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Sample records for cavitation erosion resistance

  1. Correlating Inertial Acoustic Cavitation Emissions with Material Erosion Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, I.; Hodnett, M.; Zeqiri, B.; Frota, M. N.

    The standard ASTM G32-10 concerns the hydrodynamic cavitation erosion resistance of materials by subjecting them to acoustic cavitation generated by a sonotrode. The work reported extends this technique by detecting and monitoring the ultrasonic cavitation, considered responsible for the erosion process, specifically for coupons of aluminium-bronze alloy. The study uses a 65 mm diameter variant of NPL's cavitation sensor, which detects broadband acoustic emissions, and logs acoustic signals generated in the MHz frequency range, using NPL's Cavimeter. Cavitation readings were made throughout the exposure duration, which was carried out at discrete intervals (900 to 3600 s), allowing periodic mass measurements to be made to assess erosion loss under a strict protocol. Cavitation measurements and erosion were compared for different separations of the sonotrode tip from the material under test. The maximum variation associated with measurement of cavitation level was between 2.2% and 3.3% when the separation (λ) between the transducer horn and the specimen increased from 0.5 to 1.0 mm, for a transducer (sonotrode) displacement amplitude of 43.5 μm. Experiments conducted at the same transducer displacement amplitude show that the mass loss of the specimen -a measure of erosion- was 67.0 mg (λ = 0.5 mm) and 66.0 mg (λ = 1.0 mm).

  2. Enhancement of cavitation erosion resistance of 316 L stainless steel by adding molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D G; Chen, D R; Liang, P

    2017-03-01

    The influence of Mo on ultrasonic cavitation erosion of 316 L stainless steel in 3.5% NaCl solution were investigated using an ultrasonic cavitation erosion (CE) facility. The morphologies of specimen after cavitation erosion were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the addition of Mo can sharply decrease the mean depth of erosion (MDE) of 316 L SS, implying the increased resistance of cavitation erosion. In order to better understanding the influence of Mo on the cavitation erosion of 316 L SS, the semi-conductive property of passive films on 316 L SS containing different concentrations of Mo were studied by Mott-Schottky plot. Based on Mott-Schottky results and semiconductor physics, a physical model was proposed to explain the effect mechanism of Mo on cavitation erosion of 316 L SS.

  3. Cavitation-erosion resistance of arc ion-plated (Ti, Cr) N coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The cavitation-erosion behavior of (Ti,Cr)N multi-component coatings produced by arcion-plating on grey cast iron was studied by using an ultrasonic cavitation -erosion testing appara-tus and scanning electron microscopy. The test results indicated that surface roughness of thesubstrate, surface morphology of the coating, substrate bias voltage and the thickness of the coat-ing had certain influence on the erosion rate. Arc ion-plated (Ti,Cr)N multi-component coatingsshowed better cavitation -erosion resistance than single component coatings because of highermicrohardness and good adhesion.

  4. Influence of Ultrasound Treatment on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of AlSi7 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Pola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound treatment of liquid aluminum alloys is known to improve mechanical properties of castings. Aluminum foundry alloys are frequently used for production of parts that undergo severe cavitation erosion phenomena during service. In this paper, the effect of the ultrasound treatment on cavitation erosion resistance of AlSi7 alloy was assessed and compared to that of conventionally cast samples. Cavitation erosion tests were performed according to ASTM G32 standard on as-cast and heat treated castings. The response of the alloy in each condition was investigated by measuring the mass loss as a function of cavitation time and by analyzing the damaged surfaces by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. It was pointed out that the ultrasound treatment increases the cavitation erosion resistance of the alloy, as a consequence of the higher chemical and microstructural homogeneity, the finer grains and primary particles and the refined structure of the eutectic induced by the treatment itself.

  5. A new concept for stainless steels ranking upon the resistance to cavitation erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeasu, I.; Popoviciu, M. O.; Salcianu, L. C.; Ghera, C.; Micu, L. M.; Badarau, R.; Iosif, A.; Pirvulescu, L. D.; Podoleanu, C. E.

    2017-01-01

    In present, the ranking of materials as their resistance to cavitation erosion is obtained by using laboratory tests finalized with the characteristic curves mean depth erosion against time MDE(t) and mean depth erosion rate against time MDER(t). In some previous papers, Bordeasu and co-workers give procedures to establish exponential equation representing the curves, with minimum scatter of the experimental obtained results. For a given material, both exponential equations MDE(t) and MDER(t) have the same values for the parameters of scale and for the shape one. For the ranking of materials is sometimes important to establish single figure. Till now in Timisoara Polytechnic University Cavitation Laboratory were used three such numbers: the stable value of the curve MDER(t), the resistance to cavitation erosion (Rcav ≡ 1/MDERstable) and the normalized cavitation resistance Rns which is the rate between vs = MDERstable for the analyzed material and vse= MDERse the mean depth erosion rate for the steel OH12NDL (Rns = vs/vse ). OH12NDL is a material used for manufacturing the blades of numerous Kaplan turbines in Romania for which both cavitation erosion laboratory tests and field measurements of cavitation erosions are available. In the present paper we recommend a new method for ranking the materials upon cavitation erosion resistance. This method uses the scale and shape parameters of the exponential equations which represents the characteristic cavitation erosion curves. Till now the method was applied only for stainless steels. The experimental results show that the scale parameter represents an excellent method for ranking the stainless steels. In the future this kind of ranking will be tested also for other materials especially for bronzes used for manufacturing ship propellers.

  6. Cavitation erosion resistance of 13/4 and 21-4-N steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh K Chauhan

    2013-02-01

    Nitrogen strengthened austenitic stainless steel (termed as 21-4-N steel) in as cast and hot rolled conditions has been investigated as an alternative to 13/4 steel (termed as CA6NM) to overcome the problems of cavitation erosion in hydro turbine underwater parts. The cavitation erosion of 21-4-N and 13/4 steels was investigated by means of an ultrasonic vibration processor. The cavitation erosion is highly dependent on microstructure and mechanical properties. The results show that hot rolled 21-4-N steel is more cavitation erosion resistant than the 13/4 and 21-4-N steels in as cast condition. The eroded surfaces were analysed through optical microscope and scanning electron microscope for study of erosion mechanisms.

  7. Improvement in cavitation erosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel by friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajian, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollah-zadeh, A., E-mail: zadeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei-Nejad, S.S.; Assadi, H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadavi, S.M.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MA University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chung, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Engineering Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shokouhimehr, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Commercial AISI 316L plates with the initial grain size of 14.8 μm were friction stir processed (FSP) with different processing parameters, resulting in two fine-grained microstructures with the grain sizes of 4.6 and 1.7 μm. The cavitation erosion behavior, before and after FSP, was evaluated in terms of incubation time, cumulative mass loss and mean depth of erosion. A separate cavitation erosion test was performed on the transverse cross section of a FSP sample to reveal the effect of grain structure. It was observed that FSP samples, depending on their grain size, are at least 3–6 times more resistant than the base material against cavitation erosion. The improvement in cavitation erosion resistance is attributed to smaller grain structure, lower fraction of twin boundaries, and favorable crystallographic orientation of grains in FSP samples. The finer the grain size, the more cavitation erosion resistance was achieved. Moreover, the microstructures of eroded surfaces were studied using a scanning electron microscope equipped with EBSD, and an atomic force microscope. The mechanisms controlling the cavitation erosion damage in friction stir processed AISI 316L are also discussed.

  8. Combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of HVOF spray coated SS 410 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarendra, H. J.; Prathap, M. S.; Karthik, S.; Abhishek, A. M.; Madhu surya, K. C.; Gujjar gowda, S.; Anilkumar, T.

    2016-09-01

    The hydro turbine materials surface is degraded due to the slurry erosion and cavitation. The solid particles carried by water impacting the material results in slurry erosion. The damage occurred due to slurry erosion is the concern, when considered individually. The erosion damage is observed to be severe when slurry erosion and cavitation are combined. The hydro turbine material, martensitic stainless (SS 410) is surface modified with 80Ni-Cr by High Velocity Oxy Fuel spray process. The coated material subjected to post thermal treatment at a temperature of 950 ° C, soaked at 1 h, 2 h and 3 h are subjected to combined slurry and cavitation erosion test. The cavitation is created by using Cavitation Inducers. The tests are conducted by using silica sand as the erodent with three different sizes of 150, 200 and 300 μm. The results are compared with the as-received specimen. The results confirmed the effect of heat treatment on the end results, as the coated thermal treated specimens showed better erosion resistance against the as-received specimen. The eroded specimens are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope. The thermal treated HVOF coated specimens shown the better erosion resistance.

  9. Cavitation erosion resistance of diamond-like carbon coating on stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Feng; Jiang, Shuyun, E-mail: jiangshy@seu.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    Two diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are prepared on stainless steel 304 by cathodic arc plasma deposition technology at different substrate bias voltages and arc currents (−200 V/80 A, labeled DLC-1, and −100 V/60 A, labeled DLC-2). Cavitation tests are performed by using a rotating-disk test rig to explore the cavitation erosion resistance of the DLC coating. The mass losses, surface morphologies, chemical compositions and the phase constituents of the specimens after cavitation tests are examined by using digital balance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results indicate that the DLC-2 coatings can elongate the incubation period of stainless steel, leading to an excellent cavitation erosion resistance as compared to the untreated stainless steel specimens. After duration of 100 h cavitation test, serious damaged surfaces and plenty of scratches can be observed on the surfaces of the stainless steel specimens, while only a few grooves and tiny pits are observed on the DLC-2 coatings. It is concluded that, decreasing micro defects and increasing adhesion can reduce the delamination of DLC coating, and the erosion continues in the stainless steel substrate after DLC coating failure, and the eroded surface of the substrate is subjected to the combined action from cavitation erosion and slurry erosion.

  10. Cavitation erosion resistance of diamond-like carbon coating on stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Jiang, Shuyun

    2014-02-01

    Two diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are prepared on stainless steel 304 by cathodic arc plasma deposition technology at different substrate bias voltages and arc currents (-200 V/80 A, labeled DLC-1, and -100 V/60 A, labeled DLC-2). Cavitation tests are performed by using a rotating-disk test rig to explore the cavitation erosion resistance of the DLC coating. The mass losses, surface morphologies, chemical compositions and the phase constituents of the specimens after cavitation tests are examined by using digital balance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results indicate that the DLC-2 coatings can elongate the incubation period of stainless steel, leading to an excellent cavitation erosion resistance as compared to the untreated stainless steel specimens. After duration of 100 h cavitation test, serious damaged surfaces and plenty of scratches can be observed on the surfaces of the stainless steel specimens, while only a few grooves and tiny pits are observed on the DLC-2 coatings. It is concluded that, decreasing micro defects and increasing adhesion can reduce the delamination of DLC coating, and the erosion continues in the stainless steel substrate after DLC coating failure, and the eroded surface of the substrate is subjected to the combined action from cavitation erosion and slurry erosion.

  11. The cavitational erosion resistance of the B2-type Fe-Al casting alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jasionowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the destruction of turbo-machinery components is very complex, because it consists of processes of erosion and corrosion. The most dangerous factor is the cavitation phenomenon, which is very difficult to eliminate through the use of design solutions. It causes deterioration of the operating characteristics of machinery and equipment, such as water turbines, steam turbines, centrifugal pumps, screw vessels, cylinder liners with water-cooled engines, acoustic probe. The most commonly used method of limiting the destruction of cavitation phenomenon is the optimum choice of parameters of geometric and hydraulic machines, the appropriate design of elements and streamlined flow and providing working conditions of flow devices. The above-mentioned methods by design, the size of flow devices are limited, so better action to prevent the flow of erosion may use the material for greater resistance to erosion and cavitation corrosion is the alloy of intermetallic FeAl phase, which production costs are low compared to cast steel and cast iron alloy based on chromium and nickel.The paper presents results of an investigation carried out for cavitational resistance of the B2-type Fe-Al casting alloys using a flux-impact measuring device. The intermetallic FeAl alloys proved to have good resistance to this type of erosion in comparison to other construction materials, investigated by flux-impact device.

  12. Cavitation erosion behavior of nickel-aluminum bronze weldment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小亚; 闫永贵; 许振明; 李建国

    2003-01-01

    Cavitation erosion behavior of nickel-aluminum bronze(NAB)weldment in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution was studied by magnetostrictive vibratory device for cavitation erosion.The results show that cavitation erosion resistance of the weld zone(WZ)of the weldment is superior to that of the base metal.SEM observation of eroded specimens reveals that the phases undergoing selective attack by the stress of cavitation erosion at the early stage of cavitation erosion are:martensite in the WZ,α phase in the heat-affected zone(HAZ)and eutectoidal phase in the base metal; the microcracks causing cavitation damage initiate at the phase boundaries.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of cavitation-erosion resistance of Ti-alloys in mercury for the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawel, S. J.; Mansur, L. K.

    2010-03-01

    A number of Ti-based alloys in both the mill-annealed and 20% cold-worked conditions were subjected to sonication conditions in Hg using a vibratory horn to assess relative cavitation-erosion resistance. Weight loss as a function of exposure time decreased monotonically with increasing hardness for all alloys/conditions examined, with Ti-6Al-4V (Grade 5) and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo yielding the best resistance to cavitation-erosion as evidenced by low weight losses and little or no tendency to form pits on the exposed surface. Unalloyed Ti (Grade 4) and Ti-0.12Pd (Grade 7) exhibited greater weight losses by a factor of about two and about five, respectively, with Ti-0.12Pd particularly prone to pitting development. The mean erosion rates of the best two Ti-alloys examined were about a factor of three higher than identically tested 316LN stainless steel following a low temperature carburizing treatment, but this difference is considered minor given that the rate for both materials is very low/manageable and represents a through-thickness property for the Ti-alloys. A nitriding surface treatment was also evaluated as a potential method to further increase the cavitation-erosion resistance of these alloys in Hg, but the selected treatment proved largely ineffective as measured by rapid weight loss. Recommendations for further work to evaluate the efficacy of Ti-based alloys for use in high-powered targets for the Spallation Neutron Source are given.

  14. Influence of volumic heat treatments upon cavitation erosion resistance of duplex X2CrNiMoN 22-5-3 stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, L. M.; Bordeasu, I.; Popoviciu, M. O.; Popescu, M.; Bordeaşu, D.; Salcianu, L. C.

    2015-06-01

    The stainless steels Duplex 2205 with austenite and ferrite structure have mechanical characteristics close to those of martensite stainless steels but a better corrosion resistance; these steels are very sensitive on the heat treatments. Present work studies the cavitation erosion for those steels for three different heat treatments: simply quenched, annealed at 475°C post quenching and annealed at 875°C. The researches were undertaken at Timisoara “Politehnica” University in the Laboratory of Material Science and the Laboratory of Cavitation, using the T2 facility which integrally respects the recommendation of ASTM G32- 10 Standard. The best results were obtained with the specimens annealed at 875°C. In comparison with the stainless steel 41Cr4, with very good cavitation erosion qualities, all tested steels presented also good erosion resistance. So, Duplex 2205 steels can be used for details subjected to cavitation. The best results are obtained by increasing both the hardness and the quantity of the structure constituent with better cavitation erosion resistance, in our case the alloyed austenite.

  15. Cavitation erosion resistance and ratio of elastic deformation energy to total deformation energy for Ti3Al and TiNiNb alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙霓东; 朱金华

    2004-01-01

    The cavitation erosion of Ti-46Ni-9Nb alloy, Ti-24Al-15Nb-1Mo alloy and 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel has been investigated in tap water by using rotating disc equipment. It is shown that Ti-24Al-15Nb-1Mo alloy has the highest cavitation erosion resistance among the three tested materials and Ti-46Ni-9Nb alloy is more resistant to cavitation erosion than 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel. To simulate the effect of collapse of vapor cavities or bubbles,the Rockwell hardness tester was used to exert a load on the small area of the tested materials, and the elastic deformation energy and total deformation energy in indentation were determined. The experiment results show that there is a good correlation between cavitaton erosion resistance and the ratio of elastic deformation energy to total deformation energy in indentation for the three tested materials. The higher the ratio, the better the cavitation erosion resistance.

  16. Effect of Spray Particle Velocity on Cavitation Erosion Resistance Characteristics of HVOF and HVAF Processed 86WC-10Co4Cr Hydro Turbine Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R. K.; Kamaraj, M.; Seetharamu, S.; Pramod, T.; Sampathkumaran, P.

    2016-08-01

    The hydro plants utilizing silt-laden water for power generation suffer from severe metal wastage due to particle-induced erosion and cavitation. High-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF)-based coatings is widely applied to improve the erosion life. The process parameters such as particle velocity, size, powder feed rate, temperature, affect their mechanical properties. The high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) technology, with higher particle velocities and lower spray temperatures, gives dense and substantially nonoxidized coating. In the present study, the cavitation resistance of 86WC-10Co4Cr-type HVOF coating processed at 680 m/s spray particle velocity was compared with HVAF coatings made at 895, 960, and 1010 m/s. The properties such as porosity, hardness, indentation toughness, and cavitation resistance were investigated. The surface damage morphology has been analyzed in SEM. The cohesion between different layers has been examined qualitatively through scratch depth measurements across the cross section. The HVAF coatings have shown a lower porosity, higher hardness, and superior cavitation resistance. Delamination, extensive cracking of the matrix interface, and detachment of the WC grains were observed in HVOF coating. The rate of metal loss is low in HVAF coatings implying that process parameters play a vital role in achieving improved cavitation resistance.

  17. Cavitation Erosion of Cermet-Coated Aluminium Bronzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Mitelea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cavitation erosion resistance of CuAl10Ni5Fe2.5Mn1 following plasma spraying with Al2O3·30(Ni20Al powder and laser re-melting was analyzed in view of possible improvements of the lifetime of components used in hydraulic environments. The cavitation erosion resistance was substantially improved compared with the one of the base material. The thickness of the re-melted layer was in the range of several hundred micrometers, with a surface microhardness increasing from 250 to 420 HV 0.2. Compositional, structural, and microstructural explorations showed that the microstructure of the re-melted and homogenized layer, consisting of a cubic Al2O3 matrix with dispersed Ni-based solid solution is associated with the hardness increase and consequently with the improvement of the cavitation erosion resistance.

  18. Laser surface alloying of FeCoCrAlNi high-entropy alloy on 304 stainless steel to enhance corrosion and cavitation erosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wu, C. L.; Zhang, C. H.; Guan, M.; Tan, J. Z.

    2016-10-01

    FeCoCrAlNi high-entropy alloy coating was synthesized with premixed high-purity Co, Cr, Al and Ni powders on 304 stainless steel by laser surface alloying, aiming at improving corrosion and cavitation erosion resistance. Phase constituents, microstructure and microhardness were investigated using XRD, SEM, and microhardness tester, respectively. The cavitation erosion and electrochemical corrosion behavior of FeCoCrAlNi coating in 3.5% NaCl solution were also evaluated using an ultrasonic vibrator and potentiodynamic polarization measurement. Experimental results showed that with appropriate laser processing parameters, FeCoCrAlNi coating with good metallurgical bonding to the substrate could be achieved. FeCoCrAlNi coating was composed of a single BCC solid solution. The formation of simple solid solutions in HEAs was the combined effect of mixing entropy (ΔSmix), mixing enthalpy (ΔHmix), atom-size difference (δ) and valence electron concentration (VEC), and the effect of ΔSmix was much larger than that of the other factors. The microhardness of the FeCoCrAlNi coating was ~3 times that of the 304 stainless steel. Both the corrosion and cavitation erosion resistance of the coating were improved. The cavitation erosion resistance for FeCoCrAlNi HEA coating was ~7.6 times that of 304 stainless steel. The corrosion resistance was also improved as reflected by a reduction in the current density of one order of magnitude as compared with 304 stainless steel.

  19. MICRO-COURSE OF CAVITATION EROSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhaoyun

    2008-01-01

    By cavitation tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) microanalysis, the micro- appearance of cavitation samples is studied. It is the first time that the micro-appearance of metals is pursued successfully. According to the changing course of the micro-appearance of metals, the damaging course of cavitation erosion is determined. The destructive way of collapsing bubbles on the metal surface is known. Firstly cavitation pinholes appear on the metal surface, then cracks generate and grow under the action of collapsing bubbles. When cracks connect each other, small pieces are removed from pinhole wall and pinholes develop into cavitation pits. When the previous surface is removed completely, new pinholes are produced again on the new surface. A pinhole is the result of the powerful striking of a micro-liquid jet ejected by a large collapsed bubble near the surface. At some stages, cracks grow in the way of fatigue. The corrosion phenomenon is observed during the cavitation erosion. The cavitation pattern can be used to explain the cavitation pregnancy and the changing regulation of sample surface.

  20. Cavitation wear resistance of engine bearing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rac, Aleksandar

    1994-04-01

    The resistance to cavitation erosion of aluminum alloy, and cast and sinte-red lead-bronze, materials which are most frequently used for engine bearings, has been evaluated. The tests were carried out in motor oil at a temperature of 80 C, using a magnetostrictive vibratory tester (20 kHz). The results showed that the cavitation erosion resistance was the greatest in cast lead-bronze. On the contrary, sintered lead-bronze, though of the same chemical composition, had the greatest erosion rate. Additionally, the investigation of the overlay plated bearings showed the overlay was nonresistive to this type of wear.

  1. Cavitation erosion of NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, A. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada)]|[Univ. of British Columbia (Canada). Metals and Materials Engineering Dept.; Salvi, R. [Univ. of British Columbia (Canada). Metals and Materials Engineering Dept.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1999-02-01

    Vibratory cavitation erosion tests were carried out on as-cast NiAl intermetallic compounds containing 46.5 to 62.1 at. pct Ni. The erosion rate decreased with increasing nickel content by over two orders of magnitude, from a high of 16.4 to 0.11 mg{center_dot}h{sup {minus}1}. These low erosion rates exhibited by the nickel-rich alloys containing 58 and 62.1 at. pct Ni, the interruptions in their mass loss with time, and the unusual effects associated with surface finish and intensity of cavitation were found to be associated with the stress-induced martensitic transformation. Alloys containing 58 to 62 at. pct Ni have the potential for use as materials for the cavitation protection of hydraulic machinery.

  2. Effect of micro-particles on cavitation erosion of Ti6Al4V alloy in sulfuric acid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D G; Long, Y; Liang, P; Chen, D R

    2017-05-01

    The influences of micro-particles on ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti6Al4V alloy in 0.1M H2SO4 solution were investigated using mass loss weight, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometer. Mass loss results revealed that the cavitation erosion damage obviously decreased with increasing particle size and mass concentration. Open circuit potential recorded during cavitation erosion shifted to positive direction with the decreased mass loss. Meanwhile, the mass loss sharply decreased with applying a positive potential during the entire ultrasonic cavitation erosion, and the relationship between the open circuit potential and the cavitation erosion resistance was discussed.

  3. Advanced experimental and numerical techniques for cavitation erosion prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Chahine, Georges; Franc, Jean-Pierre; Karimi, Ayat

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the cavitation erosion phenomenon and state-of-the-art research in the field. It is divided into two parts. Part 1 consists of seven chapters, offering a wide range of computational and experimental approaches to cavitation erosion. It includes a general introduction to cavitation and cavitation erosion, a detailed description of facilities and measurement techniques commonly used in cavitation erosion studies, an extensive presentation of various stages of cavitation damage (including incubation and mass loss), and insights into the contribution of computational methods to the analysis of both fluid and material behavior. The proposed approach is based on a detailed description of impact loads generated by collapsing cavitation bubbles and a physical analysis of the material response to these loads. Part 2 is devoted to a selection of nine papers presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Experimental and Numerical Techniques for Cavitation Erosion (Gr...

  4. Assessment of Cavitation Erosion with a Multiphase Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.R.

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation erosion is one of the remarkable catastrophic consequences of cavitation. Predicting the cavitation aggressiveness quantitatively and predicting the most probable location of cavitation erosion are complex problems that currently still motivate an important amount of basic and applied res

  5. Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 nickel-based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Han, Jiesheng; Lu, Jinjun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Jianmin, E-mail: chenjm@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 was studied by ultrasonic apparatus. • The cavitation-induced precipitates formed in the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. • The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. - Abstract: The cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 alloy was investigated using an ultrasonic vibratory apparatus and compared with that of 316L stainless steel. The mean depth of erosion (MDE) and erosion rate (ER) curves vs. test time were attained for Hastelloy C-276 alloy. Morphology and microstructure evolution of the eroded surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the predominant erosion mechanism was also discussed. The results show that the MDE is about 1/6 times lower than that of the stainless steel after 9 h of testing. The incubation period of Hastelloy C-276 alloy is about 3 times longer than that of 316L stainless steel. The cavitation-induced nanometer-scaled precipitates were found in the local zones of the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. The formation of nanometer-scaled precipitates in the eroded surface may play a significant role in the cavitation erosion resistance of Hastelloy C-276.

  6. Cavitation Erosion Characteristics of Nitrocarburized and HPDL-Treated Martensitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, B. K.; Arya, Vivek; Mann, B. S.

    2012-06-01

    This article deals with plasma ion-nitrocarburising and high power diode laser (HPDL) surface treatment of 13Cr4Ni and X10CrNiMoV1222 martensitic stainless steels to enhance their cavitation erosion resistance. These steels are commonly used in hydro turbines and boiler feed pumps. These treated steels have been evaluated for cavitation erosion resistance and it has been observed that the plasma ion-nitrocarburising process has significantly enhanced the cavitation erosion resistance as compared to untreated steel whereas HPDL-treated steels have shown marginal improvement. This is due to formation of high hardness nitrides during nitrocarburising and formation of moderate hardness martensitic phase due to rapid heating and cooling rates involved in HPDL treatment. The cavitation erosion and micro-hardness data of plasma ion-nitrocarburized as well as HPDL-treated steel samples and their comparison with hard deposits such as stellite and HVOF coating form the main part of the article.

  7. 新型Cr-Ni-Mo和Cr-Ni-Co堆焊合金空蚀性能%Cavitation Erosion Resistance of Novel Cr-Ni-Mo and Cr-Ni-Co Overlaying Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂芳; 秦敏明; 雷玉成; 陈希章; 李涛

    2012-01-01

    New type Cr-Ni-Mo and Cr-Ni-Co overlaying alloys were prepared by argon tungsten-arc welding (TIG) on 304 stainless steel, and tested by cavitation vibrating device. The cavitation erosion resistance of alloys was compared through the analysis of mass loss. The alloy layer was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and microhardness tester. Results indicate that the cavitation erosion resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo and Cr-Ni-Co overlaying alloys is better than that of 304 stainless steel, and the resistance of Cr-Ni-Co is better than Cr-Ni-Mo. In the process of cavitation the damage is preferred to appear in grain boundary. Phase transformation from austenite to martensite happens in the cavitation process of Cr-Ni-Co alloy, and it is helpful to absorb the energy and delay the process of cavitation erosion, and enhance the cavitation erosion resistance effectively. The cavitation erosion resistance of overlaying alloys is related to hardness and work hardening ability.%采用钨极氩弧焊(TIG)将新型Cr-Ni-Mo和Cr-Ni-Co合金堆焊于304不锈钢表面进行空蚀试验,通过失重比较不同合金的抗空蚀性能.采用扫描电镜(SEM)、X射线衍射(XRD)仪和显微硬度计对合金层进行分析.结果表明:Cr-Ni-Mo和Cr-Ni-Co合金的耐空蚀性能均优越于304不锈钢,其中Cr-Ni-Co优于Cr-Ni-Mo;空蚀破坏优先出现在堆焊层的晶界处;Cr-Ni-Co合金在空蚀过程中发生了因奥氏体向马氏体的转变,有利于能量吸收,延缓了空蚀的进行,提高其耐空蚀性能;堆焊合金的抗空蚀能力与合金本身的硬度和加工硬化能力有关.

  8. Cavitation erosion tests of high tensile stainless steels for the Techno-Superliner (TSL-F) hulls; Techno superliner (TSL-F) sentai kozoyo kokyodo stainless ko no cavitation erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, M.; Ito, H.; Shibasaki, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Mizuta, A.; Sugimoto, H. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Tomono, Y. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Investigations were given by using the magnetostrictive vibration method and the high-speed fluid testing method on cavitation erosion resistance of high-tensile stainless steels thought to have high applicability to submerged hull structures of Techno-Supeliner (TSL-L). The investigations revealed that these steels have nearly equivalent resistance to even SUS 304 or 15-5PH steel which is thought to have the highest cavitation erosion resistance among the conventional materials used customarily. An experiment using both materials provided a result different quantitatively but similar qualitatively in relative merits between the materials. Correlation between both materials was presented. A cavitation erosion experiment using a 1/6 scale model of the actual TSL-F was carried out to measure the amount of cavitation erosion generated on wing surfaces. Results from the experiment were used to attempt estimation of cavitation erosion amount at the level of the actual TSL-F. 21 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Standard Test Method for Cavitation Erosion Using Vibratory Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the production of cavitation damage on the face of a specimen vibrated at high frequency while immersed in a liquid. The vibration induces the formation and collapse of cavities in the liquid, and the collapsing cavities produce the damage to and erosion (material loss) of the specimen. 1.2 Although the mechanism for generating fluid cavitation in this method differs from that occurring in flowing systems and hydraulic machines (see 5.1), the nature of the material damage mechanism is believed to be basically similar. The method therefore offers a small-scale, relatively simple and controllable test that can be used to compare the cavitation erosion resistance of different materials, to study in detail the nature and progress of damage in a given material, or—by varying some of the test conditions—to study the effect of test variables on the damage produced. 1.3 This test method specifies standard test conditions covering the diameter, vibratory amplitude and frequency of the...

  10. Examples of oil cavitation erosion in positive displacement pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halat, J. A.; Ellis, G. O.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of cavitation flow on piston type, positive displacement, hydraulic pumps are discussed. The operating principles of the pump and the components which are most subject to erosion effects are described. The mechanisms of cavitation phenomena are identified from photographic records. Curves are developed to show the solubility of air in water, oil-water emulsion, and industrial hydraulic oil.

  11. Microstructure and Cavitation Erosion Properties of Ceramic Coatings Fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Pack Carburizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; Cui, Zhenduo; Li, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Shengli; Yang, Xianjin

    2014-08-01

    In this study, Ti-6Al-4V alloy was processed by pack carburizing to improve the cavitation erosion behavior. X-ray diffraction and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that a uniform and crack-free ceramic coating formed on the surface of the treated samples. The coating layer comprised primary TiC and less oxide. Cavitation erosion experiment results indicated that the treated samples have the factor of 3.44 to 6.68 increase in cavitation erosion resistance ( R e) as compared with the as-received sample. The ceramic coatings with high hardness and good metallurgical bonding were responsible for the enhanced cavitation erosion properties. When the coatings were treated at condition of high temperature and/or long time, the R e was enervated due to the thin oxide film formed at the outermost surface. Cavitation erosion mechanism for the coatings was characterized as brittle mode by SEM observation of the worn surfaces.

  12. Cavitation Erosion of P110 Steel in Different Drilling Muds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieć M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The P110 steel specimens were subjected to ultrasonic cavitation erosion in different compositions of drilling muds and surfactant additive. The test procedure was based on ASTM-G-32 standard recommendations. API 5CT-P110 steel is used for pipes in oil and gas industry. The harsh environment and high velocity of flows poses corrosive and erosive threat on materials used there. The composition of drilling fluid influences its rheological properties and thus intensity of cavitation erosion. The erosion curves based on weight loss were measured.

  13. Sediment and Cavitation Erosion Studies through Dam Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of sediment and cavitation erosion through Tunnel 2 and Tunnel 3 of Tarbela Dam in Pakistan. Main bend and main branch of Tunnel 2 and outlet 1 and outlet 3 of Tunnel 3 are concluded to be critical for cavitation and sediment erosion. Studies are also performed for increased sediments flow rate, concluding 5 kg/sec as the critical value for sudden increase in erosion rate density. Erosion rate is concluded to be the function of sediment flow rate and head condition. Particulate mass presently observed is reasonably low, hence presently not affecting the velocity and the flow field.

  14. Mechanics of submerged jet cavitating action: material properties, exposure time and temperature effects on erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutli, Ezddin A.F.; Nedeljkovic, Milos S. [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade (RS); Radovic, Nenad A. [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (RS)

    2008-05-15

    Experimental setup with a submerged cavitating jet has been used for the study of influences of material, exposure time and working fluid temperature on the erosion process. Each of the parameters has been varied separately, and the results of erosion are analyzed in detail. Additionally, comparison of experiments with nitrated and non-nitrated material has been made in order to study the enhancement (mostly reflected as the prolonged incubation time) of erosion resistance achieved by nitrating the specimen surface. (orig.)

  15. Metal of cavitation erosion of a hydrodynamic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirzakov, A. G.; Brand, A. E.; Petryakov, V. A.; Gordievskaya, E. F.

    2017-02-01

    Cavitation erosion is a major cause of the petroleum equipment hydraulic erosion, which leads to the metal weight loss of the equipment and its breakdown, which can be followed by the full stop of the plant or company work. The probability of the metal weight loss and equipment failure can be reduced by the use of special protective coatings or rivets, made of the sacrificial metals, the use of which significantly increases the service life and the production equipment reliability. The article investigates the cavitation erosion effect, occurred under the condition of the advanced hydrodynamic cavitation on the hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. This article presents the results of the experiments and recommendations for increasing the operational resource.

  16. Resistance of cavitation erosion of multimodal WC-12Co coatings sprayed by HVOF%超音速火焰喷涂制备多峰WC-12Co涂层的抗汽蚀性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁彰雄; 陈伟; 王群

    2011-01-01

    Conventional,submicron and multimodal WC-12Co cermet coatings were deposited by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF).The microhardness and microstructure of the coatings were compared,and the resistance of the coatings to cavitation erosion was studied by ultrasonic vibration cavitation equipment.Cavitation pits and craters were observed by SEM and cavitation mechanisms were explored.The results show that the microstructures of submicron and multimodal WC-12Co coatings prepared by HVOF are dense with little porosity,and their microhardness values are obviously higher than that of the conventional WC-12Co coating.The average microhardness of multimodal WC-12Co coating reaches nearly HV1500,whieh is much higher than that of the conventional one.As well,it is found that the multimodal WC-12Co coating exhibits the best cavitation erosion resistance among the three coatings,the erosion rate is approximately 40% that of the conventional coating,and the cavitation erosion resistance of multimodal WC-12Co coating is enhanced by above 150% in comparison with the conventional coating.%采用超音速火焰喷涂技术制备常规、亚微米及多峰3种WC- 12Co金属陶瓷涂层,比较分析涂层的显微硬度及显微组织.采用超声振动汽蚀装置研究3种涂层的抗汽蚀性能,并采用扫描电镜观察涂层表面的汽蚀坑,探讨不同涂层的汽蚀机理.研究表明:采用超音速火焰喷涂制备的亚微米及多峰WC- 12Co涂层结构致密、孔隙率低,其显微硬度明显高于常规的WC- 12Co涂层.多峰WC- 12Co涂层的平均显微硬度接近HV 1500,远高于常规的WC- 12Co涂层.在3种涂层中,多峰WC- 12Co涂层表现出最优良的抗汽蚀性能,涂层的汽蚀率大约为常规涂层的40%;与常规涂层相比,多峰WC-12Co涂层的抗汽蚀性能提高150%以上.

  17. Effects of Laser Shock Processing on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of Laser Weldments%激光冲击强化对激光焊接件气蚀行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 罗开玉; 鲁金忠; 张永康; 冯爱新

    2013-01-01

    Effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on cavitation erosion behaviors of ANSI 304 stainless steel thick sheets treated by laser welding are investigated. Mechanical properties and microstructure of laser weldments are measured and observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness, electronic balance and scanning electron microscope (SEM) tests in order to investigate cavitation erosion resistance of laser weldments. Results show that with the increment of LSP pulse energies after cavitation erosion, the martensite intensity is improved relatively and the removal of martensite is restrained, the hardness increases, and the cumulative mass loss and damaged surface areas of laser weldments decrease. Meanwhile, the martensite grains are fined, and undulations and upheavals become shallower and sparser, and the growth and propagation of the cracks on the surface are restrained. Thus, cavitation erosion resistance of laser weldments is enhanced. In addition, cavitation erosion resistance of laser welding zone (LWZ) is better than that of heat-affected zone (HAZ).%采用高能激光束对厚板激光焊接件进行激光冲击强化(LSP)处理,并利用X射线衍射仪(XRD)、显微硬度仪、高精度电子天平和扫描电镜(SEM)观察分析手段研究了激光冲击强化对激光焊接件抗气蚀性能的影响.试验结果表明,增加激光冲击强化脉冲能量气蚀后,激光焊接件马氏体强度相对提高、马氏体剥落得到抑制,表面和横截面硬度增加,累积质量损失和表面气蚀破坏面积减小.随着激光能量的增加,马氏体晶粒细化,气蚀后表面起伏组织变浅、变疏,表面裂纹萌生扩展得到减缓抑制,因此激光焊接件抗气蚀性能增强.另外,激光焊接件焊缝区的抗气蚀性能优于热影响区(HAZ)的抗气蚀性能.

  18. The dynamics of cavity clusters in ultrasonic (vibratory) cavitation erosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, I.; Mørch, Knud Aage

    1980-01-01

    The erosion of solids caused by cavitating liquids is a result of the concerted collapse of clusters of cavities. In vibratory cavitation equipment the clusters grow and collapse adjacent to a solid surface and are typically of hemispherical or cylindrical form. In the present paper the collapse...... process of these clusters is described and the collapse equations are developed and solved. The theoretical results are compared with results from high-speed photography of the clusters and with the initial stages of cavitation erosion on metal specimens. Experimental and theoretical results show...... the ambient pressure. Therefore the collapse velocity of the individual cavities increases towards the cluster center, which explains that the erosion, being caused by the individual cavities, occurs predominantly in this region. Likewise, the pressure increase at the cluster boundary explains why materials...

  19. Cavitation Erosion of Electro Spark Deposited Nitinol vs. Stellite Alloy on Stainless Steel Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-15

    of combining Nitinol (NiTi) superelastic metal alloy with ElectroSpark Deposition (ESD) technology to increase the cavitation erosion resistance of...technocoat.co.jp/sparkdepoe.html. [35] e. a. Bruce D. Sartwell, " Electrospark Deposition for Depot- and Field-Level Component Repair and," Naval Research...EROSION OF ELECTRO SPARK DEPOSITED NITINOL VS. STELLITE® ALLOY ON STAINLESS STEEL SUBSTRATE Theresa A. Hoffard Lean-Miguel San Pedro Mikhail

  20. Cavitation erosion of laser processed Fe-Cr-Mn and Fe-Cr-Co alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Szkodo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is attempt explanation how laser beam processing influence on the cavitation performance of the Fe-Cr-Mn and Fe-Cr-Co alloys. This kind of alloys are frequently used in Polish power plants to routine repairs of damaged blades working under cavitation loading.Design/methodology/approach: Padding welds of investigated alloys were tested for three cases: after laser melting, after laser heating of the solid state and without additional processing. Cw. CO2 laser was employed as a source of radiation. The rotating disk rig was used in cavitation erosion investigations. The chemical composition, microstructure, and phase identification of the processed and subjected to cavitation loading alloys were examined using light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively.Findings: Phase transformation for processed and unprocessed alloys was observed. Obtained results revealed that laser processing contributes to delaying of austenite → martensite phase transformation. Kinetic of this transformation is different for investigated alloys and depends on the chemical composition and applied laser processing. Research limitations/implications: Reported research ought to be completed and full cavitation curves (volume loss in time for laser beam processed alloys must be done. Practical implications: For low intensity of cavitation loading, like in field conditions laser beam processing can increase of cavitation erosion resistance of investigated alloys due to increase of hardness.Originality/value: Confirmation that creation of the transformed and hardfacing structures by laser techniques leads in many cases to considerable changes in cavitation erosion properties of the processed materials.

  1. Cavitation erosion by single laser-produced bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, A.; Lauterborn, W.

    1998-04-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of cavitation erosion, the dynamics of a single laser-generated cavitation bubble in water and the resulting surface damage on a flat metal specimen are investigated in detail. The characteristic effects of bubble dynamics, in particular the formation of a high-speed liquid jet and the emission of shock waves at the moment of collapse are recorded with high-speed photography with framing rates of up to one million frames/s. Damage is observed when the bubble is generated at a distance less than twice its maximum radius from a solid boundary ([gamma]=2, where [gamma]=s/Rmax, s is the distance between the boundary and the bubble centre at the moment of formation and Rmax is the maximum bubble radius). The impact of the jet contributes to the damage only at small initial distances ([gamma][less-than-or-eq, slant]0.7). In this region, the impact velocity rises to 83 m s[minus sign]1, corresponding to a water hammer pressure of about 0.1 GPa, whereas at [gamma]>1, the impact velocity is smaller than 25 m s[minus sign]1. The largest erosive force is caused by the collapse of a bubble in direct contact with the boundary, where pressures of up to several GPa act on the material surface. Therefore, it is essential for the damaging effect that bubbles are accelerated towards the boundary during the collapse phases due to Bjerknes forces. The bubble touches the boundary at the moment of second collapse when [gamma]jet flow through the bubble centre. Corresponding to the decay of this bubble torus into multiple tiny bubbles each collapsing separately along the circumference of the torus, the observed damage is circular as well. Bubbles in the ranges [gamma][less-than-or-eq, slant]0.3 and [gamma]=1.2 to 1.4 caused the greatest damage. The overall diameter of the damaged area is found to scale with the maximum bubble radius. Owing to the possibility of generating thousands of nearly identical bubbles, the cavitation resistance of even hard

  2. The cavitation erosion damage process of dynamically loaded journal bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yan-yan; CHENG Xian-hua

    2006-01-01

    The cavitation damage model was built using finite element analysis software MSC.Marc.This paper attempted to numerically analyze the action process based on damage mechanics when a jet created by bubble collapse acted on the bearing surface in the process of cavitation erosion.The numerical results show that the values of equivalent plastic strain and void volume fraction increase with time.The values of damage scalar are higher on the bearing surface and subsurface,and decrease when it approaches the interface of overlay and nickel layer.The strain history and damage evolvement of beating material acted on by jet impact load can be calculated efficiently using the proposed method,which develops a new method of analyzing cavitation erosion failure of thebearing surface.

  3. An experimental study on cavitation erosion-corrosion performance of ANSI 1020 and ANSI 4135 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Leqin; Qiu, Ning [Institute of Process Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Hellmann, Dieter-Heinz [KSB Aktiengesellschaft, Frankenthal (Germany); Zhu, Xiaowen [Zhejiang Keer Pump Stock Co., Ltd, Whenzhou (China)

    2016-02-15

    Cavitation erosion is quite complex, containing corrosion-erosion interaction effect. High temperature oxidization may be aroused after bubble collapse, accompanied by hot gas contacting with the pump component surface. The analysis of the erosion pits can be an effective way to know the mechanism of cavitation erosion. In present paper, the cavitation erosion resistance of carbon steel (ANSI 1020) and alloy steel (ANSI 4135) were tested in an ultrasonic vibration apparatus. By using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope and three dimensional laser microscope, the chemical composition around erosion pits and the oxidation film structure were analyzed. By using metallographic microscope and scanning electronic microscope, the metallographic structure of specimens (e.g., carbon steel and alloy steel), the nano structured iron oxide and corresponding influence on specimen's anti-erosion performance were discussed. Based on the comparison between the different tests performed in distilled water and tap water respectively, results can be obtained that erosion rate of carbon steel and alloy steel varies with the component of water which had close correlation to the oxidation effect. Erosion rate of alloy steel 4135 was much lower in distilled water compared to tap water while the difference of carbon steel 1020 was not that large. The remarkable different responses of these two materials had close relationship with oxidation effect. The oxidation effect transferred the original structure of alloy steel surface which had high anti-erosion capability, into newly generated iron oxide structure, which was preferentially to be attacked. The pumping of slightly corrosive fluids frequently leads to erosion-corrosion damage on impellers, and corrosion can further amplify the erosion process.

  4. Ultrasonic cavitation erosion of a duplex treated 16MnCr5 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitelea, Ion; Ghera, Christian; Craciunescu, Corneliu M. [Timisoara Univ. (Romania). Dept. of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering; Bordeasu, Ilare [Timisoara Univ. (Romania). Dept. of Mechanical Machines, Equipments and Transportation

    2015-04-15

    Ultrasonic cavitation experiments using a piezoceramic-based apparatus, according to ASTM G32-2010, were performed on heat and thermochemically treated Cr - Mn low alloyed steel samples. The microstructure in annealed, carburized and tempered states as well as following a duplex treatment (carburized, surface induction hardening and tempering) was analyzed before and after the cavitation erosion tests. The results show the advantage of the duplex treatment, with a significant increase of up to 20 times of the cavitation erosion resistance compared to the annealed state and reveal that the main mechanism for surface deterioration is micro-cracking. The observations are important for the improvement of the behaviour for parts used in hydraulic equipment, for which the volume hardening following the carburization can be replaced by cost-efficient surface induction hardening treatments.

  5. 超音速火焰喷涂Fe基合金涂层的抗汽蚀性能%Cavitation erosion resistance of Fe-based alloy coating by HVOF thermal spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怡; 吴玉萍; 梁伟灿; 刘博; 钱玲; 楼益龙

    2011-01-01

    采用超音速火焰(HVOF)喷涂在1Cr18Ni9Ti不锈钢基体上制备了200 pm厚的Fe基(含Cr、Ni等)合金涂层.采用金相显微镜、扫描电镜、显微硬度计、磁致伸缩汽蚀仪对涂层的组织、硬度和抗汽蚀性能进行了研究.结果表明,Fe基合金涂层组织均匀致密,孔隙率低,具有层状结构,涂层的平均硬度为993 HV0.1,是基体硬度的5.8倍;Fe基涂层抗汽蚀性能明显优于1Cr18Ni9Ti不锈钢,1Cr18Ni9Ti不锈钢汽蚀沿晶界和孪晶界破坏,而Fe基合金涂层汽蚀沿表面微小孔隙破坏,破坏由孔隙边缘向外扩展,损伤程度由汽蚀试样表面中心向外递减,最终不同损伤程度的汽蚀坑分布于表面.%Fe-based (including Cr, Ni, etc. ) alloy coating was prepared by HVOF thermal spraying method on ICr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with thickness of 200 μm, and the microstructure, microhardness, cavitation erosion resistance of the Fe-hased alloy couting were inwestigated by optical microscopy ( OM ), scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ), microhandness tester and magnelostrictive cavitation device. The results show that the coating Ires uniform density, low porosity, high hardness and lamellar stricture. The. Average hardness of the Fe-based alloy coating is 993 HV0.1, which is 5.8 times of the steel substrate. The cavitation erosion resistance of the Fe-based coating is higher than that of ICr18Ni9Ti stainless steel. The mass loss of ICrl8NigTi steel initiated at the grain boundary and twin boundary, while cavitation erosion damage of the Fe-based alloy cooling began at the edge of small pores and extended toward outside and reduced gradually from the center to the outside of the sample, eventually the surface of the sample was filled with different depth of pits.

  6. Cavitation Erosion Behavior of as-Welded Cu12Mn8Al3Fe2Ni Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoya LI; Yonggui YAN; Zhenming XU; Jianguo LI

    2004-01-01

    Cavitation erosion behavior of as-welded Cu12Mn8Al3Fe2Ni alloy in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution was studied by magnetostrictive vibratory device for cavitation erosion. The results show that the cavitation erosion resistance of the as-welded Cu12Mn8Al3Fe2Ni alloy is much more superior to that of the as-cast one. The cumulative mass loss and the mass loss rate of the as-welded Cu12Mn8Al3Fe2Ni alloy are almost 1/4 that of the as-cast one. SEM analysis of eroded specimens reveals that the as-cast Cu12Mn8Al3Fe2Ni alloy is attacked more severely than the as-welded one. Microcracks causing cavitation damage initiate at the phase boundaries.

  7. Cavitation erosion of silver plated coating at different temperatures and pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Shuji; Motoi, Yoshihiro [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fuku-shi, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Kikuta, Kengo; Tomaru, Hiroshi [IHI Corperation, TOYOSU IHI BUILDING, 1-1, Toyosu 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 1358710 (Japan)

    2014-04-11

    Cavitation often occurs in inducer pumps used for space rockets. Silver plated coating on the inducer liner faces the damage of cavitation. Therefore, it is important to study about the cavitation erosion resistance for silver plated coating at several operating conditions in the inducer pumps. In this study, the cavitation erosion tests were carried for silver plated coating in deionized water and ethanol at several liquid temperatures (273K–400K) and pressures (0.10MPa–0.48MPa). The mass loss rate is evaluated in terms of thermodynamic parameter Σ proposed by Brennen [9], suppression pressure p–p{sub v} (p{sub v}: saturated vapor pressure) and acoustic impedance ρc (ρ: density and c: sound speed). Cavitation bubble behaviors depending on the thermodynamic effect and the liquid type were observed by high speed video camera. The mass loss rate is formulated by thermodynamic parameter Σ, suppression pressure p–p{sub v} and acoustic impedance ρc.

  8. A CFD research considering the geometry change due to cavitation erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohmi, Motohiko

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that severe cavitation can cause erosion on the surfaces of fluid machineries. The long time growth of cavitation erosion makes significant mass loss and resultant geometry change of the fluid machineries. This geometry change might cause the change of the flow characteristics of the fluid machineries. The prediction of the change of the flow characteristics due to cavitation erosion are important issue for maintenance of the fluid system. In this paper cavitation erosion on the soft metal specimen is generated in a Venturi tube type apparatus. The erosion geometry is measured by an optical measurement device. The flow inside the apparatus is computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics considering the measured cavitation erosion geometry. The flow characteristics with and without cavitation erosion are compared

  9. Precise spatial control of cavitation erosion in a vessel phantom by using an ultrasonic standing wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Aiwei; Huang, Peixuan; Guo, Shifang; Zhao, Lu; Jia, Yingjie; Zong, Yujin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    In atherosclerotic inducement in animal models, the conventionally used balloon injury is invasive, produces excessive vessel injuries at unpredictable locations and is inconvenient in arterioles. Fortunately, cavitation erosion, which plays an important role in therapeutic ultrasound in blood vessels, has the potential to induce atherosclerosis noninvasively at predictable sites. In this study, precise spatial control of cavitation erosion for superficial lesions in a vessel phantom was realised by using an ultrasonic standing wave (USW) with the participation of cavitation nuclei and medium-intensity ultrasound pulses. The superficial vessel erosions were restricted between adjacent pressure nodes, which were 0.87 mm apart in the USW field of 1 MHz. The erosion positions could be shifted along the vessel by nodal modulation under a submillimetre-scale accuracy without moving the ultrasound transducers. Moreover, the cavitation erosion of the proximal or distal wall could be determined by the types of cavitation nuclei and their corresponding cavitation pulses, i.e., phase-change microbubbles with cavitation pulses of 5 MHz and SonoVue microbubbles with cavitation pulses of 1 MHz. Effects of acoustic parameters of the cavitation pulses on the cavitation erosions were investigated. The flow conditions in the experiments were considered and discussed. Compared to only using travelling waves, the proposed method in this paper improves the controllability of the cavitation erosion and reduces the erosion depth, providing a more suitable approach for vessel endothelial injury while avoiding haemorrhage.

  10. Abrasion, Erosion and Cavitation Erosion Wear Properties of Thermally Sprayed Alumina Based Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Matikainen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermally-sprayed alumina based materials, e.g., alumina-titania (Al2O3-TiO2, are commonly applied as wear resistant coatings in industrial applications. Properties of the coatings depend on the spray process, powder morphology, and chemical composition of the powder. In this study, wear resistant coatings from Al2O3 and Al2O3-13TiO2 powders were sprayed with plasma and high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF spray processes. Both, fused and crushed, and agglomerated and sintered Al2O3-13TiO2 powders were studied and compared to pure Al2O3. The coatings were tested for abrasion, erosion, and cavitation resistances in order to study the effect of the coating structure on the wear behavior. Improved coating properties were achieved when agglomerated and sintered nanostructured Al2O3-13TiO2 powder was used in plasma spraying. Coatings with the highest wear resistance in all tests were produced by HVOF spraying from fused and crushed powders.

  11. Study of Traverse Speed Effects on Residual Stress State and Cavitation Erosion Behavior of Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Bronze Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Michél; Henkel, Knuth Michael; Krebs, Sebastian; Kroemmer, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Within a research project regarding cavitation erosion-resistant coatings, arc spraying was used with different traverse speeds to influence heat transfer and the resulting residual stress state. The major reason for this study is the lack of knowledge concerning the influence of residual stress distribution on mechanical properties and coating adhesion, especially with respect to heterogeneous aluminum bronze alloys. The materials used for spray experiments were the highly cavitation erosion-resistant propeller alloys CuAl9Ni5Fe4Mn (Ni-Al-Bronze) and CuMn13Al8Fe3Ni2 (Mn-Al-Bronze). Analyses of cavitation erosion behavior were carried out to evaluate the suitability for use in marine environments. Further microstructural, chemical and mechanical analyses were realized to examine adhesive and cohesive coating properties. Residual stress distribution was measured by modified hole drilling method using electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). It was found that the highest traverse speed led to higher tensile residual stresses near the surface and less cavitation erosion resistance of the coatings. Moreover, high oxygen affinity of main alloying element aluminum was identified to severely influence the microstructures by the formation of large oxides and hence the coating properties. Overall, Mn-Al-Bronze coatings showed lower residual stresses, a more homogeneous pore and oxide distribution and less material loss by cavitation than Ni-Al-Bronze coatings.

  12. Study of Traverse Speed Effects on Residual Stress State and Cavitation Erosion Behavior of Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Bronze Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Michél; Henkel, Knuth Michael; Krebs, Sebastian; Kroemmer, Werner

    2016-12-01

    Within a research project regarding cavitation erosion-resistant coatings, arc spraying was used with different traverse speeds to influence heat transfer and the resulting residual stress state. The major reason for this study is the lack of knowledge concerning the influence of residual stress distribution on mechanical properties and coating adhesion, especially with respect to heterogeneous aluminum bronze alloys. The materials used for spray experiments were the highly cavitation erosion-resistant propeller alloys CuAl9Ni5Fe4Mn (Ni-Al-Bronze) and CuMn13Al8Fe3Ni2 (Mn-Al-Bronze). Analyses of cavitation erosion behavior were carried out to evaluate the suitability for use in marine environments. Further microstructural, chemical and mechanical analyses were realized to examine adhesive and cohesive coating properties. Residual stress distribution was measured by modified hole drilling method using electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). It was found that the highest traverse speed led to higher tensile residual stresses near the surface and less cavitation erosion resistance of the coatings. Moreover, high oxygen affinity of main alloying element aluminum was identified to severely influence the microstructures by the formation of large oxides and hence the coating properties. Overall, Mn-Al-Bronze coatings showed lower residual stresses, a more homogeneous pore and oxide distribution and less material loss by cavitation than Ni-Al-Bronze coatings.

  13. Cavitation Erosion of Copper, Brass, Aluminum and Titanium Alloys in Mineral Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The variations of the mean depth of penetration, the mean depth rate of penetration, MDRP, the pit diameter 2a and depth h due to cavitation attack on Al 6061-T6, Cu, brass of composition Cu-35Zn-3Pb and Ti-5A1-2.5Sn are presented. The experiments are conducted in a mineral oil of viscosity 110 CS using a magnetostrictive oscillator of 20 kHz frequency. Based on MDRP on the materials, it is found that Ti-5Al-2.5Sn exhibits cavitation erosion resistance which is two orders of magnitude higher than the other three materials. The values of h/a are the largest for copper and decreased with brass, titanium, and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope studies show that extensive slip and cross slip occurred on the surface prior to pitting and erosion. Twinning is also observed on copper and brass.

  14. 铝合金电火花沉积层的组织和抗空蚀性能%Microstructure and cavitation erosion resistance of aluminum alloy coatings fabricated by electrospark deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维夫; 陈军; 徐贤统; 周华侨; 郑玉贵

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the typical microstructure and the feasibility for cavitation-resistant application,the pure Al and Al-Si deposited coatings were prepared on ZL101 aluminum alloy substrate by electrospark deposition (ESD).The microstructural characteristics and cavitation erosion resistances of the coatings were studied.The results show that both of the two deposited coatings display the typical multi-layer structure.The pure Al coating,which is mainly composed of α phase,contains many defects and shows the low hardness value of 50 HV.However,the Al-Si coating with fewer defects shows the hardness value of 75% higher than that of pure Al coating.The Si phases,which are homogeneous distributed in Al-Si coating,are in cell and dendrite morphologies.In Al-Si coating,the addition of Si could decrease the defects in the coatings and improve the interface bounding between different sublayers by augmenting the liquidity of molten dripping.In 4 hours cavitation erosion tests,the cumulative mass loss of pure Al coating is 137.8 mg which is about 189% of the substrate mass lost.However,the cumulative mass loss of Al-Si coating is only 23.6 mg which is 32% of the substrate.The excellent cavitation erosion resistance of the deposited AI-Si coating can be mainly attributed to the good interface bonding and homogeneous distribution of high strength Si phase in the coating.%为了研究铝合金电火花沉积(ESD)的典型组织特征与抗空蚀修复应用的可行性,在ZL101铝合金表面制备了纯Al和Al-Si两种铝基合金ESD沉积涂层,并对所获涂层的典型显微组织和抗空蚀性能进行了研究.结果表明,两种沉积涂层均表现为典型的多层结构.纯Al涂层以α相为主,显微硬度仅为约50 HV,内部缺陷较多.Al-Si涂层内缺陷则较少,Si相呈均匀的枝蔓状分布,其显微硬度较纯铝涂层高约75%.沉积材料中Si元素的加入能够改善沉积微过程中熔融液滴的流动

  15. Key roles of micro-particles in water on occurrence of cavitation-erosion of hydro-machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JiaDao; CHEN HaoSheng; QIN Li; LI YongJian; CHEN DaRong

    2008-01-01

    It has been believed for about one hundred years that the cavitation directly induces the cavitation erosion. It is proposed in this research that cavitation is only the necessary condition but not the sufficient condition of the cavitation erosion. The experiment performed on the rotary disk cavitation system shows that the mi-cro-particles in the fluid play indispensable roles in the cavitation erosion process, and the generation of the erosion pits on the steel surface is also affected by the particles' size. These cracks and deformations on the sample surface indicate that the erosion is the result of the mechanical behavior. Numerical calculations are also provided to support this mechanism.

  16. The influence of the gas content of water and the flow velocity on cavitation erosion aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Stoffel, Bernd; Širok, Brane; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    A study of the influence of the gas content of water and the flow velocity on cavitation erosion aggressiveness was performed. A cavitation tunnel with a single hydrofoil was used for the experiments. While the cavitation number andthe mean flow velocity remained constant throughout the tests, the gas content of the water was changed in steps from low (approximately 1%) to high (4 %). The gas content of the water was adjusted with a bubble generator. In addition tests at a constant cavitation...

  17. Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

  18. Erosion of phosphor bronze under cavitation attack in a mineral oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental investigations on erosion of a copper alloy, phosphor bronze, under cavitation attack in a viscous mineral oil are presented. The details of pit formation and erosion were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The mean depth of penetration, the variations in surface roughness, and the changes in erosion pit size were studied. Cavitation pits formed initially over the grain boundaries while the surface grains were plastically deformed. Erosion of surface grains occurred largely by ductile fracture involving microcracking and removal in layers. The ratio h/a of the depth h to half width a of cavitation pits increased with test duration from 0.047 to 0.55.

  19. Numerical study on fatigue damage properties of cavitation erosion for rigid metal materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guogang Wang; Guang Ma; Dongbai Sun; Hongying Yu; Huimin Meng

    2008-01-01

    Cavitation erosion is an especially destructive and complex phenomenon. To understand its basic mechanism, the fatigue process of materials during cavitation erosion was investigated by numerical simulation technology. The loading spectrum used was generated by a spark-discharged electrode. Initiation crack life and true stress amplitude was used to explain the cavitation failure period and damage mechanism. The computational results indicated that the components of different materials exhibited various fatigue lives under the same external conditions. When the groove depth was extended, the initiation crack life decreased rapidly, while the true stress amplitude was increased simultaneously. This gave an important explanation to the accelerating material loss rate during cavitation erosion. However, when the groove depth was fixed and the length varied, the fatigue life became complex, more fluctuant than that happened in depth. The results also indicate that the fatigue effect of cavitation plays an important role in contributing to the formation and propagation of characteristic pits.

  20. Erosion-resistant composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C.B.; Tennery, V.J.; Curlee, R.M.

    A highly erosion-resistant composite material is formed of chemical vapor-deposited titanium diboride on a sintered titanium diboride-nickel substrate. This material may be suitable for use in cutting tools, coal liquefaction systems, etc.

  1. Cavitation Erosion Behavior of HPDL-Treated TWAS-Coated Ti6Al4V Alloy and Its Similarity with Water Droplet Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, B. S.; Arya, Vivek; Pant, B. K.

    2012-06-01

    Twin wire arc-sprayed (TWAS) coating of commercially available SHS 7170-cored wire was obtained on Ti6AL4V alloy, and to improve its properties, it was further surface treated with high-power diode laser (HPDL). The cavitation erosion (CE) resistance of TWAS-coated samples was evaluated as per ASTM G-32-2003 and it was compared with laser-treated and untreated Ti6Al4V alloys. The CE resistance of TWAS-coated SHS 7170 samples after HPDL treatment has improved significantly. The main reasons for its improvement are elimination of pores, increased fracture toughness, reduced hardness, and brittleness. The CE resistance of HPDL-treated TWAS coating is compared with water droplet erosion resistance. It is observed that there is a similarity in the both the phenomenon.

  2. STUDY ON THE INFLUENCES OF BUBBLY OIL ON THE CAVITATION EROSION IN JOURNAL BEARINGS OF ENGINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A simulating experimental device for journal bearin gs of engines is established by use of the mechanism of ultrasonic vibrationTh is device can make the pressure inside the oil film changed at ultrasonic freque ncy,which enable the specimen surface to be damaged by cavitation erosion in a c omparatively short timeConnecting with the bubbly oilproducing device,this r ig can investigate the influence of bubbly oil on the cavitation erosionThroug h detailed experimental research it is found that the bubbly oil decreases the c avitation erosion in journal bearings of enginesThis result is analyzed reason ably from mechanism of cavitation erosion

  3. Numerical simulation of cavitation erosion on a NACA0015 hydrofoil based on bubble collapse strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, V.; Luo, X.; Escaler, X.; Huang, R.; Valencia, E.

    2015-12-01

    The prediction of erosion under unsteady cavitation is crucial to prevent damage in hydraulic machinery. The present investigation deals with the numerical simulation of erosive partial cavitation around a NACA0015 hydrofoil. The study presents the calculation of the bubble collapse strength, Sb, based on the bubble potential energy to identify the surface areas with highest risk of damage. The results are obtained with a numerical scheme assuming homogeneous mixture flow, implicit LES and Zwart cavitation model. The 3D unsteady flow simulation has been solved using OpenFOAM. Python language and OpenFOAM calculator (foamCalcEx) have been used to obtain and represent Sb. The obtained results clearly show the instants of erosive bubble collapse and the affected surface areas.

  4. Characterization of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack in a mineral oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied. The erosion experiments were conducted with a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in a viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of the metals with an fcc matrix were 10 to 100 times higher than that of an hop-matrix titanium alloy. The erosion rates of iron and molybdenum, with bcc matrices, were higher than that of the titanium alloy but lower than those of those of the fcc materials. Studies with scanning electron microscopy indicated that the cavitation pits were initially formed at the grain boundaries and precipitates and that the pits formed at the junction of grain boundaries grew faster than the others. Transcrystalline craters formed by cavitation attack over the surface of grains and roughened the surfaces by multiple slip and twinning. Surface roughness measurements showed that the pits that formed over the grain boundaries deepened faster than pits. Computer analysis revealed that a geometric expression describes the nondimensional erosion curves during the time period 0.5 t (sub 0) t 2.5 t (sub 0), where t (sub 0) is the incubation period. The fcc metals had very short incubation periods; the titanium alloy had the longest incubation period.

  5. Influence of Heat Treatment on Mercury Cavitation Resistance of Surface Hardened 316LN Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Hsu, Julia [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2010-11-01

    The cavitation-erosion resistance of carburized 316LN stainless steel was significantly degraded but not destroyed by heat treatment in the temperature range 500-800 C. The heat treatments caused rejection of some carbon from the carburized layer into an amorphous film that formed on each specimen surface. Further, the heat treatments encouraged carbide precipitation and reduced hardness within the carburized layer, but the overall change did not reduce surface hardness fully to the level of untreated material. Heat treatments as short as 10 min at 650 C substantially reduced cavitation-erosion resistance in mercury, while heat treatments at 500 and 800 C were found to be somewhat less detrimental. Overall, the results suggest that modest thermal excursions perhaps the result of a weld made at some distance to the carburized material or a brief stress relief treatment will not render the hardened layer completely ineffective but should be avoided to the greatest extent possible.

  6. Resistência à erosão por cavitação de aços inoxidáveis austeníticos CrMnSiN depositados por PTA Cavitation erosion resistance of CrMnSiN austenitic stainless steels deposited by PTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Ormeu Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A erosão por cavitação deteriora componentes em serviço, tais como partes metálicas de bombas de água, válvulas e, em especial, pás de turbinas hidráulicas, sendo nesse último caso responsável por elevados prejuízos ligados tanto aos custos da manutenção direta, como sobretudo às perdas por interrupção na geração de energia elétrica. Dentre os materiais aplicados no reparo por soldagem de danos por cavitação incluem-se aços inoxidáveis tradicionais tipo AISI 308 e 309, aços inoxidáveis ao Co e ligas à base de Co (stellites, caracterizando-se essas últimas pela maior sensibilidade a trincas, dificuldade de esmerilhamento e pelo mais alto custo. Nesse contexto este trabalho buscou formular, depositar e analisar o desempenho de aços inoxidáveis austeníticos CrMnSiN, soldados pelo processo PTA. A resistência à erosão por cavitação foi avaliada segundo a norma ASTM G 32-92. A microestrutura foi caracterizada por microscopia ótica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura e a formação de martensitas α' e ε, induzida pela cavitação, foi avaliada por difração de raios-X. A integridade da superfície dos depósitos foi controlada por END, além disso a dureza e a facilidade de acabamaneto por esmerilhamento serviram como critérios para avaliar os revestimentos soldados. Verificou-se que os revestimentos aplicados por PTA eram livres de trincas de solidificação, com baixa porosidade, boa molhabilidade e adequado acabamento superficial. A melhor liga inoxidável austenítica elaborada (0,03%C; 0,35% N; 13,2%Cr; 11,8% Mn; 2,8%Si; bal %Fe mostrou uma resistência à erosão por cavitação próxima aquela das principais ligas comerciais.Cavitation erosion deteriorates components like metallic parts of water pumps, valves and blades of hydraulic turbines, in this last case being responsible for high economical losses, associated to direct maintenance costs, but above all due to the interruption of the electric

  7. Cavitation Erosion Behavior of CrMnN Duplex Stainless Steel in Distilled Water and 3% NaCl Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzhen LUO; Yugui ZHENG; Wei LIU; Heming JING; Zhiming YAO; Wei KE

    2003-01-01

    The cavitation erosion (CE) behavior of CrMnN ferrite-austenite duplex stainless steel in distilled water and 3% NaCl solution was investigated by using a magnetostrictive-induced CE facility. The damaged surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the CE resistance of CrMnN steel was higher than that of 0Cr13Ni5Mo steel. The mass loss rate of CrMnN steel in distilled water was similar to that in 3% NaCl except at the early stage of CE. The failure mode of ferrite phase was brittle fracture, which had adverse effect on the resistance to CE, while the failure of austenite phase was a ductile failure in CrMnN steel. The excellent resistance to CE was related to the good mechanical properties of austenitic phase and the consumption of CE energy by plastic deformation involving slip and twinning.

  8. Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

  9. Water Droplet and Cavitation Erosion Behavior of Laser-Treated Stainless Steel and Titanium Alloy: Their Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    This article deals with water droplet and cavitation erosion behavior of diode laser-treated X10CrNiMoV1222 stainless steel and Ti6Al4V alloy. After laser surface treatment, the water droplet and cavitation erosion resistance (WDER and CER) of these materials improved significantly. The main reason for the improvement is the increased surface hardness and formation of fine-grained microstructures after laser surface treatment. It is observed that there is a similarity in both the phenomena. The WDER and CER can be correlated with a single mechanical property based on modified ultimate resilience (MUR) provided the laser-treated layers are free from microcracks and interface defects. The CER and WDER behavior of HPDL-treated X10CrNiMoV1222 stainless steel and Ti6Al4V alloy samples using different test equipment as per ASTM G32-2003 and ASTM G73-1978, their correlation with MUR, and their damage mechanism compared on the basis of XRD analyses, optical and scanning electron micrographs are discussed and reported in this article.

  10. Cavitation erosion prediction based on analysis of flow dynamics and impact load spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihatsch, Michael S., E-mail: michael.mihatsch@aer.mw.tum.de; Schmidt, Steffen J.; Adams, Nikolaus A. [Institute of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Cavitation erosion is the consequence of repeated collapse-induced high pressure-loads on a material surface. The present paper assesses the prediction of impact load spectra of cavitating flows, i.e., the rate and intensity distribution of collapse events based on a detailed analysis of flow dynamics. Data are obtained from a numerical simulation which employs a density-based finite volume method, taking into account the compressibility of both phases, and resolves collapse-induced pressure waves. To determine the spectrum of collapse events in the fluid domain, we detect and quantify the collapse of isolated vapor structures. As reference configuration we consider the expansion of a liquid into a radially divergent gap which exhibits unsteady sheet and cloud cavitation. Analysis of simulation data shows that global cavitation dynamics and dominant flow events are well resolved, even though the spatial resolution is too coarse to resolve individual vapor bubbles. The inviscid flow model recovers increasingly fine-scale vapor structures and collapses with increasing resolution. We demonstrate that frequency and intensity of these collapse events scale with grid resolution. Scaling laws based on two reference lengths are introduced for this purpose. We show that upon applying these laws impact load spectra recorded on experimental and numerical pressure sensors agree with each other. Furthermore, correlation between experimental pitting rates and collapse-event rates is found. Locations of high maximum wall pressures and high densities of collapse events near walls obtained numerically agree well with areas of erosion damage in the experiment. The investigation shows that impact load spectra of cavitating flows can be inferred from flow data that captures the main vapor structures and wave dynamics without the need for resolving all flow scales.

  11. Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Young, F Ronald

    1999-01-01

    First published by McGraw-Hill in 1989, this book provides a unified treatment of cavitation, a phenomenon which extends across the boundaries of many fields. The approach is wide-ranging and the aim is to give due consideration to the many aspects of cavitation in proportion to their importance. Particular attention is paid to the diverse situations in which cavitation occurs and to its practical applications.

  12. Numerical 3D flow simulation of ultrasonic horns with attached cavitation structures and assessment of flow aggressiveness and cavitation erosion sensitive wall zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottyll, Stephan; Skoda, Romuald

    2016-07-01

    As a contribution to a better understanding of cavitation erosion mechanisms, a compressible inviscid finite volume flow solver with barotropic homogeneous liquid-vapor mixture cavitation model is applied to ultrasonic horn set-ups with and without stationary specimen, that exhibit attached cavitation at the horn tip. Void collapses and shock waves, which are closely related to cavitation erosion, are resolved. The computational results are compared to hydrophone, shadowgraphy and erosion test data. At the horn tip, vapor volume and topology, subharmonic oscillation frequency as well as the amplitude of propagating pressure waves are in good agreement with experimental data. For the evaluation of flow aggressiveness and the assessment of erosion sensitive wall zones, statistical analyses of wall loads and of the multiplicity of distinct collapses in wall-adjacent flow regions are applied to the horn tip and the stationary specimen. An a posteriori projection of load collectives, i.e. cumulative collapse rate vs. collapse pressure, onto a reference grid eliminates the grid dependency effectively for attached cavitation at the horn tip, whereas a significant grid dependency remains at the stationary specimen. The load collectives show an exponential decrease towards higher collapse pressures. Erosion sensitive wall zones are well predicted for both, horn tip and stationary specimen, and load profiles are in good qualitative agreement with measured topography profiles of eroded duplex stainless steel samples after long-term runs. For the considered amplitude and gap width according to ASTM G32-10 standard, the analysis of load collectives reveals that the distinctive erosive ring shape at the horn tip can be attributed to frequent breakdown and re-development of a small portion of the tip-attached cavity. This partial breakdown of the attached cavity repeats at each driving cycle and is associated with relatively moderate collapse peak pressures, whereas the

  13. Analysis of silt cavitation erosion resistance of Cr,C2/NiCr coating prepared by high velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying%超音速火焰喷涂Cr3C2/NiCr涂层抗加沙空蚀性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩; 吴玉萍; 李改叶; 郭文敏

    2013-01-01

    采用HVOF技术在1Cr18Ni9Ti不锈钢基体上制备了Cr3C2/NiCr涂层,借助XRD,TEM,SEM等方法分析了涂层的组织形貌及相组成.以1Cr18Ni9Ti奥氏体不锈钢作为对比材料,用磁致伸缩空蚀仪配备扬沙装置测试了涂层在清水以及含沙水中抗空蚀性能.结果表明,涂层呈层状结构,含有未熔颗粒和少量孔隙,涂层由Cr3C2,Cr7C3,Cr23C6及NiCr等相组成;在清水试验中,1Cr18Ni9Ti不锈钢抗空蚀性能良好,与空蚀过程中1Cr18Ni9Ti奥氏体不锈钢产生加工硬化有直接关系;在含沙40 kg/m3试验水中,Cr3C2/NiCr涂层呈现出较好的抗空蚀性能,与涂层自身相组成以及较高硬度有关.Cr3C2/NiCr涂层破坏总是从孔隙等薄弱环节开始,而1Cr18Ni9Ti奥氏体不锈钢的破坏起始于晶界和孪晶界.%A Cr3C2/NiCr coating was prepared on 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying. Phases and microstructures of the coating were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) , transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning election microscopy (SEM) , respectively. The cavitation erosion resistance and silt erosion resistance of the coating were evaluated under two experimental conditions (fresh water and water contained fine silt) , and compared with hydro machine material lCrl8Ni9Ti stainless steel. The result shows that the coating shows a layered structure and contains un-melted particles and some pores. The phases of the coating are composed of Cr3C2, Cr7C3, Cr23 C6 and NiCr. The 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel produces the work hardening, which results in the resistance to cavitation erosion. The Cr3C2/NiCr coating exhibits significantly higher microhardness than 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel, which leads to the resistance to silt erosion of the coating. The mass loss of the coating usually happens at the edges of the pores while the cavitation damage of the 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel happens at the grain boundary and twin boundary.

  14. Resistance of Cavitation Erosion of HVOF Sprayed WC-Co( Cr) Coating in NaCl Solution%超音速火焰喷涂WC-Co(Cr)涂层在NaCl溶液中抗空蚀性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁彰雄; 石琎; 丁翔; 胡一鸣; 廖星文; 邓帮华

    2016-01-01

    Two micro-structured WC-10Co4Cr cermet coatings and a nano-structured WC-12Co cermet coating are deposited by high velocity Oxy-fuel spray ( HVOF) , and the morphologies and structures of the coatings are analyzed by SEM .The coatings'porosity , fracture toughness and microhardness are measured .The CorrTest electrochemical testing system is used to analyze the electrochemical corrosion properties of the coatings .Resistance of coatings to cavitation erosion is studied by ultrasonic vibration cavitation equipment in 3.5wt%NaCl solution and the cavitation mechanisms are explored .It is shown that the nano-structured WC-12Co coating deposited by high velocity oxygen liquid fuel spray has lowest porosity and the densest microstructure , and frac-ture toughness is significantly higher than that of micron-structured WC-10Co4Cr coatings.Although the micron-structured WC-10Co4Cr cermet coating deposited by high velocity fuel oxygen liquid spray has coarser particles than the nano -structured, it ex-hibits the most excellent corrosion and cavitation erosion resistance .The cavitation rate is approximately one quarter that of the nano-structured WC-12Co cermet coating in 3.5wt%NaCl solution.%采用超音速火焰喷涂(HVOF)工艺制备2种微米结构WC-10Co4Cr及1种纳米结构WC-12Co金属陶瓷复合涂层;采用SEM分析涂层的组织结构;测量了涂层的显微硬度、孔隙率及开裂韧性;采用CorrT-est电化学测试系统分析涂层的电化学腐蚀性能;采用超声振动空蚀装置研究涂层在质量分数为3.5% NaCl溶液中的抗空蚀性能,探讨涂层的空蚀机理. 结果表明:使用液体燃料HVOF工艺喷涂的纳米WC-12Co涂层组织结构最细小,孔隙率最低,显微硬度和开裂韧性明显高于液体燃料和气体燃料HVOF工艺喷涂的微米WC-10Co4Cr涂层;采用液体燃料HVOF工艺喷涂的微米结构WC-10Co4Cr涂层在质量分数为3.5%NaCl溶液中显示了最优异的抗腐蚀和抗空蚀

  15. Cavitation-erosion mechanism of laser cladded SiC particle reinforced metal matrix composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-hua; ZHANG Song; YANG Hong-gang; ZHU Sheng-long; MAN Hau-chung; CAI Qing-kui

    2005-01-01

    With 2 kW continuous wave Nd-YAG laser,SiC ceramic powder was laser-cladded on the AA6061 aluminium alloy surface.Within the range of process parameters investigated,the parameters were optimized to produce the SiCp reinforced metal matrix composites(MMC) modified layer on AA6061 alloy surface.After being treated,the modified layer is crack-free,porosity free,and has good metallurgical bond with the substrate.The microstructure and chemical composition of the modified layer were analyzed by such detection devices as scanning electronic microscope(SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffractometer(XRD).The performance of electrochemical corrosion and cavitation erosion and their mechanism were estimated by the microhardness tester,potentiostat and ultrasonicinduced cavitation device.

  16. Microstructure Changes during Cavitation Erosion for a Steel with Metastable Austenite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The characteristics of microstructure changes during cavitation erosion (CE) were investigatedby the use of XRD and TEM analyses for steel (ZG0Cr13Mn8N) with metastable austenite.The results show that the microstructure of the surface layer of the specimens consists of α'-martensite, metastable austenite and a few ε-martensite before CE. CE obviously increases dislocation density and straight or planar dislocations on the surface, and induces γ → ε, ε → α'and γ → α'-martensitic transformation.

  17. Effect of Primary Factor on Cavitation Resistance of Some Austenitic Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zai-you; ZHU Jin-hua

    2003-01-01

    The cavitation resistance of six kinds of austenitic metals was investigated using a rotating disc rig. The research results show that cavitation resistance of the austenitic metals is obviously raised due to cavitation-induced martensite and greatly influenced by mechanism of martensitic transformation. The cavitation resistance of two stress-induced martensite Fe-Mn-Si-Cr shape memory alloys is much better than that of three strain-induced martensite austenitic stainless steels. The Fe-Mn-Si-Cr shape memory alloys possess excellent cavitation resistance mainly because of their excellent elasticity in local small-zone. The first principal factor for cavitation resistance of metastable austenitic metals is unloaded rebounding depth, and the second one is energy dissipation resulted from cavitation-induced martensite.

  18. Effect of hydrodynamic cavitation in the tissue erosion by pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Gao, Xiaobin Wilson

    2016-09-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as an effective therapeutic modality in clinics. Besides the thermal ablation, tissue disintegration is also possible because of the interaction between the distorted HIFU bursts and either bubble cloud or boiling bubble. Hydrodynamic cavitation is another type of cavitation and has been employed widely in industry, but its role in mechanical erosion to tissue is not clearly known. In this study, the bubble dynamics immediately after the termination of HIFU exposure in the transparent gel phantom was captured by high-speed photography, from which the bubble displacement towards the transducer and the changes of bubble size was quantitatively determined. The characteristics of hydrodynamic cavitation due to the release of the acoustic radiation force and relaxation of compressed surrounding medium were found to associate with the number of pulses delivered and HIFU parameters (i.e. pulse duration and pulse repetition frequency). Because of the initial big bubble (~1 mm), large bubble expansion (up to 1.76 folds), and quick bubble motion (up to ~1 m s-1) hydrodynamic cavitation is significant after HIFU exposure and may lead to mechanical erosion. The shielding effect of residual tiny bubbles would reduce the acoustic energy delivered to the pre-existing bubble at the focus and, subsequently, the hydrodynamic cavitation effect. Tadpole shape of mechanical erosion in ex vivo porcine kidney samples was similar to the contour of bubble dynamics in the gel. Liquefied tissue was observed to emit towards the transducer through the punctured tissue after HIFU exposure in the sonography. In summary, the release of HIFU exposure-induced hydrodynamic cavitation produces significant bubble expansion and motion, which may be another important mechanism of tissue erosion. Understanding its mechanism and optimizing the outcome would broaden and enhance HIFU applications.

  19. Erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in mineral oil and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in distilled water, ordinary tap water and a viscous mineral oil are presented. The mean depth of penetration for the mineral oil was about 40 percent of that for water at the end of a 40 min test. The mean depth of penetration and its rate did not differ significantly for distilled and tap water. The mean depth of penetration rate for both distilled and tap water increased to a maximum and then decreased with test duration, while that for mineral oil had a maximum during the initial period. The ratio h/2a of the pit depth h to the pit diameter 2a varied from 0.04 to 0.13 in water and from 0.06 to 0.20 in mineral oil. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the pits are initially formed over the grain boundaries and precipitates while the surface grains are deformed under cavitation attack.

  20. Synergistic damage mechanism of corrosion and cavitation-erosion for plasma ion nitrided 18Cr-8Ni-1.1Mn-0.43C stainless steel in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sang-Ok; Kim, Seong-Jong

    2017-01-01

    In this work, it was investigated that resistance of combination damages of electrochemical corrosion and cavitation-erosion for plasma ion nitrided 18Cr-8Ni-1.1Mn-0.43C stainless steel at various process temperatures under cavitation environment in seawater. The plasma ion nitriding treatment was performed with a gas mixture ratio of 25% N2 and 75% H2 at a temperature of 623, 673, 723, and 773 K for 10 h, at a chamber pressure of 250 Pa. Expanded austenite (γN) was produced at whole plasma ion nitriding temperatures and especially phases of CrN and γ‧ were observed at 773 K in X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. In Tafel analysis, the highest corrosion potential and corrosion current density were analyzed on the untreated (non-cavitation) specimen among specimens under the cavitation condition. Under cavitation environment, the highest corrosion potential and the lowest corrosion current density presented at 673 K. As a result of observation of surface morphologies after anodic polarization experiment under cavitation environment, uniform corrosion was observed on the untreated specimen and plasma ion nitrided specimens, while localized corrosion was shown on the untreated substrate under non-cavitation environment. Furthermore, greater damage depth and severe morphologies were observed at plasma ion nitrided specimens than untreated substrate, whereas the greatest weight loss at 723 K was indicated due to the high pitting corrosion potential and wide passivity potential region.

  1. Genotypic variability and phenotypic plasticity of cavitation resistance in Fagus sylvatica L. across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortemann, Rémi; Herbette, Stéphane; Barigah, Têtè Sévérien; Fumanal, Boris; Alia, Ricardo; Ducousso, Alexis; Gomory, Dusan; Roeckel-Drevet, Patricia; Cochard, Hervé

    2011-11-01

    Xylem cavitation resistance is a key physiological trait correlated with species tolerance to extreme drought stresses. Little is known about the genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity of this trait in natural tree populations. Here we measured the cavitation resistance of 17 Fagus sylvatica populations representative of the full range of the species in Europe. The trees were grown in three field trials under contrasting climatic conditions. Our findings suggest that the genotypic variability of cavitation resistance is high between genotypes of a given population. By contrast, no significant differences were found for this trait across populations, the mean population cavitation resistance being remarkably constant in each trial. We found a significant site effect and a significant site × population interaction, suggesting that cavitation resistance has a high phenotypic plasticity and that this plasticity is under genetic control. The implications of our findings for beech forest management in a context of climate change are discussed.

  2. Roughness measurement as an alternative method in evaluation of cavitation resistance of steels

    OpenAIRE

    Dojčinović Marina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible application of roughness measurement in evaluation of resistance of steels in conditions of cavitation effect where these materials are usually applied. Steels which belong to different classes were selected for testing. Cavitation testing was performed by using the ultrasonic vibratory cavitation test set up (stationary specimen method). Mass loss and surface degradation of investigated samples were monitored during the exposure to ...

  3. Dynamics and mechanism of cavitation erosion on perspex and epoxy resins tested in a rotating disk device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. V.; Rao, N. S. L.; Rao, B. C. S.

    1982-01-01

    The cavitation erosion behavior including the initiation, dynamics and mechanism of damage process on perspex and epoxy resin specimens tested in a rotating disk device were discussed with respect to exposure time. The inception of erosion always took place at the location nearest to the center of rotation of the disk. Subsequently, as exposure time increased, erosion initiated at other locations as well. Light optical photographs and scanning electron micrographs clearly indicate that most of the material loss appears to occur form the networks of cracks due to their interaction and pits indicate particle debris. The optical degradation (loss of transmittance) on perspex was observed to be more on the rear side than on the front side.

  4. Development of a Cavitation Erosion Resistant Advanced Material System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer ( EPDM ) based Elastomers ........ 45 5.3.2 Fluorinated Elastom ers...Sheet EPD M results .............................................................................. 47 Figure 5.11 - EPDM rubber samples, sheet (left...a common end grain balsa in Table 3.3. Polyvinyl foam cores are manufactured by combining a polyvinyl copolymer with stabilizers , plasticizers

  5. Erosion resistance of bionic functional surfaces inspired from desert scorpions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwu, Han; Junqiu, Zhang; Chao, Ge; Li, Wen; Ren, Luquan

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a bionic method is presented to improve the erosion resistance of machine components. Desert scorpion (Androctonus australis) is a typical animal living in sandy deserts, and may face erosive action of blowing sand at a high speed. Based on the idea of bionics and biologic experimental techniques, the mechanisms of the sand erosion resistance of desert scorpion were investigated. Results showed that the desert scorpions used special microtextures such as bumps and grooves to construct the functional surfaces to achieve the erosion resistance. In order to understand the erosion resistance mechanisms of such functional surfaces, the combination of computational and experimental research were carried out in this paper. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was applied to predict the erosion performance of the bionic functional surfaces. The result demonstrated that the microtextured surfaces exhibited better erosion resistance than the smooth surfaces. The further erosion tests indicated that the groove surfaces exhibited better erosion performance at 30° injection angle. In order to determine the effect of the groove dimensions on the erosion resistance, regression analysis of orthogonal multinomials was also performed under a certain erosion condition, and the regression equation between the erosion rate and groove distance, width, and height was established.

  6. Evaluation of Erosion Resistance of Advanced Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Miller, Robert A.; Cuy, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to aircraft engine performance and durability. By demonstrating advanced turbine material testing capabilities, we will be able to facilitate the critical turbine coating and subcomponent development and help establish advanced erosion-resistant turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings design tools. The objective of this work is to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments, validating advanced turbine airfoil thermal barrier coating systems based on nano-tetragonal phase toughening design approaches.

  7. An Erosion Aggressiveness Index (EAI) Based on Pressure Load Estimation Due to Bubble Collapse in Cavitating Flows Within the RANS Solvers

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeles, G.; Koukouvinis, P.; Gavaises, M.; Li, J; Wang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous research efforts, there is no reliable and widely accepted tool for the prediction of erosion prone material surfaces due to collapse of cavitation bubbles. In the present paper an Erosion Aggressiveness Index (EAI) is proposed, based on the pressure loads which develop on the material surface and the material yield stress. EAI depends on parameters of the liquid quality and includes the fourth power of the maximum bubble radius and the bubble size number density distribution...

  8. Erosion of quantitative host resistance in the apple × Venturia inaequalis pathosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caffier, V.; Lasserre-Zuber, P.; Giraud, M.; Lascostes, M.; Sievenard, R.; LeMarquand, A.; Weg, van de W.E.; Expert, P.; Denancé, C.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical approaches predict that host quantitative resistance selects for pathogens with a high level of pathogenicity, leading to erosion of the resistance. This process of erosion has, however, rarely been experimentally demonstrated. To investigate the erosion of apple quantitative resistance

  9. Research on the method of cavitations resistance in a piezoelectric pump with 3-dimensional mesh structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-hui; XIA Qi-xiao; Bai Heng-jun; NING Hong-gang; ONUKI Akiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The volume valve piezoelectric pump has received increasing attention from many areas because of its different characteristics such as the absence of chemical pollution and electromagnetic pollution.However,when the pump is working,it produces cavitations and the air bubbles that originate from these will flow out of the pump.Cavitations occurring in the pump will bring out noise and shorten the life of the pump.Furthermore,air bubbles flowing out of the pump will hinder its application in areas such as medical treatment and health care where blood transfusion and infusion are concerned.As a solution to this disadvantage,the CR3DMS (cavitations resistance with 3-dimensional mesh structure) method is developed,which is tested and verified to be effective on not only reducing the occurrence of cavitations and eliminating cavitations' flowing out,but also restraining the emission of noise.In conclusion,the pump with CR3DMS,on the relationship between flow and driving frequency and the relationship between flow and the number of Resistant-Layers in both theory and test,are analyzed.

  10. Ventilation Effects on Cavitation Erosion around a Hollow-jet Valve%通气对空蚀的影响及高速摄影观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国玉; 曹树良

    2001-01-01

    To study the effects of ventilation on erosion induced by vortexcavitation occurring around a hollow-jet valve,air is injected to the cavitating region around the valve.The cavitatin aspects are observed.The mass loss on eroded specimen surfaces is measured.It is indicated that the injected air forms small air bubbles in the cavitating flow field.With the motion of separating vortices,some of them flow downstreamly as a free air bubbles,and some move to the shear layer flow region entrained by cavitating vortices.The measurements of cavitation induced-erosion show that,under ventilation conditions,the erosion is suppressed.The decrease of erosion is related to the reaction between air bubbles and cavitation bubbles contained in a cavitating vortex and the suppression of sonic speed in the ventilation flows.%为了研究通气对高速水流中发生的旋涡空化所引起空蚀的影响,把不同量的气体通入了射流放水阀阀针后部的旋涡空化区,观察了空化状态,测量了空化所引起的空蚀。观测表明,气流在水流中形成气泡分布在空化区内。部分气泡被旋涡空化团所包含,因此在通气条件下,空化涡中包含有空化泡和空气泡。空蚀实验表明,试片表面的质量损失均随通气量的增加而减小。分析表明,通气对空蚀的影响确不能完全解释为声速的减小。

  11. PRESSURE CHARACTERISTICS OF CAVITATION CONTROL BY AERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhi-yong; LU Yang-quan; JU Wen-jie; CAI Xin-ming; DING Chun-sheng

    2005-01-01

    This experimental investigation was systematically conducted with the aid of a non-circulating water tunnel in the Hydraulics Laboratory at Zhejiang University of Technology in China.The test velocity is between 20m/s and 40m/s.The least air concentration to prevent cavitation erosion lies between 1.7% and 4.5%.Pressure waveforms with and without aeration in cavitation and cavitation erosion regions were measured.Time-averaged pressure profiles with and without aeration were compared.Pressure characteristics corresponding to least air concentration to prevent cavitation erosion in cavitation and cavitation erosion regions were analyzed.

  12. Effect of Cavitation on Surface Damage of 16.7Cr-10Ni-2Mo Stainless Steel in Marine Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Sang-Ok; Han, Min-Su; Kim, Seong-Jong [Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Stainless steel is generally known to have characteristics of excellent corrosion resistance and durability, but in a marine environment it can suffer from localized corrosion due to the breakdown of passivity film due to chloride ion in seawater. Furthermore, the damage behaviors are sped up under a cavitation environment because of complex damage from electrochemical corrosion and cavitation-erosion. In this study the characteristics of electrochemical corrosion and cavitation erosion behavior were evaluated on 16.7Cr-10Ni-2Mo stainless steel under a cavitation environment in natural seawater. The electrochemical experiments have been conducted at both static conditions and dynamic conditions inducing cavitation with different current density parameters. The surface morphology and damage behaviors were compared after the experiment. After the cavitation test with time variables morphological examinations on damaged specimens were analyzed by using a scanning electron microscope and a 3D microscope. the galvanostatic experiment gave a cleaner surface morphology presented with less damage depth at high current density regions. It is due to the effect of water cavitation peening under the cavitation condition. In the cavitation experiment, with amplitude of 30 μm and seawater temperature of 25 ℃, weight loss and cavitation-erosion damage depth were dramatically increased after 5 hours inducing cavitation.

  13. Erosion Resistant Compressor Blade Repair Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR program will demonstrate the use of wear resistant high strength nanocomposites in the turbine engine repair and refurbishment process. The...

  14. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  15. Erosion resistance of Fe-C-Cr weld surfacing layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fe-C-Cr weld surfacing layers with different compositions and microstructures can be obtained by submerged arc welding with welding wire of the low carbon steel and high alloy bonded flux. With the increase of Cr and C in the layers the microstructures are changed from hypoeutectoid steel, hypereutectoid steel to hypoeutectic iron and hypereutectic iron. When the weld surfacing layers belong to the alloyed cast irons the erosion resistance can be raised with the eutectic increase and the austenite decrease. Good erosion resistance can be obtained when the proportion of the primary carbides is within 10 %. The experimental results lay a foundation to make double-metal percussive plates by surfacing wear resistant layers on the substrates of the low carbon steels.

  16. Testing hypotheses that link wood anatomy to cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in the genus Acer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Frederic; Sperry, John S; Christman, Mairgareth A; Choat, Brendan; Rabaey, David; Jansen, Steven

    2011-05-01

    • Vulnerability to cavitation and conductive efficiency depend on xylem anatomy. We tested a large range of structure-function hypotheses, some for the first time, within a single genus to minimize phylogenetic 'noise' and maximize detection of functionally relevant variation. • This integrative study combined in-depth anatomical observations using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy of seven Acer taxa, and compared these observations with empirical measures of xylem hydraulics. • Our results reveal a 2 MPa range in species' mean cavitation pressure (MCP). MCP was strongly correlated with intervessel pit structure (membrane thickness and porosity, chamber depth), weakly correlated with pit number per vessel, and not related to pit area per vessel. At the tissue level, there was a strong correlation between MCP and mechanical strength parameters, and some of the first evidence is provided for the functional significance of vessel grouping and thickenings on inner vessel walls. In addition, a strong trade-off was observed between xylem-specific conductivity and MCP. Vessel length and intervessel wall characteristics were implicated in this safety-efficiency trade-off. • Cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in Acer appear to be controlled by a very complex interaction between tissue, vessel network and pit characteristics.

  17. Erosion-resistant coatings for gas turbine compressor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muboyadzhyan, S. A.

    2009-06-01

    The effect of ion-plasma coatings made from high-hardness metal compounds on the erosion and corrosion resistance and the mechanical properties of alloy (substrate) + coating compositions is comprehensively studied. The effects of the thickness, composition, deposition conditions, and design of coatings based on metal nitrides and carbides on the relative gas-abrasive wear of alloy + coating compositions in a gas-abrasive flux are analyzed. The flux contains quartz sand with an average fraction of 300-350 μm; the abrasive feed rate is 200 g/min; and the angles of flux incidence are 20° (tangential flow) and 70° (near-head-on attack flow). Alloy + coating compositions based on VN, VC, Cr3C2, ZrN, and TiN coatings 15-30 μ m thick or more are shown to have high erosion resistance. A detailed examination of the coatings with high erosion resistance demonstrates that a zirconium nitride coating is most appropriate for protecting gas turbine compressor blades made of titanium alloys; this coating does not decrease the fatigue strength of these alloys. A chromium carbide coating is the best coating for protecting compressor steel blades.

  18. Effect of carbides on erosion resistance of 23-8-N steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aniruddha A Gadhikar; Ashok Sharma; D B Goel; C P Sharma

    2014-04-01

    Microstructure is one of the most important parameters influencing erosion behaviour of materials. The role of carbides in the matrix is very complicated in controlling the erosion rate of the materials. Conflicting results have been reported in the literature about the effect of carbides on erosion resistance. Carbides are of great importance especially as obstacles against the penetration of erosive particles into the material surface. However, they are susceptible to cracking and causing matrix decohesion which may increase the overall erosion rate. In 23-8-N nitronic steel, carbides present in the form of bands are observed to accelerate the erosion rate. Coarse carbides cause depletion of carbon in the austenite matrix which adversely affects the strain hardening tendency thus causing deterioration in erosion resistance of the bulk material. The dissolution of carbides in the austenitic matrix after solution annealing is observed to improve the erosion resistance of 23-8-N nitronic steel.

  19. Cavitation Erosion Behaviors of Nano-SiO2 and Glass Microballoon Filled UHMWPE Composites%纳米SiO2、玻璃微珠共混改性UHMWPE复合材料空蚀性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何剑雄; 郭源君; 陈友明

    2011-01-01

    通过模压成型工艺制备纳米SiO2、玻璃微珠颗粒共混改性UHMWPE复合材料,采用MRH-SA型环块磨损试验机研究载荷以及玻璃微珠含量对UHMWPE复合材料摩擦磨损性能的影响,利用转盘式空蚀磨损试验装置对复合材料进行空蚀磨损试验.结果表明,适量的纳米SiO2和玻璃微珠颗粒填充可以提高UHMWPE硬度,有效地改善UHMWPE的摩擦磨损性能和抗空蚀性能,质量分数10%纳米SiO2和2%玻璃微珠改性UHMWPE复合材料抗空蚀性能是纯UHMWPE的3倍.%UHMWPE composites filled with nanometer SiO2 and glass microballoon were prepared by compression molding. The effects of load and a proper mass fraction of glass microballoon on the tribological behavior of the composites were evaluated on MRH-5A ring block wear-tester. The resistance of cavitation erosion of UHMWPE composites were studied on the rotating-disc cavitation erosion tester. It is found that the hardness of the composites filled with nanometer SiO2 and glass microballoon is increased, the friction coefficient and wear rate are decreased and cavitation resistance is higher than that of pure UHMWPE. The erosion rate of pure UHMWPE is three times of the composites filled with 10% nanometer SiO2 and 2% glass microballoon.

  20. Erosion resistance in metal - ceramic multilayer coatings for gas turbine compressor applications

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The erosion resistance of 50 m metal-ceramic multilayer coatings has been investigated under impact conditions comparable to those in a gas turbine compressor cascade. lt was possible to improve upon the erosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V by a significant margin. The influence of layer mechanical properties, layer thickness, ceramic content and coating process on erosion resistance has been studied over a range of impact conditions. The most suitable coating formula...

  1. Performance Evaluation and Modeling of Erosion Resistant Turbine Engine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to the rotorcraft engine performance and durability. The objective of this work was to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments, thus validating a new thermal barrier coating turbine blade technology for future rotorcraft applications. A high velocity burner rig based erosion test approach was established and a new series of rare earth oxide- and TiO2/Ta2O5- alloyed, ZrO2-based low conductivity thermal barrier coatings were designed and processed. The low conductivity thermal barrier coating systems demonstrated significant improvements in the erosion resistance. A comprehensive model based on accumulated strain damage low cycle fatigue is formulated for blade erosion life prediction. The work is currently aiming at the simulated engine erosion testing of advanced thermal barrier coated turbine blades to establish and validate the coating life prediction models.

  2. Erosion Characteristics and Mechanisms of Cavitating Abrasive Water Jet under Confining Pressure%围压条件下空化磨料射流的冲蚀特性与机制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖华林; 牛继磊; 易灿

    2012-01-01

    磨料射流在水利水电、石油工程和海洋资源开发等领域有着广泛的应用,研究射流的冲蚀特性和破坏物料机制对提高水射流利用效率具有重要意义。利用自行研制的实验装置,研究了围压条件下自振空化、文丘里和锥形3种喷嘴形成的磨料射流冲蚀特性,分析了空化磨料射流冲蚀物料的机制。结果表明:自振空化喷嘴和文丘里喷嘴的冲蚀效果优于锥形喷嘴,空化作用有助于提高磨料射流的冲蚀效果;磨料射流的冲蚀效率随围压的增大而降低,主要原因是围压对纯水射流和空化磨料射流的压力脉动和冲击力具有抑制作用。分析认为,空化磨料射流冲蚀破碎物料的机制主要包括冲蚀、气蚀和共混磨蚀3种作用。%Abrasive water jet is widely used in water resources and architectural engineering,oil and gas engineering and marine resources development. It is significant to study the erosion characteristics of the jet and material destruction mechanisms to improve the efficiency of water jet. Using the selfdeveloped device, the experiments were performed on abrasive water jet erosion characteristics formed by three types of nozzles including self-oscillating cavitation nozzle, Venturi nozzle, and cone-shaped nozzle under confining pressure. Destruction mechanisms of metal material were also analyzed. The results show that the erosion efficiencies of the self-oscillating cavitation nozzle and Venturi nozzle are higher than that of the cone-shaped nozzle ~ cavitation erosion can help improve the efficiency of abrasive water jet. Abrasive water jet erosion efficiency decreases with the confining pressure increasing, mainly due to the confining pressure inhibiting pressure pulse, cavitation effect, and impinging pressure. The mechanism of materials by cavitating abrasive water jet includes three roles of impact erosion, cavitation and their synergism.

  3. Analysis of the cavitating flow induced by an ultrasonic horn – Numerical 3D simulation for the analysis of vapour structures and the assessment of erosion-sensitive areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottyll Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the outcome of a numerical study of ultrasonic cavitation using a CFD flow algorithm based on a compressible density-based finite volume method with a low-Machnumber consistent flux function and an explicit time integration [15; 18] in combination with an erosion-detecting flow analysis procedure. The model is validated against erosion data of an ultrasonic horn for different gap widths between the horn tip and a counter sample which has been intensively investigated in previous material studies at the Ruhr University Bochum [23] as well as on first optical in-house flow measurement data which is presented in a companion paper [13]. Flow features such as subharmonic cavitation oscillation frequencies as well as constricted vapour cloud structures can also be observed by the vapour regions predicted in our simulation as well as by the detected collapse event field (collapse detector [12]. With a statistical analysis of transient wall loads we can determine the erosion sensitive areas qualitatively. Our simulation method can reproduce the influence of the gap width on vapour structure and on location of cavitation erosion.

  4. Study on Design and Performance of Anti-cavitation Erosion Coatings of LCQ Valve Splitter at Tianwan Nuclear Power Station%田湾核电站LCQ阀门分流片抗空蚀涂层设计及其性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永生; 黄磊; 张云乾; 丁彰雄; 冯驰; 王韶毅; 邓帮华

    2015-01-01

    本文在分析核电站LCQ阀门分流片的空蚀失效机理基础上,设计了五种合金与金属陶瓷涂层.采用氧乙炔火焰喷熔和超音速火焰喷涂(HVOF)工艺分别制备了三种Ni基合金涂层与两种WC基金属陶瓷涂层;通过超声波振动空蚀试验装置对这些涂层进行抗空蚀试验,研究这些涂层的抗空蚀性能.结果表明:NiCrBSiMo喷熔层具有最优异的抗空蚀性能,可望应用于LCQ阀门分流片.%In this paper, on basis of the cavitation erosion failure mechanism of the LCQ valve splitter at nuclear power station, five kinds of alloy and cermet coatings were designed. Three kinds of nickel-based alloy coatings and two kinds of WC based cermet coatings were respectively deposited by oxyacetylene flame spraying and fusing process and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel spray(HVOF). Then the cavitation erosion resistance of these coatings was studied by ultrasonic vibration device. Results showed thatNiCrBSiMo coating prepared by spraying and fusing process has the most excellent anti-cavitation erosion performance,it can be applied to the LCQ valve splitter.

  5. STUDY ON EROSION RESISTANCE PROPERTIES OF O'-SIALON-BN IN MOLTEN STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Q. Zhen; W.Z. Ding; W.C. Li

    2001-01-01

    The erosion resistance properties of O'-Sialon-BN in molten steel are investigated in this work. According to experimental results and theoretical analysis, BN in O'Sialon-BN plays an important role in molten steel erosion resistance. And the erosion kinetics of the O'-Sialon-BN composites in molten steel is controlled by two stages:the first one is controlled by chemical reaction taking place on the interface; the second one is controlled by diffusion. The erosion surface of the materials is also investigated with fractal theory. The results show that the fractal dimensions of the erosion surface vary with erosion time from a linear way to parabolic way, which relates to the change of erosion mechanism from interface chemical reaction to diffusion.

  6. Correlation between simulations and cavitation-induced erosion damage in Spallation Neutron Source target modules after operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; McClintock, David A [ORNL; Kaminskas, Saulius [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    An explicit finite element (FE) technique developed for estimating dynamic strain in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) mercury target module vessel is now providing insight into cavitation damage patterns observed in used targets. The technique uses an empirically developed material model for the mercury that describes liquid-like volumetric stiffness combined with a tensile pressure cut-off limit that approximates cavitation. The longest period each point in the mercury is at the tensile cut-off threshold is denoted its saturation time. Now, the pattern of saturation time can be obtained from these simulations and is being positively correlated with observed damage patterns and is interpreted as a qualitative measure of damage potential. Saturation time has been advocated by collaborators at J-Parc as a factor in predicting bubble nuclei growth and collapse intensity. The larger the ratio of maximum bubble size to nucleus, the greater the bubble collapse intensity to be expected; longer saturation times result in greater ratios. With the recent development of a user subroutine for the FE solver saturation time is now provided over the entire mercury domain. Its pattern agrees with spots of damage seen above and below the beam axis on the SNS inner vessel beam window and elsewhere. The other simulation result being compared to observed damage patterns is mercury velocity at the wall. Related R&D has provided evidence for the damage mitigation that higher wall velocity provides. In comparison to observations in SNS targets, inverse correlation of high velocity to damage is seen. In effect, it is the combination of the patterns of saturation time and low velocity that seems to match actual damage patterns.

  7. Experiment and mechanism study on cavitation erosion of ultrasound radiator in aluminum melt%铝熔体中超声辐射杆的空蚀实验及机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董方; 李晓谦; 张敏

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic radiation rod produced cavitation erosion in aluminum melt seriously hampers its life and purity aluminum melt .To solve this problem ,the experiment of cavitation erosion about tita‐nium alloy ultrasound radiation rod in the aluminum melt was carried out using weight‐loss method and melt Ti elements detection method to describe the cavitation process of radiation rod .Macro/mi‐cro‐morphology observation and component detection w as carried out using scanning electron micro‐scopic (SEM ) and energy spectrum of the cavitation erosion sample at different cavitation erosion time to investigate the mechanism of the various stages of cavitation .The experimental results indicate that cavitation firstly appear at the center of the end surface of the radiation rod .T he center cavitation pit gradually enlarges over time and inward concave ,eventually spread to the entire end face ,until the end surface material peels off completely .The cavity collapse would produce pits on the surface of ma‐terial and make surface matrix shed .At the same time ,titanium alloy matrix would react with alumi‐num melt and form granular Al3 Ti ,which would break off easily from titanium alloy matrix under the impact of the cavity collapse because it’s hard and brittle .The cavitation damage of titanium alloy ra‐diation rod in aluminum melt is resulted from both mechanical damage and chemical etching produced by the cavitation bubble collapse .%超声辐射杆在铝熔体中产生空蚀严重制约其使用寿命及铝熔体的纯净度,针对这一问题,进行了铝熔体钛合金超声辐射杆空蚀试验,采用失重法及熔体Ti元素检测法描述了辐射杆空蚀进程,运用扫描式电子显微镜(SEM )及能谱仪对空蚀试样进行宏/微观形貌观察及成分检测,探讨空蚀各阶段机理。结果表明:辐射杆空蚀以端面为主,随时间推移由端面中心逐渐在横向辐射扩张并在纵向

  8. Influence of the working electrode area on the cavitation-corrosion behaviour of a duplex stainless steel in aqueous LiBr solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Garcia, D.M.; Blasco-Tamarit, E.; Igual-Munoz, A.; Garcia-Anton, J. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. ETSI Industriales, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Cavitation erosion can occur in almost all hydrodynamic systems and turbo machines, e.g. pumps, valves, marine propeller and hydraulic turbines. It causes serious material damage. Corrosion problems associated with cavitation can appear on different points in LiBr absorption machines. Many efforts have been made to solve this problem, such as optimizing the design of the flow-handling component and selecting better materials and coatings to resist the cavitation erosion-corrosion. A better understanding of cavitation erosion-corrosion mechanisms is very important for the selection materials and coatings. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of the exposed area of the working electrode on the corrosion behaviour of a duplex stainless steel (EN 1.4462) in a 992 g/l LiBr solution under static conditions (without cavitation) and dynamic conditions (with cavitation) at 25 C. Potentiodynamic cyclic curves were obtained under static and dynamic conditions exposing different areas of the working electrode: 1.6 mm diameter (0.02 cm{sup 2} area ), 4 mm diameter (0.12 cm{sup 2} area), 6 mm diameter (0.28 cm{sup 2} area) and 8 mm diameter (0.5 cm{sup 2} area). The dynamic conditions were generated using an ultrasonic cavitation facility in a three-electrode electrochemical cell. The Potentiodynamic Cyclic curves obtained with and without cavitation have been compared and different tendencies were observed. Cavitation increased the cathodic current density when the exposed area to the solution is large (6 mm and 8 mm diameters). This behaviour was not observed during the tests with smaller electrode areas (1.6 mm and 4 mm diameters). In all cases, cavitation increased the anodic current densities independently of the exposed area to the solution. Besides, cavitation favoured the pitting corrosion, since lower pitting potentials were obtained under cavitation conditions than under static conditions. (authors)

  9. The Development of Erosion and Impact Resistant Turbine Airfoil Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments and extend component lifetimes. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Advanced erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the doped thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion and impact damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be discussed.

  10. Erosion-Resistant Nanocoatings for Improved Energy Efficiency in Gas Turbine Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to test and substantiate erosion-resistant (ER) nanocoatings for application on compressor airfoils for gas turbine engines in both industrial gas turbines and commercial aviation.

  11. Examination of Compatibility of Potentially Cavitation-Resistant Modifications of Type 316LN Stainless Steel with Mercury in a Thermal Convection Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, SJ

    2002-08-29

    A 316L stainless steel thermal convection loop (TCL) containing a variety of stainless steel coupons circulated mercury for 2000 h. The TCL conditions included a maximum temperature of 307 C, a maximum temperature gradient of 90 C, and a Hg velocity of about 1.4 m/min. In addition to mill-annealed/surface-ground 316LN coupons serving as the baseline material, other coupons included 316LN that was 50% cold-worked, 316LN that was given a proprietary surface hardening treatment termed ''kolsterizing,'' and Nitronic 60. The purpose of this test was to examine Hg compatibility with these modest variations of annealed 31 6LN stainless steel that are considered potential improvements over annealed 31 6LN for cavitation-erosion resistance in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) target containment system. The results indicated negligible weight change for each coupon type, no significant indication of attack or surface roughening, and generally no interaction with Hg.

  12. Development and Life Prediction of Erosion Resistant Turbine Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Future rotorcraft propulsion systems are required to operate under highly-loaded conditions and in harsh sand erosion environments, thereby imposing significant material design and durability issues. The incorporation of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in high pressure turbine systems enables engine designs with higher inlet temperatures, thus improving the engine efficiency, power density and reliability. The impact and erosion resistance of turbine thermal barrier coating systems are crucial to the turbine coating technology application, because a robust turbine blade TBC system is a prerequisite for fully utilizing the potential coating technology benefit in the rotorcraft propulsion. This paper describes the turbine blade TBC development in addressing the coating impact and erosion resistance. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems with improved performance have also been validated in laboratory simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments. A preliminary life prediction modeling approach to emphasize the turbine blade coating erosion is also presented.

  13. Cavitation instabilities and rotordynamic effects in turbopumps and hydroturbines turbopump and inducer cavitation, experiments and design

    CERN Document Server

    Salvetti, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The book provides a detailed approach to the physics, fluid dynamics, modeling, experimentation and numerical simulation of cavitation phenomena, with special emphasis on cavitation-induced instabilities and their implications on the design and operation of high performance turbopumps and hydraulic turbines. The first part covers the fundamentals (nucleation, dynamics, thermodynamic effects, erosion) and forms of cavitation (attached cavitation, cloud cavitation, supercavitation, vortex cavitation) relevant to hydraulic turbomachinery, illustrates modern experimental techniques for the characterization, visualization and analysis of cavitating flows, and introduces the main aspects of the hydrodynamic design and performance of axial inducers, centrifugal turbopumps and hydo-turbines. The second part focuses on the theoretical modeling, experimental analysis, and practical control of cavitation-induced fluid-dynamic and rotordynamic instabilities of hydraulic turbomachinery, with special emphasis on cavitating...

  14. 含气量对激光空泡在刚性壁面空蚀的影响%Influence of air content on cavitation erosion by laser-generated bubble near rigid boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 王江安; 宗思光; 梁善永; 张显峰

    2012-01-01

    采用强脉冲激光器设计液体环境下刚性壁面空蚀实验平台,改变液体中含气量,利用高速相机观察不同含气量条件下激光空泡在壁面附近的脉动过程,并对刚性壁面造成的空蚀结果进行了观测.实验研究发现,随着液体中相对空气含量的提高,激光空泡脉动的最大尺寸增大,空泡的膨胀运动变剧烈,溃灭运动速度降低,空泡的溃灭强度降低,从而影响到溃灭冲击波和壁面微射流对刚性壁面的冲击速度,减弱了壁面空蚀,而液体中含气量的提高能够降低激光空泡对刚性壁面的空蚀程度.%In the designed experimental system of laser-generated bubble near a rigid boundary in water, the effect of air content on cavitation erosion was studied by changing the air content and using high speed camera system. The experimental results indicate that the maximum size of the first cavitation bubble collapse increases with improving the air content in water. Improving the air content may increase the period of the cavitation bubble collapse, weaken the strength of the cavitation bubble collapse, reduce the micro liquid jet velocity, decrease the shock wave pressure to the rigid boundary, and reduce the cavitation damage on the surface of the rigid boundaries.

  15. Exploration on Physical Cleaning of the Hydraulic Cavitation Erosion Effects and the Numerical Simulation%探究水力空蚀物理清洗的清洗效果及数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉婷; 郝惠娣; 吴煜斌; 钟雨心

    2016-01-01

    The principle of cavitation cleaning technology and advantages, and ultra-low permeability ping 42-291 well group in ansai oilfield set tubing by cavitation erosion physical cleaning were introduced, the construction process and cleaning results were discussed in details. Based on the existing theoretical basis and practical application in oilfields to simulate the hydraulic cavitation erosion physical cleaning equipment structure, the washer was provided using CFX software flow field simulation calculation, among them, the pressure and velocity were the main factors influencing the cavitation condition, therefore, change operating parameters, with different speed and different pressure to explore the influence of cavitation effect. The results confirmed that faster, stronger the negative pressure zone, range was larger. Greater the inlet pressure, greater the blade gap flow velocity, the greater the negative pressure was higher. The structure of a cavitation jet cleaning provided the basis for further development.%介绍了空蚀清洗技术的原理及优点,并对安塞油田超低渗坪42-291井组集油管采用空蚀物理清洗,详细说明了施工过程和清洗结果。依据现有的理论依据与油田实际应用情况对水力空蚀物理清洗设备进行结构模拟,使用 CFX软件对该清洗器进行流场的模拟计算,其中,压力和流速是影响空化情况的主要因素,故改变操作参数,对不同速度和不同压力对空化效果的影响进行探究。结果证实了速度越快,负压区越强,范围越大。进口压力越大,叶片缝隙流速越大,负压也越高。对空穴射流清洗结构的进一步发展提供依据。

  16. Erosion-corrosion interactions and their affect on marine and offshore components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Robert JK [Surface Engineering and Tribology Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The operation of modern fluid handling systems demands for low costs, reliability, longevity and no loss of fluid containment. All these can be achieved by minimising the material damage caused by the combined attack of solid particle or cavitation impingement and corrosion. This paper will cover the rationale behind the selection of erosion resistance surfaces for fluid handling equipment and highlight the complexities encountered when these surfaces are exposed to environments which contain sand particles or cavitation in a corrosive medium. The erosion and erosion-corrosion performance of a variety of coatings and bulk surfaces will be discussed using volume loss rate versus sand impact energy maps. Recent research into the erosion-corrosion of polymer coatings, PEO and HVOF aluminium and nickel aluminium bronze coatings will be reviewed. Electrochemical techniques designed to monitor the erosion-corrosion mechanisms and coating integrity will be presented and used to quantify the synergistic terms present when both erosion and corrosion act concurrently. (author)

  17. Techniques of Ultrasound Cavitation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Skvortsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The control methods of ultrasonic cavitation applied now within the range from 20 kHz to 80 kHz use either control of ultrasound source parameters (amplitude, acoustic power, etc. or control of one of the cavitation effects (erosion of materials, sonoluminescence, power of acoustic noise, etc.. These methods provide effective management of technological processes, however, make it impossible to relate the estimated effect with parameters of pulsations of cavitation bubbles. This is, mainly, due to influence of a number of uncontrollable parameters, in particular, such as temperature, composition of liquid, gas content, etc. as well as because of the difficulty to establish interrelation between the estimated effect and parameters of pulsations. As a result, in most cases it is difficult to compare controlled parameters of ultrasonic cavitation among themselves, and quantitative characteristics of processes become depending on the type of ultrasonic installation and conditions of their measurement.In this regard, methods to determine parameters of bubble pulsations through sounding a cavitation area by low-intensity laser radiation or to record cavitation noise sub-harmonics reflecting dynamics of changing radius of cavitation bubbles are of interest. The method of optical sounding, via the analysis of spectral components of a scattered signal recorded by a photo-detector, allows us to define a phase of the bubbles collapse with respect to the sound wave and a moving speed of the bubbles wall, as well as to estimate a cavitation index within the light beam section.The method to record sub-harmonicas of cavitation noise allows us to define parameters of pulsations, average for cavitation areas.The above methods allow us both to study mechanisms of cavitation action and to form quantitative criteria of its efficiency based on the physical processes, rather than their consequences and are convenient for arranging a feedback in the units using

  18. Vegetation dynamics and erosion resistance of sea dyke grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, H.

    1999-01-01

    In the Netherlands, in addition to the width and height of the dyke body itself, renewed measures for reconstruction and maintenance of dykes have stressed the importance to the safeguarding of the dyke, of the grass cover's protection of the clay-layer against erosion.From an inventory of different

  19. Acoustic cavitation movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Lawrence A.

    2003-04-01

    Acoustic cavitation is a phenomenon that occurs on microsecond time scales and micron length scales, yet, it has many macroscopic manifestations. Accordingly, it is often difficult, at least for the author, to form realistic physical descriptions of the specific mechanisms through which it expresses itself in our macroscopic world. For example, there are still many who believe that cavitation erosion is due to the shock wave that is emitted by bubble implosion, rather than the liquid jet created on asymmetric collapse...and they may be right. Over the years, the author has accumulated a number of movies and high-speed photographs of cavitation activity, which he uses to form his own visual references. In the time allotted, he will show a number of these movies and photographs and discuss their relevance to existing technological problems. A limited number of CDs containing the presented materials will be available to interested individuals. [Work supported in part by the NIH, USAMRMC, and the ONR.

  20. Erosion Resistance Index (ERI) to Assess Surface Stability in Desert Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A new spectral index—erosion resistance index (ERI)—was developed to assess erosion risks in desert landscapes. The index was developed by applying trigonometry to the combination of the green/red band-ratio and the red/near infrared band-ratio from very high spatial resolution imagery. The resultant ERI maps showed spatially cohesive distributions of high and low index values across the study areas. High index values were observed over areas that were resistant to erosion (such as desert pavement and dense vegetation), while low index values overlapped with areas likely dominated by loose sandy soils, such as stream beds and access roads. Although further investigation is warranted, this new index, ERI, shows promise for the assessment of erosion risks in desert regions.

  1. Spatial variability in bank resistance to erosion on a large meandering, mixed bedrock-alluvial river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsoer, Kory M.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Langendoen, Eddy J.; Best, James L.; Ursic, Mick E.; Abad, Jorge D.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in the erosion-resistance properties of the channel banks and floodplains associated with sediment characteristics, vegetation, or bedrock can have a substantial influence on the morphodynamics of meandering rivers, resulting in highly variable rates of bank erosion and complex patterns of planform evolution. Although past studies have examined the spatial variability in bank erodibility within small rivers, this aspect of the erosion-resistance properties for large rivers remains poorly understood. Furthermore, with the exception of recent numerical modeling that incorporates stochastic variability of floodplain erosional resistance, most models of meandering river dynamics have assumed uniform erodibility of the bank and floodplain materials. The present paper investigates the lateral and vertical heterogeneity in bank material properties and riparian vegetation within two elongate meander loops on a large mixed bedrock-alluvial river using several geotechnical field and laboratory methods. Additionally, the bank stability and toe-erosion numerical model (BSTEM) and repeat terrestrial LiDAR surveys are used to evaluate the capacity of the bank material properties to modify the rates and mechanisms of bank retreat. Results show that the textural properties of the bank materials, soil cohesion, and critical shear stress necessary for sediment entrainment differ substantially between the two bends and are also highly variable within each bend - laterally and vertically. Trees growing along the banks increase the resistance to erosion by contributing to the shear strength of the bank materials and are capable of increasing bank stability along a large river. Locally outcropping bedrock also influences bank erodibility in both bends. The results of this study demonstrate that spatial variability in the erosion-resistance properties of the channel banks is an important factor contributing to spatial variability in the rates and mechanisms of bank

  2. Thermal spray and weld repair alloys for the repair of cavitation damage in turbines and pumps: A technical note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Boy, J.; Zatorski, Ray; Stephenson, L. D.

    2005-06-01

    The cavitation and erosion resistance of 21 thermal spray coatings and four weld repair materials were investigated in the laboratory using cavitation jet and slurry erosion testing. Of the thermal spray coatings, Stellite® 6 deposited by the high velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) process had the lowest cavitation rate (11.7 mg/h). This was higher than the corresponding cavitation rate (3.2 mg/h) of 308 stainless steel weld metal currently used as a reference. In the slurry erosion testing, the volume loss of Stellite® 6 applied by the HVOF process was 5.33 cubic mm/h, much lower than the corresponding loss (11.17 cubic mm/h) in the currently used stainless steel 304 reference. Furthermore, the electrochemical potential difference between the carbon steel and HVOF sprayed Stellite 6 coating was 0.25 volts, half the potential difference between the 304 stainless steel carbon steel substrate, and will result in reduced galvanic corrosion of the substrate near the contact areas. Stellite 6 deposited by the HVOF process was recommended for repair of damage resulting from erosion and subsequent cavitation by caused by surface roughening.

  3. Materials for Advanced Turbine Engines (MATE). Project 4: Erosion resistant compressor airfoil coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, J. M.; Freling, M.; Friedrich, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of coatings to provide at least a 2X improvement in particulate erosion resistance for steel, nickel and titanium compressor airfoils was identified and demonstrated. Coating materials evaluated included plasma sprayed cobalt tungsten carbide, nickel carbide and diffusion applied chromium plus boron. Several processing parameters for plasma spray processing and diffusion coating were evaluated to identify coating systems having the most potential for providing airfoil erosion resistance. Based on laboratory results and analytical evaluations, selected coating systems were applied to gas turbine blades and evaluated for surface finish, burner rig erosion resistance and effect on high cycle fatigue strength. Based on these tests, the following coatings were recommended for engine testing: Gator-Gard plasma spray 88WC-12Co on titanium alloy airfoils, plasma spray 83WC-17Co on steel and nickel alloy airfoils, and Cr+B on nickel alloy airfoils.

  4. Erosion Resistance Behaviours of H13 Steel to Molten ADC12 Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Yong-an; XU Luo-ping; WU Xiao-chun; LI Lin; WANG Rong

    2004-01-01

    H13 hot work steel samples and surface water vapor oxidized H13 samples were immersed into molten ADC12alloy under static resting or dynamic rotating conditions. Weigh-losing method was used to discover the influences of temperature, time and surface conditions on the erosion resistance of H13 steel. The interfaces between the steel and the molten alloy were studied with optical microscopy to compare the different erosion resistance behaviours. The results show that the composite layer outside of the compounds layers changes obviously with increasing temperature, lasting time or sample movement. The better erosion resistance of H13 steel can be endowed with the oxide films, which would gradually decrease along with the dissolve of the films.

  5. Laboratory experiments for defining scaling relations between rock material properties and rock resistance to erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, L. S.; Beyeler, J. D.; Collins, G. C.; Farrow, J. W.; Hsu, L.; Litwin, K. L.; Polito, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Rock resistance to erosion is a key variable that limits rates of morphologic change and mass flux in landscapes. However, we have limited knowledge of how measurable material properties influence rock resistance to specific erosion processes. Rock 'erodibility' is commonly a free parameter in surface process models, where users assign or solve for numerical values that lack meaning outside of the model. Moreover, erodibility parameters often lump material resistance to erosion together with aspects of the forces driving erosion that are not explicitly represented in the model. Laboratory experiments in which rock types are varied, while erosive forces are held constant, can be used to develop scaling relationships between rock properties and erosion resistance for individual detachment mechanisms. With knowledge of why erosion rates vary between rock types for constant erosive forces, laboratory and field experiments that vary erosive intensity can be used to quantify the absolute susceptibility to erosion in physically explicit terms. Here we synthesize data collected over the past decade from a suite of laboratory investigations of rock resistance to wear by sediment particle impacts, and wear of sediment particles themselves, in experiments replicating fluvial and granular flow conditions. Materials tested included: field-sampled bedrock and sediment covering the widest feasible range of apparent durability and lithologic type; synthetic sandstones made from mixtures of sand and Portland cement; and water ice, both pure and containing solid impurities, tested over a wide range of temperatures. Material properties measured included: dry-bulk and saturated density, porosity, tensile strength, fracture toughness, elastic moduli, mineralogy, cement type, and the grain size of mineral crystals and cemented clasts. Erosion rates were measured by mass or volume loss divided by run time, in bedrock abrasion mills, barrel tumblers, and a large rotating drum. We find

  6. Evaluation of High Temperature Particle Erosion Resistance of Vanadium-Boride Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Jeong, S. I. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H.; Eum, G. W. [Corporate R and D Institute Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The components in ultra super critical (USC) steam turbine, which is under development for high efficient power generation, are encountering harsher solid particle erosion by iron oxide scales than ones in the existing steam turbines. Therefore, the currently used boride coating will not be able to hold effective protection from particle erosion in USC system and should be replaced by new particle erosion resistant coatings. One of the best protective coatings developed for USC steam turbine parts was found to be vanadium-boride (V-boride) coating which has a hardness of about 3000 HV, much higher than that of boride, 1600∼2000 HV. In order to evaluate particle erosion resistance of the various coatings such as V-boride, boride and Cr-carbide coatings at high temperature, particle erosion test equipment were designed and manufactured. In addition, erosion particle velocity was simulated using FLUENT software based on semi-implicity method for pressure linked equations revised (SIMPLER). Based on experimental results of this work, the vanadium-boride coating was found to be superior to others and to be a candidate coating to replace the boride coating.

  7. A durability test rig and methodology for erosion-resistant blade coatings in turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, Sean Gregory

    A durability test rig for erosion-resistant gas turbine engine compressor blade coatings was designed, completed and commissioned. Bare and coated 17-4PH steel V103-profile blades were rotated at up to 11500 rpm and impacted with Garnet sand for 5 hours at an average concentration of 2.51 gm3of air , at a blade leading edge Mach number of 0.50. The rig was determined to be an acceptable first stage axial compressor representation. Two types of 16 microm-thick coatings were tested: Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Chromium-Aluminum-Titanium Nitride (CrAlTiN), both applied using an Arc Physical Vapour Deposition technique at the National Research Council in Ottawa, Canada. A Leithead-Allan-Zhao (LAZ) score was created to compare the durability performance of uncoated and coated blades based on mass-loss and blade dimension changes. The bare blades' LAZ score was set as a benchmark of 1.00. The TiN-coated and CrAlTiN-coated blades obtained LAZ scores of 0.69 and 0.41, respectively. A lower score meant a more erosion-resistant coating. Major modes of blade wear included: trailing edge, leading edge and the rear suction surface. Trailing edge thickness was reduced, the leading edge became blunt, and the rear suction surface was scrubbed by overtip and recirculation zone vortices. It was found that the erosion effects of vortex flow were significant. Erosion damage due to reflected particles was not present due to the low blade solidity of 0.7. The rig is best suited for studying the performance of erosion-resistant coatings after they are proven effective in ASTM standardized testing. Keywords: erosion, compressor, coatings, turbomachinery, erosion rate, blade, experimental, gas turbine engine

  8. Structure and erosion resistance ofNi60A/SiC coatting by laser cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Bai-yang; CHEN Zhen; BAI Wan-jin; DONG Gang

    2006-01-01

    The Ni60A and Ni60A/SiC coatings were obtained by laser cladding on 0.45% C steel. The microstructure and hardness of the coatings were studied by SEM and XRD. The erosion resistances of Ni60A and Ni60A/SiC coatings were also investigated. The results show that the structure of different coatings is up to the temperature gradient and solidifying velocity in metal-melting region during laser cladding process. The coatings consist of a cladding layer, in which dendritic crystal and bulky cell-like crystal exist mainly, and a thermo-affected layer. Ni60A/SiC coating has higher microhardness than that of Ni60A coating, which is mainly caused by SiC and complicated phases formed by Ni, Cr, Fe, C and Si. It is obvious from the erosion test that the Ni60A/SiC coating has high erosion resistance.

  9. Effects of Alloying Elements on Microstructure and Erosion Resistance of Fe-C-Cr Weld Surfacing Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daqian SUN; Wenquan WANG; Zhaozhi XUAN; Yue XU; Zhenfeng ZHOU

    2003-01-01

    Effects of alloying elements on microstructure and erosion resistance of Fe-C-Cr weld surfacing layer have been studied. The experimental results show that increasing C and Cr content favors improving the erosion resistance of the layer, and the excessive C and Cr result in decreasing the erosion resistance at 90 deg. erosion. That Mo, Nb or Ti improves the erosion resistance of Fe-C-Cr weld surfacing layer is mainly attributed to increasing the amount of M7C3 and forming fine NbC or TiC in austenite matrix, but the excessive Mo, Nb or Ti is unfavorable. The addition of Mo, Nb and Ti in proper combination possesses stronger effect on improving the erosion resistance and the erosion resistance (εA) of Fe-C-Cr weld surfacing layer with fine NbC, TiC and M7C3 distributing uniformly in austenite matrix obviously increases to 2.81 at 15 deg. erosion and 2.88 at 90 deg. erosion when the layer composition is 3.05C, 20.58Cr, 1.88Mo, 2.00Nb and 1.05Ti (in wt pct).

  10. The Effect of Aluminum Content on the Microstructure and Cavitation Wear of Feal Intermetallic Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasionowski Robert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intermetallic-based alloys (so called intermetallics of the Fe-Al binary system are modern construction materials, which in recent decades have found application in many branches of the power, chemical and automotive industries. High resistance of FeAl based alloys to cavitational erosion results first of all from their high hardness in the as-cast state, large compressive stresses in the material, as well as homogeneous structure. In the present paper, the effect of aluminum content on the microstructure, texture and strain implemented upon cavitation wear of FeAl intermetallic alloys, have been analyzed by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG SEM and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD analysis. Obtained results of structural characterization indicates that with increasing aluminium content effects of orientation randomization (weakening of //ND casting texture, grain refinement and rising of mechanical strenght (and so cavitational resistance take place.

  11. Erosion Resistance of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 System Glass-Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Feng; NIU Feng; LOU Guang-hui; DENG Zhi-guo

    2004-01-01

    The erosion resistance tests were used to research the erosion wear behavior of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system glass-ceramic. With the orthogonal test method, the factors that affect the erosion wear of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system glass-ceramic such as particles property, impact angle, impact time, size of particles were discussed.The results show that erosion rate rises along a straight line at the early period of erosion wear.With the impact time increased,the erosion rate deviates from original staight line,tendency of the erosion rate increases.With the size of paricle increased,it will have more kinetic energy,the erosion rate of the surface of glass-ceramics ploate rises.

  12. Resistance of weldclads made by flux-cored arc welding technology against erosive wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pernis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the tribological properties of investigated types of hardfacing materials at erosive wear process. Influence of impact angle of abrasive grains on wear resistance and microhardness changes of hardfacing layer were investigated too. From quantitative aspect weldclads wear resistance were evaluated on the base of weight loss. Results achieved showed that impact angle is one of determining factors of material’s wear measure.

  13. Particle Erosion Resistance of Bionic Samples Inspired from Skin Structure of Desert Lizard, Laudakin stoliczkana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Huang; Yan Zhang; Luquan Ren

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the particle erosion resistance of engineering surfaces,this paper proposed a bionic sample which is inspired from the skin structure of desert lizard,Laudakin stoliczkana.The bionic sample consists of a hard shell (aluminum) and a soft core (silicone rubber) which form a two-layer composite structure.The sand blast tests indicated that the bionic sample has better particle erosion resistance.In steady erosion period,the weight loss per unit time of the bionic sample is about 10% smaller than the contrast sample.The anti-erosion mechanism of the bionic sample was studied by single particle impact test.The results show that,after the impact,the kinetic energy of the particle is reduced by 56.5% on the bionic sample which is higher than that on the contrast sample (31.2%).That means the bionic sample can partly convert the kinetic energy of the particle into the deformation energy of the silicone rubber layer,thus the erosion is reduced.

  14. Erosion-Resistant Nanocoatings for Improved Energy Efficiency in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alman, David; Marcio, Duffles

    2014-02-05

    The objective of this Stage Gate IV project was to test and substantiate the viability of an erosion-resistant nanocoating for application on compressor airfoils for gas turbines in both industrial power generation and commercial aviation applications. To effectively complete this project, the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Office of Research & Development teamed with MDS Coating Technologies Inc. (MCT), Delta Air Lines - Technical Operations Division (Delta Tech Ops), and Calpine Corporation. The coating targeted for this application was MCT’s Next Generation Coating, version 4 (NGC-v4 - with the new registered trademark name of BlackGold®). The coating is an erosion and corrosion resistant composite nanostructured coating. This coating is comprised of a proprietary ceramic-metallic nano-composite construction which provides enhanced erosion resistance and also retains the aerodynamic geometry of the airfoils. The objective of the commercial aviation portion of the project was to substantiate the coating properties to allow certification from the FAA to apply an erosion-resistant coating in a commercial aviation engine. The goal of the series of tests was to demonstrate that the durability of the airfoils is not affected negatively with the application of the NGC v4 coating. Tests included erosion, corrosion, vibration and fatigue. The results of the testing demonstrated that the application of the coating did not negatively impact the properties of the blades, especially fatigue performance – which is of importance in acceptance for commercial aviation applications. The objective of the industrial gas turbine element of the project was to evaluate the coating as an enabling technology for inlet fogging during the operation of industrial gas turbines. Fluid erosion laboratory scale tests were conducted to simulate inlet fogging conditions. Results of these tests indicated that the application of the erosion resistant NGC-v4 nanocoating improved the

  15. [Enhancement of reversing drug resistance of K562/A02 cells to adriamycin by ultrasound-induced cavitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-An; Meng, Qing-Qi; Wu, Wei; Gao, Feng; Shao, Ze-Ye; Ding, Jia-Hua; Gao, Chong; Sun, Xin-Chen; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Sun, Yun-Yu; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Jian; Zhao, Gang; Song, Hui-Hui; Bao, Wen; Ma, Yan; Wang, Xue-Mei

    2008-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of low frequency and power ultrasound combined with adriamycin on apoptosis of drug-resistant leukemia cell line K562/A02 in vitro, to find out the parameters of optimal exposure, and to explore the possible mechanism reversing drug-resistance of K562/A02 cells. The K562/A02 cells in logarithmic growth phase were used in experiments. The experiments were divided into 4 groups: group control, group adriamycin (A02) alone, group ultrasound (US) alone and group A02+US. The trypan blue dye exclusion test and MTT assay were used to determine the cell viability; Wright's staining was used to detect the apoptosis; the flow cytometry was used to analyze the drug concentration, and the scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the changes of cell surface. The results showed that the significant differences in cell viability, intracellular adriamycin concentration and changes of cell membrane were found between ultrasound-treated and untreated cells in the presence of various concentration of adriamycin. The exposure to ultrasound at 20 kHZ, 0.25 W/cm2 for 60 seconds could obviously decrease LC50 of adriamycin to K562/A02 cells, while the exposure to ultrasound at 20 kHZ, 0.05 W/cm2 for 60 seconds could kill K562/A02 cells at once. After being treated by low frequency ultrasound, the small holes with diameter about 1-2 microm in the cell surface appeared. The ultrasound increased the adriamycin concentration in the cells, accelerated the formation of apoptotic bodies, and promoted apoptosis of adriamycin-resistant cells. It is concluded that the ultrasound at optimal parameters enhances inhibitory effect of adriamycin on drug-resistant cell line, thereby reverses drug-resistance of drug-resistant cell line through sound-hole effect in tumor cells resulting from ultrasound induced cavitation.

  16. The effect of chloride ions on the corroded surface layer of 00Cr22Ni5Mo3N duplex stainless steel under cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tong; Xiao, Ning; Shen, Hanjie; Yong, Xingyue

    2016-11-01

    The effects of Cl(-) on the corroded surface layer of 00Cr22Ni5Mo3N duplex stainless steel under cavitation in chloride solutions were investigated using nanoindentation in conjunction with XRD and XPS. The results demonstrate that Cl(-) had a strong effect on the nano-mechanical properties of the corroded surface layer under cavitation, and there was a threshold Cl(-) concentration. Furthermore, a close relationship between the nano-mechanical properties and the cavitation corrosion resistance of 00Cr22Ni5Mo3N duplex stainless steel was observed. The degradation of the nano-mechanical properties of the corroded surface layer was accelerated by the synergistic effect between cavitation erosion and corrosion. A key factor was the adsorption of Cl(-), which caused a preferential dissolution of the ferrous oxides in the passive film layer on the corroded surface layer. Cavitation further promoted the preferential dissolution of the ferrous oxides in the passive film layer. Simultaneously, cavitation accelerated the erosion of the ferrite in the corroded surface layer, resulting in the degradation of the nano-mechanical properties of the corroded surface layer on 00Cr22Ni5Mo3N duplex stainless steel under cavitation.

  17. Development of slurry erosion resistant materials by laser-based direct metal deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrapareddy, Eswar

    The current research deals with the development of slurry erosion resistant materials by the laser-based direct metal deposition (LBDMD) process for different industrial applications. The work started with the development of functionally graded materials using nickel-tungsten carbide (Ni-Tung) powders and finally produced a better erosion resistant materials system by reinforcing nano-tungsten carbide particles with nickel-tungsten carbide powders. Functionally graded materials (FGMs) consisting of Ni-Tung) powders with different concentrations of tungsten carbide particles are successfully deposited by the LBDMD process on 4140 Steel substrates. The slurry erosion behavior of the Ni-Tung FGMs is studied at different impingement angles. The slurry erosion tests are performed at Southern Methodist University's Center for Laser Aided Manufacturing using a centrifugal force driven erosion testing machine. For the purpose of comparison, Ni-Tung 40 depositions and 4140 steel samples are also tested. The results indicate that the LBDMD process is able to deposit defect-free Ni-Tung FGMs with a uniform distribution of tungsten carbide particles in a nickel-based matrix. The slurry erosion resistance of Ni-Tung FGMs is observed to be much better than that of the Ni-Tung 40 and 4140 steels. The superior slurry erosion resistance of Ni-Tung FGMs is attributed to the presence of large amounts of very hard tungsten carbide particles. The material removal rate (MRR) from erosion decreases with a decrease in the impingement angle, except at a 45 degree impingement angle on 4140 steel. The relationship among the material removal rates, the craters depth of penetration, the areas of the craters formed, the average surface roughness values, and the impingement angles is established for Ni-Tung FGMs, Ni-Tung 40, and 4140 steels. The surface profiles of the eroded samples are analyzed by measuring the depth of penetration of the craters formed by the slurry jet using a needle

  18. Common trade-offs between xylem resistance to cavitation and other physiological traits do not hold among unrelated Populus deltoides x Populus nigra hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichot, Régis; Barigah, Têtè S; Chamaillard, Sylvain; LE Thiec, Dider; Laurans, Françoise; Cochard, Hervé; Brignolas, Franck

    2010-09-01

    We examined the relationships between xylem resistance to cavitation and 16 structural and functional traits across eight unrelated Populus deltoides x Populus nigra genotypes grown under two contrasting water regimes. The xylem water potential inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductance (Psi(50)) varied from -1.60 to -2.40 MPa. Drought-acclimated trees displayed a safer xylem, although the extent of the response was largely genotype dependent, with Psi(50) being decreased by as far as 0.60 MPa. At the tissue level, there was no clear relationship between xylem safety and either xylem water transport efficiency or xylem biomechanics; the only structural trait to be strongly associated with Psi(50) was the double vessel wall thickness, genotypes exhibiting a thicker double wall being more resistant. At the leaf level, increased cavitation resistance was associated with decreased stomatal conductance, while no relationship could be identified with traits associated with carbon uptake or bulk leaf carbon isotope discrimination, a surrogate of intrinsic water-use efficiency. At the whole-plant level, increased safety was associated with higher shoot growth potential under well-irrigated regime only. We conclude that common trade-offs between xylem resistance to cavitation and other physiological traits that are observed across species may not necessarily hold true at narrower scales.

  19. Stem xylem resistance to cavitation is related to xylem structure but not to growth and water-use efficiency at the within-population level in Populus nigra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guet, Justine; Fichot, Régis; Lédée, Camille; Laurans, Françoise; Cochard, Hervé; Delzon, Sylvain; Bastien, Catherine; Brignolas, Franck

    2015-08-01

    Xylem resistance to drought-induced cavitation is a key trait of plant water relations. This study assesses the genetic variation expressed for stem cavitation resistance within a population of a riparian species, the European black poplar (Populus nigra L.), and explores its relationships with xylem anatomy, water-use efficiency (WUE), and growth. Sixteen structural and physiological traits related to cavitation resistance, xylem anatomy, growth, bud phenology, and WUE were measured on 33 P. nigra genotypes grown under optimal irrigation in a 2-year-old clonal experiment in a nursery. Significant genetic variation was expressed for the xylem tension inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity (Ψ50) within the studied population, as attested by the high value of broad-sense heritability estimated for this trait (H (2) ind = 0.72). Stem cavitation resistance was associated with xylem structure: the more cavitation-resistant genotypes exhibited lower hydraulic efficiency and higher mechanical reinforcement as assessed from stem xylem cross sections. By contrast, Ψ50 was not significantly related to shoot height increment, total above-ground dry mass, or bulk leaf carbon isotope discrimination, a proxy for intrinsic WUE. These findings indicate that the trade-offs between xylem resistance to cavitation, hydraulic efficiency, and mechanical reinforcement can occur at the within-population level. Given that the studied genotypes were exposed to the same environmental conditions and evolutionary drivers in situ, the trade-offs detected at this scale are expected to reflect true functional relationships.

  20. TEMPEST code modifications and testing for erosion-resisting sludge simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    The TEMPEST computer code has been used to address many waste retrieval operational and safety questions regarding waste mobilization, mixing, and gas retention. Because the amount of sludge retrieved from the tank is directly related to the sludge yield strength and the shear stress acting upon it, it is important to incorporate the sludge yield strength into simulations of erosion-resisting tank waste retrieval operations. This report describes current efforts to modify the TEMPEST code to simulate pump jet mixing of erosion-resisting tank wastes and the models used to test for erosion of waste sludge with yield strength. Test results for solid deposition and diluent/slurry jet injection into sludge layers in simplified tank conditions show that the modified TEMPEST code has a basic ability to simulate both the mobility and immobility of the sludges with yield strength. Further testing, modification, calibration, and verification of the sludge mobilization/immobilization model are planned using erosion data as they apply to waste tank sludges.

  1. Experimental and numerical studies on laser-based powder deposition of slurry erosion resistant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Prabu

    Slurry erosion (the removal of material caused by the randomly moving high velocity liquid-solid particle mixture) is a serious issue in crude oil drilling, mining, turbines, rocket nozzles, pumps, and boiler tubes that causes excessive downtime and high operating costs as a result of premature part failure. The goal of this research is to enhance the service life of high-value components subjected to slurry erosion by utilizing the concept of functionally graded metal-ceramic composite material (FGMCCM) in which the favorable properties of metal (toughness, ductility, etc.) and ceramic (hardness) are tailored smoothly to improve erosion resistance. Among the potential manufacturing processes, such as the laser-based powder deposition (LBPD), the plasma transferred arc (PTA), and the thermal spray the LBPD process offers good composition and microstructure control with a high deposition rate in producing the FGMCCM. This research focuses on the development of nickel-tungsten carbide (Ni-WC) based FGMCCM using the LBPD process for applications the above mentioned. The LBPD of Ni-WC involves the introduction of Ni and WC powder particle by an inert gas into the laser-formed molten pool at the substrate via nozzles. The LBPD of Ni-WC includes complex multi-physical interactions between the laser beam, Ni-WC powder, substrate, and carrier and shielding gases that are governed by a number of process variables such as laser power, scanning speed, and powder flow rate. In order to develop the best Ni-WC based slurry erosion resistant material using the LBPD process, the following challenges associated with the fabrication and the performance evaluation need to be addressed: 1) flow behavior of the Ni-WC powder and its interaction with the laser, 2) the effect of the process variables, the material compositions, and the thermo-physical properties on thermal cycles, temperature gradient, cooling rate, and residual stress formation within the material and the subsequent

  2. Ion-plasma erosion-resistant nanocoatings based on metal carbides and nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muboyadzhyan, S. A.; Aleksandrov, D. A.; Gorlov, D. S.

    2010-09-01

    The erosion, corrosion, and heat resistance of alloy/ion-plasma nanolayer coating compositions based on TiC and CrC carbides and TiN, CrN, ZrN, and AlN nitrides are studied. The effect of the nanolayer thickness, composition, and structure of the coatings based on the metal nitrides and carbides on the relative erosion resistance of alloy/coating compositions in a gas-abrasive quartz sand flux is studied at a sand grain size of 300-350 μm, abrasive supply rate of 200 g/min, and an angle of flux incidence of 20° (tangential flow) and 70° (near-head-on attack flow). It is shown that high erosion resistance is characteristic of 15-22 μm thick coatings that are produced by assisted deposition and consist of alternating TiN (70 nm) and CrN (70 nm) layers on a VT1-0 titanium alloy or TiC (70 nm) and CrC (70 nm) layers on an EP866 compressor steel.

  3. Understanding Cavitation Intensity through Pitting and Pressure Pulse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, A.; Singh, S.; Choi, J.-K.; Chahine, G.

    2011-11-01

    Cavitation erosion is of interest to the designers of ship propulsion devices because of its detrimental effects. One of the difficulties of predicting cavitation erosion is that the intensity of cavitation is not well predicted or defined. In this work we attempt to define the intensity of a cavitation erosion field through analysis of cavitation induced erosion pits and pressure pulses. In the pitting tests, material samples were subjected to cavitation field for a short duration of time selected within the test sample's incubation period, so that the test sample undergoes plastic deformation only. The sample material reacts to these cavitation events by undergoing localized permanent deformation, called pits. The resulting pitted sample surfaces were then optically scanned and analyzed. The pressure signals under cavitating jets and ultrasonic horns, for different conditions, were experimentally recorded using high frequency response pressure transducers. From the analysis of the pitting data and recorded pressure signals, we propose a model that describes the statistics, which in the future can be used to define the cavitation field intensity. Support for this work was provided by Office of Naval Research (ONR) under contract number N00014-08-C-0450, monitored by Dr. Ki-Han Kim.

  4. Effect of ion implantation upon erosion resistance of polyimide films in space environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUO Shu-wang; LI Mei-shuan; ZHOU Yan-chun

    2006-01-01

    The atomic oxygen (AO) resistance of Si ion implanted polyimide films in the ground-based AO simulation facility was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The results show that at the initial stage of AO exposure the implanted sample has a small mass change,and then is stabilized. The erosion yield of the implanted polyimide film decreases by about two orders of magnitude compared with that of the polyimide film. The analysis through XPS and AES indicates that a continuous high-quality protective oxide-based (SiO2) surface layer is formed on the implanted polyimide films after the AO exposure. It can provide high-quality erosion protection for these materials. The implanted polyimide fully restores its original color and the carbonization effect disappears on the whole after AO exposure. Thermal-optical properties and surface morphology of the implanted polyimide materials are not altered. The modified materials have a markedly increased erosion resistance in AO environment.

  5. The Influence of Typical Forest Types on Soil Erosion Resistance in the Water Source Areas of Central Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangyi; ZHAO; Xu; DUAN; Shumiao; SHU

    2015-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of different forest types on soil erosion resistance in water source area of Central Yunnan,with the soils under three different kinds of typical forest in Yizhe watershed as the research object,this paper uses field simulation method and principal component analysis to analyze the soil erosion resistance of three kinds of soils. The results show that there is a significant difference in the shear strength of soil among three types of typical forest,and the size of soil shear strength is in the order of Pinus yunnanensis forest land >mixed broadleaf-conifer forest land > eucalyptus forest land. The difference in the soil erosion coefficient among different forests is not significant,and the soil erosion resistance is highest in mixed broadleaf-conifer forest land( 39. 0%),followed by eucalyptus woodland( 37. 0%)and Pinus yunnanensis forest land( 24. 0%). Under heavy rain intensity and long duration of rainfall,the ability of soil under eucalyptus ×Pinus yunnanensis mixed forests to resist disintegration is more obvious. Using principal component analysis to analyze soil erosion resistance of soils under three different forests,we get the comprehensive evaluation model for soil erosion resistance: Y = 0. 763Y1+ 0. 236Y2. The soil erosion resistance is in the order of mixed broadleaf-conifer forest land( 0. 150) > eucalyptus forest land( 0. 127) > Pinus yunnanensis forest land(-0. 079),indicating that the mixed forests have better water loss and soil erosion control effect than pure forests.

  6. Comparison of Different Mathematical Models of Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota HOMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation occurs during the flow when local pressure drops to the saturation pressure according to the temperature of the flow. It includes both evaporation and condensation of the vapor bubbles, which occur alternately with high frequency. Cavitation can be very dangerous, especially for pumps, because it leads to break of flow continuity, noise, vibration, erosion of blades and change in pump’s characteristics. Therefore it is very important for pump designers and users to avoid working in cavitation conditions. Simulation of flow can be very useful in that and can indicate if there is risk of cavitating flow occurrence. As this is a multiphase flow and quite complicated phenomena, there are a few mathematical models describing it. The aim of this paper is to make a short review of them and describe their approach to model cavitation. It is desirable to know differences between them to model this phenomenon properly.

  7. Platelet-rich plasma for resistant oral erosions of pemphigus vulgaris: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Komy, Mohamed Hussein Medhat; Hassan, Akmal Saad; Abdel Raheem, Heba Mohammed; Doss, Sally Sameh; EL-Kaliouby, Mona; Saleh, Noha Adly; Saleh, Marwah Adly

    2015-01-01

    Oral erosions and ulcers of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) are a debilitating condition that is usually difficult to treat. The wound healing properties of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) encouraged us to evaluate its usefulness in treatment of non-healing oral PV lesions. Seven patients with chronic oral PV, resistant to conventional therapy, were treated with weekly to monthly injections of PRP of affected mucosal membranes. All recruits reported improvement in pain and mastication and 6 of 7 patients had an improvement in pemphigus disease area index scores with PRP treatment. PRP injections seems to accelerate the healing process and decrease the pain and eating discomfort associated with the oral erosions and ulcers induced by PV.

  8. High-Temperature Erosion Resistance of FeBSiNb Amorphous Coatings Deposited by Arc Spraying for Boiler Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J. B.; Liang, X. B.; Chen, Y. X.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, B. S.

    2013-06-01

    Erosive high-temperature wear in boilers is one of the main causes of downtime and one of the principal engineering problems in these installations. This article discusses the use of FeBSiNb amorphous coatings synthesized by arc spraying to improve elevated-temperature erosion resistance for boiler applications. The influence of test temperature, velocity, and impact angle on material wastage was revealed using air solid particle erosion rig. The experimental results showed that moderate degradation of the coating was predominant at lower impact velocity and impact angles, while severe damage arose for higher velocities and impact angles. The erosion behavior of the coating was sensitive to test temperature. The erosion rates of the coating decreased as a function of environment temperature. The relationship between microstructure and erosion resistance of the coating was also analyzed in details. The FeBSiNb coating had excellent elevated-temperature erosion resistance at temperatures at least up to 600 °C during service.

  9. Cavitation characteristics of pit structure in ultrasonic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI LiXin; XU WeiLin; ZHANG FaXing; LI NaiWen; ZHANG YiChi; HUANG DeFa

    2009-01-01

    Bubble collecting, bubble holding and micro-bubble ejecting characteristics of pit structure and the influence of cavitation bubble on the development of erosion pit are investigated by means of highspeed photography experiments. Pits tend to collect and hold wandering cavitation bubbles. The air holding phenomenon of pits can be a destination of the incubation period in the process of cavitation erosion. The holding bubble tends to eject micro-bubbles from the top of holding cavitation bubble,making the pit a source of nuclei. With bubbles being held in pits, the diameters of pits increase rapidly.But in the given experiment condition, there is a specific stable value beyond which the diameter of pits will not increase. This characteristic will be helpful in understanding and predicting the cavitation erosion process.

  10. Standard Test Method for Dust Erosion Resistance of Optical and Infrared Transparent Materials and Coatings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the resistance of transparent plastics and coatings used in aerospace windscreens, canopies, and viewports to surface erosion as a result of dust impingement. This test method simulates flight through a defined particle cloud environment by means of independent control of particle size, velocity, impact angle, mass loading, and test duration. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. FOREWORD: International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014) was held in Beijing, China during 18th-21st October, 2014, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China. The co-organizer was the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Beijing, China. Cavitation and multiphase flow is one of paramount topics of fluid mechanics with many engineering applications covering a broad range of topics, e.g. hydraulic machinery, biomedical engineering, chemical and process industry. In order to improve the performances of engineering facilities (e.g. hydraulic turbines) and to accelerate the development of techniques for medical treatment of serious diseases (e.g. tumors), it is essential to improve our understanding of cavitation and Multiphase Flow. For example, the present development towards the advanced hydrodynamic systems (e.g. space engine, propeller, hydraulic machinery system) often requires that the systems run under cavitating conditions and the risk of cavitation erosion needs to be controlled. The purpose of the ISCM 2014 was to discuss the state-of-the-art cavitation and multiphase flow research and their up-to-date applications, and to foster discussion and exchange of knowledge, and to provide an opportunity for the researchers, engineers and graduate students to report their latest outputs in these fields. Furthermore, the participants were also encouraged to present their work in progress with short lead time and discuss the encountered problems. ISCM 2014 covers all aspects of cavitation and Multiphase Flow, e.g. both fundamental and applied research with a focus on physical insights, numerical modelling and applications in engineering. Some specific topics are: Cavitating and Multiphase Flow in hydroturbines, pumps, propellers etc. Numerical simulation techniques Cavitation and multiphase flow erosion and anti-erosion techniques Measurement techniques for cavitation and

  12. Mechanical Properties and Erosive Wear Resistance of Zirconia Toughened Al2O3-TiC Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effect of ZrO2 content on the fracture toughness, flexural strength and Vickers hardness as well as the erosive wear resistant properties of zirconia toughened Al2O3-TiC ceramic composites has been investigated. The results showed that the improvement in fracture toughness and flexure strength of composites with the content of zirconia less than 50% and 10% in mass fraction respectively, is primarily attributed to stress-induced transformation toughening by the analyse of X-ray diffraction. The dependance of erosion wear resistance on the attack angle and the content of ZrO2 particles of the composites was also revealed. It is found that the erosion rate of the composites has a sharp rise at a attack angle over 65€?. This phenomenon is due to a brittle response to the erosion test by microstructural observation on eroded surface.

  13. The erosion resistance of tool alloys in foundry melt the Zamak 4 - 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhametzyanova, GF; Kolesnikov, M. S.; Muhametzyanov, I. R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper considers the resistance against erosion dissolution in the melt of foundry Zamak 4 - 1 die steels used for press machine parts manufacturing for injection molding, and hard alloys system WC - Co. It is established that the solubility in the melt Zamak - 4 - 1 steel of 4H5MFS and DI - 22 are promising for the parts fabrication of metal-wire casting machines of CLT and IDRA types. A significant reserve to increase the resistance of metal wires is the use of cast steel, as well as in electroslag and electro-beam remelting options. Metal-ceramic alloy doped with chromium VK25H may be recommended for reinforcement of heavily loaded parts of the press-nodes of hot casting machines under pressure.

  14. Microstructure and Erosion Resistance Performance of ZrAlN/Cu Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jun; Zhu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Ping; Cai, Zhihai

    ZrAlN/Cu coating has been deposited onto Ti-6Al-4 V substrate by reactive magnetron sputtering in order to improve its erosion resistance. The morphology and microstructure were studied combined with Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscrope(FSEM), X-ray Diffraction(XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy(XPS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy(TEM). Coatings hardness and toughness were measured by nano-indentation method and Vicker indentation method respectively. It has been found that Zr0.79Al0.19Cu0.02N coating possess dense columnar structure with 20∼40 nm columnar grains exbibiting (100) preferential orientation. XRD reflection peaks slightly shifts to higher angle, showing some of 19at%Al and 2at%Cu substitutely dissolves into face-centered cubic(FCC) ZrN lattice, XPS proves the existence of AlN and Cu phase in coating. Zr0.79Al0.19Cu0.02N coating demonstrates best erosion resistance at 15°∼90° impingement angle compared with Ti6Al4 V substrate, ZrN and Zr0.80Al0.20N coating, attributing to combination of high hardness(40.7 GPa) and good toughness.

  15. Design and Performance Optimizations of Advanced Erosion-Resistant Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings for Rotorcraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future rotorcraft engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. For thermal barrier coatings designed for rotorcraft turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability, because the rotorcraft are often operated in the most severe sand erosive environments. Advanced low thermal conductivity and erosion-resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with the current emphasis being placed on thermal barrier coating toughness improvements using multicomponent alloying and processing optimization approaches. The performance of the advanced thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in a high temperature erosion burner rig and a laser heat-flux rig to simulate engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition and architecture optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic oxidation durability

  16. Cavitation bioeffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Eitan

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation takes place when tiny gas bubbles oscillate, grow, and collapse in liquid under the influence of ultrasonic field. This study reviews cavitation bioeffects that are found both in vivo and in vitro when exposed to either low- or high-power acoustics. Proposed mechanisms are discussed here as well based on theoretical studies, simulations and test bench experiments. Bioeffects are induced in living tissue once the gas bubble is, for instance, within a blood vessel in close vicinity to the endothelium or to the red blood cells. Conditions for inducing various bioeffects are discussed - from severe damage, such as cell necrosis, to delicate alterations, such as increased permeability of cell membrane. Present and potential applications for therapeutic purpose from stone pulverization and tissue ablation to gene transfection and transdermal delivery are reviewed including the growing use of artificial microbubbles.

  17. Rotating Cavitation Supression Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a rotating cavitation (RC) suppressor for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers. Cavitation instabilities, such as rotating...

  18. Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Erosion Resistance of Nitrocarburized Layers of 38CrMoAl Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官倩芡; 程先华

    2004-01-01

    Effect of rare earth elements (RE) on erosion resistance of nitrocarburized layer of 38CrMoAl steel was investigated. The results indicate that significant improvement occurs in erosion resistance of nitrocarburized 38CrMoAl steel by introducing RE during nitrocarburizing processing as compared with conventional nitrocarburizing processing. Results of mechanical testing show that both hardness and impact toughness of RE-nitrocarburizing layer of 38CrMoAl steel increase as compared with the conventional one. Optical microscopy reveals that there is improvement in the nitrocarburized layer attributed to the introduction of RE, which results in improvement in erosion resistance. Surface morphology observation of tested samples reveals that predominantly furrow-like peelings from plastic deformation are observed for RE nitrocarburizied 38CrMoAl steel, while the furrow-like peeling with initial cross crack and large grinding peelings were observed for conventionally nitrocarburized samples.

  19. Resistance of Silicon Nitride Turbine Components to Erosion and Hot Corrosion/oxidation Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangmen, Thomas E.; Fox, Dennis S.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon nitride turbine components are under intensive development by AlliedSignal to enable a new generation of higher power density auxiliary power systems. In order to be viable in the intended applications, silicon nitride turbine airfoils must be designed for survival in aggressive oxidizing combustion gas environments. Erosive and corrosive damage to ceramic airfoils from ingested sand and sea salt must be avoided. Recent engine test experience demonstrated that NT154 silicon nitride turbine vanes have exceptional resistance to sand erosion, relative to superalloys used in production engines. Similarly, NT154 silicon nitride has excellent resistance to oxidation in the temperature range of interest - up to 1400 C. Hot corrosion attack of superalloy gas turbine components is well documented. While hot corrosion from ingested sea salt will attack silicon nitride substantially less than the superalloys being replaced in initial engine applications, this degradation has the potential to limit component lives in advanced engine applications. Hot corrosion adversely affects the strength of silicon nitride in the 850 to 1300 C range. Since unacceptable reductions in strength must be rapidly identified and avoided, AlliedSignal and the NASA Lewis Research Center have pioneered the development of an environmental life prediction model for silicon nitride turbine components. Strength retention in flexure specimens following 1 to 3300 hour exposures to high temperature oxidation and hot corrosion has been measured and used to calibrate the life prediction model. Predicted component life is dependent upon engine design (stress, temperature, pressure, fuel/air ratio, gas velocity, and inlet air filtration), mission usage (fuel sulfur content, location (salt in air), and times at duty cycle power points), and material parameters. Preliminary analyses indicate that the hot corrosion resistance of NT154 silicon nitride is adequate for AlliedSignal's initial engine

  20. Cavitation passive control on immersed bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Khodayar; Dorostkar, Mohammad Mortezazadeh; Katal, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a new idea of controlling cavitation around a hydrofoil through a passive cavitation controller called artificial cavitation bubble generator (ACG). Cyclic processes, namely, growth and implosion of bubbles around an immersed body, are the main reasons for the destruction and erosion of the said body. This paper aims to create a condition in which the cavitation bubbles reach a steady-state situation and prevent the occurrence of the cyclic processes. For this purpose, the ACG is placed on the surface of an immersed body, in particular, the suction surface of a 2D hydrofoil. A simulation was performed with an implicit finite volume scheme based on a SIMPLE algorithm associated with the multiphase and cavitation model. The modified k-ɛ RNG turbulence model equipped with a modification of the turbulent viscosity was applied to overcome the turbulence closure problem. Numerical simulation of water flow over the hydrofoil equipped with the ACG shows that a low-pressure recirculation area is produced behind the ACG and artificially generates stationary cavitation bubbles. The location, shape, and size of this ACG are the crucial parameters in creating a proper control. Results show that the cavitation bubble is controlled well with a well-designed ACG.

  1. Cavitation passive control on immersed bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Khodayar; Dorostkar, Mohammad Mortezazadeh; Katal, Ali

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a new idea of controlling cavitation around a hydrofoil through a passive cavitation controller called artificial cavitation bubble generator (ACG). Cyclic processes, namely, growth and implosion of bubbles around an immersed body, are the main reasons for the destruction and erosion of the said body. This paper aims to create a condition in which the cavitation bubbles reach a steady-state situation and prevent the occurrence of the cyclic processes. For this purpose, the ACG is placed on the surface of an immersed body, in particular, the suction surface of a 2D hydrofoil. A simulation was performed with an implicit finite volume scheme based on a SIMPLE algorithm associated with the multiphase and cavitation model. The modified k-ɛ RNG turbulence model equipped with a modification of the turbulent viscosity was applied to overcome the turbulence closure problem. Numerical simulation of water flow over the hydrofoil equipped with the ACG shows that a low-pressure recirculation area is produced behind the ACG and artificially generates stationary cavitation bubbles. The location, shape, and size of this ACG are the crucial parameters in creating a proper control. Results show that the cavitation bubble is controlled well with a well-designed ACG.

  2. Patterns of tree dieback in Queensland, Australia: the importance of drought stress and the role of resistance to cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin J; Matzner, Steven L; Byer, William; Brown, Joel R

    2004-04-01

    During the extreme 1992-1997 El Niño drought event, widespread stem mortality, or tree "dieback", of both mature and juvenile eucalypts occurred within the tropical savannas of northeast Australia. Most of the dieback occurred in individuals of the ironbark species complex ( Eucalyptus crebra- E. xanthoclada) while individuals of the bloodwood species Corymbia erythrophloia, exhibited significantly less stem mortality. Indicative of greater water stress, predawn and midday xylem water potentials of ironbark adults and saplings were significantly more negative than predawn values of bloodwoods. The very negative xylem water potentials in ironbarks suggest that stem mortality in both adult and juvenile ironbarks results from drought-induced embolism and that ironbarks perhaps have a shallower and less extensive root system than bloodwoods. Although predawn and midday water potentials for ironbark adults and saplings were similar, a census of mature and juvenile ironbark trees indicated that mortality was higher in adult trees. Cavitation vulnerability curves indicated that ironbark saplings may be better buffered against cavitation than adult trees. If they possess smaller root systems, saplings are more likely than adults to experience low xylem water potentials, even in non-drought years. Xylem conduits produced in adult trees during periods of normal rainfall, although perhaps more efficient in water conduction, may be more vulnerable to cavitation during infrequent severe droughts.

  3. Microbubble Cavitation Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Vignon, Francois; Shi, William T; Powers, Jeffry E.; Everbach, E. Carr; Liu, Jinjin; Gao, Shunji; Xie, Feng; Porter, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound cavitation of microbubble contrast agents has a potential for therapeutic applications such as sonothrombolysis (STL) in acute ischemic stroke. For safety, efficacy, and reproducibility of treatment, it is critical to evaluate the cavitation state (moderate oscillations, stable cavitation, and inertial cavitation) and activity level in and around a treatment area. Acoustic passive cavitation detectors (PCDs) have been used to this end but do not provide spatial information.

  4. A New Approach of Improving Rain Erosion Resistance of Nanocomposite Sol-Gel Coatings by Optimization Process Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjati Najafabadi, Akbar; Shoja Razavi, Reza; Mozaffarinia, Reza; Rahimi, Hamed

    2014-05-01

    Erosion protection nanocomposite sol-gel coatings based on tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxisilane (GPTMS) are prepared and characterized to protect marine structures susceptible to damage caused by liquid impact, e.g., the submarine body. This study focuses on the optimization of compositional and process parameters of transparent hybrid nanocomposite sol-gel coatings resistant to rain erosion by using statistical design of experimental methodology (DoE) based on Taguchi orthogonal design. The impact of compositional and process parameters of the coatings on the erosion protection performance is investigated by five-factor-four-level design methodology. Hybrid coatings were deposited on AA5083 by a dip coating technique. Optimization coatings are analyzed regarding their adhesion (pull-off), flexibility (impact and mandrel bending), hardness (pencil), wear (Taber wear index), and rain erosion resistance (stationary sample erosion test). The surface morphology and roughness were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optimization coatings showed excellent flexibility and adhesion to the substrate with smooth nanostructure surface; the RMS surface roughness was 1.85 nm. The evaluation of the result obtained from abrasion shows cohesive and interfacial wear with abrasive and adhesive mechanisms, respectively. Liquid impact results show cohesive failure of the coatings without any sign of delamination.

  5. Biologically-initiated rock crust on sandstone: Mechanical and hydraulic properties and resistance to erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, Martin; Bruthans, Jiří; Filippi, Michal; Schweigstillová, Jana; Falteisek, Lukáš; Řihošek, Jaroslav

    2017-02-01

    Biocolonization on sandstone surfaces is known to play an important role in rock disintegration, yet it sometimes also aids in the protection of the underlying materials from rapid erosion. There have been few studies comparing the mechanical and/or hydraulic properties of the BIRC (Biologically-Initiated Rock Crust) with its subsurface. As a result, the overall effects of the BIRC are not yet well understood. The objective of the present study was to briefly characterize the BIRC from both the mineralogical and biological points of view, and especially to quantify the effect of the BIRC upon the mechanical and hydraulic properties of friable sandstone. The mineralogical investigation of a well-developed BIRC showed that its surface is enriched in kaolinite and clay- to silt-sized quartz particles. Total organic carbon increases with the age of the BIRC. Based on DNA sequencing and microscopy, the BIRC is formed by various fungi, including components of lichens and green algae. Using the method of drilling resistance, by measuring tensile strength, and based on water jet testing, it was determined that a BIRC is up to 12 times less erodible and has 3-35 times higher tensile strength than the subsurface friable sandstone. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of the studied BIRC is 15-300 times lower than the subsurface, and was measured to also decrease in capillary water absorption (2-33 times). Water-vapor diffusion is not significantly influenced by the presence of the BIRC. The BIRC thus forms a hardened surface which protects the underlying material from rain and flowing water erosion, and considerably modifies the sandstone's hydraulic properties. Exposing the material to calcination (550 °C), and experiments with the enzyme zymolyase indicated that a major contribution to the surface hardening is provided by organic matter. In firmer sandstones, the BIRC may still considerably decrease the rate of weathering, as it is capable of providing cohesion to strongly

  6. Microbubble cavitation imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignon, Francois; Shi, William T; Powers, Jeffry E; Everbach, E Carr; Liu, Jinjin; Gao, Shunji; Xie, Feng; Porter, Thomas R

    2013-04-01

    Ultrasound cavitation of microbubble contrast agents has a potential for therapeutic applications such as sonothrombolysis (STL) in acute ischemic stroke. For safety, efficacy, and reproducibility of treatment, it is critical to evaluate the cavitation state (moderate oscillations, stable cavitation, and inertial cavitation) and activity level in and around a treatment area. Acoustic passive cavitation detectors (PCDs) have been used to this end but do not provide spatial information. This paper presents a prototype of a 2-D cavitation imager capable of producing images of the dominant cavitation state and activity level in a region of interest. Similar to PCDs, the cavitation imaging described here is based on the spectral analysis of the acoustic signal radiated by the cavitating microbubbles: ultraharmonics of the excitation frequency indicate stable cavitation, whereas elevated noise bands indicate inertial cavitation; the absence of both indicates moderate oscillations. The prototype system is a modified commercially available ultrasound scanner with a sector imaging probe. The lateral resolution of the system is 1.5 mm at a focal depth of 3 cm, and the axial resolution is 3 cm for a therapy pulse length of 20 μs. The maximum frame rate of the prototype is 2 Hz. The system has been used for assessing and mapping the relative importance of the different cavitation states of a microbubble contrast agent. In vitro (tissue-mimicking flow phantom) and in vivo (heart, liver, and brain of two swine) results for cavitation states and their changes as a function of acoustic amplitude are presented.

  7. Influence of process parameters on the cavitation resistance of arc thermally sprayed cobalt stainless steel; Influencia dos parametros de processo na resistencia a cavitacao de uma liga inoxidavel com cobalto aspergido a arco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukasiewicz, A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Capra, A.R.; Chandelier, J. da L. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: anderson.geraldo@lactec.org.br; Paredes, R.S.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    In this work the influence of the arc thermal spraying process on the microstructure, oxide volumetric fraction, porosity and cavitation resistance was studied. The characterization was performed by optical and electrical microscopy, microhardness and ultrasonic cavitation test, ASTM G32-96 in AS895HY cobalt stainless steel. The increase in air pressure, 280 to 410 kPa, modified the oxide fraction from 17,2 +- 3,6% to 10,9 +-1,8%, in the samples without pre-heating treatment. With 120 deg C pre-heating treatment the oxide fraction increase from 24,1 +- 2,8% to 12,8 +- 1,9% when the air pressure was modified from 280 to 550 kPa. The mass loss in vibration-induced cavitation were 1,55 and 1,42 mg/h for 410 kPa AS895HY samples, with and without pre heating treatment, and 2,12 mg/h for 280 kPa samples without pre heating treatment. The results showed that the process parameters modified the microstructure and the cavitation resistance of the arc thermal spraying coatings. (author)

  8. Variations of bubble cavitation and temperature elevation during lesion formation by high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Gao, Xiaobin Wilson

    2013-08-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as an effective therapeutic modality in both thermal ablations for solid tumor/cancer and soft-tissue fragmentation. Mechanical and thermal effects, which play an important role in the HIFU treatment simultaneously, are dependent on the operating parameters and may vary with the progress of therapy. Mechanical erosion in the shape of a "squid," a "dumbbell" lesion with both mechanical and thermal lesions, or a "tadpole" lesion with mechanical erosion at the center and thermal necrosis on the boundary in the transparent gel phantom could be produced correspondingly with the pulse duration of 5-30 ms, which is much longer than histotripsy burst but shorter than the time for tissue boiling, and pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 0.2-5 Hz. Meanwhile, variations of bubble cavitation (both inertial and stable cavitation) and temperature elevation in the focal region (i.e., z = -2.5, 0, and 2.5 mm) were measured by passive cavitation detection (PCD) and thermocouples during the therapeutic procedure, respectively. Stable cavitation increased with the pulse duration, PRF, and the number of pulses delivered. However, inertial cavitation was found to increase initially and then decrease with long pulse duration and high PRF. Temperature in the pre-focal region is always higher than those at the focal and post-focal position in all tests. Great variations of PCD signals and temperature elevation are due to the generation and persistence of large bubble, which is resistant to collapse and occurs with the increase of pulse duration and PRF. Similar lesion pattern and variations were also observed in ex vivo porcine kidneys. Hyperechoes in the B-mode ultrasound image were comparable to the shape and size of lesions in the dissected tissue. Thermal lesion volume increased with the increase of pulse duration and PRF, but mechanical erosion reached its maximum volume with the pulse duration of 20 ms and PRF of 1

  9. CAVITATION CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH VELOCITY FLOW WITH AND WITHOUT AERATION ON THE ORDER OF 50 m/s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Experimental study of cavitation characteristics with and without aeration was conducted at the flow velocity 50m/s in the non-circulating type water tunnel in the Hydraulics Laboratory at Zhejiang University of Technology. Variations of pressure and cavitation number with air concentration, pressure waveforms as well as cavitation erosion level of concrete specimen with and without aeration were obtained. The effects of cavitation control by aeration were analyzed.

  10. Analysis of the Effect of Surface Modification on Polyimide Composites Coated with Erosion Resistant Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndalama, Tchinga; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Sutter, James K. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research is to enhance performance of composite coatings through modification of graphite-reinforced polyimide composite surfaces prior to metal bond coat/ hard topcoat application for use in the erosive and/or oxidative environments of advanced engines. Graphite reinforced polyimide composites, PMR-15 and PMR-II-50, formed by sheet molding and pre-pregging will be surface treated, overlaid with a bond coat and then coated with WC-Co. The surface treatment will include cleaning, RF plasma or ultraviolet light- ozone etching, and deposition of SiO(x) groups. These surface treatments will be studied in order to investigate and improve adhesion and oxidation resistance. The following panels were provided by NASA-Glenn Research Center(NASA-GRC): Eight compression molded PMR-II-50; 6 x 6 x 0.125 in. Two vacuum-bagged PMR-II-50; 12 x 12 x 0.125 in. Eight compression molded PMR-15; 6 x 6 x 0.125 in. One vacuum-bagged PMR-15; 12 x 12 x 0.125 in. All panels were made using a 12 x 12 in. T650-35 8HS (3K-tow) graphite fabric. A diamond-wafering blade, with deionized water as a cutting fluid, was used to cut PMR-II-50 and PMR-15 panels into 1 x 1 in. pieces for surface tests. The panel edges exhibiting delamination were used for the preliminary surface preparation tests as these would be unsuitable for strength and erosion testing. PMR-15 neat resin samples were also provided by NASA GRC. Surface profiles of the as-received samples were determined using a Dektak III Surface profile measuring system. Two samples of compression molded PMR-II-50 and PMR-15, vacuum-bagged PMR-II-50 and PMR-15 were randomly chosen for surface profile measurement according to ANSI/ASME B46.1. Prior to each measurement, the samples were blasted with compressed air to remove any artifacts. Five 10 mm-long scans were made on each sample. The short and long wavelength cutoff filter values were set at 100 and 1000 m, diamond stylus radius was 12.5 microns. Table 1 is a summary of the

  11. Corrosion-erosion resistance of Zn-Al co-cementation coatings on carbon steels in aqueous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德志; 何业东; 王德仁; 张召恩; 齐慧滨; 高唯

    2002-01-01

    A novel Zn-Al co-cementation coating was obtained by a pack cementation method. This coating possesses a two-layered structure. The outer layer is mainly composed of Fe2Al5 and FeAl intermetallics with a small amount of Zn, and the inner layer consists of Zn, Fe and a small amount of Al. The corrosion-erosion resistance of Zn-Al co-cementation coatings on carbon steel was studied by a rotary corrosion method in various NaCl and H2S containing solutions and relevant SiO2 containing media. The experimental results are compared with those of carbon steels and the sherardizing and aluminizing coatings, showing that the Zn-Al co-cementation coatings have excellent corrosion-erosion resistance in various aqueous media.

  12. In Situ Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Reinforced Silicone-Acrylate Resin Composite Films Applied in Erosion Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduced graphene oxide reinforced silicone-acrylate resin composite films (rGO/SAR composite films were prepared by in situ synthesis method. The structure of rGO/SAR composite films was characterized by Raman spectrum, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analyzer. The results showed that the rGO were uniformly dispersed in silicone-acrylate resin matrix. Furthermore, the effect of rGO loading on mechanical properties of composite films was investigated by bulge test. A significant enhancement (ca. 290% and 320% in Young’s modulus and yield stress was obtained by adding the rGO to silicone-acrylate resin. At the same time, the adhesive energy between the composite films and metal substrate was also improved to be about 200%. Moreover, the erosion resistance of the composite films was also investigated as function of rGO loading. The rGO had great effect on the erosion resistance of the composite films, in which the Rcorr (ca. 0.8 mm/year of composite film was far lower than that (28.7 mm/year of pure silicone-acrylate resin film. Thus, this approach provides a novel route to investigate mechanical stability of polymer composite films and improve erosion resistance of polymer coating, which are very important to be used in mechanical-corrosion coupling environments.

  13. Slow erosion of a quantitative apple resistance to Venturia inaequalis based on an isolate-specific Quantitative Trait Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffier, Valérie; Le Cam, Bruno; Al Rifaï, Mehdi; Bellanger, Marie-Noëlle; Comby, Morgane; Denancé, Caroline; Didelot, Frédérique; Expert, Pascale; Kerdraon, Tifenn; Lemarquand, Arnaud; Ravon, Elisa; Durel, Charles-Eric

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative plant resistance affects the aggressiveness of pathogens and is usually considered more durable than qualitative resistance. However, the efficiency of a quantitative resistance based on an isolate-specific Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) is expected to decrease over time due to the selection of isolates with a high level of aggressiveness on resistant plants. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed scab incidence over an eight-year period in an orchard planted with susceptible and quantitatively resistant apple genotypes. We sampled 79 Venturia inaequalis isolates from this orchard at three dates and we tested their level of aggressiveness under controlled conditions. Isolates sampled on resistant genotypes triggered higher lesion density and exhibited a higher sporulation rate on apple carrying the resistance allele of the QTL T1 compared to isolates sampled on susceptible genotypes. Due to this ability to select aggressive isolates, we expected the QTL T1 to be non-durable. However, our results showed that the quantitative resistance based on the QTL T1 remained efficient in orchard over an eight-year period, with only a slow decrease in efficiency and no detectable increase of the aggressiveness of fungal isolates over time. We conclude that knowledge on the specificity of a QTL is not sufficient to evaluate its durability. Deciphering molecular mechanisms associated with resistance QTLs, genetic determinants of aggressiveness and putative trade-offs within pathogen populations is needed to help in understanding the erosion processes.

  14. Study on Abrasion Properties of Common Materials for Fluid Mechanical Impeller at Interactive Erosion and Cavitation Wear%流体机械叶轮常用材料冲蚀与空蚀交互磨损特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞佑霞; 李彬; 刘厚才; 唐勇

    2013-01-01

    模拟流体机械冲蚀与空蚀交互磨损工况,通过对比材料的绝对失重量与试验时间的变化曲线、24 h 试验的磨痕演变规律以及 SEM微观形貌,研究 Q235、45#和40Cr 钢及 HT200铸铁4种叶轮常用金属材料的磨蚀特性。结果表明:在冲蚀与空蚀交互磨损下,材料的失重量与磨损时间接近正比;试件的磨痕沿水流方向,在空蚀孔两边呈彗星状分布;沙粒对 Q235等塑性材料微切削过程中,动能转化为材料的塑性变形功,使材料产生塑性流动,形成犁沟状磨痕;对于脆性材料 HT200,空泡溃灭和沙粒的冲击超过其弹塑性变形极限,使材料产生微裂纹、微体积疲劳剥落,形成蜂窝状蚀坑。相同硬度下,塑性材料耐交互磨蚀性能优于脆性材料。%Through simulating turbine working condition on interactive erosion and cavitation wear,the abrasion charac-teristics of Q235,45 and 40Cr steel,and HT200 cast iron were studied,and the change curves between material’s abso-lute weight loss with experimental time were obtained.The wear scar evolution of four materials during the 24 h experiment was compared and the specimen microstructure was observed by SEM.The results show that the weight loss of material is a-bout in direct proportion to the abrasion time under interactive wear;the specimen wear scar along the flow direction takes a comet formation distribution on both sides of the cavitation hole;during the process of sand micro-cutting on plastic mate-rial such as Q235 steel,the kinetic energy is converted to plastic deformation work,which causes material plastic flow and forms furrow-like wear scar;brittle material like HT200 cast iron,the bubble collapse and sand impact exceeds its elastic-plastic deformation limit,as a result,micro-cracks,fatigue spalling and honeycomb pits are generated for material;the wear resistance of plastic material is better than that of brittle material at the same

  15. The antifibrotic drug pirfenidone promotes pulmonary cavitation and drug resistance in a mouse model of chronic tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahidjo, Bintou A.; Maiga, Mariama C.; Ihms, Elizabeth A.; Maiga, Mamoudou; Ordonez, Alvaro A.; Cheung, Laurene S.; Beck, Sarah; Andrade, Bruno B.; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Pirfenidone is a recently approved antifibrotic drug for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Because tuberculosis (TB) is characterized by granulomatous inflammation in conjunction with parenchymal destruction and replacement fibrosis, we sought to determine whether the addition of pirfenidone as an adjunctive, host-directed therapy provides a beneficial effect during antimicrobial treatment of TB. We hypothesized that pirfenidone’s antiinflammatory and antifibrotic properties would reduce inflammatory lung damage and increase antimicrobial drug penetration in granulomas to accelerate treatment response. The effectiveness of adjunctive pirfenidone during TB drug therapy was evaluated using a murine model of chronic TB. Mice treated with standard therapy 2HRZ/4HR (H, isoniazid; R, rifampin; and Z, pyrazinamide) were compared with 2 alternative regimens containing pirfenidone (Pf) (2HRZPf/4HRPf and 2HRZPf/4HR). Contrary to our hypothesis, adjunctive pirfenidone use leads to reduced bacterial clearance and increased relapse rates. This treatment failure is closely associated with the emergence of isoniazid monoresistant bacilli, increased cavitation, and significant lung pathology. While antifibrotic agents may eventually be used as part of adjunctive host-directed therapy of TB, this study clearly demonstrates that caution must be exercised. Moreover, as pirfenidone becomes more widely used in clinical practice, increased patient monitoring would be required in endemic TB settings. PMID:27699232

  16. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure, mechanical properties and erosion resistance of cast 23-8-N nitronic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Avnish, E-mail: avnishmnit@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Sharma, Ashok, E-mail: ashok.mnit12@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Goel, S.K. [Star Wire India Ltd., Ballabgarh, Haryana 121404 (India)

    2015-06-18

    Effects of heat treatment on microstructure, mechanical properties and erosion behavior of cast 23-8-N nitronic steel were studied. A series of heat treatments were carried out in the temperature range of 1180–1240 °C to observe the effect on microstructure. Optimum heat treatment cycle was obtained at 1220 °C for holding time of 150 min, which leads to dissolution of carbides, formation of equiaxed grains and twins. Heat treatment has shown improvement in tensile strength, toughness, impact strength and work hardening capacity, however at the cost of marginal reduction in hardness and yield strength. This resulted in improvement of erosion resistance of cast 23-8-N nitronic steel. The microstructures, fractured surfaces and phases were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis respectively.

  17. Numerical investigations on cavitation intensity for 3D homogeneous unsteady viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, C.; Archer, A.; Fortes-Patella, R.

    2016-11-01

    The cavitation erosion remains an industrial issue. In this paper, we deal with the cavitation intensity which can be described as the aggressiveness - or erosive capacity - of a cavitating flow. The estimation of this intensity is a challenging problem both in terms of modelling the cavitating flow and predicting the erosion due to cavitation. For this purpose, a model was proposed to estimate cavitation intensity from 3D unsteady cavitating flow simulations. An intensity model based on pressure and void fraction derivatives was developped and applied to a NACA 65012 hydrofoil tested at LMH-EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) [1]. 2D and 3D unsteady cavitating simulations were performed using a homogeneous model with void fraction transport equation included in Code_Saturne with cavitating module [2]. The article presents a description of the numerical code and the physical approach considered. Comparisons between 2D and 3D simulations, as well as between numerical and experimental results obtained by pitting tests, are analyzed in the paper.

  18. CFD analysis of cloud cavitation on three tip-modified propellers with systematically varied tip geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, K. W.; Andersen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    The blade tip loading is often reduced as an effort to restrain sheet and tip vortex cavitation in the design of marine propellers. This CFD analysis demonstrates that an excessive reduction of the tip loading can cause cloud cavitation responsible for much of noise and surface erosion. Detached...

  19. The Anti-cavitation and Abrasion Resistant Spray Coating Application of Sea Water Pump Impellers in the Nuclear Power%抗磨蚀金属涂层在核电海水泵叶轮的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄科峰; 许彪; 吴树辉; 叶林; 尹嵩; 史一岭

    2012-01-01

    本文选取WC10Co4Cr喷涂材料,采用HVOF方法工艺在基材45#钢上制备涂层,与基材在自制圆盘式磨蚀试验台上进行磨蚀破坏试验,并将基材与涂层材料的抗磨蚀性能进行比较分析,最终将金属涂层应用于核电海水循环泵的叶轮抗磨蚀改造中,取得良好效果。%In this study, WC10Co4Cr coatings on the No.45 steel substrate surface have been formed by High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF) spraying. The cavitation and abrasion behavior of coatings and the substrate has been investigated using a self-manufactured rotating disk system. Anti-cavitation and abrasion resistance properties have been illustrated and analyzed with the substrate by the cumulative mass loss curves. WC 10Co4Cr coatings have been used to build up the anti-cavitation and abrasion resistance properties of the main circulating water pump impeller in the nuclear power, and gets good effect.

  20. Runoff erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Evelpidou, Niki; Cordier, Stephane; Merino, Agustin (Ed.); Figueiredo, Tomás; Centeri, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Table of Contents PART I – THEORY OF RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 1 - RUNOFF EROSION – THE MECHANISMS CHAPTER 2 - LARGE SCALE APPROACHES OF RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 3 - MEASURING PRESENT RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 4 - MODELLING RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 5 - RUNOFF EROSION AND HUMAN SOCIETIES: THE INFLUENCE OF LAND USE AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL EROSION PART II - CASE STUDIES CASE STUDIES – INTRODUCTION: RUNOFF EROSION IN MEDITERRANEAN AREA CASE STUDY 1: Soil Erosion Risk...

  1. CAVITATION CONTROL BY AERATION AND ITS COMPRESSIBLE CHARACTERISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhi-yong; SU Pei-lan

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation and a theoretical analysis of cavitation control by aeration and its compressible characteristics at the flow velocity V=20m/s-50m/s. Pressure waveforms with and without aeration in cavitation region were measured. The variation of compression ratio with air concentration was described, and the relation between the least air concentration to prevent cavitation erosion and flow velocity proposed based on our experimental study. The experimental results show that aeration remarkably increases the pressure in cavitation region, and the corresponding pressure wave exhibits a compression wave/shock wave. The pressure increase in cavitation region of high-velocity flow with aeration is due to the fact that the compression waves/shock wave after the flow is aerated. The compression ratio increases with air concentration rising. The relation between flow velocity and least air concentration to prevent cavitation erosion follows a semi-cubical parabola. Also, the speed of sound and Mach number of high-velocity aerated flow were analyzed.

  2. [Effects of biological regulated measures on active organic carbon and erosion-resistance in the Three Gorges Reservoir region soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru; Huang, Lin; He, Bing-Hui; Zhou, Li-Jiang; Yu, Chuan; Wang, Feng

    2013-07-01

    To gain a better knowledge of characteristics of soils and provide a scientific basis for soil erosion control in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, contents of aggregates and total soil organic carbon (SOC), as well as soil active organic carbon fractions including particulate organic carbon (POC), readily oxidized organic carbon (ROC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in the 0-30 cm soil layer under seven different biological regulated measures were studied by the field investigation combined with the laboratory analysis. Results showed that the content of the SOC and active organic carbon fractions decreased with the increasing soil depth; the content of the SOC and active organic carbon fractions in 0-10 cm was significantly higher than that in 20-30 cm. The stability of soil aggregates were also significantly influenced by biological regulated measures, the content of > 0.25 mm water-stable aggregates in seven types of biological regulated measures was in the order of Koelreuteria bipinnata + Cassia suffruticasa > hedgerows > closed forest > natural restoration > economic forest > traditional planting > control plot, moreover, the content of 0.25 mm water-stable aggregates correlated positively with the content of SOC. Soils under different biological regulated measures all demonstrated fractal features, and soil under the measure of Koelreuteria bipinnata + Cassia suffruticasa was found to have the lowest value of fractal dimension and soil erodiable K, indicating a relatively strong structure stability and erosion-resistant capacity. Negative correlation was observed when compared the content of active organic carbon fractions with the soil erodiable K. It can be concluded that properties of soil can be managed through biological regulated measures; thence had an influence on the soil erosion-resistant capacity.

  3. Dynamics of Vortex Cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanisms with which tip vortex cavitation is responsible for broadband pressure fluctuations on ship propellers. Hypotheses for these are described in detail by Bosschers (2009). Validation is provided by three main cavitation-tunnel experiments, one on a model propeller

  4. Effect of austempering temperature on cavitation behaviour of unalloyed ADI material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dojcinovic, Marina [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia); Eric, Olivera [Innovation Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, Belgrade (Serbia); Rajnovic, Dragan; Sidjanin, Leposava [Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, Novi Sad (Serbia); Balos, Sebastian, E-mail: sebab@uns.ac.rs [Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2013-08-15

    This paper provides an in-depth study and description of cavitation damage and microstructural changes in two types of unalloyed austempered ductile iron (ADI). ADI materials used were austempered at 300 and 400 °C having ausferrite microstructure with 16 and 31.4% of retained austenite, respectively. Metallographic examination was carried out to study the morphology of their cavitation-damaged surfaces. Cavitation damage was initiated at graphite nodules as well as in the interface between a graphite nodule and an ausferrite matrix. Furthermore, microcracking and ferrite/retained austenite morphology were proved to be of great importance for cavitation resistance. Mass loss rate revealed that ADI austempered at 400 °C has a higher cavitation resistance in water than ADI austempered at 300 °C. A higher amount of retained austenite in ADI austempered at 400 °C played an important role in increasing cavitation resistance. The good cavitation behaviour of ADI austempered at 400 °C was due to the matrix hardening by stress assisted phase transformation of retained austenite into martensite (SATRAM) phenomenon, as shown by X-ray diffraction analysis. - Highlights: • Cavitation rate of two ADI materials was tested. • ADI material with a lower hardness has had a lower cavitation rate. • The main reason is microstructural transformations during cavitation. • SATRAM phenomenon increases cavitation resistance.

  5. Preparation of high-content hexagonal boron nitride composite film and characterization of atomic oxygen erosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Min; Gu, Yizhuo; Wang, Shaokai; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2017-04-01

    Space aircrafts circling in low earth orbit are suffered from highly reactive atomic oxygen (AO). To shield AO, a flexible thin film with 80 wt.% hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and h-BN/epoxy film were fabricated through vacuum filtration and adding nanofibrillated cellulose fibers. H-BN nanosheets were hydroxylated for enhancing interaction in the films. Mass loss and erosion yield at accumulated AO fluence about 3.04 × 1020 atoms/cm2 were adopted to evaluate the AO resistance properties of the films. A carpet-like rough surface, chemical oxidations and change in crystal structure of h-BN were found after AO treatment, and the degrading mechanism was proposed. The mass loss and erosion yield under AO attack were compared between h-BN film and h-BN/epoxy film, and the comparison was also done for various types of shielding AO materials. Excellent AO resistance property of h-BN film is shown, and the reasons are analyzed.

  6. Cavitating Flow over a Mini Hydrofoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xian-Wu; JI Bin; ZHANG Yao; XU Hong-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    We consider a cavitating flow over a mini hydrofoil (foil profile: Clark-Y-11.7) having a 14 mm chord length in a cavitation tunnel at various cavitation numbers. Experimental observations show that cavitating flows over a miniature hydrofoil display several types of cavitation behavior, such as cavitation inception, sheet cavitation, cloud cavitation and super cavitation with the decreasing cavitation number. Under the same cavitation conditions, cavitation over a mini hydrofoil would be suppressed in comparison to cavitation over an ordinary hydrofoil. This cavitation scale effect is suspected to be caused by the Reynolds number.%We consider a cavitating flow over a mini hydrofoil (foil profile:Clark-Y-11.7) having a 14mm chord length in a cavitation tunnel at various cavitation numbers.Experimental observations show that cavitating flows over a miniature hydrofoil display several types of cavitation behavior,such as cavitation inception,sheet cavitation,cloud cavitation and super cavitation with the decreasing cavitation number.Under the same cavitation conditions,cavitation over a mini hydrofoil would be suppressed in comparison to cavitation over an ordinary hydrofoil.This cavitation scale effect is suspected to be caused by the Reynolds number.

  7. Experimental and numerical analysis of cavitating flow around a hydrofoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Miloš

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experiments carried out in the cavitation tunnel with the rectangular test section of 150 × 150 × 500 mm and the maximum test section inlet velocity of 25 m/s. These experiments have been aimed to visualize the cavitation phenomena as well as to quantify the erosion potential using pitting tests evaluated during the incubation period for the cast-iron prismatic hydrofoil with the modified NACA profile. A bypass section installed in the tunnel has allowed to measure the nuclei content in the inlet flow to the test section using the acoustic spectrometer. The measured data have been compared with the CFD analysis of the cavitation phenomena on the hydrofoil as well as the numerically determined location and magnitude of the first calculated collapses of the cavitating bubbles with a good agreement.

  8. Can Cavitation Be Anticipated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Dress, W.B.; Hylton, J.O.; Kercel, S.W.

    1999-04-25

    The major problem with cavitation in pumps and hydraulic systems is that there is no effective (conventional) method for detecting or predicting its inception. The traditional method of recognizing cavitation in a pump is to declare the event occurring when the total head drops by some arbitrary value (typically 3%) in response to a pressure reduction at the pump inlet. However, the device is already seriously cavitating when this happens. What is actually needed is a practical method to detect impending rather than incipient cavitation. Whereas the detection of incipient cavitation requires the detection of features just after cavitation starts, the anticipation of cavitation requires the detection and identification of precursor features just before it begins. Two recent advances that make this detection possible. The first is acoustic sensors with a bandwidth of 1 MHz and a dynamic range of 80 dB that preserve the fine details of the features when subjected to coarse vibrations. The second is the application of Bayesian parameter estimation which makes it possible to separate weak signals, such as those present in cavitation precursors, from strong signals, such as pump vibration. Bayesian parameter estimation derives a model based on cavitation hydrodynamics and produces a figure of merit of how well it fits the acquired data. Applying this model to an anticipatory engine should lead to a reliable method of anticipating cavitation before it occurs. This paper reports the findings of precursor features using high-performance sensors and Bayesian analysis of weak acoustic emissions in the 100-1000kHz band from an experimental flow loop.

  9. Control of Propeller Cavitation in Operational Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijdag, A.

    2009-01-01

    Off design conditions can have a severe impact on ship propulsion system behaviour. Resistance increase for instance leads to a higher engine loading, and can also easily lead to a decrease of cavitation inception speed with respect to calm water conditions. Wakefield variations due to ship motions,

  10. Classification of lubricants according to cavitation criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meged, Y.; Venner, C.H.; Napel, ten W.E

    1995-01-01

    Cavitation in lubrication liquids has long been known to be detrimental to components in hydraulic systems. Damage has been detected in journal bearings, especially under severe dynamic loading, gears, squeeze film dampers and valves. These findings have led to intensive studies of metal resistance

  11. Measurements of the stagnation pressure in the center of a cavitating jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobel, A. J.; Talmon, A. M.

    2012-02-01

    The stagnation pressure at a certain distance from the nozzle is important for the erosion/ cutting capacity of a submerged jet in dredging. The decay of the stagnation pressure with jet distance is well known in the case of non-cavitating jets. It is also known that cavitation causes the rate of decay to decrease. Under conditions of cavitation, a cone of bubbles forms around the jet, which decreases the momentum exchange between the jet and the ambient water and the associated entrainment. Despite the amount of research on cavitating jets, the literature does not provide a description for the entrainment in the case of a cavitating jet. Also, a useful description of the stagnation pressure decay of a cavitating jet is missing. To fill this lacuna, we carried out jet tests at various ambient pressures in both fresh and saline water. We present and analyse the results in this paper.

  12. Species-diversified plant cover enhances orchard ecosystem resistance to climatic stress and soil erosion in subtropical hillsid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 杨一松; 唐建军

    2004-01-01

    Naturally occurring plants in agroecosystem evidently play an important role in ecosystem stability. Field studies on the ecological effects of native plants conserved in orchard and their resistance to adverse climatic stress, and soil erosion were conducted from 1998 to 2001 in a newly developed Changshan-huyou (Citrus changshan-huyou Y.B. Chang) orchard. The experimental area covered 150 ha in typical red soil hilly region in southeastern China. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with six combinations of twelve plant species with four replications. All species used were native in the orchard. Plots were 15×8m2 and separated by 2m buffer strips. Precipitation, soil erosion in rainstorm days and aboveground biomass of plant community when rainstorm days ended, soil temperature and moisture under various plant covers during seasonal megathermal drought period, antiscourability of soil with different root density under various simulated rainfalls were measured. Plant cover significantly decreased the daily highest and mean soil temperature and its daily variation in hot-drought season, but there was no significant difference of the alleviation among various plant covers. Plant covers significantly increased the soil moisture in seasonal megathermal drought period. Better moisture maintenance and soil erosion reduction was found when the plant species numbers in cover plant communities increased from one to eight. Higher root density in plant communities with higher species richness increased significantly the antiscourability of the soil. It was suggested that conserving plant communities with diversified native species could produce the best positive ecological effects on citrus orchard ecosystem stability.

  13. Species-diversified plant cover enhances orchard ecosystem resistance to climatic stress and soil erosion in subtropical hillside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 杨一松; 唐建军

    2004-01-01

    Naturally occurring plants in agroecosystem evidently play an important role in ecosystem stability. Field studies on the ecological effects of native plants conserved in orchard and their resistance to adverse climatic stress, and soil erosion were conducted from 1998 to 2001 in a newly developed Changshan-huyou (Citrus changshan-huyou Y.B. Chang)orchard. The experimental area covered 150 ha in typical red soil hilly region in southeastern China. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with six combinations of twelve plant species with four replications. All species used were native in the orchard. Plots were 15×8m2 and separated by 2 m buffer strips. Precipitation, soil erosion in rainstorm days and aboveground biomass of plant community when rainstorm days ended, soil temperature and moisture under various plant covers during seasonal megathermal drought period, antiscourability of soil with different root density under various simulated rainfalls were measured. Plant cover significantly decreased the daily highest and mean soil temperature and its daily variation in hot-drought season, but there was no significant difference of the alleviation among various plant covers. Plant covers significantly increased the soil moisture in seasonal megathermal drought period. Better moisture maintenance and soil erosion reduction was found when the plant species numbers in cover plant communities increased from one to eight. Higher root density in plant communities with higher species richness increased significantly the antiscourability of the soil. It was suggested that conserving plant communities with diversified native species could produce the best positiveecological effects on citrus orchard ecosystem stability.

  14. Enterobacter Asburiae Pneumonia with Cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.

  15. Fundamentals of Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Franc, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The present book is aimed at providing a comprehensive presentation of cavitation phenomena in liquid flows. It is further backed up by the experience, both experimental and theoretical, of the authors whose expertise has been internationally recognized. A special effort is made to place the various methods of investigation in strong relation with the fundamental physics of cavitation, enabling the reader to treat specific problems independently. Furthermore, it is hoped that a better knowledge of the cavitation phenomenon will allow engineers to create systems using it positively. Examples in the literature show the feasibility of this approach.

  16. Development of Erosion-Corrosion-Resistant Cold-Spray Nanostructured Ni-20Cr Coating for Coal-Fired Boiler Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, N.; Chavan, N. M.; Kumar, S.; Joshi, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    The erosion-corrosion (E-C) behavior of a cold-spray nanostructured Ni-20Cr coating was studied under cyclic conditions in a coal-fired boiler. This study was done for 15 cycles (1500 h), in which each cycle comprised 100 h of heating in the boiler environment, followed by 1 h of cooling under ambient air conditions. The E-C extent was evaluated in terms of thickness loss data of the samples. The eroded-corroded samples were characterized using XRD, SEM/EDS, and x-ray mapping analyses. The nanostructured coating offered excellent E-C protection to boiler tube material (SA 516 steel) under harsh live conditions of the boiler. This E-C resistance offered by investigated coating may be attributed to the presence of protective NiO and Cr2O3 phases in its oxide scale and its superior as-sprayed microhardness.

  17. An Experimental Study on Slurry Erosion Resistance of Single and Multilayered Deposits of Ni-WC Produced by Laser-Based Powder Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Prabu; Hamid, Syed; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2013-11-01

    Single and multilayered deposits containing different mass fractions of tungsten carbide (WC) in nickel (Ni)-matrix (NT-20, NT-60, NT-80) are deposited on a AISI 4140 steel substrate using a laser-based powder deposition process. The transverse cross section of the coupons reveals that the higher the mass fraction of WC in Ni-matrix leads to a more uniform distribution through Ni-matrix. The slurry erosion resistance of the fabricated coupons is tested at three different impingement angles using an abrasive water jet cutting machine, which is quantified based on the erosion rate. The top layer of a multilayered deposit (i.e., NT-60 in a two-layer NT-60 over NT-20 deposit) exhibits better erosion resistance at all three tested impingement angles when compared to a single-layer (NT-60) deposit. A definite increase in the erosion resistance is noted with an addition of nano-size WC particles. The relationship between the different mass fractions of reinforcement (WC) in the deposited composite material (Ni-WC) and their corresponding matrix (Ni) hardness on the erosion rate is studied. The eroded surface is analyzed in the light of a three-dimensional (3-D) profilometer and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that a volume fraction of approximately 62% of WC with a Ni-matrix hardness of 540 HV resulting in the gouging out of WC from the Ni-matrix by the action of slurry. It is concluded that the slurry erosion resistance of the AISI 4140 steel can be significantly enhanced by introducing single and multilayered deposits of Ni-WC composite material fabricated by the laser-based powder deposition process.

  18. Numerical Study on the Inhibition of Cavitation in Piping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Sun Seok; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Youn-Jea

    Abrupt closing valve in piping systems is sometimes resulted in cavitation due to the occurrence of high pressure difference. The bubbles generating by cavitation influence operating pressure and then those generate shock wave and vibration. These phenomena can consequentially cause to corrosion and erosion. So, the cavitation is the important factor to consider reliability of piping systems and mechanical lifetime. This paper investigated the various inhibition methods of cavitation in piping systems in which butterfly valves are installed. To prevent cavitation occurrence, it is desirable to analyze its characteristics between the upstream and downstream of process valve. Results show that the fluid velocity is fast when a working fluid passed through butterfly valve. The pressure of these areas was not only under saturation vapor pressure of water, but also cavitation was continuously occurred. We confirmed that the effect of existence of inserted orifice and influence to break condition under saturation vapor pressure of water. Results were graphically depicted by pressure distribution, velocity distribution, and vapor volume fraction.

  19. Fundamentos e testes preliminares de resistência a erosão em concretos refratários Erosion resistance of refractory castables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. A. dos Santos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O desgaste de revestimentos refratários é um dos principais problemas em processos industriais onde as linhas de transferência estão sujeitas à alta velocidade de fluidos contendo partículas sólidas. Os trabalhos encontrados na literatura sobre desgaste erosivo em materiais refratários são raros. Como conseqüência, o desenvolvimento de materiais mais resistentes à erosão tem sido lento e, em geral, por meios empíricos. Este trabalho teve como objetivos apresentar uma revisão sobre a importância da erosão nas aplicações industriais e averiguar a resistência ao desgaste de concretos refratários em unidades de fabricação de alumínio e em petroquímicas. As variáveis avaliadas foram: o ângulo de impacto, a pressão da linha, a granulometria e a dureza do agente erosivo, e a temperatura do tratamento térmico a que o material foi submetido. Verificou-se que o histórico do tratamento térmico pode levar a comportamentos distintos quanto ao desgaste erosivo, devido a mudanças nas características dos aditivos ligantes usados em cada material. Constatou-se que o maior desgaste ocorre com um ângulo de impacto de 90º entre o jato erosivo e o material, decrescendo gradativamente até o ângulo de 30º. Verificou-se também que maiores valores de velocidade, dureza e raio da partícula resultam em maior erosão.The wear of refractory linings is often a critical problem in process units where transfer lines are subject to high velocity gas stream containing solid particles. Knowledge related to erosive wear of refractories linings under these conditions is restricted, as consequence, technological development is slow and, in general, developed in an empirical way. The goals of the present work were to review relevant aspects regarding erosive wear on industrial applications and to investigate the erosion resistance of refractory castables currently used by the aluminum industry and in catalyst cracking units. The parameters

  20. Cavitation guide for control valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, J.P. [Tullis Engineering Consultants, Logan, UT (United States)

    1993-04-01

    This guide teaches the basic fundamentals of cavitation to provide the reader with an understanding of what causes cavitation, when it occurs, and the potential problems cavitation can cause to a valve and piping system. The document provides guidelines for understanding how to reduce the cavitation and/or select control valves for a cavitating system. The guide provides a method for predicting the cavitation intensity of control valves, and how the effect of cavitation on a system will vary with valve type, valve function, valve size, operating pressure, duration of operation and details of the piping installation. The guide defines six cavitation limits identifying cavitation intensities ranging from inception to the maximum intensity possible. The intensity of the cavitation at each limit Is described, including a brief discussion of how each level of cavitation influences the valve and system. Examples are included to demonstrate how to apply the method, including making both size and pressure scale effects corrections. Methods of controlling cavitation are discussed providing information on various techniques which can be used to design a new system or modify an existing one so it can operate at a desired level of cavitation.

  1. Cavitation in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, Christopher Earls

    2015-10-06

    We generally think of bubbles as benign and harmless and yet they can manifest the most remarkable range of physical effects. Some of those effects are the stuff of our everyday experience as in the tinkling of a brook or the sounds of breaking waves at the beach. But even these mundane effects are examples of the ability of bubbles to gather, focus and radiate energy (acoustic energy in the above examples). In other contexts that focusing of energy can lead to serious technological problems as when cavitation bubbles eat great holes through ships' propeller blades or cause a threat to the integrity of the spillways at the Hoover Dam. In liquid-propelled rocket engines, bubbles pose a danger to the stability of the propulsion system, and in artificial heart valves they can cause serious damage to the red blood cells. In perhaps the most extraordinary example of energy focusing, collapsing cavitation bubbles can emit not only sound, but also light with black body radiation temperatures equal to that of the sun (Brennen 1995 Cavitation and bubble dynamics). But, harnessed carefully, this almost unique ability to focus energy can also be put to remarkably constructive use. Cavitation bubbles are now used in a remarkable range of surgical and medical procedures, for example to emulsify tissue (most commonly in cataract surgery or in lithotripsy procedures for the reduction of kidney and gall stones) or to manipulate the DNA in individual cells. By creating cavitation bubbles non-invasively thereby depositing and focusing energy non-intrusively, one can generate minute incisions or target cancer cells. This paper will begin by briefly reviewing the history of cavitation phenomena and will end with a vision of the new horizons for the amazing cavitation bubble.

  2. 水灰比对高抗硫硅酸盐水泥混凝土抗侵蚀性能的影响%Influence of Water-cement Ratio on Resistance to Erosive Ability of High Sulfur Resistant Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡全; 唐新军; 翟超; 李双喜; 苏建彪; 王文政

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was designed to conduct a sulfate erosive experiment on mortar specimen with different water-cement ratio prepared with high sulfur resistant cement.The result showed that the resistance to erosive ability of high sulfur resistant portland cement concrete were affected by water-cement ratio and curing age,which were hard to resist the erosion of higher concentration sulfate solution for a long time under the conditions of higher water-cement ratio and shorter curing age;In the erosive solution of sulfuric acid root ion concentration of less than or equal to 10 000 mg/L,reducing the water-cement ratio of high resistance of sulfur cement concrete sulfate can enhance its ability to resist erosion.However,when the erosive solution of sulfuric acid root ion concentration was more than or equal to 20 250 mg/L,even if cutting down the water-cement ratio can hardly guarantee the long term resistance to sulfate erosive ability; In the case of the same water-cement ratio,the ability of the resistance to erosion of 3 days' maintenance of high corrosive resistance of the specimens are significantly lower than that of 28 days'.%对高抗硫硅酸盐水泥配制的不同水灰比的胶砂试件进行硫酸盐侵蚀实验.结果表明,高抗硫水泥混凝土的抗侵蚀能力受水灰比和养护龄期的影响,在较大水灰比或较短养护龄期情况下,难以长期抵抗较高浓度硫酸盐溶液的侵蚀;在硫酸根离子浓度≤10 000 mg/L的侵蚀溶液中,降低高抗硫水泥混凝土的水灰比,可增强其抗侵蚀能力,但是,当硫酸根离子浓度≥20 250 mg/L时,即使降低水灰比,也难以保证长期抵抗硫酸盐侵蚀的能力;在相同水灰比情况下,养护3d高抗试件的抗蚀能力明显低于养护28 d高抗试件.

  3. Biological Effects of Acoustic Cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    rectified diffusion. 56 III. STABLE CAVITATION A. Introduction There are manv areas associated with the biological effects of ultrasound in which the...used said as cavitation indicators. Further, if clinical ultrasound systems are found to be inducing cavitation , either stable or transient, it will...O BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC CAVITATION by Lawrence A. Crum -- Physical Acoustics Research Laboratory Department of Physics and Astronomy ’ CTE

  4. Research on the induction motor current signature for centrifugal pump at cavitation condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Luo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is a major undesirable phenomenon for centrifugal pump because it can cause hydraulic performance deterioration, pump damage by pitting and material erosion, and structural vibration and noise. Cavitation can appear within the entire range of the operating conditions; therefore, it must be prevented by all means. Sensorless monitoring technology based on motor current signature analysis is non-intrusive and economic for monitoring motor-driven equipment. Thus, this technology is suitable for centrifugal pump systems. The motor current signature for centrifugal pump load at the cavitation condition is the basis of this technology. However, systematic research is lacking on sensorless monitoring technology based on motor current signature. As a result, the tentative exploration for motor current signature at cavitation load was conducted in this study. The results show that the stator current is still a sinusoidal alternating current strictly to the law of sine. Moreover, the root mean square of the current fluctuates because of different flow regimes in the cavitation progress and decreases because vapor density is smaller than water density when cavitation is fully formed. For the stator current spectrum, the noise level, noise distribution, rotation speed, and vane pass frequency components show features in the cavitation process. These indicator indexes change according to the stage of cavitation development. Thus, the motor current signature analysis is found to be a feasible and cost-effective method for the stages of cavitation condition.

  5. A novel ultrasonic cavitation enhancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Rivas, David; Verhaagen, Bram; Galdamez Perez, Andres; Castro-Hernandez, Elena; Zwieten, van Ralph; Schroen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a Cavitation Intensifying Bag as a versatile tool for acoustic cavitation control. The cavitation activity is spatially controlled by the modification of the inner surface of the bag with patterned pits of microscopic dimensions. We report on different measurements such as the transmiss

  6. A novel ultrasonic cavitation enhancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, Fernandez D.; Verhaagen, B.; Galdamez Perez, Andres; Castro-Hernandez, Elena; Zwieten, Van Ralph; Schroen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a Cavitation Intensifying Bag as a versatile tool for acoustic cavitation control. The cavitation activity is spatially controlled by the modification of the inner surface of the bag with patterned pits of microscopic dimensions. We report on different measurements such as the transm

  7. Influence of Laser Power on the Hardening of Ti6Al4V Low-Pressure Steam Turbine Blade Material for Enhancing Water Droplet Erosion Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, B. S.; Arya, Vivek; Pant, B. K.

    2011-03-01

    To overcome water droplet erosion of Ti6Al4V alloy blade material used in low-pressure steam turbine (LPST) of high-rating nuclear and super critical thermal power plants, high-power diode laser (HPDL) surface treatment at two temperatures corresponding to two different power levels was carried out. During incubation as well as under prolonged erosion testing, the HPDL surface treatment of this alloy has enhanced its resistance significantly. This is due to the formation of fine-grained martensitic (ά) phase due to rapid heating and cooling associated with laser treatment. The droplet erosion test results after HPDL surface treatment on this alloy, SEM, XRD analysis, and residual stresses developed due to HPDL surface treatment are given in this paper.

  8. Maintenance and Preservation of Concrete Structures. Report 3. Abrasion-Erosion Resistance of Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    the length of service that may be expected from a specific concrete. It can be used to determine the relative resistance of a material to the abrasive... CONTRAT 5) ATA CMNTFC IIICU 385 I E.p....s e - F.u 5 IA# RIEIE5, ROOF? *Fpa*RSt ftaE A, --EtI PA.. ,.md II, CRD-C 9. ANA .REdF. IA.. ... 1.(2,. TIB...intended to provide a quantitative measurement of the length of service that may be expected from a specific concrete. Note: Other test methods for

  9. Taming Acoustic Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Rivas, David Fernandez; Enriquez, Oscar R; Versluis, Michel; Prosperetti, Andrea; Gardeniers, Han; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video we show acoustic cavitation occurring from pits etched on a silicon surface. By immersing the surface in a liquid, gas pockets are entrapped in the pits which upon ultrasonic insonation, are observed to shed cavitation bubbles. Modulating the driving pressure it is possible to induce different behaviours based on the force balance that determines the interaction among bubbles and the silicon surface. This system can be used for several applications like sonochemical water treatment, cleaning of surfaces with deposited materials such as biofilms.

  10. Cavitation in liquid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, R. D.; Kagiwada, R.; Barmatz, M.; Rudnick, I.

    1963-11-15

    Ultrasonic cavitation was induced in liquid helium over the temperature range 1.2 to 2.3 deg K, using a pair of identical transducers. The transducers were calibrated using a reciprocity technique and the cavitation threshold was determined at 90 kc/s. It was found that this threshold has a sharp peak at the lambda point, but is, at all temperatures quite low, with an approximate range of 0.001 to 0.01 atm. The significance of the results is discussed. (auth)

  11. Cavitation simulation on marine propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo

    flows on a 2D hydrofoil are compared with the experimental results. In the current implementation, three models with a vapor transport equation show numerical stability and equivalently good accuracy in simulating steady and unsteady sheet cavitation. More validations for cavitating flows on 3D...... hydrofoils and conventional/highly-skewed propellers are performed with one of three cavitation models proven in 2D analysis. 3D cases also show accuracy and robustness of numerical method in simulating steady and unsteady sheet cavitation on complicated geometries. Hydrodynamic characteristics of cavitation...

  12. One-way-coupling simulation of cavitation accompanied by high-speed droplet impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tomoki; Ando, Keita

    2016-03-01

    Erosion due to high-speed droplet impact is a crucial issue in industrial applications. The erosion is caused by the water-hammer loading on material surfaces and possibly by the reloading from collapsing cavitation bubbles that appear within the droplet. Here, we simulate the dynamics of cavitation bubbles accompanied by high-speed droplet impact against a deformable wall in order to see whether the bubble collapse is violent enough to give rise to cavitation erosion on the wall. The evolution of pressure waves in a single water (or gelatin) droplet to collide with a deformable wall at speed up to 110 m/s is inferred from simulations of multicomponent Euler flow where phase changes are not permitted. Then, we examine the dynamics of cavitation bubbles nucleated from micron/submicron-sized gas bubble nuclei that are supposed to exist inside the droplet. For simplicity, we perform Rayleigh-Plesset-type calculations in a one-way-coupling manner, namely, the bubble dynamics are determined according to the pressure variation obtained from the Euler flow simulation. In the simulation, the preexisting bubble nuclei whose size is either micron or submicron show large growth to submillimeters because tension inside the droplet is obtained through interaction of the pressure waves and the droplet interface; this supports the possibility of having cavitation due to the droplet impact. It is also found, in particular, for the case of cavitation arising from very small nuclei such as nanobubbles, that radiated pressure from the cavitation bubble collapse can overwhelm the water-hammer pressure directly created by the impact. Hence, cavitation may need to be accounted for when it comes to discussing erosion in the droplet impact problem.

  13. Experimental Study of Laser Cladding Methods on Water Erosion Resistance to Low Pressure Blades Materials of Steam Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental apparatus was built to study the effects of liquid-solid impact on laser cladding processing specimens of 17-4PH stainless steel material in the present investigation. Then the result of specimens without laser surface process was compared. The impact effect on the specimens was observed using the three-dimensional digital microscope. The depth of laser cladding and substrate material caused by liquid droplet impact was studied in detail and measured. The accuracy and reliability of the experimental system and computing methods were also verified. The depth of the impact area of laser cladding specimens was distributed in the range of 0.5–1.5 μm while the 17-4PH group was distributed in the range of 2.5–3.5 μm. In contrast with specimens without laser surface processing, the material processed by laser cladding has significantly higher resistance to water erosion.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigation on cladding of corrosion-erosion resistant materials by a high power direct diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Parisa

    In oil and gas industry, soil particles, crude oil, natural gas, particle-laden liquids, and seawater can carry various highly aggressive elements, which accelerate the material degradation of component surfaces by combination of slurry erosion, corrosion, and wear mechanisms. This material degradation results into the loss of mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and impact strength; leading to detachment, delamination, cracking, and ultimately premature failure of components. Since the failure of high valued equipment needs considerable cost and time to be repaired or replaced, minimizing the tribological failure of equipment under aggressive environment has been gaining increased interest. It is widely recognized that effective management of degradation mechanisms will contribute towards the optimization of maintenance, monitoring, and inspection costs. The hardfacing techniques have been widely used to enhance the resistance of surfaces against degradation mechanisms. Applying a surface coating improves wear and corrosion resistance and ensures reliability and long-term performance of coated parts. A protective layer or barrier on the components avoids the direct mechanical and chemical contacts of tool surfaces with process media and will reduce the material loss and ultimately its failure. Laser cladding as an advanced hardfacing technique has been widely used for industrial applications in order to develop a protective coating with desired material properties. During the laser cladding, coating material is fused into the base material by means of a laser beam in order to rebuild a damaged part's surface or to enhance its surface function. In the hardfacing techniques such as atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), high velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF), and laser cladding, mixing of coating materials with underneath surface has to be minimized in order to utilize the properties of the coating material most effectively. In this regard, laser cladding offers

  15. Pressurized air injection in an axial hydro-turbine model for the mitigation of tip leakage cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, A.; Angulo, M.; Lucino, C.; Liscia, S.

    2015-12-01

    Tip leakage vortex cavitation in axial hydro-turbines may cause erosion, noise and vibration. Damage due to cavitation can be found at the tip of the runner blades on the low pressure side and the discharge ring. In some cases, the erosion follows an oscillatory pattern that is related to the number of guide vanes. That might suggest that a relationship exists between the flow through the guide vanes and the tip vortex cavitating core that induces this kind of erosion. On the other hand, it is known that air injection has a beneficial effect on reducing the damage by cavitation. In this paper, a methodology to identify the interaction between guide vanes and tip vortex cavitation is presented and the effect of air injection in reducing this particular kind of erosion was studied over a range of operating conditions on a Kaplan scale model. It was found that air injection, at the expense of slightly reducing the efficiency of the turbine, mitigates the erosive potential of tip leakage cavitation, attenuates the interaction between the flow through the guide vanes and the tip vortex and decreases the level of vibration of the structural components.

  16. Cavitation during wire brushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zou, Jun; Ji, Chen

    2016-11-01

    In our daily life, brush is often used to scrub the surface of objects, for example, teeth, pots, shoes, pool, etc. And cleaning rust and stripping paint are accomplished using wire brush. Wire brushes also can be used to clean the teeth for large animals, such as horses, crocodiles. By observing brushing process in water, we capture the cavitation phenomenon on the track of moving brush wire. It shows that the cavitation also can affect the surface. In order to take clear and entire pictures of cavity, a simplified model of one stainless steel wire brushing a boss is adopted in our experiment. A transparent organic tank filled with deionized water is used as a view box. And a high speed video camera is used to record the sequences. In experiment, ambient pressure is atmospheric pressure and deionized water temperature is kept at home temperature. An obvious beautiful flabellate cavity zone appears behind the moving steel wire. The fluctuation of pressure near cavity is recorded by a hydrophone. More movies and pictures are used to show the behaviors of cavitation bubble following a restoring wire. Beautiful tracking cavitation bubble cluster is captured and recorded to show.

  17. Cavitation Instabilities in Inducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    gas handling turbomachines . The fluctuation of the cavity length is plotted in Fig.8 under the surge mode oscillation vi . The major differences...Cavitation Instabilities of Turbomachines .” AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol.17, No.3, 636-643. [5] Tsujimoto, Y., (2006), “Flow Instabilities in

  18. Ozone and Cavitation Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Ernestina; Traversoni, Leonardo

    2009-09-01

    From laboratory measurements it is well known that the addition of ozone and cavitation enhances the properties of both, understanding for that the ones related to disinfection and carbon removal from waste water. This paper shows modeling of such phenomena that gives some light to the understanding of it and also provides the opportunity to improve the effectiveness of the current procedures.

  19. Acoustic cavitation and sonochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stricker, L.

    2013-01-01

    Sonochemistry is the use of cavitation for achieving a chemical conversion. When microbubbles are driven in the nonlinear regime, localized extreme temperatures (up to 10000 K) and pressures (up to 1000 bar) can be reached upon collapse, the surrounding liquid remaining ambient,thus giving origin to

  20. Acceleration of lithotripsy using cavitation bubbles induced by second-harmonic superimposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Masamizu; Yasuda, Jun; Jimbo, Hayato; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy potentially produces residual stone fragments too large to pass through ureters and significant injury to the normal tissue surrounding the stone. Previous works have shown that the collapse of cavitation bubbles induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound can produce small stone fragments via cavitation erosion. However, the erosion rate is hypothesized to be reduced by ultrasound attenuation by excessively generated bubble clouds. If so, it is important to generate the bubbles only on the stone surface. The effects of peak-negative-enhanced (PNE) and peak-positive-enhanced (PPE) waves obtained by second-harmonic superimposition were investigated to control cavitation bubbles. With the PNE waves, the bubbles were generated only on the stone surface and the maximum erosion rate was 232 ± 32 mg/min. All the fragments were smaller than 2 mm, which makes them pass through ureters naturally. The proposed method shows the potential to significantly improve the speed of lithotripsy.

  1. Warm Spraying of High-Strength Ni-Al-Bronze: Cavitation Characteristics and Property Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Sebastian; Kuroda, Seiji; Katanoda, Hiroshi; Gaertner, Frank; Klassen, Thomas; Araki, Hiroshi; Frede, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Bronze materials such as Ni-Al-bronze show exceptional performances against cavitation erosion, due to their high fatigue strength and high strength. These materials are used for ship propellers, pump systems or for applications with alternating stresses. Usually, the respective parts are cast. With the aim to use resources more efficiently and to reduce costs, this study aimed to evaluate opportunities to apply bronze as a coating to critical areas of respective parts. The coatings should have least amounts of pores and non-bonded areas and any contaminations that might act as crack nuclei and contribute to material damages. Processes with low oxidation and high kinetic impacts fulfill these criteria. Especially warm spraying, a nitrogen-cooled HVOF process, with similar impact velocities as cold gas spraying but enhanced process temperature, allows for depositing high-strength Ni-Al-bronze. This study systematically simulates and evaluates the formation and performance of warm-sprayed Ni-Al-bronze coatings for different combustion pressures and nitrogen flow rates. Substrate preheating was used to improve coating adhesion for lower spray parameter sets. Furthermore, this study introduces an energy-based concept to compare spray parameter sets and to predict coating properties. Coatings with low porosities and high mechanical strengths are obtained, allowing for a cavitation resistance similar to bulk material.

  2. Implicit large eddy simulation of unsteady cloud cavitation around a plane- convex hydrofoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗先武; 季斌

    2015-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the erosive cavitation behavior around a plane convex hydrofoil. The Zwart-Gerber-Belamri cavitation model is implemented in a library form to be used with the OpenFOAM. The implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) is app- lied to analyze the three dimensional unsteady cavitating flow around a plane convex hydrofoil. The numerical results in the cases under the hydrodynamic-conditions, which were experimentally tested at the high speed cavitation tunnel of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), clearly show the sheet cavitation development, the shedding and the collapse of vapor clouds. It is noted that the cavitation evolutions including the maximum vapor length, the detachment and the oscillation frequency, are captured fairly well. Furthermore, the pressure pulses due to the cavitation development as well as the complex vortex structures are reasona- bly well predicted. Consequently, it may be concluded that the present numerical method can be used to investigate the unsteady cavitation around hydrofoils with a satisfactory accuracy.

  3. Erosion and high temperature oxidation resistance of new coatings fabricated by a sol-gel route for a TBC application.

    OpenAIRE

    Viazzi, Céline; Wellman , Richard; Oquab, Djar; Nicholls, John; Monceau, Daniel; Bonino, Jean-Pierre; Ansart, Florence

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the erosion and cyclic oxidation performance of novel thermal barrier coatings produced via the sol-gel route. The ceramic top coat, with a thickness of 5-80 m, was deposited via a sol-gel route onto standard MCrAlY and PtAl bond coats. In both the erosion and the cyclic oxidation tests it was found that the bond coat had a profound affect on the results. The erosion of the sol-gel coatings were compared to standard EB PVD and PS TBCs and were found to be significantly...

  4. Testing and prediction of erosion-corrosion for corrosion resistant alloys used in the oil and gas production industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon, Hernan E.

    The corrosion behavior of CRAs has been thoroughly investigated and documented in the public literature by many researchers; however, little work has been done to investigate erosion-corrosion of such alloys. When sand particles are entrained in the flow, the degradation mechanism is different from that observed for sand-free corrosive environment. There is a need in the oil and gas industry to define safe service limits for utilization of such materials. The effects of flow conditions, sand rate, pH and temperature on the erosion-corrosion of CRAs were widely studied. An extensive experimental work was conducted using scratch tests and flow loop tests using several experimental techniques. At high erosivity conditions, a synergistic effect between erosion and corrosion was observed. Under the high sand rate conditions tested, erosivity is severe enough to damage the passive layer protecting the CRA thereby enhancing the corrosion rate. In most cases there is likely a competition between the rates of protective film removal due to mechanical erosion and protective film healing. Synergism occurs for each of the three alloys examined (13Cr and Super13Cr and 22Cr); however, the degree of synergism is quite different for the three alloys and may not be significant for 22Cr for field conditions where erosivities are typically much lower that those occurring in the small bore loop used in this research. Predictions of the corrosion component of erosion-corrosion based on scratch test data compared reasonably well to test results from flow loops for the three CRAs at high erosivity conditions. Second order behavior appears to be an appropriate and useful model for representing the repassivation process of CRAs. A framework for a procedure to predict penetration rates for erosion-corrosion conditions was developed based on the second order model behavior observed for the re-healing process of the passive film of CRAs and on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations

  5. Characteristics of Vibration Induced by Cavitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-yu; TAO Lei; LIU Shu-yan; QIAN Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    Cavitation-induced vibration characteristics and the relations between the vibration and cavitation are studied. Cavitation vibrations are measured around a model hollow-jet valve by an accelerometer under cavitating and non-cavitating conditions. The measurement data is analyzed by FFT method. The corresponding cavitating flow patterns are photographed by a high-speed camera with an xenon flash lamp. The frequency band of the vibration induced by cavitation is determined. To compare the vibration intensities under different cavitation conditions, a definition of vibration acceleration level is introduced based on power spectral density of the vibration. By the analysis of vibration, the definitions of characteristic cavitation number are suggested. According to these cavitation numbers, the cavitation process is divided into three stages, that is, incipient cavitation, subcavitation and supercavitation.

  6. ESTUDIO DEL DESGASTE EROSIVO POR CAVITACIÓN DE UN ACERO AUSTENÍTICO DE ALTO NITRÓGENO APOYADO EN EL USO DE LA DIFRACCIÓN DE ELECTRONES RETROPROYECTADOS-EBSD ASSESSMENT OF CAVITATION-EROSION WEAR OF A HIGH NITROGEN AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL FROM ELECTRON BACKSCATTERING DIFFRACTION-EBSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairo Hernán Mesa Grajales

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Muestras de acero inoxidable con estructura austenítica y contenido aproximado de nitrógeno de 0,9% en peso en solución sólida fueron sometidas a ensayos de cavitación vibratoria en agua destilada, con el fin de estudiar la evolución del desgaste erosivo por cavitación (EC a escala del tamaño de grano (mesoescala. Las muestras fueron obtenidas por medio de nitruración gaseosa a alta temperatura (HTGN del acero inoxidable dúplex UNS S31803, las cuales fueron caracterizadas por difracción de electrones retroproyectados (EBSD, a fin de obtener información de la orientación cristalina de los granos en la superficie a ser cavitada. La técnica de microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM, fue usada para acompañar el proceso de desgaste para diferentes tiempos de ensayo. Como resultados de los ensayos de cavitación se determinó la pérdida de masa y se hizo un estudio secuencial de la apariencia superficial de las muestras para determinar los mecanismos de desgaste operantes en cada etapa. Los resultados fueron analizados a la luz de la caracterización cristalográfica previa. Para propósitos de comparación, fue usado el acero austenítico convencional UNS S30403. A partir de los resultados se observó que tanto la nucleación del daño como su evolución se dan de forma heterogénea a escala del tamaño de grano, resultado atribuido a la anisotropía en la deformación plástica. El carácter heterogéneo del daño por cavitación fue atribuido principalmente a las características de los límites de grano y a la microtextura dentro de los granos.Stainless steel samples with 100% austenitic microstructure and alloyed with 0.9 wt-% of nitrogen in solid solution were tested under vibratory cavitation experiments in distilled water to study the cavitation-erosion wear (EC at grain size level (mesoscale. Fully austenitic samples were obtained by high temperature gas nitriding (HTGN a commercially available dúplex stainless steel, UNS

  7. A novel ultrasonic cavitation enhancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Fernandez D.; Verhaagen, B.; Galdamez Perez, Andres; Castro-Hernandez, Elena; Zwieten, van, D.M.; Schroen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a Cavitation Intensifying Bag as a versatile tool for acoustic cavitation control. The cavitation activity is spatially controlled by the modification of the inner surface of the bag with patterned pits of microscopic dimensions. We report on different measurements such as the transmission of ultrasound, temperature increase inside the bag during sonication. Several applications of interest to other scientific activities are also demonstrated.

  8. Shock Waves in Cloud Cavitation

    OpenAIRE

    Brennen, C. E.; Reisman, G. E.; Wang, Y.-C.

    1997-01-01

    Thie paper described experimental and computational investigations of the dynamics of clouds of cavitation bubbles. Recent studies have confirmed that the interactions between bubbles as they are manifest in the dynamics of bubble clouds lead to generation of very large impulsive pressures which, in turn, cause substantial enhancement of the radiated noise and the material damage which results from this form of cavitation. The experimental program focuses on cloud cavitation formed on th...

  9. PREFACE: 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, M.; Müller, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is our pleasure and privilege to welcome all the participants of the 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015) to Lausanne. Since its initiation in 1986 in Sendai, Japan, the CAV symposium has grown to become the world's foremost event dedicated to cavitation. Hosted by EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) and staged at the SwissTech Convention Center, CAV2015 is a unique opportunity to exchange with leading scientists and industry experts about the latest advances in theoretical modelling, numerical simulation and experimentation related to cavitation phenomena with a special emphasis on practical applications. The topics covered by CAV2015 include cavitation in ¬fluid machinery and fuel systems, bubble dynamics, cavitation erosion, advanced numerical simulation, sonochemistery, biomedicine and experimental techniques. CAV2015 will also host an exhibition of leading providers of state of the art measurement equipment, including high-speed imaging systems, non-intrusive velocimetry, pressure sensors, as well as numerical solvers. We have accepted over 190 papers, which will be presented in four parallel sessions. The proceedings will appear in the open access Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS), which is part of the IOP Conference Series. All published papers are fully citable and upon publication will be free to download in perpetuity. We would like to thank all the reviewers for their great help during the selection process. We will also propose six plenary speakers to highlight cavitation issues in different fields. Finally, we would like to warmly thank our sponsors for their valuable support and the local Organizing Committee for the efforts in setting up this important event. We look forward to seeing you in Lausanne!

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CAVITATING FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lei

    2003-01-01

    A new model, which involves viscous and multi-phase effects, was given to study cavitating flows. A local compressible model was established by introducing a density-pressure function to account for the two-phase flow of water/vapor and the transition from one phase to the other. An algorithm for calculating variable-density N-S equations of cavitating flow problem was put forward. The present method yields reasonable results for both steady and unsteady cavitating flows in 2D and 3D cases. The numerical results of unsteady character of cavitating flows around hydrofoils coincide well with experimental data. It indicates the feasibility to apply this method to a variety of cavitating flows of practical problems.

  11. Influence of the vibro-acoustic sensor position on cavitation detection in a Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H.; Kirschner, O.; Riedelbauch, S.; Necker, J.; Kopf, E.; Rieg, M.; Arantes, G.; Wessiak, M.; Mayrhuber, J.

    2014-03-01

    Hydraulic turbines can be operated close to the limits of the operating range to meet the demand of the grid. When operated close to the limits, the risk increases that cavitation phenomena may occur at the runner and / or at the guide vanes of the turbine. Cavitation in a hydraulic turbine can cause material erosion on the runner and other turbine parts and reduce the durability of the machine leading to required outage time and related repair costs. Therefore it is important to get reliable information about the appearance of cavitation during prototype operation. In this experimental investigation the high frequency acoustic emissions and vibrations were measured at 20 operating points with different cavitation behaviour at different positions in a large prototype Kaplan turbine. The main goal was a comparison of the measured signals at different sensor positions to identify the sensitivity of the location for cavitation detection. The measured signals were analysed statistically and specific values were derived. Based on the measured signals, it is possible to confirm the cavitation limit of the examined turbine. The result of the investigation shows that the position of the sensors has a significant influence on the detection of cavitation.

  12. Dynamic behaviors of cavitation bubble for the steady cavitating flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun CAI; Xiulan HUAI; Xunfeng LI

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, by introducing the flow velocity item into the classical Rayleigh-Plesset dynamic equation, a new equation, which does not involve the time term and can describe the motion of cavitation bubble in the steady cavitating flow, has been obtained. By solving the new motion equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order method with adaptive step size control, the dynamic behaviors of cavitation bubble driven by the varying pressure field downstream of a venturi cavitation reactor are numerically simulated. The effects of liquid temperature (corre-sponding to the saturated vapor pressure of liquid), cavitation number and inlet pressure of venturi on radial mo-tion of bubble and pressure pulse due to the radial motion are analyzed and discussed in detail. Some dynamic behaviors of bubble different from those in previous papers are displayed. In addition, the internal relationship between bubble dynamics and process intensification is also discussed. The simulation results reported in this work reveal the variation laws of cavitation intensity with the flow conditions of liquid, and will lay a foundation for the practical application of hydrodynamic cavitation technology.

  13. Computation and analysis of cavitating flow in Francis-class hydraulic turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Daniel J.

    Hydropower is the most proven renewable energy technology, supplying the world with 16% of its electricity. Conventional hydropower generates a vast majority of that percentage. Although a mature technology, hydroelectric generation shows great promise for expansion through new dams and plants in developing hydro countries. Moreover, in developed hydro countries, such as the United States, installing generating units in existing dams and the modern refurbishment of existing plants can greatly expand generating capabilities with little to no further impact on the environment. In addition, modern computational technology and fluid dynamics expertise has led to substantial improvements in modern turbine design and performance. Cavitation has always presented a problem in hydroturbines, causing performance breakdown, erosion, damage, vibration, and noise. While modern turbines are usually designed to be cavitation-free at their best efficiency point, due to the variable demand of the energy market it is fairly common to operate at off-design conditions. Here, cavitation and its deleterious effects are unavoidable, and hence, cavitation is a limiting factor on the design and operation of these turbines. Multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used in recent years to model cavitating flow for a large range of problems, including turbomachinery. However, CFD of cavitating flow in hydroturbines is still in its infancy. This dissertation presents steady-periodic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of a cavitating Francis-class hydroturbine at model and prototype scales. Computational results of the reduced-scale model and full-scale prototype, undergoing performance breakdown, are compared with empirical model data and prototype performance estimations based on standard industry scalings from the model data. Mesh convergence of the simulations is also displayed. Comparisons are made between the scales to display that cavitation performance breakdown

  14. Dynamic response of cavitating turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    Stimulated by the pogo instability encountered in many liquid propellant rockets, the dynamic behavior of cavitating inducers is discussed. An experimental facility where the upstream and downstream flows of a cavitating inducer could be perturbed was constructed and tested. The upstream and downstream pressure and mass flow fluctuations were measured. Matrices representing the transfer functions across the inducer pump were calculated from these measurements and from the hydraulic system characteristics for two impellers in various states of cavitation. The transfer matrices when plotted against the perturbing frequency showed significant departure from steady state or quasi-steady predictions especially at higher frequencies.

  15. Evaluation of iron aluminide weld overlays for erosion - corrosion resistant boiler tube coatings in low NO{sub x} boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuPont, J.N.; Banovic, S.W.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Low NOx burners are being installed in many fossil fired power plants in order to comply with new Clean Air Regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion is often enhanced and premature tube failures can occur. Failures due to oxidation and solid particle erosion are also a concern. A program was initiated in early 1996 to evaluate the use of iron aluminide weld overlays for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NOx boilers. Composite iron/aluminum wires will be used with the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process to prepare overlays on boiler tubes steels with aluminum contents from 8 to 16wt%. The weldability of the composite wires will be evaluated as a function of chemical composition and welding parameters. The effect of overlay composition on corrosion (oxidation and sulfidation) and solid particle erosion will also be evaluated. The laboratory studies will be complemented by field exposures of both iron aluminide weld overlays and co-extruded tubing under actual boiler conditions.

  16. Flow Instabilities in Cavitating and Non-Cavitating Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    stall and surge may occur in non-cavitating turbomachines at flow rates smaller than design. Rotating stall is a local instability at the...turbomachinery which is basically not dependent on the hydraulic system in which the turbomachine is installed. The stalled region rotates faster than impeller...rate and without significant head decrease. So, it is required to confirm the absence of cavitation instabilities, whenever the turbomachine is

  17. Microleakage of Cavit, CavitW, CavitG and IRM by impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquot, B M; Panighi, M M; Steinmetz, P; G'Sell, C

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the sealing ability of four temporary filling materials over 9 days using a new electrochemical technique. Fifty-two extracted human maxillary bicuspids were selected and prepared for the measurements. They were divided into four groups of 12 teeth each, in addition to two positive and two negative controls. After preparation of the endodontic access cavity the sealing ability was registered. After a randomization procedure one group was obturated with IRM, another group with Cavit, a third group with CavitW and the last group with CavitG. The sealability was measured just after obturation (time 0) and after days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 9. The results showed that the IRM group was significantly more watertight than the different Cavit formulations. Throughout the experiment no significant difference was noticed between the Cavit and CavitW groups (P > 0.05). The CavitG group was significantly less watertight throughout the measurements (P < 0.05).

  18. Comprehensive study of the abrasive wear and slurry erosion behavior of an expanded system of high chromium cast iron and microstructural modification for enhanced wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Reinaldo Javier

    High chromium cast irons (HCCIs) have been demonstrated to be an effective material for a wide range of applications in aggressive environments, where resistances to abrasion, erosion and erosion-corrosion are required. For instance, machinery and facilities used in mining and extraction in Alberta's oil sands suffer from erosion and erosion-corrosion caused by silica-containing slurries, which create challenges for the reliability and maintenance of slurry pumping systems as well as other processing and handling equipment. Considerable efforts have been made to determine and understand the relationship between microstructural features of the HCCIs and their wear performance, in order to guide the material selection and development for specific service conditions with optimal performance. The focus was previously put on a narrow group of compositions dictated by ASTM A532. However, with recent advances in casting technology, the HCCI compositional range can be significantly expanded, which potentially brings new alloys that can be superior to those which are currently employed. This work consists of three main aspects of study. The first one is the investigation of an expanded system of white irons with their composition ranging from 1 to 6 wt.% C and 5 to 45 wt.% Cr, covering 53 alloys. This work has generated wear and corrosion maps and established correlation between the performance and microstructural features for the alloys. The work was conducted in collaboration with the Materials Development Center of Weir Minerals in Australia, and the results have been collected in a database that is used by the company to guide materials selection for slurry pump components in Alberta oil sands and in other mining operations throughout the world. The second part consists of three case studies on effects of high chromium and high carbon, respectively, on the performance of the HCCIs. The third aspect is the development of an approach to enhance the wear resistance of

  19. Fracture of elastomers by cavitation

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdi, Adel

    2014-01-01

    Cavitation phenomenon is studied in rubber-like materials by combining experimental, theoretical and numerical approaches. Specific tests are carried out on a Styrene Butadiene Rubber to point out main characteristics of cavitation phenomenon. Hydrostatic depression is numerically modelled using finite element method. Numerical results are compared to Ball\\'s and Hou & Abeyaratne\\'s models with regard to cavity nucleation in the material. Both models well fit experimental observations suggesting that the cavitation nucleation in elastomers depends on the confinement degree of the specimen. Finally, critical hydrostatic pressure and critical global deformation are proved to govern cavitation nucleation in the studied material. Critical loadings are identified by comparing experimental and numerical load-displacement curves. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Some Cavitation Properties of Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Efremova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation properties of liquid must be taken into consideration in the engineering design of hydraulic machines and hydro devices when there is a possibility that in their operation an absolute pressure in the liquid drops below atmospheric one, and for a certain time the liquid is in depression state. Cold boiling, which occurs at a comparatively low temperature under a reduced absolute pressure within or on the surface of the liquid is regarded as hydrostatic cavitation if the liquid is stationary or as hydrodynamic cavitation, if the liquid falls into conditions when in the flow cross-section there is a sharply increasing dynamic pressure and a dropping absolute pressure.In accordance with the theory of cavitation, the first phase of cavitation occurs when the absolute pressure of the degassed liquid drops to the saturated vapour pressure, and the air dissolved in the liquid, leaving the intermolecular space, is converted into micro-bubbles of combined air and becomes a generator of cavitation “nuclei”. A quantitative estimate of the minimum allowable absolute pressure in a real, fully or partially degassed liquid at which a hydrostatic cavitation occurs is of practical interest.Since the pressure of saturated vapour of a liquid is, to a certain extent, related to the forces of intermolecular interaction, it is necessary to have information on the cavitation properties of technical solutions, including air solution in a liquid, as a solute may weaken intermolecular bonds and affect the pressure value of the saturated solvent vapour. In the experiment to carry out vacuum degassing of liquids was used a hydraulic air driven vacuum pump.The paper presents hydrostatic and hydrodynamic degassing liquid processes used in the experiment.The experimental studies of the cavitation properties of technical liquids (sea and distilled water, saturated NaCl solution, and pure glycerol and as a 49/51% solution in water, mineral oil and jet fuel enabled

  1. Time resolved PIV and flow visualization of 3D sheet cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foeth, E.J.; Doorne, C.W.H. van; Terwisga, T. van [Delft University of Technology, Laboratory of Ship Hydromechanics, Delft (Netherlands); Wieneke, B. [LaVision GmbH, Goettingen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Time-resolved PIV was applied to study fully developed sheet cavitation on a hydrofoil with a spanwise varying angle of attack. The hydrofoil was designed to have a three-dimensional cavitation pattern closely related to propeller cavitation, studied for its adverse effects as vibration, noise, and erosion production. For the PIV measurements, fluorescent tracer particles were applied in combination with an optical filter, in order to remove the reflections of the laser lightsheet by the cavitation. An adaptive mask was developed to find the interface between the vapor and liquid phase. The velocity at the interface of the cavity was found to be very close to the velocity predicted by a simple streamline model. For a visualization of the global flow dynamics, the laser beam was expanded and used to illuminate the entire hydrofoil and cavitation structure. The time-resolved recordings reveal the growth of the attached cavity and the cloud shedding. Our investigation proves the viability of accurate PIV measurements around developed sheet cavitation. The presented results will further be made available as a benchmark for the validation of numerical simulations of this complicated flow. (orig.)

  2. Enhanced Droplet Erosion Resistance of Laser Treated Nano Structured TWAS and Plasma Ion Nitro-Carburized Coatings for High Rating Steam Turbine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, B. K.; Arya, Vivek; Mann, B. S.

    2010-09-01

    This article deals with surface modification of twin wire arc sprayed (TWAS) and plasma ion nitro-carburized X10CrNiMoV1222 steel using high power diode laser (HPDL) to overcome water droplet erosion occurring in low pressure steam turbine (LPST) bypass valves and LPST moving blades used in high rating conventional, critical, and super critical thermal power plants. The materials commonly used for high rating steam turbines blading are X10CrNiMoV1222 steel and Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The HPDL surface treatment on TWAS coated X10CrNiMoV1222 steel as well as on plasma ion nitro-carburized steel has improved water droplet resistance manifolds. This may be due to combination of increased hardness and toughness as well as the formation of fine grained structure due to rapid heating and cooling rates associated with the laser surface treatment. The water droplet erosion test results along with their damage mechanism are reported in this article.

  3. Modeling liquid hydrogen cavitating flow with the full cavitation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.B.; Qiu, L.M.; Qi, H.; Zhang, X.J.; Gan, Z.H. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Cavitation is the formation of vapor bubbles within a liquid where flow dynamics cause the local static pressure to drop below the vapor pressure. This paper strives towards developing an effective computational strategy to simulate liquid hydrogen cavitation relevant to liquid rocket propulsion applications. The aims are realized by performing a steady state computational fluid dynamic (CFD) study of liquid hydrogen flow over a 2D hydrofoil and an axisymmetric ogive in Hord's reports with a so-called full cavitation model. The thermodynamic effect was demonstrated with the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the gas phase and liquid phase. Temperature-dependent fluid thermodynamic properties were specified along the saturation line from the ''Gaspak 3.2'' databank. Justifiable agreement between the computed surface pressure, temperature and experimental data of Hord was obtained. Specifically, a global sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the sensitivity of the turbulent computations to the wall grid resolution, wall treatments and changes in model parameters. A proper near-wall model and grid resolution were suggested. The full cavitation model with default model parameters provided solutions with comparable accuracy to sheet cavitation in liquid hydrogen for the two geometries. (author)

  4. Slurry Erosion Behavior of F6NM Stainless Steel and High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel-Sprayed WC-10Co-4Cr Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S. Y.; Miao, Q.; Liang, W. P.; Huang, B. Z.; Ding, Z.; Chen, B. W.

    2017-02-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr coating was applied to the surface of F6NM stainless steel by high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying. The slurry erosion behavior of the matrix and coating was examined at different rotational speeds using a self-made machine. This experiment effectively simulates real slurry erosion in an environment with high silt load. At low velocity (<6 m/s), the main failure mechanism was cavitation. Small bubbles acted as an air cushion, obstructing direct contact between sand and the matrix surface. However, at velocity above 9 m/s, abrasive wear was the dominant failure mechanism. The results indicate that WC-10Co-4Cr coating significantly improved the slurry resistance at higher velocity, because it created a thin and dense WC coating on the surface.

  5. Visualization of cavitation bubbles; Visualisation de bulles de cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouvellon, M.; Fournel, Th.; Ducottet, Ch. [Universite Jean Monnet, 31 Saint-Etienne (France). Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation-UMR CNRS 5516

    1999-07-01

    A high frequency ultrasonic reactor allows the degradation of some organic compounds which are not or poorly biodegradable by usual methods in industrial flows. The propagation of an ultrasonic wave in a liquid induces cavitation phenomena. The implosion of cavitation bubble locally causes a temperature of about several thousand Kelvins and a pressure of about several hundred bars. Such conditions allow the creation of the hydroxyl radicals and then the oxidation of organic compounds. The aim of this paper is to describe the method used to visualize cavitation bubbles in an ultrasonic reactor at a frequency of 500 kHz. The experimental set-up and the measurement of both the bubble radius and the fringe separation are presented. (authors)

  6. Confined Shocks inside Isolated Liquid Volumes -- A New Path of Erosion?

    CERN Document Server

    Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; de Bosset, Aurele; Tinguely, Marc; Farhat, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The unique confinement of shock waves inside isolated liquid volumes amplifies the density of shock-liquid interactions. We investigate this universal principle through an interdisciplinary study of shock-induced cavitation inside liquid volumes, isolated in 2 and 3 dimensions. By combining high-speed visualizations of ideal water drops realized in microgravity with smoothed particle simulations we evidence strong shock-induced cavitation at the focus of the confined shocks. We extend this analysis to ground-observations of jets and drops using an analytic model, and argue that cavitation caused by trapped shocks offers a distinct mechanism of erosion in high-speed impacts (>100 m/s).

  7. Cavitation Effects in Centrifugal Pumps- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Binama

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is one of the most challenging fluid flow abnormalities leading to detrimental effects on both the centrifugal pump flow behaviors and physical characteristics. Centrifugal pumps’ most low pressure zones are the first cavitation victims, where cavitation manifests itself in form of pitting on the pump internal solid walls, accompanied by noise and vibration, all leading to the pump hydraulic performance degradation. In the present article, a general description of centrifugal pump performance and related parameters is presented. Based on the literature survey, some light were shed on fundamental cavitation features; where different aspects relating to cavitation in centrifugal pumps were briefly discussed

  8. Contribution à l'étude de l'érosion de cavitation: mécanismes hydrodynamiques et prédiction

    OpenAIRE

    Farhat, Mohamed

    1994-01-01

    In the field of hydraulic power plant, the leading edge cavitation is often responsible of sever erosion which may cause a premature shutdown of energy production with costly consequences. This type of cavitation is characterized by an attached vapour cavity at the leading edge of the blades. Transient vapour vortices are generated and convected by the mean ow to the pressure recovery region where they collapse violently. The resulting water hammer pressure is responsible of material damage. ...

  9. Contribution à l'étude de l'érosion de cavitation: mécanismes hydrodynamiques et prédiction

    OpenAIRE

    Farhat, Mohamed; Avellan, François

    2005-01-01

    In the field of hydraulic power plant, the leading edge cavitation is often responsible of sever erosion which may cause a premature shutdown of energy production with costly consequences. This type of cavitation is characterized by an attached vapour cavity at the leading edge of the blades. Transient vapour vortices are generated and convected by the mean ow to the pressure recovery region where they collapse violently. The resulting water hammer pressure is responsible of material damage. ...

  10. Laser Treatment of Textured X20Cr13 Stainless Steel to Improve Water Droplet Erosion Resistance of LPST Blades and LP Bypass Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    X20Cr13, a martensitic stainless steel, is commonly used for the manufacture of low pressure steam turbine (LPST) moving blades and LP bypass valves of fossil fuel and nuclear power plants. The LPST blades, at present, are laser surface treated to improve their water droplet erosion (WDE) resistance. The laser-treated X20Cr13 stainless steel has improved the water droplet resistance (WDER) several times compared to untreated ones. Further improvements are being carried out by providing a carbide-based HVOF coating having appropriate surface roughness or by creating textured surfaces and treating with a high power diode laser. The surfaces, having appropriate roughness, absorb more laser energy, resulting in improved microstructure, microhardness, modified ultimate resilience, and thicker hardened layer. The WDER of laser-treated textured X20Cr13 stainless steel has improved significantly compared to the untextured ones. The WDE test results of laser-treated textured and untextured X20Cr13 stainless steel along with their microhardness, modified ultimate resilience, microstructure, SEM, and XRD analysis are discussed and reported in this paper. The laser-treated textured X20Cr13 stainless steel is highly suitable for LP bypass valves and LPST blades for achieving a thicker hardened layer with lesser heat input to the components.

  11. Experimental Observations of Cavitating Flows Around a Hydrofoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min-di; WANG Guo-yu; DONG Zi-qiao; LI Xiang-bin; GAO De-ming

    2008-01-01

    The cavitation around a hydrofoil is studied experimentally tO shed light on the multiphase fluid dynamies.Different cavitation regimes are studied by using high speed visualization and particle image velocimetry(PIV).As decreasing the cavitation number,four cavitating flow regimes are observed:incipient cavitation,sheet cavitation,cloud cavitation,and supercavitation.From the incipient cavitation to the cloud cavitation,bubbles become more and more.Phenomena with large-scale vortex structure and rear re-entrant jet associated with the cloud cavitation,and subsequent development in the supercavitation are described.The velocity in the cavitation regions in the different cavitation conditions is low compared to that of the free stream.The large velocity gradient is also observed in the cavitating flow region near the suHace of the hydrofoil.

  12. In Vivo Microbubble Cavitation Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignon, F.; Shi, W.; Liu, J.; Xie, F.; Gao, S.; Drvol, L.; Lof, J.; Everbach, C.; Porter, T.; Powers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the second cause of death and leading cause of disabilityworldwide. Less than 5% of ischemic stroke patients receive the state-of-the art treatment of a thrombolytic drug tPA, and only about 10% of these gain additional benefit from it. Ultrasound (US)-inducedmicrobubble (MB) cavitation ha

  13. Stochastic-field cavitation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumond, J., E-mail: julien.dumond@areva.com [AREVA Nuclear Professional School, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); AREVA GmbH, Erlangen, Paul-Gossen-Strasse 100, D-91052 Erlangen (Germany); Magagnato, F. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Class, A. [AREVA Nuclear Professional School, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Nonlinear phenomena can often be well described using probability density functions (pdf) and pdf transport models. Traditionally, the simulation of pdf transport requires Monte-Carlo codes based on Lagrangian “particles” or prescribed pdf assumptions including binning techniques. Recently, in the field of combustion, a novel formulation called the stochastic-field method solving pdf transport based on Eulerian fields has been proposed which eliminates the necessity to mix Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques or prescribed pdf assumptions. In the present work, for the first time the stochastic-field method is applied to multi-phase flow and, in particular, to cavitating flow. To validate the proposed stochastic-field cavitation model, two applications are considered. First, sheet cavitation is simulated in a Venturi-type nozzle. The second application is an innovative fluidic diode which exhibits coolant flashing. Agreement with experimental results is obtained for both applications with a fixed set of model constants. The stochastic-field cavitation model captures the wide range of pdf shapes present at different locations.

  14. Stochastic-field cavitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumond, J.; Magagnato, F.; Class, A.

    2013-07-01

    Nonlinear phenomena can often be well described using probability density functions (pdf) and pdf transport models. Traditionally, the simulation of pdf transport requires Monte-Carlo codes based on Lagrangian "particles" or prescribed pdf assumptions including binning techniques. Recently, in the field of combustion, a novel formulation called the stochastic-field method solving pdf transport based on Eulerian fields has been proposed which eliminates the necessity to mix Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques or prescribed pdf assumptions. In the present work, for the first time the stochastic-field method is applied to multi-phase flow and, in particular, to cavitating flow. To validate the proposed stochastic-field cavitation model, two applications are considered. First, sheet cavitation is simulated in a Venturi-type nozzle. The second application is an innovative fluidic diode which exhibits coolant flashing. Agreement with experimental results is obtained for both applications with a fixed set of model constants. The stochastic-field cavitation model captures the wide range of pdf shapes present at different locations.

  15. 不同生长期大豆坡耕地土壤抗侵蚀能力特征%Soil Erosion Resistance of Sloping Farmland under Soybean Cultivation Relative to Growth Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王计磊; 吴发启

    2016-01-01

    土壤抗侵蚀能力特征是土壤侵蚀预测预报的重要依据之一,为了分析黄土区不同生长期大豆坡耕地土壤抗侵蚀能力特征,采用原状土冲刷槽和静水崩解法,分别在大豆不同生长期测定坡耕地不同土层土壤抗冲性和抗蚀性,并对大豆根系特征与土壤抗侵蚀能力的关系进行分析。结果表明:随着大豆生育期的推进呈现出先增强后减弱的趋势,始粒期土壤抗侵蚀能力最强,苗期最弱;在大豆苗期与分枝期,土壤抗侵蚀能力随土层深度的增加而减弱;大豆开花期以后10~20 cm土层土壤抗侵蚀能力最强,其次为0~5 cm土层;土壤根重密度、根系表面积、根系体积及根系长度对土壤抗侵蚀能力影响均达到极显著水平(p<0.01),且根径在0~0.5 mm之间根系的增多会更加有效地提高土壤的抗侵蚀能力。这表明在大豆生长初期加强对坡面的有效防护,避免地表长期裸露,培育根系发达的大豆品种将有助于对坡耕地土壤侵蚀的防控。%Abstract[Objective]Soil erosion resistance is one of the main factors affecting development of soil erosion. As the Loess Plateau is one of the most severe soil erosion areas in China,it is especially important to characterize the soil erosion resistance of the region to management and control of soil erosion on the Loess Plateau. Soybean,high in drought resistance,is one of the major crops commonly grown on the Loess Plateau,and the one that grows in the season when heavy rain showers occur frequently,and consequently soil erosion tends to take place in the region. Therefore,a field experiment was conducted to determine characteristics of the erosion resistance of the soil and their relationships with soybean root system relative to growth stage of soybean.[Method]Soil anti-scourability and anti-erodibility are two important parameters to evaluate soil resistance. This study determined the soil anti-erosion

  16. Prediction of cryogenic cavitation around hydrofoil by an extensional Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T. Z.; Wei, Y. J.; Wang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Developing a robust computational strategy to address the rich physics characteristic involved in the thermodynamic effects on the cryogenic cavitation remains a challenging problem. The objective of this present study is to model the numerical methodology to simulate the cryogenic cavitation by implanting the thermodynamic effects to the Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model, and coupling the energy equation considered the latent heat. For this purpose, cavitating flows are investigated over a three dimensional hydrofoil in liquid hydrogen and nitrogen. Experimental measurements of pressure and temperature are utilized to validate the extensional Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model. Specifically, the further analysis of the cavitation solution with respect to the thermodynamic term is conducted. The results show that the extensional Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model predicts better accuracy to the quasi-steady cavitation over hydrofoil in the two cryogenic fluids.

  17. Effect of Solution Temperature for Al Alloy Anodizing on Cavitation Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Jun [Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Hyung; Kim, Seong Jong [Mokpo National Maritime University, Haeyangdaehak-ro 91, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The commercialization of aluminum had been delayed than other metals because of its high oxygen affinity. Anodizing is a process in which oxide film is formed on the surface of a valve metal in an electrolyte solution by anodic oxidation reaction. Aluminum has thin oxide film on surface but the oxide film is inhomogeneous having a thickness only in the range of several nanometers. Anodizing process increases the thickness of the oxide film significantly. In this study, porous type oxide film was produced on the surface of aluminum in sulfuric acid as a function of electrolyte temperature, and the optimum condition were determined for anodizing film to exhibit excellent cavitation resistance in seawater environment. The result revealed that the oxide film formed at 10 ℃ represented the highest cavitation resistance, while the oxide film formed at 15 ℃ showed the lowest resistance to cavitation in spite of its high hardness.

  18. Memory-Effect on Acoustic Cavitation

    OpenAIRE

    Yavaṣ, Oğuz; Leiderer, Paul; Park, Hee K.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Poon, Chie C.; Tam, Andrew C.

    1994-01-01

    The formation of bubbles at a liquid-solid interface due to acoustic cavitation depends particularly on the preconditions of the interface. Here, it wiIl be shown that following laser-induced bubble formation at the interface the acoustic cavitation efficiency is strongly enhanced. Optical reflectance measurements reveal that this observed enhancement of acoustic cavitation due to preceding laser-induced bubble formation, which could be termed as memory effect, decays in a few hundred microse...

  19. CAVITATION NUCLEI: EXPERIMENTS AND THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MфRCH K. A.

    2009-01-01

    The Swedish astrophysicist and Nobel Prize winner Hannes Alfvén said: Theories come and go ─ the experiment is here forever. Often a theory, which we set up to describe an observed physical phenomenon, suffers from the lack of knowledge of decisive parameters, and therefore at best the theory becomes insufficient. Contrary, the experiment always reveals nature itself, though at prevailing experimental conditions. With essential parameters being out of control and even maybe unidentified, apparently similar experiments may deviate way beyond our expectations. However, these discrepancies offer us a chance to reflect on the character of the unknown parameters. In this way non-concordant experimental results may hold the key to the development of better theories – and to new experiments for the testing of their validity. Cavitation and cavitation nuclei are phenomena of that character.

  20. Cavitation Nuclei: Experiments and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Knud Aage

    2009-01-01

    The Swedish astrophysicist and Nobel Prize winner Hannes Alfven said: Theories come and go - the experiment is here forever. Often a theory, which we set up to describe an observed physical phenomenon, suffers from the lack of knowledge of decisive parameters, and therefore at best the theory...... becomes insufficient. Contrary, the experiment always reveals nature itself, though at prevailing experimental conditions. With essential parameters being out of control and even maybe unidentified, apparently similar experiments may deviate way beyond our expectations. However, these discrepancies offer...... us a chance to reflect on the character of the unknown parameters. In this way non-concordant experimental results may hold the key to the development of better theories - and to new experiments for the testing of their validity. Cavitation and cavitation nuclei are phenomena of that character....

  1. Studies of a novel sensor for assessing the spatial distribution of cavitation activity within ultrasonic cleaning vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeqiri, Bajram; Hodnett, Mark; Carroll, Anthony J

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes investigations of the spatial distribution of cavitation activity generated within an ultrasonic cleaning vessel, undertaken using a novel cavitation sensor concept. The new sensor monitors high frequency acoustic emissions (>1 MHz) generated by micron-sized bubbles driven into acoustic cavitation by the applied acoustic field. Novel design features of the sensor, including its hollow, cylindrical shape, provide the sensor with spatial resolution, enabling it to associate the megahertz acoustic emissions produced by the cavitating bubbles with specific regions of space within the vessel. The performance of the new sensor has been tested using a 40 kHz ultrasonic cleaner employing four transducers and operating at a nominal electrical power of 140 W under controlled conditions. The results demonstrate the ability of the sensors to identify 'hot-spots' and 'cold-spots' in cavitation activity within the vessel, and show good qualitative agreement with an assessment of the spatial distribution of cavitation determined through erosion monitoring of thin sheets of aluminium foil. The implications of the studies for the development of reliable methods of quantifying the performance of cleaning vessels are discussed in detail.

  2. A benchmark experiment on gas cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Franz; Honza, Rene

    2014-08-01

    Cavitation research is often a matter of experiments conducted in complex machinery. There, it is extremely difficult to look into one of the most important issues of cavitation which is nucleation. This work investigates gas cavitation under well-defined flow conditions. Nuclei are placed in wall bound cavities and are exposed to a radial gap flow featuring independent pressure and shear stress. A reciprocating bubble generation is achieved. Bubble frequency and size are evaluated which turn out to depend on pressure and wall shear stress. The experiment lends itself to systematic research in cavitation.

  3. Cavitation on hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation characteristics of hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge were examined experimentally at a Reynolds number of 7.2 × 105. The hydrofoils had an underlying NACA 634-021 profile and an aspect ratio of 4.3. The sinusoidal leading edge geometries included three amplitudes of 2.5%, 5%, and 12% and two wavelengths of 25% and 50% of the mean chord length. Results revealed that cavitation on the leading edge-modified hydrofoils existed in pockets behind the troughs whereas the baseline hydrofoil produced cavitation along its entire span. Moreover, cavitation on the modified hydrofoils appeared at consistently lower angles of attack than on the baseline hydrofoil.

  4. Cavitation of a Propeller and Influence of an Wake Equalizing Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Martinas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The wake equalizing duct (WED is one of the most commonly used energy saving devices for improving the propulsion performance of a ship; and reducing the propeller-excited vibrations and viscous resistance forces. During the last three decades considerable research and development activities have taken into place within this context. Most of these devices are used to improve propulsive efficiency, but some of them aims to improve other performance characteristics, such as cavitations, vibration, noise, maneuverability, etc. Marine propellers are the most common propulsion systems; nevertheless, it is possible to improve its propulsive performance using additional auxiliary propulsor devices (unconventional propulsors. Two versions of an existing ship in normal version and fitted with WED device were analyzed in order to demonstrate the influence on the WED device on the propeller cavitations . It was determined that the values for the pressure coefficient is 1.98 for without WED situation and 2.029 for WED situation. The difference is not so significant that, the conclusion is that WED device did not have influence over the cavitations of the propeller. Either optimization of dimension and form of WED did not help in reducing negative effects of cavitations. Not being a study in this paperwork, to decrease the cavitations we have other choices including a sound design of the propeller biased to improve the propeller behavior in cavitations. WED is clearly not a choice.

  5. Breaking beer bottles with cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunny; Fontana, Jake; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Shelley, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Hitting the top of a beer bottle, nearly full of water, with an open hand can cause the bottle to break, with the bottom separating from upper section. We have studied this phenomenon using a high-speed camera, and observed the formation, coalescence and collapse of bubbles. The breaking of glass is due to cavitation, typically occurring near the bottom edge. We make numerical estimates of the relevant physical parameters, and compare these with experimental observations.

  6. Mesenteric lymph node cavitation syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh; James; Freeman

    2010-01-01

    The mesenteric lymph node cavitation syndrome consists of central necrosis of mesenteric lymph nodes and may occur with either celiac disease or a sprue-like intestinal disease that fails to respond to a gluten-free diet. Splenic hypofunction may also be present. The cause is not known but its development during the clinical course of celiac disease is usually indicative of a poor prognosis for the intestinal disorder, a potential for signif icant compli-cations including sepsis and malignancy, particularly...

  7. Research on cohesive sediment erosion by flow: An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Erosion of cohesive sediment by flow is a very complicated phenomenon occurring worldwide. Understanding and modeling of the erosion process are important for many issues such as the breaching of embankments, riverbank stability, siltation of harbors and navigation channels, service life of reservoirs, distribution of (heavy metal) pollutants and water quality problems. In the last few decades, numerous studies have been done on the erosion of cohesive sediment by flow. Nevertheless, the factors affecting the erosion resistance of cohesive sediment are still not fully understood and the knowledge of the physics of cohesive sediment erosion is in- adequate, as a result the mathematical modeling of this erosion is far from satis- factory. In this paper an overview of the studies on the erosion resistance, erosion threshold and the erosion rate of cohesive sediment by flow is presented. The outcomes achieved so far from the studies and the existing problems have been analyzed and summarized, based on which recommendations are proposed for future research.

  8. Cavitation Generated by Amplitude Modulated HIFU: Investigation on the Inertial Cavitation Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Bruno; Saletes, Izella; Béra, Jean-Christophe

    2007-05-01

    An experimental investigation on cavitation threshold was carried out in order to compare monochromatic and dichromatic ultrasound excitations in their ability to generate inertial cavitation on a target. Using a cavitation activity spectral criterion, a precise inertial cavitation threshold could be extracted in every case considered. The results showed that these thresholds could be very different depending on the type of excitation used. More precisely, for the parameters investigated in the present study, the ratio between monochromatic and dichromatic thresholds decreased when cavitation thresholds are increased. The potential application of this study to purely ultrasonic thrombolysis is discussed.

  9. Cavitation instabilities of an inducer in a cryogenic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Jin; Sung, Hyung Jin; Choi, Chang-Ho; Kim, Jin-Sun

    2017-03-01

    Inducers assist cryogenic pumps to operate safely under cavitation conditions by increasing the pressure of the impeller inlet, but create cavitation instabilities. The use of cryogenic fluids requires special attention because of safety and handling concerns. To examine the cavitation instabilities of a cryogenic pump, two kinds of working fluids, water and liquid oxygen, were employed. The cavitation instabilities were measured with an accelerometer installed on the pump casing. The flow coefficient and the head slightly decrease with decreases in the cavitation number before the cavitation breakdown. These trends are true of both fluids. Several cavitation instabilities were identified with the accelerometer. At lower flow coefficients, super-synchronous rotating cavitation was found in a similar cavitation number range for both fluids. At higher flow coefficients, the cavitation numbers of the cavitation instabilities in the liquid oxygen test are smaller than those of the water test.

  10. Numerical Prediction of Unsteady Behavior of Cavitating Flow on Hydrofoils using Bubble Dynamics Cavitation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-E- Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study with pressure-based finite volume method for prediction of non-cavitating and time dependent cavitating flow on hydrofoil. The phenomenon of cavitation is modeled through a mixture model. For the numerical simulation of cavitating flow, a bubble dynamics cavitation model is used to investigate the unsteady behavior of cavitating flow and describe the generation and evaporation of vapor phase. The non-cavitating study focuses on choosing mesh size and the influence of the turbulence model. Three turbulence models such as Spalart-Allmaras, Shear Stress Turbulence (SST k-ω model and Re-Normalization Group (RNG k-ε model with enhanced wall treatment are used to capture the turbulent boundary layer on the hydrofoil surface. The cavitating study presents an unsteady behavior of the partial cavity attached to the foil at different time steps for σ=0.8. Moreover, this study focuses on cavitation inception, the shape and general behavior of sheet cavitation, lift and drag forces for different cavitation numbers. Finally, the flow pattern and hydrodynamic characteristics are also studied at different angles of attack.

  11. Erosion behavior and mechanism of boronised steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立; 凌国平; 刘涛; 郦剑

    2002-01-01

    Boronising of steels is a hardening process to get high surface hardness. The erosion resistance of boronised steels was researched with the use of four kinds of erodent, i.e. glass, alumina, quartz and silicon carbide. The erosion rate increases rapidly with erodent hardness and severe erosion occurs with high impacting angle range of hard particles. SEM analysis indicated that chipping is caused by repetitive impacting of glass and quartz, whereas by alumina and silicon carbide impacting, chipping, and that plastic flow take place simultaneously and the erosion rate reaches the peak value when the impacting angle is above 60°.

  12. Erosion behavior and mechanism of boronised steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立; 凌国平; 刘涛; 郦剑

    2002-01-01

    Boronising of steels is a hardening process to get high surfaoe hardness. The erosion resis-tance of boronised steels was researched with the use of four kinds of erodent, i.e. glass, alumina,quartz and silicon carbide. The erosion rate increases rapidly with erodent hardness and severe erosion occurs with high impacting angle range of hard particles. SEM analysis indicated that chipping is caused by repetitive impacting of glass and quartz, whereas b.y alumina and silicon carbide impacting, chipping,and that plastic flow .take place simultaneously and the erosion rate reaches the peak value when the impacting angle is above 60°.

  13. INFLUENCES OF SLOPE GRADIENT ON SOIL EROSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青泉; 陈力; 李家春

    2001-01-01

    The main factors influencing soil erosion include the net rain excess, the water depth, the velocity, the shear stress of overland flows , and the erosion-resisting capacity of soil. The laws of these factors varying with the slope gradient were investigated by using the kinematic wave theory. Furthermore, the critical slope gradient of erosion was driven. The analysis shows that the critical slope gradient of soil erosion is dependent on grain size , soil bulk density , surface roughness, runoff length, net rain excess, and the friction coefficient of soil, etc. The critical slope gradient has been estimated theoretically with its range between 41. 5 °~ 50°.

  14. Research on Acid Rain Erosion Resistance of Fly Ash Concrete%粉煤灰混凝土抗酸雨侵蚀的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树东; 费治华

    2011-01-01

    不同粉煤灰掺量(0,20%,40%,60%)高性能混凝土经不同pH值(1、2、4)硫酸溶液浸泡后,研究其相对动弹性模量和质量损失规律.试验表明,随着溶液酸性的增加,混凝土破坏严重;粉煤灰掺量为20%~60%时,混凝土抗酸性能有所增加;高掺量粉煤灰混凝土在酸性环境中浸泡,当粉煤灰掺量为60%时,混凝土以相对动弹性模量损失形式遭到破坏,粉煤灰掺量为0~40%时都是以质量损失形式遭到破坏.粉煤灰混凝土的抗酸性研究对混凝土结构耐久性和寿命预测具有现实意义.%The relative dynamic modulus of elasticity and mass loss of high performance concrete with different fly ash proportion(0% ,20%,40% ,60% )after being soaked in sulfuric acid solution of different pH value( 1, 2, 4) are studied. Experiment results show that the concrete is seriously damaged with the higher strong of acidic solution. The performance of acid resistant increased when the concrete add 20% -60% fly ash.The destructional form of high value fly ash concrete dip in acid solution is relative dynamic modulus of elasticity loss when the concrete add 60% fly ash, and the destructional form is mass loss when the concrete add 0.40% fly ash. The research of the acid rain erosion resistance of concrete has redity meaning for the structure durability and life prediction of concrete.

  15. Cavitation: Cavitation flow. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habercom, G. E., Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Reports on general aspects of cavitating flow are included. A wide range of theoretical, analytical, and experimental information is presented involving mathematical analysis, computer programs, and testing. Topics include marine engineering, hydrodynamic and aerodynamic configurations, symmetric and nonaxisymmetric shapes, and measuring technology. Data is given on surface piercing struts, helical inducers, pumps, liquid metal systems, and venturi tubes. Applications include dam outlets and spillways, vertical conduits, deep rock drilling, heat pipe stability, water entry, and liquid cryogenic systems. Discussions are made of flow characteristics, noise, nucleate boiling, perturbation problems, and allied subjects. This updated bibliography contains 253 abstracts.

  16. Interaction of cavitation bubbles on a wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremond, Nicolas; Arora, Manish; Dammer, Stephan M.; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    We report experimental and numerical investigations on the dynamics of the cavitation of bubbles on a solid surface and the interaction between them with the help of controlled cavitation nuclei: hemispherical bubbles are nucleated from hydrophobic microcavities that act as gas traps when the substr

  17. Cavitation occurrence around ultrasonic dental scalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felver, Bernhard; King, David C; Lea, Simon C; Price, Gareth J; Damien Walmsley, A

    2009-06-01

    Ultrasonic scalers are used in dentistry to remove calculus and other contaminants from teeth. One mechanism which may assist in the cleaning is cavitation generated in cooling water around the scaler. The vibratory motion of three designs of scaler tip in a water bath has been characterised by laser vibrometry, and compared with the spatial distribution of cavitation around the scaler tips observed using sonochemiluminescence from a luminol solution. The type of cavitation was confirmed by acoustic emission analysed by a 'Cavimeter' supplied by NPL. A node/antinode vibration pattern was observed, with the maximum displacement of each type of tip occurring at the free end. High levels of cavitation activity occurred in areas surrounding the vibration antinodes, although minimal levels were observed at the free end of the tip. There was also good correlation between vibration amplitude and sonochemiluminescence at other points along the scaler tip. 'Cavimeter' analysis correlated well with luminol observations, suggesting the presence of primarily transient cavitation.

  18. Superhigh Temperatures and Acoustic Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, V B; Miller, M B; Sermyagin, A V; Topolnikov, A S

    2003-01-01

    The experimental results on thermonuclear synthesis under acoustic cavitation have been analyzed with the account of the latest data and their discussion. The analysis testifies that this avenue of research is a very promising one. The numerical calculations of the D(d, n)^{3}He reaction rate in the deuterated acetone (C_{3}D_{6}O) under the influence of ultrasound depending on T environment temperature within the range T=249-295 K have been carried out within the framework of hydrodynamic model. The results show that it is possible to improve substantially the effect/background relationship in experiments by decreasing the fluid temperature twenty-thirty degrees below zero.

  19. SOME REMARKS ON HYDROFOIL CAVITATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ARNDT Roger E.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews numerical and experimental investigations of sheet/cloud cavitation carried out at the St.Anthony Falls Laboratory and at two collaborating facilities (Versuchsanstalt Für Wasserbau,Obernach,Germany and Osaka University,Japan) for more than a decade.Although significant advances have been made in the analysis of this flow several issues are still unresolved.The purpose of this paper is to examine the overall features of the problem,review the progress made to date and suggest avenues for new investigation.

  20. EFFECT OF TIG SURFACE REMELTING PROCESS ON CAVITATION EROSION RESISTANCE FOR A PRE-WELD BUILDUP LAYER%TIG表面重熔对堆焊层耐空泡腐蚀的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷玉成; 冯良厚; 赵晓军

    2007-01-01

    用氩弧熔化焊(MIG)在4020碳钢表面堆焊耐空泡腐蚀材料,然后采用TIG(钨极氩弧焊),将堆焊层改性;通过与传统磨削表面加工对比,研究了TIG表面重熔对空泡腐蚀的影响.结果表明:在45 h空泡腐蚀试验后,磨削试样的累积失重量是TIG表面重熔试样的1.57倍;奥氏体到马氏体的相变是Stellite 21材料吸收空泡冲击能的主要途径,而TIG表面重熔加工可以延迟相变,延长吸收空泡冲击的时间,减缓空蚀;TIG重熔表面抑制了片层状马氏体的裂纹发展,避免了大的物质剥落.

  1. Numerical simulation of multiphase cavitating flows around an underwater projectile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The present simulation investigates the multiphase cavitating flow around an underwater projectile.Based on the Homogeneous Equilibrium Flow assumption,a mixture model is applied to simulate the multiphase cavitating flow including ventilated cavitation caused by air injection as well as natural cavitation that forms in a region where the pressure of liquid falls below its vapor pressure. The transport equation cavitating model is applied.The calculations are executed based on a suite of CFD code.The hyd...

  2. An Anticipatory Model of Cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Dress, W.B., Jr.; Hylton, J.O.; Kercel, S.W.

    1999-04-05

    The Anticipatory System (AS) formalism developed by Robert Rosen provides some insight into the problem of embedding intelligent behavior in machines. AS emulates the anticipatory behavior of biological systems. AS bases its behavior on its expectations about the near future and those expectations are modified as the system gains experience. The expectation is based on an internal model that is drawn from an appeal to physical reality. To be adaptive, the model must be able to update itself. To be practical, the model must run faster than real-time. The need for a physical model and the requirement that the model execute at extreme speeds, has held back the application of AS to practical problems. Two recent advances make it possible to consider the use of AS for practical intelligent sensors. First, advances in transducer technology make it possible to obtain previously unavailable data from which a model can be derived. For example, acoustic emissions (AE) can be fed into a Bayesian system identifier that enables the separation of a weak characterizing signal, such as the signature of pump cavitation precursors, from a strong masking signal, such as a pump vibration feature. The second advance is the development of extremely fast, but inexpensive, digital signal processing hardware on which it is possible to run an adaptive Bayesian-derived model faster than real-time. This paper reports the investigation of an AS using a model of cavitation based on hydrodynamic principles and Bayesian analysis of data from high-performance AE sensors.

  3. Simulations of Cavitating Cryogenic Inducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations of cavitating turbopump inducers at their design flow rate are presented. Results over a broad range of Nss, numbers extending from single-phase flow conditions through the critical head break down point are discussed. The flow characteristics and performance of a subscale geometry designed for water testing are compared with the fullscale configuration that employs LOX. In particular, thermal depression effects arising from cavitation in cryogenic fluids are identified and their impact on the suction performance of the inducer quantified. The simulations have been performed using the CRUNCH CFD[R] code that has a generalized multi-element unstructured framework suitable for turbomachinery applications. An advanced multi-phase formulation for cryogenic fluids that models temperature depression and real fluid property variations is employed. The formulation has been extensively validated for both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen by simulating the experiments of Hord on hydrofoils; excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable.

  4. A cavitation aggressiveness index within the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes methodology for cavitating flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOUKOUVINIS P.; BERGELES G.; GAVAISES M

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a methodology within the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers for cavitating flows capable of predicting the flow regions of bubble collapse and the potential aggressiveness to material damage. An aggressiveness index is introduced, called cavitation aggressiveness index (CAI) based on the total derivative of pressure which identifies surface areas exposed to bubble collapses, the index is tested in two known cases documented in the open literature and seems to identify regions of potential cavitation damage.

  5. Field Jet Erosion Tests on the Mississippi River Collocated Demonstration Section, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    performed by the Texas Transportation Institute using an erosion function apparatus ( EFA ) (Oh and Briaud 2010) and also differs from results of laboratory...Equation 1 describes the physical phenomena of erosion and states that the rate of erosion is proportional to the difference between effective...material that is strong in resisting overtopping erosion. Laboratory erosion tests using an EFA indicated that this mixture has a high resistance

  6. Development of High Erosivity Well Scale Cleaning Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. M. Kalumuck; G. L. Chahine; G. S. Frederick; P. D. Aley

    1999-07-01

    Build up of scale deposits on the walls of geothermal wells can occur rapidly due to the high dissolved solids content of geothermal fluids. Scale formation is a significant problem for both the well and for surface heat transfer equipment. Geothermal brines contain a wide variety if dissolved salts including carbonates, silicates, sulfates, and metal sulfides. One technology recently proposed for scale removal is the use of an ultrasonic device. In the present effort we apply cavitation in a more direct manner by the use of acoustically enhanced cavitating water jets which can be made to be much more efficient and aggressive than ultrasonic devices. Cavitating and self-resonating jet technologies have been proven to enhance the erosive power of liquid jets in a number of cutting, cleaning, and drilling applications. In this study we investigated two related technologies - one that employs cavitation and one that breaks the jet up into a series of slugs that produce water hammer type pressures upon impact. These technologies enable operation in both submerged and nonsubmerged conditions.

  7. Insights into xylem vulnerability to cavitation in Fagus sylvatica L.: phenotypic and environmental sources of variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbette, Stephane; Wortemann, Remi; Awad, Hosam; Huc, Roland; Cochard, Herve; Barigah, Tete Severien

    2010-11-01

    Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a key parameter in understanding drought resistance of trees. We determined the xylem water pressure causing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity (P(50)), a proxy of vulnerability to cavitation, and we evaluated the variability of this trait at tree and population levels for Fagus sylvatica. We checked for the effects of light on vulnerability to cavitation of stem segments together with a time series variation of P(50). Full sunlight-exposed stem segments were less vulnerable to cavitation than shade-exposed ones. We found no clear seasonal change of P(50), suggesting that this trait was designed for a restricted period. P(50) varied for populations settled along a latitudinal gradient, but not for those sampled along an altitudinal gradient. Moreover, mountainside exposure seemed to play a major role in the vulnerability to cavitation of beech populations, as we observed the differences along north-facing sides but not on south-facing sides. Unexpectedly, both north-facing mountainside and northern populations appeared less vulnerable than those grown on the southern mountainside or in the South of France. These results on beech populations were discussed with respect to the results at within-tree level.

  8. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

  9. Numerical analysis of cavitation within slanted axial-flow pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张睿; 陈红勋

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the cavitating flow within a slanted axial-flow pump is numerically researched. The hydraulic and cavitation performance of the slanted axial-flow pump under different operation conditions are estimated. Compared with the experimental hydraulic performance curves, the numerical results show that the filter-based model is better than the standard k-e model to predict the parameters of hydraulic performance. In cavitation simulation, compared with the experimental results, the proposed numerical method has good predicting ability. Under different cavitation conditions, the internal cavitating flow fields within slanted axial-flow pump are investigated. Compared with flow visualization results, the major internal flow features can be effectively grasped. In order to explore the origin of the cavitation performance breakdown, the Boundary Vorticity Flux (BVF) is introduced to diagnose the cavitating flow fields. The analysis results indicate that the cavitation performance drop is relevant to the instability of cavitating flow on the blade suction surface.

  10. Reflections on cavitation nuclei in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Knud Aage

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cavitation bubbles, cavitation nuclei, has been a subject of debate since the early years of cavitation research. This paper presents an analysis of a representative selection of experimental investigations of cavitation inception and the tensile strength of water. At atmospheric...... on the surface of particles and bounding walls. Such nuclei can be related to the full range of tensile strengths measured, when differences of experimental conditions are taken into consideration. The absence or presence of contamination on surfaces, as well as the structure of the surfaces, are central...... to explaining why the tensile strength of water varies so dramatically between the experiments reported. A model for calculation of the critical pressure of skin-covered free gas bubbles as well as that of interfacial gaseous nuclei covered by a skin is presented. This model is able to bridge the apparently...

  11. Two-Phase Cavitating Flow in Turbomachines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor I. Bernad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cavitating flows are notoriously complex because they are highly turbulent and unsteady flows involving two species (liquid/vapor with a large density difference. These features pose a unique challenge to numerical modeling works. The study briefly reviews the methodology curently employed for industrial cavitating flow simulations using the two-phase mixture model. The two-phase mixture model is evaluated and validated using benchmark problem where experimental data are available. A 3D cavitating flow computation is performed for the GAMM Francis runner. The model is able to qualitatively predict the location and extent of the 3D cavity on the blade, but further investigation are needed to quatitatively assess the accuracy for real turbomachinery cavitating flows.

  12. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, A. H.; Bakker, T. W.; Kramer, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by anaerobic bacteria, and how much cavitation increases the total biogas yield. An increase in yield is only the case if cavitation can further disrupt otherwise inaccessible cell membrane structures and long chain organic molecules. In this study the influence of hydrodynamic cavitation on sludge that was already digested for 30 days was investigated. The total biogas yield could indeed be increased. The effect of the backpressure behind the venturi tube on the yield could not yet be established.

  13. Comparative Experimental Research on Concrete Surface Treatment Materials Resistance to Wind Erosion%混凝土抗风蚀磨损表面强化处理材料的对比试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章岩; 王起才; 张粉芹; 马华军

    2012-01-01

    The second double-track section in Xinjiang of Lanzhou-Xinjiang Railway crosses the five most powerful wind areas of the nine wind areas in Xinjiang. For wind erosion to the railway concrete structure, by means of abrasion resistance and hydrophobicity tests, four kinds of concrete surface treatment materials were chosen to carried through research to improve the abrasion resistance of concrete surface. The results show that four kinds of surface treatment materials can all improve the abrasion resistance of concrete surface to wind erosion. Among which, permeable composite latex concrete surface treatment material has comprehensive advantages in abrasion resistance, hydrophobicity and price. It can penetrate through the surface of concrete by surface seepage method and react with concrete to form a dense hydrophobic net structure on the surface to achieve the effects of protection and resistance to wind erosion. It can improve the abrasion resistance of concrete surface more than doubled, and the surface drying time is reduced 99. 35%. It has better effect in anti-ultraviolet, anti-cracking and anti-freezing, etc.%兰新铁路第二双线新疆段穿越新疆九大风区中风力最强的五大风区.针对风蚀对铁路混凝土结构物的磨蚀问题,选用4种表面强化材料,通过混凝土耐磨蚀和疏水性试验,进行提高混凝土表面耐风蚀性能研究.结果表明:4种表面强化材料均可提高混凝土表面的抗风蚀磨损能力;其中渗透性复合乳液型混凝土表面抗风蚀处理材料在提高混凝土的耐磨蚀性和疏水性以及价格方面具有综合优势,它通过表面渗透方式渗入混凝土中并和混凝土发生反应,在混凝土表面形成致密疏水的网状结构,达到防护和抗风蚀的效果,可提高混凝土表面耐磨度一倍多,表干时间缩短99.35%,且在抗紫外线、抗开裂、抗冻等方面均表现出较好的效果.

  14. Cell mechanics in biomedical cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianxi; Manmi, Kawa; Liu, Kuo-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the deformation behaviours of cellular entities, such as coated microbubbles and liposomes subject to a cavitation flow, become increasingly important for the advancement of ultrasonic imaging and drug delivery. Numerical simulations for bubble dynamics of ultrasound contrast agents based on the boundary integral method are presented in this work. The effects of the encapsulating shell are estimated by adapting Hoff's model used for thin-shell contrast agents. The viscosity effects are estimated by including the normal viscous stress in the boundary condition. In parallel, mechanical models of cell membranes and liposomes as well as state-of-the-art techniques for quantitative measurement of viscoelasticity for a single cell or coated microbubbles are reviewed. The future developments regarding modelling and measurement of the material properties of the cellular entities for cutting-edge biomedical applications are also discussed. PMID:26442142

  15. Synchronized passive imaging of single cavitation events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateau, Jérôme; Aubry, Jean-François; Pernot, Mathieu; Chauvet, Daurian; Boch, Anne-Laure; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickaël

    2011-09-01

    Passive cavitation detection techniques are usually of relatively low sensitivity to single cavitation events. Moreover, a single-element transducer is generally used, so that the spatial localization of these cavitation events is not possible, or is limited to the probing volume. To both detect and localize single cavitation events over an extended volume, the following experimental set-up has been used and validated: cavitation is induced with a focused single-element transducer (mean frequency 660 kHz, f♯ = 1) driven by a high power (up to 5 kW) electric burst of a few cycles, and the acoustic emission of the bubbles is recorded on a standard linear array (4-7 MHz), mounted on the side of the single element to probe its focal spot. Both the frequencies and the geometry used are appropriate to in vivo implementation. The recording of ultrasonic radio-frequency (RF) data was performed simultaneously on 64 channels of the array and was synchronized with the pulsed excitation. A single cavitation event results in a high frequency and coherent wave front on the RF data. Thanks to synchronization, these RF data are beam-formed to localize the event with a axial resolution of 0.3 mm. A small number of discrete events could also be separated with this method. Besides, B-mode images obtained with the linear array prior to passive detection allowed the positioning of the events within the tissue structure. This technique has been used first ex vivo on freshly harve pig and sheep thigh muscle: with a two cycle excitation, a 9 MPa cavitation threshold was found. Cavitation detection was also achieved in vivo with a five cycle burst excitation in sheep thigh muscle for a peak acoustic pressure of 11MPa. This technique could provide useful information in order to better understand, control and monitor the initiation phase of the histotripsy process.

  16. Numerical 3D flow simulation of attached cavitation structures at ultrasonic horn tips and statistical evaluation of flow aggressiveness via load collectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottyll, S.; Skoda, R.

    2015-12-01

    A compressible inviscid flow solver with barotropic cavitation model is applied to two different ultrasonic horn set-ups and compared to hydrophone, shadowgraphy as well as erosion test data. The statistical analysis of single collapse events in wall-adjacent flow regions allows the determination of the flow aggressiveness via load collectives (cumulative event rate vs collapse pressure), which show an exponential decrease in agreement to studies on hydrodynamic cavitation [1]. A post-processing projection of event rate and collapse pressure on a reference grid reduces the grid dependency significantly. In order to evaluate the erosion-sensitive areas a statistical analysis of transient wall loads is utilised. Predicted erosion sensitive areas as well as temporal pressure and vapour volume evolution are in good agreement to the experimental data.

  17. AN ATTRIBUTION OF CAVITATION RESONANCE: VOLUMETRIC OSCILLATIONS OF CLOUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Zhi-gang; LI Sheng-cai; LIU Shu-hong; LI Shuang; CHEN Hui

    2009-01-01

    In order to further verify the proposed theory of cavitation resonance, as well as to proceed the investigations into microscopic level, a series of studies are being carried out on the Warwick venturi. The analysis of the oscillation characteristics of the cavitation resonance has conclusively verified the macro-mechanism proposed through previous studies on other cavitating flows by the authors. The initial observations using high-speed photographic approach have revealed a new attribution of cavitation resonance. That is, the volumetric oscillation of cavitation cloud is associated with the cavitation resonance, which is a collective behaviour of the bubbles in the cloud.

  18. Numerical and Experimental Studies of Cavitation Behavior in Water-Jet Cavitation Peening Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-jet cavitation peening (WCP is a new technology for the surface modification of metallic materials. The cavitation behavior in this process involves complex and changeable physics phenomena, such as high speed, high pressure, multiple phases, phase transition, turbulence, and unstable features. Thus, the cavitation behavior and impact-pressure distribution in WCP have always been key problems in this field. Numerous factors affect the occurrence of cavitation. These factors include flow-boundary conditions, absolute pressure, flow velocity, flow viscosity, surface tension, and so on. Among these factors, pressure and vapor fraction are the most significant. Numerical simulations are performed to determine the flow-field characteristics of both inside and outside the cavitating nozzle of a submerged water jet. The factors that influence the cavitation intensity of pressure are simulated. Fujifilm pressure-sensitive paper is used to measure the distribution of impact pressure along the jet direction during the WCP process. The results show that submerged cavitation jets can induce cavitation both inside and outside a conical nozzle and a convergent-divergent nozzle when the inlet pressure is 32 MPa. Moreover, the shock wave pressure induced by the collapse of the bubble group reaches up to 300 MPa.

  19. Erosion behaviour of hydro turbine steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh K Chauhan; D B Goel; Satya Prakash

    2008-04-01

    The martensitic stainless steel (termed as 13/4) is currently being used for fabrication of underwater parts in hydroelectric projects. There are, however, several maintenance problems associated with the use of this steel. A nitronic steel (termed as 21–4–N) has been developed as an alternative with the specific aim of overcoming these problems. A comparative study has been made on the erosion behaviour of 13/4 and 21–4–N steels by means of solid particle impingement using gas jet. The eroded surfaces after erosion tests were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. It is observed that the 21–4–N nitronic steel possesses better resistance to erosion in comparison to 13/4 martensitic stainless steel. The austenitic matrix of the nitronic steel possesses high hardness, high tensile toughness and work hardening ability, which results in higher erosion resistance.

  20. Development of advanced pump impeller fabrication technology using direct nano- ceramic dispersion casting for long time erosion durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Jin Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    Many components of pump impeller of nuclear power plants is generally made of stainless steel and Al-bronze with superior corrosion resistance to sea water. However, they should be replaced by one- to five-year period because of material damage by a very big cavitation impact load, even though their designed durability is twenty years. Especially, in case of Young-Gwang nuclear power plant located at the west sea, damage of components of pump impeller is so critical due to the additional damage by solid particle erosion and hence their replacement period is very short as several months compared to other nuclear power plants. In addition, it is very difficult to maintain and repair the components of pump impeller since there is no database on the exact durability and damage mechanism. Therefore, in this study, fabrication technology of new advanced materials modified by dispersion of nano-carbide and -oxide ceramics into the matrix is developed first. Secondly, technology to estimate the dynamic damage by solid particle erosion is established and hence applied to the prediction of the service life of the components of pump impeller.

  1. Model of Light Scattering in Cavitation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Skvortsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The offered work presents analysis of extinction mechanisms and justification of light scattering model in ultrasonic cavitation area to justify a control method of ultrasonic cavitation through its optical sounding by low-intensity laser radiation and through photo-detector record of last radiation.The analysis of the extinction mechanisms has shown that the most essential mechanism causing a change of the transmission coefficient with time is dispersion on pulsating cavitation bubbles. Other extinction mechanisms lead to the time-constant reduction of last radiation intensity and can be taken into consideration by normalizing a recorded transmission coefficient for a previously measured liquid transmission coefficient when there is no cavitation.The feature of light scattering on the cavitation bubbles is primary dispersion in a forward direction that is connected with great values of bubbles radius from units to hundreds of micrometers. In case of single bubbles, dispersion can be described by Mi's theory, and, as to the cavitation area, it is reasonable to use the theory of V. Tversky for multiple light scattering. Thus, dispersion section, according to the paradox of extinction, can be considered to be equal to doubled geometrical section of a bubble. With increasing bubble radius the transmission coefficient monotonically decreases. So, the law of bubble pulsations and the model of light scattering define the law of changing transmission coefficient.Therefore, the cavitation area with its optical sounding acts as a peculiar opto-acoustic modulator. Thus, the demodulated signal of a photo-detector comprises information on pulsations of bubbles.The paper examines the influence of cavitation area thickness and bubbles concentration on the transmission coefficient. It shows a type of transmission coefficient dependence on the radius of cavitation bubbles.The optical sounding method is attractive because it allows us to obtain data on the

  2. Emergency wind erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    February through May is the critical time for wind erosion in Kansas, but wind erosion can happen any time when high winds occur on smooth, wide fields with low vegetation and poor soil structure. The most effective wind erosion control is to ensure a protective cover of residue or growing crop thro...

  3. Erosion and Errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, H.; Heeres, Glenn; Os, van Bertil; Derickx, Willem; Schoorl, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Slope soil erosion is one of the main threats to archaeological sites. Several methods were applied to establish the erosion rates at archaeological sites. Digital elevation models (DEMs) from three different dates were used. We compared the elevations from these three models to estimate erosion. We

  4. Numerical analysis of the interactions of sheet cavitation and cloud cavitation around a hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D. Z.; Zhang, D. S.; Wang, H. Y.; Shi, W. D.; Shi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Partial cavitation and cloud cavitation on NACA66(MOD) was studied based on PANS turbulence model combined with the Zwart cavitation model. The results agree well with the data from the experimental results. The existence of a kind of unsteady characteristics of cloud cavitation is analysed in details. The reasons for the inhibition mechanism of the sheet cavitation are discussed. Pressure shock wave occurs near the tailing edge of the hydrofoil when the collapse of cloud is so large leading to great influence on the cavity closed to the leading edge. The evolution of the pressure peak and its propagation toward the leading edge were investigated through the study of the time domain signal of the monitor points along the streamline of flow. Finally, the propagation of the pressure wave on the suction side was further investigated through analysing the spatial-time history of wall pressure.

  5. Numerical prediction of impact force in cavitating flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, B [Department of Thermal Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua Univeersity, Beijing, 100084 (China); Wang, H, E-mail: bszhu@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    An analytical method including a macroscopic cavitation model based on the homogeneous flow theory and a microscopic cavitation model based on the bubble dynamic was proposed for the prediction of the impact force caused by cavitation bubbles collapse in cavitating flows. A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solver incorporated the macroscopic cavitation model was applied to simulate the unsteady cavitating flows. Based on the simulated flow field, the evolution of the cavitation bubbles was determined by a microscopic cavitation model from the resolution of a Rayleigh-Plesset equation including of the effects of the surface tension, the viscosity and compressibility of fluid, thermal conduction and radiation, the phase transition of water vapor at interface and chemical reactions. The cavitation flow around a hydrofoil was simulated to validate the macroscopic cavitation model. A good quantitative agreement was obtained between the prediction and the experiment. The proposed analytical method was applied to predict the impact force at cavitation bubbles collapse on a KT section in cavitating flows. It was found that the shock pressure caused by cavitation bubble collapse is very high. The impact force was predicted accurately comparing with the experimental data.

  6. Standard Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The terms and their definitions given herein represent terminology relating to wear and erosion of solid bodies due to mechanical interactions such as occur with cavitation, impingement by liquid jets or drops or by solid particles, or relative motion against contacting solid surfaces or fluids. This scope interfaces with but generally excludes those processes where material loss is wholly or principally due to chemical action and other related technical fields as, for instance, lubrication. 1.2 This terminology is not exhaustive; the absence of any particular term from this collection does not necessarily imply that its use within this scope is discouraged. However, the terms given herein are the recommended terms for the concepts they represent unless otherwise noted. 1.3 Certain general terms and definitions may be restricted and interpreted, if necessary, to make them particularly applicable to the scope as defined herein. 1.4 The purpose of this terminology is to encourage uniformity and accuracy ...

  7. Metabolic syndrome is associated with erosive esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung Ho Park; Dong IL Park; Hong Joo Kim; Yong Kyun Cho; Chong IL Sohn; Woo Kyu Jeon; Byung Ik Kim

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To clarify whether insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are risk factors for erosive esophagitis.METHODS: A case-control study was performed using the database of the Kangbuk Semsung Hospital Medical Screening Center.RESULTS: A total of 1679 cases of erosive esophagitis and 3358 randomly selected controls were included.Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 21% of the cases and 12% of the controls (P<0.001).Multiple logistic regressions confirmed the association between erosive esophagitis and metabolic syndrome (Odds ratio,1.25; 95% CI,1.04-1.49).Among the components of metabolic syndrome,increased waist circumference,elevated serum triglyceride levels and hypertension were significant risk factors for erosive esophagitis (allP<0.01).Furthermore,increased insulin resistance (Odds ratio,0.91; 95% CI,0.85-0.98)and fatty liver,as diagnosed by ultrasonography (odds ratio,1.39; 95% CI,1.20-1.60),were also related to erosive esophagitis even after adjustment for a series of confounding factors.CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome and increased insulin resistance are associated with an increased risk of developing erosive esophagitis.

  8. Dental erosion, summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, J M; Imfeld, T

    1996-04-01

    Although reports on dental erosion have always appeared in the dental literature, there is currently a growing interest among researchers and clinicians. Potential risk factors for dental erosion are changed lifestyle and eating patterns, with increased consumption of acidic foods and beverages. Various gastrointestinal and eating disorders expose the dentition to frequent contacts with very acidic gastric content, which may lead to erosion. Whether these factors indeed lead, on a population scale, to a higher prevalence and incidence of erosion is yet to be established. This article summarizes the different aspects of the prevalence, pathology, etiology, assessment, prevention and treatment of dental erosion, and concludes with recommendations for future research.

  9. DETECTION OF CAVITATION IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP BY VIBRATION METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Yongyan; YUAN Shouqi; PAN Zhongyong; YUAN Jianping

    2008-01-01

    For the purpose of detecting the cavitation of centrifugal pump onsite and real time, the vibration signals on varied operation conditions of both cavitation and non-cavitation obtained through acceleration sensors were analyzed. When cavitation occurs, the cavities near the leading edge of the blade will appear periodic oscillating, which will induce quasi-synchronous vibration. The frequency of the quasi-synchronous vibration symmetrically appears on the two sides of the blade passing frequency, by which the cavitation incipiency can be detected. During the developing process of the cavitation, as the severe complexity of the unsteady flow, it is very difficult to detect the development of cavitation by classical analysis methods. Fractal method of Higuchi is successfully used for detecting the incipiency, fully development of cavitation and the development between them.

  10. Interactions between severe environment and concrete resistance to abrasion and erosion%混凝土磨蚀冲蚀与其它环境因素的耦合作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何真

    2015-01-01

    Concrete becomes more and more invulnerable to abrasion/erosion degradation upon severe envi⁃ronmental exposure, especially when the service condition is coupled with chloride salt penetration, sulfate attack,and freezing-thawing cycles,etc. This degradation leads to repeated maintenance or service interrup⁃tion to significant hydraulic and marine infrastructure, resulting in tremendous economic losses. Starting from environmental influence and engineering service characteristics, this paper discusses the concrete resis⁃tance to abrasion-erosion degradation and failure modes under different service conditions. The testing meth⁃ods for concrete resistance to abrasion/erosion, and the microstructural control mechanism are evaluated, and the recommendations for development of high performance concrete for abrasion/erosion resistance appli⁃cations are proposed.%日趋严酷的服役环境使得混凝土磨蚀冲蚀与其它环境因素(氯盐侵蚀、硫酸盐侵蚀、冻融循环等)联合作用的问题愈来愈突出,其后果是导致重要水工、海工混凝土结构反复维修甚至过早失稳破坏,造成严重的经济损失。本文从环境因素和工程服役特性出发,对混凝土在不同工况条件下磨蚀冲蚀类型、破坏机理、评价方法、微结构调控机制等方面进行了阐述,指出需更加重视磨蚀冲蚀与其他环境因素联合作用下混泥土耐久性的研究,为高性能抗冲耐磨混凝土的研究与设计提出了建议。

  11. Real-time visualization of joint cavitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N Kawchuk

    Full Text Available Cracking sounds emitted from human synovial joints have been attributed historically to the sudden collapse of a cavitation bubble formed as articular surfaces are separated. Unfortunately, bubble collapse as the source of joint cracking is inconsistent with many physical phenomena that define the joint cracking phenomenon. Here we present direct evidence from real-time magnetic resonance imaging that the mechanism of joint cracking is related to cavity formation rather than bubble collapse. In this study, ten metacarpophalangeal joints were studied by inserting the finger of interest into a flexible tube tightened around a length of cable used to provide long-axis traction. Before and after traction, static 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired. During traction, rapid cine magnetic resonance images were obtained from the joint midline at a rate of 3.2 frames per second until the cracking event occurred. As traction forces increased, real-time cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rapid cavity inception at the time of joint separation and sound production after which the resulting cavity remained visible. Our results offer direct experimental evidence that joint cracking is associated with cavity inception rather than collapse of a pre-existing bubble. These observations are consistent with tribonucleation, a known process where opposing surfaces resist separation until a critical point where they then separate rapidly creating sustained gas cavities. Observed previously in vitro, this is the first in-vivo macroscopic demonstration of tribonucleation and as such, provides a new theoretical framework to investigate health outcomes associated with joint cracking.

  12. Solid particle erosion and viscoelastic properties of thermoplastic polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The wear resistance of several thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs having different chemical nature and micronscale arrangement of the hard and soft segments has been investigated by means of erosion and abrasion tests. The goal was correlating the erosion performances of the materials to their macroscopic mechanical properties. Unlike conventional tests, such as hardness and tensile measurements, viscoelastic analysis proved to be a valuable tool to study the erosion resistance of TPUs. In particular, a strict correlation was found between the erosion rate and the high-frequency (~107 Hz loss modulus. The latter reflects the actual ability of TPU to dissipate the impact energy of the erodent particles.

  13. 硫铝酸盐水泥混凝土抗氯离子侵蚀机理分析%Analysis of Mechanism of Resistance to Chloride Ion Erosion of Sulphoaluminate Cement Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军; 蔡高创; 高丹盈

    2011-01-01

    采用欧洲BUILD492《非稳态氯离子迁移试验法》测定普通硅酸盐水泥与硫铝酸盐水泥混凝土的氯离子非稳态扩散系数,应用X射线衍射分析(XRD)、扫描电镜分析(SEM)以及孔结构分析分别对这种水泥水化产物和水泥石内部结构进行研究,并对其抗氯离子侵蚀性能及其抵抗机理进行了研究分析.结果表明:硫铝酸盐水泥是提高混凝土抗氯盐侵蚀性能的一种理想胶凝材料.随着水灰比的降低,硫铝酸盐水泥的抗氯离子侵蚀能力逐渐增强.%For measuring chloride diffusion coefficient of Portland cement concrete and sulphoaluminate cement-based concrete, the method of chloride migration coefficient from non-steady-state experiments is a-dopted. And their cement hydration products and internal structure were researched by the application of X-ray diffraction analysis(XRD) and scanning electron microscopy analysis(SEM). According to the above studies, the resistance to chloride ion erosion of sulphoaluminate cement and the resistance mechanism of the cement were analyzed. The results show that sulphoaluminate cement is an ideal cementitious material which can significantly improve the resistance to chloride ion erosion of the concrete. At the same time, the performance of the cement is gradually improved with the lower water-cement ratio.

  14. Noise Caused by Cavitating Butterfly and Monovar Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    HASSIS, H.

    1999-08-01

    An experimental study of the effects of cavitation was carried out through an analysis of cavitating Butterfly and Monovar values. Focus is particularly placed on both unsteady pressure and acoustic pressure fluctuations. In this paper, the effects of cavitation on local fluctuation pressure (turbulence), acoustic propagation (damping and sound velocity), resonance frequencies and level of noise are presented.

  15. Influence of microparticle size on cavitation noise during ultrasonic vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cavitation noise in the ultrasonic vibration system was found to be influenced by the size of microparticles added in water. The SiO2 microparticles with the diameter smaller than 100 μm reduced the cavitation noise, and the reason was attributed to the constrained oscillation of the cavitation bubbles, which were stabilized by the microparticles.

  16. THE WALL EFFECT ON VENTILATED CAVITATING FLOWS IN CLOSED CAVITATION TUNNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; LU Chuan-jing; LI Jie; PAN Zhan-cheng

    2008-01-01

    For ventilated cavitating flows in a closed water tunnel, the wall effect may exert an important influence on cavity shape and hydrodynamics. An isotropic mixture multiphase model was established to study the wall effect based on the RANS equations,coupled with a natural cavitation model and the RaNG k-ε turbulent model. The governing equations were discrctized using the finite volume method and solved by the Gauss-Seidel linear equation solver on the basis of a segregation algorithm. The algebraic multigrid approach was carried through to accelerate the convergence of solution. The steady ventilated cavitating flows in water tunnels of different diameter were simulated for a conceptual underwater vehicle model which had a disk cavitator. It is found that the choked cavitation number derived is close to the approximate solution of natural cavitating flow for a 3-D disk. The critical ventilation rate falls with decreasing diameter of the water tunnel. However, the cavity size and drag coefficient are rising with the decrease in tunnel diameter for the same ventilation rate, and the cavity size will be much different in water tunnels of different diameter even for the same ventilated cavitation number.

  17. Cause Analysis and Countermeasures of Jiuyuxi Hydropower Turbine Cavitation%九浴溪水电站水轮机空蚀原因分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张馗

    2012-01-01

    The Jiuyuxi power plant is an old power plant has been running for more than 30 years, 2, 3, 4 Unit for ZD510- LH-180 old model axial-flow fixed-blade turbine units. Since its running in 1981, the turbine runner blades suffered serious erosion damage, mainly caused because of the gap cavitation. The main reason for transfer bye of poor performance, material cavitation resistance stability is poor, the flange gap is too large. The above, the power station in 2004 with new and efficient ZDJP502-LH- 180 wheel instead of the original ZD510-LH- 180 turbine runner, or to replace the stainless steel wheel, as well as strict control of the flange gap and reasonable development of the operating conditions, it is better solution to the problem of turbine cavitation, and increase the unit output.%九浴溪电站是一个运行30余年的老电站,其2、3、4号机组为ZD510-LH—180的老型号轴流定桨式水轮机组。自1981年运行以来,水轮机转轮叶片遭受较严重的浸蚀破坏,主要是由于间隙空蚀引起。主要原因有转轮空化性能差、材质抗空蚀稳定性差、轮缘间隙过大等。针对上述情况,电站在2004年用新型高效的ZDJP502-LH-180转轮替代原ZD510-LH-180水轮机转轮,或更换不锈钢转轮,以及严格控制轮缘间隙和合理拟定运行工况,很好地解决了水轮机空蚀的问题,并提高了机组出力。

  18. Fundamental studies on cavitation melt processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakis, I.; Hodnett, M.; Lebon, G. S. B.; Eskin, D. G.; Pericleous, K.

    2016-05-01

    The application of ultrasound to industrial casting processes has attracted research interest during the last 50 years. However, the transfer and scale-up of this advanced and promising technology to industry has been hindered by difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal due to the lack of understanding of certain fundamentals. In the current study experimental results on ultrasonic processing in deionised water and in liquid aluminium (Al) are reported. Cavitation activity was determined in both liquid environments and acoustic pressures were successfully measured using an advanced high-temperature cavitometer sensor. Results showed that highest cavitation intensity in the liquid bulk is achieved at lower amplitudes of the sonotrode tip than the maximum available, suggesting nonlinearity in energy transfer to the liquid, while the location of the sonotrode is seen to substantially affect cavitation activity within the liquid. Estimation of real-time acoustic pressures distributed inside a crucible with liquid Al was performed for the first time.

  19. Modelling vaporous cavitation on fluid transients

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the problem of modelling vaporous cavitation in transmission lines is presented. The two-phase homogeneous equilibrium vaporous cavitation model which has been developed is compared with the conventional column separation model. The latter predicts unrealistically high pressure spikes because of a conflict arising from the prediction of negative cavity sizes if the pressure is not permitted to fall below the vapour pressure, or the prediction of negative absolute pressures if the cavity size remains positive. This is verified by a comparison of predictions with previously published experimental results on upstream, midstream and downstream cavitation. The new model has been extended to include frequency-dependent friction. The characteristics predicted by the frequency-dependent friction model show close correspondence with experimental data.

  20. Analogy between fluid cavitation and fracture mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.; Braun, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    When the stresses imposed on a fluid are sufficiently large, rupture or cavitation can occur. Such conditions can exist in many two-phase flow applications, such as the choked flows, which can occur in seals and bearings. Nonspherical bubbles with large aspect ratios have been observed in fluids under rapid acceleration and high shear fields. These bubbles are geometrically similar to fracture surface patterns (Griffith crack model) existing in solids. Analogies between crack growth in solid and fluid cavitation are proposed and supported by analysis and observation (photographs). Healing phenomena (void condensation), well accepted in fluid mechanics, have been observed in some polymers and hypothesized in solid mechanics. By drawing on the strengths of the theories of solid mechanics and cavitation, a more complete unified theory can be developed.

  1. Sonic effervescence: A tutorial on acoustic cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfel, R.E. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8286 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This article on acoustic cavitation is a revision of a tutorial lecture presented at the Acoustical Society of America meeting in Austin, Texas, on 28 November 1994. The general approach adopted here differs from a review article in stressing the overarching themes that come under the category of acoustic cavitation, rather than being an encyclopedic reference on the topic. When possible, specific order-of-magnitude estimates have been given so that the reader can better understand the particular phenomena being described. The basic physics is discussed, and applications are reviewed with the goal of putting them in a useful context. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  2. Effect of cavitation on comminution of mica powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuwenGuo; LinshengLiu; 等

    2002-01-01

    The cavitation abrasive water jet was used in the comminution of mica.By applying a cavitation nozzle in the abrasive water jet system to enhance the effect of cavitation and friction,better comminution results were obtained.The JME-200CX transmission electron microscope was used for observing the size distribution of particles.As using cavitation abrasive water jet,the relative comminution effect is raised by more than 25% compared with using abrasive water jet oly.It can be concluded that the effect of cavitation is much more significant than that of impacting in the comminution of mica.

  3. Effect of cavitation on comminution of mica powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The cavitation abrasive water jet was used in the comminution of mica. By applying a cavitation nozzle in the abrasive water jet system to enhance the effect of cavitation and friction, better comminution results were obtained. The JME-200CX transmission electron microscope was used for observing the size distribution of particles. As using cavitation abrasive water jet, the relative comminution effect is raised by more than 25% compared with using abrasive water jet only. Itcan be concluded that the effect of cavitation is much more significant than that of impacting in the comminution of mica.

  4. Erosion-corrosion; Erosionkorrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghili, B

    1999-05-01

    A literature study on erosion-corrosion of pipings in the nuclear industry was performed. Occurred incidents are reviewed, and the mechanism driving the erosion-corrosion is described. Factors that influence the effect in negative or positive direction are treated, as well as programs for control and inspection. Finally, examples of failures from databases on erosion-corrosion are given in an attachment 32 refs, 16 figs, tabs

  5. Physical and chemical effects of acoustic cavitation in selected ultrasonic cleaning applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Nor Saadah Mohd; Babgi, Bandar; Alghamdi, Yousef; Aksu, Mecit; Madhavan, Jagannathan; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic cavitation in a liquid medium generates several physical and chemical effects. The oscillation and collapse of cavitation bubbles, driven at low ultrasonic frequencies (e.g., 20 kHz), can generate strong shear forces, microjets, microstreaming and shockwaves. Such strong physical forces have been used in cleaning and flux improvement of ultrafiltration processes. These physical effects have also been shown to deactivate pathogens. The efficiency of deactivation of pathogens is not only dependent on ultrasonic experimental parameters, but also on the properties of the pathogens themselves. Bacteria with thick shell wall are found to be resistant to ultrasonic deactivation process. Some evidence does suggest that the chemical effects (radicals) of acoustic cavitation are also effective in deactivating pathogens. Another aspect of cleaning, namely, purification of water contaminated with organic and inorganic pollutants, has also been discussed in detail. Strong oxidising agents produced within acoustic cavitation bubbles could be used to degrade organic pollutants and convert toxic inorganic pollutants to less harmful substances. The effect of ultrasonic frequency and surface activity of solutes on the sonochemical degradation efficiency has also been discussed in this overview.

  6. Laser-nucleated acoustic cavitation in focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerold, Bjoern; Kotopoulis, Spiros; McDougall, Craig; McGloin, David; Postema, Michiel; Prentice, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Acoustic cavitation can occur in therapeutic applications of high-amplitude focused ultrasound. Studying acoustic cavitation has been challenging, because the onset of nucleation is unpredictable. We hypothesized that acoustic cavitation can be forced to occur at a specific location using a laser to nucleate a microcavity in a pre-established ultrasound field. In this paper we describe a scientific instrument that is dedicated to this outcome, combining a focused ultrasound transducer with a pulsed laser. We present high-speed photographic observations of laser-induced cavitation and laser-nucleated acoustic cavitation, at frame rates of 0.5×10(6) frames per second, from laser pulses of energy above and below the optical breakdown threshold, respectively. Acoustic recordings demonstrated inertial cavitation can be controllably introduced to the ultrasound focus. This technique will contribute to the understanding of cavitation evolution in focused ultrasound including for potential therapeutic applications.

  7. Effects of cavitation on performance of automotive torque converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Ju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is a phenomenon whereby vapor bubbles of a flowing liquid are formed in a local region where the pressure of the liquid is below its vapor pressure. It is well known that cavitation in torque converters occurs frequently when a car with an automatic transmission makes an abrupt start. Cavitation is closely related to a performance drop and noise generation at a specific operating condition in a car and a torque converter itself. This study addressed the relation between cavitation and performance in an automotive torque converter in a quantitative and qualitative manner using numerical simulations. The cavitation was calculated at various operating conditions using a commercial flow solver with the homogeneous cavitation model, and the torque converter performance was compared with the experimental data. Numerical results well match to the data and indicate that the cavitation causes significant performance drop, as the pump speed increases or both speed ratio and reference pressure decrease.

  8. Validation of full cavitation model in cryogenic fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO XiaoLi; ZHANG XiaoBin; QIU LiMin; GAN ZhiHua

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulation of cavitation in cryogenic fluids is important in improving the stable operation of he propulsion system in liquid-fuel rocket. It also represents a broader class of problems where the fluid is operating close to its critical point and the thermal effects of cavitation are pronounced. The present article focuses on simulating cryogenic cavitation by implementing the "full cavitation model", coupled with energy equation, in conjunction with iteraUve update of the real fluid properties at local temperatures. Steady state computations are then conducted on hydrofoil and ogive in liquid nitrogen and hydrogen respectively, based on which we explore the mechanism of cavitation with thermal ef-fects. Comprehensive comparisons between the simulation results and experimental data as well as previous computations by other researchers validate the full cavitation model in cryogenic fluids. The sensitivity of cavity length to cavitation number is also examined.

  9. Prevention of Pressure Oscillations in Modeling a Cavitating Acoustic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Klenow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation effects play an important role in the UNDEX loading of a structure. For far-field UNDEX, the structural loading is affected by the formation of local and bulk cavitation regions, and the pressure pulses resulting from the closure of the cavitation regions. A common approach to numerically modeling cavitation in far-field underwater explosions is Cavitating Acoustic Finite Elements (CAFE and more recently Cavitating Acoustic Spectral Elements (CASE. Treatment of cavitation in this manner causes spurious pressure oscillations which must be treated by a numerical damping scheme. The focus of this paper is to investigate the severity of these oscillations on the structural response and a possible improvement to CAFE, based on the original Boris and Book Flux-Corrected Transport algorithm on structured meshes [6], to limit oscillations without the energy loss associated with the current damping schemes.

  10. 固体颗粒对超声空化场的影响%Influence of Particle Addition on Ultrasonic Cavitation Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽艳; 闻精精; 杨洋; 谭蔚

    2013-01-01

    根据超声化学基础理论研究的结果,微小固体颗粒的存在可以促进超声场中空化作用的效果,活性炭(AC)和氧化铝均是优良的催化剂载体,本研究采用铝箔腐蚀法测量了将其加入超声反应器后的超声空化场分布情况,并用MATLAB软件对铝箔腐蚀结果进行了定量分析,结果表明固体颗粒加入在提高超声空化强度的同时还可以显著改善声场均匀性,颗粒活性炭对空化的促进的效果要优于粉末活性炭,高固体含量下氧化铝效果优于活性炭的效果.%According to the theory of sonochemisty, particles in the ultrasound field can promote the effect of the ultrasonic cavitation. In this work, aluminium foil erosion method was used to measure the distribution of the ultrasonic cavitation field which had been added with active carbons or alumina in advance. Useful result can be derived by analyzing the image of the erosion pattern with the software of MATLAB. The results indicate that the particles added in the ultrasonic cavitation field can not only enhance the intensity of the cavitation phenomenon but also improve the uniformity of the cavitation field. The improvement of the ultrasonic cavition intensity by active carbon granule was higher than that by active carbon powder. The effect of alumina was better than active carbon in the situation of high particle content.

  11. Turbulence and cavitation models for time-dependent turbulent cavitating flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Jie Wei; Chien-Chou Tseng; Guo-Yu Wang

    2011-01-01

    Cavitation typically occurs when the fluid pressure is lower than the vapor pressure at a local thermodynamic state,and the flow is frequently unsteady and turbulent. To assess the state-of-the-art of computational capabilities for unsteady cavitating flows,different cavitation and turbulence model combinations are conducted. The selected cavitation models include several widely-used models including one based on phenomenological argument and the other utilizing interface dynamics. The k-s turbulence model with additional implementation of the filter function and density correction function are considered to reduce the eddy viscosity according to the computed turbulence length scale and local fluid density respectively. We have also blended these alternative cavitation and turbulence treatments,to illustrate that the eddy viscosity near the closure region can significantly influence the capture of detached cavity. From the experimental validations regarding the force analysis,frequency,and the cavity visualization,no single model combination performs best in all aspects. Furthermore,the implications of parameters contained in different cavitation models are investigated. The phase change process is more pronounced around the detached cavity,which is better illustrated by the interfacial dynamics model.Our study provides insight to aid further modeling development.

  12. Cavitation inception following shock wave passage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    Cavitation bubble nucleation following the passage of an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter pulse is investigated experimentally and numerically. In the experiments two configurations are considered: Free passage of the shock wave, and reflection of the shock wave from a rigid reflector. The nuc

  13. Measuring cavitation and its cleaning effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Fernandez Rivas, David

    2016-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of techniques for measuring the presence and amount of cavitation, and for quantifying the removal of contaminants, are provided. After reviewing chemical, physical, and biological studies, a universal cause for the cleaning effects of bubbles cannot yet be concluded.

  14. Ultrasound induced by CW laser cavitation bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, N; Montero, P Rodriguez; Ramos-Garcia, R; Ramirez-San-Juan, J C; Padilla-Martinez, J P, E-mail: korneev@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apt. Postal 51 y 216 CP72000, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    The generation of ultrasound by a collapsing single cavitation bubble in a strongly absorbing liquid illuminated with a moderate power CW laser is described. The ultrasound shock wave is detected with hydrophone and interferometric device. To obtain a stronger pulse it is necessary to adjust a liquid absorption and a beam diameter. Their influence can be qualitatively understood with a simple model.

  15. Modeling of Cavitating Flow through Waterjet Propulsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-18

    break down due to massive suction side flow separation (stall). In Figure 3, photographs from tunnel testing and computed results are shown. The...128, pp. 1308-1323. Mishra C. & Peles, Y. (2005) "Cavitation in flow through a micro- orifice inside a silicon micro- channel,’ Phvs. Fluids 17

  16. The making of a cavitation children's book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc; Patterson, Brandon; Lazar, Erika

    2016-11-01

    Engaging young children in science is particularly important to future scientific endeavors. From thunderstorms to the waterpark, children are constantly exposed to the wonders of fluid dynamics. Among fluid phenomena, bubbles have always fascinated children. Yet some of the most exciting aspects of bubbles, such as cavitation, are scarcely known to non-experts. To introduce cavitation to a five year old audience, we wrote "Brooke Bubble Breaks Things", a children's book about the adventures of a cavitation bubble learning about all the things she could break. In this talk, we discuss how a children's book is made by walking through the steps involved in creating the book from concept to publication. We focus on strategies for successfully communicating a technical message while balancing entertainment and fidelity to nature. To provide parents, teachers, and young inquiring minds with a detailed explanation of the physics and applications of cavitation, we also created a website with detailed explanations, animations, and links to further information. We aim to convince the fluids community that writing picture books is an intellectually stimulating and fun way of communicating fluids principles and applications to children. ArtsEngine Microgrant at the University of Michigan.

  17. Cavitation of a Physically Associating Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Satish; Kundu, Santanu

    Self-assembly of block copolymers in selective solvents form ordered structures such as micelles, vesicles, and physically crosslinked gels due to difference in their interaction with solvents. These gels have wide range of applications in tissue engineering, food science and biomedical field due to their tunable properties and responsiveness with changing environmental conditions. Pressurization of a defect inside a physically associating gel can lead to elastic instability (cavitation) leading to failure of the gel. The failure behavior involves dissociation of physical networks. A thermoreversible, physically associating gel with different volume fractions of a triblock copolymer, poly (methyl methacrylate)-poly (n-butyl acrylate)-poly (methyl methacrylate) [PMMA-PnBA-PMMA] in 2-ethyl 1-hexanol, a midblock selective solvent, is considered here. Mechanical properties were investigated using shear rheology and cavitation experiments. The experimental data is fitted with a constitutive model that captures the stiffening behavior followed by softening behavior of a physical gel. Finite element analysis has been performed on cavitation rheology geometry to capture the failure behavior and to calculate energy release rate during cavitation experiments.

  18. On cavitation instabilities with interacting voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    voids so far apart that the radius of the plastic zone around each void is less than 1% of the current spacing between the voids, can still affect each others at the occurrence of a cavitation instability such that one void stops growing while the other grows in an unstable manner. On the other hand...

  19. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, A.H.; Bakker, T.W.; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by anaer

  20. Erosion Negril Beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Ham, D.; Henrotte, J.; Kraaijeveld, R.; Milosevic, M.; Smit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The ongoing erosion of the Negril Beach has become worse the past decade. In most places along the coast line, the beach will be gone in approximately 10 years. This will result in a major decrease of incomes that are made by the local tourist sector. To prevent the erosion this study has been perfo

  1. Erosive wear of selected materials for fossil energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Thomas A.; Rawers, James C.; Tylczak, Joseph H.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    A number of materials have been evaluated to determine their erosion resistance for fossil energy applications. This is part of a larger program to study wear and corrosion at Albany Research Center. This paper will present the results for some of these materials, including FeAl, FeAl cermets, WC-Co cemented carbides, Si3N4-MoSi2, Si3N4, Stellite 6B, white cast irons and 440C steel. Trends in erosion rates due to material properties and erosive conditions will be presented. FeAl cermets performed well compared to the WC-Co cemented carbides. The interparticle spacing of the WC-Co cemented carbides correlated with the erosion rate. The erosion rate of the WC-Co cemented carbides decreased as the interparticle spacing decreased. It is important to realize that erosion resistance is not an intrinsic material property, but is a system response. A change in the wear environment can significantly alter the relative rankings of materials with respect to their wear rate. For example, at relatively low velocities, the carbides in the white cast irons are more erosion resistant than the matrix, while at higher velocities the matrix is more erosion resistant.

  2. Polyanhydride degradation and erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpferich, A; Tessmar, J

    2002-10-16

    It was the intention of this paper to give a survey on the degradation and erosion of polyanhydrides. Due to the multitude of polymers that have been synthesized in this class of material in recent years, it was not possible to discuss all polyanhydrides that have gained in significance based on their application. It was rather the intention to provide a broad picture on polyanhydride degradation and erosion based on the knowledge that we have from those polymers that have been intensively investigated. To reach this goal this review contains several sections. First, the foundation for an understanding of the nomenclature are laid by defining degradation and erosion which was deemed necessary because many different definitions exist in the current literature. Next, the properties of major classes of anhydrides are reviewed and the impact of geometry on degradation and erosion is discussed. A complicated issue is the control of drug release from degradable polymers. Therefore, the aspect of erosion-controlled release and drug stability inside polyanhydrides are discussed. Towards the end of the paper models are briefly reviewed that describe the erosion of polyanhydrides. Empirical models as well as Monte-Carlo-based approaches are described. Finally it is outlined how theoretical models can help to answer the question why polyanhydrides are surface eroding. A look at the microstructure and the results from these models lead to the conclusion that polyanhydrides are surface eroding due to their fast degradation. However they switch to bulk erosion once the device dimensions drop below a critical limit.

  3. Erosion phenomena in sand moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chojecki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors studicd the erosion phcnorncna in sand moulds pured with cast iron. Thc study comprises an evaluation of erosionresistance of thc three sands: grccn sand. sand bondcd with inorganic or organic bindcr. It was concluded that thc most resistant is [heclassic green sand with thc addition of 5 B coal dust. Resistance of the sand with organic binder is generally weak and dcvnds onkind of used raisin. Spccinl nztcntion was paid to the sands with no organic bindcr watcr glass and phospha~c. It was Sound that thcirrcsistance depends on dehydratation conditions. When the mould is stored in law humidity of atmosphcrc the very strong crosion canbe expected. It rcsul ts hrn thc micro fractures in the bridges of binders, joining the grains of the sable. This phcnomcna facilitates thetearing away of fragments of sand [tom the surface

  4. Sets resilient to erosion

    CERN Document Server

    Pegden, Wesley

    2011-01-01

    The erosion of a set in Euclidean space by a radius r>0 is the subset of X consisting of points at distance >/-r from the complement of X. A set is resilient to erosion if it is similar to its erosion by some positive radius. We give a somewhat surprising characterization of resilient sets, consisting in one part of simple geometric constraints on convex resilient sets, and, in another, a correspondence between nonconvex resilient sets and scale-invariant (e.g., 'exact fractal') sets.

  5. Research on cohesive sediment erosion by flow: An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU YongHui; LU dinYou; LIAO HongZhi; WANG diaSheng; FAN BeiLin; YAO ShiMing

    2008-01-01

    Erosion of cohesive sediment by flow is a very complicated phenomenon occurring worldwide. Understanding and modeling of the erosion process are important for many issues such as the breaching of embankments, riverbank stability, siltation of harbors and navigation channels, service life of reservoirs, distribution of (heavy metal) pollutants and water quality problems. In the last few decades, numerous studies have been done on the erosion of cohesive sediment by flow. Nevertheless, the factors affecting the erosion resistance of cohesive sediment are still not fully understood and the knowledge of the physics of cohesive sediment erosion is in-adequate, as a result the mathematical modeling of this erosion is far from saris-factory. In this paper an overview of the studies on the erosion resistance, erosion threshold and the erosion rate of cohesive sediment by flow is presented. The outcomes achieved so far from the studies and the existing problems have been analyzed and summarized, based on which recommendations are proposed for future research.

  6. Comminution of Mica by Cavitation Abrasive Water Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chu-wen; LIU Lin-sheng; HAN Dong-tai; LI Ai-min; ZHANG Dong-hai

    2003-01-01

    The comminution of mica with an abrasive water jet is mainly based on three knids of effects, that is, high-speed collision, cavitating effect and shearing effect. Cavitation abrasive water jet was applied for the comminution of mica because cavitation abrasive water jet can make full use of the three effects mentioned above. Besides high speed impacting among particles,cavitation and shearing were also enhanced due to the divergent angle at the outlet of the cavitation nozzle.A JME-200CX transmission electron microscope was used for observing the size distribution of particles.Variance analysis on the experimental results indicates that the effect of cavitation is much more significant than that of collision.The effect of pressure on comminution results becomes less with the decrease of the particle size.

  7. Simulations of Steady Cavitating Flow in a Small Francis Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Laouari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbulent flow through a small horizontal Francis turbine is solved by means of Ansys-CFX at different operating points, with the determination of the hydrodynamic performance and the best efficiency point. The flow structures at different regimes reveal a large flow eddy in the runner and a swirl in the draft tube. The use of the mixture model for the cavity/liquid two-phase flow allowed studying the influence of cavitation on the hydrodynamic performance and revealed cavitation pockets near the trailing edge of the runner and a cavitation vortex rope in the draft tube. By maintaining a constant dimensionless head and a distributor vane opening while gradually increasing the cavitation number, the output power and efficiency reached a critical point and then had begun to stabilize. The cavitation number corresponding to the safety margin of cavitation is also predicted for this hydraulic turbine.

  8. U-shaped Vortex Structures in Large Scale Cloud Cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yantao; Peng, Xiaoxing; Xu, Lianghao; Hong, Fangwen

    2015-12-01

    The control of cloud cavitation, especially large scale cloud cavitation(LSCC), is always a hot issue in the field of cavitation research. However, there has been little knowledge on the evolution of cloud cavitation since it is associated with turbulence and vortex flow. In this article, the structure of cloud cavitation shed by sheet cavitation around different hydrofoils and a wedge were observed in detail with high speed camera (HSC). It was found that the U-shaped vortex structures always existed in the development process of LSCC. The results indicated that LSCC evolution was related to this kind of vortex structures, and it may be a universal character for LSCC. Then vortex strength of U-shaped vortex structures in a cycle was analyzed with numerical results.

  9. STUDY UPON THE CAVITATION PHENOMENON OF THE ROTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beazit ALI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of the hydrodynamics of cavitation implosion of a single bubble, consists inpressure and velocity fields determination, including the collapse velocity of the bubble wall. By analysis thetheoretic and experimental phenomenon it establish the implicit function which describes this phenomenon. Byapplication the  theorem for this implicit function it finds the criterion equation of phenomenon.Depending on operating condition various cavitation patterns can be observed on a body surface astravelling bubbles, attached sheet cavitation, shear cavitation or vortex cavitation. Leading edge attachedpartialcavitation is commonly encountered on rotor blades or on hydrofoil. It corresponds to the case for whichavapor cavity is attached in the vecinity of the leading edge and extends over a fraction of the foil surface. Itgenerally takes places at incidence angles for which a leading edge pressure peak occurs and reduced belowtheliquid vapor pressure. At the early phases of development, leading edge partial cavitation is steady.

  10. Computational Analyses of Cavitating Flows in Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiezhi Sun; Yingjie Wei; Cong Wang∗

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the fundamental characteristics and the thermodynamic effects of cavitating flows in liquid hydrogen. For this purpose, numerical simulation of cavitating flows are conducted over a three dimensional hydrofoil in liquid hydrogen. Firstly, the efficiency of this computational methodology is validated through comparing the simulation results with the experimental measurements of pressure and temperature. Secondly, after analysing the cavitating flows in liquid hydrogen and water, the characteristics under cryogenic conditions are highlighted. The results show that the thermodynamic effects play a significant role in the cavity structure and the mass transfer, the dimensionless mass transfer rate of liquid hydrogen is much larger, and the peak value is about ninety times as high as water at room temperature. Furthermore, a parametric study of cavitating flows on hydrofoil is conducted by considering different cavitation number and dimensionless thermodynamic coefficient. The obtained results provide an insight into the thermodynamic effect on the cavitating flows.

  11. Electromagnetic acoustic source (EMAS) for generating shock waves and cavitation in mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    In the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory a vessel of liquid mercury is subjected to a proton beam. The resulting nuclear interaction produces neutrons that can be used for materials research, among other things, but also launches acoustic waves with pressures in excess of 10 MPa. The acoustic waves have high enough tensile stress to generate cavitation in the mercury which results in erosion to the steel walls of the vessel. In order to study the cavitation erosion and develop mitigation schemes it would be convenient to have a way of generating similar pressures and cavitation in mercury, without the radiation concerns associated with a proton beam. Here an electromagnetic acoustic source (EMAS) has been developed which consisted of a coil placed close to a metal plate which is in turn is in contact with a fluid. The source is driven by discharging a capacitor through the coil and results in a repulsive force on the plate launching acoustic waves in the fluid. A theoretical model is presented to predict the acoustic field from the EMAS and compares favorably with measurements made in water. The pressure from the EMAS was reported as a function of capacitance, charging voltage, number of coils, mylar thickness, and properties of the plates. The properties that resulted in the highest pressure were employed for experiments in mercury and a maximum pressure recorded was 7.1 MPa. Cavitation was assessed in water and mercury by high speed camera and by detecting acoustic emissions. Bubble clouds with lifetimes on the order of 100 µs were observed in water and on the order of 600 µs in mercury. Based on acoustic emissions the bubble radius in mercury was estimated to be 0.98 mm. Experiments to produce damage to a stainless steel plate in mercury resulted in a minimal effect after 2000 shock waves at a rate of 0.33 Hz - likely because the pressure amplitude was not high enough. In order to replicate the conditions in the SNS it is

  12. Detached eddy simulation of unsteady cavitation and pressure fluctuation around 3-D NACA66 hydrofoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang De-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady cavitating flow and pressure fluctuation around the 3-D NACA66 hydrofoil were simulated and validated based on detached eddy simulation turbulence model and a homogeneous cavitation model. Numerical results show that detached eddy simulation can predict the evolution of cavity inception, sheet cavitation growth, cloud cavitation shedding, and breakup, as well as the pressure fluctuation on the surface of hydrofoil. The sheet cavitation growth, detachment, cloud cavitation shedding are responsible for the features of the pressure fluctuation.

  13. Water droplet erosion mechanisms of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar Zahmatkesh, Niloofar

    Water impingement erosion of materials can be a life-limiting phenomenon for the components in many erosive environments. For example, aircraft body exposed to rain, steam turbine blade, and recently in gas turbine coupled with inlet fogging system. The last is the focus of this study. Inlet fogging system is the most common method used to augment gas turbine output during hot days; high ambient temperature causes strong deterioration of the engine performance. Micro-scaled droplets introduced into the inlet airflow allow the cooling of entering air as well as intercooling the compressor (overspray) and thus optimizes the output power. However, erosion damage of the compressor blades in overspray stage is one of the major concerns associated with the inlet fogging system. The main objective of this research work (CRIAQ MANU419 project) is to understand the erosion induced by water droplets on Titanium alloy to eventually optimize the erosion resistance of the Ti-based compressor blade. Therefore, characterization of the water droplet erosion damage on Ti-6Al-4V receives the major importance. The influence of base material microstructure and impact parameters were considered in erosion evaluation in present study. This work covers the characterization of the erosion damage on Ti-6Al-4V alloy in two parts: - The water droplet erosion damage through a novel experimental approach. The collected data were processed both qualitatively and quantitatively for multi-aspects damage study. - The influence of impact velocity on erosion in an attempt to represent the in-service conditions.

  14. Gas-solid Erosion on Bionic Configuration Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Zhiwu; ZHANG Junqiu; GE Chao; JIANG Jialian; REN Luquan

    2011-01-01

    A three levels orthogonal table- L9(34) was used, namely, impact angle, rotating speed, erodent size, and surface configuration were considered. The three bionic surface configurations are pit, groove, and ring. The experimental results indicate the experiment factors affecting erosive rate are, in their sequence of contribution, erodent size, impact angle, configuration, and rotating speed; the erosive rate increased with increase in rotating speed, erodent size; the erosion resistance of the sample with ring structure is higher than that of the other two samples. Based on this result, regression orthogonal experiment was carried out to select the optimal erosion resistance condition with respect to the ring bionic surface configuration. Regression equations between erosive rate and experimental factors of ring surface configurations were obtained.

  15. L-Area Cavitation Tests Final Analysis - Limits Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D.C.

    2001-06-26

    The L-Area cavitation test was designed to better define the onset of cavitation in the reactor system. The onset of gas evolution in the effluent piping and pump cavitation was measured using state-of-the-art equipment to provide data with a high confidence and low uncertainty level. The limits calculated from the new data will allow an approximate two percent increase in reactor power if the reactor is effluent temperature-limited with no compromise in reactor safety.

  16. Time-evolving statistics of cavitation damage on metallic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodati, P; Marchesoni, F

    2002-11-01

    The statistics of surface damage on polycrystalline aluminium plates caused by acoustic cavitation is studied experimentally as a function of time. Cavitation is shown to produce a uniform distribution of crater-like holes with different depth, area and eccentricity. Most notably, the size distribution of such craters evolves with time from a gamma function into a power law. By contrast, on the surface of a martensitic Cu-Ni-Al crystal cavitation damage generates ramified patterns, reminiscent of a fractal object.

  17. Actinides, accelerators and erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Fifield L. K.; Tims S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Fallout isotopes can be used as artificial tracers of soil erosion and sediment accumulation. The most commonly used isotope to date has been 137Cs. Concentrations of 137Cs are, however, significantly lower in the Southern Hemisphere, and furthermore have now declined to 35% of original values due to radioactive decay. As a consequence the future utility of 137Cs is limited in Australia, with many erosion applications becoming untenable within the next 20 years, and there is a need to replace...

  18. Cavitation-based hydro-fracturing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Ren, Fei; Cox, Thomas S.

    2016-11-22

    An apparatus 300 for simulating a pulsed pressure induced cavitation technique (PPCT) from a pressurized working fluid (F) provides laboratory research and development for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), oil, and gas wells. A pump 304 is configured to deliver a pressurized working fluid (F) to a control valve 306, which produces a pulsed pressure wave in a test chamber 308. The pulsed pressure wave parameters are defined by the pump 304 pressure and control valve 306 cycle rate. When a working fluid (F) and a rock specimen 312 are included in the apparatus, the pulsed pressure wave causes cavitation to occur at the surface of the specimen 312, thus initiating an extensive network of fracturing surfaces and micro fissures, which are examined by researchers.

  19. Preparation of graphene by jet cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhigang; Li, Jinzhi; Yi, Min; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2011-09-01

    Despite its bright prospects, graphene faces challenges including issues concerning mass production. Here we present a totally green approach whereby common crystal graphite can be exfoliated into graphene sheets in aqueous solution by jet cavitation. This is possible mainly because the tensile stress caused by graphite-solution interfacial reflection of compressive waves acts an intensive 'suction disk' on the graphite flakes. We confirm the presence of graphene sheets by diverse characterizations. The graphene yield by our method is estimated as ~ 4 wt%, which could potentially be improved by further processing. The method, of a mechanical nature, is powerful compared to the traditional low-throughput micromechanical cleavage. Our work here illustrates jet cavitation as a facile, low cost, timesaving and laborsaving route, which can potentially be scaled up to mass production of graphene.

  20. Modeling Unsteady Cavitation Effects and Dynamic Loads in Cryogenic Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There currently are no analytical or CFD tools that can reliably predict unsteady cavitation dynamics in liquid rocket turbopumps. Cavitation effects, particularly...

  1. Photoacoustic cavitation for theranostics: mechanism, current progress and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y.; Qin, D.; Wan, M.

    2015-12-01

    As an emerging cavitation technology, photoacoustic cavitation (PAC) means the formation of bubbles in liquids using focused laser and pre-established ultrasound synchronously. Its significant advantages include the decreased threshold of each modality and the precise location of cavitation determined by the focused laser. In this paper, a brief review of PAC is presented, including the physical mechanism description, the classic experimental technology, the representative results in variety of media, and its applications in biomedical imaging and therapy. Moreover, some preliminary results of PAC in perfluoropentane (PFP) liquid and PFP droplets investigated by passive cavitation detection (PCD) in our group are also presented.

  2. Single bubble sonoluminescence and stable cavitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qian; QIAN Menglu

    2004-01-01

    A single bubble trapped at an antinode of an acoustic standing wave field in water can emit 50ps-140ps light pulses, called "single bubble sonoluminescence" (SBSL). It arouses much interest in physical acoustics because of its highly non-linear characteristics, high concentration of energy, and stable cavitation behavior. In this paper, bubble stability, the dynamic behavior of bubbles, non-invasive measurement of driving acoustic pressure and Mie scattering method are introduced.

  3. Impact of acoustic cavitation on food emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasulya, Olga; Bogush, Vladimir; Trishina, Victoria; Potoroko, Irina; Khmelev, Sergey; Sivashanmugam, Palani; Anandan, Sambandam

    2016-05-01

    The work explores the experimental and theoretical aspects of emulsification capability of ultrasound to deliver stable emulsions of sunflower oil in water and meat sausages. In order to determine optimal parameters for direct ultrasonic emulsification of food emulsions, a model was developed based on the stability of emulsion droplets in acoustic cavitation field. The study is further extended to investigate the ultrasound induced changes to the inherent properties of raw materials under the experimental conditions of sono-emulsification.

  4. Cavitated Bifurcation for Incompressible Hyperelastic Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任九生; 程昌钧

    2002-01-01

    The spherical cavitated bifurcation for a hyperelastic solid sphere made of the incompressible Valanis-Landel material under boundary dead-loading is examined. The analytic solution for the bifurcation problem is obtained. The catastrophe and concentration of stresses are discussed. The stability of solutions is discussed through the energy comparison.And the growth of a pre-existing micro-void is also observed.

  5. Measurement of erosion: Is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroosnijder, L.

    2005-01-01

    Reasons for erosion measurements are: (1) to determine the environmental impact of erosion and conservation practices, (2) scientific erosion research; (3) development and evaluation of erosion control technology; (4) development of erosion prediction technology and (5) allocation of conservation re

  6. Erosion Effect of Molten Steel on Carbon Containing Refractories for Continuous Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongxia; YANG Bin; LIU Guoqi; CHENG Hepeng

    2007-01-01

    The erosion resistance of carbon containing refractories for continuous casting to molten steel was investigated by means of simulative erosion test and examining used refractories.Decolonization and reaction between molten steel and decolonization layer are main erosion process of carbon containing refractories by1 molten steel.The reactions between molten steel and oxide in refractories determine the thickness of decarbonization layer A dense layer formation on the working surface contacting with molten steel during casting will suppress decarbonization and erosion process.

  7. Effects of acoustic parameters on bubble cloud dynamics in ultrasound tissue erosion (histotripsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Hall, Timothy L; Fowlkes, J Brian; Cain, Charles A

    2007-07-01

    High intensity pulsed ultrasound can produce significant mechanical tissue fractionation with sharp boundaries ("histotripsy"). At a tissue-fluid interface, histotripsy produces clearly demarcated tissue erosion and the erosion efficiency depends on pulse parameters. Acoustic cavitation is believed to be the primary mechanism for the histotripsy process. To investigate the physical basis of the dependence of tissue erosion on pulse parameters, an optical method was used to monitor the effects of pulse parameters on the cavitating bubble cloud generated by histotripsy pulses at a tissue-water interface. The pulse parameters studied include pulse duration, peak rarefactional pressure, and pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Results show that the duration of growth and collapse (collapse cycle) of the bubble cloud increased with increasing pulse duration, peak rarefactional pressure, and PRF when the next pulse arrived after the collapse of the previous bubble cloud. When the PRF was too high such that the next pulse arrived before the collapse of the previous bubble cloud, only a portion of histotripsy pulses could effectively create and collapse the bubble cloud. The collapse cycle of the bubble cloud also increased with increasing gas concentration. These results may explain previous in vitro results on effects of pulse parameters on tissue erosion.

  8. Active Anti-erosion Protection Strategy in Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Junqiu; Niu, Shichao; Ren, Luquan

    2013-12-01

    Plants have numerous active protection strategies for adapting to complex and severe environments. These strategies provide endless inspiration for extending the service life of materials and machines. Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla), a tree that thrives in raging sandstorm regions, has adapted to blustery conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust erosion resistant characteristics. However, the relationships among its surface cracks, internal histology and biomechanics, such as cracks, rings, cells, elasticity modulus and growth stress, which account for its erosion resistance, remain unclear. This present study reveals that the directionally eccentric growth rings of tamarisk, which are attributed to reduced stress and accelerated cell division, promote the formation of surface cracks. The windward rings are more extensive than the leeward side rings. The windward surfaces are more prone to cracks, which improves erosion resistance. Our data provide insight into the active protection strategy of the tamarisk against wind-sand erosion.

  9. Hydro-abrasive erosion: Problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, K.

    2014-03-01

    The number of hydro power plants with hydro-abrasive erosion is increasing worldwide. An overall approach is needed to minimize the impact of this phenomenon. Already at the start of the planning phase an evaluation should be done to quantify the erosion and the impact on the operation. For this, the influencing parameters and their impact on the erosion have to be known. The necessary information for the evaluation comprises among others the future design, the particle parameters of the water, which will pass the turbine, and the power plant owner's framework for the future operation like availability or maximum allowable efficiency loss, before an overhaul needs to be done. Based on this evaluation of the erosion, an optimised solution can then be found, by analysing all measures in relation to investments, energy production and maintenance costs as decision parameters. Often a more erosion-resistant design, instead of choosing the turbine design with the highest efficiency, will lead to higher revenue. The paper will discuss the influencing parameters on hydro-abrasive erosion and the problems to acquire this information. There are different optimisation possibilities, which will be shown in different case studies. One key aspect to reduce the erosion and prolong the operation time of the components is to coat all relevant parts. But it is very important that this decision is taken early in the design stage, as the design has to be adapted to the requirements of the coating process. The quality of coatings and their impact on the operation will be discussed in detail in the paper as due to the non-availability of standards many questions arise in projects.

  10. Solid particle erosion of polymers and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, K.; Almajid, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    After a general introduction to the subject of solid particle erosion of polymers and composites, the presentation focusses more specifically on the behavior of unidirectional carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites under such loadings, using different impact conditions and erodents. The data were analyzed on the basis of a newly defined specific erosive wear rate, allowing a better comparison of erosion data achieved under various testing conditions. Characteristic wear mechanisms of the CF/PEEK composites consisted of fiber fracture, matrix cutting and plastic matrix deformation, the relative contribution of which depended on the impingement angles and the CF orientation. The highest wear rates were measured for impingement angles between 45 and 60°. Using abrasion resistant neat polymer films (in this case PEEK or thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) ones) on the surface of a harder substrate (e.g. a CF/PEEK composite plate) resulted in much lower specific erosive wear rates. The use of such polymeric films can be considered as a possible method to protect composite surfaces from damage caused by minor impacts and erosion. In fact, they are nowadays already successfully applied as protections for wind energy rotor blades.

  11. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Final technical progress report, July 1992--July 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1995-10-15

    The erosion behavior of weld overlay coatings has been studied. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400{degrees}C at 90{degrees} and 30{degrees} particle impact angles. The microstructure of each coating was characterized before erosion testing. A relative ranking of the coatings erosion resistance was developed by determining the steady state erosion rates. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at both impact angles. It was found that weld overlays that exhibit good abrasion resistance did not show good erosion resistance. Erosion tests were also performed for selected wrought materials with chemical composition similar to weld overlays. Eroded surfaces of the wrought and weld alloys were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine size of the plastically deformed region. It was found that one group of coatings experienced significant plastic deformation as a result of erosion while the other did not. It was also established that, in the steady state erosion regime, the size of the plastically deformed region is constant.

  12. High temperature erosion testing in a gasifier environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylczak, Joseph H.; Rawers, James C.; Adler, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of materials with the ability to operate in adverse conditions while resisting the effects of erosion and corrosion is essential to the future success of high efficiency power plants. Many next generation coal power plants are envisioned as combined cycle, with gasifiers used to produce both steam and syngas. The gasifier sections of these plants require materials of construction that are resistant to the effects of erosion from silica found in the gas streams and corrosion caused by a reducing atmosphere that may contain sulfur and chloride compounds. The Albany Research Center has developed a test apparatus designed to test the erosion-resistance of candidate materials under a range of environmental conditions, including those found in gasifiers. This Hostile Atmosphere Erosion Wear test apparatus (HAET) has been used to evaluate a group of high alloy candidate materials such as iron aluminide and Haynes HR 160, and compare them to a conventional 310 stainless steel. Erosion tests were conducted using 270μm silica abrasive, a typical impact velocities of 20 m/sec at temperatures up to 700°C in an atmosphere simulating gasifier conditions. The effects of erosion under these conditions on the surface scales that form are described. The total loss rate, loss rates due to erosion and corrosion for the test materials are compared.

  13. Cavitation Measurement during Sonic and Ultrasonic Activated Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.G.; Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez-Rivas, D.; Versluis, M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Sluis, van der L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measure

  14. Cavitation measurement during sonic and ultrasonic activated irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez Rivas, D.; Versluis, M.; Wesselink, P.; van der Sluis, L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measured

  15. Real-Time Two-Dimensional Imaging of Microbubble Cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignon, F.; Shi, W.T.; Powers, J.E.; Liu, J.; Drvol, L.; Lof, J.; Everbach, C.; Gao, S.; Xie, F.; Porter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound cavitation of microbubble contrast agents has a potentialfor therapeutic applications, including sonothrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke. For safety, efficacy, and reproducibility of treatment, it is critical to evaluate the cavitation state (e.g. stable versus inertial forms of cavitat

  16. Suppression of Fatigue Crack Propagation of Duralumin by Cavitation Peening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Soyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It was demonstrated in the present paper that cavitation peening which is one of the mechanical surface modification technique can suppress fatigue crack propagation in duralumin. The impacts produced when cavitation bubble collapses can be utilised for the mechanical surface modification technique in the same way as laser peening and shot peening, which is called “cavitation peening”. Cavitation peening employing a cavitating jet in water was used to treat the specimen made of duralumin Japanese Industrial Standards JIS A2017-T3. After introducing a notch, fatigue test was conducted by a load-controlled plate bending fatigue tester, which has been originally developed. The fatigue crack propagation behavior was evaluated and the relationship between the fatigue crack propagation rate versus stress intensity factor range was obtained. From the results, the fatigue crack propagation rate was drastically reduced by cavitation peening and the fatigue life of duralumin plate was extended 4.2 times by cavitation peening. In addition, the fatigue crack propagation can be suppressed by 88% in the stable crack propagation stage by cavitation peening.

  17. Rudder gap cavitation: Fundamental understanding and its suppression devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Shin Hyung, E-mail: shr@snu.ac.k [Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Research Institute of Marine Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-ku, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changmin; Lee, Hee Bum [Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jungkeun [Jungseok Research Institute of International Logistics and Trade, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    With the increasing size and speed of cargo ships, which results in high speed flow in propeller slipstream, cavitation is frequently observed on and around the rudder system. Among the various types of cavitation on the rudder system, the rudder gap cavitation is the most difficult one to control and suppress. For the development of rudder gap cavitation suppression devices, both experimental and numerical analyses of the physical phenomenon are warranted. In the present study, experiments of the incipient cavitation and pressure measurement were carried out for typical cargo ship rudder sections with and without the suppression devices, which were suggested by the author. The experiments were simulated using computational fluid dynamics tools and the results were compared in terms of the cavitation inception and surface pressure distribution. Fundamental understanding of the rudder gap cavitation inception was obtained along with its relevance to the surface pressure distribution. It is confirmed that the gap flow blocking devices effectively suppress the rudder gap cavitation and, at the same time, augment lift.

  18. Progress in numerical simulation of cavitating water jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Guoyi; SHMIZU Seiji

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress made toward modeling of cavitation and numerical simulation of cavitating water jets.Properties of existing cavitation models are discussed and a compressible mixture flow method for the numerical simulation of highspeed water jets accompanied by intensive cavitation is introduced.Two-phase fluids media of cavitating flow are treated as a homogeneous bubbly mixture and the mean flow is computed by solving Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for compressible fluid.The intensity of cavitation is evaluated by the gas volume fraction,which is governed by the compressibility of bubble-liquid mixture corresponding to the status of mean flow field.Numerical results of cavitating water jet issuing from an orifice nozzle are presented and its applicability to intensively cavitating jets is demonstrated.However,the effect of impact pressure caused by collapsing of bubbles is neglected,and effectively coupling of the present compressible mixture flow method with the dynamics of bubbles remains to be a challenge.

  19. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the conditi

  20. Compressible Turbulent Flow Numerical Simulations of Tip Vortex Cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatami, F.; Weide, van der E.T.A.; Hoeijmakers, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    For an elliptic Arndt’s hydrofoil numerical simulations of vortex cavitation are presented. An equilibrium cavitation model is employed. This single-fluid model assumes local thermodynamic and mechanical equilibrium in the mixture region of the flow, is employed. Furthermore, for characterizing the

  1. VibroCav: Hydrodynamic Vibration and Cavitation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Vibration and cavitation can be generated in many ways and serve many useful purposes. This study describes physical aspects of useful vibration and cavitation for a broad spectrum of applications at atmospheric or elevated pressures. After a review of available devices, hydrodynamic vibrating-body

  2. A new methodology for hydro-abrasive erosion tests simulating penstock erosive flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumelas, V.; Maj, G.; Le Calvé, P.; Smith, M.; Gambiez, B.; Mourrat, X.

    2016-11-01

    Hydro-abrasive resistance is an important property requirement for hydroelectric power plant penstock coating systems used by EDF. The selection of durable coating systems requires an experimental characterization of coating performance. This can be achieved by performing accelerated and representative laboratory tests. In case of severe erosion induced by a penstock flow, there is no suitable method or standard representative of real erosive flow conditions. The presented study aims at developing a new methodology and an associated laboratory experimental device. The objective of the laboratory apparatus is to subject coated test specimens to wear conditions similar to the ones generated at the penstock lower generatrix in actual flow conditions. Thirteen preselected coating solutions were first been tested during a 45 hours erosion test. A ranking of the thirteen coating solutions was then determined after characterisation. To complete this first evaluation and to determine the wear kinetic of the four best coating solutions, additional erosion tests were conducted with a longer duration of 216 hours. A comparison of this new method with standardized tests and with real service operating flow conditions is also discussed. To complete the final ranking based on hydro-abrasive erosion tests, some trial tests were carried out on penstock samples to check the application method of selected coating systems. The paper gives some perspectives related to erosion test methodologies for materials and coating solutions for hydraulic applications. The developed test method can also be applied in other fields.

  3. Rapid development of pulmonary cavitation as manifestation of a candida species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rix, E.; Bickel, R.H.; Baldauf, G.

    1987-01-01

    The roentgenologic pattern of the pulmonary manifestation of candida species, resulting in a rapid development of pulmonary cavitations with mycetoma-like structures, was described in three patients. All patients, undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy because of acute leukemia, presented with fever and expectoration, which were resistant to various antibiotic regimes. Cultures of blood and urine were sterile; but Torulopsis glabrata, a candida species, was found in multiple cultures of the sputum of all patients and also in a bronchoscopic lavage obtained from one patient after reconstitution of the granulopoesis. The roetgenologic appearance of the infiltrates was accompanied by a rise of the Ig-M immunoglobulins against candida. Following intravenous treatment with amphotericin B a reduction of the cavitation and of the infiltrates to small residues was observed. Simultaneously the body temperature and the sputum became normal and a fall in the immunoglobulin titers was found. The diagnostic problems of pulmonary cavitation and especially of pulmonary mycosis in immuosuppressed and therapy-induced granulocytopenic and thrombocytopenic patients with acute leukemia were discussed.

  4. Interaction of two cavitation bubbles in a tube and its effects on heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Cai, Jun; Tao, Yuequn; Huai, Xiulan

    2017-02-01

    When two cavitation bubbles exist in a confined space, the interaction between the bubbles significantly affects the characteristics of bubble dynamic behaviors. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) model is established to study the growth and collapse of two cavitation bubbles in a heated tube and its effects on heat transfer. The liquid and gas phases throughout the calculation domain are solved by a set of Navier-Stokes equations. It is assumed that the gas inside the bubble is compressible vapor, and the surrounding liquid is incompressible water. The mass transfer between two phases is ignored. The calculated bubble profiles were compared to the available experimental data, and a good agreement has been achieved. Then, the relationship among the bubble motion, flow field and pressure distributions was analyzed. On this basis, the effects of bubble interaction on the heat transfer between the wall surface and sounding liquid were discussed. It is found that heat transfer in the centre wall region is enhanced owing to the vortex flow and micro-jet induced by the bubble contraction and collapse. In contrast, the highest surface temperature appears in the surrounding region, which is mainly attributed to the thermal resistance induced by the bubble. The present study is helpful to understand the heat transfer phenomenon with cavitation in the liquid.

  5. NUMERICAL VALIDATION OF COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR SHEET CAVITATING FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A computational modeling for the sheet cavitating flows is presented. The cavitation model is implemented in a viscous Navier-Stokes solver. The cavity interface and shape are determined using an iterative procedure matching the cavity surface to a constant pressure boundary. The pressure distribution, as well as its gradient on the wall, is taken into account in updating the cavity shape iteratively. Numerical computations are performed for the sheet cavitating flows at a range of cavitation numbers across the hemispheric headform/cylinder body with different grid numbers. The influence of the relaxation factor in the cavity shape updating scheme for the algorithm accuracy and reliability is conducted through comparison with other two cavity shape updating numerical schemes.The results obtained are reasonable and the iterative procedure of cavity shape updating is quite stable, which demonstrate the superiority of the proposed cavitation model and algorithms.

  6. Flow and cavitation characteristics of water hydraulic poppet valves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖义德; 刘银水; 黄艳; 李壮云

    2002-01-01

    Two types of poppet valves were tested, one is a poppet with a sharp-edged seats, and the other is that with a chamfered seat. During the tests, the effects of backpressure and poppet lift on flow characteristics were considered. Cavitation inception was detected by the appearance and rapid growth of a particular low frequency component of the outlet pressure fluctuation of valve when cavitation occurs. Experimental results show cavitation, back pressure, valve opening and its geometrical shape have significant effects on the flow characteristics of valve. The flow coefficient of throttle with water used as working medium is 0. 85~0. 95 when there is no cavitation. The pressure drop of flow saturation decreases with the increasing of poppet lift. The sharp-edged throttle has stronger anti-cavitation ability than the chamfered one.

  7. Effect of cavitation bubble collapse on hydraulic oil temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟; 张健; 孙毅; 张迪嘉; 姜继海

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation bubble collapse has a great influence on the temperature of hydraulic oil. Herein, cone-type throttle valve experiments are carried out to study the thermodynamic processes of cavitation. First, the processes of growth and collapse are analysed, and the relationships between the hydraulic oil temperature and bubble growth and collapse are deduced. The effect of temperature is then considered on the hydraulic oil viscosity and saturated vapour pressure. Additionally, an improved form of the Rayleigh–Plesset equation is developed. The effect of cavitation on the hydraulic oil temperature is experimentally studied and the effects of cavitation bubble collapse in the hydraulic system are summarised. Using the cone-type throttle valve as an example, a method to suppress cavitation is proposed.

  8. Analysis on Velocity Characteristics of Cavitation Flow Around Hydrofoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-bin; LIU Shu-yan; WANG Guo-yu; ZHANG Bo; ZHANG Min-di

    2010-01-01

    The time-averaged velocity distributions in flows around a hydronautics hydrofoil were measured by using a digit-al particle image velocimeter (DPIV) system. The results show that the velocity distribution in the whole flow field depends on the development of cavitation structures with the decreasing of cavitation number. The high-fluctuation region with lower velocity relates to the cavitation area. The lowest velocity distribution in the cavity core becomes more uniform, and its in-fluence becomes smaller gradually as moving to downstream. The main-stream velocity distribution is even, then fluctuate and even at last. In the supercavitation stage, the fluid velocity in the cavitation region, corresponding to the front of the hydrofoil's suction surface, has a distribution close to the main stream, while the fluid velocity in other cavitation area is lower.

  9. Study of the cavitating instability on a grooved Venturi profile

    CERN Document Server

    Danlos, Amélie; Ravelet, Florent; Coutier-Delgosha, Olivier; Bakir, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation is a limiting phenomenon in many domains of fluid mechanics. Instabilities of a partial cavity developed on an hydrofoil, a converging-diverging step or in an inter-blade channel in turbomachinery, have already been investigated and described in many previous works. The aim of this study is to evaluate a passive control method of the sheet cavity. According to operating conditions, cavitation can be described by two different regimes: an unstable regime with a cloud cavitation shedding and a stable regime with only a pulsating sheet cavity. Avoiding cloud cavitation can limit structure damages since a pulsating sheet cavity is less agressive. The surface condition of a converging-diverging step, like a Venturi-type obstacle, is here studied as a solution for a passive control of the cavitation. This study discusses the effect of an organized roughness, in the shape of longitudinal grooves, on the developed sheet cavity. Analyzes conducted with Laser Doppler Velocimetry, visualisations and pressure ...

  10. A THERMODYNAMIC CAVITATION MODEL APPLICABLE TO HIGH TEMPERATURE FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Min Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is not only related with pressure, but also affected by temperature. Under high temperature, temperature depression of liquids is caused by latent heat of vaporization. The cavitation characteristics under such condition are different from those under room temperature. The paper focuses on thermodynamic cavitation based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation and modifies the mass transfer equation with fully consideration of the thermodynamic effects and physical properties. To validate the modified model, the external and internal flow fields, such as hydrofoil NACA0015 and nozzle, are calculated, respectively. The hydrofoil NACA0015's cavitation characteristic is calculated by the modified model at different temperatures. The pressure coefficient is found in accordance with the experimental data. The nozzle cavitation under the thermodynamic condition is calculated and compared with the experiment.

  11. A PRESSURE-BASED ALGORITHM FOR CAVITATING FLOW COMPUTATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling-xin; ZHAO Wei-guo; SHAO Xue-ming

    2011-01-01

    A pressure-based algorithm for the prediction of cavitating flows is presented. The algorithm employs a set of equations including the Navier-Stokes equations and a cavitation model explaining the phase change between liquid and vapor. A pressure-based method is used to construct the algorithm and the coupling between pressure and velocity is considered. The pressure correction equation is derived from a new continuity equation which employs a source term related to phase change rate instead of the material derivative of density Dp/Dt.Thispressure-based algorithm allows for the computation of steady or unsteady,2-Dor 3-D cavitating flows. Two 2-D cases, flows around a flat-nose cylinder and around a NACA0015 hydrofoil, are simulated respectively, and the periodic cavitation behaviors associated with the re-entrant jets are captured. This algorithm shows good capability of computating time-dependent cavitating flows.

  12. Long-term subglacial sliding patterns based on a sliding law with cavitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Sofie Vej; Egholm, D.L.

    -water pressures are relatively low, whereas fast sliding spreads to the valley bottoms when melt-water pressure increases. We couple equations for glacial sliding to a model for subglacial bedrock erosion and test the implications of the sliding law for long-term glacial landscape evolution. Schoof, C. The effect...... of cavitation on glacier sliding. Proc. R. Soc. A , 461, 609-627 (2005). Egholm et al. Modeling the flow of glaciers in steep terrains: The integrated second-order shallow ice approximation (iSOSIA). Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, F02012 (2011).......In ice-sheet models and glacial landscape evolution models, subglacial sliding rates are often related to basal shear stress by a power-law. However, the power-law relationship implies that the subglacial bed can provide unlimited levels of basal drag as sliding rates increases, which is recognized...

  13. Cavitation instability in bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments have shown that fracture surfaces of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs usually exhibit an intriguing nanoscale corrugation like fractographic feature mediated by nanoscale void formation. We attribute the onset of this nanoscale corrugation to TTZs (tension transformation zones mediated cavitation. In our recent study, the spall experiments of Zr-based BMG using a single-stage light gas gun were performed. To uncover the mechanisms of the spallation damage nucleation and evolution, the samples were designed to be subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude but with different durations by making use of the multi-stress pulse and the double-flyer techniques. It is clearly revealed that the macroscopic spall fracture in BMGs originates from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids. Then, a microvoid nucleation model of BMGs based on free volume theory is proposed, which indicates that the nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in BMGs is resulted from diffusion and coalescence of free volume. Furthermore, a theoretical model of void growth in BMGs undergoing remote dynamic hydrostatic tension is developed. The critical condition of cavitation instability is obtained. It is found that dynamic void growth in BMGs can be well controlled by a dimensionless inertial number characterizing the competition between intrinsic and extrinsic time scales. To unveil the atomic-level mechanism of cavitation, a systematic molecular dynamics (MD simulation of spallation behaviour of a binary metallic glass with different impact velocities was performed. It is found that micro-void nucleation is determined TTZs while the growth is controlled by shear transformation zones (STZs at atomic scale.

  14. Numerical 3D analysis of cloud cavitation shedding frequency on a circular leading edge hydrofoil with a barotropic cavitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, M.; Skoda, R.

    2015-12-01

    A compressible density-based time-explicit low Mach number consistent viscous flow solver is utilised in combination with a barotropic cavitation model for the analysis of cloud cavitation on a circular leading edge (CLE) hydrofoil. For 5° angle of attack, cloud structure and shedding frequency for different cavitation numbers are compared to experimental data. A strong grid sensitivity is found in particular for high cavitation numbers. On a fine grid, a very good agreement with validation data is achieved even without explicit turbulence model. The neglect of viscous effects as well as a two-dimensional set-up lead to a less realistic prediction of cloud structures and frequencies. Comparative simulations with the Sauer-Schnerr cavitation model and modified pre-factors of the mass transfer terms underestimate the measured shedding frequency.

  15. Influence of Na2SiO3 addition on surface microstructure and cavitation damage characteristics for plasma electrolytic oxidation of Al-Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyung; Son, Chang-Ryeon; Kim, Seong-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has emerged as a promising surface modification technique to improve surface properties of Al alloys. In this study, PEO coating process for Al-Mg alloy was conducted with two different electrolyte solutions under the same electrical parameters: one was potassium hydroxide (KOH) aqueous solution, and the other involved potassium hydroxide aqueous solution with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). The surface morphology was observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and elemental compositions were identified with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The chemical structures of PEO coatings were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Cavitation experiment was performed using ultrasonic vibratory cavitation erosion testing apparatus. Cavitation damage of PEO coatings was characterized using SEM and three-dimensional (3D) microscope. The result indicated that the surface of Al-Mg alloy were successfully modified having complete different surface morphologies by changing electrolyte composition. It was found that the surface morphology had a great influence on the cavitation damage behavior of PEO coating.

  16. SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION STUDIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chih Ted YANG

    2005-01-01

    @@ The river systems observed today is the cumulative result of surface, rill, and gully erosion, and sediment transport, scour, and deposition. The divisions of approach between these two related areas are man-made, and are not based on sound science. Most of the erosion studies are done by geologists and agricultural engineers who are concerned of the surface, rill, and gully erosion and the loss of agricultural land productivity. Hydraulic engineers are more interested in the study of sediment transport, scour, and deposition, and their impacts on river engineering and hydraulic structures in rivers and reservoirs. Erosion studies are often based on empirical relationships or field data to determinate the annual sediment yield from a watershed. On the other hand, hydraulic engineers focus their attention on solving equations based on assumed initial and boundary conditions with a time scale of days, hours, or seconds. Both approaches have their complementary strengths and weaknesses. It is important to provide a forum for specialists in both areas to communicate, exchange ideas, and learn from each other.

  17. Erosion of dust aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple recipes to account for erosion effects. Methods: To study the erosion of dust aggregates we employed a molecular dynamics approach that features a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. For the first time, the model has been extended by introducing a new visco-elastic damping force which requires a proper calibration. Afterwards, different sample generation methods were used to cover a wide range of aggregate types. Results: The visco-elastic damping force introduced in this work turns out to be crucial to reproduce results obtained from laboratory experiments. After proper calibration, we find that erosion occurs for impact velocities of 5 m/s and above. Though fractal aggregates as ...

  18. Bentonite erosion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgersson, Martin; Boergesson, Lennart; Hedstroem, Magnus; Karnland, Ola; Nilsson, Ulf (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    Low saline water may reach KBS-3 repository depth, e.g. during periods of glaciation. Under such aqueous conditions, the montmorillonite part of the bentonite buffer might transform into a sol and thereby be transported away with flowing water in fractures. The primary aim with this report is to improve the understanding of the basic principles for this possible montmorillonite particle release. The report includes experimental and theoretical work performed at Clay Technology. Natural bentonite and ion-exchanged purified montmorillonite from three different geographical origins, Wyoming (U.S.), Milos (Greece) and Kutch (India) have been studied. Experimental and/or theoretical investigations have been performed with respect to: - Free swelling ability; - Rheological properties; - Rate of bentonite loss into fractures; - Filtering; - Ion exchange; - Sol formation ability; - Ion diffusion; - Mass loss due to erosion. The performed erosion experiments show that erosion does not occur in a mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite with at least 20% calcium in exchange positions, when the external solution contains above 4 mM charge equivalents. This result is in agreement with the presented conceptual view of sol formation and measured equilibrium properties in mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite. The findings imply that the buffer will be stable for non-glacial conditions. However, erosion due to sol formation cannot be ruled out for glacial conditions.

  19. Dune erosion above revetments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    In a situation with a narrow dune, the dune base can be protected with a revetment to reduce dune erosion during extreme events. To quantify the effects of a revetment on storm impact, the functionality of the numerical storm impact model XBeach (Roelvink et al., 2009) is extended to account for the

  20. Experimental investigation of the flow-induced vibration of hydrofoils in cavitating flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoyu; Wu, Qin; Huang, Biao; Gao, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the correlation between fluid induced vibration and unsteady cavitation behaviours. Experimental results are presented for a modified NACA66 hydrofoil, which is fixed at α=8°. The high-speed camera is synchronized with a single point Laser Doppler Vibrometer to analyze the transient cavitating flow structures and the corresponding structural vibration characteristics. The results showed that, with the decreasing of the cavitation number, the cavitating flows in a water tunnel display several types of cavitation patterns, such as incipient cavitation, sheet cavitation and cloud cavitation. The cavity shedding frequency reduces with the decrease of the cavitation number. As for the cloud cavitation regime, the trend of the vibration velocity goes up with the growth of the attached cavity, accompanied with small amplitude fluctuations. Then the collapse and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavities leads to substantial increase of the vibration velocity fluctuations.

  1. Erosion by an Alpine glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Frédéric; Beyssac, Olivier; Brughelli, Mattia; Lane, Stuart N; Leprince, Sébastien; Adatte, Thierry; Lin, Jiao Y Y; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Cox, Simon C

    2015-10-09

    Assessing the impact of glaciation on Earth's surface requires understanding glacial erosion processes. Developing erosion theories is challenging because of the complex nature of the erosion processes and the difficulty of examining the ice/bedrock interface of contemporary glaciers. We demonstrate that the glacial erosion rate is proportional to the ice-sliding velocity squared, by quantifying spatial variations in ice-sliding velocity and the erosion rate of a fast-flowing Alpine glacier. The nonlinear behavior implies a high erosion sensitivity to small variations in topographic slope and precipitation. A nonlinear rate law suggests that abrasion may dominate over other erosion processes in fast-flowing glaciers. It may also explain the wide range of observed glacial erosion rates and, in part, the impact of glaciation on mountainous landscapes during the past few million years.

  2. Severe Environmental Corrosion Erosion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Severe Environment Corrosion Erosion Facility in Albany, OR, allows researchers to safely examine the performance of materials in highly corrosive or erosive...

  3. Passive cavitation imaging with ultrasound arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A; Datta, Saurabh; Holland, Christy K; Mast, T Douglas

    2009-12-01

    A method is presented for passive imaging of cavitational acoustic emissions using an ultrasound array, with potential application in real-time monitoring of ultrasound ablation. To create such images, microbubble emissions were passively sensed by an imaging array and dynamically focused at multiple depths. In this paper, an analytic expression for a passive image is obtained by solving the Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral, under the Fresnel approximation, and passive images were simulated. A 192-element array was used to create passive images, in real time, from 520-kHz ultrasound scattered by a 1-mm steel wire. Azimuthal positions of this target were accurately estimated from the passive images. Next, stable and inertial cavitation was passively imaged in saline solution sonicated at 520 kHz. Bubble clusters formed in the saline samples were consistently located on both passive images and B-scans. Passive images were also created using broadband emissions from bovine liver sonicated at 2.2 MHz. Agreement was found between the images and source beam shape, indicating an ability to map therapeutic ultrasound beams in situ. The relation between these broadband emissions, sonication amplitude, and exposure conditions are discussed.

  4. Cavitation and pore blocking in nanoporous glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, C; Kalies, G; Enke, D; Klank, D

    2011-09-06

    In gas adsorption studies, porous glasses are frequently referred to as model materials for highly disordered mesopore systems. Numerous works suggest that an accurate interpretation of physisorption isotherms requires a complete understanding of network effects upon adsorption and desorption, respectively. The present article deals with nitrogen and argon adsorption at different temperatures (77 and 87 K) performed on a series of novel nanoporous glasses (NPG) with different mean pore widths. NPG samples contain smaller mesopores and significantly higher microporosity than porous Vycor glass or controlled pore glass. Since the mean pore width of NPG can be tuned sensitively, the evolution of adsorption characteristics with respect to a broadening pore network can be investigated starting from the narrowest nanopore width. With an increasing mean pore width, a H2-type hysteresis develops gradually which finally transforms into a H1-type. In this connection, a transition from a cavitation-induced desorption toward desorption controlled by pore blocking can be observed. Furthermore, we find concrete hints for a pore size dependence of the relative pressure of cavitation in highly disordered pore systems. By comparing nitrogen and argon adsorption, a comprehensive insight into adsorption mechanisms in novel disordered materials is provided.

  5. Catastrophic Cracking Courtesy of Quiescent Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Daily, D Jesse; Thomson, Scott L; Truscott, Tadd T

    2012-01-01

    A popular party trick is to fill a glass bottle with water and hit the top of the bottle with an open hand, causing the bottom of the bottle to break open. We investigate the source of the catastrophic cracking through the use of high-speed video and an accelerometer attached to the bottom of a glass bottle. Upon closer inspection, it is obvious that the acceleration caused by hitting the top of the bottle is followed by the formation of bubbles near the bottom. The nearly instantaneous acceleration creates an area of low pressure on the bottom of the bottle where cavitation bubbles form. Moments later, the cavitation bubbles collapse at roughly 10 times the speed of formation, causing the bottle to break. The accelerometer data shows that the bottle is broken after the bubbles collapse and that the magnitude of the bubble collapse is greater than the initial impact. The fluid dynamics video highlights that this trick will not work if the bottle is empty nor if it is filled with a carbonated fluid because the...

  6. How does slope form affect erosion in CATFLOW-SED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabelmann, Petra; Wienhöfer, Jan; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Erosion is a severe environmental problem in agro-ecosystems with highly erodible loess soils. It is controlled by various factors, e.g. rainfall intensity, initial wetness conditions, soil type, land use and tillage practice. Furthermore slope form and gradient have been shown to influence erosion amounts to a large extent. Within the last fifty years, various erosion models have been developed to describe the erosion process, estimate erosion amounts and identify erosion-prone areas. These models differ in terms of complexity, the processes which are considered, and the data required for model calibration and they can be categorised into empirical or statistical, conceptual, and physically-based models. CATFLOW-SED is a process-based hydrology and erosion model that can operate on catchment and hillslope scales. Soil water dynamics are described by the Richards equation including effective approaches for preferential flow. Evapotranspiration is simulated using an approach based on the Penman-Monteith equation. The model simulates overland flow using the diffusion wave equation. Soil detachment is related to the attacking forces of rainfall and overland flow, and the erosion resistance of soil. Sediment transport capacity and sediment deposition are related to overland flow velocity using the equation of Engelund and Hansen and the sinking velocity of grain sizes respectively. We performed a study to analyse the erosion process on different virtual hillslopes, with varying slope gradient and slope form, using the CATFLOW-SED model. We explored the role of landform on erosion and sedimentation, particularly we look for forms that either maximise or minimise erosion. Results indicate the importance to performing the process implementation within physically meaningful limits and choose appropriate model parameters respectively.

  7. Detecting cavitation in vivo from shock-wave therapy devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Thomas J.; Yu, Jinfei; Bailey, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) has been used as a treatment for plantar faciitis, lateral epicondylitis, shoulder tendonitis, non-unions, and other indications where conservative treatments have been unsuccessful. However, in many areas, the efficacy of SW treatment has not been well established, and the mechanism of action, particularly the role of cavitation, is not well understood. Research indicates cavitation plays an important role in other ultrasound therapies, such as lithotripsy and focused ultrasound surgery, and in some instances, cavitation has been used as a means to monitor or detect a biological effect. Although ESWT can generate cavitation easily in vitro, it is unknown whether or not cavitation is a significant factor in vivo. The purpose of this investigation is to use diagnostic ultrasound to detect and monitor cavitation generated by ESWT devices in vivo. Diagnostic images are collected at various times during and after treatment. The images are then post-processed with image-processing algorithms to enhance the contrast between bubbles and surrounding tissue. The ultimate goal of this research is to utilize cavitation as a means for optimizing shock wave parameters such as amplitude and pulse repetition frequency. [Work supported by APL internal funds and NIH DK43881 and DK55674.

  8. Experimental evaluation of numerical simulation of cavitating flow around hydrofoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dular, M.; Bachert, R.; Stoffel, B. [Darmstadt Univ. of Technology, Lab. for Turbomachinery and Fluid Power (Germany); Sirok, B. [Ljubljana Univ., Lab. for Water and Turbine Machines (Slovenia)

    2005-08-01

    Cavitation in hydraulic machines causes different problems that can be related to its unsteady nature. An experimental and numerical study of developed cavitating flow was performed. Until now simulations of cavitating flow were limited to the self developed 'in house' CFD codes. The goal of the work was to experimentally evaluate the capabilities of a commercial CFD code (Fluent) for simulation of a developed cavitating flow. Two simple hydrofoils that feature some 3D effects of cavitation were used for the experiments. A relatively new technique where PIV method combined with LIF technique was used to experimentally determine the instantaneous and average velocity and void ratio fields (cavity shapes) around the hydrofoils. Distribution of static pressure on the hydrofoil surface was determined. For the numerical simulation of cavitating flow a bubble dynamics cavitation model was used to describe the generation and evaporation of vapour phase. An unsteady RANS 3D simulation was performed. Comparison between numerical and experimental results shows good correlation. The distribution and size of vapour structures and the velocity fields agree well. The distribution of pressure on the hydrofoil surface is correctly predicted. The numerically predicted shedding frequencies are in fair agreement with the experimental data. (authors)

  9. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF CAVITATION FLOW UNDER HIGH PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei-guo; ZHANG Ling-xin; SHAO Xue-ming

    2011-01-01

    The numerical simulation of cavitation flow on a 2D NACA0015 hydrofoil under high pressure and temperature is performed. The Singhal's cavitation model is adopted combined with an improved RNG k-ε turbulence model to study the cavitation flow. The thermal effect in the cavitation flow is taken into account by introducing the energy equation with a source term based on the latent heat transfer. The code is validated by a case of a hydrofoil under two different temperatures in a comparison between the simulation and the experiment. Computational results show that the latent heat of vaporization has a significant impact on the cavitation process in the high temperature state, and the cavity in the high temperature state is thinner and shorter than that in a normal state with the same cavitation number, due to the fact that the heat absorption in the cavitation area reduces the local temperature and the saturated vapor pressure. This numerical study provides some guidance for the design of machineries in the High Pressure and Temperature (HPT) state.

  10. Numerical research on unsteady cavitating flow over a hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, D.; Wróblewski, W.

    2016-10-01

    Cavitation is a widely known phenomenon in pumps and water turbines installations. It can lead to significant damage of blades and walls of the rotor therefore it is crucial during pump designing and exploitation to avoid working in flow conditions, that enabled cavitation to occur. Nowadays numerical simulations of flow can provide valuable information concerning pressure and velocity distribution and can indicate if there is a risk of cavitating flow appearance. There are a few mathematical models which describe cavitating flow. In the paper Schnerr & Sauer model was chosen for simulation. Aim of the paper is to verify its utility in case of different cavitating flow regimes over Clark-Y hydrofoil. After performing the grid independence study four different cavitation regimes were investigated. The vapour areas appearance, their shapes and changes in time were observed. The assumption of isothermal, two - phase flow was made. The calculations were performed using OpenFOAM and were compared to the available measurements data. The presented results concerned sheet and cloud cavitation regimes.

  11. Cavitating vortex characterization based on acoustic signal detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digulescu, A.; Murgan, I.; Candel, I.; Bunea, F.; Ciocan, G.; Bucur, D. M.; Dunca, G.; Ioana, C.; Vasile, G.; Serbanescu, A.

    2016-11-01

    In hydraulic turbines operating at part loads, a cavitating vortex structure appears at runner outlet. This helical vortex, called vortex rope, can be cavitating in its core if the local pressure is lower that the vaporization pressure. An actual concern is the detection of the cavitation apparition and the characterization of its level. This paper presents a potentially innovative method for the detection of the cavitating vortex presence based on acoustic methods. The method is tested on a reduced scale facility using two acoustic transceivers positioned in ”V” configuration. The received signals were continuously recorded and their frequency content was chosen to fit the flow and the cavitating vortex. Experimental results showed that due to the increasing flow rate, the signal - vortex interaction is observed as modifications on the received signal's high order statistics and bandwidth. Also, the signal processing results were correlated with the data measured with a pressure sensor mounted in the cavitating vortex section. Finally it is shown that this non-intrusive acoustic approach can indicate the apparition, development and the damping of the cavitating vortex. For real scale facilities, applying this method is a work in progress.

  12. Erosion on spark plug electrodes; Funkenerosion an Zuendkerzenelektroden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rager, J.

    2006-07-01

    Durability of spark plugs is mainly determined by spark gap widening, caused by electrode wear. Knowledge about the erosion mechanisms of spark plug materials is of fundamental interest for the development of materials with a high resistance against electrode erosion. It is therefore crucial to identify those parameters which significantly influence the erosion behaviour of a material. In this work, a reliable and reproducible testing method is presented which produces and characterizes electrode wear under well-defined conditions and which is capable of altering parameters specifically. Endurance tests were carried out to study the dependence of the wear behaviour of pure nickel and platinum on the electrode temperature, gas, electrode gap, electrode diameter, atmospheric pressure, and partial pressure of oxygen. It was shown that erosion under nitrogen is negligible, irrespective of the material. This disproves all common mechanism discussed in the literature explaining material loss of spark plug electrodes. Based on this observation and the variation of the mentioned parameters a new erosion model was deduced. This relies on an oxidation of the electrode material and describes the erosion of nickel and platinum separately. For nickel, electrode wear is caused by the removal of an oxide layer by the spark. In the case of platinum, material loss occurs due to the plasma-assisted formation and subsequent evaporation of volatile oxides in the cathode spot. On the basis of this mechanism a new composite material was developed whose erosion resistance is superior to pure platinum. Oxidation resistant metal oxide particles were added to a platinum matrix, thus leading to a higher erosion resistance of the composite. However, this can be decreased by a side reaction, the separation of oxygen from the metal oxides, which effectively assists the oxidation of the matrix. This reaction can be suppressed by using highly stable oxides, characterized by a large negative Gibbs

  13. Counterbalancing the use of ultrasound contrast agents by a cavitation-regulated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjouy, C; Fouqueray, M; Lo, C W; Muleki Seya, P; Lee, J L; Bera, J C; Chen, W S; Inserra, C

    2015-09-01

    The stochastic behavior of cavitation can lead to major problems of initiation and maintenance of cavitation during sonication, responsible of poor reproducibility of US-induced bioeffects in the context of sonoporation for instance. To overcome these disadvantages, the injection of ultrasound contrast agents as cavitation nuclei ensures fast initiation and lower acoustic intensities required for cavitation activity. More recently, regulated-cavitation devices based on the real-time modulation of the applied acoustic intensity have shown their potential to maintain a stable cavitation state during an ultrasonic shot, in continuous or pulsed wave conditions. In this paper is investigated the interest, in terms of cavitation activity, of using such regulated-cavitation device or injecting ultrasound contrast agents in the sonicated medium. When using fixed applied acoustic intensity, results showed that introducing ultrasound contrast agents increases reproducibility of cavitation activity (coefficient of variation 62% and 22% without and with UCA, respectively). Moreover, the use of the regulated-cavitation device ensures a given cavitation activity (coefficient of variation less 0.4% in presence of UCAs or not). This highlights the interest of controlling cavitation over time to free cavitation-based application from the use of UCAs. Interestingly, during a one minute sonication, while ultrasound contrast agents progressively disappear, the regulated-cavitation device counterbalance their destruction to sustain a stable inertial cavitation activity.

  14. A Study of Damage on the Pipe Flow Materials Caused by Solid Particle Erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-Hoon; Choi, Duk-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Joon [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Wall thinning can be classified into three types: flow-accelerated corrosion, cavitation erosion and solid particle erosion. This article presents a study of solid particle erosion, which frequently causes damages to power plants' pipe system. Unlike previous studies, this study uses a mechanism to make solid particles in a fluid flow collide with pipe materials in underwater condition. Experiment is conducted in three cases of velocity according to solid-water ratio using the three types of the materials of A106B, SS400, and A6061. The experiments were performed for 30 days, and the surface morphology and hardness of the materials were examined for every 7 days. Based on the velocity change of the solid particles in a fluid flow, the surface changes, the change in the amount of erosion, the erosion rate and the variation in the hardness of carbon steel and aluminum family pipe materials can all be determined. In addition, factor based erosion rates are verified and a wall-thinning relation function is suggested for the pipe materials.

  15. Numerical investigation of tip clearance cavitation in Kaplan runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, K.; Semenov, G.; Kuznetsov, I.; Spiridonov, E.

    2016-11-01

    There is a gap between the Kaplan runner blade and the shroud that makes for a special kind of cavitation: cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Two types of cavitation caused by the presence of clearance gap are known: tip vortex cavitation that appears at the core of the rolled up vortex on the blade suction side and tip clearance cavitation that appears precisely in the gap between the blade tip edge and the shroud. In the context of this work numerical investigation of the model Kaplan runner has been performed taking into account variable tip clearance for several cavitation regimes. The focus is put on investigation of structure and origination of mechanism of cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Calculations have been performed with the help of 3-D unsteady numerical model for two-phase medium. Modeling of turbulent flow in this work has been carried out using full equations of Navier-Stokes averaged by Reynolds with correction for streamline curvature and system rotation. For description of this medium (liquid-vapor) simplification of Euler approach is used; it is based on the model of interpenetrating continuums, within the bounds of this two- phase medium considered as a quasi-homogeneous mixture with the common velocity field and continuous distribution of density for both phases. As a result, engineering techniques for calculation of cavitation conditioned by existence of tip clearance in model turbine runner have been developed. The detailed visualization of the flow was carried out and vortex structure on the suction side of the blade was reproduced. The range of frequency with maximum value of pulsation was assigned and maximum energy frequency was defined; it is based on spectral analysis of the obtained data. Comparison between numerical computation results and experimental data has been also performed. The location of cavitation zone has a good agreement with experiment for all analyzed regimes.

  16. Effects of fluid thermophysical properties on cavitating flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tairan; Huang, Biao; Wang, Guoyu; Wang, Kun [Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-15

    We studied the thermo-fluid cavitating flows and evaluated the effects of physical properties on cavitation behaviors. The thermo-fluid (including liquid nitrogen, liquid hydrogen and hot water) cavitating flows around a 2D hydrofoil were numerically investigated. The Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the enthalpy-based energy equation, transport equation-based cavitation model, and the k- ω SST turbulence model were applied. The thermodynamic parameter ∑, defined as ∑=(P{sub v}{sup 2}L{sup 2})/(P{sub l}{sup 2}C{sub v}T{sub ∞} √ε{sub I}) was used to assess the thermodynamic effects on cavitating flows. The results manifest that the thermal energy solution case yields a substantially shorter and mushier cavity attached on the hydrofoil due to the thermodynamic effects, which shows better agreement with the experimental data. The temperature drop inside the cavity decreases the local saturated vapor pressure and hence increases the local cavitation number; it could delay or suppress the occurrence and development of the cavitation behavior. The thermodynamic effects can be evaluated by thermophysical properties under the same free-stream conditions; the thermodynamic parameter ∑ is shown to be critical in accurately predicting the thermodynamic effects on cavitating flows. The surrogate-based global sensitivity analysis of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow suggests that ρ{sub v}, C{sub l} and L could significantly influence temperature drop and cavity structure in the existing numerical framework, while ρv plays the dominant role on temperature drop when properties vary with changing temperature. The liquid viscosity ml slightly affects the flow structure but hardly affects the temperature distribution.

  17. Effects of Ion Implantation on Cavitation Erosion of a Cobalt Based Metal/Carbide Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    L_____ L -_ 0nion source. The samlies were heat sunk onto100 200 300 400o100 DEPH a water-cooled holder during implantat ion to limnit tihe temerature...by water test times of between 20 and 35 h, are shown jets ( pump circulated test water) through the in Fig. 2. SEM micrographs showing the dam...qualitative measure of the relative amounts of the - hcp and fcc phases in the alloy [4]. Calculations based on the mass adsorbtion coefficient for

  18. Principles and effects of acoustic cavitation - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GÂMBUŢEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, food industry has shown a real interest in ultrasound use because of its effect on physical, biochemical and microbial properties of food systems. In order to better understand how the acoustic cavity effects could be best applied in food industry, a review on acoustic cavitation and its effects was done. The present paper describes in detail the basic principles underlying the effects of ultrasounds on food processing applications. It also provides theoretical background on acoustic cavitation and ultrasound production method. Moreover, harnessing mechanic, optic, chemical and biological effects of acoustic cavitation in food industry were briefly highlighted.

  19. Ultrasound-induced inertial cavitation from gas-stabilizing nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, J J; Graham, S; Myers, R; Carlisle, R; Stride, E; Coussios, C C

    2015-08-01

    The understanding of cavitation from nanoparticles has been hindered by the inability to control nanobubble size. We present a method to manufacture nanoparticles with a tunable single hemispherical depression (nanocups) of mean diameter 90, 260, or 650 nm entrapping a nanobubble. A modified Rayleigh-Plesset crevice model predicts the inertial cavitation threshold as a function of cavity size and frequency, and is verified experimentally. The ability to tune cavitation nanonuclei and predict their behavior will be useful for applications ranging from cancer therapy to ultrasonic cleaning.

  20. Cavitation in dielectric fluid in inhomogeneous pulsed electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Shneider, M N

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for studying the early stages of the cavitation development in arbitrary, non-stationary conditions. This method is based on the comparison of the results of calculations in the framework of a theoretical model of the liquid dielectrics motion in a strong non-uniform electric field and experiments with controlled parameters. This approach allows us to find the critical negative pressure, at which cavitation begins to develop, and to determine the values of the constants in the classical models of cavitation.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CAVITATION IN A SUDDEN EXPANSION PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-min; YANG Qing; WANG Yu-rong; XU Wei-lin; CHEN Jian-gang

    2011-01-01

    For sudden expansion pipes, experiments were carried out to study the cavitation inception for various enlargement ratios in high speed flows.The flow velocity of the prototype reaches 50 m/s in laboratory.The relationship between the expansion ratio and the incipient cavitation number is obtained.The scale and velocity effects are revealed.It is shown that Keller's revised formula should be modified to calculate the incipient cavitation number when the forecasted velocity of the flows in the prototype exceeds the experimental velocity.

  2. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF 2D PERIODIC UNSTEADY CAVITATING FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Lei; LU Chuan-jing; LI Jie; CHEN Xin

    2006-01-01

    A two-phase mixture model was established to study unsteady cavitating flows. A local compressible system of equations was derived by introducing a density-pressure function to account for the two-phase flow of water/vapor and the transition from one phase to the other. An algorithm for solving the variable-density Navier-Stokes equations of cavitating flow problem was put forward. The numerical results for unsteady characteristics of cavitating flows on a 2D NACA hydrofoil coincide well with experimental data.

  3. Actinides, accelerators and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S. G.; Fifield, L. K.

    2012-10-01

    Fallout isotopes can be used as artificial tracers of soil erosion and sediment accumulation. The most commonly used isotope to date has been 137Cs. Concentrations of 137Cs are, however, significantly lower in the Southern Hemisphere, and furthermore have now declined to 35% of original values due to radioactive decay. As a consequence the future utility of 137Cs is limited in Australia, with many erosion applications becoming untenable within the next 20 years, and there is a need to replace it with another tracer. Plutonium could fill this role, and has the advantages that there were six times as many atoms of Pu as of 137Cs in fallout, and any loss to decay has been negligible due to the long half-lives of the plutonium isotopes. Uranium-236 is another long-lived fallout isotope with significant potential for exploitation as a tracer of soil and sediment movement. Uranium is expected to be more mobile in soils than plutonium (or caesium), and hence the 236U/Pu ratio will vary with soil depth, and so could provide an independent measure of the amount of soil loss. In this paper we discuss accelerator based ultra-sensitive measurements of plutonium and 236U isotopes and their advantages over 137Cs as tracers of soil erosion and sediment movement.

  4. Actinides, accelerators and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifield L.K.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fallout isotopes can be used as artificial tracers of soil erosion and sediment accumulation. The most commonly used isotope to date has been 137Cs. Concentrations of 137Cs are, however, significantly lower in the Southern Hemisphere, and furthermore have now declined to 35% of original values due to radioactive decay. As a consequence the future utility of 137Cs is limited in Australia, with many erosion applications becoming untenable within the next 20 years, and there is a need to replace it with another tracer. Plutonium could fill this role, and has the advantages that there were six times as many atoms of Pu as of 137Cs in fallout, and any loss to decay has been negligible due to the long half-lives of the plutonium isotopes. Uranium-236 is another long-lived fallout isotope with significant potential for exploitation as a tracer of soil and sediment movement. Uranium is expected to be more mobile in soils than plutonium (or caesium, and hence the 236U/Pu ratio will vary with soil depth, and so could provide an independent measure of the amount of soil loss. In this paper we discuss accelerator based ultra-sensitive measurements of plutonium and 236U isotopes and their advantages over 137Cs as tracers of soil erosion and sediment movement.

  5. Particle erosion of infrared materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Erosion test of some infrared (IR) optical crystals (Ge,ZnS,MgF2,and quartz) was conducted with a number of different erodents (glass bead,and angular SiC,SiO2,Al2O3 by a homemade gas-blasting erosion tester.The influence of impact angle,impact velocity,erodent,and erosion time on the erosion rate and the effect of erosion on their IR transmittance were studied.The damaged surface morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy,and the erosion mechanism was explored.All of the materials show the maximum in wear versus impact angle at 90°,confirming their brittle failure behavior.It is found that the erosion rate is dependent on the erodent velocity by a power law,and it is highly correlated to the hardness of the erodent.The erosion rate-time curves do not show an incubation state,but an accelerated erosion period followed a maximum erosion (steady state).The decrease of IR transmittance is direct proportion to the erosion rate.Although the material loss occurs primarily by brittle process,ductile behavior is clearly an important feature,especially for MgF2 and ZnS.

  6. Auto consolidated cohesive sediments erosion; Erosion des sediments cohesifs en autoconsolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternat, F

    2007-02-15

    Pollutants and suspended matters of a river can accumulate into the sedimentary column. Once deposited, they are submitted to self-weight consolidation processes, ageing and burying, leading to an increase of their erosion resistance. Pollutant fluxes can be related to sedimentary fluxes, determined by threshold laws. In this work, an erosion threshold model is suggested by introducing a cohesion force into the usual force balance. A model of cohesion is developed on the basis of interactions between argillaceous cohesive particles (clays), particularly the Van der Waals force, whose parameterization is ensured by means of granulometry and porosity. Artificial erosion experiments were performed in a recirculating erosion flume with natural cored sediments where critical shear stress measurements were performed. Other analyses provided granulometry and porosity. The results obtained constitute a good database for the literature. The model is then applied to the experimental conditions and gives good agreement with measurements. An example of the accounting for self-weight consolidation processes is finally suggested, before finishing on a Mohr like diagram dedicated to soft cohesive sediment erosion. (author)

  7. Plasticity in Vulnerability to Cavitation of Pinus canariensis Occurs Only at the Driest End of an Aridity Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rosana; Cano, Francisco J.; Choat, Brendan; Cochard, Hervé; Gil, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Water availability has been considered one of the crucial drivers of species distribution. However, the increasing of temperatures and more frequent water shortages could overcome the ability of long-lived species to cope with rapidly changing conditions. Growth and survival of natural populations adapted to a given site, transferred and tested in other environments as part of provenance trials, can be interpreted as a simulation of ambient changes at the original location. We compare the intraspecific variation and the relative contribution of plasticity to adaptation of key functional traits related to drought resistance: vulnerability to cavitation, efficiency of the xylem to conduct water and biomass allocation. We use six populations of Canary Island pine growing in three provenance trials (wet, dry, and xeric). We found that the variability for hydraulic traits was largely due to phenotypic plasticity, whereas, genetic variation was limited and almost restricted to hydraulic safety traits and survival. Trees responded to an increase in climate dryness by lowering growth, and increasing leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity by means of increasing the Huber value. Vulnerability to cavitation only showed a plastic response in the driest provenance trial located in the ecological limit of the species. This trait was more tightly correlated with annual precipitation, drought length, and temperature oscillation at the origin of the populations than hydraulic efficiency or the Huber value. Vulnerability to cavitation was directly related to survival in the dry and the xeric provenance trials, illustrating its importance in determining drought resistance. In a new climatic scenario where more frequent and intense droughts are predicted, the magnitude of extreme events together with the fact that plasticity of cavitation resistance is only shown in the very dry limit of the species could hamper the capacity to adapt and buffer against environmental changes of some

  8. Determination of sulfuric acid concentration for anti-cavitation characteristics of Al alloy by two step anodizing process to forming nano porous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Seong-Kweon; Jeong, Jae-Yong; Kim, Seong-Jong

    2014-12-01

    Al alloy is a highly active metal but forms a protective oxide film having high corrosion resistance in atmosphere environment. However, the oxide film is not suitable for practical use, since the thickness of the film is not uniform and it is severly altered with formation conditions. This study focused on developing an aluminum anodizing layer having hardness, corrosion resistance and abrasion resistance equivalent to a commercial grade protective layer. Aluminum anodizing layer was produced by two-step aluminum anodizing oxide (AAO) process with different sulfuric acid concentrations, and the cavitation characteristics of the anodized coating layer was investigated. In hardness measurement, the anodized coating layer produced with 15 vol.% of sulfuric acid condition had the highest value of hardness but exhibited poor cavitation resistance due to being more brittle than those with other conditions. The 10 vol.% of sulfuric acid condition was thus considered to be the optimum condition as it had the lowest weight loss and damage depth.

  9. The effect of static pressure on the inertial cavitation threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Kenneth B; Raymond, Jason L; Mobley, Joel; Church, Charles C; Felipe Gaitan, D

    2012-08-01

    The amplitude of the acoustic pressure required to nucleate a gas or vapor bubble in a fluid, and to have that bubble undergo an inertial collapse, is termed the inertial cavitation threshold. The magnitude of the inertial cavitation threshold is typically limited by mechanisms other than homogeneous nucleation such that the theoretical maximum is never achieved. However, the onset of inertial cavitation can be suppressed by increasing the static pressure of the fluid. The inertial cavitation threshold was measured in ultrapure water at static pressures up to 30 MPa (300 bars) by exciting a radially symmetric standing wave field in a spherical resonator driven at a resonant frequency of 25.5 kHz. The threshold was found to increase linearly with the static pressure; an exponentially decaying temperature dependence was also found. The nature and properties of the nucleating mechanisms were investigated by comparing the measured thresholds to an independent analysis of the particulate content and available models for nucleation.

  10. Cavitation bubbles collapse characteristics behind a convex body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶; 许唯临; 张亚磊; 张敬威; 陈春祺; 阿蓉

    2013-01-01

    Cavitation bubbles behind a convex body were experimentally studied by a high speed camera and a hydrophone synch- ronously. The experiments were conducted in a circulating water tunnel with five various contraction ratios:b=0.497,b=0.6,b=0.697,b=0.751, andb=0.799. The distributions of the cavitation bubble collapse positions behind the five different convex bodies were obtained by combining the images taken by the high speed camera. According to the collapse positions, it was found that no cavitation bubble was collapsed in the region near the wall until the ratio of the water head loss over the convex body height was larger than 20, which can be used to predict if the cavitation damage would occur in the tunnel with orifice energy dissipaters.

  11. Design method of water jet pump towards high cavitation performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L. L.; Che, B. X.; Hu, L. J.; Wu, D. Z.

    2016-05-01

    As one of the crucial components for power supply, the propulsion system is of great significance to the advance speed, noise performances, stabilities and other associated critical performances of underwater vehicles. Developing towards much higher advance speed, the underwater vehicles make more critical demands on the performances of the propulsion system. Basically, the increased advance speed requires the significantly raised rotation speed of the propulsion system, which would result in the deteriorated cavitation performances and consequently limit the thrust and efficiency of the whole system. Compared with the traditional propeller, the water jet pump offers more favourite cavitation, propulsion efficiency and other associated performances. The present research focuses on the cavitation performances of the waterjet pump blade profile in expectation of enlarging its advantages in high-speed vehicle propulsion. Based on the specifications of a certain underwater vehicle, the design method of the waterjet blade with high cavitation performances was investigated in terms of numerical simulation.

  12. Dual frequency cavitation event sensor with iodide dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahiminia, Ali; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Toliyat, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    The inertial cavitation activity depends on the sonication parameters. The purpose of this work is development of dual frequency inertial cavitation meter for therapeutic applications of ultrasound waves. In this study, the chemical effects of sonication parameters in dual frequency sonication (40 kHz and 1 MHz) were investigated in the progressive wave mode using iodide dosimetry. For this purpose, efficacy of different exposure parameters such as intensity, sonication duration, sonication mode, duty factor and net ultrasound energy on the inertial cavitation activity have been studied. To quantify cavitational effects, the KI dosimeter solution was sonicated and its absorbance at a wavelength of 350 nm was measured. The absorbance values in continuous sonication mode was significantly higher than the absorbance corresponding to the pulsed mode having duty factors of 20-80% (plevel intensity (sensor can be useful for ultrasonic treatments.

  13. Numerical study of hydrofoil geometry effect on cavitating flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hyo Sung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    This paper describes the influence of geometrical parameters on the hydrofoil performance in non cavitating and cavitating flows. The two phase incompressible Navier Stokes solver is used to compute the hydrofoil performance in two operating conditions. The new hydrofoil useful for performance improvement is obtained through the optimization design with RSM and the application of nose drooping geometry. In the optimization design with the response surface model between hydrofoil performance and hydrofoil geometry, it is observed that the design concept of maximum lift to drag ratio is appropriate for the improvement of hydrofoil performance. The application of nose drooping design concept results in the increase of hydrofoil performance in non cavitating and cavitating flows.

  14. Cavitation Inception in Turbulent Flows Around a Hydrofoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min-di; WANG Guo-yu; ZHANG Zhen; GAO Yuan-yin

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of cavitation inception around a hydrofoil is studied experimentally. The flow velocities around the foil are measured by a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV). The inception cavitation aspects are observed by using a high-speed video camera. In the experiment, the Reynolds number is fixed at a value of 7 .0×105. The boundary layer around the foil undergoes turbulent flow under the experiment condition. The LDV measurement results show that the flow in the boundary layer around the foil doesn't separate from the surface. It is found that the cavitation inception in non-separated turbulent flow is related to the coherent structures in the boundary layer. It is clear that the turbulent bursting and the hairpin-shaped vortex structure accompany the incipient cavitation.

  15. Mathematical Modelling of Fluid Flow in Cone and Cavitation Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milada KOZUBKOVÁ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem of cavitation is the undesirable phenomena occuring in the fluid flow in many hydraulic application (pumps, turbines, valves, etc.. Therefore this is in the focus of interest using experimental and mathematical methods. Based on cavitation modelling in Laval nozzle results and experience [1], [2], [4], following problem described as the water flow at the outlet from turbine blade wheel was solved. Primarily the problem is simplified into modelling of water flow in cone. Profiles of axial, radial and tangential velocity are defined on inlet zone. The value of pressure is defined on the outlet. Boundary conditions were defined by main investigator of the grant project – Energy Institute, Victor Kaplan’s Department of Fluid Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology. The value of air volume was insignificant. Cavitation was solved by Singhal model of cavitation.

  16. Localization in an acoustic cavitation cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, Boya

    2016-01-01

    Using a nonlinear sound wave equation for a bubbly liquid in conjunction with an equation for bubble pulsation, we predict and experimentally demonstrate the appearance of a gap in the frequency spectrum of a sound wave propagating in a cavitation cloud comprising bubbles. For bubbles with an ambient radius of 100 {\\mu}m, the calculations revealed that this gap corresponds to the phenomenon of sound wave localization. For bubbles with an ambient radius of 120 {\\mu}m, this spectral gap relates to a forbidden band of the sound wave. In the experiment, we observed the predicted gap in the frequency spectrum in soda water; however, in tap water, no spectral gap was present because the bubbles were much smaller than 100 {\\mu}m.

  17. Cavitation damage in blood clots under HIFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hope; Ahadi, Golnaz; Hoelscher, Thilo; Szeri, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to accelerate thrombolysis, the dissolution of blood clots, in vitro and in vivo, for treatment of ischemic stroke. Cavitation in sonothrombolysis is thought to play an important role, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. The damage to a blood clot associated with bubble collapses in a HIFU field is studied. The region of damage caused by a bubble collapse on the fibrin network of the blood clot exposed to HIFU is estimated, and compared with experimental assessment of the damage. The mechanical damage to the network caused by a bubble is probed using two independent approaches, a strain based method and an energy based method. Immunoflourescent fibrin staining is used to assess the region of damage experimentally.

  18. Cavitation in liquid cryogens. 2: Hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, J.

    1973-01-01

    Boundary layer principles, along with two-phase concepts, are used to improve existing correlative theory for developed cavity data. Details concerning cavity instrumentation, data analysis, correlative techniques, and experimental and theoretical aspects of a cavitating hydrofoil are given. Both desinent and thermodynamic data, using liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen, are reported. The thermodynamic data indicated that stable thermodynamic equilibrium exists throughout the vaporous cryogen cavities. The improved correlative formulas were used to evaluate these data. A new correlating parameter based on consideration of mass limiting two-phase flow flux across the cavity interface, is proposed. This correlating parameter appears attractive for future correlative and predictive applications. Agreement between theory and experiment is discussed, and directions for future analysis are suggested. The front half of the cavities, developed on the hydrofoil, may be considered as parabolically shaped.

  19. Ultrasonic cavitation for disruption of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenly, Justin M; Tester, Jefferson W

    2015-05-01

    Challenges with mid-stream fractionation steps in proposed microalgae biofuel pathways arise from the typically dilute cell density in growth media, micron scale cell sizes, and often durable cell walls. For microalgae to be a sustainable source of biofuels and co-products, efficient fractionation by some method will be necessary. This study evaluates ultrasonic cell disruption as a processing step that fractionates microalgae. A range of species types with different sizes and cell wall compositions were treated. The initial seconds of sonication offered the most significant disruption, even for the more durable Nannochloropsis cells. Following this initial period, diminishing effectiveness was attributed, by acoustic measurements, to attenuation of the ultrasound in the ensuing cloud of cavitating bubbles. At longer exposure times, differences between species were more pronounced. Processing higher concentrations of Isochrysis slowed cell disintegration only marginally, making the expenditure of energy more worthwhile.

  20. Radial Shock Wave Devices Generate Cavitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus B M Császár

    Full Text Available Conflicting reports in the literature have raised the question whether radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT devices and vibrating massage devices have similar energy signatures and, hence, cause similar bioeffects in treated tissues.We used laser fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH measurements, high-speed imaging and x-ray film analysis to compare fundamental elements of the energy signatures of two rESWT devices (Swiss DolorClast; Electro Medical Systems, Nyon, Switzerland; D-Actor 200; Storz Medical, Tägerwillen, Switzerland and a vibrating massage device (Vibracare; G5/General Physiotherapy, Inc., Earth City, MO, USA. To assert potential bioeffects of these treatment modalities we investigated the influence of rESWT and vibrating massage devices on locomotion ability of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans worms.FOPH measurements demonstrated that both rESWT devices generated acoustic waves with comparable pressure and energy flux density. Furthermore, both rESWT devices generated cavitation as evidenced by high-speed imaging and caused mechanical damage on the surface of x-ray film. The vibrating massage device did not show any of these characteristics. Moreover, locomotion ability of C. elegans was statistically significantly impaired after exposure to radial extracorporeal shock waves but was unaffected after exposure of worms to the vibrating massage device.The results of the present study indicate that both energy signature and bioeffects of rESWT devices are fundamentally different from those of vibrating massage devices.Prior ESWT studies have shown that tissues treated with sufficient quantities of acoustic sound waves undergo cavitation build-up, mechanotransduction, and ultimately, a biological alteration that "kick-starts" the healing response. Due to their different treatment indications and contra-indications rESWT devices cannot be equated to vibrating massage devices and should be used with due caution in clinical

  1. Vortex flow and cavitation in diesel injector nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, A.; Gavaises, M.; Arcoumanis, C.

    Flow visualization as well as three-dimensional cavitating flow simulations have been employed for characterizing the formation of cavitation inside transparent replicas of fuel injector valves used in low-speed two-stroke diesel engines. The designs tested have incorporated five-hole nozzles with cylindrical as well as tapered holes operating at different fixed needle lift positions. High-speed images have revealed the formation of an unsteady vapour structure upstream of the injection holes inside the nozzle volume, which is referred to as . Computation of the flow distribution and combination with three-dimensional reconstruction of the location of the strings inside the nozzle volume has revealed that strings are found at the core of recirculation zones; they originate either from pre-existing cavitation sites forming at sharp corners inside the nozzle where the pressure falls below the vapour pressure of the flowing liquid, or even from suction of outside air downstream of the hole exit. Processing of the acquired images has allowed estimation of the mean location and probability of appearance of the cavitating strings in the three-dimensional space as a function of needle lift, cavitation and Reynolds number. The frequency of appearance of the strings has been correlated with the Strouhal number of the vortices developing inside the sac volume; the latter has been found to be a function of needle lift and hole shape. The presence of strings has significantly affected the flow conditions at the nozzle exit, influencing the injected spray. The cavitation structures formed inside the injection holes are significantly altered by the presence of cavitation strings and are jointly responsible for up to 10% variation in the instantaneous fuel injection quantity. Extrapolation using model predictions for real-size injectors operating at realistic injection pressures indicates that cavitation strings are expected to appear within the time scales of typical injection

  2. DISCOVERY AND ANALYSIS ON CAVITATION IN PIEZOELECTRIC PUMPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jianhui; Xia Qixiao; Lai Dehua; Onuki Akiyoshi; Hong Zhen

    2004-01-01

    The contributing factors for the cavitation in piezoelectric pumps are analyzed,theoretically, and the device fitting for observing and recording is set up. With it the experiments are carried out to observe the emergence and the flowing of the cavitations in the piezoelectric pumps. According to the statistic and the analysis to the data of the experiments, the peculiar features are discovered. These features are composed of balls-amassing, center-more, and flow-out.

  3. Coherent-Phase Monitoring Of Cavitation In Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1996-01-01

    Digital electronic signal-processing system analyzes outputs of accelerometers mounted on turbomachine to detect vibrations characteristic of cavitation. Designed to overcome limitation imposed by interference from discrete components. System digitally implements technique called "coherent-phase wide-band demodulation" (CPWBD), using phase-only (PO) filtering along envelope detection to search for unique coherent-phase relationship associated with cavitation and to minimize influence of large-amplitude discrete components.

  4. Physical facets of ultrasonic cavitational synthesis of zinc ferrite particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Bhaskar Rao; Sivasankar, Thirugnanasambandam; Sivakumar, Manickam; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2010-02-01

    This paper addresses the physical features of the ultrasonic cavitational synthesis of zinc ferrite particles and tries to establish the relationship between cavitation physics and sonochemistry of the zinc ferrite synthesis. A dual approach of coupling experimental results with simulations of radial motion of cavitation bubbles has been adopted. The precursors for the zinc ferrite, viz. ZnO and Fe(3)O(4) are produced in situ by the hydrolysis of Zn and Fe(II) acetates stimulated by (*)OH radicals produced from the transient collapse of the cavitation bubbles. Experiments performed under different conditions create significant variation in the production of (*)OH radicals, and hence, the rate of acetate hydrolysis. Correlation of the results of experiments and simulations sheds light on the important facets of the physical mechanism of ultrasonic cavitational zinc ferrite synthesis. It is revealed that too much or too little rate of acetate hydrolysis results in smaller particle size of zinc ferrite. The first effect of a higher rate of hydrolysis leads to excessively large growth of particles, due to which they become susceptible to the disruptive action of cavitation bubbles. Whereas, the second effect of too small rate of hydrolysis of Zn and Fe(II) acetates restricts the growth of particles. It has been observed that the initial reactant concentration does not influence the mean particle size or the size distribution of zinc ferrite particles. The present investigation clearly confirms that the rate-controlling step of zinc ferrite synthesis through ultrasonic cavitational route is the rate of formation of (*)OH radicals from cavitation bubbles.

  5. Modelling on cavitation in a diffuser with vortex generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablonská J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on cavitation modelling in Laval nozzle results and experience, problem with the diffuser with vortex generator was defined. The problem describes unsteady multiphase flow of water. Different cavitation models were used when modelling in Fluent, flow condition is inlet and pressure condition is outlet. Boundary conditions were specified by Energy Institute, Victor Kaplan’s Department of Fluid Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology. Numerical modelling is compared with experiment.

  6. Time difference based measurement of ultrasonic cavitations in wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱昌平

    2016-01-01

    Intensity of cavitation is significant in ultrasonic wastewater treatment, but is complicated to measure.A time difference based method of ultrasonic cavitation measurement is proposed.The time differences at different powers of 495kHz ultrasonic are measured in experiment in comparison with conductimetric method.Simulation results show that time difference and electrical conductivity are both approximately positive proportional to the ultrasonic power.The degradation of PNP solution verifies the availability in wastewater treatment by using ultrasonic.

  7. Promotion of Cultural Heritage in Batangas and Cavite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dexter R. Buted

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available – The study aimed to identify the commonly visited cultural heritage sites in Batangas and Cavite; to assess the cultural heritage sites in Batangas and Cavite in terms of physical, social and economic aspects; and to determine existing promotional patterns of Batangas and Cavite. Descriptive type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that the most visited cultural heritage attraction in Taal, Batangas was Basilica of St. Martin de Tours while in Maragondon, Cavite the most visited was Andres Bonifacio Trial House . Blogs, Websites and Facebook are mostly used by the municipality of Taal in promoting their cultural heritage sites. While Cavite sticks to always using leaflets/flyers, brochures as their promotional materials. Cultural heritage sites in both Taal and Maragondon were perceived to have positive results in the assessments based on different aspects such as physical, social and economic aspects. The promotional materials of Taal and Maragondon are often used. A proposed plan of action was made to promote cultural attraction in Maragondon, Cavite and Taal, Batangas.

  8. Cavitation damage prediction for the JSNS mercury target vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Teshigawara, Makoto; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    The liquid mercury target system for the Japan Spallation Neutron Source (JSNS) at the Materials and Life science experimental Facility (MLF) in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is designed to produce pulsed neutrons. The mercury target vessel in this system, which is made of type 316L stainless steel, is damaged by pressure wave-induced cavitation due to proton beam bombardment. Currently, cavitation damage is considered to be the dominant factor influencing the service life of the target vessel rather than radiation damage. In this study, cavitation damage to the interior surface of the target vessel was predicted on the basis of accumulated damage data from off-beam and on-beam experiments. The predicted damage was compared with the damage observed in a used target vessel. Furthermore, the effect of injecting gas microbubbles on cavitation damage was predicted through the measurement of the acoustic vibration of the target vessel. It was shown that the predicted depth of cavitation damage is reasonably coincident with the observed results. Moreover, it was confirmed that the injection of gas microbubbles had an effect on cavitation damage.

  9. Cavitation modeling for steady-state CFD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanimann, L.; Mangani, L.; Casartelli, E.; Widmer, M.

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation in hydraulic turbomachines is an important phenomenon to be considered for performance predictions. Correct analysis of the cavitation onset and its effect on the flow field while diminishing the pressure level need therefore to be investigated. Even if cavitation often appears as an unsteady phenomenon, the capability to compute it in a steady state formulation for the design and assessment phase in the product development process is very useful for the engineer. In the present paper the development and corresponding application of a steady state CFD solver is presented, based on the open source toolbox OpenFOAM®. In the first part a review of different cavitation models is presented. Adopting the mixture-type cavitation approach, various models are investigated and developed in a steady state CFD RANS solver. Particular attention is given to the coupling between cavitation and turbulence models as well as on the underlying numerical procedure, especially the integration in the pressure- correction step of pressure-based solvers, which plays an important role in the stability of the procedure. The performance of the proposed model is initially assessed on simple cases available in the open literature. In a second step results for different applications are presented, ranging from airfoils to pumps.

  10. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, G.; Catana, I.; Magheti, I.; Safta, C. A.; Savu, M.

    2010-08-01

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  11. A piezoelectric polymer cavitation sensor installed in an emulsion generation microchannel device and an evaluation of cavitation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Takefumi; Yabumoto, Masaki; Suzumori, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    In previous works, ultrasonic emulsification was realized using small microchannel devices oscillated by piezoelectric transducers. By using the devices, the emulsification in the flow process was also realized. In these devices, the driving frequency was higher than 2 MHz. This value is higher than the maximum audible field. On the other hand, the frequency is too high to utilize the cavitation effect. This is because the cavitation threshold depends on the frequency. The aim of this study is to confirm the cavitation state in the microchannel device using a piezoelectric polymer sensor. A micropatterned cavitation detection sensor has been fabricated by a photolithography technique and evaluated in a high-intensity ultrasound field. The emulsification state in the microchannel device has been evaluated using the fabricated sensor.

  12. Research on the deposited metal microstructure and erosion-resistance of martensitic stainless steel%马氏体不锈钢堆焊层组织和耐冲蚀性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾瑞超; 包晔峰; 杨可

    2012-01-01

    By using martensitic stainless steel 2Crl3 and improved lCrl3 which alloyed V、Ti、Nb、N to building-up, influence of microalloy elements and heat treatment on microstructure and erosion-resistance of martensitic stainless steel deposited metal were analyzed.The results showed that grain of deposited metal was found because large amount of small dispersed stable chemical compounds were formed by microalloy elements V.Ti.Nb with carbon/nitrogen in early stage of austenite nucleation.After austenitic grains were solidified,precipitation strengthening was involved.This kind of strengthening was enhanced because part of carbide precipitated from martensite laths after tempering,at same time martensite toughness was improved as carbon in martensite decreased. Ultimately high strength and fine toughness were gained for deposited metal.%采用2Cr13和经过V、Ti、Nb、N微合金化改性处理的1Cr13马氏体不锈钢进行埋弧堆焊试验,分析微合金元素和热处理工艺对马氏体不锈钢堆焊层显微组织和耐冲蚀性能的影响.研究结果表明:微合金元素V、Ti、Nb与C、N在奥氏体形核初期形成大量颗粒细小、弥散分布的稳定化合物,使堆焊层金属的晶粒得到细化;奥氏体晶粒稳定后,这些化合物又起到析出强化的作用;回火后,部分碳化合物在马氏体板条间析出,起到了二次强化的作用,同时降低马氏体中的碳含量,改善基体韧性.较好的基体强韧性配合最终提高了材料的耐冲蚀性.

  13. A terminological matter: paragenesis, antigravitative erosion or antigravitational erosion ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasini G.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the speleological literature three terms are utilized to designate the “ascending erosion”: paragenesis (= paragénésis, coined in1968, antigravitative erosion (= erosione antigravitativa, coined in 1966 and antigravitational erosion (wrong English translation ofthe Italian term erosione antigravitativa, utilized later on. The term paragenesis should be abandoned because of the priority of theterm erosione antigravitativa - on the ground of the “law of priority” – and because of its ambiguous etimology. On the other hand,the term antigravitational erosion should be forsaken in favour of the term antigravitative erosion, given the meaning that the termsgravitation and gravity have in Physics. Therefore, to designate the phenomenon of the “ascending erosion” there would be nothingleft but the term antigravitative erosion.The antigravitative erosion process and its recognizability are illustrated.Examples of caves with evident antigravitative erosion phenomena, developed in different karstifiable rocks and in several partsof the world, are given.It is recalled that the antigravitative erosion is a phenomenon well-known since 1942 and widely proven and supported, and that it isrelatively easy – in many cases - to recognize the antigravitative origin of karstic passages.It is stressed that the antigravitative erosion is an important phenomenon, exclusive of the karstic caves and unique in nature.

  14. Erosion charcteristics of ductile iron with various matrix structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kazumichi (Oita National Coll. of Technology (Japan)); Noguchi, Toru (Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    Erosive wear tests were performed on austempered ductile iron (ADI), ferritic ductile iron (FDI) and pearlitic ductile iron (PDI) using a shot blast machine. Erosion damage was measured by the removed material volume at impact angles between 10 and 90 . The surface metal flow in vertical sections was also observed. The mechanism of erosive wear, the effect of impact angles, and differences in wear features of specimens were discussed. Experiment showed that, after an initial stage, the eroded volume increases almost linearly with blasting time in ADI, FDI and PDI. The erosion rate for ADI is about 1/10-1/25 of that for FDI and PDI. The surface hardness of eroded ADI specimens increased from the initial HV350 to HV700 after 600 s of blasting. The amount of retained austenite was measured as about 40% before the test, but decreased to about 3-5% by transformation of austenite to martensite, hardening the surface and lowering the erosion rate. It was shown that ADI has excellent erosion resistance and it is expected to find wide applications as a wear-resistant material. (orig.)

  15. Solid Particle Erosion response of fiber and particulate filled polymer based hybrid composites: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid particle erosion behaviour of fiber and particulate filled polymer composites has been reviewed. An overview of the problem of solid particle erosion was given with respect to the processes and modes during erosion with focus on polymer matrix composites. The new aspects in the experimental studies of erosion of fiber and particulate filled polymer composites were emphasized in this paper. Various predictions and models proposed to describe the erosion rate were listed and their suitability was mentioned. Implementation of design of experiments and statistical techniques in analyzing the erosion behaviour of composites was discussed. Recent findings on erosion response of multi-component hybrid composites were also presented. Recommendations were given on how to solve some open questions related to the structureerosion resistance relationships for polymers and polymer based hybrid composites.

  16. Ultrafast active cavitation imaging with enhanced cavitation to tissue ratio based on wavelet transform and pulse inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Runna; Hu, Hong; Xu, Shanshan; Huo, Rui; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2015-06-01

    The quality of ultrafast active cavitation imaging (UACI) using plane wave transmission is hindered by low transmission pressure, which is necessary to prevent bubble destruction. In this study, a UACI method that combined wavelet transform with pulse inversion (PI) was proposed to enhance the contrast between the cavitation bubbles and surrounding tissues. The main challenge in using wavelet transform is the selection of the optimum mother wavelet. A mother wavelet named "cavitation bubble wavelet" and constructed according to Rayleigh-Plesset-Noltingk-Neppiras-Poritsky model was expected to obtain a high correlation between the bubbles and beamformed echoes. The method was validated by in vitro experiments. Results showed that the image quality was associated with the initial radius of bubble and the scale. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the best optimum cavitation bubble wavelet transform (CBWT) mode image was improved by 3.2 dB compared with that of the B-mode image in free-field experiments. The cavitation-to-tissue ratio of the best optimum PI-based CBWT mode image was improved by 2.3 dB compared with that of the PI-based B-mode image in tissue experiments. Furthermore, the SNR versus initial radius curve had the potential to estimate the size distribution of cavitation bubbles.

  17. Experiments for understanding soil erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion processes are usually quantified by observation and measurement of their related forms. Rill, and gullies, moulds or sediment sinks are often used to estimate the soil loss. These forms are generally related directly to different types of processes, thus are also used to identify the dominant processes on a certain type of land-use. Nevertheless, the direct observation of erosion processes is constrained by their temporal and spatial erratic occurrence. As a consequence, the process understanding is generally deduced by analogies. Another possibility is to reproduce processes in experiments in both, the lab and in the field. Laboratory experiments are implemented when we want to have full control over all parameters we think are relevant for the process in our focus. So are very useful for identification of parameters influencing processes and their intensities, but also as physical models of the processes and process interactions in our focus. Therefore, we can use them to verify our concepts, and to define relevant parameters. Field experiments generally only simulate with controlled driving forces, this is the rain or the runoff, but dealing with the uncertainty of our study object, the soil. This enables two things: 1) similar as with lab experiments, we are able to identify processes and process interactions and so, to get a deeper understanding of soil erosion; 2) experiments are suitable for providing data about singular processes in the field and thus, to provide data suitable for model parametrisation and calibration. These may be quantitative data about erodibility or soil resistance, sediment detachment or transport. The Physical Geography Group at Trier University has a long lasting experience in the application of experiments in soil erosion research in the field, and has become lead in the further development conception and of devices and procedures to investigate splash detachment and initial transport of soil particles by wind and water

  18. Erosion-Corrosion Behaviors of High Velocity Arc Sprayed Fe-Al/Cr3C2 Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Weipu; XU Binshi; ZHANG Wei; WU Yixiong

    2006-01-01

    Iron aluminide intermetallic coatings were prepared from Fe-Al/Cr3C2 cored wires using High Velocity Arc Spraying (HVAS) technology. Erosion and corrosion properties of HVAS sprayed Fe-Al/Cr3C2 coatings were investigated. Results show that the erosion at impingement angle of 30° is more than that of 90°. The erosion resistance of coatings was enhanced with the increase of temperature. Coatings had a better erosion resistance than substrates. The erosion changed from ductile behaviors to brittle behaviors above 450 ℃. At high temperature, the erosion resistances were superior to those at low temperature and room temperature. Coatings had much higher corrosion properties than substrates. The temperature had a little effect on the corrosion resistance of coatings; The corrosion losing of coatings increased slowly with the increase of corrosion time. The HVAS-sprayed Fe-Al/Cr3C2 coatings exhibited a high bond strength and hardness.

  19. Mechanoluminescence and sonoluminescence from acoustic cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddingsaas, Nathan C.

    The intense shock wave launched from collapsing bubbles during the sonication of slurries allows for the study of chemical and physical events that occur when a solid is stressed or fractured. One such event is mechanoluminescence (ML): light produced by any mechanical action on a solid. ML has been studied for over 400 years, but much is still not known about it because the emission is inherently weak. Sonicating slurries of mechanoluminescent crystals (such as sucrose, sodium chloride, resorcinol, m-aminophenol, or coumarin) in long chain alkanes has produced very bright ML, up to 1,000 fold more intense than from manual grinding. The large increase in intensity has revealed a number of new emitting species including C2, CH, CO, CO+, CO2+, H, and He+, many of which have not been reported from ML before. In addition, the emission products show that gas phase reactions are occurring within the plasma generated from the ML discharge. The intense ML induced by acoustic cavitation allowed the plasma to be characterized in terms of heavy atom temperature of ˜400 K, electron density of 1014 cm-1, and electron energy of ˜3.5 eV. These conditions are very similar to other highly reactive microdischarges. To further extend the knowledge of the conditions generated within a cloud of cavitating bubbles, multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) of sulfuric acid has been studied. The MBSL spectrum from 95 wt % H2SO 4 consists of a broad continuum extending into the UV with SO and Ar emission lines also observed. The Ar lines were used to determine an effective emission temperature of ˜8,000 K, which is substantially greater than in other low vapor pressure systems (e.g., silicone oil, where MBSL emission temperature is only ˜5,000 K). The observation of Ar lines at this temperature also indicates that a hot plasma core is probably generated during multi-bubble cavitation in sulfuric acid. In addition, the effect of solution composition was studied by varying the acid

  20. Megasonic cleaning, cavitation, and substrate damage: an atomistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapila, Vivek; Deymier, Pierre A.; Shende, Hrishikesh; Pandit, Viraj; Raghavan, Srini; Eschbach, Florence O.

    2006-05-01

    Megasonic cleaning has been a traditional approach for the cleaning of photomasks. Its feasibility as a damage free approach to sub 50 nm particulate removal is under investigation for the cleaning of optical and EUV photomasks. Two major mechanisms are active in a megasonic system, namely, acoustic streaming and acoustic cavitation. Acoustic streaming is instrumental in contaminant removal via application of drag force and rolling of particles, while cavitation may dislodge particles by the release of large energy during cavity implosion or by acting as a secondary source of microstreaming. Often times, the structures (substrates with or without patterns) subjected to megasonic cleaning show evidence of damage. This is one of the impediments in the implementation of megasonic technology for 45 nm and future technology nodes. Prior work suggests that acoustic streaming does not lead to sufficiently strong forces to cause damage to the substrates or patterns. However, current knowledge of the effects of cavitation on cleaning and damage can be described, at best, as speculative. Recent experiments suggest existence of a cavity size and energy distributions in megasonic systems that may be responsible for cleaning and damage. In the current work, we develop a two-dimensional atomistic model to study such multibubble cavitation phenomena. The model consists of a Lennard-Jones liquid which is subjected to sinusoidal pressure changes leading to the formation of cavitation bubbles. The current work reports on the effects of pressure amplitude (megasonic power) and frequency on cavity size distributions in vaporous and gaseous cavitation. The findings of the work highlight the role of multibubble cavitation as cleaning and damage mechanism in megasonic cleaning.

  1. On thermonuclear processes in cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatulin, R. I.; Lahey, R. T., Jr.; Taleyarkhan, R. P.; West, C. D.; Block, R. C.

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical and experimental foundations of so-called bubble nuclear fusion are reviewed. In the nuclear fusion process, a spherical cavitation cluster ˜ 10-2 m in diameter is produced of spherical bubbles at the center of a cylindrical chamber filled with deuterated acetone using a focused acoustic field having a resonant frequency of about 20 kHz. The acoustically-forced bubbles effectuate volume oscillations with sharp collapses during the compression stage. At the final stages of collapse, the bubble cluster emits 2.5 MeV D-D fusion neutron pulses at a rate of ˜ 2000 per second. The neutron yield is ˜ 10^5 s -1. In parallel, tritium nuclei are produced at the same yield. It is shown numerically that, for bubbles having sufficient molecular mass, spherical shock waves develop in the center of the cluster and that these spherical shock waves (microshocks) produce converging shocks within the interior bubbles, which focus energy on the centers of the bubbles. When these shock waves reflect from the centers of the bubbles, extreme conditions of temperature ( ˜ 10^8 K) and density ( ˜ 10^4 kg m -3) arise in a (nano)spherical region ( ˜ 10-7 m in size) that last for ˜ 10-12 s, during which time about ten D-D fusion neutrons and tritium nuclei are produced in the region. A paradoxical result in our experiments is that it is bubble cluster (not streamer) cavitation and the sufficiently high molecular mass of (and hence the low sound speed in) D-acetone ( C3D6O) vapor (as compared, for example, to deuterated water D2O) which are necessary conditions for the formation of convergent spherical microshock waves in central cluster bubbles. It is these waves that allow the energy to be sufficiently focused in the nanospherical regions near the bubble centers for fusion events to occur. The criticism to which the concept of 'bubble fusion' has been subjected in the literature, in particular, most recently in Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (Physics - Uspekhi) journal, is

  2. Synchrotron ultra-fast X-ray imaging of a cavitating flow in a Venturi profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabre, A.; Gmar, M.; Lazaro, D.; Legoupil, S.; Coutier, O.; Dazin, A.; Lee, W. K.; Fezzaa, K.

    2009-08-01

    Cavitation consists of successive vaporization and condensation processes in a liquid flow, due to a large pressure decrease usually associated with sudden flow acceleration. This phenomenon occurs typically in pumps and naval propellers, on the blades' suction side and/or in periphery of the rotor. It is associated with performance decrease, blade erosion, vibrations that may lead to damage, and noise due to vapor collapse close to the solid walls. Therefore, a general understanding of the mechanisms that govern flow vaporization and condensation is of the utmost importance to reduce or at least to control these effects. A major issue is to estimate velocity fields in both phases, i.e. liquid and vapor. These combined measurements are missing in the literature. We propose a method of ultra-fast X-ray imaging to cope this lack. This method is based on X-ray absorption and phase-contrast enhancement. This technique can simultaneously measure the flow velocities of both liquid and vapor phases at kHz frequency. For the X-ray measurements, a dedicated Venturi shape canal has been designed for the experiments. The design is based on a known two-phase flows hydraulic set-up. The studied cavitation occurs downstream from the Venturi profile. The experiments were carried out at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. These experiments have confirmed the advantages of ultra-fast X-ray imaging for the visualization of liquid-vapor interfaces. Also, the feasibility of estimating velocity field in the flow is acknowledged.

  3. Modeling Unsteady Cavitation Effects and Dynamic Loads in Cryogenic Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There currently are no analytical or CFD tools that can reliably predict unsteady cavitation dynamics in liquid rocket cryogenic systems. Analysis of cavitating...

  4. Tanscranial Threshold of Inertial Cavitation Induced by Diagnosticc Ultrasound and Microbubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Gao, S.; Porter, T.R.; Everbach, C; Shi, W.; Vignon, F.; Powers, J.; Lof, J.; Turner, J.; Xie, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Inertial cavitation may cause hazardous bioeffects whileusing ultrasound and microbubble mediated thrombolysis. The purposeof this study was to investigate the influence of ultrasound pulselength and temporal bone on inertial cavitation thresholds within the brain utilizing transtemporal

  5. 激光冲击工艺对6061-T6铝合金侵蚀性能的影响%Effect of laser shock processing on erosive resistance of 6061-T6 aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. IBARRA; E. RODRÍGUEZ; O. JIMÉNEZ; G. GÓMEZ-ROSAS; M. FLORES; J. VERDUZCO; J. CHÁVEZ

    2016-01-01

    采用激光冲击工艺处理6061-T6铝合金,研究了二氧化硅砂对其侵蚀磨损性能的影响。其中冲击角为15°、30°、60°、90°,粒子速率为37和58 m/s,采用两种激光进行辐照。采用3D 轮廓测量法表征了侵蚀形貌,并采用SEM 研究其侵蚀机理。结果表明,冲击角较小时,侵蚀磨损最大。侵蚀强度和侵蚀机理不受激光冲击工艺的影响,而与侵蚀的高应变速率有关。侵蚀图之间的差异是由于激光冲击工艺造成的表面粗糙度不同。最大质量损失和最大侵蚀深度分别出现在冲击角度为15°和30°时。最后,发现了明显的侵蚀机理的转移,从低角度的切割机制到90°时的凹坑形成。%Application of laser shock processing (LSP) on 6061-T6 aluminum was made in order to evaluate its response to the erosive wear by silica sand. Impact angles of 15°, 30°, 60°and 90°were tested, two particle speeds (37 and 58 m/s) and two LSP irradiation conditions were used. Erosion marks were characterized by 3D profilometry and SEM analysis was conducted to identify the erosion mechanisms for each tested angle. The results showed a maximum erosive wear at low impact angles (ductile type behavior). Erosion strength and the erosion mechanisms were not affected by the application of LSP and they were attributed to the high strain rate of the erosion phenomena. A few differences encountered on the erosion plots were explained on the basis of the surface roughness left by the LSP process. The maximum mass loss and the maximum erosion penetration happened in different impact angles (15°and 30°, respectively). Finally, a well-defined erosion mechanism transition was observed, from cutting action at low impact angle, to crater formation at 90°of incidence.

  6. Erosive Wear and Wear Mechanism of in situ TiCp/Fe Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaojing LIU; Zhiliang NING; Fengzhen LI; Xiurong YAO; Shanzhi REN

    2005-01-01

    The base structure of in situ TiCP/Fe composites fabricated under industrial condition was changed by different heat treatments. Erosive wear tests were carried out and the results were compared with that of wear-resistant white cast iron. The results suggest that the wear resistance of the in situ TiCp/Fe composite is higher than that of wear-resistant white cast iron under the sand erosive wear condition. The wear mechanism of the wear-resistant white cast iron was a cycle process that base surface was worn and carbides were exposed, then carbides was broken and wear pits appeared. While the wear mechanism of in situ TiCp/Fe composite was a cycle process that base surface was worn and TiC grains were exposed and dropped. The wear resistance of in situ TiCp/Fe composite was lower than that of wear-resistant white cast iron under the slurry erosive wear condition. Under such circumstance,the material was not only undergone erosive wear but also electrochemistry erosion due to the contact with water in the medium. The wear behaviours can be a combination of two kinds of wear and the sand erosive wear is worse than slurry erosive wear.

  7. Erosion--Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, B.

    1978-01-01

    The deterioration of materials by corrosion or erosion by itself presents a formidable problem and for this reason investigators have studied these two phenomena independently. In fact, there are very few systematic studies on E-C and the majority of references mention it only in passing. In most real systems, however, the two destructive processes take place simultaneously, hence the purpose of this review is to present the various interactions between the chemical and mechanical agents leading to accelerated degradation of the material. The papers cited in the review are those that lead to a better understanding of the process involved in the accelerated rate of material loss under E-C conditions.

  8. Dune erosion during storm surges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Large parts of The Netherlands are protected from flooding by a narrow strip of sandy beaches and dunes. The aim of this thesis is to extend the existing knowledge of dune erosion during storm surges as it occurs along the Dutch coast. The thesis discusses: • A large scale dune erosion experiment to

  9. Dune erosion under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    This PhD-thesis investigated the effect of future climate change on dune erosion in the Netherlands. At present, dune erosion occurs under a combination of large storm surge and high waves, which are both generated by a storm event. Therefore to investigate the affect of future climate change on dun

  10. The erosive potential of lollipops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Gambon, D.L.; Paap, A.; Bulthuis, M.S.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the erosive potential of several commercially available lollipops and the protective effect of saliva. Methods: The erosive potential of lollipops was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. Subsequently, 10 healthy volunteers tested different types of lo

  11. Recent developments in cavitation mechanisms a guide for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Washio, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    How does cavitation start? Presently, the nucleus theory provides the answer to this fundamental question. However the idea of nuclei contains inaccuracies that cannot be rationalized. Recent Developments in Cavitation Mechanisms discusses the uncertainties surrounding the nucleus theory, and proposes another theory of cavitation mechanism. Characteristically, the new theory is based on recent discoveries of cavity generation phenomena in separating flows. This book consists of chapters that introduce topics such as unsoundness of cavitation nuclei, and phenomena of cavity generation on walls

  12. Leading edge erosion of coated wind turbine blades: Review of coating life models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, H.M.; Gelinck, E.R.M.; Rentrop, C.; Heider, E. van der

    2015-01-01

    Erosion of the leading edge of wind turbine blades by droplet impingement wear, reduces blade aerodynamic efficiency and power output. Eventually, it compromises the integrity of blade surfaces. Elastomeric coatings are currently used for erosion resistance, yet the life of such coatings cannot be p

  13. Dynamics and measurement of cavitation bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Weizhong; LIU Ya'nan; HUANG Wei; GAO Xianxian

    2006-01-01

    Based on the introduction of international progress, our investigations on acoustic cavitation have been reported. Firstly we considered the cavity's dynamics under the drive of the asymmetrical acoustic pressure. An aspheric dynamical model was proposed and a new stable and aspheric solution was found in numerical simulation of the theoretical framework of the aspheric model. Then, a dual Mie-scattering technique was developed to measure the cavity's aspheric pulsation. A significant asynchronous pulsation signal between two Mie-scattering channels was caught in the case of large cavity driven by low acoustic pressure. As a direct deduction, we observed an evidence of cavity's aspheric pulsation. Furthermore, we studied the dependency of the asynchronous pulsation signal on the various parameters, such as the amplitude and frequency of the driving acoustic pressure, and the surface tension, viscosity and gas concentration of the liquid. Finally, we introduced a new numeric imaging technique to measure the shapes of the periodic pulsation cavities. The time-resolution was in the order of 20 ns, one order of magnitude lower than that in the previous work, say, 200 ns.

  14. Soil Erosion as a stochastic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Markus C.

    2015-04-01

    The main tools to provide estimations concerning risk and amount of erosion are different types of soil erosion models: on the one hand, there are empirically based model concepts on the other hand there are more physically based or process based models. However, both types of models have substantial weak points. All empirical model concepts are only capable of providing rough estimates over larger temporal and spatial scales, they do not account for many driving factors that are in the scope of scenario related analysis. In addition, the physically based models contain important empirical parts and hence, the demand for universality and transferability is not given. As a common feature, we find, that all models rely on parameters and input variables, which are to certain, extend spatially and temporally averaged. A central question is whether the apparent heterogeneity of soil properties or the random nature of driving forces needs to be better considered in our modelling concepts. Traditionally, researchers have attempted to remove spatial and temporal variability through homogenization. However, homogenization has been achieved through physical manipulation of the system, or by statistical averaging procedures. The price for obtaining this homogenized (average) model concepts of soils and soil related processes has often been a failure to recognize the profound importance of heterogeneity in many of the properties and processes that we study. Especially soil infiltrability and the resistance (also called "critical shear stress" or "critical stream power") are the most important empirical factors of physically based erosion models. The erosion resistance is theoretically a substrate specific parameter, but in reality, the threshold where soil erosion begins is determined experimentally. The soil infiltrability is often calculated with empirical relationships (e.g. based on grain size distribution). Consequently, to better fit reality, this value needs to be

  15. EFFECTS OF ENTRAINED AIR MANNER ON CAVITATION DAMAGE*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-hua; LUO Chao

    2011-01-01

    Early in 1953 the experiments by Peterka proved that air entrainment has effects on decreasing cavitation damage. This technology has been widely used in the release works of high dams since the inception of air entrainment in the Grand Goulee Dam in 1960. Behavior, mechanism and application of air entrainment for cavitation damage control have been investigated for over half century. However, severe cavitation damage happened due to complex mechanism of air entrainment. The effects of air entrainment are related to many factors, including geometric parameters, hydraulic parameters and entrained air manners. In the present work an experimental set-up for air entrainment was specially designed, the behavior of reducing cavitation damage was experimentally investigated in the three aspects of entrained air pressure, air tube aera and air tube number. The results show that magnitude of reduction of cavitation damage is closely related to the entrained air tube number as well as entrained air pressure, air tube aera, and that the effect through three air tubes is larger than that through single air tube although the entrained air tubes have the same sum of tube aera, that is, 1 + 1 + 1 > 3. Therefore, it is important to design an effective manner of air entrainment.

  16. Gauging the likelihood of stable cavitation from ultrasound contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Kenneth B; Holland, Christy K

    2013-01-07

    The mechanical index (MI) was formulated to gauge the likelihood of adverse bioeffects from inertial cavitation. However, the MI formulation did not consider bubble activity from stable cavitation. This type of bubble activity can be readily nucleated from ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) and has the potential to promote beneficial bioeffects. Here, the presence of stable cavitation is determined numerically by tracking the onset of subharmonic oscillations within a population of bubbles for frequencies up to 7 MHz and peak rarefactional pressures up to 3 MPa. In addition, the acoustic pressure rupture threshold of an UCA population was determined using the Marmottant model. The threshold for subharmonic emissions of optimally sized bubbles was found to be lower than the inertial cavitation threshold for all frequencies studied. The rupture thresholds of optimally sized UCAs were found to be lower than the threshold for subharmonic emissions for either single cycle or steady state acoustic excitations. Because the thresholds of both subharmonic emissions and UCA rupture are linearly dependent on frequency, an index of the form I(CAV) = P(r)/f (where P(r) is the peak rarefactional pressure in MPa and f is the frequency in MHz) was derived to gauge the likelihood of subharmonic emissions due to stable cavitation activity nucleated from UCAs.

  17. Mass Transfer During Osmotic Dehydration Using Acoustic Cavitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝芝; 淮秀兰; 姜任秋; 刘登瀛

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study on intensifying osmotic dehydration was carried out in a state of nature and with acoustic cavitation of different cavitating intensity (0.5A, 0.TA and 0.9A) respectively, in which the material is apple slice of 5 mm thickness. The result showed that acoustic cavitation remarkably enhanced the osmotic dehydration, and the water loss was accelerated with the increase of cavitating intensity. The water diffusivity coefficients ranged from 1.8 × 10-10 m2.s-1 at 0.5A to 2.6 × 10-10 m2.s-1 at 0.9A, and solute diffusivity coefficients ranged from 3.5×10-11 m2.s-1 at 0.5A to 4.6×10-11 m2.s-1 at 0.9A. On the basis of experiments, a mathematical model was established about mass transfer during osmotic dehydration, and the numerical simulation was carried out. The calculated results agree well with experimental data, and represent the rule of mass transfer during osmotic dehydration intensified by acoustic cavitation.

  18. Experimental and simulation investigations of acoustic cavitation in megasonic cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Krishna; Keswani, Manish; Shende, Hrishikesh; Deymier, Pierre; Raghavan, Srini; Eschbach, Florence; Sengupta, Archita

    2007-03-01

    Extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lithography has become the technique of choice to print the ever-shrinking nanoscale features on the silicon wafer. For successful transfer of patterns on to the wafer, the EUV photomask cannot contain defects greater than 30 nm. Megasonic cleaning is a very successful cleaning technique for removal of particles on photomasks, but also causes a relatively high amount of damage to the fragile EUV photomasks thin film structures. Though it is believed that acoustic cavitation is the primary phenomenon responsible for cleaning as well as pattern damage, a fundamental picture of the acoustic cavitation mechanisms in play during megasonic cleaning has not yet clearly emerged. In this study, we characterize the role of acoustic cavitation in megasonic cleaning by examining the effects of acoustic power densities, cleaning solution properties, and dissolved gas content on cavitation via experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. MD is an atomistic computation technique capable of modeling atomic-level and nanoscale processes accurately making it well suited to study the effect of cavitation on nano-sized particles and patterns.

  19. Instability and breakup of cavitation bubbles within diesel drops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Lü; Zhi Ning; Kai Yan; Juan Fu; Chunhua Sun

    2015-01-01

    A modified mathematical model is used to study the effects of various forces on the stability of cavitation bubbles within a diesel droplet. The principal finding of the work is that viscous forces of fluids stabilize the cavitation bubble, while inertial force destabilizes the cavitation bubble. The droplet viscosity plays a dominant role on the stability of cavitation bubbles compared with that of air and bubble. Bubble–droplet radius ratio is a key factor to control the bubble stability, especially in the high radius ratio range. Internal hydrodynamic and surface tension forces are found to stabilize the cavitation bubble, while bubble stability has little relationship with the external hydrodynamic force. Inertia makes bubble breakup easily, however, the breakup time is only slightly changed when bubble growth speed reaches a certain value (50 m·s−1). In contrast, viscous force makes bubble hard to break. With the increasing initial bubble–droplet radius ratio, the bubble growth rate increases, the bubble breakup radius decreases, and the bubble breakup time becomes shorter.

  20. Cavitation assisted delignification of wheat straw: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskalieva, Asylzat; Yimmou, Bob Mbouyem; Gogate, Parag R; Horvath, Miklos; Horvath, Peter G; Csoka, Levente

    2012-09-01

    Wheat is grown in most of the Indian and Chinese regions and after harvesting, the remaining straw offers considerable promise as a renewable source most suitable for papermaking and as a pulping resource. Delignification of wheat straw offers ample scope for energy conservation by way of the application of the process intensification principles. The present work reviews the pretreatment techniques available for improving the effectiveness of the conventional approach for polysaccharide component separation, softening and delignification. A detailed overview of the cavitation assisted delignification process has been presented based on the earlier literature illustrations and important operational guidelines have been presented for overall low-cost and amenable energy utilization in the processes. The effectiveness of the methods has been evaluated according to yield and properties of the isolated fibers in comparison to the conventional treatment. Also the experimental results of one such non-conventional treatment scheme based on the use of hydrodynamic cavitation have been presented for the pulping of wheat straw. The effect of hydrodynamically induced cavitation on cell wall matrix and its components have been characterized using FT-IR analysis with an objective of understanding the cavitation assisted digestion mechanism on straws. It has been observed that the use of hydrodynamic cavitation does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes relocalisation and partial removal of lignin. Overall it appears that considerable improvement can be obtained due to the use of pretreatment or alternate techniques for delignification, which is an energy intensive step in the paper making industries.

  1. Orifice plate cavitation mechanism and its influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng AI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The orifice plate energy dissipater is an economic and highly efficient dissipater. However, there is a risk of cavitaion around the orifice plate flow. In order to provide references for engineering practice, we examined the cavitation mechanism around the orifice plate and its influencing factors by utilizing mathematical analysis methods to analyze the flow conditions around the orifice plate in view of gas bubble dynamics. Through the research presented in this paper, the following can be observed: The critical radius and the critical pressure of the gas nucleus in orifice plate flow increase with its initial state parameter ; the development speed of bubbles stabilizes at a certain value after experiencing a peak value and a small valley value; and the orifice plate cavitation is closely related to the distribution of the gas nucleus in flow. For computing the orifice plate cavitation number, we ought to take into account the effects of pressure fluctuation. The development time of the gas nucleus from the initial radius to the critical radius is about 10-7-10-5 s; therefore, the gas nucleus has sufficient time to develop into bubbles in the negative half-cycle of flow fluctuation. The orifice critical cavitation number is closely related to the orifice plate size, and especially closely related with the ratio of the orifice plate radius to the tunnel radius. The approximate formula for the critical cavitation number of the square orifice plate that only considers the main influencing factor was obtained by model experiments.

  2. Numerical Modeling of Unsteady Cavitating Flows around a Stationary Hydrofoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Ducoin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate the predictive capability of three popular transport equation-based cavitation models for the simulations of partial sheet cavitation and unsteady sheet/cloud cavitating flows around a stationary NACA66 hydrofoil. The 2D calculations are performed by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation using the CFD solver CFX with the k-ω SST turbulence model. The local compressibility effect is considered using a local density correction for the turbulent eddy viscosity. The calculations are validated with experiments conducted in a cavitation tunnel at the French Naval Academy. The hydrofoil has a fixed angle of attack of α=6° with a Reynolds number of Re = 750,000 at different cavitation numbers σ. Without the density modification, over-prediction of the turbulent viscosity near the cavity closure reduces the cavity length and modifies the cavity shedding characteristics. The results show that it is important to capture both the mean and fluctuating values of the hydrodynamic coefficients because (1 the high amplitude of the fluctuations is critical to capturing the extremes of the loads to ensure structural safety and (2 the need to capture the frequency of the fluctuations, to avoid unwanted noise, vibrations, and accelerated fatigue issues.

  3. Cavitating flow during water hammer using a generalized interface vaporous cavitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadafi, Mohamadhosein; Riasi, Alireza; Nourbakhsh, Seyed Ahmad

    2012-10-01

    In a transient flow simulation, column separation may occur when the calculated pressure head decreases to the saturated vapor pressure head in a computational grid. Abrupt valve closure or pump failure can result in a fast transient flow with column separation, potentially causing problems such as pipe failure, hydraulic equipment damage, cavitation or corrosion. This paper reports a numerical study of water hammer with column separation in a simple reservoir-pipeline-valve system and pumping station. The governing equations for two-phase transient flow in pipes are solved based on the method of characteristics (MOC) using a generalized interface vaporous cavitating model (GIVCM). The numerical results were compared with the experimental data for validation purposes, and the comparison indicated that the GIVCM describes the experimental results more accurately than the discrete vapor cavity model (DVCM). In particular, the GIVCM correlated better with the experimental data than the DVCM in terms of timing and pressure magnitude. The effects of geometric and hydraulic parameters on flow behavior in a pumping station with column separation were also investigated in this study.

  4. Effect of geometry of hydrodynamically cavitating device on degradation of orange-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Virendra Kumar; Rizwani, Manav A; Malani, Aqeel A; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2013-01-01

    In this research work, we have carried out geometric optimization of different cavitating devices using degradation of orange-G dye [OG] as a model pollutant. Three different cavitating devices viz. orifice plate, circular venturi and slit venturi were optimized and the degradation of orange-G dye was studied. The optimization of all three cavitating devices was done in terms of fluid inlet pressure to the cavitating devices and cavitation number. The effect of pH and initial concentration of the dye on the degradation rate was also studied. The geometry of cavitating device (flow cross sectional area, perimeter, shape, etc.) was found to be an important parameter in getting the maximum cavitational effect using hydrodynamic cavitation. The cavitational yield of all three cavitating devices were compared on the basis of mg of total organic carbon (TOC) reduction per unit energy supplied. The slit venturi gives almost 50% higher degradation rate and cavitational yield among all three cavitating devices studied for the same amount of energy supplied.

  5. Cavitation Simulation on Conventional and Highly-Skewed Propellers in the Behind Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo; Andersen, Poul; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2011-01-01

    . The validation of the cavitation model in EllipSys has been conducted for the cavitating flows on 2D/3D hydrofoils (Shin 2010). Prior to the cavitation simulation, the open-water characteristics of the propellers from the computation are compared with those from the propulsion test for the fully-wetted flows (Li...

  6. Experimental Investigation and Analytical Modeling of Solid-Particle Erosion Behavior of Stellite Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsoesie, Sydney

    Stellite alloys are a range of cobalt-chromium alloys, also containing tungsten or molybdenum and a small amount (corrosion, wear and erosion environments. In this research a group of Stellite alloys that are commonly employed or potentially materials for erosion resistance application are studied under solid-particle erosion test. Two particle impact velocities (84 m/s and 98 m/s) and two impingement angles (30 degree and 90 degree) are used in the test. It is demonstrated that Stellite alloys are more resistant to erosion at 90 degree impingement angle than at 30 degree impingement angle and the erosion damage of Stellite alloys increases with the particle impact velocity. The erosion resistance of Stellite alloys is controlled mainly by their carbon content, but the tungsten and molybdenum contents also play an important role, because these elements determine the volume fractions of carbides and intermetallics in Stellite alloys. The eroded surfaces are analyzed using SEM to further understand the erosion test results. An erosion model, originally developed by Sheldon and Kanhere (1972), known as S-K model, has been modified for use on Stellite alloys, with the support of experimental data. The significant contribution of this modification is that the effect of particle impingement angle has been included. With this modified S-K model, for a Stellite alloy that has a similar chemical composition to one of the alloys studied in this research, the erosion rate for a set particle impact, velocity at an impingement angle between 30 degree and 90 degree can, be estimated. This modified S-K model can be used for erosion characterization of existing Stellite alloys and in the designing of new Stellite alloys for erosion resistance application.

  7. Using REE Tracers to Measure Sheet Erosion Changing to Rill Erosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋炜; 刘普灵; 杨明义; 薛亚洲

    2003-01-01

    Rare earth element(REE) tracer method was used to study sheet erosion changing to rill erosion on slope land. By placing different REE on different soil depth across a slope in an indoor plot, two simulated rainfalls were applied to study the change of erosion type and the rill erosion process. The results indicate that the main erosion type is sheet erosion at the beginning of the rainfalls, and serious erosion happens after rill erosion appears. Accumulated sheet and rill erosion amount increases with the rainfalls time. The percentage of sheet erosion amount decreases and rill erosion percentage increases with time. At the end of the rainfalls, the total rill erosion amounts are 4.3 and 5 times more than sheet erosion. In this paper, a new REE tracer method was used to quantitatively distinguish sheet and rill erosion amount. The new REE tracer method should be useful to future studying of erosion processes on slope lands.

  8. Solid particle erosion of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branco José Roberto Tavares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal spraying allows the production of overlay protective coatings of a great variety of materials, almost without limitations as to its components, phases and constituents on a range of substrates. Wear and corrosion resistant coatings account for significant utilization of thermal spray processes. Besides being a means to evaluate the coating tribological performance, erosion testing allows also an assessment of the coating toughness and adhesion. Nevertheless, the relationship between the erosion behavior of thermal sprayed coatings and its microstructural features is not satisfactorily understood yet. This paper examines room temperature solid particle erosion of zirconia and alumina-based ceramic coatings, with different levels of porosity and varying microstrucutre and mechanical properties. The erosion tests were carried out by a stream of alumina particles with an average size of 50 µm at 70 m/s, carried by an air jet with impingement angle 90°. The results indicate that current erosion models based on hardness alone cannot account for experimental results, and, that there is a strong relationship between the erosion rate and the porosity.

  9. Sonoporation of adherent cells under regulated ultrasound cavitation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleki Seya, Pauline; Fouqueray, Manuela; Ngo, Jacqueline; Poizat, Adrien; Inserra, Claude; Béra, Jean-Christophe

    2015-04-01

    A sonoporation device dedicated to the adherent cell monolayer has been implemented with a regulation process allowing the real-time monitoring and control of inertial cavitation activity. Use of the cavitation-regulated device revealed first that adherent cell sonoporation efficiency is related to inertial cavitation activity, without inducing additional cell mortality. Reproducibility is enhanced for the highest sonoporation rates (up to 17%); sonoporation efficiency can reach 26% when advantage is taken of the standing wave acoustic configuration by applying a frequency sweep with ultrasound frequency tuned to the modal acoustic modes of the cavity. This device allows sonoporation of adherent and suspended cells, and the use of regulation allows some environmental parameters such as the temperature of the medium to be overcome, resulting in the possibility of cell sonoporation even at ambient temperature.

  10. Molecular mechanism for cavitation in water under tension

    CERN Document Server

    Menzl, Georg; Geiger, Philipp; Caupin, Frédéric; Abascal, Jose L F; Valeriani, Chantal; Dellago, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Despite its relevance in biology and engineering, the molecular mechanism driving cavitation in water remains unknown. Using computer simulations, we investigate the structure and dynamics of vapor bubbles emerging from metastable water at negative pressures. We find that in the early stages of cavitation, bubbles are irregularly shaped and become more spherical as they grow. Nevertheless, the free energy of bubble formation can be perfectly reproduced in the framework of classical nucleation theory (CNT) if the curvature dependence of the surface tension is taken into account. Comparison of the observed bubble dynamics to the predictions of the macroscopic Rayleigh--Plesset (RP) equation, augmented with thermal fluctuations, demonstrates that the growth of nanoscale bubbles is governed by viscous forces. Combining the dynamical prefactor determined from the RP equation with the free energy of CNT yields an analytical expression for the cavitation rate that reproduces the simulation results very well over a w...

  11. Cavitation Rates in Water with Dissolved Gas and Other Impurities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrik Zima; Frantisek Marsík; Milan Sedlár

    2003-01-01

    Our objective is a better understanding of the role of physical properties of real fluids in the thermodynamics of cavitation in impure water. An extension to the classical homogenous nucleation theory suitable for mixtures is presented in attempt to address the discrepancy between the theoretical predictions and practical observations of cavitation rates in water at normal temperatures.The extension takes into account the non—equilibrium (dissipative) effects involved in nuclei formation through a substance dependent correction coefficient to be determined experimentally.The theory of thermodynamic fluctuations is applied to derive the work of formation of a bubble nucleus.The value of the correction coefficient is estimated using preliminary experimental data from a convergent-divergent nozzle. An application of the results to the numerical prediction of the cavitation zones in a radial-flow water pump is shown.

  12. MODELLING AND COMPUTATION OF UNSTEADY TURBULENT CAVITATION FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying; LU Chuan-jing; WU Lei

    2006-01-01

    Unsteady turbulent cavitation flows in a Venturi-type section and around a NACA0012 hydrofoil were simulated by two-dimensional computations of viscous compressible turbulent flow model.The Venturi-type section flow proved numerical precision and reliability of the physical model and the code, and further the cavitation around NACA0012 foil was investigated.These flows were calculated with a code of SIMPLE-type finite volume scheme, associated with a barotropic vapor/liquid state law which strongly links density and pressure variation.To simulate turbulent flows, modified RNG k- ε model was used.Numerical results obtained in the Venturi-type flow simulated periodic shedding of sheet cavity and was compared with experiment data, and the results of the NACA0012 foil show quasi-periodic vortex cavitation phenomenon.Results obtained concerning cavity shape and unsteady behavior, void ratio, and velocity field were found in good agreement with experiment ones.

  13. Birth and growth of cavitation bubbles within water under tension

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, Olivier; Quinto-Su, Pedro A; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Water under tension, such as the water rising in tree vessels, is in a metastable state. Water cavitates spontaneously when the tension is high enough, as observed at equilibrium in the water filled holes of a drying hydrogel, called artifical trees. Here, in order to understand the dynamics of cavitation in tensed water, we directly trigger cavitation events, taking advantage of the disturbance generated by a focused laser pulse. We find that the inception of a bubble progresses in two stages. The first stage is ultra-fast, lasting less than microseconds, during which a bubble with a finite volume suddenly appears. This event relaxes the water tension, that we can therefore estimate. A second, slower stage follows when water diffuses into the surrounding medium.

  14. Numerical Study on Characteristics of 3D Cavitating Hydrofoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial software ANSYS CFX, APDL and Workbench are applied for modeling the hydrodynamic and structural interactions and characteristics of an elastic hydrofoil by means of a two-way FSI method. The SST (Shear Stress Transport turbulence model and the simplified Rayleigh-Plesset equations are employed for the cavitating flow simulation. Both CFX and APDL solvers are set to be transient. The fluid and solid computational domains are sequentially solved to simulate the interactions between the hydrofoil and the cavitating flow. The results show that the difference in stiffness of common metal materials has trifling effects on hydrofoil performance. But variations in cavitation number and angle of attack will dramatically affect the hydrodynamic and structural interactions and characteristics.

  15. Flow Modelling for partially Cavitating Two-dimensional Hydrofoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnaswamy, Paddy

    2001-01-01

    The present work addresses te computational analysis of partial sheet hydrofoil cavitation in two dimensions. Particular attention is given to the method of simulating the flow at the end of the cavity. A fixed-length partially cavitating panel method is used to predict the height of the re...... of the model and comparing the present calculations with numerical results. The flow around the partially cavitating hydrofoil with a re-entrant jet has also been treated with a viscous/inviscid interactive method. The viscous flow model is based on boundary layer theory applied on the compound foil......, consisting of the union of the cavity and the hydrofoil surface. The change in the flow direction in the cavity closure region is seen to have a slightly adverse effect on the viscous pressure distribution. Otherwise, it is seen that the viscous re-entrant jet solution compares favourably with experimental...

  16. Bubble-bubble interaction: A potential source of cavitation noise

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Masato

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between microbubbles through pressure pulses has been studied to show that it can be a source of cavitation noise. A recent report demonstrated that the acoustic noise generated by a shrimp originates from the collapse of a cavitation bubble produced when the shrimp closes its snapper claw. The recorded acoustic signal contains a broadband noise that consists of positive and negative pulses, but a theoretical model for single bubbles fails to reproduce the negative ones. Using a nonlinear multibubble model we have shown here that the negative pulses can be explained by considering the interaction of microbubbles formed after the cavitation bubble has collapsed and fragmented: Positive pulses produced at the collapse of the microbubbles hit and impulsively compress neighboring microbubbles to generate reflected pulses whose amplitudes are negative. Discussing the details of the noise generation process, we have found that no negative pulses are generated if the internal pressure of the reflecti...

  17. Cavitation instabilities between fibres in a metal matrix composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Short fibre reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) are studied here to investigate the possibility that a cavitation instability can develop in the metal matrix. The high stress levels needed for a cavitation instability may occur in metal–ceramic systems due to the constraint on plastic flow...... of transversely staggered fibres is here modelled by using an axisymmetric cell model analysis. First the critical stress level is determined for a cavitation instability in an infinite solid made of the Al matrix material. By studying composites with different distributions and aspect ratios of the fibres...... induced by bonding to the ceramics that only show elastic deformation. In an MMC the stress state in the metal matrix is highly non-uniform, varying between regions where shear stresses are dominant and regions where hydrostatic tension is strong. An Al–SiC whisker composite with a periodic pattern...

  18. PUE/微米SiO2复合材料抗冲蚀磨损性能研究%Erosion Wear Resistance Properties of PUE/Micron-SiO2 Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝书; 栾道成; 李骑伶; 廖高民

    2011-01-01

    Polyurethane elastomer (PUE)/micron-SiO2 composites were prepared by means of prepolymer process. Micron-Si02 was modificated in surface with silane coupling agent KH-550 and ultrasonic wave dispersion was adopted to improve its dispersibility in PUE matrix. The effects of the micron-SiO2 which was modified on the erosion properties of the composites were studied. The results indicated that the treated micron-SiO2 was dispersed uniformly in PU matrix and the erosion properties of the composites were greatly improved. The erosion properties of the composites were the highest when the mass fraction of micron-SiO2was 4%, and the erosion wear was minimum.%采用预聚体法制备了聚氨酯弹性体(PUE)/微米SiO2复合材料,通过硅烷偶联剂KH-550对微米SiO2表面改性以及超声波分散的方法来提高微米SiO2在PUE基体中的分散性,并研究了表面处理后微米SiO2对PUE/微米SiO2复合材料的磨损性能的影响.结果表明,经过表面处理微米SiO2的用量对复合材料的磨损性能影响较大,当微米SiO2的质量分数为4%时,复合材料的性能达到最佳,此时的磨耗最小.

  19. Relationship between cavitation and loss of echogenicity from ultrasound contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Bader, Kenneth B; Haworth, Kevin J; Kopechek, Jonathan A; Raymond, Jason L; Huang, Shao-Ling; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2013-09-21

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have the potential to nucleate cavitation and promote both beneficial and deleterious bioeffects in vivo. Previous studies have elucidated the pulse-duration-dependent pressure amplitude threshold for rapid loss of echogenicity due to UCA fragmentation. Previous studies have demonstrated that UCA fragmentation was concomitant with inertial cavitation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between stable and inertial cavitation thresholds and loss of echogenicity of UCAs as a function of pulse duration. Determining the relationship between cavitation thresholds and loss of echogenicity of UCAs would enable monitoring of cavitation based upon the onscreen echogenicity in clinical applications. Two lipid-shelled UCAs, echogenic liposomes (ELIP) and Definity®, were insonified by a clinical ultrasound scanner in duplex spectral Doppler mode at four pulse durations ('sample volumes') in both a static system and a flow system. Cavitation emissions from the UCAs insonified by Doppler pulses were recorded using a passive cavitation detection system and stable and inertial cavitation thresholds ascertained. Loss of echogenicity from ELIP and Definity® was assessed within regions of interest on B-mode images. A numerical model based on UCA rupture predicted the functional form of the loss of echogenicity from ELIP and Definity®. Stable and inertial cavitation thresholds were found to have a weak dependence on pulse duration. Stable cavitation thresholds were lower than inertial cavitation thresholds. The power of cavitation emissions was an exponential function of the loss of echogenicity over the investigated range of acoustic pressures. Both ELIP and Definity® lost more than 80% echogenicity before the onset of stable or inertial cavitation. Once this level of echogenicity loss occurred, both stable and inertial cavitation were detected in the physiologic flow phantom. These results imply that stable and inertial

  20. The acceleration of solid particles subjected to cavitation nucleation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkent, B.M.; Arora, M.; Ohl, C.-D.

    2008-01-01

    The cavity -particle dynamics at cavitation inception on the surface of spherical particles suspended in water and exposed to a strong tensile stress wave is experimentally studied with high-speed photography. Particles, which serve as nucleation sites for cavitation bubbles, are set into a fast....... The cavity shapes obtained from the BEM calculations compare well with the photographs until neck formation occurs. In several cases we observed inception at two or more locations on a single particle. Moreover, after collapse of the primary cavity, a second inception was often observed. Finally, an example...