpendicular to the beam axis. The Monitoring and Alignment Tracking for HIE-ISOLDE (MATHILDE) system has been developed to fulfil the alignment and monitoring needs for components exposed to non-standard environmental conditions such as high vacuum or cryogenic temperatures. MATHILDE is based on opto-electronic sensors (HBCAM) observing, through high quality viewports, spher...

  5. Integration of thermal insulation coating and moving-air-cavity in a cool roof system for attic temperature reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yew, M.C.; Ramli Sulong, N.H.; Chong, W.T.; Poh, S.C.; Ang, B.C.; Tan, K.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel integrated cool roof system for attic temperature reduction is introduced. • 13 °C temperature reduction achieved due to its efficient heat transfer mechanism. • Aluminium tube cavity of the roof is able to reduce the attic temperature. • This positive result is due to its efficient heat reflection and hot air rejection. • Thermal insulation coating incorporates the usage of eggshell waste as bio-filler. - Abstract: Cool roof systems play a significant role in enhancing the comfort level of occupants by reducing the attic temperature of the building. Heat transmission through the roof can be reduced by applying thermal insulation coating (TIC) on the roof and/or installing insulation under the roof of the attic. This paper focuses on a TIC integrated with a series of aluminium tubes that are installed on the underside of the metal roof. In this study, the recycled aluminium cans were arranged into tubes that act as a moving-air-cavity (MAC). The TIC was formulated using titanium dioxide pigment with chicken eggshell (CES) waste as bio-filler bound together by a polyurethane resin binder. The thermal conductivity of the thermal insulation paint was measured using KD2 Pro Thermal Properties Analyzer. Four types of cool roof systems were designed and the performances were evaluated. The experimental works were carried out indoors by using halogen light bulbs followed by comparison of the roof and attic temperatures. The temperature of the surrounding air during testing was approximately 27.5 °C. The cool roof that incorporated both TIC and MAC with opened attic inlet showed a significant improvement with a reduction of up to 13 °C (from 42.4 °C to 29.6 °C) in the attic temperature compared to the conventional roof system. The significant difference in the results is due to the low thermal conductivity of the thermal insulation paint (0.107 W/mK) as well as the usage of aluminium tubes in the roof cavity that was able to transfer

  6. Design considerations and experimental observations for the TAMU air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system for the VHTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, S. A.; Dominguez-Ontiveros, E. E.; Alhashimi, T.; Budd, J. L.; Matos, M. D.; Hassan, Y. A.

    2015-04-01

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a promising passive decay heat removal system for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to ensure reliability of the transfer of the core residual and decay heat to the environment under all off-normal circumstances. A small scale experimental test facility was constructed at Texas A&M University (TAMU) to study pertinent multifaceted thermal hydraulic phenomena in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) design based on the General Atomics (GA) concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The TAMU Air-Cooled Experimental Test Facility is ⅛ scale from the proposed GA-MHTGR design. Groundwork for experimental investigations focusing into the complex turbulence mixing flow behavior inside the upper plenum is currently underway. The following paper illustrates some of the chief design considerations used in construction of the experimental test facility, complete with an outline of the planned instrumentation and data acquisition methods. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to furnish some insights on the overall behavior of the air flow in the system. CFD simulations assisted the placement of the flow measurement sensors location. Preliminary experimental observations of experiments at 120oC inlet temperature suggested the presence of flow reversal for cases involving single active riser at both 5 m/s and 2.25 m/s, respectively and four active risers at 2.25 m/s. Flow reversal may lead to thermal stratification inside the upper plenum by means of steady state temperature measurements. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment was carried out to furnish some insight on flow patterns and directions.

  7. Design considerations and experimental observations for the TAMU air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system for the VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, S. A., E-mail: shamsulamri@tamu.edu; Dominguez-Ontiveros, E. E., E-mail: elvisdom@tamu.edu; Alhashimi, T., E-mail: jbudd123@tamu.edu; Budd, J. L., E-mail: dubaiboy@tamu.edu; Matos, M. D., E-mail: mailgoeshere@gmail.com; Hassan, Y. A., E-mail: yhasssan@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3133 (United States)

    2015-04-29

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a promising passive decay heat removal system for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to ensure reliability of the transfer of the core residual and decay heat to the environment under all off-normal circumstances. A small scale experimental test facility was constructed at Texas A and M University (TAMU) to study pertinent multifaceted thermal hydraulic phenomena in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) design based on the General Atomics (GA) concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The TAMU Air-Cooled Experimental Test Facility is ⅛ scale from the proposed GA-MHTGR design. Groundwork for experimental investigations focusing into the complex turbulence mixing flow behavior inside the upper plenum is currently underway. The following paper illustrates some of the chief design considerations used in construction of the experimental test facility, complete with an outline of the planned instrumentation and data acquisition methods. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to furnish some insights on the overall behavior of the air flow in the system. CFD simulations assisted the placement of the flow measurement sensors location. Preliminary experimental observations of experiments at 120oC inlet temperature suggested the presence of flow reversal for cases involving single active riser at both 5 m/s and 2.25 m/s, respectively and four active risers at 2.25 m/s. Flow reversal may lead to thermal stratification inside the upper plenum by means of steady state temperature measurements. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment was carried out to furnish some insight on flow patterns and directions.

  8. QED effects induced harmonics generation in extreme intense laser foil interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J. Y.; Yuan, T.; Liu, W. Y.; Chen, M.; Luo, W.; Weng, S. M.; Sheng, Z. M.

    2018-04-01

    A new mechanism of harmonics generation (HG) induced by quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects in extreme intense laser foil interaction is found and investigated by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. When two laser pulses with identical intensities of 1.6× {10}24 {{W}} {{{cm}}}-2 are counter-incident on a thin foil target, harmonics emission is observed in their reflected electromagnetic waves. Such harmonics radiation is excited due to transversely oscillating electric currents coming from the vibration of QED effect generated {e}-{e}+ pairs. The effects of laser intensity and polarization were studied. By distinguishing the cascade depth of generated photons and pairs, the influence of QED cascades on HG was analyzed. Although the current HG is not an efficient way for radiation source applications, it may provide a unique way to detect the QED processes in the near future ultra-relativistic laser solid interactions.

  9. Multi-flavor massless QED{sub 2} at finite densities via Lefschetz thimbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanizaki, Yuya [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory,Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Tachibana, Motoi [Department of Physics, Saga University,Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    We consider multi-flavor massless (1+1)-dimensional QED with chemical potentials at finite spatial length and the zero-temperature limit. Its sign problem is solved using the mean-field calculation with complex saddle points.

  10. Higher Order QED Contributions to the Atomic Structure at Strong Central Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P H

    2007-01-01

    An accurate determination of the precise structure of highly charged, very heavy ions is crucial for understanding QED at strong fields. The experimental advances in the spectroscopy of very heavy, highly charged ions-in particular H-, He- and Li-like species-are reviewed: Presently the ground state Lamb shift for H-like U ions is measured on a 1% level of accuracy; the screening terms in two-electron QED have just been touched by experiments for He-like U; and two-loop QED terms have been determined with ultimate accuracy for Li-like heavy species. The different approaches on QED measurements in strong fields will be discussed and the results compared to theory

  11. Radiative corrections in QED in a Lorentz violating background1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.; Andrianov, A. A.; Cambiaso, Mauro; Giacconi, P.; Soldati, R.

    2011-01-01

    Radiative corrections in Lorentz violating extensions of QED have received considerable attention in the last years. In this talk I will address the case of fermions coupled to a constant background axial-vector and analise both classical and quantum aspects which prove to be relevant for the consistence of the theory. The modification of the mass-shell conditions in the free theory allows to determine bounds on the fermions' momenta which in turns determines the domain of integration for radiative corrections. We consider this to render the theory free of ambiguities, rather than formal arguments which may lack foundation in this context. Also, the appearance of an anomalous loss of gauge invariance and the role of finite temperature are discussed.

  12. Confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QED3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Raya, A.; Cloeet, I. C.; Roberts, C. D.

    2008-01-01

    We establish that QED3 can possess a critical number of flavors, N f c , associated with dynamical chiral symmetry breaking if, and only if, the fermion wave function renormalization and photon vacuum polarization are homogeneous functions at infrared momenta when the fermion mass function vanishes. The Ward identity entails that the fermion-photon vertex possesses the same property and ensures a simple relationship between the homogeneity degrees of each of these functions. Simple models for the photon vacuum polarization and fermion-photon vertex are used to illustrate these observations. The existence and value of N f c are contingent upon the precise form of the vertex but any discussion of gauge dependence is moot. We introduce an order parameter for confinement. Chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement are coincident owing to an abrupt change in the analytic properties of the fermion propagator when a nonzero scalar self-energy becomes insupportable

  13. openQ*D simulation code for QCD+QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Isabel; Fritzsch, Patrick; Hansen, Martin; Krstić Marinković, Marina; Patella, Agostino; Ramos, Alberto; Tantalo, Nazario

    2018-03-01

    The openQ*D code for the simulation of QCD+QED with C* boundary conditions is presented. This code is based on openQCD-1.6, from which it inherits the core features that ensure its efficiency: the locally-deflated SAP-preconditioned GCR solver, the twisted-mass frequency splitting of the fermion action, the multilevel integrator, the 4th order OMF integrator, the SSE/AVX intrinsics, etc. The photon field is treated as fully dynamical and C* boundary conditions can be chosen in the spatial directions. We discuss the main features of openQ*D, and we show basic test results and performance analysis. An alpha version of this code is publicly available and can be downloaded from http://rcstar.web.cern.ch/.

  14. Fried-Yennie gauge in dimensionally regularized QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Fried-Yennie gauge in QED is a covariant gauge with agreeable infrared properties. That is, the mass-shell renormalization scheme can be implemented without introducing artificial infrared divergences, and terms having spuriously low orders in α disappear in certain bound-state calculations. The photon propagator in the Fried-Yennie gauge has the form D β μν (k)=(-1/k 2 )[g μν +βk μ kν/k 2 ], where β is the gauge parameter. In this work, I show that the Fried-Yennie gauge parameter is β=2/(1-2ε) when dimensional regularization (with n=4-2ε dimensions of spacetime) is used to regulate the theory

  15. Self-consistent resummation scheme in scalar QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we derive a resummation scheme that may be useful in the calculation of finite temperature processes that involve infrared-divergent diagrams. We discuss the inclusion of self-consistent vertices in calculations of diagrams with very soft external momenta. We work with scalar QED and show that the use of self-consistent vertices in the infrared limit of the retarded photon polarization tensor is equivalent to the resummation of dominant diagrams. To lowest order in an expansion about the parameter that is to be determined self-consistently, we find that the result is independent of this parameter and equal to the expression obtained with uncorrected lines and vertices. The motivation for this work is the hope that it will be possible to use this technique to perform self-consistent calculations beyond leading order

  16. Quasiparticle lifetimes and infrared physics in QED and QCD plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaizot, J.P. [CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1997-09-22

    The perturbative calculation of the lifetime of fermion excitations in a QED plasma at high temperature is plagued with infrared divergences which are not eliminated by the screening corrections. The physical processes responsible for these divergences are the collisions involving the exchange of longwavelength, quasistatic, magnetic photons, which are not screened by plasma effects. The leading divergences can be resummed in a non-perturbative treatment based on a generalization of the Bloch-Nordsieck model at finite temperature. The resulting expression of the fermion propagator is free of infrared problems, and exhibits a non-exponential damping at large times: S{sub R}(t) {approx} exp(-{alpha}T t ln{omega}{sub p}t), where {omega}{sub p} = eT/3 is the plasma frequency and {alpha} = e{sup 2}/4{pi}.

  17. Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstätter, B.; Schüppert, K.; Casabone, B.; Friebe, K.; Stute, A.; Northup, T. E.; McClung, A.; Schmidt, P. O.; Deutsch, C.; Reichel, J.; Blatt, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present and characterize fiber mirrors and a miniaturized ion-trap design developed to integrate a fiber-based Fabry-Perot cavity (FFPC) with a linear Paul trap for use in cavity-QED experiments with trapped ions. Our fiber-mirror fabrication process not only enables the construction of FFPCs with small mode volumes, but also allows us to minimize the influence of the dielectric fiber mirrors on the trapped-ion pseudopotential. We discuss the effect of clipping losses for long FFPCs and the effect of angular and lateral displacements on the coupling efficiencies between cavity and fiber. Optical profilometry allows us to determine the radii of curvature and ellipticities of the fiber mirrors. From finesse measurements, we infer a single-atom cooperativity of up to 12 for FFPCs longer than 200 μm in length; comparison to cavities constructed with reference substrate mirrors produced in the same coating run indicates that our FFPCs have similar scattering losses. We characterize the birefringence of our fiber mirrors, finding that careful fiber-mirror selection enables us to construct FFPCs with degenerate polarization modes. As FFPCs are novel devices, we describe procedures developed for handling, aligning, and cleaning them. We discuss experiments to anneal fiber mirrors and explore the influence of the atmosphere under which annealing occurs on coating losses, finding that annealing under vacuum increases the losses for our reference substrate mirrors. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate that these losses may be attributable to oxygen depletion in the mirror coating. Special design considerations enable us to introduce a FFPC into a trapped ion setup. Our unique linear Paul trap design provides clearance for such a cavity and is miniaturized to shield trapped ions from the dielectric fiber mirrors. We numerically calculate the trap potential in the absence of fibers. In the experiment additional electrodes can be used to compensate

  18. Symplectic matrix, gauge invariance and Dirac brackets for super-QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, D.T. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cheb-Terrab, E.S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mathematics

    1999-08-01

    The calculation of Dirac brackets (DB) using a symplectic matrix approach but in a Hamiltonian framework is discussed, and the calculation of the DB for the supersymmetric extension of QED (super-QED) is shown. The relation between the zero-mode of the pre-symplectic matrix and the gauge transformations admitted by the model is verified. A general description to construct Lagrangians linear in the velocities is also presented. (author)

  19. The QED contribution to J/{psi} plus light hadrons production at B-factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhi-Guo [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Wang, Jian-Xiong [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities

    2013-01-15

    To understand the direct J/{psi}+X{sub non-c} {sub anti} {sub c} production mechanism in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation, in this work, we propose to measure the inclusive J/{psi} plus light hadrons (LH) production at B-factories and present a detailed study on its QED production due to {psi}(2S) feed-down, where the {psi}(2S) are produced in e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{psi}(2S)+{gamma} and e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{psi}(2S) +f anti f, f = lepton, lightquark, and QED contribution to direct J/{psi}+q anti q production with q = u, d, s quark. We find that the QED contribution is huge in the whole phase space region, but can be reduced largely and is in the same order as the QCD contribution when a suitable cut on the angel {theta}{sub J/{psi}} between J/{psi} and the e{sup +}e{sup -} beam is made. In this way, the cross section of J/{psi} + LH QCD production % which was predicted theoretical at next-to-leading order QCD together with relativistic correction, can be obtained by subtracting the QED contribution from the experimental measurement on inclusive J/{psi} plus light hadrons. To help to remove the QED background, we also calculate the angular and momentum distribution of J/{psi} in the QED contribution.

  20. Polarization entanglement purification of nonlocal microwave photons based on the cross-Kerr effect in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Qian; Xu, Xu-Sheng; Xiong, Jun; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2017-11-01

    Microwave photons have become very important qubits in quantum communication, as the first quantum satellite has been launched successfully. Therefore, it is a necessary and meaningful task for ensuring the high security and efficiency of microwave-based quantum communication in practice. Here, we present an original polarization entanglement purification protocol for nonlocal microwave photons based on the cross-Kerr effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). Our protocol can solve the problem that the purity of maximally entangled states used for constructing quantum channels will decrease due to decoherence from environment noise. This task is accomplished by means of the polarization parity-check quantum nondemolition (QND) detector, the bit-flipping operation, and the linear microwave elements. The QND detector is composed of several cross-Kerr effect systems which can be realized by coupling two superconducting transmission line resonators to a superconducting molecule with the N -type level structure. We give the applicable experimental parameters of QND measurement system in circuit QED and analyze the fidelities. Our protocol has good applications in long-distance quantum communication assisted by microwave photons in the future, such as satellite quantum communication.

  1. Evaluation and optimization of General Atomics' GT-MHR reactor cavity cooling system using an axiomatic design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielman, Jeff; Ge, Ping; Wu, Qiao; Parme, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    The development of the Generation IV (Gen-IV) nuclear reactors has presented social, technical, and economical challenges to nuclear engineering design and research. To develop a robust, reliable nuclear reactor system with minimal environmental impact and cost, modularity has been gradually accepted as a key concept in designing high-quality nuclear reactor systems. While the establishment and reliability of a nuclear power plant is largely facilitated by the installment of standardized base units, the realization of modularity at the sub-system/sub-unit level in a base unit is still highly heuristic, and lacks consistent, quantifiable measures. In this work, an axiomatic design approach is developed to evaluate and optimize the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) of General Atomics' Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) nuclear reactor, for the purpose of constructing a quantitative tool that is applicable to Gen-IV systems. According to Suh's axiomatic design theory, modularity is consistently represented by functional independence through the design process. Both qualitative and quantitative measures are developed here to evaluate the modularity of the current RCCS design. Optimization techniques are also used to improve the modularity at both conceptual and parametric level. The preliminary results of this study have demonstrated that the axiomatic design approach has great potential in enhancing modular design, and generating more robust, safer, and less expensive nuclear reactor sub-units

  2. Effectiveness of the self-adjusting file versus ProTaper systems to remove the smear layer in artificially induced internal root resorption cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Yigit Özer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Smear layer removal from artificially prepared internal root resorption (IRR cavities using the self-adjusting file (SAF system with activated continuous irrigation or the ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland with conventional syringe/needle irrigation was compared. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight maxillary central incisors were selected, decoronated and 20 of them were randomizedly splited along the coronal plane into labial and lingual sections, and artificial IRR cavities were prepared in both walls. Tooth segments were rejoined and teeth were divided into two groups. Each group (n = 10 was prepared using the SAF or ProTaper system with 12-mL 5.25% NaOCl and 12-mL 17% EDTA. Root canals were prepared in six intact positive control teeth using the SAF or ProTaper system with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. As negative controls, two intact teeth were prepared using NaOCl only. Roots were than split longitudinally from the rejoined segments and samples were evaluated under scanning electron microscopy using a five-point scoring system. Results: Most SAF (87% and ProTaper (83% samples (P > 0.05, had scores of 1 and 2 indicating clean canal walls for the IRR cavities. Conclusions: SAF with activated continuous irrigation and ProTaper with conventional syringe/needle irrigation both successfully removed the smear layer from artificially prepared IRR cavities

  3. Probabilistic Cloning of two Single-Atom States via Thermal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Pin-Shu; Liu, Dao-Jun

    2016-12-01

    We propose a cavity QED scheme for implementing the 1 → 2 probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) of two single-atom states. In our scheme, after the to-be-cloned atom and the assistant atom passing through the first cavity, a measurement is carried out on the assistant atom. Based on the measurement outcome we can judge whether the PQC should be continued. If the cloning fails, the other operations are omitted. This makes our scheme economical. If the PQC is continued (with the optimal probability) according to the measurement outcome, two more cavities and some unitary operations are used for achieving the PQC in a deterministic way. Our scheme is insensitive to the decays of the cavities and the atoms.

  4. Distributed embedded-PC-based control and data acquisition system for TESLA cavity controller and simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotny, Wojciech M.; Roszkowski, Piotr; Kierzkowski, Krzysztof; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Simrock, Stefan

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes an alternative approach for control and data acquisition system to be used in TESLA controller and simulator (SIMCON) boards. The standard VME controller may be replaced with a cheap embedded PC to provide equivalent or even superior functionality. The new approach offers better cost/performance ratio, better scalability of the system and better testability of the SIMCON boards.

  5. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  6. Optimization of Gating System Design for Die Casting of Thin Magnesium Alloy-Based Multi-Cavity LCD Housings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. D.; Baek, U. H.; Han, J. W.

    2012-09-01

    High-pressure die casting is the preferred process for manufacturing Mg-alloy components used for numerous applications. High-pressure die casting is suitable for mass production and has the advantage of also being suitable for accurately fashioning objects of complicated shapes. One disadvantage of high-speed die casting is the occurrence of defects such as shrinkage or air entrainment. Gating system design must be very effective in actual manufacturing facilities to avoid the occurrence of such defects. The objective of this study is to present a methodology for obtaining optimal designs of 4-cavity thin electronic component housings. The fluid behavior and amount of air entrainment caused by the overflows and air vent designs were analyzed using a computer fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator. The effectiveness of the proposed system was demonstrated through CFD simulations and experiments using an actual manufacturing process. Also, the effect of vacuum systems on the porosity and mechanical properties of the castings was studied. The volume of porosity in the casting was found to be significantly reduced using vacuum assistance during die casting. As a result, the tensile strength and the elongation of the die casting products are improved.

  7. An economical wireless cavity-nest viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel P. Huebner; Sarah R. Hurteau

    2007-01-01

    Inspection of cavity nests and nest boxes is often required during studies of cavity-nesting birds, and fiberscopes and pole-mounted video cameras are sometimes used for such inspection. However, the cost of these systems may be prohibitive for some potential users. We describe a user-built, wireless cavity viewer that can be used to access cavities as high as 15 m and...

  8. Hazard report. Incorrect measurement of uterine cavity while using Hologic NovaSure endometrial ablation system can result in patient injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    If the uterine cavity is improperly or inaccurately measured during use of the Hologic NovaSure endometrial ablation system, it could result in thermal or perforation injuries. This article describes some of these injuries and offers guidance on reducing their likelihood.

  9. Vibro-acoustic modeling and analysis of a coupled acoustic system comprising a partially opened cavity coupled with a flexible plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuangxia; Su, Zhu; Jin, Guoyong; Liu, Zhigang

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the modeling and solution method of a three-dimensional (3D) coupled acoustic system comprising a partially opened cavity coupled with a flexible plate and an exterior field of semi-infinite size, which is ubiquitously encountered in architectural acoustics and is a reasonable representation of many engineering occasions. A general solution method is presented to predict the dynamic behaviors of the three-dimensional (3D) acoustic coupled system, in which the displacement of the plate and the sound pressure in the cavity are respectively constructed in the form of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional modified Fourier series with several auxiliary functions introduced to ensure the uniform convergence of the solution over the entire solution domain. The effect of the opening is taken into account via the work done by the sound pressure acting at the coupling aperture that is contributed from the vibration of particles on the acoustic coupling interface and on the structural-acoustic coupling interface. Both the acoustic coupling between finite cavity and exterior field and the structural-acoustic coupling between flexible plate and interior acoustic field are considered in the vibro-acoustic modeling of the three-dimensional acoustic coupled acoustic system. The dynamic responses of the coupled structural-acoustic system are obtained using the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure based on the energy expressions for the coupled system. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method are validated through numerical examples and comparison with results obtained by the boundary element analysis. Furthermore, the influence of the opening and the cavity volume on the acoustic behaviors of opened cavity system is studied.

  10. Time-dependent density functional theory for many-electron systems interacting with cavity photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokatly, I V

    2013-06-07

    Time-dependent (current) density functional theory for many-electron systems strongly coupled to quantized electromagnetic modes of a microcavity is proposed. It is shown that the electron-photon wave function is a unique functional of the electronic (current) density and the expectation values of photonic coordinates. The Kohn-Sham system is constructed, which allows us to calculate the above basic variables by solving self-consistent equations for noninteracting particles. We suggest possible approximations for the exchange-correlation potentials and discuss implications of this approach for the theory of open quantum systems. In particular we show that it naturally leads to time-dependent density functional theory for systems coupled to the Caldeira-Leggett bath.

  11. Derivation of a Ritz series modeling technique for acoustic cavity-structural systems based on a constrained Hamilton's principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Jerry H

    2010-05-01

    Hamilton's principle for dynamic systems is adapted to describe the coupled response of a confined acoustic domain and an elastic structure that forms part or all of the boundary. A key part of the modified principle is the treatment of the surface traction as a Lagrange multiplier function that enforces continuity conditions at the fluid-solid interface. The structural displacement, fluid velocity potential, and traction are represented by Ritz series, where the usage of the velocity potential as the state variable for the fluid assures that the flow is irrotational. Designation of the coefficients of the potential function series as generalized velocities leads to corresponding series representations of the particle velocity, displacement, and pressure in the fluid, which in turn leads to descriptions of the mechanical energies and virtual work. Application of the calculus of variations to Hamilton's principle yields linear differential-algebraic equations whose form is identical to those governing mechanical systems that are subject to nonholonomic kinematic constraints. Criteria for selection of basis functions for the various Ritz series are illustrated with an example of a rectangular cavity bounded on one side by an elastic plate and conditions that change discontinuously on other sides.

  12. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  13. Bosonization and functional renormalization group approach in the framework of QED2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandori, I.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In particle physics, theories and models are defined at high energies, where symmetry considerations are valid, but the measurements are performed at relatively low energies. One has to determine the low-energy behavior of every model which requires renormalization. In usual cases the perturbative renormalization is sufficient however, there are special situations like for example the confinement of quarks into hadrons where non-perturbative treatments are needed. Since the invention of exact renormalization group (RG) method its main goal has been to describe systems where the usual approximations (e.g. perturbation theory) are failed. Unfortunately, exact RG equations are functional equations hence one has to use truncations in order to handle them. The truncated RG equations depend on the choice of the, so called regulator function, i.e. on the RG scheme implying that the predicting power of the RG method is weakened and a dependence of physical results on the choice of the regulator function can be observed. Since the functional RG has been developed in order to be able to perform renormalization non-perturbatively, it is of great importance to clarify how far the results obtained are independent or at least weakly dependent on the particular choice of the RG scheme. Consequently, optimization is required. In order to optimize the scheme dependence of RG equations a commonly accepted strategy is to consider such models, where other non-perturbative results are available. For example, lattice calculations can provide us physical properties (e.g. fixed points, critical exponents) of certain models which can be considered as exact values and the RG scheme should be chosen to get the closest value to the exact one. Then the RG equation optimized in this way can be applied to other models and theories. However, it is an open question whether the RG approach optimized for a particular model can produce the best result for the

  14. Colloquium: cavity optomechanics

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Monday 14 November 2011, 17:00 Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg Université de Genève Cavity optomechanics: controlling micro mechanical oscillators with laser light Prof. Tobias Kippenberg EPFL, Lausanne Laser light can be used to cool and to control trapped ions, atoms and molecules at the quantum level. This has lead to spectacular advances such as the most precise atomic clocks. An outstanding frontier is the control with lasers of nano- and micro-mechancial systems. Recent advances in cavity optomechanics have allowed such elementary control for the first time, enabling mechanical systems to be ground state cooled leading to readout with quantum limited sensitivity and permitting to explore new device concepts resulting from radiation pressure.  

  15. Recoil effects in the hyperfine structure of QED bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodwin, G.T.; Yennie, D.R.; Gregorio, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors give a general discussion of the derivation from field theory of a formalism for the perturbative solution of the relativistic two-body problem. The lowest-order expression for the four-point function is given in terms of a two-particle three-dimensional propagator in a static potential. It is obtained by fixing the loop energy in the four-dimensional formalism at a point which is independent of the loop momentum and is symmetric in the two particle variables. This method avoids awkward positive- and negative-energy projectors, with their attendant energy square roots, and allows one to recover the Dirac equation straightforwardly in the nonrecoil limit. The perturbations appear as a variety of four-dimensional kernels which are rearranged and regrouped into convenient sets. In particular, they are transformed from the Coulomb to the Feynman gauge, which greatly simplifies the expressions that must be evaluated. Although the approach is particularly convenient for the precision analysis of QED bound states, it is not limited to such applications. The authors use it to give the first unified treatment of all presently known recoil corrections to the muonium hyperfine structure and also to verify the corresponding contributions through order α 2 lnαE/sub F/ in positronium. The required integrals are evaluated analytically

  16. Bloch-Nordsieck estimates of high-temperature QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, H. M.; Sheu, Y.-M.; Grandou, T.

    2008-01-01

    In anticipation of a subsequent application to QCD, we consider the case of QED at high temperature. We introduce a Fradkin representation into the exact, Schwingerian, functional expression of a fermion propagator, as well as a new and relevant version of the Bloch-Nordsieck model, which extracts the soft contributions of every perturbative graph, in contradistinction to the assumed separation of energy scales of previous semiperturbative treatments. Our results are applicable to the absorption of a fast particle which enters a heat bath, as well as to the propagation of a symmetric pulse within the thermal medium due to the appearance of an instantaneous, shockwave-like source acting in the medium. An exponentially decreasing time dependence of the incident particle's initial momentum combines with a stronger decrease in the particle's energy, estimated by a sum over all Matsubara frequencies, to model an initial 'fireball', which subsequently decays in a Gaussian fashion. When extended to QCD, qualitative applications could be made to RHIC scattering, in which a fireball appears, expands, and is damped away

  17. FPGA-based multichannel optical concentrator SIMCON 4.0 for TESLA cavities LLRF control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkuszewski, Karol; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Koprek, Waldemar; Szewinski, Jaroslaw; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Simrock, Stefan

    2006-10-01

    The paper presents an idea, design and realization of a gigabit, optoelectronic synchronous massive data concentrator for the LLRF control system for FLASH and XFEL superconducting accelerators and lasers. The design bases on a central, large, programmable FPGA VirtexIIPro circuit by Xilinx and on eight commercial optoelectronic transceivers. There were implemented peripheral devices for embedded PowerPC block like: memory and Ethernet. The SIMCON 4.0 module was realized as a single, standard EURO-6HE board with VXI/VME-bus. Hardware implementation was described for the most important functional blocks. Construction solutions were presented.

  18. FPGA based multichannel optical concentrator SIMCON 4.0 for TESLA cavities LLRF control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkuszewski, K.; Pozniak, K.T.; Jalmuzna, W.; Koprek, W.; Szewinski, J.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Electronic Systems; Simrock, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents an idea, design and realization of a gigabit, optoelectronic synchronous massive data concentrator for the LLRF control system for FLASH and XFEL superconducting accelerators and lasers. The design bases on a central, large, programmable FPGA VirtexIIPro circuit by Xilinx and on eight commercial optoelectronic transceivers. There were implemented peripheral devices for embedded PowerPC block like: memory and Ethernet. The SIMCON 4.0 module was realized as a single, standard EURO-6HE board with VXI/VME-bus. Hardware implementation was described for the most important functional blocks. Construction solutions were presented. (orig.)

  19. FPGA based multichannel optical concentrator SIMCON 4.0 for TESLA cavities LLRF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkuszewski, K.; Pozniak, K.T.; Jalmuzna, W.; Koprek, W.; Szewinski, J.; Romaniuk, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an idea, design and realization of a gigabit, optoelectronic synchronous massive data concentrator for the LLRF control system for FLASH and XFEL superconducting accelerators and lasers. The design bases on a central, large, programmable FPGA VirtexIIPro circuit by Xilinx and on eight commercial optoelectronic transceivers. There were implemented peripheral devices for embedded PowerPC block like: memory and Ethernet. The SIMCON 4.0 module was realized as a single, standard EURO-6HE board with VXI/VME-bus. Hardware implementation was described for the most important functional blocks. Construction solutions were presented. (orig.)

  20. Design and simulation of 3½-cell superconducting gun cavity and beam dynamics studies of the SASE-FEL System at the Institute of Accelerator Technologies at Ankara University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, H. Duran; Cakir, R.; Porsuk, D.

    2015-01-01

    Design and simulation of a superconducting gun cavity with 3½ cells have been studied in order to give the first push to the electron beam for the linear accelerating system at The Institute of Accelerator Technologies at Ankara University. Electrons are accelerated through the gun cavity with the help of the Radiofrequency power suppliers from cryogenic systems. Accelerating gradient should be as high as possible to accelerate electron beam inside the cavity. In this study, electron beam reaches to 9.17 MeV energy at the end of the gun cavity with the accelerating gradient; E c =19.21 MV/m. 1.3 GHz gun cavity consists of three TESLA-like shaped cells while the special designed gun-cell includes a cathode plug. Optimized important beam parameters inside the gun cavity, average beam current 3 mA, transverse emittance 2.5 mm mrad, repetition rate 30 MHz and other parameters are obtained for the SASE-FEL System. The Superfish/Poisson program is used to design each cell of the superconducting cavity. Superconducting gun cavity and Radiofrequency properties are studied by utilizing 2D Superfish/Poisson, 3D Computer Simulation Technology Microwave Studio, and 3D Computer Simulation Technology Particle Studio. Superfish/Poisson is also used to optimize the geometry of the cavity cells to get the highest accelerating gradient. The behavior of the particles along the beamline is included in this study. ASTRA Code is used to track the particles

  1. A Microbolometer System for Radiation Detection in the THz Frequency Range with a Resonating Cavity Fabricated in the CMOS Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesek, Aleksander; Zemva, Andrej; Trontelj, Janez

    2018-02-14

    The THz sensors using microbolometers as a sensing element are reported as one of the most sensitive room-temperature THz detectors suitable for THz imaging and spectroscopic applications. Microbolometer detectors are usually fabricated using different types of the MEMS technology. The patent for the detection system presented in this paper describes a method for microbolometer fabrication using a standard CMOS technology with advanced micromachining techniques. The measured sensitivity of the sensors fabricated by the patented method is 1000 V/W at an optimal frequency and is determined by the performance of a double-dipole antenna and quarter-wavelength resonant cavity. The paper presents a patented method for fabrication of a microbolometer system for radiation detection in the THz frequency range (16). The method is divided into several stages regarding the current silicon micromachining process. Main stages are fabrication of supporting structures for micro bridge, creation of micro cavities and fabrication of Aluminum antenna and Titanium microbolometer. Additional method for encapsulation in the vacuum is described which additionally improves the performance of bolometer. The CMOS technology is utilized for fabrication as it is cost effective and provides the possibility of larger sensor systems integration with included amplification. At other wavelengths (e.g. IR region) thermistors are usually also the receivers with the sensor resistance change provoked by self-heating. In the THz region the energy is received by an antenna coupled to a thermistor. Depending on the specific application requirement, two types of the antenna were designed and used; a narrow-band dipole antenna and a wideband log-periodic antenna. With method described in the paper, the microbolometer detector reaches sensitivities up to 500 V/W and noise equivalent power (NEP) down to 10 pW/√Hz. Additional encapsulation in the vacuum improves its performance at least by a factor of 2

  2. High precision hyperfine measurements in Bismuth challenge bound-state strong-field QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Johannes; Andelkovic, Zoran; Brandau, Carsten; Dax, Andreas; Geithner, Wolfgang; Geppert, Christopher; Gorges, Christian; Hammen, Michael; Hannen, Volker; Kaufmann, Simon; König, Kristian; Litvinov, Yuri A; Lochmann, Matthias; Maaß, Bernhard; Meisner, Johann; Murböck, Tobias; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Matthias; Schmidt, Stefan; Steck, Markus; Stöhlker, Thomas; Thompson, Richard C; Trageser, Christian; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried

    2017-05-16

    Electrons bound in highly charged heavy ions such as hydrogen-like bismuth 209 Bi 82+ experience electromagnetic fields that are a million times stronger than in light atoms. Measuring the wavelength of light emitted and absorbed by these ions is therefore a sensitive testing ground for quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects and especially the electron-nucleus interaction under such extreme conditions. However, insufficient knowledge of the nuclear structure has prevented a rigorous test of strong-field QED. Here we present a measurement of the so-called specific difference between the hyperfine splittings in hydrogen-like and lithium-like bismuth 209 Bi 82+,80+ with a precision that is improved by more than an order of magnitude. Even though this quantity is believed to be largely insensitive to nuclear structure and therefore the most decisive test of QED in the strong magnetic field regime, we find a 7-σ discrepancy compared with the theoretical prediction.

  3. Optical Search for QED vacuum magnetic birefringence, Axions and photon Regeneration

    CERN Multimedia

    Pugnat, P; Hryczuk, A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Kral, M

    2007-01-01

    Since its prediction in 1936 by Euler, Heisenberg and Weisskopf in the earlier development of the Quantum Electrodynamic (QED) theory, the Vacuum Magnetic Birefringence (VMB) is still a challenge for optical metrology techniques. According to QED, the vacuum behaves as an optically active medium in the presence of an external magnetic field. It can be experimentally probed with a linearly polarized laser beam. After propagating through the vacuum submitted to a transverse magnetic field, the polarization of the laser beam will change to elliptical and the parameters of the polarization are directly related to fundamental constants such as the fine structure constant and the electron Compton wavelength. Contributions to the VMB could also arise from the existence of light scalar or pseudo-scalar particles like axions that couple to two photons and this would manifest itself as a sizeable deviation from the initial QED prediction. On one side, the interest in axion search, providing an answer to the strong-CP p...

  4. Microleakage of Self-Etch Adhesive System in Class V Cavities Prepared by Using Er:YAG Laser with Different Pulse Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanombualert, Jutipond; Chimtim, Pijitta; Heebthamai, Thitirat; Weera-Archakul, Wilawan

    2015-09-01

    In vitro studies evaluated cementum surface morphology and microleakage of three different energy density parameters of Erbium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser compared with diamond bur preparation on class V cavities with self-etch adhesive system and composite resin restoration. Standard class V cavities were prepared at cervical area below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) in 80 extracted premolars, by using a diamond bur on the buccal surface. All teeth were randomly allocated into four groups: Group 1, diamond bur; Group 2, Er:YAG 50 mJ/15 Hz, 3.77 J/cm(2); Group 3, Er:YAG 75 mJ/15 Hz, 5.65 J/cm(2); and Group 4, Er:YAG 100 mJ/15 Hz, 7.53 J/cm(2). Five cavities from each group were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The 15 remaining cavities from each group were restored with self-etch adhesive and nano-hybrid composite. After thermocycling, all sample teeth were immersed in 0.2% methylene blue dye and sectioned buccolingually. Statistics were analyzed using the one way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests with Bonferroni correction. The morphology showed micro-irregularities in the cementum surface of the laser group with the absence of a smear layer. The microstructure characteristics were increased surface roughness followed by increasing laser energy transmission. The Er:YAG laser groups were statistically significant, with less microleakage than the diamond bur group (pself-etch adhesive system. Therefore, the microleakage of Er:YAG laser irradiation was significantly decreased compared with diamond bur cavities.

  5. Storage and retrieval of time-entangled soliton trains in a three-level atom system coupled to an optical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welakuh, Davis D. M.; Dikandé, Alain M.

    2017-11-01

    The storage and subsequent retrieval of coherent pulse trains in the quantum memory (i.e. cavity-dark state) of three-level Λ atoms, are considered for an optical medium in which adiabatic photon transfer occurs under the condition of quantum impedance matching. The underlying mechanism is based on intracavity Electromagnetically-Induced Transparency, by which properties of a cavity filled with three-level Λ-type atoms are manipulated by an external control field. Under the impedance matching condition, we derive analytic expressions that suggest a complete transfer of an input field into the cavity-dark state by varying the mixing angle in a specific way, and its subsequent retrieval at a desired time. We illustrate the scheme by demonstrating the complete transfer and retrieval of a Gaussian, a single hyperbolic-secant and a periodic train of time-entangled hyperbolic-secant input photon pulses in the atom-cavity system. For the time-entangled hyperbolic-secant input field, a total controllability of the periodic evolution of the dark state population is made possible by changing the Rabi frequency of the classical driving field, thus allowing to alternately store and retrieve high-intensity photons from the optically dense Electromagnetically-Induced transparent medium. Such multiplexed photon states, which are expected to allow sharing quantum information among many users, are currently of very high demand for applications in long-distance and multiplexed quantum communication.

  6. Development and characterisation of semisolid systems to deliver propolis in the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA NAKAHARA HIRATA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical formulations containing poloxamer 407 (P407, Carbopol 934P (C934P or gelatin (GELA, with ethanolic propolis extract (PE, were designed for the treatment of oral mucosal diseases. PE was produced and its quality was assessed by measuring its specific gravity, pH, weight of dry residue and total flavonoid content. Monopolymeric and binary polymeric formulations were prepared and their gelling temperature (Tsol/gel, pH, continuous flow rheology and mucoadhesion were studied. PE exhibited good quality and the formulations were easy to prepare and showed a wide range of consistency. Most of the formulations showed thermoresponsive behaviour and only those containing 15% P407, plus 0.20% C934P or 1.0 % GELA, displayed Tsol/gel suitable for application to the oral mucosa. Monopolymeric formulations, containing C934P or GELA, and binary formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow and low degrees of thixotropy. Monopolymeric formulations containing P407 exhibited pseudoplastic flow and rheopexy. The mucoadhesive properties of the systems could not be assessed. Fragments of formulation were found to remain stuck to parts of the mucin disc, owing to cohesive failure of the samples and of the sample/mucin interface. The data obtained on these formulations indicate a potentially useful role in the treatment of oral mucosal diseases. Keywords: Propolis. Mucoadhesion. Poloxamer 407. Carbopol 934P. Gelatin. RESUMO Desenvolvimento e caracterização de sistemas semi-sólidos para liberação de própolis na cavidade bucal Formulações farmacêuticas contendo poloxamer 407 (P407, Carbopol 934P (C934P ou gelatina (GELA, e extrato de própolis (EP foram desenvolvidos para o tratamento de doenças da mucosa oral. EP foi produzido e sua qualidade foi avaliada quanto ao resíduo seco e ao teor de flavonóides totais. Formulações monopoliméricas e poliméricas binárias foram produzidas e a temperatura de gelificação (Tsol/gel, o pH, a

  7. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  8. The parity-preserving massive QED3: Vanishing β-function and no parity anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Del Cima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The parity-preserving massive QED3 exhibits vanishing gauge coupling β-function and is parity and infrared anomaly free at all orders in perturbation theory. Parity is not an anomalous symmetry, even for the parity-preserving massive QED3, in spite of some claims about the possibility of a perturbative parity breakdown, called parity anomaly. The proof is done by using the algebraic renormalization method, which is independent of any regularization scheme, based on general theorems of perturbative quantum field theory.

  9. Two-loop QED operator matrix elements with massive external fermion lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Freitas, Abilio de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Fisica; Neerven, Wilhelmus van [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands). Institut-Lorentz

    2011-07-15

    The two-loop massive operator matrix elements for the fermionic local twist-2 operators with external massive fermion lines in Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) are calculated up to the constant terms in the dimensional parameter {epsilon}=D-4. We investigate the hypothesis of F. A. Berends et al. (1988) that the 2-loop QED initial state corrections to e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation into a virtual neutral gauge boson, except power corrections of O((m{sup 2}{sub f}/s){sup k}), k {>=} 1, can be represented in terms of these matrix elements and the massless 2-loop Wilson coefficients of the Drell-Yan process. (orig.)

  10. Ward Identities for the 2PI effective action in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinosa, Urko; Serreau, Julien

    2007-01-01

    We study the issue of symmetries and associated Ward-like identities in the context of two-particle-irreducible (2PI) functional techniques for abelian gauge theories. In the 2PI framework, the n-point proper vertices of the theory can be obtained in various different ways which, although equivalent in the exact theory, differ in general at finite approximation order. We derive generalized (2PI) Ward identities for these various n-point functions and show that such identities are exactly satisfied at any approximation order in 2PI QED. In particular, we show that 2PI-resummed vertex functions, i.e. field-derivatives of the so-called 2PI-resummed effective action, exactly satisfy standard Ward identities. We identify another set of n-point functions in the 2PI framework which exactly satisfy the standard Ward identities at any approximation order. These are obtained as field-derivatives of the two-point function φ, which defines the extremum of the 2PI effective action. We point out that the latter is not constrained by the underlying symmetry. As a consequence, the well-known fact that the corresponding gauge-field polarization tensor is not transverse in momentum space for generic approximations does not constitute a violation of (2PI) Ward identities. More generally, our analysis demonstrates that approximation schemes based on 2PI functional techniques respect all the Ward identities associated with the underlying abelian gauge symmetry. Our results apply to arbitrary linearly realized global symmetries as well

  11. ISR RF cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    In each ISR ring the radiofrequency cavities were installed in one 9 m long straight section. The RF system of the ISR had the main purpose to stack buckets of particles (most of the time protons)coming from the CPS and also to accelerate the stacked beam. The installed RF power per ring was 18 kW giving a peak accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The system had a very fine regulation feature allowing to lower the voltage down to 75 V in a smooth and well controlled fashion.

  12. Bistability of Cavity Magnon Polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Pu; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Dengke; Li, Tie-Fu; Hu, C.-M.; You, J. Q.

    2018-01-01

    We report the first observation of the magnon-polariton bistability in a cavity magnonics system consisting of cavity photons strongly interacting with the magnons in a small yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere. The bistable behaviors emerged as sharp frequency switchings of the cavity magnon polaritons (CMPs) and related to the transition between states with large and small numbers of polaritons. In our experiment, we align, respectively, the [100] and [110] crystallographic axes of the YIG sphere parallel to the static magnetic field and find very different bistable behaviors (e.g., clockwise and counter-clockwise hysteresis loops) in these two cases. The experimental results are well fitted and explained as being due to the Kerr nonlinearity with either a positive or negative coefficient. Moreover, when the magnetic field is tuned away from the anticrossing point of CMPs, we observe simultaneous bistability of both magnons and cavity photons by applying a drive field on the lower branch.

  13. Bistability of Cavity Magnon Polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Pu; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Dengke; Li, Tie-Fu; Hu, C-M; You, J Q

    2018-02-02

    We report the first observation of the magnon-polariton bistability in a cavity magnonics system consisting of cavity photons strongly interacting with the magnons in a small yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere. The bistable behaviors emerged as sharp frequency switchings of the cavity magnon polaritons (CMPs) and related to the transition between states with large and small numbers of polaritons. In our experiment, we align, respectively, the [100] and [110] crystallographic axes of the YIG sphere parallel to the static magnetic field and find very different bistable behaviors (e.g., clockwise and counter-clockwise hysteresis loops) in these two cases. The experimental results are well fitted and explained as being due to the Kerr nonlinearity with either a positive or negative coefficient. Moreover, when the magnetic field is tuned away from the anticrossing point of CMPs, we observe simultaneous bistability of both magnons and cavity photons by applying a drive field on the lower branch.

  14. Role of zero modes in the canonical quantization of heavy-fermion QED in light-cone coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.W.; Jun, J.W.; Shvartsman, S.M.; Taylor, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Four-dimensional heavy-fermion QED is studied in light-cone coordinates with (anti)periodic field boundary conditions. We carry out a consistent light-cone canonical quantization of this model using the Dirac algorithm for a system with first- and second-class constraints. To examine the role of the zero modes, we consider the quantization procedure in the zero-mode and the nonzero-mode sectors separately. In both sectors we obtain the physical variables and their canonical commutation relations. The physical Hamiltonian is constructed via a step-by-step exclusion of the unphysical degrees of freedom. An example using this Hamiltonian in which the zero modes play a role is the verification of the correct Coulomb potential between two heavy fermions

  15. Factors affecting the output pulse flatness of the linear transformer driver cavity systems with 5th harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Alexeenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the study we have undertaken to evaluate the effect of component tolerances in obtaining a voltage output flat top for a linear transformer driver (LTD cavity containing 3rd and 5th harmonic bricks [A. A. Kim et al., in Proc. IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science PPPS2013 (San Francisco, California, USA, 2013, pp. 1354–1356.] and for 30 cavity voltage adder. Our goal was to define the necessary component value precision in order to obtain a voltage output flat top with no more than ±0.5% amplitude variation.

  16. A novel multi-dimensional absolute distance measurement system using a basic frequency modulated continuous wave radar and an external cavity laser with trilateration metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xingting; Qu, Xinghua; Zhang, Fumin

    2018-01-01

    We propose and describe a novel multi-dimensional absolute distance measurement system. This system incorporates a basic frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar and an second external cavity laser (ECL). Through the use of trilateration, the system in our paper can provide 3D resolution inherently range. However, the measured optical path length differences (OPD) is often variable in industrial environments and this will causes Doppler effect, which has greatly impact on the measurement result. With using the second ECL, the system can correct the Doppler effect to ensure the precision of absolute distance measurement. Result of the simulation will prove the influence of Doppler effect.

  17. On-chip photonic transistor based on the spike synchronization in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Yusuf

    2018-03-01

    We consider the single photon transistor in coupled cavity system of resonators interacting with multilevel superconducting artificial atom simultaneously. Effective single mode transformation is used for the diagonalization of the Hamiltonian and impedance matching in terms of the normal modes. Storage and transmission of the incident field are described by the interactions between the cavities controlling the atomic transitions of lowest lying states. Rabi splitting of vacuum-induced multiphoton transitions is considered in input/output relations by the quadrature operators in the absence of the input field. Second-order coherence functions are employed to investigate the photon blockade and delocalization-localization transitions of cavity fields. Spontaneous virtual photon conversion into real photons is investigated in localized and oscillating regimes. Reflection and transmission of cavity output fields are investigated in the presence of the multilevel transitions. Accumulation and firing of the reflected and transmitted fields are used to investigate the synchronization of the bunching spike train of transmitted field and population imbalance of cavity fields. In the presence of single photon gate field, gain enhancement is explained for transmitted regime.

  18. Dual-wavelength high-power diode laser system based on an external-cavity tapered amplifier with tunable frequency difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2012-01-01

    knowledge, this is the broadest tuning range of the frequency difference from a dual-wavelength diode laser system. The spectrum, output power, and beam quality of the diode laser system are characterized. The power stability of each wavelength is measured, and the power fluctuations of the two wavelengths......A dual-wavelength high-power semiconductor laser system based on a tapered amplifier with double-Littrow external cavity is demonstrated around 800 nm. The two wavelengths can be tuned individually, and the frequency difference of the two wavelengths is tunable from 0.5 to 10.0 THz. To our...

  19. Dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry in vectorial theories: QED and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Using a variational approach for the Effective Potential for composite operators we dicuss the dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry in two vectorial theories: Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) and Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). We study the energetic aspects of the problem calculating the Effective Potential with the asymptotic nonperturbative solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the fermion selfenergy. (author) [pt

  20. QED corrections in deep-inelastic scattering from tensor polarized deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Gakh, G I

    2001-01-01

    The QED correction in the deep inelastic scattering from the polarized tensor of the deuteron target is considered. The calculations are based on the covariant parametrization of the deuteron quadrupole polarization tensor. The Drell-Yan representations in the electrodynamics are used for describing the radiation real and virtual particles

  1. Algebraic renormalization of parity-preserving QED3 coupled to scalar matter II: broken case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cima, O.M. del; Franco, D.H.T.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Piguet, O.

    1996-11-01

    In this letter the algebraic renormalization method, which is independent of any kind of regularization scheme, is presented for the parity-preserving QED 3 coupled to scalar matter in the broken regime, where the scalar assumes a finite vacuum expectation value, =v. The model shows to be stable under radiative corrections and anomaly free. (author)

  2. QED polarization asymmetries for e+e- scattering due to helicity flips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, T.B.; Sell, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    The polarization asymmetries for the e + e - scattering with polarized incoming of outgoing beams, which are proportional to the amplitudes φ 5 describing one helicity flip and φ 2 describing two helicity flips, have been calculated including their pure QED radiative corrections. These asymmetries are partly large and can be observed well at low energies. (orig.)

  3. Leptonic contributions to the effective electromagnetic coupling at four-loop order in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The running of the effective electromagnetic coupling is for many electroweak observables the dominant correction. It plays an important role for deriving constraints on the Standard Model in the context of electroweak precision measurements. We compute the four-loop QED corrections to the running of the effective electromagnetic coupling and perform a numerical evaluation of the different gauge invariant subsets

  4. Evidence for a critical behavior in 4D pure compact QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jersak, J.; Neuhaus, T.

    1995-01-01

    We present evidence about a critical behavior of 4D compact QED (CQED) pure gauge theory. Regularizing the theory on lattices homotopic to a sphere, we present evidence for a critical, i.e. second order like behavior at the deconfinement phase transition for certain values of the coupling parameter γ. ((orig.))

  5. Temperature measurement of cold atoms using single-atom transits and Monte Carlo simulation in a strongly coupled atom-cavity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenfang; Du, Jinjin; Wen, Ruijuan; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Tiancai, E-mail: tczhang@sxu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Liang, Junjun [Department of Physics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2014-03-17

    We investigate the transmission of single-atom transits based on a strongly coupled cavity quantum electrodynamics system. By superposing the transit transmissions of a considerable number of atoms, we obtain the absorption spectra of the cavity induced by single atoms and obtain the temperature of the cold atom. The number of atoms passing through the microcavity for each release is also counted, and this number changes exponentially along with the atom temperature. Monte Carlo simulations agree closely with the experimental results, and the initial temperature of the cold atom is determined. Compared with the conventional time-of-flight (TOF) method, this approach avoids some uncertainties in the standard TOF and sheds new light on determining temperature of cold atoms by counting atoms individually in a confined space.

  6. Use of a temperature-initiated passive cooling system (TIPACS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Conklin, J.; Reich, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    A new type of passive cooling system has been invented (Forsberg 1993): the Temperature-Initiated Passive Cooling System (TIPACS). The characteristics of the TIPACS potentially match requirements for an improved reactor-cavity-cooling system (RCCS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). This report is an initial evaluation of the TIPACS for the MHTGR with a Rankines (steam) power conversion cycle. Limited evaluations were made of applying the TIPACS to MHTGRs with reactor pressure vessel temperatures up to 450 C. These temperatures may occur in designs of Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and process heat MHTGRs. The report is structured as follows. Section 2 describes the containment cooling issues associated with the MHTGR and the requirements for such a cooling system. Section 3 describes TIPACS in nonmathematical terms. Section 4 describes TIPACS's heat-removal capabilities. Section 5 analyzes the operation of the temperature-control mechanism that determines under what conditions the TIPACS rejects heat to the environment. Section 6 addresses other design and operational issues. Section 7 identifies uncertainties, and Section 8 provides conclusions. The appendixes provide the detailed data and models used in the analysis

  7. Design of 325 MHz spoke cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Peng; Huang Hong; Dai Jianping; Zu Guoquan; Li Han

    2012-01-01

    Spoke cavity can be used in the low-energy section of the proton accelerator. It has many significant advantages: compact structure, high value of R/Q, etc. The ADS (Accelerator Driven System) project will adopt many spoke cavities with different β values. Therefore, IHEP has began the research of β=0.14, 325 MHz spoke cavity. In this pa per, the dimensions, RF performances and mechanical properties of it are studied. (authors)

  8. Replacement of fractured amalgam restoration in shallow cavities using a new category of adhesive system: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Marcon, Laercio Neves; Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics – Araçatuba Dental School – UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista – Araçatuba – SP – Brazil.; Gonçalves, Rafael Simões; Department of Dentistry, Endodontic and Dental Materials – Bauru School of Dentistry – University of São Paulo – FOB/USP – Bauru – SP – Brazil.; Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Department of Restorative Dentistry – Araçatuba Dental School – UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista – Araçatuba – SP – Brazil.; Shinohara, Mirela Sanae; Department of Restorative Dentistry – Araçatuba Dental School – UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista – Araçatuba – SP – Brazil.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Several failure have been related in amalgam restorations that requiring repair or replacement. Objective: The aim of this case report was to demonstrate a usual clinical condition found in dental office: fractured in amalgam restorations associated with the esthetic patient desire. Case report: Then, seven fractured amalgam restorations replacements, probably due to improper cavity design, were performed in two patients. The replacements were accomplished by three different ope...

  9. A Study of the Multi-Mode Purcell Effect for a Transmon in 3D Circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Andrei; Sun, Luyan; Blumoff, Jacob; Nigg, Simon; Girvin, Steve; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Although superconducting 3D transmon qubits offer a promising path toward realizing an architecture for quantum computation, they are still limited by decoherence processes that are not yet fully understood. Qubit T1 relaxation due to the Purcell Effect presents one such limitation on coherence times, but thus far a complete model of Purcell processes for transmons in 3D cavities, beyond the approximation of a single cavity mode and lumped element qubit, has been absent. Employing a simple scheme to vary the decay rate κ (or quality factor Q) of our cavities in-situ we explore in detail how multiple cavity modes contribute to qubit T1 decay in the Purcell regime. In addition, we show the continued dependence of qubit T1 on cavity κ as we systematically decouple from our cavity and are no longer Purcell-limited and how this dependence is related to a steady rise in qubit excited state population. Our findings are consistent with theory we have developed based on an effective circuit model for the cavity-qubit system, and set the stage for continuing the study of the multi-mode Purcell Effect by means of in-situ tuning of not just the cavity coupling, but the qubit frequency itself.

  10. Precise measurement of the HFS of positronium using the zeeman effect I: Experimental set-up and RF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, G; Ishida, A; Sasaki, Y; Miyazaki, A; Kato, K; Asai, S [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Suehara, T; Namba, T; Kobayashi, T [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP), University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Saito, H [Department of General Systems Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8902 (Japan); Yoshida, M; Tanaka, K; Yamamoto, A [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan); Urushizaki, Y; Ogawa, I; Idehara, T [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region (FIR-FU), University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, Fukui, 910-8507 (Japan); Sabchevski, S, E-mail: akimoto@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.j [Bulgarian Academy of Science, 1, 15 Noemvri Str, 1040 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    Positronium is a QCD-free system and the measurement of its hyperfine splitting provides a strict test of quantum electrodynamics (QED). Recent research revealed a discrepancy of 3.9{sigma} between the QED prediction and previous experimental results. We report on the prototype run of an improved experimental set-up and the performance of its RF system.

  11. Cavity solitons and localized patterns in a finite-size optical cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyreff, G. [Optique Nonlineaire Theorique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), CP 231 (Belgium); Gelens, L. [Applied Physics Research Group (APHY), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)

    2011-08-15

    In appropriate ranges of parameters, laser-driven nonlinear optical cavities can support a wide variety of optical patterns, which could be used to carry information. The intensity peaks appearing in these patterns are called cavity solitons and are individually addressable. Using the Lugiato-Lefever equation to model a perfectly homogeneous cavity, we show that cavity solitons can only be located at discrete points and at a minimal distance from the edges. Other localized states which are attached to the edges are identified. By interpreting these patterns in an information coding frame, the information capacity of this dynamical system is evaluated. The results are explained analytically in terms of the the tail characteristics of the cavity solitons. Finally, the influence of boundaries and of cavity imperfections on cavity solitons are compared.

  12. FPGA technology application in a fast measurement and control system for the TESLA superconducting cavity of a FLASH free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2007-08-01

    Contemporary basic research in physics, biology, chemistry, pharmacology, material technology and other branches uses methods based on sample penetration (and the effect measurement) with pulsed ultra-short EM waves of very high beam intensity. This paper is an overview of a free electron laser (FEL) used in such methods. A method for the stabilization of the EM field in a superconducting 'TESLA' cavity accelerator for electrons is presented. This requires precise measurements of the field. The SC accelerator is a basic part of the FEL. The given example concerns the FLASH machine in DESY. The presented, high power EM field stabilization system is based on FPGA circuits with embedded fast hardware multiplication blocks. Examples of a few families of such new generation practically designed and constructed system realizations are given. The system is referred to as the SIMCON (from the microwave superconducting cavity SIMulator and CONtroller). SIMCONs consist of either single-module, multi-module configurable or multichannel distributed units. The SIMCON system stabilizes the EM field by a very fast feedback loop with an adaptation process, supplemented with a feed-forward. The following are presented: a parametric hardware description (firmware) in the form of behavioural VHDL algorithms; implementation results in VirtexIIPro circuits; examples of measurements of high power EM field stability performed under the nominal conditions of accelerator work.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW DETECTOR SYSTEM TO EVALUATE POSITION AND ACTIVITY OF PLUTONIUM PARTICLES IN NASAL CAVITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Yuki; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Momose, Takumaro; Kaneko, Junichi H; Nemoto, Norio

    2018-03-01

    Plutonium dioxide (PuO2) is used to fabricate a mixed oxide fuel for fast breeder reactors. When a glove box containing PuO2 fails, such as by rupture of a glove or a vinyl bag, airborne contamination of plutonium (Pu) can occur. If a worker inhales PuO2 particles, they will be continually irradiating their lung tissue with alpha particles, and this could cause lung cancer. The nasal smear and nose blow methods are useful for checking workers for PuO2 intake in the field. However, neither method can evaluate the quantitative activity of Pu. No alpha-particle detector that can be used for direct measurements in the nasal cavity has been developed. For direct and quantitative measurement, it is required that a shape of the detector should be a fine bar which inserts itself in the nose to measure the accurate activity of Pu. Therefore, we developed a nasal monitor capable of directly measuring the activity of Pu in the nasal cavity to estimate the internal exposure dose of a worker. Prismatic-shaped 2 × 2 acrylic light guides were used to compose a detector block, and a ZnS(Ag) scintillator was adhered to the surface of these light guides. Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays with 8 × 8 channels were used as a photodetector. Actual PuO2 particles were measured using the nasal monitor. The nasal monitor could be directly inserted in the nasal cavities, and the activity distribution of Pu was obtained by the nasal monitor. The average efficiencies in 4-pi were 11.4 and 11.6% for the left and right nasal cavities, respectively. The influence of gamma and beta rays from Cesium-137 (137Cs) Strontium-90 (90Sr) on the detection of the alpha particles of Pu was negligible. The difference in the measured Pu activity between the ZnS(Ag) scintillation counter and the nasal monitor was within 4.0%. Therefore, it was considered that the developed nasal monitor could be used in direct Pu determination to estimate the internal exposure dose of workers.

  14. Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamutsch, Christian; Smith, Cameron L.C.; Graham, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    demonstrate a PhC cavity with a quality factor of Q15 000 that exhibits a temperature-independent resonance. Temperature-stable cavities constitute a major building block in the development of a large suite of applications from high-sensitivity sensor systems for chemical and biomedical applications...

  15. High-Speed Semiconductor Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers for Optical Data-Transmission Systems (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhin, S. A.; Maleev, N. A.; Bobrov, M. A.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Sakharov, A. V.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    The main problems of providing a high-speed operation semiconductor lasers with a vertical microcavity (so-called "vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers") under amplitude modulation and ways to solve them have been considered. The influence of the internal properties of the radiating active region and the electrical parasitic elements of the equivalent circuit of lasers are discussed. An overview of approaches that lead to an increase of the cutoff parasitic frequency, an increase of the differential gain of the active region, the possibility of the management of mode emission composition and the lifetime of photons in the optical microcavities, and reduction of the influence of thermal effects have been presented. The achieved level of modulation bandwidth of ˜30 GHz is close to the maximum achievable for the classical scheme of the direct-current modulation, which makes it necessary to use a multilevel modulation format to further increase the information capacity of optical channels constructed on the basis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

  16. Realize multiple hermetic chamber pressures for system-on-chip process by using the capping wafer with diverse cavity depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shyh-Wei; Weng, Jui-Chun; Liang, Kai-Chih; Sun, Yi-Chiang; Fang, Weileun

    2018-04-01

    Many mechanical and thermal characteristics, for example the air damping, of suspended micromachined structures are sensitive to the ambient pressure. Thus, micromachined devices such as the gyroscope and accelerometer have different ambient pressure requirements. Commercially available process platforms could be used to fabricate and integrate devices of various functions to reduce the chip size. However, it remains a challenge to offer different ambient pressures for micromachined devices after sealing them by wafer level capping (WLC). This study exploits the outgassing characteristics of the CMOS chip to fabricate chambers of various pressures after the WLC of the Si-above-CMOS (TSMC 0.18 µm 1P5M CMOS process) MEMS process platform. The pressure of the sealed chamber can be modulated by the chamber volume after the outgassing. In other words, the pressure of hermetic sealed chambers can be easily and properly defined by the etching depth of the cavity on an Si capping wafer. In applications, devices sealed with different cavity depths are implemented using the Si-above-CMOS (TSMC 0.18 µm 1P5M CMOS process) MEMS process platform to demonstrate the present approach. Measurements show the feasibility of this simple chamber pressure modulation approach on eight-inch wafers.

  17. Endometriosis Leads to an Increased Trefoil Factor 3 Concentration in the Peritoneal Cavity but Does Not Alter Systemic Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Diana; Doecke, Wolf-Dietrich; Hornung, Daniela; Agueusop, Inoncent; von Ahsen, Oliver; Machens, Kathrin; Schmitz, Arndt A; Gashaw, Isabella

    2017-02-01

    This study analyzed whether trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is locally elevated and correlated with common biomarkers and inflammatory processes in endometriosis. Peritoneal fluid (PF) was obtained from 50 women and serum from 124 women with or without endometriosis. Experimental endometriosis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by syngeneic transplantation of uterine tissue to the abdominal wall. Levels of TFF3 in PF of women with endometriosis were significantly increased ( P endometriosis: cancer antigen (CA) 125, CA-19-9, interleukin 8, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and matrix metalloproteinase 7. Serum levels of TFF3 in women were significantly influenced by the menstrual cycle but were independent from disease state. In mice, local TFF3 levels were significantly elevated in early endometriosis (up to 4 weeks after transplantation, P peritoneal cavity in endometriosis and might play a role in disease pathogenesis and its associated inflammatory processes. Furthermore, the results show that TFF3 is regulated through the menstrual cycle. With respect to animal models, syngeneic mouse model does reflect local TFF3 upregulation in the peritoneal cavity affected by endometriosis.

  18. Non-degenerate light quark masses from 2+1f lattice QCD+QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, Shane [Southampton U.; Blum, Thomas [RIKEN BNL; Hayakawa, Masashi [Nagoya U.; Izubuchi, Taku [RIKEN BNL; Sachrajda, Chris [Southampton U.; Zhou, Ran [Indiana U.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a calculation of the effects of isospin breaking in Lattice QCD+QED. This involves using Chiral Perturbation Theory with Electromagnetic corrections to find the renormalized, non-degenerate, light quark masses. The calculations are carried out on QCD ensembles generated by the RBC and UKQCD collaborations using Domain Wall Fermions and the Iwasaki and Iwasaki+DSDR Gauge Actions with unitary pion masses down to 170 MeV. Non-compact QED is treated in the quenched approximation. The simulations use a $32^3$ lattice size with $a^{-1}=2.28(3)$ GeV (Iwasaki) and 1.37(1) (Iwasaki+DSDR). This builds on previous work from the RBC/UKQCD collaboration with lattice spacing $a^{-1}=1.78(4)$ GeV.

  19. Two-loop operator matrix elements for massive fermionic local twist-2 operators in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas; Neerven, W.L. van

    2011-11-01

    We describe the calculation of the two--loop massive operator matrix elements with massive external fermions in QED. We investigate the factorization of the O(α 2 ) initial state corrections to e + e - annihilation into a virtual boson for large cms energies s >>m 2 e into massive operator matrix elements and the massless Wilson coefficients of the Drell-Yan process adapting the color coefficients to the case of QED, as proposed by F. A. Berends et. al. (Nucl. Phys. B 297 (1988)429). Our calculations show explicitly that the representation proposed there works at one-loop order and up to terms linear in ln (s/m 2 e ) at two-loop order. However, the two-loop constant part contains a few structural terms, which have not been obtained in previous direct calculations. (orig.)

  20. The scalar-photon 3-point vertex in massless quenched scalar QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concha-Sánchez, Y; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L X; Fernández-Rangel, L A

    2016-01-01

    Non perturbative studies of Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDEs) require their infinite, coupled tower to be truncated in order to reduce them to a practically solvable set. In this connection, a physically acceptable ansatz for the three point vertex is the most favorite choice. Scalar quantum electrodynamics (sQED) provides a simple and neat platform to address this problem. The most general form of the scalar-photon three point vertex can be expressed in terms of only two independent form factors, longitudinal and transverse. Ball and Chiu have demonstrated that the longitudinal vertex is fixed by requiring the Ward-Fradkin-Green- Takahashi identity (WFGTI), while the transverse vertex remains undetermined. In massless quenched sQED, we propose the transverse part of the non perturbative scalar-photon vertex. (paper)

  1. Entanglement concentration and purification of two-mode squeezed microwave photons in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2018-04-01

    We present a theoretical proposal for a physical implementation of entanglement concentration and purification protocols for two-mode squeezed microwave photons in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). First, we give the description of the cross-Kerr effect induced between two resonators in circuit QED. Then we use the cross-Kerr media to design the effective quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement on microwave-photon number. By using the QND measurement, the parties in quantum communication can accomplish the entanglement concentration and purification of nonlocal two-mode squeezed microwave photons. We discuss the feasibility of our schemes by giving the detailed parameters which can be realized with current experimental technology. Our work can improve some practical applications in continuous-variable microwave-based quantum information processing.

  2. A Test of QED in Electron-Positron Annihilation at Energies around the Z Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Spartiotis, C

    1992-01-01

    A study of the reaction e+ e- -t 11( /) at center-of-mass energies around the mass of the z 0 boson(91.2Ge V) has been performed. The total and differential cross sections have been measured cor- responding to an integrated luminosity of 14.42pb- 1 . The results are in good agreement with QED predictions. Lower limits were set , at 95% confidence level, on the QED cutoff parameters of A+ >130 GeV, A_ >112 GeV and on the mass of an excited elec- tron of me* > 120 Ge V. z 0 rare decays with photonic signatures in the final state were also searched for. Upper limits, at 953 confi- dence level, for the branching ratio of z 0 decaying into 7ro/ /11, TJI and /// are 1.2 x 10-4, 1.7 x 10-4, 3.3 x 10- 5 respectively.

  3. LEP copper accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    These copper cavities were used to generate the radio frequency electric field that was used to accelerate electrons and positrons around the 27-km Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran from 1989 to 2000. The copper cavities were gradually replaced from 1996 with new superconducting cavities allowing the collision energy to rise from 90 GeV to 200 GeV by mid-1999.

  4. MEDICI reactor cavity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Trebilcock, W.

    1983-01-01

    The MEDICI reactor cavity model is currently under development with the goal of providing a flexible, relatively realistic treatment of ex-vessel severe accident phenomena suitable for large-system codes like CONTAIN and MELCOR. The code is being developed with an emphasis on top-down design, to facilitate adaptability and multiple applications. A brief description of the overall code structure is provided. One of the key new models is then described in more detail. This is a dynamic quench model for debris beds. An example calculation using this model is presented. The question of whether it is necessary to consider the simultaneous motion of the quench front and ablation of the concrete is addressed with some scoping models

  5. Determination of the Integrated Luminosity at HERA using Elastic QED Compton Events

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kramer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Malinovski, E.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zlebcik, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2012-10-10

    A measurement of the integrated luminosity at the ep collider HERA is presented, exploiting the elastic QED Compton process ep \\rightarrow ep. The electron and the photon are detected in the backward calorimeter of the H1 experiment. The integrated luminosity of the data recorded in 2003 to 2007 is determined with a precision of 2.3%. The measurement is found to be compatible with the corresponding result obtained using the Bethe-Heitler process.

  6. Electron-electron attractive interaction in Maxwell-Chern-Simons QED3 at zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belich, H.; Ferreira Junior, M.M.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Ferreira Junior, M.M.

    2001-04-01

    One discusses the issue of low-energy electron-electron bound states in the Maxwell-Chern-Simons model coupled to QED 3 with spontaneous breaking of a local U(1)-symmetry. The scattering potential, in the non-relativistic limit, steaming from the electron-electron Moeller scattering, mediated by the Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Proca gauge field and the Higgs scalar, might be attractive by fine-tuning properly the physical parameters of the model. (author)

  7. Treatment of the infrared contribution: NLO QED evolution as a pedagogic example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, E.G. de [University of Durham, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C.P. 66318, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Martin, A.D. [University of Durham, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Ryskin, M.G. [University of Durham, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    We show that the conventional prescription used for DGLAP parton evolution at NLO has an inconsistent treatment of the contribution from the infrared (IR) region. We illustrate the problem by studying the simple example of QED evolution, treating the electron and photon as partons. The deficiency is not present in a physical approach which removes the IR divergency and allows calculation in the normal 4-dimensional space. (orig.)

  8. Treatment of the infrared contribution: NLO QED evolution as a pedagogic example

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, E. G.; Martin, A. D.; Ryskin, M. G.

    2013-08-01

    We show that the conventional prescription used for DGLAP parton evolution at NLO has an inconsistent treatment of the contribution from the infrared (IR) region. We illustrate the problem by studying the simple example of QED evolution, treating the electron and photon as partons. The deficiency is not present in a physical approach which removes the IR divergency and allows calculation in the normal 4-dimensional space.

  9. Determination of the integrated luminosity at HERA using elastic QED Compton events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2012-04-15

    A measurement of the integrated luminosity at the ep collider HERA is presented, exploiting the elastic QED Compton process ep{yields}e{gamma}p. The electron and the photon are detected in the backward calorimeter of the H1 experiment. The integrated luminosity of the data recorded in 2003 to 2007 is determined with a precision of 2.3%. The measurement is found to be compatible with the corresponding result obtained using the Bethe-Heitler process.

  10. A non-perturbative approach to the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism in massless scalar QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malbouisson, A.P.C.; Nogueira, F.S.; Svaiter, N.F.

    1995-08-01

    We rederived non-perturbatively the Coleman-Weinberg expression for the effective potential for massless scalar QED. Our result is not restricted to small values of the coupling constants. This shows that the Coleman-Weinberg result can be established beyond the range of perturbation theory. Also, we derive it in a manifestly renormalization group invariant way. It is shown that with the derivation given no Landau ghost singularity arises. The finite temperature case is discussed. (author). 13 refs

  11. Determination of the integrated luminosity at HERA using elastic QED Compton events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Vazdik, Y.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Kleinwort, C.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Lubimov, V.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Ceccopieri, F.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Staykova, Z.; Mechelen, P. van; Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Zlebcik, R.; Chekelian, V.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C.; Dobre, M.; Kogler, R.; Nowak, K.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Dossanov, A.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Grab, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Huber, F.; Pirumov, H.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; Joensson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Stella, B.; Sykora, T.; Tsakov, I.; Wegener, D.

    2012-01-01

    A measurement of the integrated luminosity at the ep collider HERA is presented, exploiting the elastic QED Compton process ep→eγp. The electron and the photon are detected in the backward calorimeter of the H1 experiment. The integrated luminosity of the data recorded in 2003 to 2007 is determined with a precision of 2.3 %. The measurement is found to be compatible with the corresponding result obtained using the Bethe-Heitler process. (orig.)

  12. Scalar-QED {beta}-functions near Planck`s scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Gentil O. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Campos e Particulas

    1997-12-31

    The Renormalization Group Flow Equations of the Scalar-QED model near Planck`s scale are computed within the framework of the average effective action. Exact Flow Equations, corrected by Einstein Gravity, for the running self-interacting scalar coupling parameter and for the running v.e.v. of {phi} {sup *} {phi}, are computed taking into account threshold effects. Analytic solutions are given in the infrared and ultraviolet limits. (author) 17 refs.

  13. Fermion bag approach to the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with Wilson fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Li, Anyi

    2010-01-01

    We explore the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with one flavor of Wilson fermions in four dimensions using the fermion bag formulation. We construct rules to compute the weight of a fermion bag and show that even though the fermions are confined into bosons, fermion bags with negative weights do exist. By classifying fermion bags as either simple or complex, we find numerical evidence that complex bags with positive and negative weights come with almost equal probabilities and th...

  14. Schrodinger's catapult I: coherent launch of multi-photon cavity states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axline, C.; Pfaff, W.; Burkhart, L. D.; Vool, U.; Reinhold, P. C.; Frunzio, L.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    Quantum networks are a powerful paradigm for managing complexity in quantum information processing. Here we present a circuit QED tool to control the exchange of quantum information in such a network, dubbed ''Schrodinger's catapult''. It enables rapid conversion between complex, multi-photon states prepared in a cavity memory and a propagating output mode. Enabled by four-wave mixing in a single Josephson junction, this conversion rate is tunable up to three orders of magnitude faster than the intrinsic memory decay rate. In addition to such a large on/off ratio, we show that the mapping of cavity states to traveling states is faithful and state-independent. Amplitude and phase control of the conversion process anticipates the capture of propagating states using a reciprocal module.

  15. Zero modes, beta functions and IR/UV interplay in higher-loop QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, Gerald V.; Gies, Holger; Schubert, Christian

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the relation between the short-distance behavior of quantum field theory and the strong-field limit of the background field formalism, for QED effective lagrangians in self-dual backgrounds, at both one and two loop. The self-duality of the background leads to zero modes in the case of spinor QED, and these zero modes must be taken into account before comparing the perturbative β function coefficients and the coefficients of the strong-field limit of the effective lagrangian. At one-loop this is familiar from instanton physics, but we find that at two-loop the role of the zero modes, and the interplay between IR and UV effects in the renormalization, is quite different. Our analysis is motivated in part by the remarkable simplicity of the two-loop QED effective lagrangians for a self-dual constant background, and we also present here a new independent derivation of these two-loop results. (author)

  16. Charged hadrons in local finite-volume QED+QCD with C* boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Lucini, Biagio; Ramos, Alberto; Tantalo, Nazario

    2016-01-01

    In order to calculate QED corrections to hadronic physical quantities by means of lattice simulations, a coherent description of electrically-charged states in finite volume is needed. In the usual periodic setup, Gauss's law and large gauge transformations forbid the propagation of electrically-charged states. A possible solution to this problem, which does not violate the axioms of local quantum field theory, has been proposed by Wiese and Polley, and is based on the use of C* boundary conditions. We present a thorough analysis of the properties and symmetries of QED in isolation and QED coupled to QCD, with C* boundary conditions. In particular we learn that a certain class of electrically-charged states can be constructed in this setup in a fully consistent fashion, without relying on gauge fixing. We argue that this class of states covers most of the interesting phenomenological applications in the framework of numerical simulations. We also calculate finite-volume corrections to the mass of stable charg...

  17. A modular architecture for multi-channel external cavity quantum cascade laser-based chemical sensors: a systems approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Stahl, Robert D.; Cannon, Bret D.; Schiffern, John T.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2012-04-01

    A multi-channel laser-based chemical sensor platform is presented, in which a modular architecture allows the exchange of complete sensor channels without disruption to overall operation. Each sensor channel contains custom optical and electronics packages, which can be selected to access laser wavelengths, interaction path lengths and modulation techniques optimal for a given application or mission. Although intended primarily to accommodate mid-infrared (MIR) external cavity quantum cascade lasers (ECQCLs)and astigmatic Herriott cells, channels using visible or near infrared (NIR) lasers or other gas cell architectures can also be used, making this a truly versatile platform. Analog and digital resources have been carefully chosen to facilitate small footprint, rapid spectral scanning, ow-noise signal recovery, failsafe autonomous operation, and in-situ chemometric data analysis, storage and transmission. Results from the demonstration of a two-channel version of this platform are also presented.

  18. Superconducting cavities for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Above: a 350 MHz superconducting accelerating cavity in niobium of the type envisaged for accelerating electrons and positrons in later phases of LEP. Below: a small 1 GHz cavity used for investigating the surface problems of superconducting niobium. Albert Insomby stays on the right. See Annual Report 1983 p. 51.

  19. A UWOC system based on a 6 m/5.2 Gbps 680 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Shing

    2018-02-01

    This study proves that an underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) based on a 6 m/5.2 Gbps 68 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)-based system is superior to a 405 nm UWOC system. This UWOC application is the first to use a VCSEL at approximately 680 nm. The experiment also proved that a 680 nm VCSEL has the same transmission distance as that of an approximately 405 nm laser diode. The 680 nm VCSEL has a 5.2 Gbps high transmission rate and can transmit up to 6 m. Thus, the setup is the best alternative solution for high-speed UWOC applications.

  20. Use of a fiberscope for examining cavity nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell

    1997-01-01

    A system is described that uses a fiberscope to view nests in cavities to provide detailed information on eggs and nestlings. The flexible probe can be inserted around bends, and the tip articulates to allow viewing of the entire cavity and nest. A light guide bundle furnishes light to enable viewing of dark cavities and optical fibers transmit the impage from the lens...

  1. Superconducting TESLA cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aune

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The conceptional design of the proposed linear electron-positron collider TESLA is based on 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium cavities with an accelerating gradient of E_{acc}≥25 MV/m at a quality factor Q_{0}≥5×10^{9}. The design goal for the cavities of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF linac was set to the more moderate value of E_{acc}≥15 MV/m. In a first series of 27 industrially produced TTF cavities the average gradient at Q_{0}=5×10^{9} was measured to be 20.1±6.2 MV/m, excluding a few cavities suffering from serious fabrication or material defects. In the second production of 24 TTF cavities, additional quality control measures were introduced, in particular, an eddy-current scan to eliminate niobium sheets with foreign material inclusions and stringent prescriptions for carrying out the electron-beam welds. The average gradient of these cavities at Q_{0}=5×10^{9} amounts to 25.0±3.2 MV/m with the exception of one cavity suffering from a weld defect. Hence only a moderate improvement in production and preparation techniques will be needed to meet the ambitious TESLA goal with an adequate safety margin. In this paper we present a detailed description of the design, fabrication, and preparation of the TESLA Test Facility cavities and their associated components and report on cavity performance in test cryostats and with electron beam in the TTF linac. The ongoing research and development towards higher gradients is briefly addressed.

  2. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients E_{acc} up to 35  MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP and up to 42  MV/m after electropolishing (EP. More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients E_{acc} of 30–35  MV/m were measured after BCP and E_{acc} up to 40  MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of E_{acc}=30–35  MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and

  3. Multicolor cavity soliton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rui; Liang, Hanxiao; Lin, Qiang

    2016-07-25

    We show a new class of complex solitary wave that exists in a nonlinear optical cavity with appropriate dispersion characteristics. The cavity soliton consists of multiple soliton-like spectro-temporal components that exhibit distinctive colors but coincide in time and share a common phase, formed together via strong inter-soliton four-wave mixing and Cherenkov radiation. The multicolor cavity soliton shows intriguing spectral locking characteristics and remarkable capability of spectrum management to tailor soliton frequencies, which would be very useful for versatile generation and manipulation of multi-octave spanning phase-locked Kerr frequency combs, with great potential for applications in frequency metrology, optical frequency synthesis, and spectroscopy.

  4. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopies

    CERN Document Server

    van Zee, Roger

    2003-01-01

    ""Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy"" discusses the use of optical resonators and lasers to make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. This volume is written by the researcchers who pioneered these methods. The book reviews both the theory and practice behind these spectroscopic tools and discusses the scientific discoveries uncovered by these techniques. It begins with a chapter on the use of optical resonators for frequency stabilization of lasers, which is followed by in-depth chapters discussing cavity ring-down spectroscopy, frequency-modulated, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, intracavity spectr

  5. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  6. Superconducting cavity driving with FPGA controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarski, T.; Koprek, W.; Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland); Simrock, S.; Brand, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Chase, B.; Carcagno, R.; Cancelo, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Koeth, T.W. [Rutgers - the State Univ. of New Jersey, NJ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The digital control of several superconducting cavities for a linear accelerator is presented. The laboratory setup of the CHECHIA cavity and ACC1 module of the VU-FEL TTF in DESY-Hamburg have both been driven by a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based system. Additionally, a single 9-cell TESLA Superconducting cavity of the FNPL Photo Injector at FERMILAB has been remotely controlled from WUT-ISE laboratory with the support of the DESY team using the same FPGA control system. These experiments focused attention on the general recognition of the cavity features and projected control methods. An electrical model of the resonator was taken as a starting point. Calibration of the signal path is considered key in preparation for the efficient driving of a cavity. Identification of the resonator parameters has been proven to be a successful approach in achieving required performance; i.e. driving on resonance during filling and field stabilization during flattop time while requiring reasonable levels of power consumption. Feed-forward and feedback modes were successfully applied in operating the cavities. Representative results of the experiments are presented for different levels of the cavity field gradient. (orig.)

  7. Frequency-comb based collinear laser spectroscopy of Be for nuclear structure investigations and many-body QED tests

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, A; Geppert, Ch; Blaum, K; Bissell, M L; Frömmgen, N; Hammen, M; Kreim, K; Kowalska, M; Krämer, J; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Sánchez, R; Tiedemann, D; Yordanov, D T; Zakova, M

    2016-01-01

    Absolute transition frequencies of the $2s\\,^2{\\rm{S}}_{1/2}$ $\\rightarrow$ $2p\\,^2{\\rm{P}}_{1/2,3/2}$ transitions in Be$^+$ were measured with a frequency comb in stable and short-lived isotopes at ISOLDE (CERN) using collinear laser spectroscopy. Quasi-simultaneous measurements in copropagating and counterpropagating geometry were performed to become independent from acceleration voltage determinations for Doppler-shift corrections of the fast ion beam. Isotope shifts and fine structure splittings were obtained from the absolute transition frequencies with accuracies better than 1\\,MHz and led to a precise determination of the nuclear charge radii of $^{7,10-12}$Be relative to the stable isotope $^9$Be. Moreover, an accurate determination of the $2p$ fine structure splitting allowed a test of high-precision bound-state QED calculations in the three-electron system. Here, we describe the laser spectroscopic method in detail, including several tests that were carried out to determine or estimate systematic un...

  8. accelerating cavity from LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    This is an accelerating cavity from LEP, with a layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities are now used in LEP to double the energy of the particle beams.

  9. Analysis of dual coupler nested coupled cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, George A; Sabry, Yasser M; Khalil, Diaa

    2017-12-01

    Coupled ring resonators are now forming the basic building blocks in several optical systems serving different applications. In many of these applications, a small full width at half maximum is required, along with a large free spectral range. In this work, a configuration of passive coupled cavities constituting dual coupler nested cavities is proposed. A theoretical study of the configuration is presented allowing us to obtain analytical expressions of its different spectral characteristics. The transfer function of the configuration is also used to generate design curves while comparing these results with analytical expressions. Finally, the configuration is compared with other coupled cavity configurations.

  10. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  11. The Superconducting TESLA Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Aune, B.; Bloess, D.; Bonin, B.; Bosotti, A.; Champion, M.; Crawford, C.; Deppe, G.; Dwersteg, B.; Edwards, D.A.; Edwards, H.T.; Ferrario, M.; Fouaidy, M.; Gall, P-D.; Gamp, A.; Gössel, A.; Graber, J.; Hubert, D.; Hüning, M.; Juillard, M.; Junquera, T.; Kaiser, H.; Kreps, G.; Kuchnir, M.; Lange, R.; Leenen, M.; Liepe, M.; Lilje, L.; Matheisen, A.; Möller, W-D.; Mosnier, A.; Padamsee, H.; Pagani, C.; Pekeler, M.; Peters, H-B.; Peters, O.; Proch, D.; Rehlich, K.; Reschke, D.; Safa, H.; Schilcher, T.; Schmüser, P.; Sekutowicz, J.; Simrock, S.; Singer, W.; Tigner, M.; Trines, D.; Twarowski, K.; Weichert, G.; Weisend, J.; Wojtkiewicz, J.; Wolff, S.; Zapfe, K.

    2000-01-01

    The conceptional design of the proposed linear electron-positron colliderTESLA is based on 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium cavities with anaccelerating gradient of Eacc >= 25 MV/m at a quality factor Q0 > 5E+9. Thedesign goal for the cavities of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac was set tothe more moderate value of Eacc >= 15 MV/m. In a first series of 27industrially produced TTF cavities the average gradient at Q0 = 5E+9 wasmeasured to be 20.1 +- 6.2 MV/m, excluding a few cavities suffering fromserious fabrication or material defects. In the second production of 24 TTFcavities additional quality control measures were introduced, in particular aneddy-current scan to eliminate niobium sheets with foreign material inclusionsand stringent prescriptions for carrying out the electron-beam welds. Theaverage gradient of these cavities at Q0 = 5E+9 amounts to 25.0 +- 3.2 MV/mwith the exception of one cavity suffering from a weld defect. Hence only amoderate improvement in production and preparation technique...

  12. Measurement of the Proton Structure Function $F_{2}$ at low $Q^{2}$ in QED Compton Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.-B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garutti, E.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Koblitz, B.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kuckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, I.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ossoskov, G.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Poschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Ratiani, Z.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2004-01-01

    The proton structure function F_2(x,Q^2) is measured in inelastic QED Compton scattering using data collected with the H1 detector at HERA. QED Compton events are used to access the kinematic range of very low virtualities of the exchanged photon, Q^2, down to 0.5 GeV^2, and Bjorken x up to \\sim 0.06, a region which has not been covered previously by inclusive measurements at HERA. The results are in agreement with the measurements from fixed target lepton-nucleon scattering experiments.

  13. Nuclear polarization study: new frontiers for tests of QED in heavy highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotka, Andrey V; Plunien, Günter

    2014-07-11

    A systematic investigation of the nuclear polarization effects in one- and few-electron heavy ions is presented. The nuclear polarization corrections in the zeroth and first orders in 1/Z are evaluated to the binding energies, the hyperfine splitting, and the bound-electron g factor. It is shown that the nuclear polarization contributions can be substantially canceled simultaneously with the rigid nuclear corrections. This allows for new prospects for probing the QED effects in a strong electromagnetic field and the determination of fundamental constants.

  14. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  15. Strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. One- and two-photon Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seipt, Daniel

    2012-12-20

    The purpose of this thesis is to advance the understanding of strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. The processes of non-linear one-photon and two-photon Compton scattering are studied, that is the scattering of photons in the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses. These investigations are done in view of the present and next generation of ultra-high intensity optical lasers which are supposed to achieve unprecedented intensities of the order of 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2} and beyond, with pulse lengths in the order of some femtoseconds. The ultra-high laser intensity requires a non-perturbative description of the interaction of charged particles with the laser field to allow for multi-photon interactions, which is beyond the usual perturbative expansion of QED organized in powers of the fine structure constant. This is achieved in strong-field QED by employing the Furry picture and non-perturbative solutions of the Dirac equation in the presence of a background laser field as initial and final state wave functions, as well as the laser dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator. The primary objective is a realistic description of scattering processes with regard to the finite laser pulse duration beyond the common approximation of infinite plane waves, which is made necessary by the ultra-short pulse length of modern high-intensity lasers. Non-linear finite size effects are identified, which are a result of the interplay between the ultra-high intensity and the ultra-short pulse length. In particular, the frequency spectra and azimuthal photon emission spectra are studied emphasizing the differences between pulsed and infinite laser fields. The proper description of the finite temporal duration of the laser pulse leads to a regularization of unphysical infinities (due to the infinite plane-wave description) of the laser-dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator and in the second-order strong-field process of two-photon Compton

  16. The QED vacuum polarization function at four loops and the anomalous magnetic moment at five loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikov, P.

    2013-07-01

    The anomalous moment of the muon is one of the most fundamental observables. It has been measured experimentally with a very high precision and on theory side the contributions from perturbative QED have been calculated up to five-loop level by numerical methods. Contributions to the muon anomalous magnetic moment from certain diagram classes are also accessible by alternative methods. In this paper we present the evaluation of contributions to the QCD corrections due to insertions of the vacuum polarization function at five-loop level.

  17. QED as the tensionless limit of the spinning string with contact interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Edwards

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available QED with spinor matter is argued to correspond to the tensionless limit of spinning strings with contact interactions. The strings represent electric lines of force with charges at their ends. The interaction is constructed from a delta-function on the world-sheet which, although off-shell, decouples from the world-sheet metric. Integrating out the string degrees of freedom with fixed boundary generates the super-Wilson loop that couples spinor matter to electromagnetism in the world-line formalism. World-sheet and world-line, but not spacetime, supersymmetry underpin the model.

  18. Vladimir Sudakov and double-logarithmic asymptotics of amplitudes in QED, QCD and gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipatov L. N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the Sudakov results on the double logarithmic asymptotics of the electron form-factor which were based on his parametrization of the virtual particle momenta in the Feynman diagrams. The high energy amplitudes for various QED and QCD processes in the double-logarithmic approximation are obtained by using the Bethe-Salpeter approach and the evolution equations. The ultraviolet divergency of the graviton Regge trajectory allows to derive the infrared evolution equation for the graviton-graviton scattering amplitude with a double-logarithmic accuracy. The asymptotic behavior of this amplitude depends essentially on the rank N of the super-symmetry.

  19. Higher-order QED calculation of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion production of μ+μ- pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltz, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    A higher-order QED calculation of the ultraperipheral heavy-ion cross section for μ + μ - pair production at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider is carried out. The so-called Coulomb corrections lead to an even greater percentage decrease of μ + μ - production from perturbation theory than the corresponding decrease for e + e - pair production. Unlike the e + e - case, the finite charge distribution of the ions (form factor) and the necessary subtraction of impact parameters with matter overlap are significant effects in calculation an observable ultraperipheral μ + μ - total cross section.

  20. Strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. One- and two-photon Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seipt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to advance the understanding of strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. The processes of non-linear one-photon and two-photon Compton scattering are studied, that is the scattering of photons in the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses. These investigations are done in view of the present and next generation of ultra-high intensity optical lasers which are supposed to achieve unprecedented intensities of the order of 10 24 W/cm 2 and beyond, with pulse lengths in the order of some femtoseconds. The ultra-high laser intensity requires a non-perturbative description of the interaction of charged particles with the laser field to allow for multi-photon interactions, which is beyond the usual perturbative expansion of QED organized in powers of the fine structure constant. This is achieved in strong-field QED by employing the Furry picture and non-perturbative solutions of the Dirac equation in the presence of a background laser field as initial and final state wave functions, as well as the laser dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator. The primary objective is a realistic description of scattering processes with regard to the finite laser pulse duration beyond the common approximation of infinite plane waves, which is made necessary by the ultra-short pulse length of modern high-intensity lasers. Non-linear finite size effects are identified, which are a result of the interplay between the ultra-high intensity and the ultra-short pulse length. In particular, the frequency spectra and azimuthal photon emission spectra are studied emphasizing the differences between pulsed and infinite laser fields. The proper description of the finite temporal duration of the laser pulse leads to a regularization of unphysical infinities (due to the infinite plane-wave description) of the laser-dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator and in the second-order strong-field process of two-photon Compton scattering. An

  1. Performance experience with the CEBAF SRF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, C.; Benesch, J.; Drury, M.; Hovater, C.; Mammosser, J.; Preble, J.

    1995-12-31

    The full complement of 169 pairs of niobium superconducting cavities has been installed in the CEBAF accelerator. This paper surveys the performance characteristics of these cavities in vertical tests, commissioning in the tunnel, and operational experience to date. Although installed performance exceeds specifications, and 3.2 GeV beam has been delivered on target, present systems do not consistently preserve the high performance obtained in vertical dewar tests as operational capability. Principal sources of these limitations are discussed.

  2. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of an Experimental Reactor Cavity Cooling System with Air. Part I: Experiments; Part II: Separate Effects Tests and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradin, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Anderson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Muci, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Hassan, Yassin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Dominguez, A. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tokuhiro, Akira [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Hamman, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2014-10-15

    This experimental study investigates the thermal hydraulic behavior and the heat removal performance for a scaled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) with air. A quarter-scale RCCS facility was designed and built based on a full-scale General Atomics (GA) RCCS design concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR). The GA RCCS is a passive cooling system that draws in air to use as the cooling fluid to remove heat radiated from the reactor pressure vessel to the air-cooled riser tubes and discharged the heated air into the atmosphere. Scaling laws were used to preserve key aspects and to maintain similarity. The scaled air RCCS facility at UW-Madison is a quarter-scale reduced length experiment housing six riser ducts that represent a 9.5° sector slice of the full-scale GA air RCCS concept. Radiant heaters were used to simulate the heat radiation from the reactor pressure vessel. The maximum power that can be achieved with the radiant heaters is 40 kW with a peak heat flux of 25 kW per meter squared. The quarter-scale RCCS was run under different heat loading cases and operated successfully. Instabilities were observed in some experiments in which one of the two exhaust ducts experienced a flow reversal for a period of time. The data and analysis presented show that the RCCS has promising potential to be a decay heat removal system during an accident scenario.

  3. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of an Experimental Reactor Cavity Cooling System with Air. Part I: Experiments; Part II: Separate Effects Tests and Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradin, Michael; Dominguez, A.; Tokuhiro, Akira; Hamman, K.

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the thermal hydraulic behavior and the heat removal performance for a scaled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) with air. A quarter-scale RCCS facility was designed and built based on a full-scale General Atomics (GA) RCCS design concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR). The GA RCCS is a passive cooling system that draws in air to use as the cooling fluid to remove heat radiated from the reactor pressure vessel to the air-cooled riser tubes and discharged the heated air into the atmosphere. Scaling laws were used to preserve key aspects and to maintain similarity. The scaled air RCCS facility at UW-Madison is a quarter-scale reduced length experiment housing six riser ducts that represent a 9.5° sector slice of the full-scale GA air RCCS concept. Radiant heaters were used to simulate the heat radiation from the reactor pressure vessel. The maximum power that can be achieved with the radiant heaters is 40 kW with a peak heat flux of 25 kW per meter squared. The quarter-scale RCCS was run under different heat loading cases and operated successfully. Instabilities were observed in some experiments in which one of the two exhaust ducts experienced a flow reversal for a period of time. The data and analysis presented show that the RCCS has promising potential to be a decay heat removal system during an accident scenario.

  4. Quantum networks in divergence-free circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Rodriguez, A.; Rico, E.; Solano, E.; Egusquiza, I. L.

    2018-04-01

    Superconducting circuits are one of the leading quantum platforms for quantum technologies. With growing system complexity, it is of crucial importance to develop scalable circuit models that contain the minimum information required to predict the behaviour of the physical system. Based on microwave engineering methods, divergent and non-divergent Hamiltonian models in circuit quantum electrodynamics have been proposed to explain the dynamics of superconducting quantum networks coupled to infinite-dimensional systems, such as transmission lines and general impedance environments. Here, we study systematically common linear coupling configurations between networks and infinite-dimensional systems. The main result is that the simple Lagrangian models for these configurations present an intrinsic natural length that provides a natural ultraviolet cutoff. This length is due to the unavoidable dressing of the environment modes by the network. In this manner, the coupling parameters between their components correctly manifest their natural decoupling at high frequencies. Furthermore, we show the requirements to correctly separate infinite-dimensional coupled systems in local bases. We also compare our analytical results with other analytical and approximate methods available in the literature. Finally, we propose several applications of these general methods to analogue quantum simulation of multi-spin-boson models in non-perturbative coupling regimes.

  5. Design of an ammonia closed-loop storage system in a CSP power plant with a power tower cavity receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdiwe, Ramadan; Haider, Markus

    2017-06-01

    In this study the thermochemical system using ammonia as energy storage carrier is investigated and a transient mathematical model using MATLAB software was developed to predict the behavior of the ammonia closed-loop storage system including but not limited to the ammonia solar reactor and the ammonia synthesis reactor. The MATLAB model contains transient mass and energy balances as well as chemical equilibrium model for each relevant system component. For the importance of the dissociation and formation processes in the system, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation on the ammonia solar and synthesis reactors has been performed. The CFD commercial package FLUENT is used for the simulation study and all the important mechanisms for packed bed reactors are taken into account, such as momentum, heat and mass transfer, and chemical reactions. The FLUENT simulation reveals the profiles inside both reactors and compared them with the profiles from the MATLAB code.

  6. Cavity-Enhanced Transport of Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenmüller, David; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Schütz, Stefan; Genes, Claudiu; Pupillo, Guido

    2017-12-01

    We theoretically investigate charge transport through electronic bands of a mesoscopic one-dimensional system, where interband transitions are coupled to a confined cavity mode, initially prepared close to its vacuum. This coupling leads to light-matter hybridization where the dressed fermionic bands interact via absorption and emission of dressed cavity photons. Using a self-consistent nonequilibrium Green's function method, we compute electronic transmissions and cavity photon spectra and demonstrate how light-matter coupling can lead to an enhancement of charge conductivity in the steady state. We find that depending on cavity loss rate, electronic bandwidth, and coupling strength, the dynamics involves either an individual or a collective response of Bloch states, and we explain how this affects the current enhancement. We show that the charge conductivity enhancement can reach orders of magnitudes under experimentally relevant conditions.

  7. Electron-electron bound states in Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Proca QED{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]. E-mail: belich@cbpf.br; helayel@gft.ucp.br; Del Cima, O.M. [Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: delcima@gft.ucp.br; Ferreira, M.M. Jr. [Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]|[Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: manojr@cbpf.br

    2002-10-01

    We start from a parity-breaking MCS QED{sub 3} model with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry as a framework for evaluation of the electron-electron interaction potential and for attainment of numerical values for the e{sup -}e{sup -} - bound state. Three expressions (V{sub eff{down_arrow}}{sub {down_arrow}}, V{sub eff{down_arrow}}{sub {up_arrow}}, V{sub eff{down_arrow}}{sub {down_arrow}}) are obtained according to the polarization state of the scattered electrons. In an energy scale compatible with condensed matter electronic excitations, these potentials become degenerated. The resulting potential is implemented in the Schroedinger equation and the variational method is applied to carry out the electronic binding energy. The resulting binding energies in the scale of 10-100 meV and a correlation length in the scale of 10 - 30 Angstrom are possible indications that the MCS-QED{sub 3} model adopted may be suitable to address an eventual case of e{sup -}e{sup -} pairing in the presence of parity-symmetry breakdown. The data analyzed here suggest an energy scale of 10-100 meV to fix the breaking of the U(1)-symmetry. (author)

  8. Measurement of the running of the QED coupling in small-angle Bhabha scattering at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; ONeale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2006-01-01

    Using the OPAL detector at LEP, the running of the effective QED coupling alpha(t) is measured for space-like momentum transfer through its effect on the angular spectrum of small-angle Bhabha scattering. In an almost ideal QED framework, with very favourable experimental conditions, we obtain: Delta alpha(-6.07GeV^2) - Delta alpha(-1.81GeV^2) = (440 pm 58 pm 43 pm 30) X 10^-5, where the first error is statistical, the second is the experimental systematic and the third is the theoretical uncertainty. This is the strongest direct evidence ever presented that the running of alpha is consistent with Standard Model expectations. The null hypothesis that alpha remains constant within the above interval of -t is excluded with a significance above 5sigma. Similarly, our results are inconsistent at the level of 3sigma with the hypothesis that only leptonic loops contribute to the running, and therefore provide the first clear experimental evidence that hadronic loops also contribute.

  9. Electron-electron bound states in Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Proca QED3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belich, H.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Ferreira, M.M. Jr.; Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA

    2002-10-01

    We start from a parity-breaking MCS QED 3 model with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry as a framework for evaluation of the electron-electron interaction potential and for attainment of numerical values for the e - e - - bound state. Three expressions V eff↓↓ , V eff↓↑ , V eff↓↓ ) are obtained according to the polarization state of the scattered electrons. In an energy scale compatible with condensed matter electronic excitations, these potentials become degenerated. The resulting potential is implemented in the Schroedinger equation and the variational method is applied to carry out the electronic binding energy. The resulting binding energies in the scale of 10-100 meV and a correlation length in the scale of 10 - 30 Angstrom are possible indications that the MCS-QED 3 model adopted may be suitable to address an eventual case of e - e - pairing in the presence of parity-symmetry breakdown. The data analyzed here suggest an energy scale of 10-100 meV to fix the breaking of the U(1)-symmetry. (author)

  10. Nonsequential multiphoton double ionization of He in intense laser - a QED approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Mazumder, Mina; Chakrabarti, J.; Faisal, F.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The non-sequential muItiphoton double ionization (NSDI) of He in intense laser field is not yet completely understood, more so for spin resolved currents. We are tempted to use QED and Feynman diagram to obtain spin polarized currents. Hartree-Fock (HF) ground-state correlated wave function of He atom is considered in circularly polarized laser. In QED approach one of the electrons is directly ionized by photon absorption while the second electron is shaken off due to the change in the internal potential of the atom. In He-atom the two ionized electrons can only be in the singlet spin state. Spin-symmetric and spin-flip transitions are eventually possible for the direct and the shake-off electrons. In an ensemble of (HF type) He-atoms the ionized Volkov electrons may acquire 4 pairs of momenta indicating e-e correlation in the final state. Coulomb correction is taken care off through the Sommerfeld factor

  11. Up and Down Quark Masses and Corrections to Dashen's Theorem from Lattice QCD and Quenched QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Z; Hoelbling, C; Krieg, S; Lellouch, L; Lippert, Th; Portelli, A; Sastre, A; Szabo, K K; Varnhorst, L

    2016-08-19

    In a previous Letter [Borsanyi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 252001 (2013)] we determined the isospin mass splittings of the baryon octet from a lattice calculation based on N_{f}=2+1 QCD simulations to which QED effects have been added in a partially quenched setup. Using the same data we determine here the corrections to Dashen's theorem and the individual up and down quark masses. Our ensembles include 5 lattice spacings down to 0.054 fm, lattice sizes up to 6 fm, and average up-down quark masses all the way down to their physical value. For the parameter which quantifies violations to Dashen's theorem, we obtain ϵ=0.73(2)(5)(17), where the first error is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is an estimate of the QED quenching error. For the light quark masses we obtain, m_{u}=2.27(6)(5)(4) and m_{d}=4.67(6)(5)(4)  MeV in the modified minimal subtraction scheme at 2  GeV and the isospin breaking ratios m_{u}/m_{d}=0.485(11)(8)(14), R=38.2(1.1)(0.8)(1.4), and Q=23.4(0.4)(0.3)(0.4). Our results exclude the m_{u}=0 solution to the strong CP problem by more than 24 standard deviations.

  12. Electron-electron bound states in Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Proca QED sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Belich, H; Ferreira, M M J; Helayel-Neto, J A

    2002-01-01

    We start from a parity-breaking MCS QED sub 3 model with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry as a framework for evaluation of the electron-electron interaction potential and for attainment of numerical values for the e sup - e sup - - bound state. Three expressions V sub e sub f sub f subarrow down subarrow down, V sub e sub f sub f subarrow down subarrow up, V sub e sub f sub f subarrow down subarrow down) are obtained according to the polarization state of the scattered electrons. In an energy scale compatible with condensed matter electronic excitations, these potentials become degenerated. The resulting potential is implemented in the Schroedinger equation and the variational method is applied to carry out the electronic binding energy. The resulting binding energies in the scale of 10-100 meV and a correlation length in the scale of 10 - 30 Angstrom are possible indications that the MCS-QED sub 3 model adopted may be suitable to address an eventual case of e sup - e sup - pairing in the presence o...

  13. M10.3.1: LHC crab cavity specifications completed

    CERN Document Server

    Ciapala, E

    2010-01-01

    • The starting point of Sub-task 1 is to determine the full LHC system requirements for the crab cavity system. This milestone concerns completion of basic specifications for the crab cavity system. This comprises the beam requirements, the cavity impedance constraints, the operating conditions and constraints, the layout and integration constraints in LHC and very importantly machine protection issues. The specifications of the cavity itself and its ancillaries follow from these system requirements and on the technology chosen for the cavity design. • The beam requirements result from the known parameters of the LHC upgrade lattice and the expected LHC beam parameters at ultimate bunch intensity. There are boundary conditions imposed by certain beam parameters such as the bunch length and intensity and by the machine layout, mainly the available beam pipe separations at the proposed cavity positions. Requirements on RF noise and stability are tight, to avoid emittance blow-up. Machine protection issues a...

  14. LHC crab cavity specifications milestone: M10.3.1

    CERN Document Server

    Calaga, R; Jensen, E; McIntosh, P; Shaposhnikova, E; Tuckmantel, J; Zimmermann, F

    2010-01-01

    The starting point of Sub-task 1 is to determine the full LHC system requirements for the crab cavity system. This milestone concerns completion of basic specifications for the crab cavity system. This comprises the beam requirements, the cavity impedance constraints, the operating conditions and constraints, the layout and integration constraints in LHC and very importantly machine protection issues. The specifications of the cavity itself and its ancillaries follow from these system requirements and on the technology chosen for the cavity design. The beam requirements result from the known parameters of the LHC upgrade lattice and the expected LHC beam parameters at ultimate bunch intensity. There are boundary conditions imposed by certain beam parameters such as the bunch length and intensity and by the machine layout, mainly the available beam pipe separations at the proposed cavity positions. Requirements on RF noise and stability are tight, to avoid emittance blow-up. Machine protection issues arise fro...

  15. Materials for superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    The ideal material for superconducting cavities should exhibit a high critical temperature, a high critical field, and, above all, a low surface resistance. Unfortunately, these requirements can be conflicting and a compromise has to be found. To date, most superconducting cavities for accelerators are made of niobium. The reasons for this choice are discussed. Thin films of other materials such as NbN, Nb 3 Sn, or even YBCO compounds can also be envisaged and are presently investigated in various laboratories. It is shown that their success will depend critically on the crystalline perfection of these films. (author)

  16. Charged hadrons in local finite-volume QED+QCD with C{sup ⋆} boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucini, B. [Physics Department, College of Science, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Patella, A. [PH-TH, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); School of Computing and Mathematics & Centre for Mathematical Science, Plymouth University,Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Ramos, A. [PH-TH, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Tantalo, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); PH-TH, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-11

    In order to calculate QED corrections to hadronic physical quantities by means of lattice simulations, a coherent description of electrically-charged states in finite volume is needed. In the usual periodic setup, Gauss’s law and large gauge transformations forbid the propagation of electrically-charged states. A possible solution to this problem, which does not violate the axioms of local quantum field theory, has been proposed by Wiese and Polley, and is based on the use of C{sup ⋆} boundary conditions. We present a thorough analysis of the properties and symmetries of QED in isolation and QED coupled to QCD, with C{sup ⋆} boundary conditions. In particular we learn that a certain class of electrically-charged states can be constructed in a fully consistent fashion without relying on gauge fixing and without peculiar complications. This class includes single particle states of most stable hadrons. We also calculate finite-volume corrections to the mass of stable charged particles and show that these are much smaller than in non-local formulations of QED.

  17. Tensor network simulation of QED on infinite lattices: Learning from (1 +1 ) d , and prospects for (2 +1 ) d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapp, Kai; Orús, Román

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of lattice gauge theories with tensor network (TN) methods is becoming increasingly fruitful. The vision is that such methods will, eventually, be used to simulate theories in (3 +1 ) dimensions in regimes difficult for other methods. So far, however, TN methods have mostly simulated lattice gauge theories in (1 +1 ) dimensions. The aim of this paper is to explore the simulation of quantum electrodynamics (QED) on infinite lattices with TNs, i.e., fermionic matter fields coupled to a U (1 ) gauge field, directly in the thermodynamic limit. With this idea in mind we first consider a gauge-invariant infinite density matrix renormalization group simulation of the Schwinger model—i.e., QED in (1 +1 ) d . After giving a precise description of the numerical method, we benchmark our simulations by computing the subtracted chiral condensate in the continuum, in good agreement with other approaches. Our simulations of the Schwinger model allow us to build intuition about how a simulation should proceed in (2 +1 ) dimensions. Based on this, we propose a variational ansatz using infinite projected entangled pair states (PEPS) to describe the ground state of (2 +1 ) d QED. The ansatz includes U (1 ) gauge symmetry at the level of the tensors, as well as fermionic (matter) and bosonic (gauge) degrees of freedom both at the physical and virtual levels. We argue that all the necessary ingredients for the simulation of (2 +1 ) d QED are, a priori, already in place, paving the way for future upcoming results.

  18. Experimental investigation of cavity flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeland, Tore

    1998-12-31

    This thesis uses LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and Laser Sheet flow Visualisation to study flow inside three different cavity configurations. For sloping cavities, the vortex structure inside the cavities is found to depend upon the flow direction past the cavity. The shape of the downstream corner is a key factor in destroying the boundary layer flow entering the cavity. The experimental results agree well with numerical simulations of the same geometrical configurations. The results of the investigations are used to find the influence of the cavity flow on the accuracy of the ultrasonic flowmeter. A method to compensate for the cavity velocities is suggested. It is found that the relative deviation caused by the cavity velocities depend linearly on the pipe flow. It appears that the flow inside the cavities should not be neglected as done in the draft for the ISO technical report on ultrasonic flowmeters. 58 refs., 147 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Applications of a Circuit QED Quantum Channel Constructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Noh, Kyungjoo; Albert, Victor V.; Krastanov, Stefan; Devoret, Michel H.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, Liang

    Quantum channels can describe all transformations allowed by quantum mechanics. We provide an explicit universal protocol to construct all possible quantum channels, using a single qubit ancilla with quantum non-demolition readout and adaptive control. Our construction is efficient in both physical resources and circuit depth, and can be demonstrated using superconducting circuits and various other physical platforms. There are many applications of quantum channel construction, including system stabilization and quantum error correction, Markovian and exotic channel simulation, implementation of generalized quantum measurements and more general quantum instruments. Efficient construction of arbitrary quantum channels opens up exciting new possibilities for quantum control, quantum sensing and information processing tasks.

  20. Final Report - Development of a Multi-Spoke Superconducting Cavity for Nuclear Physics, Light Sources, and Driven Systems Applications (ODU Contribution)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delayen, Jean [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2014-11-14

    This report summarizes the work done by Old Dominion University, in collaboration with the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility toward the development of high-velocity superconducting spoke cavities.

  1. Single Atoms in Nearly Concentric Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, Adrian Nugraha; Nguyen, Chi Huan; Lewty, Nick; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Quantum Optics Group Team

    2017-04-01

    Strong interaction between photons and neutral single atoms are usually observed in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) systems with high finesse mirrors and small physical volume. We demonstrate another approach that employs a near concentric cavity with relatively low finesse mirrors ( 100) and large physical separation between mirrors ( 10 mm). The transmission spectrum of our CQED system with trapped single atoms is observed to exhibit two resolved normal mode peaks, in which the single atom cooperativity is estimated to be around 0.4. The cooperativity of the system can be improved further by increasing the finesse of the mirrors or moving the cavity closer to the concentric point. The successful realization of concentric CQED systems will open opportunities for scaling up with applications in quantum computing. This work is supported by the National Research Foundation and Ministry of Education, Singapore.

  2. Asymptotic Energies and QED Shifts for Rydberg States of Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, G.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews progress that has been made in obtaining essentially exact solutions to the nonrelativistic three-body problem for helium by a combination of variational and asymptotic expansion methods. The calculation of relativistic and quantum electrodynamic corrections by perturbation theory is discussed, and in particular, methods for the accurate calculation of the Bethe logarithm part of the electron self energy are presented. As an example, the results are applied to the calculation of isotope shifts for the short-lived 'halo' nucleus He-6 relative to He-4 in order to determine the nuclear charge radius of He-6 from high precision spectroscopic measurements carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory. The results demonstrate that the high precision that is now available from atomic theory is creating new opportunities to create novel measurement tools, and helium, along with hydrogen, can be regarded as a fundamental atomic system whose spectrum is well understood for all practical purposes.

  3. Quantum interference and complex photon statistics in waveguide QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin H. H.; Baranger, Harold U.

    2018-02-01

    We obtain photon statistics by using a quantum jump approach tailored to a system in which one or two qubits are coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide. Photons confined in the waveguide have strong interference effects, which are shown to play a vital role in quantum jumps and photon statistics. For a single qubit, for instance, the bunching of transmitted photons is heralded by a jump that increases the qubit population. We show that the distribution and correlations of waiting times offer a clearer and more precise characterization of photon bunching and antibunching. Further, the waiting times can be used to characterize complex correlations of photons which are hidden in g(2 )(τ ) , such as a mixture of bunching and antibunching.

  4. Cavity Optomechanics at Millikelvin Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenehan, Sean Michael

    mechanical frequency of these systems allows for the possibility of using a dilution refrigerator to simultaneously achieve low thermal occupancy and long mechanical coherence time by passively cooling the device to the millikelvin regime. This thesis describes efforts to realize the measurement of OMC cavities inside a dilution refrigerator, including the development of fridge-compatible optical coupling schemes and the characterization of the heating dynamics of the mechanical resonator at sub-kelvin temperatures. We will begin by summarizing the theoretical framework used to describe cavity optomechanical systems, as well as a handful of the quantum applications envisioned for such devices. Then, we will present background on the design of the nanobeam OMC cavities used for this work, along with details of the design and characterization of tapered fiber couplers for optical coupling inside the fridge. Finally, we will present measurements of the devices at fridge base temperatures of Tf = 10 mK, using both heterodyne spectroscopy and time-resolved sideband photon counting, as well as detailed analysis of the prospects for future quantum applications based on the observed optically-induced heating.

  5. Superconducting elliptical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Sekutowicz, J K

    2011-01-01

    We give a brief overview of the history, state of the art, and future for elliptical superconducting cavities. Principles of the cell shape optimization, criteria for multi-cell structures design, HOM damping schemes and other features are discussed along with examples of superconducting structures for various applications.

  6. LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    Engineers work in a clean room on one of the superconducting cavities for the upgrade to the LEP accelerator, known as LEP-2. The use of superconductors allow higher electric fields to be produced so that higher beam energies can be reached.

  7. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  8. Niobium superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    This 5-cell superconducting cavity, made from bulk-Nb, stems from the period of general studies, not all directed towards direct use at LEP. This one is dimensioned for 1.5 GHz, the frequency used at CEBAF and also studied at Saclay (LEP RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 7908227, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  9. What's a Cavity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and deeper over time. Cavities are also called dental caries (say: KARE-eez), and if you have a ... made up mostly of the germs that cause tooth decay. The bacteria in your mouth make acids and when plaque clings to your teeth, the acids can eat away at the outermost ...

  10. Abdominal Cavity Eventration Treated by Means of the "Open Abdomen" Technique Using the Negative Pressure Therapy System--Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Piotr W; Porzeżyńska, Joanna; Ptasińska, Karolina; Walczak, Dominik A

    2015-11-01

    Wound dehiscence is a surgical complication in which the wound ruptures along the surgical suture with abdominal cavity bowel displacement. It is observed in 0.2-6% of operated patients. The extensive wound is a gateway for infection. Moreover, increased secretion of serous fluid induces a hygienic problem and may lead to secondary skin infections or bedsores. The negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) system is an innovative therapeutic method. It perfectly executes the TIME strategy, receiving more and more recognition. The study presented a case of a 62-year old male patient after several consecutive wound dehiscence episodes who was primarily treated for rectal cancer by means of low anterior resection of the rectum. Due to acute respiratory insufficiency after several operations, wound necrosis with dehiscence was observed. Considering the high risk of perioperative death we abandoned surgical treatment and introduced conservative management using negative pressure wound therapy until the patient's health improved. Literature regarding the above-mentioned issue was also reviewed.

  11. Fully connected network of superconducting qubits in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsomokos, Dimitris I; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2008-01-01

    A fully connected qubit network is considered, where every qubit interacts with every other one. When the interactions between the qubits are homogeneous, the system is a special case of the finite Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We propose a natural implementation of this model using superconducting qubits in state-of-the-art circuit QED. The ground state, the low-lying energy spectrum and the dynamical evolution are investigated. We find that, under realistic conditions, highly entangled states of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and W types can be generated. We also comment on the influence of disorder on the system and discuss the possibility of simulating complex quantum systems, such as Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) spin glasses, with superconducting qubit networks.

  12. Elliptical superconducting RF cavities for FRIB energy upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Contreras, C.; Plastun, A. S.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.; Taylor, A.; Wei, J.; Xu, M.; Xu, T.; Zhao, Q.; Gonin, I. V.; Khabiboulline, T.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Yakovlev, V. P.

    2018-04-01

    The multi-physics design of a five cell, βG = 0 . 61, 644 MHz superconducting elliptical cavity being developed for an energy upgrade in the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is presented. The FRIB energy upgrade from 200 MeV/u to 400 MeV/u for heaviest uranium ions will increase the intensities of rare isotope beams by nearly an order of magnitude. After studying three different frequencies, 1288 MHz, 805 MHz, and 644 MHz, the 644 MHz cavity was shown to provide the highest energy gain per cavity for both uranium and protons. The FRIB upgrade will include 11 cryomodules containing 5 cavities each and installed in 80-meter available space in the tunnel. The cavity development included extensive multi-physics optimization, mechanical and engineering analysis. The development of a niobium cavity is complete and two cavities are being fabricated in industry. The detailed design of the cavity sub-systems such as fundamental power coupler and dynamic tuner are currently being pursued. In the overall design of the cavity and its sub-systems we extensively applied experience gained during the development of 650 MHz low-beta cavities at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) for the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) II.

  13. Design of a radar system based on compact cavity-backed ultra wide band slot antennas for ground penetrating applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnard, F.

    2012-04-01

    Antennas with broadband characteristics have recently found various applications in modern ultra wide band (UWB) communication systems and in ground penetrating radar (GPR). Our applications are focused on imaging the subsurface of a large range of civil engineering structures at several depths using a bistatic GPR positioned on or close to the ground surface. The development of a compact (34*29 cm2) broadband pair of antennas operating in the frequency band from 0.27 to 3.1 GHz, whose radiation characteristics have been preliminary studied theoretically in details in different configurations, is to allow the probing of the subsurface in several frequency sub-bands using a step frequency (SF-GPR) acquisition mode. Microstrip patch antennas (MPAs) are one of the most basic and important types of planar antennas because they offer many advantages such as compact size, low-cost, ease of fabrication, light weight, and various shapes design. However, a low bandwidth and a low gain are the main shortcomings for such planar structure. The microstrip antenna has now reached maturity and many techniques have been suggested for achieving a high bandwidth such as using more complex shapes, parasitic elements, multilayer configurations and the tuning of the feed line. In this paper, an original printed rectangular slot antenna fed by a 50 Ohms CPW (coplanar waveguide) transmission line tuned by a E-shaped patch is presented. Presently, little work has been made to lower the operating frequency band of microstrip antennas at frequencies less than 0.8 MHz and to reduce the antenna size at these frequencies because major applications concern UWB wireless communications. By choosing a relative combination of a E-shaped patch, a linear feed line and a rectangular slot, we have designed an antenna structure on a FR4 substrate (h=1.5mm) with a very wide operating bandwidth whose nearly half of the spectrum covers frequencies lower than 1 GHz. A partial shield, only opened towards the

  14. Quantum noise interference and backaction cooling in cavity nanomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elste, Florian; Girvin, S M; Clerk, A A

    2009-05-22

    We present a theoretical analysis of a novel cavity electromechanical system where a mechanical resonator directly modulates the damping rate kappa of a driven electromagnetic cavity. We show that via a destructive interference of quantum noise, the driven cavity can effectively act like a zero-temperature bath irrespective of the ratio kappa/omega_{M}, where omega_{M} is the mechanical frequency. This scheme thus allows one to cool the mechanical resonator to its ground state without requiring the cavity to be in the so-called good cavity limit kappa < omega_{M}. The system described here could be implemented directly using setups similar to those used in recent experiments in cavity electromechanics.

  15. Active measurement-based quantum feedback for preparing and stabilizing superpositions of two cavity photon number states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube-Lauziere, Yves

    The measurement-based quantum feedback scheme developed and implemented by Haroche and collaborators to actively prepare and stabilize specific photon number states in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) is a milestone achievement in the active protection of quantum states from decoherence. This feat was achieved by injecting, after each weak dispersive measurement of the cavity state via Rydberg atoms serving as cavity sensors, a low average number classical field (coherent state) to steer the cavity towards the targeted number state. This talk will present the generalization of the theory developed for targeting number states in order to prepare and stabilize desired superpositions of two cavity photon number states. Results from realistic simulations taking into account decoherence and imperfections in a CQED set-up will be presented. These demonstrate the validity of the generalized theory and points to the experimental feasibility of preparing and stabilizing such superpositions. This is a further step towards the active protection of more complex quantum states than number states. This work, cast in the context of CQED, is also almost readily applicable to circuit QED. YBL acknowledges financial support from the Institut Quantique through a Canada First Research Excellence Fund.

  16. Changeability of Oral Cavity Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Surdacka, Anna; Strzyka?a, Krystyna; Rydzewska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Objectives In dentistry, the results of in vivo studies on drugs, dental fillings or prostheses are routinely evaluated based on selected oral cavity environment parameters at specific time points. Such evaluation may be confounded by ongoing changes in the oral cavity environment induced by diet, drug use, stress and other factors. The study aimed to confirm oral cavity environment changeability. Methods 24 healthy individuals aged 20?30 had their oral cavity environment prepared by having p...

  17. RF cavity using liquid dielectric for tuning and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Milorad [Warrenville, IL; Johnson, Rolland P [Newport News, VA

    2012-04-17

    A system for accelerating particles includes an RF cavity that contains a ferrite core and a liquid dielectric. Characteristics of the ferrite core and the liquid dielectric, among other factors, determine the resonant frequency of the RF cavity. The liquid dielectric is circulated to cool the ferrite core during the operation of the system.

  18. Optimization of photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present optimization of photonic crystal cavities. The optimization problem is formulated to maximize the Purcell factor of a photonic crystal cavity. Both topology optimization and air-hole-based shape optimization are utilized for the design process. Numerical results demonstrate...... that the Purcell factor of the photonic crystal cavity can be significantly improved through optimization....

  19. Single-cavity SLED device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann, B.A.

    1984-09-01

    The conventional SLED device used at SLAC requires two cavities. However, the same effect can be obtained with a single cavity; the theory and operation of the device is the same, only the hardware is changed. The single-cavity device is described here

  20. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  1. Cavity enhanced immunoassay measurements in microtiter plates using BBCEAS

    OpenAIRE

    Bajuszova, Z; Ali, Z; Scott, SM; Seetohul, LN; Islam, M

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first detailed use of broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (BBCEAS) as a detection system for immunoassay. A vertical R ≥ 0.99 optical cavity was integrated with a motorised XY stage, which functioned as a receptacle for 96 well microtiter plates. The custom built cavity enhanced microplate reader was used to make measurements on a commercially available osteocalcin sandwich ELISA kit. A 30 fold increase in path length was obtained with a minimum detectable chang...

  2. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  3. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, D.M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P.J.; Mcclelland, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system

  4. Monopole percolation and the universality class of the chiral transition in four flavor noncompact lattice QED

    CERN Document Server

    Kocic, Aleksandar; Wang, K C

    1993-01-01

    We simulate four flavor noncompact lattice QED using the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm on $10^4$ and $16^4$ lattices. Measurements of the monopole susceptibility and the percolation order parameter indicate a transition at $\\beta = {1/e^2} = .205(5)$ with critical behavior in the universality class of four dimensional percolation. We present accurate chiral condensate measurements and monitor finite size effects carefully. The chiral condensate data supports the existence of a power-law transition at $\\beta = .205$ in the same universality class as the chiral transition in the two flavor model. The resulting equation of state predicts the mass ratio $m_\\pi^2/m_\\sigma^2$ in good agreement with spectrum calculations while the hypothesis of a logarithmically improved mean field theory fails qualitatively.

  5. First Lattice Calculation of the QED Corrections to Leptonic Decay Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, D.; Lubicz, V.; Tarantino, C.; Martinelli, G.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Sanfilippo, F.; Simula, S.; Tantalo, N.

    2018-02-01

    The leading-order electromagnetic and strong isospin-breaking corrections to the ratio of Kμ 2 and πμ 2 decay rates are evaluated for the first time on the lattice, following a method recently proposed. The lattice results are obtained using the gauge ensembles produced by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration with Nf=2 +1 +1 dynamical quarks. Systematic effects are evaluated and the impact of the quenched QED approximation is estimated. Our result for the correction to the tree-level Kμ 2/πμ 2 decay ratio is -1.22 (16 )%, to be compared to the estimate of -1.12 (21 )% based on chiral perturbation theory and adopted by the Particle Data Group.

  6. Time-reversal-symmetry breaking in circuit-QED-based photon lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jens; Houck, Andrew A.; Hur, Karyn Le; Girvin, S. M.

    2010-10-01

    Breaking time-reversal symmetry is a prerequisite for accessing certain interesting many-body states such as fractional quantum Hall states. For polaritons, charge neutrality prevents magnetic fields from providing a direct symmetry-breaking mechanism and, similar to the situation in ultracold atomic gases, an effective magnetic field has to be synthesized. We show that in the circuit-QED architecture, this can be achieved by inserting simple superconducting circuits into the resonator junctions. In the presence of such coupling elements, constant parallel magnetic and electric fields suffice to break time-reversal symmetry. We support these theoretical predictions with numerical simulations for realistic sample parameters, specify general conditions under which time reversal is broken, and discuss the application to chiral Fock-state transfer, an on-chip circulator, and tunable band structure for the Kagome lattice.

  7. Exploring Ultrahigh-Intensity Laser-Plasma Interaction Physics with QED Particle-in-Cell Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, S. V.; Yin, L.; Labun, L. A.; Albright, B. J.; Stark, D. J.; Bird, R. F.; Nystrom, W. D.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    Next generation high-intensity lasers are reaching intensity regimes where new physics-quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections to otherwise classical plasma dynamics-becomes important. Modeling laser-plasma interactions in these extreme settings presents a challenge to traditional particle-in-cell (PIC) codes, which either do not have radiation reaction or include only classical radiation reaction. We discuss a semi-classical approach to adding quantum radiation reaction and photon production to the PIC code VPIC. We explore these intensity regimes with VPIC, compare with results from the PIC code PSC, and report on ongoing work to expand the capability of VPIC in these regimes. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE, Los Alamos National Laboratory Science program, LDRD program, NNSA (DE-NA0002008), and AFOSR (FA9550-14-1-0045). HPC resources provided by TACC, XSEDE, and LANL Institutional Computing.

  8. Study of the Magnetically Induced QED Birefringence of the Vacuum in experiment OSQAR

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083980

    Classical electrodynamics in a vacuum is a linear theory and does not foresee photon-photon scattering or other nonlinear effects between electromagnetic fields. In 1936 Euler, Heisenberg and Weisskopf put framework, in the earliest development of quantum electrodynamics (QED), that vacuum can behave as a birefringent medium in the presence of the external transverse magnetic field. This phenomenon is known as Vacuum Magnetic Birefringence (VMB) and it is still challenging for optical metrology since the first calculations in 1970. When linearly polarized light travels through the strong transverse magnetic field in vacuum, the polarization state of the light would change to elliptical. The difference in the refraction indexes of the ordinary and extraordinary ray is directly related to fundamental constants, such as fine structure constant or Compton wavelength. Contributions to VMB could also arise from the existence of light scalar or pseudoscalar particles, such as axions or axions like particles. Axions ...

  9. Digital Cavity Resonance Monitor, alternative method of measuring cavity microphonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasz Plawski; G. Davis; Hai Dong; J. Hovater; John Musson; Thomas Powers

    2005-01-01

    As is well known, mechanical vibration or microphonics in a cryomodule causes the cavity resonance frequency to change at the vibration frequency. One way to measure the cavity microphonics is to drive the cavity with a Phase Locked Loop. Measurement of the instantaneous frequency or PLL error signal provides information about the cavity microphonic frequencies. Although the PLL error signal is available directly, precision frequency measurements require additional instrumentation, a Cavity Resonance Monitor (CRM). The analog version of such a device has been successfully used for several cavity tests [1]. In this paper we present a prototype of a Digital Cavity Resonance Monitor designed and built in the last year. The hardware of this instrument consists of an RF downconverter, digital quadrature demodulator and digital processor motherboard (Altera FPGA). The motherboard processes received data and computes frequency changes with a resolution of 0.2 Hz, with a 3 kHz output bandwidth

  10. Simulation of QED effects in ultrahigh intensity laser-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyukov, I.; Nerush, E.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Due to an impressive progress in laser technology, laser pulses with peak intensity of nearly 2 x 10 22 W/cm 2 are now available in laboratory. When the matter is irradiated by so intense laser pulses high energy density plasma is produced. Besides of fundamental interest such plasma is the efficient source of particles and radiation with extreme parameters that opens bright perspectives in developments of advanced particle accelerators, next generation of radiation sources, laboratory modelling of astrophysics phenomena etc. Even high laser intensity the radiation reaction and QED effects become important. One of the QED effects, which recently attracts much attention, is the electron-positron plasma creation in strong laser field. The plasma can be produced via electromagnetic cascades: the seeded charged particles is accelerated in the field of counter-propagating laser pulses, then they emit energetic photons, the photons by turn decay in the laser field and create electron-positron pairs. The pair particles accelerated in the laser field produce new generation of the photons and pairs. For self-consistent study of the electron-positron plasma dynamics in the laser field we develop 2D code based on particle-in-cell and Monte-Carlo methods. The electron, positron and photon dynamics as well as evolution of the plasma and laser fields are calculated by PIC technique while photon emission and pair production are calculated by Monte-Carlo method. We simulate pair production in the field of counter-propagating linearly polarized laser pulses. It is shown that for the laser intensity above threshold the plasma production becomes so intense that the laser pulse are strongly absorbed in the plasma. The laser intensity threshold and the rate of laser field absorption are calculated. Acknowledgements. This work has been supported by federal target 'The scientific and scientific-pedagogical personnel of innovation in Russia' and by

  11. K-shell spectroscopy in hot plasmas: Stark effect, Breit interaction and QED corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, J.-C.; Gilleron, F.; Comet, M.; Gilles, D.

    2017-03-01

    The broadening of lines by Stark effect is widely used for inferring electron density and temperature in plasmas. Stark-effect calculations often rely on atomic data (transition rates, energy levels,…) not always exhaustive and/or valid only for isolated atoms. In this work, we first present a recent development in the detailed opacity code SCO-RCG for K-shell spectroscopy. The approach is adapted from the work of Gilles and Peyrusse. Neglecting non-diagonal terms in dipolar and collision operators, the line profile is expressed as a sum of Voigt functions associated to the Stark components. The formalism relies on the use of parabolic coordinates and the relativistic fine structure of Lyman lines is included by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix associated to quantum states having the same principal quantum number n. The SCO-RCG code enables one to investigate plasma environment effects, the impact of the microfield distribution, the decoupling between electron and ion temperatures and the role of satellite lines (such as Li-like 1snℓn'ℓ' - 1s2nℓ, Be-like, etc.). Atomic structure calculations have reached levels of accuracy which require evaluation of Breit interaction and many-electron quantum electro-dynamics (QED) contributions. Although much work was done for QED effects (self-energy and vacuum polarization) in hydrogenic atoms, the case of an arbitrary number of electrons is more complicated. Since exact analytic solutions do not exist, a number of heuristic methods have been used to approximate the screening of additional electrons in the self-energy part. We compare different ways of including such effects in atomic-structure codes (Slater-Condon, Multi-Configuration Dirac-Fock, etc.).

  12. Dispersive optomechanics: a membrane inside a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayich, A M; Sankey, J C; Zwickl, B M; Yang, C; Thompson, J D; Girvin, S M; Harris, J G E [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Clerk, A A [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Marquardt, F [Department of Physics, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics and Center for Nanoscience, Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: jack.harris@yale.edu

    2008-09-15

    We present the results of theoretical and experimental studies of dispersively coupled (or 'membrane in the middle') optomechanical systems. We calculate the linear optical properties of a high finesse cavity containing a thin dielectric membrane. We focus on the cavity's transmission, reflection and finesse as a function of the membrane's position along the cavity axis and as a function of its optical loss. We compare these calculations with measurements and find excellent agreement in cavities with empty-cavity finesses in the range 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5}. The imaginary part of the membrane's index of refraction is found to be {approx}10{sup -4}. We calculate the laser cooling performance of this system, with a particular focus on the less-intuitive regime in which photons 'tunnel' through the membrane on a timescale comparable to the membrane's period of oscillation. Lastly, we present calculations of quantum non-demolition measurements of the membrane's phonon number in the low signal-to-noise regime where the phonon lifetime is comparable to the QND readout time.

  13. Highly integrated coupled cavity photonic crystal laser with on-chip power control on the AlGaIn/AsSb material system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M; Bauer, A; Lehnhardt, T; Forchel, A [Technische Physik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)], E-mail: Mirjam.Mueller@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2008-07-02

    We present a multi-segment photonic crystal coupled cavity laser device on GaSb with a microstructured internal photodiode. This monolithically integrated power monitor is added as a third segment to a coupled cavity laser and is separated from the active device by six rows of two-dimensional photonic crystals, acting as highly reflecting mirrors. There is no additional fabrication step needed to integrate this feature into the coupled cavity laser, resulting in a highly integrated laser device of only 800 {mu}m length. The device with lasing wavelength around 1955 nm shows single mode emission over a tuning range of as large as 16 nm and exhibits output powers of up to 9 mW.

  14. Highly integrated coupled cavity photonic crystal laser with on-chip power control on the AlGaIn/AsSb material system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M; Bauer, A; Lehnhardt, T; Forchel, A

    2008-01-01

    We present a multi-segment photonic crystal coupled cavity laser device on GaSb with a microstructured internal photodiode. This monolithically integrated power monitor is added as a third segment to a coupled cavity laser and is separated from the active device by six rows of two-dimensional photonic crystals, acting as highly reflecting mirrors. There is no additional fabrication step needed to integrate this feature into the coupled cavity laser, resulting in a highly integrated laser device of only 800 μm length. The device with lasing wavelength around 1955 nm shows single mode emission over a tuning range of as large as 16 nm and exhibits output powers of up to 9 mW

  15. Superconducting accelerating cavity for KEK B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, T.; Asano, K.; Mitsunobu, S.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, T.; Ishi, Y.; Kijima, Y.; Murai, T.; Sennyu, K.

    1996-01-01

    KEKB is an asymmetric collider of 3.5 GeV x 8 GeV with the circulating beams of 2.6 A(e - ) and 1.1 A(e + ). These high currents require the RF cavities which have sufficiently damped higher order modes (HOMs), because RF cavities are the main source of the ring impedance that can cause the single bunch and coupled bunch instabilities. Another problem is a multibunch instability due to the accelerating mode. Two types of accelerating cavities are under development for the RF system of KEKB: a new normal conducting cavity (ARES) and a superconducting (SC) cavity. In this paper, recent activity of an SC accelerating cavity for KEKB is reported. (K.A.)

  16. Driven-Dissipative Supersolid in a Ring Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivehvar, Farokh; Ostermann, Stefan; Piazza, Francesco; Ritsch, Helmut

    2018-03-01

    Supersolids are characterized by the counterintuitive coexistence of superfluid and crystalline order. Here we study a supersolid phase emerging in the steady state of a driven-dissipative system. We consider a transversely pumped Bose-Einstein condensate trapped along the axis of a ring cavity and coherently coupled to a pair of degenerate counterpropagating cavity modes. Above a threshold pump strength the interference of photons scattered into the two cavity modes results in an emergent superradiant lattice, which spontaneously breaks the continuous translational symmetry towards a periodic atomic pattern. The crystalline steady state inherits the superfluidity of the Bose-Einstein condensate, thus exhibiting genuine properties of a supersolid. A gapless collective Goldstone mode correspondingly appears in the superradiant phase, which can be nondestructively monitored via the relative phase of the two cavity modes on the cavity output. Despite cavity-photon losses the Goldstone mode remains undamped, indicating the robustness of the supersolid phase.

  17. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics of Continuously Monitored Bose-Condensed Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study cavity quantum electrodynamics of Bose-condensed atoms that are subjected to continuous monitoring of the light leaking out of the cavity. Due to a given detection record of each stochastic realization, individual runs spontaneously break the symmetry of the spatial profile of the atom cloud and this symmetry can be restored by considering ensemble averages over many realizations. We show that the cavity optomechanical excitations of the condensate can be engineered to target specific collective modes. This is achieved by exploiting the spatial structure and symmetries of the collective modes and light fields. The cavity fields can be utilized both for strong driving of the collective modes and for their measurement. In the weak excitation limit the condensate–cavity system may be employed as a sensitive phonon detector which operates by counting photons outside the cavity that have been selectively scattered by desired phonons.

  18. A database for superconducting cavities for the TESLA Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gall, P.D.; Goessel, A.; Gubarev, V.; Iversen, J.

    2006-01-01

    We look back on 10 years experience using a database for superconducting cavities for the TESLA Test Facility (TTF). The database was developed to collect data of every preparation step and measurement in order to optimize cavity production and preparation techniques to meet the ambitious goal of high accelerating gradients at high quality factors. Data from 110 superconducting 9-cell cavities, 50 single cell cavities, several 2- to 7-cell cavities and about 60 RF couplers were collected in the database. In addition, company measurements on sub-assemblies and parts forming the next 30 9-cell cavities were stored, thus establishing the database as part of a quality management system. This database is dynamically accessible via an extensive graphical web-interface based on ORACLE products, which enables the users to select and analyse the collected data easily from anywhere

  19. The Health System and Policy Implications of Changing Epidemiology for Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers in the United States From 1995 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeHew, Charles W; Weatherspoon, Darien J; Peterson, Caryn E; Goben, Abigail; Reitmajer, Karolina; Sroussi, Herve; Kaste, Linda M

    2017-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are typically grouped under the general term, "oral cancer." Yet, the incidence of oropharyngeal cancers is increasing in the United States, while the incidence of oral cavity cancers has declined. These 2 distinct but conflated groups of oral cancers are attributed to different risk factors. Incidence and survival trends were examined across US population groups and by anatomical subsite. Disparities in incidence and survival by sex, race/ethnicity, and subsite were identified. Risk factors are complex, interactive, and not fully identified. Cancer control research illustrates health disparities in access to care and patient outcomes. Database and supplemental searches yielded 433 articles published between 1995 and 2016 characterizing aspects of oral cancer epidemiology relating to incidence, survival, risk, disparities, and cancer control. Oral cavity cancer survival in black men remains the most intractable burden. Although understanding of oral cancer etiology is improving, application to policy is limited. Cancer control efforts are diverse, sporadic, limited in scope, and generally lacking in success, and they need stratification by oral cavity cancers/oropharyngeal cancers. Further intervention and epidemiologic research, improved workforce capacity, and integrated care delivery are identified as important directions for public health policy. Sustained, multilevel campaigns modeled on tobacco control success are suggested. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Histologic and systemic prognosticators for local control and survival in margin negative transoral laser microsurgery-treated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Parul; Mehrad, Mitra; Chernock, Rebecca D.; Lewis, James S.; El-Mofty, Samir K.; Wu, Ningying; Nussenbaum, Brian; Haughey, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Appreciable local recurrence rates observed in patients with margin-negative, transoral laser microsurgery (TLM)-treated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) necessitate identification of new prognosticators for local control and survival. A histopathologic index (Brandwein–Gensler score [BGS]) and intrinsic/iatrogenic/chronic conditions causing immune compromise are investigated. Methods From a prospectively assembled database of TLM-treated oral cavity SCC, specimens for 60 patients with a minimum of 2-years follow-up could undergo BGS assignment. Local control, disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) were study endpoints. Results “Low-BGS” was recorded in 28 patients (47%) and “high-BGS” in 32 patients (53%), whereas immune compromise was observed in 18%. In multivariate analyses, immune compromise was the only predictor for local control. T classification and immune compromise were prognostic for DSS and OS. “High-BGS” was prognostic only for OS. Conclusion “High-BGS” was associated with recurrences but immune compromise was the most significant predictor of local control and survival in margin-negative, TLM-treated oral cavity SCC. Strategies that maintain/restore tumor-specific immune responses in immune compromised oral cavity SCC hosts need to be developed. PMID:24430914

  1. Histologic and systemic prognosticators for local control and survival in margin-negative transoral laser microsurgery treated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Parul; Mehrad, Mitra; Chernock, Rebecca D; Lewis, James S; El-Mofty, Samir K; Wu, Ningying; Nussenbaum, Brian; Haughey, Bruce H

    2015-01-01

    Appreciable local recurrence rates observed in patients with margin-negative, transoral laser microsurgery (TLM)-treated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) necessitate identification of new prognosticators for local control and survival. A histopathologic index (Brandwein-Gensler score [BGS]) and intrinsic/iatrogenic/chronic conditions causing immune compromise are investigated. From a prospectively assembled database of TLM-treated oral cavity SCC, specimens for 60 patients with a minimum of 2-years follow-up could undergo BGS assignment. Local control, disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) were study endpoints. "Low-BGS" was recorded in 28 patients (47%) and "high-BGS" in 32 patients (53%), whereas immune compromise was observed in 18%. In multivariate analyses, immune compromise was the only predictor for local control. T classification and immune compromise were prognostic for DSS and OS. "High-BGS" was prognostic only for OS. "High-BGS" was associated with recurrences but immune compromise was the most significant predictor of local control and survival in margin-negative, TLM-treated oral cavity SCC. Strategies that maintain/restore tumor-specific immune responses in immune compromised oral cavity SCC hosts need to be developed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Study of Dimuon Production in Photon-Photon Collisions and Measurement of QED Photon Structure Functions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P.; Adye, T.; Adzic, P.; Azhinenko, I.; Albrecht, Z.; Alderweireld, T.; Alekseev, G.D.; Alemany, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Almehed, S.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andersson, P.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.Yu.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Beilliere, P.; Belokopytov, Yu.; Benekos, N.C.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Bigi, M.; Bilenky, Mikhail S.; Bizouard, M.A.; Bloch, D.; Blom, H.M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borgland, A.W.; Borisov, G.; Bosio, C.; Botner, O.; Boudinov, E.; Bouquet, B.; Bourdarios, C.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bozovic, I.; Bozzo, M.; Bracko, M.; Branchini, P.; Brenner, R.A.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buran, T.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Cabrera, S.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Carroll, L.; Caso, C.; Castillo Gimenez, M.V.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F.R.; Chabaud, V.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chierici, R.; Shlyapnikov, P.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cortina, E.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Crawley, H.B.; Crennell, D.; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Crosetti, G.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; Davenport, M.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, P.; Demaria, N.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Dijkstra, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Dolbeau, J.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Duperrin, A.; Durand, J.D.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ekspong, G.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.P.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayot, J.; Feindt, M.; Fenyuk, A.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferro, F.; Fichet, S.; Firestone, A.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Franek, B.; Frodesen, A.G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Galloni, A.; Gamba, D.; Gamblin, S.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gaspar, C.; Gaspar, M.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gele, D.; Ghodbane, N.; Gil Botella, Ines; Glege, F.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Gouz, Yu.; Gracco, V.; Grahl, J.; Graziani, E.; Gris, P.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Haider, S.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hansen, J.; Harris, F.J.; Hedberg, V.; Heising, S.; Hernandez, J.J.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Hessing, T.L.; Heuser, J.M.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Huber, M.; Huet, K.; Hughes, G.J.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, P.; Janik, R.; Jarlskog, C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Karafasoulis, K.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.C.; Keranen, R.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Khomenko, B.A.; Khovansky, N.N.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.; Kinvig, A.; Kjaer, N.J.; Klapp, O.; Klein, Hansjorg; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kuznetsov, O.; Krammer, M.; Kriznic, E.; Krumshtein, Z.; Kubinec, P.; Kurowska, J.; Kurvinen, K.; Lamsa, J.W.; Lane, D.W.; Lapin, V.; Laugier, J.P.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Lefebure, V.; Leinonen, L.; Leisos, A.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Libby, J.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Lorstad, B.; Loken, J.G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Mahon, J.R.; Maio, A.; Malek, A.; Malmgren, T.G.M.; Maltezos, S.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McCubbin, M.; McKay, R.; McNulty, R.; McPherson, G.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Myagkov, A.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W.A.; Mjornmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moller, Rasmus; Monig, Klaus; Monge, M.R.; Moraes, D.; Moreau, X.; Morettini, P.; Morton, G.; Muller, U.; Munich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mulet-Marquis, C.; Muresan, R.; Murray, W.J.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Naraghi, F.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.L.; Navas, Sergio; Nawrocki, K.; Negri, P.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nielsen, B.S.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikolenko, M.; Nomokonov, V.; Nygren, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Orazi, G.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Pain, R.; Paiva, R.; Palacios, J.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Pavel, T.; Pegoraro, M.; Peralta, L.; Pernicka, M.; Perrotta, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolini, A.; Phillips, H.T.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Privitera, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahmani, H.; Rames, J.; Ratoff, P.N.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Redaelli, Nicola Giuseppe; Regler, M.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.B.; Resvanis, L.K.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Rohne, O.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosinsky, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Royon, C.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ruiz, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sacquin, Y.; Sadovsky, A.; Sajot, G.; Salt, J.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sannino, M.; Schwemling, P.; Schwering, B.; Schwickerath, U.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seager, P.; Sedykh, Yu.; Segar, A.M.; Seibert, N.; Sekulin, R.; Shellard, R.C.; Siebel, M.; Simard, L.; Simonetto, F.; Sisakian, A.N.; Smadja, G.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, G.R.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassoff, T.; Spiriti, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stanescu, C.; Stanic, S.; Stanitzki, M.; Stevenson, K.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Strub, R.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.; Chikilev, O.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Thomas, J.; Timmermans, Jan; Tinti, N.; Tkachev, L.G.; Tobin, M.; Todorova, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Tortosa, P.; Transtromer, G.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tzamarias, S.; Ullaland, O.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallazza, E.; Vander Velde, C.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Den Boeck, W.; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Ventura, L.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verlato, M.; Vertogradov, L.S.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vlasov, E.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voulgaris, G.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Walck, C.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.H.; Wilkinson, G.R.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Wolf, G.; Yi, J.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Zimine, N.I.; Zinchenko, A.; Zoller, P.; Zucchelli, G.C.; Zumerle, G.

    2001-01-01

    Muon pair production in the process $e^+e^-\\to e^+e^-\\mu^+\\mu^-$ is studied using the data taken at LEP1 ($\\sqrt{s}\\simeq m_Z$) with the DELPHI detector during the years 1992-1995. The corresponding integrated luminosity is 138.5~pb$^{-1}$. The QED predictions have been tested over the whole $Q^2$ range accessible at LEP1 (from several GeV$^2/c^4$ to several hundred GeV$^2/c^4$) by comparing experimental distributions with distributions resulting from Monte Carlo simulations using various generators. Selected events are used to extract the leptonic photon structure function F 2 . Azimuthal correlations are used to obtain information on additional structure functions, FA and FB , which originate from interference terms of the scattering amplitudes. The measured ratios FA =F 2 and FB =F 2 are significantly different from zero and consistent with QED predictions.

  3. Coupled Photonic Crystal Cavity Array Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin

    This thesis describes the design, fabrication and characterization of photonic crystal slab lasers. The main focus is on coupled photonic crystal cavity lasers which are examined in great detail. The cavity type which is mainly explored consists of a defect formed by a single missing hole...... in the quadratic lattice. Processing techniques are developed and optimized in order fabricate photonic crystals membranes in gallium arsenide with quantum dots as gain medium and in indium gallium arsenide phosphide with quantum wells as gain medium. Several key issues in process to ensure good quality...... are identified such as the size and material for the carrier wafer in the III-V etch and the importance of removing all remains of the e-beam lithography mask after the etch of the hard mask. Detailed simulations are shown for a simple system with two coupled cavities in different coupling directions...

  4. Minimum wakefield achievable by waveguide damped cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.; Kroll, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors use an equivalent circuit to model a waveguide damped cavity. Both exponentially damped and persistent (decay t -3/2 ) components of the wakefield are derived from this model. The result shows that for a cavity with resonant frequency a fixed interval above waveguide cutoff, the persistent wakefield amplitude is inversely proportional to the external Q value of the damped mode. The competition of the two terms results in an optimal Q value, which gives a minimum wakefield as a function of the distance behind the source particle. The minimum wakefield increases when the resonant frequency approaches the waveguide cutoff. The results agree very well with computer simulation on a real cavity-waveguide system

  5. Complex envelope control of pulsed accelerating fields in superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Czarski, T

    2010-01-01

    A digital control system for superconducting cavities of a linear accelerator is presented in this work. FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) based controller, managed by MATLAB, was developed to investigate a novel firmware implementation. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. Essential modeling of a cavity resonator with signal and power analysis is considered as a key approach to the control methods. An electrical model is represented by the non-stationary state space equation for the complex envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. The electromechanical model of the superconducting cavity resonator including the Lorentz force detuning has been developed for a simulation purpose. The digital signal processing is proposed for the field vector detection. The field vector sum control is considered for multiple cavities driven by one klystron. An algebraic, complex domain model is proposed for the system analysis. The c...

  6. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  7. Analysis of adiabatic transfer in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A three-level atom in a configuration trapped in an optical cavity forms a basic unit in a number of proposed protocols for quantum information processing. This system allows for efficient storage of cavity photons into long-lived atomic excitations, and their retrieval with high fidelity, in an adiabatic transfer process through ...

  8. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  9. Relativistic, QED and nuclear effects in highly charged ions revealed by resonant electron-ion recombination in storage rings

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) of few-electron ions has evolved into a sensitive spectroscopic tool for highly charged ions. This is due to technological advances in electron-beam preparation and ion-beam cooling techniques at heavy-ion storage rings. Recent experiments prove unambiguously that DR collision spectroscopy has become sensitive to 2nd order QED and to nuclear effects. This review discusses the most recent developments in high-resolution spectroscopy of low-energy DR resonances, ...

  10. Electron-electron attractive interaction in Maxwell-Chern-Simons QED{sub 3} at zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Ferreira Junior, M.M.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: belich@cbpf.br; manojr@cbpf.br; helayel@gft.ucp.br; Ferreira Junior, M.M. [Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica. E-mail: delcima@gft.ucp.br

    2001-04-01

    One discusses the issue of low-energy electron-electron bound states in the Maxwell-Chern-Simons model coupled to QED{sub 3} with spontaneous breaking of a local U(1)-symmetry. The scattering potential, in the non-relativistic limit, steaming from the electron-electron Moeller scattering, mediated by the Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Proca gauge field and the Higgs scalar, might be attractive by fine-tuning properly the physical parameters of the model. (author)

  11. Demonstration of an optical enhancement cavity with 10 micron wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, K.; Washio, M.; Endo, A.

    2015-05-01

    We have been developing a pulsed-laser optical enhancement cavity for laser-Compton scattering (LCS). LCS can produce high brightness X-ray through the collision between relativistic electrons generated from the accelerator and high power laser photons with a compact facility. In order to increase the number of collisions/sec, high repetition rate accelerator and laser are required. For the laser system, an optical enhancement cavity is the most powerful tool for LCS, thus we have been developing the cavity for storing 1 micron laser pulse. On the other hand, the resulting X-ray energy can be changed by the collision laser wavelength. If we have another optical cavity with different wavelength, the multicolor, quasi-monochromatic, high brightness and compact X-ray source can be realized. Therefore, we started to develop an optical cavity at 10 micron wavelength with CO2 laser. At this wavelength region, the absorption loss is dominant compared with scattering loss. Thus we carefully chose the optical mirrors for enhancement cavity. We demonstrated a more than 200 enhancement factor with 795 finesse optical cavity at 10 micron CO2 laser. Moreover, 2.3 kW storage in the optical cavity was successfully demonstrated. The design of optical cavity, first experimental results and future prospects will be presented at the conference.

  12. Oral cavity eumycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Alborghetti Nai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a pathological process in which eumycotic (fungal or actinomycotic causative agents from exogenous source produce grains. It is a localized chronic and deforming infectious disease of subcutaneous tissue, skin and bones. We report the first case of eumycetoma of the oral cavity in world literature. CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old male patient, complaining of swelling and fistula in the hard palate. On examination, swelling of the anterior and middle hard palate, with fistula draining a dark liquid was observed. The panoramic radiograph showed extensive radiolucent area involving the region of teeth 21-26 and the computerized tomography showed communication with the nasal cavity, suggesting the diagnosis of periapical cyst. Surgery was performed to remove the lesion. Histopathological examination revealed purulent material with characteristic grain. Gram staining for bacteria was negative and Grocott-Gomori staining for the detection of fungi was positive, concluding the diagnosis of eumycetoma. The patient was treated with ketoconazole for nine months, and was considered cured at the end of treatment. CONCLUSION: Histopathological examination, using histochemical staining, and direct microscopic grains examination can provide the distinction between eumycetoma and actinomycetoma accurately.

  13. Development of large grain cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DESY activities on 1.3 GHz tesla shape single cell and nine-cell large grain (LG resonators are presented; results of the past five years are covered. The R&D program explores the potential for production of elliptical superconducting cavities. The main efforts have been devoted to material investigation, development of LG disk production, cavity fabrication from this material, and a search for appropriate treatment. More than 250 LG disks are manufactured; several single cell and 11 nine-cell resonators are produced and rf tested after buffered chemical polishing and after additional electropolishing. A maximum accelerating gradient of approximately 45  MV/m for this type of cavity was achieved in two resonators. Two of the LG cavities have been installed and are currently being used in the FLASH accelerator operation. Assembly of a cryomodule, consisting of LG cavities only, is in the works. Perspectives of the LG cavity application are discussed.

  14. Prominence Mass Supply and the Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Donald J.; Gibson, S.; Luna, M.; Karpen, J.; Innes, D.

    2013-01-01

    A prevalent but untested paradigm is often used to describe the prominence-cavity system; the cavity is under-dense because it it evacuated by supplying mass to the condensed prominence. The thermal non-equilibrium (TNE) model of prominence formation offers a theoretical framework to predict the thermodynamic evolutin of the prominence and the surrounding corona. We examine the evidence for a prominence-cavity connection by comparing the TNE model and diagnostics of dynamic extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission surrounding the prominence, specifically prominence horns. Horns are correlated extensions of prminence plasma and coronal plasma which appear to connect the prominence and cavity. The TNE model predicts that large-scale brightenings will occur in the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 A badpass near he prominence that are associated with the cooling phase of condensation formation. In our simulations, variations in the magnitude of footpoint heating lead to variations in the duration, spatial scale, and temporal offset between emission enhancements in the other EUV bandpasses. While these predictions match well a subset of the horn observations, the range of variations in the observed structures is not captured by the model. We discuss the implications of one-dimensional loop simulations for the three-dimensional time-averaged equilibrium in the prominence and the cavity. Evidence suggests that horns are likely caused by condensing prominence plasma, but the larger question of whether this process produces a density-depleted cavity requires a more tightly constrained model of heating and better knowledge of the associated magnetic structure.

  15. Dynamical screening of AMM and QED effects for large- Z hydrogen-like atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenko, A. A.; Sveshnikov, K. A.

    2018-01-01

    The effective interaction Δ U AMM of the anomalous magnetic moment (AMM) of an electron with the Coulomb field of an extended nucleus is analyzed. As soon as the q 2 dependence of the electron formfactor F 2( q 2)is taken into account from the beginning, the AMM is found to be dynamically screened at small distances of r ≪ 1/ m. The Δ U AMM effects on the low-lying electronic levels of a superheavy extended nucleus with Zα > 1are analyzed using the nonperturbative approach. The growth rate of the Δ U AMM contribution with increasing Z is shown to be essentially nonmonotonic. At the same time, the energy shifts of electronic levels in the vicinity of the threshold of the lower continuum monotonically decrease in the region Z ≫ Z cr,1 s . The latter result is generalized to the whole self-energy contribution to energy shifts of electronic levels, thus also referring to the possible behavior of QED radiative effects with virtual-photon exchange, considered beyond the framework of the perturbative expansion in Zα.

  16. Superconducting cavity model for LEP

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting cavity model is being prepared for testing in a vertical cryostat.At the top of the assembly jig is H.Preis while A.Scharding adjusts some diagnostic equipment to the cavity. See also photo 7912501X.

  17. Superconducting Storage Cavity for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi,I.

    2009-01-02

    This document provides a top-level description of a superconducting cavity designed to store hadron beams in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It refers to more detailed documents covering the various issues in designing, constructing and operating this cavity. The superconducting storage cavity is designed to operate at a harmonic of the bunch frequency of RHIC at a relatively low frequency of 56 MHz. The current storage cavities of RHIC operate at 197 MHz and are normal-conducting. The use of a superconducting cavity allows for a high gap voltage, over 2 MV. The combination of a high voltage and low frequency provides various advantages stemming from the resulting large longitudinal acceptance bucket.

  18. Mechanical Properties of Niobium Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Dhakal, Pashupati [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Matalevich, Joseph R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical stability of bulk Nb cavity is an important aspect to be considered in relation to cavity material, geometry and treatments. Mechanical properties of Nb are typically obtained from uniaxial tensile tests of small samples. In this contribution we report the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and local strain along the contour of single-cell cavities made of ingot and fine-grain Nb of different purity subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. Measurements have been done on cavities subjected to different heat treatments. Good agreement between finite element analysis simulations and experimental data in the elastic regime was obtained with a single set of values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The experimental results indicate that the yield strength of medium-purity ingot Nb cavities is higher than that of fine-grain, high-purity Nb.

  19. Temperature Mapping of Nitrogen-doped Niobium Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makita, Junki [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Dhakal, Pashupati [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    It was recently shown that diffusing nitrogen on the inner surface of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities at high temperature can improve the quality factor of the niobium cavity. However, a reduction of the quench field is also typically found. To better understand the location of rf losses and quench, we used a thermometry system to map the temperature of the outer surface of ingot Nb cavities after nitrogen doping and electropolishing. Surface temperature of the cavities was recorded while increasing the rf power and also during the quenching. The results of thermal mapping showed no precursor heating on the cavities and quenching to be ignited near the equator where the surface magnetic field is maximum. Hot-spots at the equator area during multipacting were also detected by thermal mapping.

  20. Apparatus and process for passivating an SRF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Wallace, John P

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus and process for the production of a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided. The apparatus comprises a first chamber positioned within a second chamber, an RF generator and vacuum pumping systems. The process comprises placing the niobium cavity in a first chamber of the apparatus; thermally treating the cavity by high temperature in the first chamber while maintaining high vacuum in the first and second chambers; and applying a passivating thin film layer to a surface of the cavity in the presence of a gaseous mixture and an RF field. Further a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients produced by the method of the invention is provided.