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Sample records for causing pulmonary thromboembolism

  1. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

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    Schölzel, B E; Snijder, R J; Mager, J J; van Es, H W; Plokker, H W M; Reesink, H J; Morshuis, W J; Post, M C

    2014-12-01

    Chronic pulmonary thromboembolic disease is an important cause of severe pulmonary hypertension, and as such is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis of this condition reflects the degree of associated right ventricular dysfunction, with predictable mortality related to the severity of the underlying pulmonary hypertension. Left untreated, the prognosis is poor. Pulmonary endarterectomy is the treatment of choice to relieve pulmonary artery obstruction in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and has been remarkably successful. Advances in surgical techniques along with the introduction of pulmonary hypertension-specific medication provide therapeutic options for the majority of patients afflicted with the disease. However, a substantial number of patients are not candidates for pulmonary endarterectomy due to either distal pulmonary vascular obstruction or significant comorbidities. Therefore, careful selection of surgical candidates in expert centres is paramount. The current review focuses on the diagnostic approach to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and the available surgical and medical therapeutic options.

  2. Angiostatic factors in the pulmonary endarterectomy material from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients cause endothelial dysfunction.

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    Diana Zabini

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a rare disease with persistent thrombotic occlusion or stenosis of the large pulmonary arteries resulting in pulmonary hypertension. Surgical removal of the neointimal layer of these vessels together with the non-resolved thrombus consisting of organized collagen-rich fibrotic areas with partly recanalized regions is the treatment of choice (pulmonary endarterectomy, PEA. The present study investigates endothelial cells isolated from such material as well as factors present in the surgical PEA material, which may contribute to impairment of recanalization and thrombus non-resolution. We observed muscularized vessels and non-muscularized vessels in the PEA material. The isolated endothelial cells from the PEA material showed significantly different calcium homeostasis as compared to pulmonary artery endothelial cells (hPAECs from normal controls. In the supernatant (ELISA as well as on the tissue level (histochemical staining of the PEA material, platelet factor 4 (PF4, collagen type I and interferon-gamma-inducible 10 kD protein (IP-10 were detected. CXCR3, the receptor for PF4 and IP-10, was particularly elevated in the distal parts of the PEA material as compared to human control lung (RT-PCR. PF4, collagen type I and IP-10 caused significant changes in calcium homeostasis and affected the cell proliferation, migration and vessel formation in hPAECs. The presence of angiostatic factors like PF4, collagen type I and IP-10, as recovered from the surgical PEA material from CTEPH patients, may lead to changes in calcium homeostasis and endothelial dysfunction.

  3. High Frequency of Pulmonary Hypertension-Causing Gene Mutation in Chinese Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

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    Qunying Xi

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is unknown. Histopathologic studies revealed that pulmonary vasculature lesions similar to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH existed in CTEPH patients as well. It's well-known that genetic predisposition plays an important role in the mechanism of PAH. So we hypothesized that PAH-causing gene mutation might exist in some CTEPH patients and act as a background to facilitate the development of CTEPH. In this study, we analyzed 7 PAH-causing genes including BMPR2, ACVRL1, ENG, SMAD9, CAV1, KCNK3, and CBLN2 in 49 CTEPH patients and 17 patients recovered from pulmonary embolism (PE but without pulmonary hypertension(PH. The results showed that the nonsynonymous mutation rate in CTEPH patients is significantly higher than that in PE without PH patients (25 out of 49 (51% CTEPH patients vs. 3 out of 17 PE without PH patients (18%; p = 0.022. Four CTEPH patients had the same point mutation in ACVRL1 exon 10 (c.1450C>G, a mutation approved to be associated with PH in a previous study. In addition, we identified two CTEPH associated SNPs (rs3739817 and rs55805125. Our results suggest that PAH-causing gene mutation might play an important role in the development of CTEPH.

  4. Pulmonary thromboembolism in children

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    Babyn, Paul S.; Gahunia, Harpal K. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Massicotte, Patricia [Stollery Children' s Hospital and University of Alberta, Departments of Pediatric Hematology and Cardiology, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Other types of embolism can occur uncommonly in childhood and need to be recognized, as the required treatment will vary. These include pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, foreign bodies, tumor and septic emboli, and post-traumatic fat emboli. No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. A combination of diagnostic procedures must be used to identify suspect or confirmed cases of PTE. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment of pulmonary embolism in children. It also highlights the current diagnostic tools and protocols used to evaluate pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  5. Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis with fatal pulmonary thromboembolism caused by benign pelvic space-occupying lesions--an overview.

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    Rosenfeld, Hannah; Byard, Roger W

    2012-05-01

    Venous stasis predisposes to thrombosis. One hundred and sixty cases of fatal pulmonary thromboembolism were reviewed to determine how many cases had deep venous thromboses associated with venous blood flow reduction caused by external pressure from benign pelvic masses. Three cases were identified, representing 2% of cases overall (3/160): a 44-year-old woman with a large uterine leiomyoma (1048 g); a 74-year-old man with prostatomegaly and bladder distension (containing 1 L of urine); and a 70-year-old man with prostatomegaly and bladder distension (containing 3 L of urine). Although a rare cause of fatal deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism, space-occupying pelvic lesions can lead to extrinsic pressure on adjacent veins reducing blood flow and causing stasis and thrombosis. Individuals with large pelvic masses may, therefore, be at increased risk of pulmonary thromboembolism from deep venous thrombosis, particularly in the presence of concurrent risk factors such as immobility, thrombophilias, malignancy, and significant cardiopulmonary disease.

  6. SYNDROME OF INADEQUATE SECRETION OF ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE ASSOCIATED TO PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM: A NON-DESCRIBED CAUSE OF HYPONATREMIA IN THE LITERATURE.

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    Carlos G. Musso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome of inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH is a condition that can be associated to various sort of lung diseases.In this report we present a clinical case where a SIADH associated to pulmonary thromboembolism was documented. As long as we know, this association has not been described yet in the literature, and we hypothesized that lung cytokines released due to pulmonary necrosis could be the main stimulus to vasopressin secretion in this entity.Conclusion: Pulmonary thromboembolism should be incorporated in the list of lung causes of SIADH.

  7. Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy is more sensitive than multidetector CTPA in detecting chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease as a treatable cause of pulmonary hypertension.

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    Tunariu, Nina; Gibbs, Simon J R; Win, Zarni; Gin-Sing, Wendy; Graham, Alison; Gishen, Philip; Al-Nahhas, Adil

    2007-05-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disease with a poor prognosis. Identifying chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease as a cause of PH has major clinical implications as these patients could be potentially offered a surgical cure. Ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy has a high sensitivity to detect embolic disease but its value has been challenged with the emergence of multidetector CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). We compared the value of V/Q scintigraphy with CTPA in detecting chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease. We retrospectively reviewed the results of V/Q scintigraphy and CTPA performed on patients who had been referred to the Pulmonary Hypertension Service at Hammersmith Hospital between 2000 and 2005. A total of 227 patients (85 males, 142 females; age range, 18-81 y; mean age, 42 y) had all tests done at Hammersmith Hospital and were included in the study. Interpretation of scans was according to the modified PIOPED (Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis) criteria. CTPA was considered as suggestive of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease if it showed visualization of the thrombus or webs, recanalization, perfusion abnormalities, stenosis, or strictures. Standard pulmonary angiography was performed via femoral approach. In 90% of the cases, CTPA and V/Q scintigraphy were performed within 10 d. Seventy-eight patients (group A) had a final diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and 149 (group B) had non-CTEPH etiology. Among group A, V/Q scintigraphy was reported as high probability in 75 patients, intermediate probability in 1 patient, and low probability in 2 patients. CTPA was positive in 40 patients and negative in 38 patients. Among group B, V/Q scintigraphy was reported as low probability in 134, intermediate probability in 7, and high probability in 8 patients. CTPA was negative in 148 patients and false-positive in 1 patient. Statistical analysis showed V/Q scintigraphy to have a

  8. THROMBOENDARTERECTOMY FOR CHRONIC PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Ren; Pi-xiong Su; Chao-ji Zhang; Song Gu; Heng Zhang; Chen Wang

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the improving reliability and safety of thromboendarterectomy and perioperative management for chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. Methods The clinical data of 12 cases with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, who underwent thromboendarterec tomy assisted by low flow or circulation arrest with deep hypothermia, were reviewed retrospectively. Results Pulmonary artery pressure decreased 20 to 40 mmHg immediately after surgical procedures in 9 cases. The postoperative pulmonary edema at various degrees happened in 12 cases, among them, 1 died of severe lung infection and pulmonary re-embolism at 19 days postoperation. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography and angiography of 11 cases indicated that the original obstruction of pulmonary artery disappeared. During the follow-up period of 2 months to 5 years, the clinical symptoms and activity was improved. Conclusion Thromboendarterectomy is an effective treatment for chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. The outcome of the surgical procedure needs to be further investigated and followed up regularly according to an evaluative system, because it might be influenced by multiple factors.

  9. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty: a treatment option for inoperable patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

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    Aiko eOgawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, stenoses or obstructions of the pulmonary arteries due to organized thrombi can cause an elevation in pulmonary artery resistance, which in turn can result in pulmonary hypertension. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension can be cured surgically by pulmonary endarterectomy; however, patients deemed unsuitable for pulmonary endarterectomy due to lesion, advanced age, or comorbidities have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Recently, advances have been made in balloon pulmonary angioplasty for these patients, and this review highlights this recent progress.

  10. Diagnosing chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: current perspectives

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    Hadinnapola C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Charaka Hadinnapola, Deepa Gopalan, David P Jenkins Papworth Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust, Papworth Everard, Cambridge, United Kingdom Abstract: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a rare and relatively poorly understood disease. It remains underdiagnosed and is often not recognized in primary and secondary care, as its symptoms are nonspecific and there are few clinical signs until late in the disease process. However, pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA offers a potential cure for patients with this type of pulmonary hypertension; therefore, it is important that they are identified and diagnosed in a timely manner. PEA is associated with a 2.2%–5% risk of significant morbidity and mortality, even in experienced PEA centers. Therefore, once chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is diagnosed, further assessment of operability and patient selection is crucial. Assessment of operability involves determining the distribution and burden of chronic thromboembolic disease, assessing pulmonary hemodynamics, and assessing the functional impairment of the patient. Ventilation perfusion scintigraphy is of value in screening for the presence of chronic thromboembolic disease. However, computer tomography pulmonary angiography and magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography are now increasingly used to image the vascular occlusions directly. This allows assessment of the surgically accessible disease burden. Some centers still advocate conventional selective pulmonary angiography for the latter. Right-heart catheterization remains the gold standard for assessing pulmonary hemodynamics. Higher pulmonary vascular resistances are associated with poorer outcomes as well as increased risks at the time of surgery. This is in part because of the presence of more distal chronic thromboembolic material and distal pulmonary artery remodeling. However, in experienced centers, these patients are being operated on safely and with good

  11. LUNG CANCER AND PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

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    Cukic, Vesna; Ustamujic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Malignant diseases including lung cancer are the risk for development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Objective: To show the number of PTE in patients with lung cancer treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period: from 2012-2014. Material and methods: This is the retrospective study in which we present the number of various types of lung cancer treated in three-year period, number and per cent of PTE in different types of lung carcinoma, number and per cent of PTE of all diagnosed PTE in lung carcinoma according to the type of carcinoma. Results: In three-year period (from 2012 to 2014) 1609 patients with lung cancer were treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Clinical Centre of Sarajevo University. 42 patients: 25 men middle –aged 64.4 years and 17 women middle- aged 66.7 or 2.61% of all patients with lung cancer had diagnosed PTE. That was the 16. 7% of all patients with PTE treated in Clinic “Podhrastovi “in that three-year period. Of all 42 patients with lung cancer and diagnosed PTE 3 patients (7.14%) had planocellular cancer, 4 patients (9.53%) had squamocellular cancer, 9 (21.43%) had adenocarcinoma, 1 (2.38%) had NSCLC, 3 (7.14 %) had microcellular cancer, 1 (2.38%) had neuroendocrine cancer, 2 (4.76%) had large cell-macrocellular and 19 (45.24%) had histological non-differentiated lung carcinoma. Conclusion: Malignant diseases, including lung cancer, are the risk factor for development of PTE. It is important to consider the including anticoagulant prophylaxis in these patients and so to slow down the course of diseases in these patients. PMID:26622205

  12. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Treat the Patient Not the Haemodynamics

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    Ben Dunne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a disabling condition that is being increasingly recognised. It is unique as a cause of pulmonary hypertension in that it is surgically curable. We wish to highlight the importance of recognition and early referral of any patient who may have CTEPH even in the absence of resting pulmonary hypertension as excellent results can be achieved by restoring pulmonary vascular anatomy, reducing exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension, and reducing dead-space ventilation. We present a case that illustrates these points and discuss our experience as a referral centre for CTEPH.

  13. Pulmonary endarterectomy in the management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

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    David Jenkins

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a type of pulmonary hypertension, resulting from fibrotic transformation of pulmonary artery clots causing chronic obstruction in macroscopic pulmonary arteries and associated vascular remodelling in the microvasculature. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA offers the best chance of symptomatic and prognostic improvement in eligible patients; in expert centres, it has excellent results. Current in-hospital mortality rates are 90% at 1 year and >70% at 10 years. However, PEA, is a complex procedure and relies on a multidisciplinary CTEPH team led by an experienced surgeon to decide on an individual's operability, which is determined primarily by lesion location and the haemodynamic parameters. Therefore, treatment of patients with CTEPH depends largely on subjective judgements of eligibility for surgery by the CTEPH team. Other controversies discussed in this article include eligibility for PEA versus balloon pulmonary angioplasty, the new treatment algorithm in the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines and the definition of an “expert centre” for the management of this condition.

  14. Factor V Leiden and post thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

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    Naudziūnas, Albinas; Miliauskas, Skaidrius

    2003-01-01

    Literature review and original data concerning the most common cause of inherited thrombophilia - activated protein C resistance have been presented. One hundred and three patients with confirmed venous thromboembolism have been investigated for activated protein C resistance with 2 ( nd ) generation "Diagnostica Stago" test. Activated protein C resistance has been found in 22.3 % cases. In the group of 70 healthy unselected men and women, matched by sex and age, this mutation has been found in 7.1% cases. Out of 101 patients with pulmonary thromboembolism confirmed by pulmoangiography or perfusion lung scan, 78 have been investigated by Doppler echocardioscopy in order to detect pulmonary hypertension after 1.5 months. Statistically significant correlation between age and pulmonary artery pressure has been found. No correlation between pulmonary artery pressure and activated protein C resistance has been detected.

  15. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: a distinct disease entity

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    Irene Lang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a distinct subtype of pulmonary hypertension (PH. One disease hypothesis is that CTEPH results from the non-resolution of venous thromboembolism. CTEPH is characterised by the presence of obstructive fibrotic thromboembolic material in the major pulmonary vessels, with concomitant microvascular arteriopathy, resulting in progressive PH. The clinical presentation of CTEPH is similar to pulmonary arterial hypertension with nonspecific symptoms, but it is distinguished from pulmonary arterial hypertension by the presence of mismatched segmental defects on the ventilation/perfusion scan. The exact prevalence and incidence of CTEPH are unknown, but are thought to have been underestimated in the past. CTEPH is unique among the subgroups of PH in that it is potentially curable with pulmonary endarterectomy, a surgical intervention intended to remove the occlusive material from the pulmonary vasculature. However, in some patients the obstructions are technically inaccessible or the risk/benefit ratios are unfavourable, making the condition inoperable. It is thought that the involvement of the smaller, more distal vessels is a target for medical treatment. Untreated, CTEPH may result in right heart failure and death. The pathophysiological mechanisms which cause CTEPH are complex and have not yet been fully elucidated.

  16. Managing chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: pharmacological treatment options

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    I. M. Lang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a life-threatening condition in which organised thrombi obstruct the pulmonary vessels, causing increased pulmonary vascular resistance, progressive pulmonary hypertension (PH and right heart failure. The treatment of choice is pulmonary endarterectomy, which restores pulmonary haemodynamics with acceptable periprocedural mortality rates in the majority of suitable patients. However, CTEPH may be inoperable owing to surgically inaccessible thrombi or comorbid diseases that confer an unacceptably high risk. Pharmacotherapies, although not yet approved, may be useful in this situation or for treating residual or recurrent PH following surgery. Vasodilator drugs for PH are attracting growing interest as potential treatments for CTEPH because this disease has recently been labelled as a "dual" pulmonary vascular disorder: major vessel obstruction and remodelling is combined with a small vessel arteriopathy that is histologically indistinguishable from the classical pulmonary arteriopathy observed in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Of three completed randomised controlled trials in patients with CTEPH, only one was powered to detect a treatment effect. The BENEFIT trial employed the dual endothelin-receptor antagonist bosentan. Although haemodynamics improved significantly, the second component of the primary end-point, exercise capacity, was not met. More evidence is required to resolve whether vasodilator treatments are beneficial for inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

  17. Clinical worsening after pulmonary endarterectomy in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

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    Schölzel, B; Snijder, R; Morshuis, W; Saouti, N; Plokker, T; Post, M

    2011-12-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the most effective treatment for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The aim of this study is to evaluate long-term survival and freedom from clinical worsening after PEA. All patients who underwent PEA in our hospital between May 2000 and August 2009 were included. Follow-up parameters were all-cause mortality and time to clinical worsening, defined as a combination of death, need for pulmonary hypertension-specific medication or 15% decrease in six-minute walk distance without improvement in functional class. The Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify predictors. Seventy-four consecutive patients (mean age 55.9 ± 13.8 years, 51% female) underwent PEA. Prior to surgery, 55 patients were in NYHA functional class III or higher. The mean pulmonary artery pressure was 41.3 ± 11.9 mmHg with a mean pulmonary vascular resistance of 521 ± 264 dyn·s·cm(-5) (range 279-1331 dyn·s·cm(-5)). Five patients (6.8%) died in-hospital. Out of hospital, 5 out of 69 patients (7.2%) died during a median follow-up of 3.7 ± 2.2 years [range 0.1-8.5 years]). The one- and five-year survival rates were 93% and 89%, respectively. During follow-up, clinical worsening occurred in 13 out of 69 patients (18.8%). The one- and five-year rates of freedom from clinical worsening were 94% and 72%, respectively. The baseline NT-pro BNP level tended to be a predictor for occurrence of clinical worsening. Pulmonary endarterectomy is associated with good long-term survival in patients with CTEPH. However, clinical worsening occurred in a substantial number of patients at long-term follow-up.

  18. PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM FOLLOWING THORACOTOMY FOR LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-xu; LI Hou-wen; LI Yu; WANG Yu; XU Jie; YIN Hong-nian; ZHANG Lin; CHEN Dong-yi; ZHAO Hui-ru; HU Yong-xiao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with primary lung cancer in relation to thoracotomy, and to shed light on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this fatal disease after lung resection. Methods: A total of 1245 cases with primary lung cancer received thoracotomy in the past 13 years were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data of a total of 14 patients (1.1%) suffering from pulmonary thromboembolism and requiring cardiao-pulmonary resuscitation were collected and analyzed. Results: The diagnosis was established primarily by clinical findings in 9 cases (64.3%), including further confirmation of one case during operation, by pulmonary ventilation-perfusion scan in 2, by spiral CT angiography in 1, by pulmonary angiography in 1, and by autopsy in 1 case. Even using prompt resuscitation, 8 patients (57.1%) died within 48 h (mean 4 h) after the onset of the symptoms. Six cases eventually recovered. Of the 6 salvaged patients, they all received anticoagulation therapy with heparin intravenously and warfarin orally, including 3 cases of additional thrombolytic therapy with urokinase. Two cases with massive pulmonary emboli received emergency surgery, including one pulmonary embolectomy, and one bilobectomy after right upper lobectomy, with satisfactory results. Conclusion: Massive pulmonary embolism is an infrequent but fatal early postoperative complication after lung resection. The diagnosis should be based mainly on clinical findings in order to initiate the appropriate therapy immediately. The direct diagnostic techniques including radionuclide pulmonary scan, spiral CT angiography, and pulmonary angiography could be based on a careful evaluation of the expected benefits and risks of the various available treatments.

  19. Diagnostic Evaluation of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

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    Gopalan, Deepa; Blanchard, Daniel; Auger, William R

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure greater than 25 mm Hg. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is defined as pulmonary hypertension in the presence of an organized thrombus within the pulmonary vascular bed that persists at least 3 months after the onset of anticoagulant therapy. Because CTEPH is potentially curable by surgical endarterectomy, correct identification of patients with this form of pulmonary hypertension and an accurate assessment of surgical candidacy are essential to provide optimal care. Patients most commonly present with symptoms of exertional dyspnea and otherwise unexplained decline in exercise capacity. Atypical chest pain, a nonproductive cough, and episodic hemoptysis are observed less frequently. With more advanced disease, patients often develop symptoms suggestive of right ventricular compromise. Physical examination findings are minimal early in the course of this disease, but as pulmonary hypertension progresses, may include nonspecific finding of right ventricular failure, such as a tricuspid regurgitation murmur, pedal edema, and jugular venous distention. Chest radiographs may suggest pulmonary hypertension, but are neither sensitive nor specific for the diagnosis. Radioisotopic ventilation-perfusion scanning is sensitive for detecting CTEPH, making it a valuable screening study. Conventional catheter-based pulmonary angiography retains an important role in establishing the presence and extent of chronic thromboembolic disease. However, computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging are playing a growing diagnostic role. Innovative technologies such as dual-energy computed tomography, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and optical coherence tomography show promise for contributing diagnostic information and assisting in the preoperative characterization of patients with CTEPH.

  20. Pulmonary endarterectomy outputs in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

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    López Gude, María Jesús; Pérez de la Sota, Enrique; Pérez Vela, Jose Luís; Centeno Rodríguez, Jorge; Muñoz Guijosa, Christian; Velázquez, María Teresa; Alonso Chaterina, Sergio; Hernández González, Ignacio; Escribano Subías, Pilar; Cortina Romero, José María

    2017-07-07

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; extremely high pulmonary vascular resistance constitutes a risk factor for hospital mortality. The objective of this study was to analyze the immediate and long-term results of the surgical treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in patients with very severe pulmonary hypertension. Since February 1996, we performed 160 pulmonary thromboendarterectomies. We divided the patient population in 2 groups: group 1, which included 40 patients with pulmonary vascular resistance≥1090dyn/sec/cm(-5), and group 2, which included the remaining 120 patients. Hospital mortality (15 vs. 2.5%), reperfusion pulmonary edema (33 vs. 14%) and heart failure (23 vs. 3.3%) were all higher in group 1; however, after one year of follow-up, there were no significant differences in the clinical, hemodynamic and echocardiographic conditions of both groups. Survival rate after 5 years was 77% in group 1 and 92% in group 2 (P=.033). After the learning curve including the 46 first patients, there was no difference in hospital mortality (3.8 vs. 2.3%) or survival rate after 5 years (96.2% in group 1 and 96.2% in group 2). Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is linked to significantly higher morbidity and mortality rates in patients with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Nevertheless, these patients benefit the same from the procedure in the mid-/long-term. In our experience, after the learning curve, this surgery is safe in severe pulmonary hypertension and no level of pulmonary vascular resistance should be an absolute counter-indication for this surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Trauma and pulmonary thromboembolism: an experimental study on their correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Gang; KANG Ying; LI Xu; CAI Ze-hao; CHEN Jiong-hao; WANG Gang; PEI Guo-xian

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the correlation between trauma and pulmonary thromboembolism.Methods: Comminuted fractures and extensive soft-tissue contusion at both hind limbs were made by a falling weight from a height in 16 rabbits. Lung perfusion scanning was performed to obtain the radioactivity counts before trauma, at 1 h, 48 h and 96 h after trauma. All the data were divided into 4 groups based on the above 4 time points. The rabbits were sacrificed when positive findings on the pulmonary perfusion scanning appeared. Their lungs were harvested to be paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin-erosin method for histological examination of thromboembolism. The randomized block design ANOVA and the method of least significant difference (LSD) were used for statistical analysis of the radioactivity counts.Results: The histological findings showed that pulmonary embolism developed in 6 of the 16 rabbits (37.5% ). Five of the 6 pulmonary embolism rabbits presented neither clinical symptoms nor positive pulmonary embolism manifestations in the lung perfusion scanning. A significant difference was found in lung perfusion radioactivity between the pre-traumatic, post-traumatic 1h groups and post-traumatic 48 h and 96 h groups (P< 0. 05).Conclusions: Fractures of the hind limbs accompanied with extensive soft-tissue contusion may cause pulmonary micro-embolism that is not sensitive to lung perfusion scanning and tends to have no clinical symptoms. Pulmonary embolism development may take more than two days after trauma.

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in Denmark

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    Pedersen, Charles Marinus; Mellemkjær, Søren; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an important differential diagnosis in patients with unexplained dyspnoea. CTEPH is under-recognized and carries a poor prognosis without treatment. Surgical pulmonary endarterectomy is the preferred treatment for the majority of patients...

  3. The pathophysiology of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

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    Gérald Simonneau

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a rare, progressive pulmonary vascular disease that is usually a consequence of prior acute pulmonary embolism. CTEPH usually begins with persistent obstruction of large and/or middle-sized pulmonary arteries by organised thrombi. Failure of thrombi to resolve may be related to abnormal fibrinolysis or underlying haematological or autoimmune disorders. It is now known that small-vessel abnormalities also contribute to haemodynamic compromise, functional impairment and disease progression in CTEPH. Small-vessel disease can occur in obstructed areas, possibly triggered by unresolved thrombotic material, and downstream from occlusions, possibly because of excessive collateral blood supply from high-pressure bronchial and systemic arteries. The molecular processes underlying small-vessel disease are not completely understood and further research is needed in this area. The degree of small-vessel disease has a substantial impact on the severity of CTEPH and postsurgical outcomes. Interventional and medical treatment of CTEPH should aim to restore normal flow distribution within the pulmonary vasculature, unload the right ventricle and prevent or treat small-vessel disease. It requires early, reliable identification of patients with CTEPH and use of optimal treatment modalities in expert centres.

  4. The pathophysiology of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

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    Simonneau, Gérald; Torbicki, Adam; Dorfmüller, Peter; Kim, Nick

    2017-03-31

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare, progressive pulmonary vascular disease that is usually a consequence of prior acute pulmonary embolism. CTEPH usually begins with persistent obstruction of large and/or middle-sized pulmonary arteries by organised thrombi. Failure of thrombi to resolve may be related to abnormal fibrinolysis or underlying haematological or autoimmune disorders. It is now known that small-vessel abnormalities also contribute to haemodynamic compromise, functional impairment and disease progression in CTEPH. Small-vessel disease can occur in obstructed areas, possibly triggered by unresolved thrombotic material, and downstream from occlusions, possibly because of excessive collateral blood supply from high-pressure bronchial and systemic arteries. The molecular processes underlying small-vessel disease are not completely understood and further research is needed in this area. The degree of small-vessel disease has a substantial impact on the severity of CTEPH and postsurgical outcomes. Interventional and medical treatment of CTEPH should aim to restore normal flow distribution within the pulmonary vasculature, unload the right ventricle and prevent or treat small-vessel disease. It requires early, reliable identification of patients with CTEPH and use of optimal treatment modalities in expert centres. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  5. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

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    Irene Lang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is thought to result from incomplete resolution of pulmonary thromboemboli that undergo organisation into fibrous tissue within pulmonary arterial branches, filling pulmonary arterial lumina with collagenous obstructions. The treatment of choice is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA in CTEPH centres, which has low post-operative mortality and good long-term survival. For patients ineligible for PEA or who have recurrent or persistent pulmonary hypertension after surgery, medical treatment with riociguat is beneficial. In addition, percutaneous balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA is an emerging option, and promises haemodynamic and functional benefits for inoperable patients. In contrast to conventional angioplasty, BPA with undersized balloons over guide wires exclusively breaks intraluminal webs and bands, without dissecting medial vessel layers, and repeat sessions are generally required. Observational studies report that BPA improves haemodynamics, symptoms and functional capacity in patients with CTEPH, but controlled trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Complications include haemoptysis, wire injury, vessel dissection, vessel rupture, reperfusion pulmonary oedema, pulmonary parenchymal bleeding and haemorrhagic pleural effusions. This review summarises the available evidence for BPA, patient selection, recent technical refinements and periprocedural imaging, and discusses the potential future role of BPA in the management of CTEPH.

  6. Advances in multidetector CT diagnosis of pediatric pulmonary thromboembolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thacker, Paul G. [Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (United States); Lee, Edward Y. [Divi. of Thoracic Imaging, Dept. of Radiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Division Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Although pediatric pulmonary thromboembolism is historically believed to be rare with relatively little information available in the medical literature regarding its imaging evaluation, it is more common than previously thought. Thus, it is imperative for radiologists to be aware of the most recent advances in its imaging information, particularly multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), the imaging modality of choice in the pediatric population. The overarching goal of this article is to review the most recent updates on MDCT diagnosis of pediatric pulmonary thromboembolism.

  7. Pulmonary Thromboembolism in Klinefelter%u2019s Syndrome Patient with Deficient of Protein C

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Yigit

    2013-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a common genetic disorder caused by one or more supernumerary X chromosomes. KS poses an increased risk for venous thromboembolic events such as deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Klinefelter syndrome is prone to hypercoagulability due to hormonal imbalance and one or more inherited thrombophilic factors. Therefore, patients with KS having a medical history of venous thromboembolism require chest computed tomographic (CT) images and oral anticoagulatio...

  8. Demographic characteristics of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Duman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a common disease with high mortality and difficult diagnosis.The incidence in our country cannot be calculated because there is no adequate and regular data. In our study,we aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics,risk factors, incidence, Wells and Geneva scores diagnostic and treatment methods of the patients in our emergency department with a diagnosis of PTE. Methods:Files of the 112 patients who were admitted to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Emergency Department between January 2010 - February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results:The mean age of patients was 65.02 ± 16.23.Forty-one (36.6% of the patients were male and 71 (63.4% were female. The most common complaint of patients was shortness of breath (81.3%, respectively.Immobilization(35.7% and history of previous surgery(19.6% were among the risk factors of the patients. Average troponin levels of the patients was 0.13 ± 0.48 ng/Land average d-dimer levels was 12.698.12 ± 8.779.92 μg/L. Geneva scores of the patients were: 4 patients (3.6% low score, 88 patients (78.6% medium score and 20 patients (17.9% high score. Wells Clinical Probability scores of the patients were; 1 patient (0.9% low probability, 74 patients (66.1% intermediate probability and 37 patients (33% high probability. In the treatmentof patients; heparin infusion (36.6%, enoxaparin sodium(59.8% and tPA (3.6% were used. Conclusion: In spite of improvements in diagnosis and treatment methods, pulmonary embolism diagnosis is stil a problem. The first step to diagnosis in patients with risk factors begin to suspect.J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1:10-15

  9. [From acute pulmonary embolism to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: Pathobiology and pathophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Gámez, Miguel E; Sandoval-Zárate, Julio; Pulido, Tomás

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) represents a unique subtype of pulmonary hypertension characterized by the presence of mechanical obstruction of the major pulmonary vessels caused by venous thromboembolism. CTEPH is a progressive and devastating disease if not treated, and is the only subset of PH potentially curable by a surgical procedure known as pulmonary endarterectomy. The clot burden and pulmonary embolism recurrence may contribute to the development of CTEPH however only few thrombophilic factors have been found to be associated. A current hypothesis is that CTEPH results from the incomplete resolution and organization of thrombus modified by inflammatory, immunologic and genetic mechanisms, leading to the development of fibrotic stenosis and adaptive vascular remodeling of resistance vessels. The causes of thrombus non-resolution have yet to be fully clarified. CTEPH patients often display severe PH that cannot be fully explained by the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction apparent on imaging studies. In such cases, the small vessel disease and distal obstructive thrombotic lesions beyond the sub-segmental level may contribute for out of proportion elevated PVR. The processes implicated in the development of arteriopathy and micro-vascular changes might explain the progressive nature of PH and gradual clinical deterioration with poor prognosis, as well as lack of correlation between measurable hemodynamic parameters and vascular obstruction even in the absence of recurrent venous thromboembolism. This review summarizes the most relevant up-to-date aspects on pathobiology and pathophysiology of CTEPH. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Pulmonary thromboembolism associated with renal insufficiency due to renal artery thrombosis

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    Vučičević-Trobok Jadranka

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary thromboembolism is a clinical and pathophysiological condition caused by occlusion of pulmonary arteries by thrombotic embolus. Deep venous thrombosis needn't necessarily be evident. Acute renal insufficiency is a syndrome manifested by rapid decrease or even complete urinary retention which may be due to obturation of renal arteries by a thrombus. The condition is clinically manifested by hematuria, oliguria, anuria and death due to uremia. Case Report The patient had a history of disease and a chest X-ray finding both irrelevant for establishing the working diagnosis. Blood gas analysis presented prominent hypoxemia with hyperventilation and ECG finding exhibited right heart overload, pointing to pulmonary thromboembolism. On the third day of treatment with heparin, the patient developed hematuria, oliguria and excessive elevation of nitrogen in blood as a sign of acute renal insufficiency, leading to fatal outcome. Autopsy revealed deep venous thrombosis of the left femoral vein, with massive pulmonary thromboembolism and thrombosis of both femoral arteries, inducing acute renal failure. Discussion Although the patient had a typical radiologic presentation of pulmonary thromboembolism, treatment with heparin was initiated on the basis of his blood gas analysis and ECG findings. Deep venous thrombosis was not clinically evident and acute renal failure could not be explained during patient's lifetime. Conclusion This is a rare case of acute renal failure due to a rare occurrence of bilateral acute thrombosis of renal arteries.

  11. [Thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension--do not spoil a chance for effective surgery!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzyna, Marcin; Torbicki, Adam; Poloński, Lech; Skoczylas, Ilona; Przybylski, Roman; Wieteska, Maria; Dyk, Wojciech; Biederman, Andrzej; Zembala, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) can be defined as pulmonary hypertension with persistent pulmonary perfusion defects causes by unresolved thrombi. All symptomatic CTEPH patients with documented pulmonary vascular resistance > 300 dyn*sec*cm(-5) and proximal lesions should be considered for surgical treatment--pulmonary endarterectomy. The role of pharmacological treatment remains controversial and should be restricted to inoperable cases and persistent pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy. Every year about 30 procedures is performed in two specialised centers in Poland with 1 year mortality at 8-9%. Number of procedures done gives the frequency of pulmonary endarterectomy at 0.7/million of population/year. Current data from UK indicate the actual ratio of surgical treatment of CTPH at 2/million/year. The article discusses reasons for CTEPH is underdiagnosed and why rate of surgical therapy in Poland is too low.

  12. Inflammation as a cause of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory markers are highly amenable to appraise and adjust and could already serve as a diagnostic indicator and also as a predictor of prognosis over the management of many health problems. Inflammation is implicated in venous thromboembolism (VTE). However there is still an intense curiosity about whether it is a cause or only a consequence of the thromboembolic process. The more likely scenario is that some inflammatory mediators contribute to the development of VTE, which per se induces an inflammatory reaction. Here we will review evidences supporting the role of inflammation as a cause of VTE. Genetic association studies have provided possible links between inflammation-related genetic variants, especially cytokines (e.g. IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13), and VTE, leading to establish the fundamental role of genetic background in predisposition to VTE and variable inflammatory processes in individuals. Additionally, several inflammation-related conditions including aging, autoimmune disease, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hormone replacement therapy, infectious diseases, metabolic diseases, overweight or obesity, pregnancy or postpartum, respiratory diseases, and trauma have been associated with an increased risk of VTE. At this moment, despite their theoretical potential, to achieve the implementation of the inflammation-related laboratory tests in practice is a long task and future studies with larger sample sizes are required to address whether the properties of the inflammatory process, particularly intensity and duration, are useful in determining the risk of VTE and following outcomes.

  13. Developments in pulmonary arterial hypertension-targeted therapy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinnapola, Charaka; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare disease characterised by the presence of organised chronic thromboembolic material occluding the proximal pulmonary arteries and a vasculopathy in the distal pulmonary arterial tree. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is a potential cure for many patients with CTEPH. However, PEA is not suitable for patients with a significant distal distribution of chronic thromboembolic material or with significant comorbidities. Also, a proportion of patients are left with residual CTEPH post PEA. Until recently, pulmonary arterial hypertension-targeted therapies have been used off licence to treat patients with inoperable or residual CTEPH. The CHEST1 study investigated the use of riociguat and was the first randomised controlled trial to show efficacy in inoperable or residual CTEPH. In this review, we explore the pathophysiology of CTEPH and review the current trial evidence for pulmonary arterial hypertension-targeted therapies. We also include a discussion of physiological considerations that require further investigation.

  14. Decreased time constant of the pulmonary circulation in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie Ross, Robert V; Toshner, Mark R; Soon, Elaine; Naeije, Robert; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna

    2013-07-15

    This study analyzed the relationship between pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary arterial compliance (Ca) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and proximal chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). It has recently been shown that the time constant of the pulmonary circulation (RC time constant), or PVR × Ca, remains unaltered in various forms and severities of pulmonary hypertension, with the exception of left heart failure. We reasoned that increased wave reflection in proximal CTEPH would be another cause of the decreased RC time constant. We conducted a retrospective analysis of invasive pulmonary hemodynamic measurements in IPAH (n = 78), proximal CTEPH (n = 91) before (pre) and after (post) pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), and distal CTEPH (n = 53). Proximal CTEPH was defined by a postoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) of ≤25 mmHg. Outcome measures were the RC time constant, PVR, Ca, and relationship between systolic and mean PAPs. The RC time constant for pre-PEA CTEPH was 0.49 ± 0.11 s compared with post-PEA-CTEPH (0.37 ± 0.11 s, P time constant was associated with a disproportionate decrease in systolic PAP with respect to mean PAP. We concluded that the pulmonary RC time constant is decreased in proximal CTEPH compared with IPAH, pre- and post-PEA, which may be explained by increased wave reflection but also, importantly, by persistent structural changes after the removal of proximal obstructions. A reduced RC time constant in CTEPH is in accord with a wider pulse pressure and hence greater right ventricular work for a given mean PAP.

  15. [Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism revealing beta-thalassemia intermedia after splenectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, B; Maillot, F; Casset-Sedon, D; Regina, S; Sitbon, O; Cosnay, P

    2006-12-01

    The clinical expression of beta-thalassemia intermedia is variable and complications are more frequent than in the minor form. Thromboembolism risk increase after splenectomy. Few cases of the type of complications are reported. A man was admitted for beta-thalassemia intermedia with moderate chronic hemolysis anemia, complicated by chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and liver iron overload. Post-traumatic splenectomy probably increase the risk of this two complications. The patient's respiratory status improved following bosentan therapy without worsening his hepatopathy. The present study also notes that thromboembolism complications can be an indicator of beta thalassemia and interrogate about the risk and the benefit of splenectomy in the treatment of beta-thalassemia intermedia.

  16. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism pathologically showing homogeneous cellular alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Seiichi; Shirai, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Kaida, Yusuke; Suda, Takafumi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Chida, Kingo

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of general malaise. Examination of arterial blood gases on room air revealed hypoxia. Pulmonary function test showed restrictive abnormality. Chest high-resolution CT showed diffuse mosaic attenuation without evident pulmonary artery abnormality on contrast chest CT. Based on these findings, interstitial pneumonia or chronic pulmonary thromboembolism was suspected. The findings of bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 4.4×10(5) cells/mL, including 89.6% macrophages, 9.4% lymphocytes, and 1.0% neutrophils. TBLB showed marked alveolitis. Moreover video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical biopsy was performed. Biopsies of the lung specimen showed focal infarct with surrounding mild mononuclear cell infiltrates (homogenous cellular alveolitis). (99m)Tc pulmonary perfusion and (81m)Kr ventilation scintigraphy showed V/Q mismatch. Furthermore, pulmonary angiography also revealed inadequate artery flow corresponding to the mismatch area of scintigraphy. Collagen vascular diseases and abnormality of coagulation factors were not detected. Multiple perfusion defects persisted for more than 6 months. Thus, finally the patient was diagnosed with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, pathologically showing homogenous cellular alveolitis.

  17. Tenecteplase in the treatment of acute pulmonary thrombo-embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswaran, J S; Premchand, Rajendra Kumar; Iyengar, S S; Rajeev Khare; Chabra, C B; Padmanabhan, T N C; Sharma, S K; Jain, Alkesh; Pandian, S A; Rajdev, S; Modi, N; Kumar, V

    2011-05-01

    This is a retrospective study documenting the use of tenecteplase in 41 cases of suspected or confirmed pulmonary embolism receiving in-hospital tenecteplase as per weight-adjusted dosing in addition to standard heparin and oral anticoagulant therapy. The presenting symptoms of dyspnoea, chest pain, hemoptysis and syncope were found in 40 (97.56%), 19 (46.34%), 6 (14.63%) and 9 (21.95%) patients, respectively. There was one case of mortality who was a 26 yrs old female of postpartum pulmonary thrombo-embolism with severe hypotension, cyanosis, bilateral crepitations in lungs and pulmonary hypertension. In the 40 survived patients, there was alleviation of dyspnoea and hemoptysis in all patients. Significant reduction in tachycardia (P tenecteplase therapy. Resolution of pulmonary embolism on CT pulmonary angiography was documented in only two patients. No bleeding events or any other adverse events were reported during this study. The present study suggests favourable efficacy of tenecteplase in patients with suspected or confirmed acute pulmonary embolism. Although no major adverse events were noted, a large prospective study on the use of tenecteplase in pulmonary embolism is suggested.

  18. Four cases of pulmonary thromboembolism diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erer, Onur Fevzi; Cimen, Pinar; Unlu, Mehmet; Katgi, Nuran

    2017-09-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a technique for the detection of mediastinal abnormalities. A total of 548 EBUS procedures were performed for various indications, and in four cases (0.7%), filling defects in central pulmonary arteries were demonstrated fortuitously during the procedure. Subsequently, all patients underwent contrast-enhanced CT of the thorax to confirm the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). In three of the four cases, there was a concomitant lung cancer. PTE can be incidentally detected during EBUS; therefore, pulmonary arteries should be examined carefully during EBUS in all patients, particularly in patients with suspected or proven malignancy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:441-444, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Pulmonary Thromboembolism in Klinefelter%u2019s Syndrome Patient with Deficient of Protein C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yigit

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (KS is a common genetic disorder caused by one or more supernumerary X chromosomes. KS poses an increased risk for venous thromboembolic events such as deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Klinefelter syndrome is prone to hypercoagulability due to hormonal imbalance and one or more inherited thrombophilic factors. Therefore, patients with KS having a medical history of venous thromboembolism require chest computed tomographic (CT images and oral anticoagulation therapy for a period of at least six months. A 21 year old, male patient diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome was presented to the emergency department of our hospital with primary complaints of left lower extremity pain lasting for 2 months. Deep venous thromboembosis (DVT was diagnosed via venous doppler ultrasound and pulmonary thromboembolism in his chest CT images. Following anticoagulation treatment, his symptoms recovered. An endocrinologic test should be ordered in patients having klinefelter syndrome with a medical or familial history of venous thromboembolism as well as additional assessment of innate or acquired thrombophilia should be made.

  20. The Most Common Detected Risk and Etiologic Factors of Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    OpenAIRE

    Cukic, Vesna; Baljic, Rusmir

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is the most serious manifestation of thromboembolic disease. Objective: To determine the most common risk and etiologic factors of pulmonary tromboembolism in patients treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year- period from 2008. to 2010. Material and methods: We retrospectively analysed patients with PTE treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in ...

  1. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) Results From an International Prospective Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Pepke-Zaba; M. Delcroix; I. Lang; E. Mayer; P. Jansa; D. Ambroz; C. Treacy; A.M. D'Armini; M. Morsolini; R. Snijder; P. Bresser; A. Torbicki; B. Kristensen; J. Lewczuk; I. Simkova; J.A. Barbera; M. de Perrot; M.M. Hoeper; S. Gaine; R. Speich; M.A. Gomez-Sanchez; G. Kovacs; A.M. Hamid; X. Jaies; G. Simonneau

    2011-01-01

    Background-Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is often a sequel of venous thromboembolism with fatal natural history; however, many cases can be cured by pulmonary endarterectomy. The clinical characteristics and current management of patients enrolled in an international CTEPH re

  2. [Massive pulmonary artery thromboembolism after removal of sphenoid wing meningioma (clinical case with good outcome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubnin, A Iu; Konovalov, A N; Markina, M S; Goriachev, A S

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a clinical case of the severe potentially fatal postoperative complication--massive pulmonary thromboembolism--in a patient after uncomplicated removal of meningioma of the wing of os basilare. It also describes the problems in the diagnosis, treatment, prevention of perioperative deep venous thrombosis of the shin and subsequent pulmonary thromboembolism in neurosurgery patients.

  3. Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Risk Factors and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrek, Sarah; Safdar, Zeenat

    2016-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) occurs when thromboemboli travel to the pulmonary vasculature, fail to resolve, and cause elevated pulmonary arterial pressure. Untreated, this disease leads to progressive right heart failure and death. It develops in approximately 1% to 5% of patients who suffer an acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and has an overall incidence of 3 to 30 per million in the general population. While it is not entirely evident why most but not all people are able to clear this clot burden, there are known risk factors for the development of CTEPH. These include signs of right heart strain at the time of incident PE, inherited coagulopathies, inflammatory conditions, hypothyroidism, and a history of splenectomy. Since CTEPH can be treated both surgically and medically, it is critical to understand the pathophysiology of the disease so affected patients can be identified and diagnosed appropriately.

  4. Pulmonary endarterectomy: part I. Pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnostic evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Dalia A; Pretorius, Gert Victor D; Kerr, Kim M; Manecke, Gerard R

    2014-12-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) results from recurrent or incomplete resolution of pulmonary embolism. CTEPH is much more common than generally appreciated. Although pulmonary embolism (PE) affects a large number of Americans, chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains underdiagnosed. It is imperative that all patients with PH be screened for the presence of CTEPH since this form of PH is potentially curable with pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) surgery. The success of this procedure depends greatly on the collaboration of a multidisciplinary team approach that includes pulmonary medicine, cardiothoracic surgery, and cardiac anesthesiology. This review, based on the experience of more than 3000 pulmonary endarterectomy surgeries, is divided into 2 parts. Part I focuses on the clinical history and pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, and intraoperative echocardiography. Part II focuses on the surgical approach, anesthetic management, postoperative care, and complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Characterization of proximal pulmonary arterial cells from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarck Rozenn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is associated with proximal pulmonary artery obstruction and vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that pulmonary arterial smooth muscle (PASMC and endothelial cells (PAEC may actively contribute to remodeling of the proximal pulmonary vascular wall in CTEPH. Our present objective was to characterize PASMC and PAEC from large arteries of CTEPH patients and investigate their potential involvement in vascular remodeling. Methods Primary cultures of proximal PAEC and PASMC from patients with CTEPH, with non-thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH and lung donors have been established. PAEC and PASMC have been characterized by immunofluorescence using specific markers. Expression of smooth muscle specific markers within the pulmonary vascular wall has been studied by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Mitogenic activity and migratory capacity of PASMC and PAEC have been investigated in vitro. Results PAEC express CD31 on their surface, von Willebrand factor in Weibel-Palade bodies and take up acetylated LDL. PASMC express various differentiation markers including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, desmin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC. In vascular tissue from CTEPH and non-thromboembolic PH patients, expression of α-SMA and desmin is down-regulated compared to lung donors; desmin expression is also down-regulated in vascular tissue from CTEPH compared to non-thromboembolic PH patients. A low proportion of α-SMA positive cells express desmin and SMMHC in the neointima of proximal pulmonary arteries from CTEPH patients. Serum-induced mitogenic activity of PAEC and PASMC, as well as migratory capacity of PASMC, were increased in CTEPH only. Conclusions Modified proliferative and/or migratory responses of PASMC and PAEC in vitro, associated to a proliferative phenotype of PASMC suggest that PASMC and PAEC could contribute to proximal vascular remodeling in CTEPH.

  6. Spiral CT of acute pulmonary thromboembolism: evaluation of pleuroparenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P T; Wechsler, R J; Salazar, A M; Fisher, A M; Nazarian, L N; Steiner, R M

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this work was to identify and categorize the spectrum of pulmonary parenchymal and pleural abnormalities identified by CT in patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PE). A review of interpretations from 4,715 consecutive contrast-enhanced thoracic CT studies identified 41 examinations in which the diagnosis of PE was reported. Thirty-four studies were available for review, and two radiologists confirmed intraluminal defects in 31 patients. The number of emboli were counted and localized using bronchopulmonary nomenclature. Associated parenchymal and pleural abnormalities were tabulated. Of the 31 patients, 13 underwent confirmatory or correlative studies including angiography, radionuclide study, or autopsy. In addition, deep venous thrombosis was confirmed by ultrasound or MRI in 13 patients. An average of 7.5 emboli per patient was detected. Pleuroparenchymal findings were as follows: Nine patients (29%) had no acute pulmonary parenchymal or pleural abnormality. In the remaining 22 patients, pleural effusion was the most common abnormality, found in 14 of 31 (45%). Ten patients (32%) had peripheral wedge-shaped parenchymal opacities suggestive of pulmonary infarction. Normally enhancing lobar atelectasis was seen in nine patients (29%). Six patients (19%) demonstrated heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement within nonaerated lung, two of whom had pathologically proven pulmonary infarct. Thirteen of 31 patients underwent high resolution CT; a typical mosaic perfusion pattern was seen in only 1 patient. Twenty-nine percent of patients with acute PE had no acute lung parenchymal abnormality on CT; thus, the absence of parenchymal abnormality on CT does not exclude PE. High resolution CT mosaic perfusion was not a common feature of acute pulmonary embolism. Regions of decreased enhancement within nonaerated lung, seen in 19%, may prove to be an indicator of pulmonary infarction; however, this is a nonspecific finding.

  7. Cavitating Lung Lesions in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    edwin j r van beek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the incidence and natural history of cavitating lung lesions in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH, note thrombus position between patients with and without a cavity and determine whether their development is a predictor of mortality. Materials & Methods: All patients with confirmed CTEPH attending our Pulmonary Vascular Unit between February 1998 and January 2006 were identified, and a review of their notes and imaging was performed. Thrombus position, pre-disposing factors, cavity progression and mortality were noted, and comparisons made between those with and without a cavity. Results: 11 of 104 patients had a cavity (10.6%. Thrombus distribution was similar between those with and those without a cavity. Preceding infection was not proven in  most cases. 27.3% of patients with a cavity died compared to 26.8% of those without. Conclusion: Cavity formation in CTEPH is 3 times more common than in acute pulmonary embolism. Thrombus position does not predict cavity development, and the presence of a cavity may serve as an indicator of disease severity but does not appear to predict mortality.

  8. Thrombosis and its significance after experimental pulmonary thromboembolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季颖群; 张中和; 张平

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study thrombosis and its significance after acute experimental pulmonary thromboembolism. Methods The acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) model of rabbits was established by intravenous injection of autologous blood clots (0.04 g/kg) which were stabilized in temperature-controlled (70℃) distilled water for 10 min. The process of thrombosis was observed grossly and microscopically. The Quick's method was used to examine the coagulability of blood and radioimmunoassay was employed to measure the level of plasma thromboxane A2 and endothelin. Results Thrombotic propensity was observed at 1 h, fresh thrombus started to form and the blood coagulation system was activated at 24 h following clots infusion. Emboli were completely or partly dissolved at 5 d and appeared to organize at both 10 d and 14 d after clots were infused. Venous plasma thromboxane A2 concentration began to increase at 5 min (2489.59±714.68 ng/L) and reached its maximum at 15 min (2545.46±590.58 ng/L) then declined at 60 min after clot infusion (P<0.001, respectively, vs 626.59±510.02 ng/L of pre-clot). The level of endothelin in both arterial and venous blood increased at 5 d post-clot infusion (840.74±154.19 ng/L, 230.35±52.39 ng/L, respectively) compared to the one before infusion (602.66±453.26 ng/L, 148.01±53.28 ng/L, respectively, P<0.05).Conclusions Thrombosis occurs after autologous-blood-clot-induced PTE. The interactions between thrombus formation, fibrinolysis and organization determines the consequences of emboli. Abnormalities of endothelin metabolism and the increment of thromboxane A2 may play an important role in PTE.

  9. Pulmonary tumor thromboembolism: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyappan Vinod

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary tumor thromoembolism is well described in literature especially in patients known to have cancer. We are presenting this report of a patient presenting with Acute Cor-pulmonale secondary to Occult Gastric carcinoma causing pulmonary tumor embolism. This is an unusual presentation of occult neoplasm.

  10. Simple mechanical thrombectomy with intrapulmonary arterial thrombolysis in pulmonary thromboembolism:a small case series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khurshid Ahmed; Muhammad Munawar; Dian Andina Munawar; Beny Hartono

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a life-threatening condition with a high early mortality rate caused by acute right ventricular failure and cardiogenic shock. We report a series of three patients who presented with acute and subacute submassive PTE. They were suc-cessfully treated by simple catheter-based mechanical thrombectomy and intrapulmonary arterial thrombolysis. Mechanical fragmentation and aspiration of thrombus was performed by commonly used J-wire, multi-purpose and Judkin Right guiding catheters and this obviated the need of specific thrombectomy devices.

  11. Pulmonary thromboembolism and right heart thromboemboli--an experience with tenecteplase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anil; Udgire, Prashant P; Khan, Shanavas; Goyal, B K; Gautam, Shalima

    2012-10-01

    The presence of right heart thromboemboli complicating pulmonary thromboemboli carries with it an increased mortality rate compared to pulmonary thromboemboli alone, but little is known about the optimal management of this difficult clinical situation. We report a case of bilateral pulmonary thromboembolism with right heart thrombi treated successfully with thrombolysis with tenecteplase.

  12. Pulmonary Thromboembolism Complicating Acute Pancreatitis With Pancreatic Ascites: A Series of 4 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchir Patel; Nirav Pipaliya; Prateik Poddar; Vikas Pandey; Meghraj Ingle; Prabha Sawant

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease often associated with local and systemic complications. Portosplenic and splanchnic vascular complications of acute pancreatitis are common, but extrasplanchnic vessel thrombosis is less commonly seen. Among them, pulmonary thromboembolism is a very rare complication to be encountered with. We report four cases of acute pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with acute pancreatitis superimposed on chronic pancreatitis. All the patients had abdomina...

  13. [Multidetector computed angiography: a new era in the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura-Hayama, Eric; Canseco-León, Nadia; Santiago-Serra, Rogerio

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. It is a common cause of cardiovascular care, second only to ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular events, with a prevalence of 3 to 15%, and its diagnosis remains crucial in the early hours of symptom onset. Given its clinical variability, it has become a diagnostic challenge in the emergency rooms, thus a fast and accurate paraclinical evaluation is needed. The aim of the present manuscript is to review the current role of imaging methods, in particular multidetector computed tomography, their advantages and limitations and the imaging findings of acute or chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. Finally, diagnostic algorithms based on the Thoracic Fleischner Society and the group of PIOPED II study investigators, are shown.

  14. The antioxidant tempol decreases acute pulmonary thromboembolism-induced hemolysis and nitric oxide consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Santos, Ozelia; Neto-Neves, Evandro M; Ferraz, Karina C; Sertório, Jonas T; Portella, Rafael L; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2013-11-01

    Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APT) is a critical condition associated with acute pulmonary hypertension. Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress and hemolysis contribute to APT-induced pulmonary hypertension, possibly as a result of increased nitric oxide (NO) consumption. We hypothesized that the antioxidant tempol could attenuate APT-induced hemolysis, and therefore attenuate APT-induced increases in plasma NO consumption. APT was induced in anesthetized sheep with autologous blood clots. The hemodynamic effects of tempol infused at 1.0mg/kg/min 30 min after APT were determined. Hemodynamic measurements were carried out every 15 min. To assess oxidative stress, serum 8-isoprostanes levels were measured by ELISA. Plasma cell-free hemoglobin concentrations and NO consumption by plasma samples were determined. An in vitro oxidative AAPH-induced hemolysis assay was used to further validate the in vivo effects of tempol. APT caused pulmonary hypertension, and increased pulmonary vascular resistance in proportion with the increases in 8-isoprostanes, plasma cell-free hemoglobin concentrations, and NO consumption by plasma (all Phemolysis (Phemolysis and nitric oxide consumption, thus attenuating APT-induced pulmonary hypertension. © 2013.

  15. Calcified pulmonary thromboembolism in a child with sickle cell disease: value of multidetector CT in patients with acute chest syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staser, Jonathan A. [Indiana University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Alam, Tariq [Medical College of Ohio, Department of Radiology, Toledo, OH (United States); Applegate, Kimberly [Indiana University Medical Center, Sections of Pediatric Radiology and Health Services Research, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The incidence of pulmonary embolism in children is not clearly known, but is believed to be low. Risk factors for pulmonary thromboembolism include central venous catheter, malignancy, surgery, infection, trauma, and congenital hypercoagulable disorders. Children with sickle cell disease are prothrombotic and are at an increased risk of thromboembolism. The incidence of this event is unknown because these children are often not thoroughly imaged. We report here a case of a calcified pulmonary thromboembolism in a child with sickle cell disease and emphasize the use of multidetector CT in detection of pulmonary thromboembolism in children with sickle cell disease. (orig.)

  16. Diagnostic Evaluation and Management of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: A Clinical Practice Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mehta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism is a common condition. Some patients subsequently develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH. Many care gaps exist in the diagnosis and management of CTEPH patients including lack of awareness, incomplete diagnostic assessment, and inconsistent use of surgical and medical therapies.

  17. Unenhanced and Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography and Perfusion Imaging for Suspected Pulmonary Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Kishida, Yuji; Seki, Shinichiro; Karabulut, Nevzat

    2017-03-01

    This article discusses the basics of unenhanced MR angiography (MRA) and MR venography (MRV), time-resolved contrast-enhanced (CE) MRA and dynamic first-pass CE perfusion MRI, and unenhanced and CE MRV, in addition to assessing the clinical relevance of these techniques for evaluating patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis. Since the 1990s, the efficacy of MRA or MRV and dynamic perfusion MRI for patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis has been evaluated. On the basis of the results of single-center trials, comprehensive MRI protocols, including pulmonary unenhanced and CE MRA, perfusion MRI, and MRV, promise to be safe and time effective for assessing patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism, although future multicenter trials are required to assess the real clinical value of MRI.

  18. The damage to a person caused by venous thromboembolism in the civil responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasi, A; Di Blasi, L; Manferoce, O; Napoli, P

    2000-01-01

    The venous thromboembolism can clinically show itself as deep venous thrombosis or as pulmonary embolism. Both serious and potentially fatal, for this high incidence, they assume importance in social economic sphere. The authors take into account the medicolegal diagnostics methodology of the deep venous thrombosis and of the pulmonary embolism, the traumatic and post traumatic etiology, to determine the connection of causality and the estimating parameters of the damage to a person in the sphere of civil responsibility. To attain to a certain diagnosis of thromboembolism, since its difficult cause of paucisymtomaticity or asymtomaticity of the pathology after an attentive evaluation of symptoms, clinic manifestations and factors of risk, it can't be disregarded to utilize scientific diagnostic criteria, and instrumental ascertainments, serial too, helped by conventional means of standardization, such as the new American system of classification CEAP. The following phases of medicolegal ascertainment consist in identifying the causal connection between disease and event and in estimating of the damage to a person, with rigorous and objective methodology and using tabular orientation guides, that have to indicate the percentage incidence of the undergone disablement on the person's validity for indemnity. It is showed the particular delicacy of the medical examiner's evaluation in thromboembolic disease, in the sphere of civil responsibility, both for the difficulties of the diagnostic identification of the deep venous thrombosis, and of the pulmonary embolism, and for the determination of the connection of causality with traumatic events and with following operation of orthopedics-traumatology and neurosurgery (sector on which the most difficult problems of professional responsibility can connect) and finally for the real evaluation of the consequent damage to a persons, in order to its indemnity.

  19. Gene Expression Profiling of Pulmonary Artery in a Rabbit Model of Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianfei; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Xie, Hao; Zhu, Qilin; Huang, Minjie

    2016-01-01

    Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) refers to the obstruction of thrombus in pulmonary artery or its branches. Recent studies have suggested that PTE-induced endothelium injury is the major physiological consequence of PTE. And it is reasonal to use PTE-induced endothelium injury to stratify disease severity. According to the massive morphologic and histologic findings, rabbit models could be applied to closely mimic the human PE. Genomewide gene expression profiling has not been attempted in PTE. In this study, we determined the accuracy of rabbit autologous thrombus PTE model for human PTE disease, then we applied gene expression array to identify gene expression changes in pulmonary arteries under PTE to identify potential molecular biomarkers and signaling pathways for PTE. We detected 1343 genes were upregulated and 923 genes were downregulated in PTE rabbits. The expression of several genes (IL-8, TNF-α, and CXCL5) with functional importance were further confirmed in transcript and protein levels. The most significantly differentially regulated genes were related to inflammation, immune disease, pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular diseases. Totally 87 genes were up-regulated in the inflammatory genes. We conclude that gene expression profiling in rabbit PTE model could extend the understanding of PTE pathogenesis at the molecular level. Our study provides the fundamental framework for future clinical research on human PTE, including identification of potential biomarkers for prognosis or therapeutic targets for PTE. PMID:27798647

  20. Gene Expression Profiling of Pulmonary Artery in a Rabbit Model of Pulmonary Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xudong; Huang, Jianfei; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Xie, Hao; Zhu, Qilin; Huang, Minjie; Ni, Songshi

    2016-01-01

    Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) refers to the obstruction of thrombus in pulmonary artery or its branches. Recent studies have suggested that PTE-induced endothelium injury is the major physiological consequence of PTE. And it is reasonal to use PTE-induced endothelium injury to stratify disease severity. According to the massive morphologic and histologic findings, rabbit models could be applied to closely mimic the human PE. Genomewide gene expression profiling has not been attempted in PTE. In this study, we determined the accuracy of rabbit autologous thrombus PTE model for human PTE disease, then we applied gene expression array to identify gene expression changes in pulmonary arteries under PTE to identify potential molecular biomarkers and signaling pathways for PTE. We detected 1343 genes were upregulated and 923 genes were downregulated in PTE rabbits. The expression of several genes (IL-8, TNF-α, and CXCL5) with functional importance were further confirmed in transcript and protein levels. The most significantly differentially regulated genes were related to inflammation, immune disease, pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular diseases. Totally 87 genes were up-regulated in the inflammatory genes. We conclude that gene expression profiling in rabbit PTE model could extend the understanding of PTE pathogenesis at the molecular level. Our study provides the fundamental framework for future clinical research on human PTE, including identification of potential biomarkers for prognosis or therapeutic targets for PTE.

  1. [A case of successful thrombolysis by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Chiyo; Yano, Toshiyuki; Tashiro, Hironori; Terasaki, Hidenori

    2002-02-01

    A 52-year-old female suspected of hypercoagulability underwent modified radical hysterectomy and left oophorectomy for uterus cancer and left giant ovarian tumor under general combined with epidural anesthesia. On the day after the operation, the patient complained of dyspnea and developed tachypnea, a low Spo2, and hypotension after the intermittent external pneumatic compression of the legs. Echocardiography showed acute right cardiac failure and pulmonary angiography revealed massive pulmonary thromboembolism. The patient fell into shock with severe hypotension and unconsciousness during the catheter fragmentation and aspiration therapy for pulmonary thrombi. Bolus intravenous injection of monteplase 1.6 million units, a mutant of tissue plasminogen activator with a longer half-life, rapidly improved the shock status and stabilized the hemodynamic condition. Monteplase would be useful for life-threatening pulmonary thromboembolism although the risk of hemorrhagic complication remains.

  2. Use of bisphosphonates and raloxifene and risk of deep venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, P; Schwartz, K; Pinholt, E M;

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies have associated raloxifene and strontium ranelate with deep venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism. In a cohort study, we observed an increased risk also with the bisphosphonates. However, the increase was present already before the start of bisphosphonates pointing at an eff...

  3. Elevated levels of natriuretic peptides in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, David G; Kennedy, Norman S; Pirzada, Omar; Batchelor, Sheila A; Struthers, Allan D; Lipworth, Brian J

    2005-10-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) occurs in a wide variety of clinical settings and presents a diagnostic challenge to clinicians, often requiring extensive imaging of the vascular bed. Management increasingly requires accurate risk stratification to rapidly identify those with massive and submassive PTE requiring different therapeutic strategies such as thrombolysis. Provision of a rapid blood test that improves diagnostic certainty and helps stratify risk could therefore bridge the gap between uncertainty and delivery of immediate early life-saving treatment. One hundred and fourteen consecutive patients with suspected PTE underwent prospective evaluation. Venous blood samples were obtained from an unselected group referred for ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and N-terminal pro-ANP (N-ANP) were measured by radioimmunoassay using commercially available kits. The scans were classified into three groups according to standard criteria (PIOPED); normal scan (N) (n=20), low/intermediate probability (L/I) of PTE (n=77) and high probability (H) of PTE (n=17). Comparisons were also made between patients with high probability scans who died (n=3) and those who survived (n=14). Values are quoted for the median and interquartile ranges. There were statistically significant differences between groups for levels of (a) BNP (P<0.001): N=6.7 pmol/l (5.6-11.9), L/I=12.5 pmol/l (6.7-28.2) and H=18.5 pmol/l (12.6-74.6); (b) ANP (P<0.005): N=12.6 pmol/l (7.1-16.0), L/I=19.51 pmol/l (12.5-28.2) and H=19.1 pmol/l (15.7-31.7) and (c) N-ANP (P<0.05): N=177 pmol/l (119-200), L/I=302 pmol/l (152-576) and H=322 pmol/l (223-563). Levels of BNP and ANP were significantly (P<0.05) higher in patients with high probability scans and a diagnosis of PTE who died (n=3) than in those who survived (n=14); BNP: 91.6 pmol/l (77.5-336.2) vs. 14.4 pmol/l (11.9-27.4) and ANP 32.5 pmol/l (21.7-105.5) vs. 17.6 pmol/l (15

  4. Clinical and haemodynamic evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients scheduled for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy: Is schistosomiasis hypertension an important confounding factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Terra-Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a disease affecting approximately 4,000 people per year in the United States. The incidence rate in Brazil, however, is unknown. The estimated survival for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without treatment is approximately three years. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for select patients is a potentially curative procedure when correctly applied. In Brazil, the clinical and hemodynamic profiles of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients have yet to be described. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients scheduled for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in a referral center for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension treatment in Brazil. METHODS: From December 2006 to November 2009, patients were evaluated and scheduled for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. The subjects were classified according to gender, age and functional class and were tested for thrombofilia and brain natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: Thirty-five consecutive chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients were evaluated. Two patients tested positive for schistosomiasis, and 31 were enrolled in the study (19 female, 12 male. The majority of patients were categorized in functional classes III and IV. Hemodynamic data showed a mean pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR of 970.8 ± 494.36 dynas·s·cm-5 and a low cardiac output of 3.378 ± 1.13 L/min. Linear regression revealed a direct relation between cardiac output and pulmonary vascular resistance. Paradoxical septal movement was strongly correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output (p=0.001. Brain natriuretic peptide serum levels were elevated in 19 of 27 patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a referral center for pulmonary hypertension in Brazil, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients evaluated for

  5. Clinical and haemodynamic evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients scheduled for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Is schistosomiasis hypertension an important confounding factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra‐Filho, Mario; Mello, Marcos Figueiredo; Lapa, Mônica Silveira; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique Oliveira Braga; Jatene, Fábio Biscegli

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a disease affecting approximately 4,000 people per year in the United States. The incidence rate in Brazil, however, is unknown. The estimated survival for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without treatment is approximately three years. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for select patients is a potentially curative procedure when correctly applied. In Brazil, the clinical and hemodynamic profiles of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients have yet to be described. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients scheduled for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in a referral center for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension treatment in Brazil. METHODS: From December 2006 to November 2009, patients were evaluated and scheduled for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. The subjects were classified according to gender, age and functional class and were tested for thrombofilia and brain natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: Thirty‐five consecutive chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients were evaluated. Two patients tested positive for schistosomiasis, and 31 were enrolled in the study (19 female, 12 male). The majority of patients were categorized in functional classes III and IV. Hemodynamic data showed a mean pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) of 970.8 ± 494.36 dynas·s·cm‐5 and a low cardiac output of 3.378 ± 1.13 L/min. Linear regression revealed a direct relation between cardiac output and pulmonary vascular resistance. Paradoxical septal movement was strongly correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output (p = 0.001). Brain natriuretic peptide serum levels were elevated in 19 of 27 patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a referral center for pulmonary hypertension in Brazil, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients evaluated for pulmonary

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition attenuates right ventricular dysfunction and improves responses to dobutamine during acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto-Neves, Evandro M; Sousa-Santos, Ozelia; Ferraz, Karina C; Rizzi, Elen; Ceron, Carla S; Romano, Minna M D; Gali, Luis G; Maciel, Benedito C; Schulz, Richard; Gerlach, Raquel F; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2013-12-01

    Activated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cause cardiomyocyte injury during acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APT). However, the functional consequences of this alteration are not known. We examined whether doxycycline (a MMP inhibitor) improves right ventricle function and the cardiac responses to dobutamine during APT. APT was induced with autologous blood clots (350 mg/kg) in anaesthetized male lambs pre-treated with doxycycline (Doxy, 10 mg/kg/day, intravenously) or saline. Non-embolized control lambs received doxycycline pre-treatment or saline. The responses to intravenous dobutamine (Dob, 1, 5, 10 μg/kg/min.) or saline infusions at 30 and 120 min. after APT induction were evaluated by echocardiography. APT increased mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance index by ~185%. Doxycycline partially prevented APT-induced pulmonary hypertension (P Doxy+APT group (from 13.3 ± 0.9 to 14.4 ± 1.0 mm, P > 0.05). RV dysfunction on stress echocardiography was observed in embolized lambs (APT+Dob group) but not in embolized animals pre-treated with doxycycline (Doxy+APT+Dob). APT increased MMP-9 activity, oxidative stress and gelatinolytic activity in the RV. Although doxycycline had no effects on RV MMP-9 activity, it prevented the increases in RV oxidative stress and gelatinolytic activity (P < 0.05). APT increased serum cardiac troponin I concentrations (P < 0.05), doxycycline partially prevented this alteration (P < 0.05). We found evidence to support that doxycycline prevents RV dysfunction and improves the cardiac responses to dobutamine during APT. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  7. Diagnostic usefulness of dual-energy computed tomography in evaluation of the severity of acute pulmonary thromboembolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Min; Beak, Jang Mi; Yoon, Yeon Hong; Kim, Yun Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seon, Hyun Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Bitgoeul Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in severity assessment of patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APTE). We evaluated 61 patients diagnosed as APTE from 2011 to 2012 in a retrospective analysis of the severity assessment indices according to Criteria by European Society of Cardiology as well as pulmonary CT angiographic obstruction score (OS) and lung perfusion index (pulmonary perfusion defect score; DS) by DECT. The correlation between OS, DS and the severity of pulmonary thromboembolism was evaluated using logit analysis. Patients with high OS also showed significantly higher DS values (p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between both the OS and DS values and the severity of the pulmonary thromboembolism using simple sequence logit analysis (p < 0.001). However, only the DS value showed a very high correlation with the severity of pulmonary thromboembolism using multiple sequence logit analysis. DECT provides a more useful marker for the diagnosis and severity assessment of pulmonary thromboembolism by checking the degree of lung perfusion as well as determining the existence of APTE in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism.

  8. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension. The Journey from a Curiosity to a Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, William R; Mandel, Jess; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a progressive and life-threatening condition that is believed to be related to inadequate dissolution of acute pulmonary thromboemboli, followed by fibrotic organization. Without appropriate treatment, progressive pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure, and death may occur. While the disorder was initially described nearly a century ago in autopsy studies, antemortem diagnosis became feasible with the advent of cardiac catheterization and angiography techniques in the 1940s, while surgical thromboendarterectomy was not attempted until the 1960s. However, this procedure initially had high mortality rates until refinements in management and surgical techniques resulted in much improved outcomes starting in the 1980s. Many questions remain about the pathophysiology and epidemiology of this condition, with unclear contributions of genetics and environmental exposures. The optimal approach to diagnosis also continues to evolve, with improvements in preoperative imaging and hemodynamic assessment. Treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension has not remained static, as surgical techniques continue to improve and newer pharmacological treatments and percutaneous catheter-based interventions may play therapeutic roles in selected patients. This is the introductory article of a series that provides a state-of-the-art review of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

  9. A case of severe pulmonary thromboembolism in a young male with klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung-Soo; Cho, Deok-Kyu; Koh, Won-Jun; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Won, Ki-Bum; Cho, Yun-Hyeong; Hwang, Eui-Seock; Koh, Jong-Hoon

    2012-08-01

    A young male patient diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome was admitted to our hospital via the emergency room with chief complaints of acute chest pain and dyspnea. Pulmonary thromboembolism was diagnosed from his chest CT images. His symptoms improved after he underwent thrombolysis and anticoagulation treatment. Klinefelter syndrome has a tendency towards hypercoagulability due to hormonal imbalance and one or more inherited thromophilic factors. Thus, Klinefelter syndrome patients with a past medical history of venous thromboembolism require continuous oral anticoagulation therapy for a period of at least six months.

  10. Paget-Schroetter syndrome and pulmonary thromboembolism: clinical follow-up over 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hideo; Mimura, Satoshi; Motoyoshi, Kazuo

    2005-09-01

    A scaffold constructor lost consciousness at work, leading to emergency admission to our hospital. He had noted gradual worsening of exertional dyspnea over the previous 1 month. Chest radiography showed localized oligemia and enlarged hilar vessels. Pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy confirmed the existence of multiple perfusion defects, so a diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism was made. Upper and lower limb venography disclosed interruption of the right subclavian vein (so-called Paget-Schroetter syndrome). However, there was no difference in appearance between the right and left upper extremities. Five years after starting anticoagulant therapy, his symptoms have resolved, but serial perfusion scintigraphy and upper extremity venography revealed the persistence of abnormalities. In patients with pulmonary thromboembolism, lifestyle factors (especially heavy manual labor) should be considered and the possibility of subclavian vein thrombosis should be kept in mind.

  11. Drospirenone detected in postmortem blood of a young woman with pulmonary thromboembolism: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idota, Nozomi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Miyamori, Daisuke; Kakiuchi, Yasuhiro; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Progestin/estrogen oral contraceptives have some side effects, including venous thromboembolism. To alleviate side effects, improvements have been made to low-dose oral contraceptives, including reductions in the amount of estrogen and/or changes the type of progestin. A compound drug containing 3mg drospirenone and 20μg ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE20, YAZ®) was released in overseas markets in 2006, and in Japan in 2010 as a newly developed low-dose medicines. This drug is expected to have lower side effects. We received a medicolegal autopsy case of a young woman who had been prescribed YAZ for dysmenorrhea for 17months. The autopsy revealed a blood clot in her pulmonary artery bifurcation. Blood screening by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis did not detect any medicinal toxicants. However, from police investigations, it is strongly believed that she had been taking YAZ. Therefore we performed a single ion resolution mode assay and detected DRSP. A quantitative analysis revealed 32.3ng/mL of DRSP. As no other cause of the pulmonary thromboembolism was evident, we consider YAZ as the likely cause of the pulmonary thromboembolism. Recent reports from the past few years suggest a higher risk of venous thromboembolism with DRSP/EE20 than earlier progestin/estrogen oral contraceptives. Comparing the risk associated with DRSP/EE20 and DRSP/EE30, one report found no differences and another report showed DRSP/EE20 was associated with a higher risk than DRSP/EE30. No cases of thrombosis caused by progestin alone have been reported. But comparing the risk between DRSP/EE20 and other progestins/EE20, two studies reported DRSP/EE20 had a higher risk than other progestins/EE20. The incidence of venous thromboembolism is highest in the first year of use and decreases thereafter. Because DRSP/EE20 has been on the market for only a couple of years, it is necessary for clinicians to use the drug carefully and accumulate more side-effect data. It is

  12. Pulmonary Hemorrhagic Infarction due to Fat Embolism and Thromboembolism after Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery: a Rare Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Dong-hua; SHAO Yu; ZHANG Jian-hua; QIN Zhi-qiang; LIU Ning-guo; HUANG Ping; CHEN Yi-jiu

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary fat embolism (PFE) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) are common post-operative complications of orthopedic surgical procedures,but are reported less often following maxillofacial plastic surgical procedures,especially with respect to PFE.Thrombi,or together with fat emboli in pulmonary vessels can induce hemorrhagic infarction and cause death.Herein this report introduced a death due to pulmonary hemorrhagic infarction following maxillofacial plastic surgery.The female patient underwent several osteotomies of the mandible,zygomas and autologous bone grafting within a single operation.The operative time was longer than normal and no preventive strategies for pulmonary embolism were implemented.The patient died 20 days after hospital discharge.The autopsy confirmed pulmonary hemorrhagic infarction.The fat emboli and thrombi were also noted in the pulmonary vessels,which were thought to have resulted from the maxillofacial osteotomy.Suggestions were offered to forensic pathologists that risk factors of PFE and PTE,such as the type and length of surgery,the surgical sites,and the preventive strategies,should be considered when handling deaths after maxillofacial operations.

  13. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in young woman with history of caesarian section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitia A. Asbarinsyah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is one of subgroups of pulmonary hypertension. This is a serious medical condition that severely under diagnosed. CTEPH is commonly underdiagnosed due to non specific symptoms and lack of diagnostic tools. The aim of this presentation is to discuss the etiology, risk factors, diagnosis and management of CTEPH. A 36-year-old woman presented with easily fatigue and dyspneu on effort since two years ago. The symptom occured about three months after she gave birth with caesarian section due to preeclampsia. Further history taking, physical examination, electrocardiography (ECG and echocardiography were highly suggestive of pulmonary hypertension. No deep vein thrombosis (DVT was found on vascular femoral sonography. It was found after the lung perfusion scintigraphy performed that she actually had CTEPH. This patient was categorized as inoperable because CT pulmonary angiography showed no thrombus. The patient got pulmonary vasodilator and oral anticoagulant for lifelong.

  14. Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism Presenting As Complete Heart Block - A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Goyal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a life threatening condition which requires early diagnosis and management. Electrocardiogram (ECG is helpful for suspecting the disease. The various ECG changes are sinus tachycardia, P pulmonale, Right bundle branch block (RBBB -incomplete or complete, axis shift, S1Q3T3, T wave inversion, and ST-segment depression in leads V1-4, aVF, and Lead III, supra ventricular tachycardia, low voltage QRS complex in limb leads. In addition, sinus bradycardia and complete heart block (CHB can be seen. CHB has been reported as an exceptionally rare manifestation of acute PTE. Here, we are reporting a case of 66 year old male presented with CHB with acute pulmonary thromboembolism, who reverted to sinus rhythm after thrombolysis.

  15. Pulmonary thromboembolism following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with preexisting risk factors for deep venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna A Goswami

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a forty-five year old male who was admitted fifteen days prior with biliary pancreatitis. He developed pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE after uneventful laparoscopic cholecystec-tomy. He was initially treated with intravenous (IV heparin and inferior vena cava (IVC filter. Later on he underwent emergency pulmonary embolectomy due to haemodynamic deterioration. There is less incidence of PTE after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but it becomes high-risk for postoperative thromboembolic complications when it is associated with other risk factors. The purpose of this report is to highlight that preoperative detection of risk factors and thromboprophylaxis in indicated cases can prevent this complication. We also review the incidence of PTE, risk factors and thromboprophylaxis.

  16. CHRONIC THROMBOEMBOLIC PULMONARY HYPERTENSION AND PROBLEMS OF RARE AND INTERDISCIPLINARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shostak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a rare life-threatening disease with a prevalence of 2 cases per 100000 population. CTEPH is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by high disability and mortality rates in young and middle-aged people, often with underlying genetic and autoimmune thrombophilic disorders. The need for pathogenetic therapy with orphan drugs that can slow the progression of the disease is supported.

  17. A Case of Severe Pulmonary Thromboembolism in a Young Male With Klinefelter Syndrome

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    Kang, Byung-Soo; Cho, Deok-Kyu; Koh, Won-Jun; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Won, Ki-Bum; Cho, Yun-Hyeong; Hwang, Eui-Seock; Koh, Jong-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    A young male patient diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome was admitted to our hospital via the emergency room with chief complaints of acute chest pain and dyspnea. Pulmonary thromboembolism was diagnosed from his chest CT images. His symptoms improved after he underwent thrombolysis and anticoagulation treatment. Klinefelter syndrome has a tendency towards hypercoagulability due to hormonal imbalance and one or more inherited thromophilic factors. Thus, Klinefelter syndrome patients with a pa...

  18. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension and Assessment of Right Ventricular Function in the Piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noly, Pierre-Emmanuel; Guihaire, Julien; Coblence, Matthieu; Dorfmüller, Peter; Fadel, Elie; Mercier, Olaf

    2015-11-04

    An original piglet model of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) associated with chronic Right Ventricular (RV) dysfunction is described. Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) was induced in 3-week-old piglets by a progressive obstruction of the pulmonary vascular bed. A ligation of the left Pulmonary Artery (PA) was performed first through a mini-thoracotomy. Second, weekly embolizations of the right lower pulmonary lobe were done under fluoroscopic guidance with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate during 5 weeks. Mean Pulmonary Arterial Pressure (mPAP) measured by ritght heart catheterism, increased progressively, as well as Right Atrial pressure and Pulmonary Vascular Resistances (PVR) after 5 weeks compared to sham animals. Right Ventricular (RV) structural and functional remodeling were assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (RV diameters, RV wall thickness, RV systolic function). RV elastance and RV-pulmonary coupling were assessed by Pressure-Volume Loops (PVL) analysis with conductance method. Histologic study of the lung and the right ventricle were also performed. Molecular analyses on RV fresh tissues could be performed through repeated transcutaneous endomyocardial biopsies. Pulmonary microvascular disease in obstructed and unobstructed territories was studied from lung biopsies using molecular analyses and pathology. Furthermore, the reliability and the reproducibility was associated with a range of PH severity in animals. Most aspects of the human CTEPH disease were reproduced in this model, which allows new perspectives for the understanding of the underlying mechanisms (mitochondria, inflammation) and new therapeutic approaches (targeted, cellular or gene therapies) of the overloaded right ventricle but also pulmonary microvascular disease.

  19. CHRONIC POST-THROMBOEMBOLIC PULMONARY HYPERTENSION DEVELOPMENT IN A PATIENT WITH HEREDITARY THROMBOPHILIA: A CASE REPORT

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    A. A. Klimenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe a clinical case of chronic post-thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH development and progression in a patient with recurrent pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE and hereditary thrombophilia.Materials and methods. Patient K., female, 50 years old, was hospitalized in the 1st therapeutic department of N.I. Pirogov First City Clinical Hospital with complaints of shortness of breath, occurring at rest and exacerbating after minimal physical activity, dry cough, chest heaviness, swelling of the lower extremities (mainly right one. The patient had a history of deep venous thrombosis (DVT of the lower extremities, PTE, splenectomy, and long glucocorticosteroid drugs intake for thrombocytopenic purpura. The patient underwent different examinations in the hospital, including evaluation of laboratory tests in dynamics, echocardiography, contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography of the pulmonary artery and its branches, perfusion lung scintigraphy, right heart catheterization.Results. After examination the patient was diagnosed with multiple segmental and subsegmental perfusion defects of both lungs; we also observed signs of pulmonary hypertension (PH at echocardiography, proved by right heart catheterization. Also the patient was diagnosed with inherited thrombophilia. The patient was included in the register of PH-patients, thromboendarterectomy together with administration of special medications, approved for use in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH-specific therapy were recommended.Conclusion. This article describes the main features of CTEPH, its diagnostics and treatment in patients with CTEPH after PTE.

  20. [Successful surgical treatment of a massive pulmonary embolism in the organized thromboembolic phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarić, V; Todorić, M; Ilić, R; Tisma, S; Trifunović, Z; Nikolić, G; Stojnić, B

    2000-01-01

    A patient, male, aged 36, clinically presented as an unstable angina pectoris following myocardial infarction, who came from general hospital of Banja Luka for further examination is presented. According to the medical report, he was treated for acute myocardial infarction in 1994 at Banja Luka's general hospital, when he was resusciated due to of cardiac arrest. The anginous pain was still present regardless of prescribed therapy. Following the clinical examination at the Military Medical Academy we have established a diagnosis of thromboembolism of the main pulmonary artery with a high pressure in the right ventricle. He underwent surgery under the extracorporeal circulation, when an organized old thrombus the main pulmonary artery and partially in arterial branches. The main pulmonary artery was almost completely obliterated. Thrombectomy was done. Following the operation, the patient was in a good condition and the repeated echocardiographic examinations showed no signs of recurrent thrombosis while the pressure in the right ventricle was significantly decreased. Afterwards, he was treated by heparine and oral anticoagulants and then by antiagregants. This case is very instructive because the massive pulmonary thromboembolism which was wrongly recognized and treated as an acute myocardial infarction.

  1. A TWO-YEAR FOLLOW-UP OF A FEMALE PATIENT WITH RECURRENT PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM AFTER SUCCESSFUL COMBINED TREATMENT

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    I. A. Baranova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe a clinical case of recurrent pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE with developed chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH and successful stenting of the pulmonary artery branch after ineffective thrombolysis. Patient Ch. born in 1978 was admitted to a cardiology unit with suspected PTE. The patient complained of obvious resting dyspnea increasing with minimal physical exercise. Blood test revealed leukocytosis, D-dimer just above the normal value. Electrocardiography showed sinus rhythm, right axis deviation, and complete right bundle-branch block. EchoCG indicated right hearth dilatation with an increase in systolic pressure gradient across the tricuspid valve up to 60 mm Hg. Lower extremity venous duplex scanning revealed a muscle vein dilated up to 14 mm with echogenic parietal deposits in the muscle thickness at the middle third of the right leg; compression was virtually complete; the valves were incompetent and a muscle vein irregularly dilated up to 7 mm in the middle third of the left leg; the walls were uneven; compression was complete. Angiopulmonography detected occlusion of the lower and middle lobe branches of the right pulmonary artery and the lower lobe branch of the left pulmonary artery. Results. It was decided to perform local thrombolysis in terms of the patient»s young age, obvious clinical symptoms (New-York Heart Association Functional Class (FC III–IV dyspnea and the data of earlier studies on the benefit from thrombolysis in intermediate-risk persons and a council of a vascular surgeon, a cardiologist, and an X-ray endovascular diagnosis and treatment physician, and an invasive specialist. The patient underwent local thrombolysis with purolase 6,000,000 IU. Control angiopulmonography revealed no positive changes in the branches of the pulmonary artery. Because of ineffective thrombolysis and the persistence of significant pulmonary hypertension and FC III–IV dyspnea, the patient underwent

  2. Intermittent pneumatic compression for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism after gynecologic surgery

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    Tomita Akiyo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the incidence of pulmonary embolism and risk factors for this condition after obstetric and gynecologic surgery, as well as the efficacy of intermittent pneumatic compression. Methods A total of 6,218 patients operated at Keio University Hospital excluding obstetric or infertility-related surgery and uterine cervical conization were evaluated retrospectively to determine the preventive effect of intermittent pneumatic compression on postoperative pulmonary embolism. Results Pulmonary embolism occurred in 42 patients (0.68%. Multivariate analysis showed that malignancy, blood transfusion, and a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 or ≥28 kg/m2 were independent risk factors for postoperative pulmonary embolism. A significantly lower incidence of pulmonary embolism occurred in patients receiving pneumatic compression postoperatively versus those without it. Among gynecologic malignancies, endometrial cancer was a significant risk factor for pulmonary embolism. Conclusion Preventive measures, including intermittent pneumatic compression, should be taken to avoid postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism in the gynecology field.

  3. 急诊重症肺血栓栓塞症临床特点探析%The emergency department with severe pulmonary thromboembolism clinical characteristics analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翀

    2012-01-01

      Objective To discuss the emergency department with severe pulmonary thromboembolism analysis of positive clinical features, provide the basis for clinical diagnosis. Methods From the hospital to get the sample data analysis and finishing. Results Dyspnea pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with the highest proportion of, almost the majority. Conclusion Pulmonary thromboembolism clinical symptoms involving the respiratory, nervous and circulatory multiple system, causes for deep vein thrombosis of lower limb loss caused.%  目的讨论分析急诊重症肺血栓栓塞症临床特点,为临床诊断提供依据。方法对从医院得到的样本数据进行分析和整理。结果呼吸困难在肺血栓栓塞症的患者中所占比例最高,占了绝大多数。结论肺血栓栓塞症的临床症状涉及呼吸、神经和循环多个系统,发病原因多为下肢深静脉血栓脱落所致。

  4. Pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death in psychiatric patients: Two cases reports

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    Marinković Nadica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary thromboembolism occurs usually by running a thrombus from the deep veins of the legs rarely periprostatic or periuteric veins. Virchow's triad of necessary conditions for the occurrence of thrombosis involves disruption of blood flow, disruption of blood chemistry and damage to the vessel wall. Venous thrombosis is often associated with the implementation of antipsychotic therapy. Case report. We reported two cases of sudden death of psychiatric patients who were in both cases fixed during hospitalization. The first case was a 26-year-old woman treated a year with the diagnose of postpartum reactive psychosis. She was hospitalized because of mental state worsening with a dominant depressed mood, visual and auditory hallucinations. Her therapy was determined by diazepam, clozapine, haloperidol and lamotrigine. Suddenly, the patient died on the fifth day of hospitalization. The autopsy showed massive thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery branches. Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of therapeutic doses of antipsychotics. The second case was a-45-yearold men, a long-time alcoholic. On admission, the diagnosis of delirium tremens was established, and diazepam and haloperidol were administered. On the fifth day of hospitalization, he suddenly died. The autopsy showed thromboembolism of the branch of the pulmonary artery. Toxicological analysis established the presence of nordiazepam in urine (0.06 mg/L. Both patients were fixed during hospitalization. Conclusion. Both presented psychiatric patients were younger than 50 years, were not overweight, did not have changes of the venous blood vessels. Nowadays, when the issue of medical responsibility often arises in these and similar cases of sudden death in patients treated in psychiatric clinics, the questions on medical malpractice could be expected.

  5. The Challenge in Diagnosis and Current Treatment of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

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    Anggoro Budi Hartopo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is currently underdiagnosis and consequently undertreatment in the clinical practice. A deficient in diagnostic modality and treatment availability especially in developing countries makes the CTEPH diagnosis unlikely to confirm. However, high index of clinical suspicion of CTEPH will lead to proper diagnosis and correct treatment  with significant reduction in morbidity and mortality. Left untreated, the mean survival time is 6.8 years and the three year mortality rate may be as high as 90 %. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of CTEPH are necessary to be shared among internists and primary care physicians, in order to improve the overall outcome of the patients.

  6. A case of pulmonary thromboembolism due to coagulation factor V Leiden in Japan ~ usefulness of next generation sequencing~.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueta, Daisuke; Ito, Miwa; Uchiba, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Shinriki, Satoru; Hokimoto, Seiji; Matsui, Hirotaka; Tsujita, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    Because the venous thromboembolisms (VTEs) due to the coagulation factor V R506Q (FV Leiden) mutation is often seen in Caucasians, the VTE onset in Japan has not been reported. A 34-year-old man from north Africa experiencing sudden dyspnea went to a hospital for advice. The patient had pain in his right leg and a high plasma D-dimer level. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed a contrast deficit in the bilateral pulmonary artery and in the right lower extremity. The patient was diagnosed with VTE, and anticoagulation therapy was initiated. Our targeted gene panel sequencing revealed that the occurrence of VTE was attributed to a presence of the FV Leiden mutation. This is the first report demonstrating VTE caused by the FV Leiden mutation in Japan.

  7. Diagnóstico por imagem do tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo Imaging of acute pulmonary thromboembolism

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    C. Isabela S. Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico do tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo é baseado na probabilidade clínica, uso do dímero D (quando disponível e na avaliação por imagem. Os principais métodos de imagem utilizados no diagnóstico são representados por cintilografia ventilação-perfusão, angiografia pulmonar e tomografia computadorizada (TC. Na última década vários estudos têm demonstrado que a TC espiral apresenta elevada sensibilidade e especificidade no diagnóstico de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo. Uma melhor avaliação das artérias pulmonares tornou-se possível com a recente introdução dos equipamentos de TC espirais com multidetectores. Vários pesquisadores têm sugerido que a angiografia pulmonar por TC espiral deve substituir a cintilografia na avaliação de pacientes com suspeita clinica de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo. Os autores discutem os principais métodos de imagem utilizados no diagnóstico de tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo enfatizando o papel da TC espiral.The diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism is based on the clinical probability, use of D-dimer (when available and imaging. The main imaging modalities used in the diagnosis are ventilation-perfusion (V/Q, scintigraphy, angiography, and computed tomography (CT. In the last decade several studies have demonstrated that spiral CT has a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism. The evaluation of the pulmonary arteries has further improved with the recent introduction of multidetector spiral CT scanners. Various investigators have suggested that spiral CT pulmonary angiography should replace scintigraphy in the assessment of patients whose symptoms are suggestive of acute PE. This article discusses the role of the various imaging modalities in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism with emphasis on the role of spiral CT.

  8. Pulmonary tuberculosis - An emerging risk factor for venous thromboembolism: A case series and review of literature

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    Amitesh Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One-third of patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE manifest pulmonary embolism, whereas two-thirds manifest deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Overall, 25%–50% of patients with first-time VTE have an idiopathic condition, without a readily identifiable risk factor, and its association with tuberculosis (TB is a rare occurrence. Deep venous thrombosis has been associated with 1.5%–3.4% cases of TB. Early initiation of anti-TB treatment along with anticoagulant therapy decreases the overall morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. We report three cases of DVT associated with pulmonary TB who were diagnosed due to high index of suspicion as the risk factors for the development of DVT were present in these cases.

  9. Pulmonary tuberculosis - An emerging risk factor for venous thromboembolism: A case series and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amitesh; Mrigpuri, Parul; Faye, Abhishek; Bandyopadhyay, Debdutta; Singla, Rupak

    2017-01-01

    One-third of patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) manifest pulmonary embolism, whereas two-thirds manifest deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Overall, 25%–50% of patients with first-time VTE have an idiopathic condition, without a readily identifiable risk factor, and its association with tuberculosis (TB) is a rare occurrence. Deep venous thrombosis has been associated with 1.5%–3.4% cases of TB. Early initiation of anti-TB treatment along with anticoagulant therapy decreases the overall morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. We report three cases of DVT associated with pulmonary TB who were diagnosed due to high index of suspicion as the risk factors for the development of DVT were present in these cases. PMID:28144063

  10. [Application of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-hui; Liu, Zhi-hong; Gu, Qing; Luo, Qin; Zhao, Qing; Xiong, Chang-ming; Ni, Xin-hai

    2013-06-11

    To evaluate the application value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). A total of 116 consecutive patients admitted into the Cardiology Department of Fuwai Hospital.They were divided into 3 groups of CTEPH (n = 44), CPE (without pulmonary hypertension in chronic pulmonary embolism) (n = 24) and control (without pulmonary embolism or pulmonary hypertension) (n = 48) respectively. Their levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured. Incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed to compare its differential results among 3 groups and evaluate the correlation between NT-proBNP and its parameters. The body mass index (BMI) in the CTEPH group was lower than those in the CPE and control groups ((23.8 ± 3.9) vs (26.1 ± 3.6) and (26.7 ± 3.2) kg/m(2) ), both P test and there were no severe complications such as syncope or exacerbation of disease. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), percentage of predicted maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 %), oxygen consumption in relation to body weight (VO2/kg), anaerobic threshold and O2 pulse in the CTEPH group were significantly lower than those in the CPE and control groups (P testing may be used objectively and safely to evaluate the cardiopulmonary function of CTEPH patients.

  11. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Experience from a Single Center in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naamani, Nadine; Espitia H, Gaudalupe; Velazquez-Moreno, Hugo; Macuil-Chazaro, Benjamin; Serrano-Lopez, Arturo; Vega-Barrientos, Ricardo S; Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R

    2016-04-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by precapillary pulmonary hypertension secondary to vaso-occlusive pulmonary vasculopathy and is classified as Pulmonary Hypertension Group 4. The aim of this study is to report the clinical experience of CTEPH in Mexico. Consecutive patients diagnosed with CTEPH were identified from the Registro de Pacientes con Hipertension Pulmonar del Instituto de Seguridad y Servicio Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (REPHPISSSTE) registry between January 2009 and February 2014. Right heart catheterization was not routinely performed prior to August 2010 in the work-up of CTEPH. We identified 50 patients with CTEPH; their median age was 63 years and 58 % were female. Patients had multiple associated co-morbidities and moderate hemodynamic impairment. All patients were treated with anticoagulation. Despite surgical evaluation for pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), only one patient underwent PEA given the lack of infrastructure for post-operative care and lack of insurance for this procedure. Most of the patients were treated with sildenafil, bosentan, or both, with increasing use of rivaroxaban and sildenafil in recent years. The overall survival of the cohort was similar to that reported in other international registries, despite the limitations of care imposed by drug availability and surgical feasibility. This is the first report on the CTEPH experience in Mexico. It highlights the similarity of patients in the REPHPISSSTE registry to those in international registries as well as the challenges that clinicians face in a resource-limited setting.

  12. [Value of radionuclide lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis and quantitative analysis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Ni, Xin-Hai; He, Jian-Guo; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Xiong, Chang-Ming; He, Zuo-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    This study was to assess the reliability of perfusion/ventilation (Q/V) lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis and quantitative analysis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). A total of 78 in-patients with pulmonary hypertension who had no history of congenital heart disease, valvular disease and acute pulmonary embolism were included in this study. All patients underwent Q/V scintigraphy for detecting CTEPH. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Q/V scintigraphy were defined by comparing with the results of pulmonary angiography. Percentage of Perfusion Defect score (PPDs%) was calculated in patients with CTEPH confirmed by pulmonary angiography. The correlations between PPDs% and mPAP, PPDs% and SPAP were analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of a high-probability Q/V scintigraphy interpretation were 96.0%, 81.1% and 86.9%, respectively, compared with 100%, 69.8% and 79.5% for the combination of high- and intermediate- probability Q/V scintigraphy interpretation. PPDs% was significantly correlated with mPAP and SPAP (r = 0.538 for mPAP, P lung scintigraphy is a valuable technique for diagnosis and quantitative analysis of CTEPH.

  13. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Experience from a Single Center in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naamani, Nadine; Espitia H, Gaudalupe; Velazquez-Moreno, Hugo; Macuil-Chazaro, Benjamin; Serrano-Lopez, Arturo; Vega-Barrientos, Ricardo S.; Hill, Nicholas S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by precapillary pulmonary hypertension secondary to vaso-occlusive pulmonary vasculopathy and is classified as Pulmonary Hypertension Group 4. The aim of this study is to report the clinical experience of CTEPH in Mexico. Methods Consecutive patients diagnosed with CTEPH were identified from the Registro de Pacientes con Hipertension Pulmonar del Instituto de Seguridad y Servicio Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (REPHPISSSTE) registry between January 2009 and February 2014. Right heart catheterization was not routinely performed prior to August 2010 in the work-up of CTEPH. Results We identified 50 patients with CTEPH; their median age was 63 years and 58 % were female. Patients had multiple associated co-morbidities and moderate hemodynamic impairment. All patients were treated with anticoagulation. Despite surgical evaluation for pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), only one patient underwent PEA given the lack of infrastructure for post-operative care and lack of insurance for this procedure. Most of the patients were treated with sildenafil, bosentan, or both, with increasing use of rivaroxaban and sildenafil in recent years. The overall survival of the cohort was similar to that reported in other international registries, despite the limitations of care imposed by drug availability and surgical feasibility. Conclusion This is the first report on the CTEPH experience in Mexico. It highlights the similarity of patients in the REPHPISSSTE registry to those in international registries as well as the challenges that clinicians face in a resource-limited setting. PMID:26748498

  14. The Most Common Detected Risk and Etiologic Factors of Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna; Baljic, Rusmir

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is the most serious manifestation of thromboembolic disease. Objective: To determine the most common risk and etiologic factors of pulmonary tromboembolism in patients treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year- period from 2008. to 2010. Material and methods: We retrospectively analysed patients with PTE treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period from 2008. to 2010. PTE was diagnosed by high resolute computed tomography, in most of them ventilatory /perfusion scintigraphy (V/P SPECT) was made, with proper laboratory analyses (D-dimmer, platelets , fibrinogen, and if it was needed protein C, S and AT III factor were examined). In all of them echosonography of abdomen and pelvis was done, also the examination by angiologist, and in patients with indications echosonography of the heart and Color Doppler of leg veins was made. We analysed risk and etiologic factors for PTE in each patient. Results: In 222 treated patients with PTE risk factors were found in 124 or 55.86% patients, etiologic factors were found in 31 or 13.96%, and both risk and etiologic factors in one patient were found in 18 or 8.11% patients. Conclusion: PTE is very serious disease that very often has fatal prognosis, and can develop with previously entirely healthy people, and as soon as we become suspicious of its presence we have to made appropriate diagnostic procedures and include appropriate therapy. We can after look for risk and etiologic factors and try to influence them. PMID:23922531

  15. The Pulmonary Thromboembolism as a Risk of Surgical Treatments and the Role of Anticoagulant Prophylaxiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our objective is to show the number of patients with postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism (PPTE) treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary diseases an TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period : from June 1, 2011 - June 1, 2014 and to indicate the importance of various surgical operations in the development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Material and methods: This is the retrospective study which shows the number of patients with PPTE treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary diseases an TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period : from 01.06.2011.-01.06.2014. It represents the number of these patients, per cent of patients with PPTE of total patients with PTE, age and sex of patients, type of surgery, period expressed in days from surgery to diagnosis of PTE, presence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower extremities, massiveness of PPTE e.g. level of pulmonary artery with embolus. Results: In three-year period 232 patients with PTE were treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. 60 of them or 25.86% were patients with 24 males or 40% middle-aged 58.5 years, and 36 females or 60% middle-aged 56.3 years. PPTE developed in 15 patients with abdominal, 11 with urologic, 8 with gynecologic, 15 with orthopedic, 4 with cardiologic, 2 with vascular, 3 with neurosurgical, 1 with glandular and 1 with orl operations. The average period from operation to diagnosis of PPTE was 10.5 days for women, and 13.8 days for men. Only two patients had acute DVT after operation (one man and one woman), and five had amnesias of previous DVT or PTE. The level or the site of pulmonary embolus was different from segmental to main branches of pulmonary artery. Conclusion: Different surgical operations are the big risk factor for the development of PTE. There is great significance of anticoagulant prophylaxis before surgery even in patients with no anamnesis of previous DVT or PTE. PMID:25568626

  16. Variables associated with pulmonary thromboembolism in injured patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Ryan; Mathew, Joseph; Olaussen, Alexander; Gantner, Dashiell; Varma, Dinesh; Koukounaras, Jim; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Cameron, Peter A; Mitra, Biswadev

    2017-08-18

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a dangerous complication of traumatic injury, with varied risk profiles and treatment options. This review aims to describe reported incidence and variables associated with PTE among severely injured patients. Searches were conducted using PubMed, Cochrane and MEDLINE. Relevant studies were identified by two independent reviewers based on predetermined inclusion criteria. Incidence of PTE was the primary outcome measure. Variables associated with PTE was the secondary outcome measure. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess quality of included studies. There were eight studies that satisfied inclusion criteria. The diagnosed incidence of PTE in these populations ranged from 0.35 to 24%. The most common variables associated with PTE were pelvic or lower limb injury, chest injury, higher total Injury Severity Score, male sex and age. Variables that were less commonly associated with PTE were previous warfarin use, head injury, high serum lactate, soft tissue injury, more than one operation, more than three days on a ventilator, presence of a subclavian central venous catheter, need for a blood transfusion, systolic blood pressure variable and dependent on inclusion criteria, diagnostic criteria and study design. Identified variables differed to those reported for venous thromboembolism in other populations. It is difficult to predict populations at risk of clinically significant PTE following injury using available evidence. Further studies linked to patient-specific variables will assist in more precise risk-stratification and interventions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after acute pulmonary embolism: a contemporary view of the published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ende-Verhaar, Yvonne M; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton; Delcroix, Marion; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Mairuhu, Albert T A; Huisman, Menno V; Klok, Frederikus A

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) after pulmonary embolism (PE) is relevant for management decisions but is currently unknown.We performed a meta-analysis of studies including consecutive PE patients followed for CTEPH. Study cohorts were predefined as "all comers", "survivors" or "survivors without major comorbidities". CTEPH incidences were calculated using random effects models.We selected 16 studies totalling 4047 PE patients who were mostly followed up for >2-years. In 1186 all comers (two studies), the pooled CTEPH incidence was 0.56% (95% CI 0.1-1.0). In 999 survivors (four studies) CTEPH incidence was 3.2% (95% CI 2.0-4.4). In 1775 survivors without major comorbidities (nine studies), CTEPH incidence was 2.8% (95% CI 1.5-4.1). Both recurrent venous thromboembolism and unprovoked PE were significantly associated with a higher risk of CTEPH, with odds ratios of 3.2 (95% CI 1.7-5.9) and 4.1 (95% CI 2.1-8.2) respectively. The pooled CTEPH incidence in 12 studies that did not use right heart catheterisation as the diagnostic standard was 6.3% (95% CI 4.1-8.4).The 0.56% incidence in the all-comer group probably provides the best reflection of the incidence of CTEPH after PE on the population level. The ∼3% incidences in the survivor categories may be more relevant for daily clinical practice. Studies that assessed CTEPH diagnosis by tests other than right heart catheterisation provide overestimated CTEPH incidences.

  18. An audit of pressure sores caused by intermittent compression devices used to prevent venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Joanna; Thomas, Sunil

    2011-12-01

    When intermittent compression devices (ICDs) are used to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) they can cause pressure sores in a selected group of women, undergoing long operations. A prospective audit pre and post intervention showed a reduced risk with an alternative device, without increasing the risk of VTE.

  19. Is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome a risk factor for pulmonary thromboembolism?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kezban Ozmen Suner; Ali Nihat Annakkaya; Umran Toru; Talha Dumlu; Ege Gulec Balbay; Peri Arbak; Leyla Yilmaz Aydin; Hasan Suner

    2012-01-01

    Background In many studies,obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.Conversely,there are few reports establishing possible relation between OSA and venous thromboembolism (VTE).In this study,the aim is to evaluate OSA via polysomnography in patients with pulmonary embolism and drawing the attention of clinicians to the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may be a risk factor for pulmonary embolism.Methods Fifty consecutive patients who were diagnosed with pulmonary embolism (PE) were evaluated prospectively for OSAS.Polysomnographic examination was conducted on 30 volunteer patients.The frequency of OSAS in PE was determined and PE cases were compared to each other after being divided into two groups based on the presence of a major risk factor.Results The study consisted of a total of 30 patients (14 females and 16 males).In 56.7% of the patients (17/30),OSAS was determined.The percent of cases with moderate and severe OSAS (apnea hipoapnea index>15) was 26.7%(8/30).Patients who had pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) without any known major VTE risk (n=20),were compared to patients with VTE risk factors (n=10),and significantly higher rates of OSAS were seen (70% and 30% respectively;P=-0.045).The mean age of the group with major PE risk factors was lower than the group without major PE risk factors (52 years old and 66 years old,respectively; P=0.015),however,weight was greater in the group with major PE risk factors (88 kg and 81 kg,respectively; P=0.025).By multivariate Logistic regression analysis,in the group without any visible major risk factors,the only independent risk factor for PE was OSAS (P=0.049).Conclusions In patients with PTE,OSA rates were much higher than in the general population.Moreover,the rate for patients with clinically significant moderate and severe OSA was quite high.PTE patients with OSA symptoms (not syndromes) and without known major risk factor

  20. Value of CT pulmonary arteriography and venography in the evaluation of venous thromboembolism in a multiracial Asian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeong Ji Lee; Rozman Zakaria; Zaleha Abdul Manaf; Zahiah Mohamed; Yeong Yeh Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that CT pulmonary arteriography and venography allow a better diagnostic yield for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE).The aim was to investigate the value for using such an approach in a multiracial Asian population.Methods A total of 135 consecutive subjects with clinically suspected PE in various clinical settings (postoperative in 23 subjects) were referred and evaluated for venous thromboembolism using CT pulmonary arteriography and venography in a tertiary hospital,Malaysia.The distribution of DVT was assessed based on the frequency rate of thrombosis in a particular anatomical region (inferior vena cava,pelvic,femoral and popliteal).Results In 130 subjects,excluding 5 subjects having poor images,both DVT and PE were detected in 11.5% (15/130) subjects and DVT alone was detected in 6.9% (9/130) subjects giving a combined rate of venous thromboembolism of 18.4%.A history of malignancy was significantly associated with positive scans,P=0.02.It was found that left pelvic veins (18.2%) and left femoral veins (19.5%) were more commonly thrombosed in this population.Conclusion CT pulmonary arteriography and venography is a useful technique in the evaluation of venous thromboembolism in a multi-racial Asian population.

  1. Variation of D-dimer values as assessment of pulmonary thromboembolism during adulticide treatment of heartworm disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretón, E; Morchón, R; González-Miguel, J; Simón, F; Juste, M C; Montoya-Alonso, J A

    2013-07-01

    Dirofilaria immitis adult worms lodged in the pulmonary arteries are the causative agent of heartworm disease, characterized by endarteritis and obstruction of the blood flow. Dying worms form embolic fragments which trigger thrombosis. Thus, pulmonary thromboembolism is an inevitable consequence of successful adulticide therapy. Clinical signs of pulmonary thromboembolisms are highly variable and non-specific, and its diagnosis is often difficult to obtain. The D-dimer assay is considered the marker of choice for dogs with a suspicion of pulmonary thromboembolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the variation of D-dimer and platelets in 15 heartworm-infected dogs during the adulticide treatment with ivermectin, doxycycline and melarsomine. Nine dogs were considered to have a low parasite burden and 6 had a high burden. Measurements were carried out on days 0, 60, and afterwards weekly on days 67, 75, 82, 91, 98, 106, 113, 120, and finally on day 271 after treatment. 40% of dogs showed pathological concentrations of D-dimer and 40% showed slight or mild thrombocytopenia on day 0. The levels of D-dimer decreased by day 60, probably due to the joint action of the ivermectin, doxycycline and exercise restriction. All dogs with high parasite burden showed elevated values of D-dimer on several occasions during the treatment, reaching the highest values the first and second week after the injections of melarsomine. Only 33.3% of the dogs with low parasite burden showed elevated D-dimer levels at some point during the treatment, and all of them showed undetectable levels from the third week after the first injection of melarsomine. On day 271, all dogs showed undetectable levels of D-dimer. There was no correlation between thrombocytopenia and levels of D-dimer during the treatment. The evaluation of serum D-dimer appears to be a supportive test in the assessment and monitoring of pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs with heartworm disease during the adulticide

  2. Bilateral chylothorax in a patient with chronic central vein thrombosis and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

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    Avdhesh Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chylothorax is not a common presentation, and bilateral chylothorax in patients with chronically high central venous pressure secondary to venous thrombosis is a rare in incidence. We reported a case of bilateral chylothorax in a patient of chronic deep vein thrombosis (DVT in central veins with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension who presented with 2 weeks history of increased breathlessness, bilateral chest discomfort and weakness. Work-up with chest X-ray and ultrasonography-chest showed gross left sided and mild right sided pleural effusion, thoracocentesis was consistent with chylothorax. Contrast enhanced computed tomography-chest showed multiple collateral formation of left side subclavian vein, venous Doppler showed old DVT in right and left subclavian veins and two-dimensional echocardiogram showed finding of severe pulmonary hypertension. After 24 h of fasting and conservative management, pleural drain became clear and decreased in the amount. Patient′s video assisted thoracoscopic surgery was done, and thoracic duct was ligated and cut down at diaphragmatic level and bilateral talc pleurodesis done. Patient improved clinically and radiologically.

  3. Puerperous pulmonary thromboembolism: Incidence, clinical features, treatment and outcome, study of 13 cases

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    Chuang CAI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the clinical features, treatment and outcome of puerperium pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE. Methods  To count the cases of spontaneous labor and cesarean section, as well as the incidence of PTE, treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from Jan. 2006 to Nov. 2011, and retrospectively analyze the data of hospitalized parturients with PTE. Results  A total of 5052 cases of spontaneous delivery were collected at the obstetric ward, of which 2910 cases (57.6% were cesarean sections and 2142 cases (42.4% were vaginal delivery. On the duration of hospital stay, 13 cases (0.26% were diagnosed as puerperal PTE by CT pulmonary angiography, of which 11 cases occurred within 3 days after delivery. The incidence of puerperal PTE was significantly higher in cases with cesarean section than in those with vaginal delivery (0.38% vs0.09%, P=0.043. The most common symptoms of puerperal PTE were breathless (76.9%, cough (53.8%, pleuritic chest pain (23.1% and fever (30.8%. The clinical symptoms were improved by anticoagulation therapy (11 cases or thrombolysis (2 cases with zero mortality. Conclusions  The incidence of puerperal PTE in the hospital the authors served is 0.26%. Puerperal PTE should be considered especially to those parturients with sudden dyspnea, chest tightness or pleuritic chest pain within 3 days after cesarean section.

  4. Hipertensão pulmonar tromboembólica Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

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    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A hipertensão pulmonar tromboembólica é a única forma potencialmente curável de hipertensão pulmonar, nos casos passíveis de resolução cirúrgica. O desenvolvimento da técnica de tromboendarterectomia possibilitou a melhora significativa da sobrevida dos pacientes portadores de hipertensão pulmonar tromboembólica, assim como a resolução do quadro hipertensivo na maioria absoluta dos pacientes operados. Nos últimos anos, tornou-se possível a definição de critérios mais claros para a indicação cirúrgica, assim como de critérios prognósticos, o que determinou uma diminuição significativa do risco cirúrgico associado ao procedimento.Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is the only type of pulmonary hypertension that is potentially curable, assuming that the patient in question is a good candidate for surgery. The development and implementation of the thromboendarterectomy technique has, in most cases, allowed the hypertensive state to be resolved and has therefore increased survival among such patients. In recent years, more well-defined criteria for identifying patients for whom surgery is indicated, as well as the identification of prognostic markers, have made it possible to decrease surgical risk significantly.

  5. Relationship between pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary thromboembolism associated with dead worms in canine heartworm disease.

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    Hirano, Y; Kitagawa, H; Sasaki, Y

    1992-10-01

    To examine effects of thromboemboli due to dead worms on pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), 20 to 50 dead heartworms were inserted into the pulmonary arteries of 4 heartworm uninfected dogs (uninfected group) and 11 dogs infected with heartworms (infected group). In the uninfected group, the mean PAP rose 1 week after worm insertion (10.9 to 166. mmHg), but it recovered by the 4th week. Clinical signs, hemodynamics and blood gas findings also deteriorated at the 1st week, but recovered at the 4th week. Angiographic and pathological findings indicated that blood flow recovered through the spaces between thromboemboli and vessel walls at the 4th week. The infected dogs were divided into three groups. In the infected-I group (5 dogs), the intimal lesions of the pulmonary arteries were slight, and clinical and laboratory findings showed changes similar to those of the uninfected group. In the infected-II group (4 dogs), the pulmonary arterial lesions were severe and the mean PAP was higher (25.7 mmHg) than in the uninfected group before worm insertion. An increase in PAP (34.1 mmHg) and worsening of clinical and laboratory findings were noticed till the 4th week. Thromboemboli adhered extensively to the vessel walls. Two dogs in the infected-III group died of severe dyspnea on the 9th and 10th day, and the mean PAP rose remarkably at the 1st week (from 19.4 to 28.2 mmHg). Severe pulmonary parenchymal lesions with edema or perforation were observed. From the above results, it was clarified that effects of dead worms on PAP and clinical signs depended on the severity of pulmonary arterial lesions before worm insertion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Expression of tissue factor and forkhead box transcription factor O-1 in a rat model for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chaosheng; Wu, Dawen; Yang, Minxia; Chen, Yunfei; Wang, Caiyun; Zhong, Zhanghua; Lian, Ningfang; Chen, Hua; Wu, Shuang

    2016-11-01

    Few reports have examined tissue factor (TF) and forkhead box transcription factor O-1 (FoxO1) expression in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) animal models. To investigate the role of TF and FoxO1 and their interactions during CTEPH pathogenesis in a rat model. Autologous blood clots were repeatedly injected into the pulmonary arteries through right jugular vein to induce a rat model of CTEPH. Hemodynamic parameters, histopathology, and TF and FoxO1expression levels were detected. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance and vessel wall area/total area (WA/TA) ratio in the experiment group increased significantly than sham group (P model of CTEPH can be successfully established by the injection of autologous blood clots into the pulmonary artery. TF and FoxO1 may play a key role in vascular remodeling during CTEPH pathogenesis.

  7. Pulmonary thromboembolism in a child with sickle cell hemoglobin d disease in the setting of acute chest syndrome.

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    Villanueva, Hazel; Kuril, Sandeepkumar; Krajewski, Jennifer; Sedrak, Aziza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Sickle cell hemoglobin D disease (HbSD) is a rare variant of sickle cell disease (SCD). Incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in children with HbSD is unknown. PE and DVT are known complications of SCD in adults but have not been reported in the literature in children with HbSD. Case Report. We are reporting a case of a 12-year-old boy with HbSD with acute chest syndrome (ACS) complicated by complete thrombosis of the branch of the right pulmonary artery and multiple small pulmonary artery emboli seen on computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiogram and thrombosis of the right brachial vein seen on Doppler ultrasound. Our patient responded to treatment with anticoagulant therapy. Conclusion. There are no cases reported in children with HbSD disease presenting as ACS with pulmonary thromboembolism. We suggest that PE should be suspected in patients presenting with ACS who do not show improvement with standard management. CT pulmonary angiogram should be utilized for early diagnosis and appropriate management as there is no current protocol for management of PE/DVT in pediatric patients with SCD.

  8. Approaches of Physicians for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Thromboembolism: A Questionnaire Study

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    Ceyda Anar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the approaches of physicians with a questionnaire toward the patients with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE in our country. Methods: An invitation letter including a questionnaire with 28 questions to assess the approaches they prefer in the patients with PTE and the capabilities of the departments they work at and a link for the questionnaire was directed to the mail groups of chest diseases specialists. Responses of the physicians who participated in the questionnaire were reviewed. Results: The examinations used to diagnose PTE such as D-dimer, troponin, echocardiographic Doppler ultrasonography and multidetector computed tomography (CT have been performed in 94% of the institutions, ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, MRI and pulmonary angiography examinations were performed in 50% of the instututions. While D-dimer test was performed in 73.2% of the institutions by quantitative ELISA; in 15.7% of them it was semiquantitative and in 11.6% of the instutitions it was performed by latex agglutination. 81% of physicians were seen to be using clinical probability scoring systems and most commonly used scoring method was seen to be Wells scoring with a rate of 90%. According to the simplified PESI score, 61.5% of the physicians reported to prefer outpatient treatment. In non-massive and submassive pulmonary thromboemboli patients, 86.2% of the physicians reported to prefer thr low molecular weight heparin (LMWH treatment; vitamin K antagonist in maintenance treatment was also the most commonly resorted drug with a percentage of 84.9. Conclusion: The absence of the examinations used in the diagnosis and treatment of PTE in most institutions and difficulty to reach the available examinations at all hours of the day were significant facts. Especially; lack of access to high-sensitivity D-dimer test, bedside echocardiography used to assess right ventricular dysfunction, troponin and NT-proBNP makes us think about low

  9. The role of polymorphonudear cells in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in a canine model of pulmonary thromboembolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓朝胜

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of polymoronuclear cells (PMN) on lung ischemia-reperfusion(I/R) injury in a canine model of pulmonary thromboembolism. Methods Fifteen dogs were divided into three groups; a sham group (n=5), an ischemia group (n=5) and a reperfusion group (n=5). PMN in the whole blood were isolated with density gradient centrifugation. Apoptosis rate of the PMN was measured through flow cytome-

  10. Comparison of C-arm Computed Tomography and Digital Subtraction Angiography in Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

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    Hinrichs, Jan B., E-mail: hinrichs.jan@mh-hannover.de; Marquardt, Steffen, E-mail: marquardt.steffen@mh-hannover.de; Falck, Christian von, E-mail: falck.christian.von@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, German Center for Lung Research (DZL) (Germany); Hoeper, Marius M., E-mail: hoeper.marius@mh-hannover.de; Olsson, Karen M., E-mail: olsson.karen@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pneumology, German Center for Lung Research (DZL) (Germany); Wacker, Frank K., E-mail: wacker.frank@mh-hannover.de; Meyer, Bernhard C., E-mail: meyer.bernhard@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, German Center for Lung Research (DZL) (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo assess the feasibility and diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced, C-arm computed tomography (CACT) of the pulmonary arteries compared to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients suffering from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).MaterialsFifty-two patients with CTEPH underwent ECG-gated DSA and contrast-enhanced CACT. Two readers (R1, R2) independently evaluated pulmonary artery segments and their sub-segmental branching using DSA and CACT for optimal image quality. Afterwards, the diagnostic findings, i.e., intraluminal filling defects, stenosis, and occlusion, were compared. Inter-modality and inter-observer agreement was calculated, and subsequently consensus reading was done and correlated to a reference standard representing the overall consensus of both modalities. Fisher’s exact test and Cohen’s Kappa were applied.ResultsA total of 1352 pulmonary segments were evaluated, of which 1255 (92.8 %) on DSA and 1256 (92.9 %) on CACT were rated to be fully diagnostic. The main causes of the non-diagnostic image quality were motion artifacts on CACT (R1:37, R2:78) and insufficient contrast enhancement on DSA (R1:59, R2:38). Inter-observer agreement was good for DSA (κ = 0.74) and CACT (κ = 0.75), while inter-modality agreement was moderate (R1: κ = 0.46, R2: κ = 0.47). Compared to the reference standard, the inter-modality agreement for CACT was excellent (κ = 0.96), whereas it was inferior for DSA (κ = 0.61) due to the higher number of abnormal consensus findings read as normal on DSA.ConclusionCACT of the pulmonary arteries is feasible and provides additional information to DSA. CACT has the potential to improve the diagnostic work-up of patients with CTEPH and may be particularly useful prior to surgical or interventional treatment.

  11. Reoperação de tromboendarterectomia pulmonar em recidiva de tromboembolismo pulmonar crônico hipertensivo Repeat pulmonary thromboendarterectomy after recurrence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

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    Walter José Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A cirurgia de tromboendarterectomia tem se estabelecido como método padrão de tratamento do tromboembolismo pulmonar crônico hipertensivo, com excelentes resultados. Entretanto, a reoperação na recidiva do embolismo pulmonar não tem relato na literatura nacional, permanecendo obscuras a sua segurança e efetividade. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com recorrência de tromboembolismo pulmonar crônico hipertensivo ocorrido cinco anos após a primeira cirurgia de tromboendarterectomia pulmonar, e que necessitou de reoperação para resolução dos sintomas.Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy has been established as the standard method for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, with excellent results. However, repeat pulmonary thromboendarterectomy due to recurrence of pulmonary embolism has never been reported in the Brazilian literature. Its safety and effectiveness remain obscure. We report the case of a patient presenting recurrence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension five years after the first pulmonary thromboendarterectomy and requiring a second operation for resolution of the symptoms.

  12. Nitric oxide-dependent antiplatelet action of AT1-receptor antagonists in a pulmonary thromboembolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys, Tomasz; Kucharewicz, Iwona; Pawlak, Robert; Chabielska, Ewa; Domaniewski, Tomasz; Buczko, Wlodzimierz

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether AT1-receptor antagonists could inhibit platelet activation-dependent pulmonary thromboembolism in mice and to investigate the involvement of nitric oxide in this action. Losartan, its active metabolite EXP3174, and valsartan given intraperitoneally 1 hour before the thrombotic challenge (in doses of 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg) protected mice from death or hind-limb paralysis in response to intravenous injection of a mixture of collagen and epinephrine; losartan was effective in all doses used, whereas EXP3174 and valsartan reduced mortality only in the two higher doses. The protective action of EXP3174 and valsartan was abolished when nitric oxide synthase was inhibited with l-NAME, whereas that of losartan was only partially reduced. Moreover, only losartan protected mice from death caused by intravenous injection of the thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619 and this action was preserved in l-NAME-pretreated animals. Our results demonstrate the ability of AT1-receptor antagonists to inhibit platelet activation in vivo in a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Stronger antiplatelet activity of losartan, most likely due to its blockade of thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor, could be of potential clinical relevance, particularly in conditions in which synthesis of endogenous nitric oxide is impaired.

  13. [First diagnostic choice in patients with high clinical suspicion of pulmonary thromboembolism: helical CT or ventilation/perfusion pulmonary scintigraphy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrán, N; Martín-Comín, J; Bajén, M; Carrera, D; Mora, J; Ricart, Y; Sánchez, F; Mast, R

    2005-01-01

    Comparative analysis about helical CT (ThC) vs ventilation-perfusion pulmonary scintigraphy (V/P Sc) diagnosis effectiveness, as a first diagnosis technique in patients with high clinical suspicion of pulmonary thromboembolism (PT). Prospective study of 30 patients with high clinical suspicion and high Dimer-D levels (> 250 microg/l). The diagnosis was defined as anticoagulant therapeutic prescription and posterior clinical evolution. V/P Sc were performed to each patient within the next 48 h (an average of 14.8 h) after TCh, without anticoagulant treatment. We classified the scintigrams according to the PIOPED criteria and hTC images as positive, negative and indeterminated. In sixteen patients final diagnosis was PT: in 9 both techniques were positive; in 5 scintigraphy was positive with normal hTC and in 1, hTC was normal with negative scintigraphy. The last case was an indeterminated hTC with negative scintigraphy. In fourteen patients, final diagnosis was non-PT: in 6 both techniques were negative; in 7 scintigraphy was negative with positive hTC and in 1, both results were indeterminated. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and efficiency were respectively 87.5, 100, 100, 87.5 and 93 % for V/P Sc and 62, 50, 58.8, 53.8 and 53 % for TCh. V/P Sc has better PT diagnosis reliability. It is recommended to do V/P Sc in all patients with high clinical suspicion of PT.

  14. Serum Bilirubin and 6-min Walk Distance as Prognostic Predictors for Inoperable Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan-Ni Gong; Zhen-Guo Zhai; Yuan-Hua Yang; Yan Liu; Song Gu; Tu-Guang Kuang; Wan-Mu Xie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a severe clinical syndrome characterized by right cardiac failure and possibly subsequent liver dysfunction.However, whether serum markers of liver dysfunction can predict prognosis in inoperable CTEPH patients has not been determined.Our study aimed to evaluate the potential role of liver function markers (such as serum levels of transaminase, bilirubin, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT]) combined with 6-min walk test in the prediction of prognosis in patients with inoperable CTEPH.Methods: From June 2005 to May 2013, 77 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH without confounding co-morbidities were recruited for this prospective cohort study.Baseline clinical characteristics and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) results were collected.Serum biomarkers of liver function, including levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, GGT, uric acid, and serum bilirubin, were also determined at enrollment.All-cause mortality was recorded during the follow-up period.Results: During the follow-up, 22 patients (29%) died.Cox regression analyses demonstrated that increased serum concentration of total bilirubin (hazard ratio [HR] =7.755, P < 0.001), elevated N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (HR =1.001, P =0.001), decreased 6MWD (HR =0.990, P < 0.001), increased central venous pressure (HR =1.074, P =0.040), and higher pulmonary vascular resistance (HR =1.001, P =0.018) were associated with an increased risk of mortality.Serum concentrations of total bilirubin (HR =4.755, P =0.007) and 6MWD (HR =0.994, P =0.017) were independent prognostic predictors for CTEPH patients.Patients with hyperbilirubinemia (≥23.7 μ mol/L) had markedly worse survival than those with normobilirubinemia.Conclusion: Elevated serum bilirubin and decreased 6MWD are potential predictors for poor prognosis in inoperable CTEPH.

  15. PEAR1 gene polymorphism in a Chinese pedigree with pulmonary thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yingyun; Sun, Silong; Liang, Jie; Liu, Shengguo; Jiang, Yiqi; Xu, Lan; Mei, Junpu

    2016-12-01

    To explore the correlation between platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1) genetic polymorphism and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE).Variant loci of the PEAR1 gene were screened in a PTE pedigree, followed by verification using Sanger sequencing. These polymorphic loci were validated in 101 PTE patients and 132 matched normal patients using MassARRAY single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping methods. The frequency differences between the allele and genotypes were compared using the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test and Chi-square test. The correlation between the PEAR1 gene SNP and PTE was analyzed by comparing the between-group variance differences using the χ test.Three SNPs were identified in the PTE pedigree. There was a heterozygous transition of T>C in rs1952294, and a transition of C>T in rs778026543 in 2 members in the pedigree; however, the rs778026543 was not identified in the 101 PTE patients and 132 healthy controls. The genotype and allele frequencies of rs822442 did not differ significantly between PTE patients and healthy controls (P > 0.05). The variance difference at rs778026543 between pedigree members and healthy controls was significant (P < 0.001), supporting its potential heredity.The PEAR1 polymorphism, rs778026543, but not rs1952294 and rs822442, may be a susceptibility SNP for PTE.

  16. A Behcet’s Disease Patient with Right Ventricular Thrombus, Pulmonary Artery Aneurysms, and Deep Vein Thrombosis Complicating Recurrent Pulmonary Thromboembolism

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    Selvi Aşker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracardiac thrombus, pulmonary artery aneurysms, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary thromboembolism are rarely seen symptoms of Behcet’s disease. A 20-year-old female patient was admitted for complaints of cough, fever, palpitations, and chest pain. On the dynamic thorax computed tomograms (CT obtained because of significantly enlarged hilar structures seen on chest radiograms, aneurysmal dilatation of the pulmonary artery segments bilaterally, chronic thrombus with collapse, and consolidation substances compatible with pulmonary embolism involving both lower lobes have been observed. It is learned that, four years ago, the patient had been diagnosed with Behcet’s disease and received colchicine treatment but not regularly. The patient was hospitalized. On the transthoracic echocardiogram, a thrombosis with a dimension of 4.2 × 1.6 cm was recognized in the right ventricle. On abdomen CT, aneurysmal iliac veins and deep vein thrombus on Doppler ultrasonograms were diagnosed. At the controls after three months of immunosuppressive and anticoagulant therapies, some clinical and radiological improvements were recognized. The patient suspended the treatment for a month and the thrombus recurred. We present our case in order to show the effectiveness of immunosuppressive and anticoagulant therapies and rarely seen pulmonary thromboembolism in recurrent Behcet’s disease.

  17. Pulmonary hypertension: the importance of correctly diagnosing the cause

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    Sanjay Mehta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a complex condition that can occur as a result of a wide range of disorders, including left heart disease, lung disease and chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. Contemporary PH patients are older and frequently have a multitude of comorbidities that may contribute to or simply coincide with their PH. Identifying the cause of PH in these complicated patients can be challenging but is essential, given that the aetiology of the disease has a significant impact on the management options available. In this article, we present two cases that highlight the difficulties involved in obtaining a precise diagnosis of the cause of PH within the setting of multiple comorbidities. The importance of performing a comprehensive, multidimensional diagnostic work-up is demonstrated, in addition to the need to specifically consider cardiopulmonary haemodynamic data in the context of the wider clinical picture. The article also illustrates why achieving an accurate diagnosis is necessary for optimal patient management. This may involve treatment of comorbidities as a priority, which can ameliorate the severity of PH, obviating the need to consider PH-targeted medical treatment.

  18. Clinical Study of Acute Vasoreactivity Testing in Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi-Xia; Yang, Yuan-Hua; Geng, Jie; Zhai, Zhen-Guo; Gong, Juan-Ni; Li, Ji-Feng; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Background: The clinical significance of acute vasoreactivity testing (AVT) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) remains unclear. We analyzed changes in hemodynamics and oxygenation dynamics indices after AVT in patients with CTEPH using patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) as controls. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the results of AVT in 80 patients with PAH and 175 patients with CTEPH registered in the research database of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital between October 2005 and August 2014. Demographic variables, cardiopulmonary indicators, and laboratory findings were compared in these two subgroups. A long-term follow-up was conducted in patients with CTEPH. Between-group comparisons were performed using the independent-sample t-test or the rank sum test, within-group comparisons were conducted using the paired t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and count data were analyzed using the Chi-squared test. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results: The rates of positive response to AVT were similar in the CTEPH (25/175, 14.3%) and PAH (9/80, 11.3%) groups (P > 0.05). Factors significantly associated a positive response to AVT in the CTEPH group were level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (≤1131.000 ng/L), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP, ≤44.500 mmHg), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR, ≤846.500 dyn·s−1·m−5), cardiac output (CO, ≥3.475 L/min), and mixed venous oxygen partial pressure (PvO2, ≥35.150 mmHg). Inhalation of iloprost resulted in similar changes in mean blood pressure, mPAP, PVR, systemic vascular resistance, CO, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), mixed venous oxygen saturation, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), PvO2, and intrapulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) in the PAH and CTEPH groups (all P > 0.05). The survival time in patients with CTEPH with a negative response to AVT was somewhat shorter than that in AVT

  19. Death from pulmonary thromboembolism in severe obesity: lack of association with established genetic and clinical risk factors.

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    Blaszyk, H; Wollan, P C; Witkiewicz, A K; Björnsson, J

    1999-06-01

    Several clinical and environmental conditions are causally related to sudden death from acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APT). Morbid obesity, despite its frequency and association with adverse health effects, is usually considered at most only an additive risk factor for APT. We reviewed protocols and histories from 7227 consecutive autopsies performed between 1985 and 1996 at the Mayo Clinic, including all deaths from APT where no clinical or environmental risk factor could be identified in the study. Body mass indices (BMI) were calculated and compared with those of age- and sex-matched controls who had died suddenly and naturally without evidence of APT. Resistance to activated protein C is the most common molecular clotting defect predisposing to APT, and it is caused by a point mutation in the factor V gene (R506Q). Genomic DNA was extracted from archival tissues of all cases and controls, and the R506Q status was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification, restriction endonuclease digestion, and direct sequencing. APT was found as the immediate cause of death in 433 patients, with 36 (8%) having no previously established risk factors. Twenty-four of these persons (67%) were morbidly obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). compared with only five controls (14%, P<0.0001). Four patients in both groups, each with a BMI <30 kg/m2. had at least one allele positive for R506Q. Morbid obesity is an independent risk factor in cases of sudden death from APT after the exclusion of previously established clinical, environmental, and molecular risk factors.

  20. Alternative diagnoses based on CT angiography of the chest in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Eleci Vaz; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Seligman, Renato; Knorst, Marli Maria, E-mail: mknorst@gmail.com [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Guerra, Vinicius Andre [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Pneumologicas; Sarmento, Muriel Bossle; Guazzelli, Pedro Arends; Hoffmeister, Mariana Costa [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-01-15

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of alternative diagnoses based on chest CT angiography (CTA) in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) who tested negative for PTE, as well as whether those alternative diagnoses had been considered prior to the CTA. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study involving 191 adult patients undergoing CTA for suspected PTE between September of 2009 and May of 2012. Chest X-rays and CTAs were reviewed to determine whether the findings suggested an alternative diagnosis in the cases not diagnosed as PTE. Data on symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and mortality were collected. Results: On the basis of the CTA findings, PTE was diagnosed in 47 cases (24.6%). Among the 144 patients not diagnosed with PTE via CTA, the findings were abnormal in 120 (83.3%). Such findings were consistent with an alternative diagnosis that explained the symptoms in 75 patients (39.3%). Among those 75 cases, there were only 39 (20.4%) in which the same alterations had not been previously detected on chest X-rays. The most common alternative diagnosis, made solely on the basis of the CTA findings, was pneumonia (identified in 20 cases). Symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, and the in-hospital mortality rate did not differ significantly between the patients with and without PTE. However, the median hospital stay was significantly longer in the patients with PTE than in those without (18.0 and 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results indicate that chest CTA is useful in cases of suspected PTE, because it can confirm the diagnosis and reveal findings consistent with an alternative diagnosis in a significant number of patients. (author)

  1. Alternative diagnoses based on CT angiography of the chest in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Eleci Vaz; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Sarmento, Muriel Bossle; Guazzelli, Pedro Arends; Hoffmeister, Mariana Costa; Guerra, Vinicius André; Seligman, Renato; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To determine the prevalence of alternative diagnoses based on chest CT angiography (CTA) in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) who tested negative for PTE, as well as whether those alternative diagnoses had been considered prior to the CTA. Methods : This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study involving 191 adult patients undergoing CTA for suspected PTE between September of 2009 and May of 2012. Chest X-rays and CTAs were reviewed to determine whether the findings suggested an alternative diagnosis in the cases not diagnosed as PTE. Data on symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and mortality were collected. Results : On the basis of the CTA findings, PTE was diagnosed in 47 cases (24.6%). Among the 144 patients not diagnosed with PTE via CTA, the findings were abnormal in 120 (83.3%). Such findings were consistent with an alternative diagnosis that explained the symptoms in 75 patients (39.3%). Among those 75 cases, there were only 39 (20.4%) in which the same alterations had not been previously detected on chest X-rays. The most common alternative diagnosis, made solely on the basis of the CTA findings, was pneumonia (identified in 20 cases). Symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, and the in-hospital mortality rate did not differ significantly between the patients with and without PTE. However, the median hospital stay was significantly longer in the patients with PTE than in those without (18.0 and 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.001). Conclusions : Our results indicate that chest CTA is useful in cases of suspected PTE, because it can confirm the diagnosis and reveal findings consistent with an alternative diagnosis in a significant number of patients. PMID:26982039

  2. Accuracy of pulse oximeters in detecting hypoxemia in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

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    Tomoki Kohyama

    Full Text Available Pulse oximetry is routinely used to continuously and non-invasively monitor arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2. When oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter (SpO2 overestimates SaO2, hypoxemia may be overlooked. We compared the SpO2 - SaO2 differences among three pulse oximeters in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH who spent their daily lives in a poor oxygen state.This prospective observational study recruited 32 patients with CTEPH undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. As we collected arterial blood samples in the catheter laboratory, SpO2 values were simultaneously recorded. Three pulse oximeters were used on each patient, and SpO2 values were compared with oximetry readings using a blood gas analyzer. To determine the optimal SpO2 value by which to detect hypoxemia (SaO2≦90%, we generated receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves for each pulse oximeter.The root mean square of each pulse oximeter was 1.79 (OLV-3100, 1.64 (N-BS, and 2.50 (Masimo Radical. The mean bias (SpO2 - SaO2 for the 90%-95% saturation range was significantly higher for Masimo Radical (0.19 +/- 1.78% [OLV-3100], 0.18 +/- 1.63% [N-BS], and 1.61 +/- 1.91% [Masimo Radical]; p<0.0001. The optimal SpO2 value to detect hypoxemia (SaO2≦90% was 89% for OLV-3100, 90% for N-BS, and 92% for Masimo Radical.We found that the biases and precision with which to detect hypoxemia differed among the three pulse oximeters. To avoid hypoxemia, the optimal SpO2 should be determined for each pulse oximeter.

  3. Alternative diagnoses based on CT angiography of the chest in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism

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    Eleci Vaz Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To determine the prevalence of alternative diagnoses based on chest CT angiography (CTA in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE who tested negative for PTE, as well as whether those alternative diagnoses had been considered prior to the CTA. Methods : This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study involving 191 adult patients undergoing CTA for suspected PTE between September of 2009 and May of 2012. Chest X-rays and CTAs were reviewed to determine whether the findings suggested an alternative diagnosis in the cases not diagnosed as PTE. Data on symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and mortality were collected. Results : On the basis of the CTA findings, PTE was diagnosed in 47 cases (24.6%. Among the 144 patients not diagnosed with PTE via CTA, the findings were abnormal in 120 (83.3%. Such findings were consistent with an alternative diagnosis that explained the symptoms in 75 patients (39.3%. Among those 75 cases, there were only 39 (20.4% in which the same alterations had not been previously detected on chest X-rays. The most common alternative diagnosis, made solely on the basis of the CTA findings, was pneumonia (identified in 20 cases. Symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, and the in-hospital mortality rate did not differ significantly between the patients with and without PTE. However, the median hospital stay was significantly longer in the patients with PTE than in those without (18.0 and 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.001. Conclusions : Our results indicate that chest CTA is useful in cases of suspected PTE, because it can confirm the diagnosis and reveal findings consistent with an alternative diagnosis in a significant number of patients.

  4. Changes of the proportion and mortality of pulmonary thromboembolism in hospitalized patients from 1974 to 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Xiao-yan; HE Jian-guo; ZOU Zhi-peng; ZHAO Yan-fen; CHEN Bai-ping; GAO Ying; XIONG Chang-ming; NI Xin-hai; CHENG Xian-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Background Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) has become a common disease that severely endangers people's health. This study analysed the changes in proportion and mortality of PTE in hospitalized patients to provide data for prevention and management of the disease.Methods The data of 763 hospitalized patients with PTE from 1974 to 2005 in Fuwai Hospital were analysed.Results During the 1970s, 0.27% of patients in a cardiovascular hospital had PTE (< 5 cases per year); while so far this century the proportion is 0.94% (48 to 113 per year). The mortality of hospitalized PTE patients fell from 20.00% in the 1970s to 4.10% this century. Prior to 1990, the mortality of hospitalized PTE patients was 12.50%,and in the years after 1990 only 3.40%. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.005). People with this disease were mostly between the ages of 30 and 69 years. Men were most susceptible between the ages of 30 and 69 years, while women between the ages of 40 and 69 years. Men contracted PTE 10 years earlier than women.The mortality of male PTE patients was 4.70%, not significantly different from female patients, 5.06% (0.50<P<0.75). There were not any significant differences between the mortality of patients in the different age groups overall (≤39, 40-49, 50-59, and ≥60 years, P>0.1). More people contracted the disease in winter than in other seasons (P<0.05). There was no obvious difference between the mortality in different seasons overall (0.75<P<0.90).Conclusion PTE is an increasingly significant disease and deserves adequate attention.

  5. A new era of therapeutic strategies for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension by two different interventional therapies; pulmonary endarterectomy and percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Inami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA is established for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH. Recently, percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty (PTPA has been added for peripheral-type CTEPH, whose lesions exist in segmental, subsegmental, and more distal pulmonary arteries. A shift in clinical practice of interventional therapies occurred in 2009 (first mainly PEA, later PTPA. We examined the latest clinical outcomes of patients with CTEPH. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study retrospectively included 136 patients with CTEPH. Twenty-nine were treated only with drug (Drug-group, and the other 107 underwent interventional therapies (Interventions-group (39 underwent PEA [PEA-group] and 68 underwent PTPA [PTPA-group]. Total 213 PTPA sessions (failures, 0%; mortality rate, 1.47% was performed in the PTPA-group (complications: reperfusion pulmonary edema, 7.0%; hemosputum or hemoptysis, 5.6%; vessel dissection, 2.3%; wiring perforation, 0.9%. Although baseline hemodynamic parameters were significantly more severe in the Interventions-group, the outcome after the diagnosis was much better in the Interventions-group than in the Drug-group (98% vs. 64% 5-year survival, p<0.0001. Hemodynamic improvement in the PEA-group was a 46% decrease in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP and a 49% decrease in total pulmonary resistance (TPR (follow-up period; 74.7 ± 32.3 months, while those in the PTPA-group were a 40% decrease in mean PAP and a 49% decrease in TPR (follow-up period; 17.4 ± 9.3 months. The 2-year survival rate in the Drug-group was 82.0%, and the 2-year survival rate, occurrence of right heart failure, and re-vascularization rate in the PEA-group were 97.4%, 2.6%, and 2.8%, and those in the PTPA-group were 98.5%, 2.9%, and 2.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The patients who underwent interventional therapies had better results than those treated only with drugs. The availability of both of these operative

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MR angiography and unenhanced proton MR imaging compared with CT pulmonary angiography in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Smitha; Swift, Andrew J; Capener, David; Telfer, Adam; Davies, Christine; Hill, Catherine; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charles; Hurdman, Judith; Kiely, David G; Wild, Jim M

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) and the added benefit of unenhanced proton MR angiography compared with CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in patients with chronic thromboembolic disease (CTE). A 2 year retrospective study of 53 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension who underwent CTPA and MRI for suspected pulmonary hypertension and a control group of 36 patients with no CT evidence of pulmonary embolism. The MRI was evaluated for CTE and the combined diagnostic accuracy of ce-MRA and unenhanced proton MRA was determined. CE-MRA generated lung perfusion maps were also assessed. The overall sensitivity and specificity of CE-MRA in diagnosing proximal and distal CTE were 98% and 94%, respectively. The sensitivity improved from 50% to 88% for central vessel disease when CE-MRA images were analysed with unenhanced proton MRA. The CE-MRA identified more stenoses (29/18), post-stenosis dilatation (23/7) and occlusions (37/29) compared with CTPA. The CE-MRA perfusion images showed a sensitivity of 92% for diagnosing CTE. CE-MRA has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing CTE. The sensitivity of CE-MRA for visualisation of adherent central and lobar thrombus significantly improves with the addition of unenhanced proton MRA which delineates the vessel wall.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MR angiography and unenhanced proton MR imaging compared with CT pulmonary angiography in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaram, Smitha [Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Academic Unit of Radiology, C Floor, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Swift, Andrew J.; Wild, Jim M. [Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sheffield Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Capener, David; Telfer, Adam [Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Davies, Christine; Hill, Catherine [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charles; Kiely, David G. [Sheffield Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sheffield Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hurdman, Judith [Sheffield Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) and the added benefit of unenhanced proton MR angiography compared with CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in patients with chronic thromboembolic disease (CTE). A 2 year retrospective study of 53 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension who underwent CTPA and MRI for suspected pulmonary hypertension and a control group of 36 patients with no CT evidence of pulmonary embolism. The MRI was evaluated for CTE and the combined diagnostic accuracy of ce-MRA and unenhanced proton MRA was determined. CE-MRA generated lung perfusion maps were also assessed. The overall sensitivity and specificity of CE-MRA in diagnosing proximal and distal CTE were 98% and 94%, respectively. The sensitivity improved from 50% to 88% for central vessel disease when CE-MRA images were analysed with unenhanced proton MRA. The CE-MRA identified more stenoses (29/18), post-stenosis dilatation (23/7) and occlusions (37/29) compared with CTPA. The CE-MRA perfusion images showed a sensitivity of 92% for diagnosing CTE. CE-MRA has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing CTE. The sensitivity of CE-MRA for visualisation of adherent central and lobar thrombus significantly improves with the addition of unenhanced proton MRA which delineates the vessel wall. (orig.)

  8. Plasma vasopressin levels in patients with right-sided heart dysfunction and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Liem; Banks, Dalia; Manecke, Gerard; Shurter, Jesse; Schilling, Jan M; Patel, Hemal H; Madani, Michael M; Roth, David M

    2014-06-01

    Patients with left-sided heart dysfunction and volume overload often have associated elevations in vasopressin from neuroendocrine activation. The authors investigated perioperative levels of vasopressin in patients with isolated right-sided heart dysfunction from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Prospective, observational study. Single center, tertiary hospital. Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension undergoing pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Vasopressin levels were measured in 22 patients during the perioperative period. Vasopressin was undetectable in 8/22 patients at baseline. As a group, vasopressin levels at baseline and after induction of anesthesia were 0.8 pg/mL (median; 0.5-1.5, interquartile range of 25% and 75%) and 0.7 pg/mL (median; 0.5-1.4, interquartile range of 25% and 75%), respectively. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), vasopressin increased to 13.9 pg/mL (median; 6.7-19.9, interquartile range of 25% and 75%). Vasopressin remained elevated after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) at 10.5 pg/mL (median; 6.5-19.9 interquartile range of 25% and 75%) and after CPB at 19.9 pg/mL (median; 11.1-19.9 interquartile range of 25% and 75%). Vasopressin levels in PTE patients are in the low-to-normal range at baseline and may be a clinically relevant issue in the hemodynamic management of PTE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pulmonary damage caused by cytostatics and paraquat

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    Fischer, G.; Woeltjen, H.H.; Schauer, A.

    1981-09-01

    Substances which exercise a pulmonary toxic action will first of all produce alveolar and perivascular oedemas followed by fibrosis. Differential diagnosis is explained on the basis of two cases of a fatal mitomycin fibrosis of the lung, as well as the observation of fibrous changes following the administration of Bleomycin and Metothrexat. The course of pulmonary fibroses caused by paraquat is described for two cases of fatal paraquat intoxications.

  10. Clinical Features in 23 Lung Cancer Patients Complicated with Pulmonary Thromboembolism

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    Na LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Malignant tumors are often complicated with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE, particularly in lung cancer (LC. This study investigated the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and survival time of patients with PTE and LC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of patients with LC in Medical Oncology of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital between June 2009 and July 2013. A total of 23 patients suffered from both PTE and LC. A total of 46 cases were used as control subjects. The survival of these patients was compared with that of the control subjects by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results A total of 1128 cases were diagnosed with LC, in which 23 were clearly diagnosed with PTE, and 16 (69.6% patients who suffered from both LC and PTE developed adenocarcinoma. These patients also exhibited a higher incidence of unexplained dyspnea than those who were diagnosed with LC only (P0.05. Ten cases (43.48% with deep venous thrombosis were observed in the PTE and LC group, and six patients (26.09% were at a high risk of acute pulmonary embolism. Hb11×109/L, D-Dimer>500 ng/ml, PO2<80 mmHg, ALB<30 g/L were the risk factors of LC with PTE (odds ratio values were listed as follows: 5.50, 11.03, 4.83, 4.68, 9.63, respectively. On July 29, 2013, the median survival time of patients with PTE and LC was 7.77 months. This result was significantly lower than that (19.27 months of patients with LC only (P=0.02. The survival time of patients suffering from both LC and PTE and undergoing chemotherapy was higher than that of patients who did not undergo such treatment. Conclusion The common pathological type observed in patients with both LC and PTE was adenocarcinoma. The common clinical manifestations were unexplained dyspnea and cough. The first five months after LC diagnosis corresponded to a high period of PTE. Patients with LC and PTE exhibited less survival time. As such, chemotherapy is beneficial for the survival of

  11. Diagnostic usefulness of lung SPET in pulmonary thromboembolism: an outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbus, H F; Seitz, J P; Larson, R K; Stobbe, D E; Wooten, W; Sayre, J W; Chavez, R D; Unguez, C E

    1997-10-01

    The lung single photon emission tomographic (SPET) images of 985 consecutive patients referred for suspected pulmonary embolism were correlated with clinical outcome and angiography to evaluate the clinical usefulness of lung SPET compared to conventional planar ventilation/perfusion lung imaging. SPET interpretations followed the revised PIOPED criteria and clinical outcome was determined from referring physicians, hospital records, direct patient contact and county hall records. Patients were deemed to have had no clinically significant pulmonary embolism at the time of the SPET examination if, within the following 3 months: (1) the patient was alive and had no clinical evidence of pulmonary embolism or, (2) if deceased, pulmonary embolism was unlikely to have been the cause of death. Operating characteristics were based on the methods of Choi and of Simel. SPET interpretation was categorized as follows: high probability, 143 (14%); low probability, 840 (82%); intermediate, 41 (4%) (in contrast to PIOPED, with 39% intermediate interpretations). Pulmonary angiography was performed in only 4% of patients. Adequate follow-up data were available for 97% of patients. To facilitate comparison with PIOPED, either a high-probability or an intermediate-probability or an intermediate-probability study was considered to be a positive test, and either a low-probability or a normal study was considered to be a negative test. The sensitivity was 83% (PIOPED 82%), specificity 92% (PIOPED 52%), positive predictive value 62% (PIOPED 47%) and negative predictive value 97% (PIOPED 85%). The positive and negative predictive values have not been corrected for prevalence, which was approximately twice as high in the PIOPED study. Lung SPET provided accurate diagnostic information in 96% of patients and specificity was greatly improved compared to planar lung imaging reported in PIOPED. The diminished need for angiography greatly reduced the cost of evaluating patients suspected of

  12. Pulmonary Thromboembolism in a Child with Sickle Cell Hemoglobin D Disease in the Setting of Acute Chest Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hazel Villanueva; Sandeepkumar Kuril; Jennifer Krajewski; Aziza Sedrak

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Sickle cell hemoglobin D disease (HbSD) is a rare variant of sickle cell disease (SCD). Incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in children with HbSD is unknown. PE and DVT are known complications of SCD in adults but have not been reported in the literature in children with HbSD. Case Report. We are reporting a case of a 12-year-old boy with HbSD with acute chest syndrome (ACS) complicated by complete thrombosis of the branch of the right pu...

  13. Long-term efficacy of bosentan in inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, M.C.; Plokker, H.W.M.; Kelder, J.C.; Snijder, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is associated with a poor survival. Objectives. To evaluate the long-term response to a dual endothelin receptor antagonist in patients with inoperable CTEPH. Methods. All consecutive 18 patients (mean age 63±14 years) treated with bosentan for symptomatic inoperable CTEPH were included. Efficacy was evaluated by the log value of serum levels of N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (log NTpro BNP), New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA), and the six-minute walk test (6-MWT). All follow-up data (median 31 months) were compared with baseline and divided into: short-term (24 months). Results. At baseline, 15 patients were in NYHA class III and three in NYHA class IV, mean log NT-pro BNP level was 7.2±1.4 log pg/ml, and mean 6-MWT distance was 404±125 m. During short-term follow-up (n=18), the NYHA class improved (p=0.001), 6-MWT distance increased by 33 m (p=0.03), and log NT-pro BNP decreased to 6.9±1.4 log pg/ml (p=0.007). During mid-term follow-up (n=17), the NYHA class improved (p<0.001), the mean 6-MWT distance increased by 41 m (p=0.01), and log NT-pro BNP was 6.9±1.4 log pg/ml (p=0.31). During late followup (n=14) the NYHA class was still improved (p=0.03), the 6-MWT distance decreased by 9 m (p=0.73), and log NT-pro BNP was 7.1±1.5 log pg/ml (p=0.91). The overall four year survival rate was 88%. Conclusion: Bosentan seems to be effective during long-term treatment in patients with inoperable CTEPH. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:329-33.19949474) PMID:19949474

  14. Cavitary Pulmonary Zygomycosis Caused by Rhizopus homothallicus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Marak, Rungmei S. K.; Shivaprakash, M. R.; Gupta, Sunita; Garg, Rajiv; Sakhuja, V.; Singhal, Sanjay; Baghela, Abhishek; Dixit, Ajai; Garg, M. K.; Padhye, Arvind A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first two proven cases of cavitary pulmonary zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus homothallicus. The diagnosis in each case was based on histology, culture of the causal agent, and the nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the 28S ribosomal DNA. PMID:20200286

  15. Cavitary pulmonary zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus homothallicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Marak, Rungmei S K; Shivaprakash, M R; Gupta, Sunita; Garg, Rajiv; Sakhuja, V; Singhal, Sanjay; Baghela, Abhishek; Dixit, Ajai; Garg, M K; Padhye, Arvind A

    2010-05-01

    We report the first two proven cases of cavitary pulmonary zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus homothallicus. The diagnosis in each case was based on histology, culture of the causal agent, and the nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the 28S ribosomal DNA.

  16. Venous Thromboembolism in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永强

    2005-01-01

    @@ Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) are two manifesttions of venous thromboembolism (VTE) . Although the controversy remained,it has been widely accepted for many years that Chinese people have lower incidence of VTE than Caucasians with the different etiology and clinical features.

  17. Thromboembolic complications in nephrotic syndrome. Coagulation abnormalities, renal vein thrombosis, and other conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llach, F

    1984-11-01

    In patients with nephrotic syndrome, the presence of a hypercoagulable state is thought to give rise to a high incidence of thromboembolic phenomena. Renal vein thrombosis is a common complication in nephrotic patients, mainly in those with membranous nephropathy, and many other types of thromboembolic complications also occur. The mortality rate in nephrotic patients with thromboembolic complications may be significantly increased, with pulmonary emboli likely being the most common cause of death.

  18. Diffusion capacity and haemodynamics in primary and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, LH; Groen, HJM; Koeter, GH; van der Mark, TW

    2000-01-01

    The transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TL,CO) is decreased in patients with pulmonary hypertension. The pulmonary membrane diffusion capacity (Dm) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), were studied to establish: 1) the relative contribution of the components of the transfer factor

  19. Diffusion capacity and haemodynamics in primary and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, LH; Groen, HJM; Koeter, GH; van der Mark, TW

    The transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TL,CO) is decreased in patients with pulmonary hypertension. The pulmonary membrane diffusion capacity (Dm) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), were studied to establish: 1) the relative contribution of the components of the transfer factor

  20. Sudden Death by Pulmonary Thromboembolism due to a Large Uterine Leiomyoma with a Parasitic Vein to the Mesentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Podduturi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of venous thrombosis is classically attributed to alterations in one or more components of Virchow’s triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and damage to the vascular endothelium. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT may lead to pulmonary thromboembolism (PE, and the latter is culpable for many deaths annually in the United States; however, DVT as a complication of uterine leiomyoma has rarely been reported. We report a case of a 57-year-old woman whose death was due to a large pedunculated subserosal leiomyoma externally compressing the pelvic veins resulting in stasis and venous thrombosis leading to fatal PE. The association of large pelvic masses with venous thrombosis has clinical implications, since prophylactic surgery could be life-saving.

  1. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Thromboembolism. Guía de práctica clínica para tromboembolismo pulmonar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diosdania Alfonso Falcón

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Thromboembolism. This condition is caused by the obstruction of pulmonary arterial circulation as a result of an embolus originated in the profound venous system of the in the lower extremities (95%. It includes the concept, risk factors, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and therapy based on the possibilities of our environment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento del tromboembolismo pulmonar. Cuadro clínico provocado por la obstrucción de la circulación arterial pulmonar por un émbolo procedente, en la mayoría de los casos (95 %, del sistema venoso profundo de las extremidades inferiores. La guía describe el concepto, los factores de riesgo, las formas cínicas, el diagnóstico y la terapéutica basada en las posibilidades de nuestro medio. Concluye con su guía de evaluación, enfocada en los aspectos más importantes a cumplir.

  2. [Thrombectomy and plication of veins as a method of preventing pulmonary artery thromboembolism at a multidisciplinary surgical hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, S V; Pashin, N V; Dedyukhin, I G; Aleksandrov, A G; Lebedeva, M V

    2016-01-01

    The authors assessed efficacy and safety of the operation of plication of deep veins of lower extremities, pelvic veins, and the inferior vena cava as a method of preventing fatal pulmonary artery thromboembolism. A total of 48 patients were operated on. Of these, 23 patients belonged to traumatological-and-orthopaedical cohort, 3 to general surgical cohort, 4 to gynaecological, and 18 to vascular cohort (isolated deep vein thrombosis). The length of the floating head of the thrombus varied from 2 to 10 cm. The presence of a floating thrombus in traumatological, surgical and gynaecological patients, regardless of the length of the floating part was an absolute indication for thrombectomy and venous plication. Vascular patients were operated on in accordance with the National Guidelines (with the length of the thrombus floating portion of not less than 4 cm). In all cases, surgical management envisaged direct and indirect thrombectomy. Plication was always performed above the level of venotomy. It was shown that thrombectomy combined with plication of major veins is a reliable and safe method of prophylaxis, being in some cases the only possible method of preventing fatal pulmonary artery thromboembolism. The operation of plication makes it possible not to cancel a scheduled surgical intervention in patients with a detected floating thrombus of major veins. The operation of thrombectomy and plication above the level of the floating head of the thrombus may be considered an operation of choice in the conditions where there is no possibility to use endovascular methods of treatment (implantation of a cava filter, endovascular catheter thrombectomy), as well as in pregnant women. Restoration of the venous lumen occurs at safe terms spontaneously, not requiring repeat surgical intervention. Simultaneous plication of the vein does not complicate the course of the postoperative period of the main surgical intervention. Thrombectomy and plication do not lead to the

  3. Fibrinogen Aα Thr312Ala polymorphism specifically contributes to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension by increasing fibrin resistance.

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    Ji-Feng Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms are associated with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE, but no polymorphism specific to CTEPH but not PTE has yet been reported. Fibrin resistance is associated with CTEPH, but the mechanism has not been elucidated. METHODS: Polymorphisms were analyzed in 101 CTEPH subjects, 102 PTE subjects and 108 healthy controls by Massarray or restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Plasmin-mediated cleavage of fibrin was characterized in 69 subjects (29 with CTEPH, 21 with PTE and 19 controls. RESULTS: Genotype frequencies and allele frequencies of fibrinogen Aα Thr312Ala were significantly higher in CTEPH subjects than in controls and PTE subjects, while there was no difference between PTE subjects and controls. The odd ratio (OR 2.037 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI, 1.262-3.289 showed that Thr312Ala polymorphism was a risk factor for CTEPH but not PTE. Fibrin from CTEPH subjects was more resistant to lysis than that from PTE subjects and controls. Fibrin resistance was significantly different between Aα Thr312Ala (A/G genotypes within CTEPH subjects, and the fibrin with GG genotype was more resistant than that with AA and AG genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrinogen Aα Thr312Ala (A/G polymorphism was associated with CTEPH, but not PTE, suggesting that the fibrinogen Aα Thr312Ala polymorphism may act as a potential biomarker in identifying CTEPH from PTE. GG genotype polymorphism contributes to CTEPH through increasing fibrin resistance, implying that PTE subjects with fibrinogen Aα GG genotype may need long-term anticoagulation therapy.

  4. Mitral Valve Regurgitation Causing Right Upper Lobe Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Andrew L.; Langston, Charles S.; Schiffman, Robert L.; Shortsleeve, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    When radiography is performed in patients with mitral regurgitation, cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a typical finding; however, asymmetric pulmonary edema has also been reported. We describe the case of a patient in whom mitral valve regurgitation caused isolated pulmonary edema in the right upper lung. We include a discussion of pulmonary edema in conjunction with mitral regurgitation.

  5. Prophylaxis of venous and pulmonary thrombo-embolism. Profilaxis del tromboembolismo venoso y pulmonar. Conceptos actuales.

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Jiménez Vázquez; José Julio Requeiro Molina; Yusimí Isaguirre Martínez

    2004-01-01

    This bibliographical revision stands out the importance of the vein thromboembolism prevention in patients under different surgical and injuries procedures, wicked illnesses and medical conditions. The epidemiology, etiopatogenia and factors of risk of the deep vein thrombosis and the lung embolism are exposed in different categories of patient. Up to dates prophylactic methods are taken into account and compared their effectiveness and cautions according to the last studies on the topic.<...

  6. Left ventricular strain and strain rate by 2D speckle tracking in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension before and after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltman Thomas J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular (LV strain and strain rate (SR by 2D speckle tracking may be useful tools to assess chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH severity as well as response to successful pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE. Methods We evaluated 30 patients with CTEPH before and after PTE using 2D speckle tracking measurements of LV radial and circumferential strain and SR in the short axis, and correlated the data with right heart catheterization (RHC. Results PTE resulted in a decrease in mean PA pressure (44 ± 15 to 29 ± 9 mmHg, decrease in PVR (950 ± 550 to 31 ± 160 [dyne-sec]/cm5, and an increase in cardiac output (3.9 ± 1.0 to 5.0 ± 1.0 L/min, p change in circumferential strain and change in posterior wall radial strain correlated moderately well with changes in PVR, mean PA pressure and cardiac output (r = 0.69, 0.76, and 0.51 for circumferential strain [p Conclusions LV circumferential and posterior wall radial strain change after relief of pulmonary arterial obstruction in patients with CTEPH, and these improvements occur rapidly. These changes in LV strain may reflect effects from improved LV diastolic filling, and may be useful non-invasive markers of successful PTE.

  7. Inflammatory response and pneumocyte apoptosis during lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in an experimental pulmonary thromboembolism model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chaosheng; Zhai, Zhenguo; Wu, Dawen; Lin, Qichang; Yang, Yuanhua; Yang, Minxia; Ding, Haibo; Cao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Qiaoxian; Wang, Chen

    2015-07-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) may occur in the region of the affected lung after reperfusion therapy. The inflammatory response mechanisms related to LIRI in pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), especially in chronic PTE, need to be studied further. In a PTE model, inflammatory response and apoptosis may occur during LIRI and nitric oxide (NO) inhalation may alleviate the inflammatory response and apoptosis of pneumocytes during LIRI. A PTE canine model was established through blood clot embolism to the right lower lobar pulmonary artery. Two weeks later, we performed embolectomy with reperfusion to examine the LIRI changes among different groups. In particular, the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase concentrations in lung homogenates, alveolar polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), lobar lung wet to dry ratio (W/D ratio), apoptotic pneumocytes, and lung sample ultrastructure were assessed. The PaO2/FiO2 in the NO inhalation group increased significantly when compared with the reperfusion group 4 and 6 h after reperfusion (368.83 ± 55.29 vs. 287.90 ± 54.84 mmHg, P inflammatory response and apoptosis occur in our PTE model and NO inhalation may be useful in treating LIRI by alleviating the inflammatory response and pneumocyte apoptosis. This potential application warrants further investigation.

  8. Dual-energy CT perfusion and angiography in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: diagnostic accuracy and concordance with radionuclide scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dournes, Gael; Verdier, Damien; Montaudon, Michel; Laurent, Francois; Lederlin, Mathieu [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Medical Imaging, Pessac (France); University Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Bullier, Eric; Riviere, Annalisa [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pessac (France); Dromer, Claire [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Respiratory Diseases, Pessac (France); Picard, Francois [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Cardiology, Pessac (France); Billes, Marc-Alain [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Pessac (France); Corneloup, Olivier [Hopital Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Department of Medical Imaging, Pessac (France)

    2014-01-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) perfusion and angiography versus ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and to assess the per-segment concordance rate of DECT and scintigraphy. Forty consecutive patients with proven pulmonary hypertension underwent V/Q scintigraphy and DECT perfusion and angiography. Each imaging technique was assessed for the location of segmental defects. Diagnosis of CTEPH was established when at least one segmental perfusion defect was detected by scintigraphy. Diagnostic accuracy of DECT perfusion and angiography was assessed and compared with scintigraphy. In CTEPH patients, the per-segment concordance between scintigraphy and DECT perfusion/angiography was calculated. Fourteen patients were diagnosed with CTEPH and 26 with other aetiologies. DECT perfusion and angiography correctly identified all CTEPH patients with sensitivity/specificity values of 1/0.92 and 1/0.93, respectively. At a segmental level, DECT perfusion showed moderate agreement (κ = 0.44) with scintigraphy. Agreement between CT angiography and scintigraphy ranged from fair (κ = 0.31) to slight (κ = 0.09) depending on whether completely or partially occlusive patterns were considered, respectively. Both DECT perfusion and angiography show satisfactory performance for the diagnosis of CTEPH. DECT perfusion is more accurate than angiography at identifying the segmental location of abnormalities. (orig.)

  9. An epidemiological analysis of the burden of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in the USA, Europe and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Gall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH are limited and there are conflicting reports regarding its pathogenesis. A literature review was conducted to identify CTEPH epidemiological data up to June 2014. Data were analysed to provide estimates of the incidence of CTEPH in the USA, Europe and Japan. An epidemiological projection model derived country-specific estimates of future incidence and diagnosis rates of CTEPH. Overall, 25 publications and 14 databases provided quantitative epidemiological data. In the USA and Europe, the crude annual incidence of diagnosed pulmonary embolism and crude annual full (i.e. diagnosed and undiagnosed incidence of CTEPH were 66–104 and 3–5 cases per 100 000 population, respectively, while in Japan these rates were lower at 6.7 and 1.9 per 100 000 population, respectively. In 2013, 7–29% of CTEPH cases in Europe and the USA were diagnosed, and the majority of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class III/IV at diagnosis. The projection model indicated that incidence of CTEPH will continue to increase over the next decade. These data suggest that CTEPH is underdiagnosed and undertreated, and there is an urgent need to increase awareness of CTEPH. High-quality epidemiological studies are required to increase understanding of CTEPH.

  10. Venous thromboembolism: Additional diagnostic value and radiation dose of pelvic CT venography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, Miriam, E-mail: Miriam.Reichert@umm.de [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Henzler, Thomas; Krissak, Radko; Apfaltrer, Paul [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Huck, Kurt [1st Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Buesing, Karen [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Sueselbeck, Tim [1st Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Fink, Christian [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To assess the additional diagnostic value of indirect CT venography (CTV) of the pelvis and upper thighs performed after pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) for the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Materials and methods: In a retrospective analysis, the radiology information system entries between January 2003 and December 2007 were searched for patients who received pulmonary CTA and additional CTV of the pelvis and upper thighs. Of those patients, the radiology reports were reviewed for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the pelvic veins and veins of the upper thighs. In cases with an isolated pelvic thrombosis at CTV (i.e. which only had a thrombosis in the pelvic veins but not in the veins of the upper thigh) ultrasound reports were reviewed for the presence of DVT of the legs. The estimated radiation dose was calculated for pulmonary CTA and for CTV of the pelvis. Results: In the defined period 3670 patients were referred to our institution for exclusion of PE. Of those, 642 patients (353 men, 289 women; mean age, 65 {+-} 15 years, age range 18-98 years) underwent combined pulmonary CTA and CTV. Among them, PE was found in 227 patients (35.4%). In patients without PE CTV was negative in all cases. In patients with PE, CTV demonstrated pelvic thrombosis in 24 patients (3.7%) and thrombosis of the upper thighs in 43 patients (6.6%). Of those patients 14 (2.1%) had DVT in the pelvis and upper thighs. In 10 patients (1.5%) CTV showed an isolated pelvic thrombosis. Of those patients ultrasound reports were available in 7 patients, which revealed DVT of the leg veins in 5 cases (1%). Thus, the estimated prevalence of isolated pelvic thrombosis detected only by pelvic CTV ranges between 1-5/642 patients (0.1-0.7%). Radiation dose ranges between 4.8 and 9.7 mSv for additional CTV of the pelvis. Conclusion: CTV of the pelvis performed after pulmonary CTA is of neglectable additional diagnostic value for the

  11. [A case report of right-sided cardiac and pulmonary thromboembolism treated by emergent operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, M; Sasaki, M; Masumoto, H; Kajiyama, M; Seki, A

    1996-05-01

    A forty-four-year-old man with a clinical diagnosis of diabetes melitus and severe obesity (height 170 cm, weight 108 kg) was admitted to the hospital on 12th January 1995 because of acute myocardial infarction, and on 21st January, he was referred to our hospital with sudden onset of shock, bradycardia, loss of consciousness in spite of having recovered well from myocardial infarction. The echocardiography and pulmonary arteriography revealed a pulmonary embolism and a tumor in the right atrium. Administration of tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) was not sufficiently effective. An emergency operation (pulmonary arteriotomy, right atriotomy, milking of bilateral lungs) with cardiopulmonary bypass revealed a massive consecutive thrombus, which occupied the right atrium, right ventricle and bilateral pulmonary artery. The postoperative course was uneventful.

  12. Intermittent pneumatic compression for prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism after gynecologic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita Akiyo; Nomura Hiroyuki; Ezawa Sachiko; Hirao Takeshi; Higashiguchi Atsushi; Kataoka Fumio; Suzuki Nao; Susumu Nobuyuki; Aoki Daisuke

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate the incidence of pulmonary embolism and risk factors for this condition after obstetric and gynecologic surgery, as well as the efficacy of intermittent pneumatic compression. Methods A total of 6,218 patients operated at Keio University Hospital excluding obstetric or infertility-related surgery and uterine cervical conization were evaluated retrospectively to determine the preventive effect of intermittent pneumatic compression on postoperative pulmonary e...

  13. Differences of cardiac output measurements by open-circuit acetylene uptake in pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwaiblmair Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As differences in gas exchange between pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH have been demonstrated, we asked if cardiac output measurements determined by acetylene (C2H2 uptake significantly differed in these diseases when compared to the thermodilution technique. Method Single-breath open-circuit C2H2 uptake, thermodilution, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed in 72 PAH and 32 CTEPH patients. Results In PAH patients the results for cardiac output obtained by the two methods showed an acceptable agreement with a mean difference of -0.16 L/min (95% CI -2.64 to 2.32 L/min. In contrast, the agreement was poorer in the CTEPH group with the difference being -0.56 L/min (95% CI -4.96 to 3.84 L/min. Functional dead space ventilation (44.5 ± 1.6 vs. 32.2 ± 1.4%, p 2 gradient (9.9 ± 0.8 vs. 4.1 ± 0.5 mmHg, p Conclusion Cardiac output evaluation by the C2H2 technique should be interpreted with caution in CTEPH, as ventilation to perfusion mismatching might be more relevant than in PAH.

  14. [Pulmonary hypertension caused by left heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erer, Betül; Eren, Mehmet

    2010-09-01

    Increased resistance to pulmonary venous drainage is the main mechanism in pulmonary hypertension (PH) developing due to left heart disease. This condition may occur as a result of various diseases affecting left ventricle, left atrium, mitral or aortic valves. Pulmonary hypertension is the common and well-recognized complication of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension accompanying chronic heart failure is related to increased mortality. Treatment should be tailored according to the underlying disease.

  15. How I treat pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, S.

    2011-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) complicates ~ 1 to 2 of 1000 pregnancies, with pulmonary embolism being a leading cause of maternal mortality and deep vein thrombosis an important cause of maternal morbidity, also on the long term. However, a strong evidence base for the management of pregnancy-related

  16. How I treat pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Middeldorp

    2011-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) complicates ~ 1 to 2 of 1000 pregnancies, with pulmonary embolism being a leading cause of maternal mortality and deep vein thrombosis an important cause of maternal morbidity, also on the long term. However, a strong evidence base for the management of pregnancy-related

  17. Cardiac arrest caused by multiple recurrent pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannig, Kjartan Eskjaer; Husted, Steen Elkjaer; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common condition with a high mortality. We describe a previously healthy 68-year-old male who suffered three pulmonary embolisms during a short period of time, including two embolisms while on anticoagulant treatment. This paper illustrates three important points. (1) The ...... and may be life-saving in patients with cardiac arrest suspected to be caused by pulmonary embolism....

  18. [Evaluation of lung perfusion scintigraphy without ventilation scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiene, Nemira

    2002-01-01

    The role of perfusion lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is reviewed. During the study 227 perfusion lung scans were obtained. The scans were grouped according to the PIOPED criteria into 5 groups: normal scans, very low, low, intermediate and high PE probability. The perfusion scans were analyzed according to the original PIOPED criteria, without ventilation scans. Evidence is provided that a normal perfusion scan excludes pulmonary embolism, and that a high probability lung scan, defined as a segmental perfusion defect with locally normal chest X-ray or findings in X-ray are smaller, sufficiently confirms the presence of pulmonary embolism in the majority of these patients (92.2%).

  19. Sporadic multicentric right atrial and right ventricular myxoma presenting as acute pulmonary thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyajit Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicentric cardiac myxoma is a rare syndrome; usually it is familial. We report a rare case of sporadic right atrium (RA and right ventricle (RV myxoma in a 26-year-old female presenting to our hospital for the evaluation of sudden onset of dyspnea and left precordial pain attributed to the embolization of degenerating tumor fragments to the pulmonary artery (PA. The exact incidence of sporadic multicentric RA and RV myxoma presenting as acute pulmonary embolism is unknown as multicentric RA and RV myxoma are very rare. Myxomas presenting as pulmonary embolism is <10%. Majority of cardiac myxomas present as exertional dyspnea, chest pain, positional syncope, fever, weight loss and other constitutional symptoms. Any young patient presenting with acute onset dyspnea with multiple cardiac masses may have tumor embolization to the PA diagnosis with transthoracic echocardiography and high-resolution computed tomography of thorax, fast-tracks patient transfer for urgent cardiac surgery to prevent further embolization.

  20. Differentially expressed plasma microRNAs and the potential regulatory function of Let-7b in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijuan; Yang, Yuanhua; Liu, Jie; Wang, Lei; Li, Jifeng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Gan, Huili; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Jason X-J; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease characterized by misguided thrombolysis and remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in multiple cell processes and functions. During CTEPH, circulating microRNA profile endued with characteristics of diseased cells could be identified as a biomarker, and might help in recognition of pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we compared the differentially expressed microRNAs in plasma of CTEPH patients and healthy controls and investigated their potential functions. Microarray was used to identify microRNA expression profile and qRT-PCR for validation. The targets of differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in silico, and the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database were used for functional investigation of target gene profile. Targets of let-7b were validated by fluorescence reporter assay. Protein expression of target genes was determined by ELISA or western blotting. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. The results showed that 1) thirty five microRNAs were differentially expressed in CTEPH patients, among which, a signature of 17 microRNAs, which was shown to be related to the disease pathogenesis by in silico analysis, gave diagnostic efficacy of both sensitivity and specificity >0.9. 2) Let-7b, one of the down-regulated anti-oncogenic microRNAs in the signature, was validated to decrease to about 0.25 fold in CTEPH patients. 3) ET-1 and TGFBR1 were direct targets of let-7b. Altering let-7b level influenced ET-1 and TGFBR1 expression in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) as well as the migration of PAECs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). These results suggested that CTEPH patients had aberrant microRNA signature which might provide some clue for pathogenesis study and biomarker screening. Reduced let-7b might be involved in the pathogenesis of CTEPH by

  1. Prophylaxis of venous and pulmonary thrombo-embolism. Profilaxis del tromboembolismo venoso y pulmonar. Conceptos actuales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Jiménez Vázquez

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This bibliographical revision stands out the importance of the vein thromboembolism prevention in patients under different surgical and injuries procedures, wicked illnesses and medical conditions. The epidemiology, etiopatogenia and factors of risk of the deep vein thrombosis and the lung embolism are exposed in different categories of patient. Up to dates prophylactic methods are taken into account and compared their effectiveness and cautions according to the last studies on the topic.
    En esta revisión se destaca la importancia de la prevención de tromboembolismo venoso en pacientes bajo diferentes procedimientos quirúrgicos y traumatológicos, enfermedades malignas y condiciones médicas. Se exponen la epidemiología, etiopatogenia y factores de riesgo de la trombosis venosa profunda y el embolismo pulmonar en diferentes categorías de pacientes. Se tratan también los métodos profilácticos actualmente existentes y se compara su efectividad y precauciones de acuerdo a los últimos estudios sobre el tema.

  2. [Massive pulmonary thromboembolism during an orthopedic surgery in an obese patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Masahiro; Yamanaka, Ikuo; Munetsugu, Yumi

    2013-10-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and the consequent pulmonary embolism (PE) are devastating complications in orthopedic surgery. We report a 45-year-old male patient who developed PE during an operation of proximal tibia fracture under general anesthesia. On mobilization of knee joint, end-tidal CO2 suddenly decreased from 28 to 18 mmHg. Sp(O2) decreased from 99 to 92%, but blood pressure was maintained. Postoperatively Sp(O2) was maintained 94-95% in room air, but sinus tachycardia over 120 beats x min(-1) continued. On postoperative day 1, the patient experienced dyspnea. In the chest CT scan, massive embolism was found in the bilateral main pulmonary arteries and both middle lobe as well as lower lobe arteries in the right lung. DVT was detected by enhanced CT scan of the lower extremity. This patient had many risk factors for PE such as obesity, smoking, immobilization and lack of thromboprophylaxis.

  3. Recomendações para o manejo da tromboembolia pulmonar, 2010 Recommendations for the management of pulmonary thromboembolism, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Terra-Filho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A tromboembolia pulmonar constitui, juntamente com a trombose venosa profunda, a condição denominada tromboembolismo venoso. Apesar dos avanços, a morbidade e a mortalidade atribuídas a essa doença ainda são elevadas, pois os pacientes apresentam doenças mais complexas, são submetidos a um maior número de procedimentos invasivos e sobrevivem por mais tempo. Embora existam inúmeras diretrizes internacionais disponíveis, optou-se por redigir estas recomendações para sua aplicação na prática médica nacional, embasadas nas melhores evidências na literatura e na opinião do grupo de consultores. Este documento é apenas uma ferramenta para o atendimento dos pacientes, e, embora possa ser aplicado na maioria das situações, o médico deve adaptar as informações a sua realidade local e ao caso específico. O diagnóstico de tromboembolia pulmonar é realizado através da combinação da probabilidade clínica pré-teste (escores com o resultado dos exames de imagem, sendo atualmente o método de eleição a angiotomografia computadorizada. É fundamental a estratificação do risco de desfecho desfavorável, sendo a instabilidade hemodinâmica o preditor mais importante. Pacientes de baixo risco devem ser tratados com heparina, comumente as de baixo peso molecular. Pacientes de alto risco requerem vigilância intensiva e uso de trombolíticos em alguns casos. A longo prazo, os pacientes devem receber anticoagulantes por no mínimo três meses, sendo sua manutenção decidida pela presença de fatores de risco para a recorrência e a probabilidade de sangramento. A profilaxia é altamente eficaz e deve ser amplamente utilizada, tanto em pacientes clínicos como cirúrgicos, conforme os grupos de risco. Finalmente, são feitas recomendações relacionadas ao diagnóstico, tratamento e prevenção da tromboembolia pulmonar.Pulmonary thromboembolism and deep vein thrombosis together constitute a condition designated venous

  4. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Potential role of multidetector-row CT (MD-CT) and MR imaging in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, G.; Brueggemann, K.; Bostel, T.; Dueber, C.; Kreitner, K.F. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Mayer, E. [Kerckhoff Hospital, Bad Nauheim (Germany). Dept. of Thoracic Surgery

    2014-08-15

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) can be defined as pulmonary hypertension (resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or more determined at right heart catheterization) with persistent pulmonary perfusion defects. It is a rare, but underdiagnosed disease with estimated incidences ranging from 0.5% to 3.8% of patients after an acute pulmonary embolism (PE), and in up to 10% of those with a history of recurrent PE. CTEPH is the only form of pulmonary hypertension that can be surgically treated leading to normalization of pulmonary hemodynamics and exercise capacity in the vast majority of patients. The challenges for imaging in patients with suspected CTEPH are fourfold: the imaging modality should have a high diagnostic accuracy with regard to the presence of CTEPH and allow for differential diagnosis. It should enable detection of patients suitable for PEA with great certainty, and allow for quantification of PH by measuring pulmonary hemodynamics (mPAP and PVR), and finally, it can be used for therapy monitoring. This overview tries to elucidate the potential role of ECG-gated multidetector CT pulmonary angiography (MD-CTPA) and MR imaging, and summarizes the most important results that have been achieved so far. Generally speaking, ECG-gated MD-CTPA is superior to MR in the assessment of parenchymal and vascular pathologies of the lung, and allows for the assessment of cardiac structures. The implementation of iodine maps as a surrogate for lung perfusion enables functional assessment of lung perfusion by CT. MR imaging is the reference standard for the assessment of right heart function and lung perfusion, the latter delineating typical wedge-shaped perfusion defects in patients with CTEPH. New developments show that with MR techniques, an estimation of hemodynamic parameters like mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance will be possible. CT and MR imaging should be considered as complementary

  5. High prevalence of severe coronary artery disease in elderly patients with non-operable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension referred for balloon pulmonary angioplasty

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    Marek Roik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA is a new emerging catheter-based alternative treatment option for patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH. Aim : To show that all elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA are at higher risk of obstructive coronary artery disease and that, in daily practice, they should undergo invasive coronary angiography. Material and methods : Eleven patients at the age of at least 65 years (6 males, 5 females, 77.2 ±5.9 years with confirmed non-operable type II or type III CTEPH, considered for BPA, underwent elective coronary angiography. Severe obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD was diagnosed when stenosis of left main coronary artery ≥ 50% or stenosis of ≥ 70% of epicardial arteries was angiographically confirmed. We also screened for CAD consecutive age- and sex-matched 114 PE survivors (52 males, 62 females, 74.8 ±7.2 years with excluded CTEPH. Results : Severe CAD was more frequent in elderly patients with non-operable type II or type III CTEPH candidates for BPA than in elderly acute PE survivors with excluded CTEPH (54.5% vs. 16.7%, p < 0.01, and therefore elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA were at higher risk of CAD (OR = 5.9, 95% CI: 1.64–21.46, p = 0.007 when compared to elderly survivors after acute PE with excluded CTEPH. Conclusions : All elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA are at higher risk of severe CAD and should routinely undergo invasive coronary angiography before BPA.

  6. O desafio de diagnosticar tromboembolia pulmonar aguda em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica The challenge of diagnosing acute pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Tromboembolia pulmonar aguda e exacerbação aguda de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica são doenças comuns. A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica é um fator clínico de risco para tromboembolia pulmonar aguda. As apresentações clínicas da tromboembolia pulmonar aguda e da exacerbação aguda da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica freqüentemente mimetizam-se tanto que pode ser difícil distingui-las. Anormalidades estruturais nos pulmões com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica tornam também difícil a interpretação de testes não invasivos de diagnóstico, como o mapeamento de ventilação e perfusão pulmonares. Assim, diagnosticar tromboembolia pulmonar aguda em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica é uma tarefa desafiadora. Com o objetivo de atualizar o assunto e oferecer sugestões de conduta, nós avaliamos artigos abordando este tema, incluindo relatos e séries de casos, abordagens diagnósticas de tromboembolia pulmonar aguda e fizemos algumas reflexões. A probabilidade clínica de tromboembolia pulmonar aguda em cenários de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica é usualmente intermediária, o mapeamento de ventilação e perfusão pulmonares é predominantemente de probabilidade intermediária e os algoritmos de conduta os deveriam assim considerar.Pulmonary thromboembolism and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are common conditions. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a clinical risk factor for pulmonary thromboembolism. The presentation of acute pulmonary thromboembolism and acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often mimic each other so closely that they cannot be distinguished clinically. The structural abnormalities of the lungs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease make also difficult to interpret the results of noninvasive tests like ventilation-perfusion lung scans. Therefore, diagnosing acute pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with underlying

  7. Pulmonary thromboembolic disease – clinical and etiological aspects in internal medicine department

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    Mazilu Laura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE represents the third most frequent vascular disease following acute myocardial ischemic disease and stroke. It is a common and potentially lethal disease. Aim: We observed etiological spectrum, clinical aspects and diagnostic tests for patients with PE. Material and methods: Retrospective observational study that included 53 patients diagnosed with PE between 01.01.2009- 31.12.2013. We followed epidemiological aspects, risk factors, clinical manifestations and methods for positive diagnosis. Results: 53 patients which represents 0.66% from the patients admitted in our department (n=8,011, were diagnosed with PE. The main risk factor for PE was malignancy (n=16. Twenty patients with PE presented deep venous thrombosis (DVT and 12 patients arterial thrombosis (AT. Main clinical syndromes of patients with PE were pulmonary infarction (n=32, isolated dyspnea (n=11 and circulatory collapse (n=10. A lot of paraclinical investigation sustained positive diagnosis,mainly by high performance techniques. Four cases were diagnosed postmortem.

  8. Medical image of the week: pulmonary thromboembolism complicated by free floating atrial thrombus

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    VanHook CJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. An 82-year-old female presented to the emergency department four days after suffering a fall at home. She complained of left hip pain, weakness and shortness of breath. Physical exam demonstrated a blood pressure of 82/60 mm Hg, pulse of 120 bpm, and room air oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry of 81%. Exam was otherwise remarkable for pain on movement of the left hip. Laboratory exam was remarkable for troponin of 2.5 ng/ml and pro-beta natriuretic peptide of 31,350 pg/ml. Chest radiograph demonstrated elevation of the right hemidiaphragm. EKG demonstrated sinus tachycardia with a rightward axis and an interventricular conduction defect. Left hip film disclosed a non-displaced femoral neck fracture. CAT-angiography of the chest revealed pulmonary emboli involving all five lobes with significant bilateral proximal pulmonary arterial filling defects (Figures 1,2. Venous Doppler examination demonstrated left lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Trans-thoracic echocardiogram demonstrated right ventricular enlargement and a large

  9. CURRENT SITUATION OF PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM%肺血栓栓塞症的现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶泽兵; 李志樑樑

    2005-01-01

    肺血栓栓塞症(pulmonary thrombo embolism,PIE)为来自静脉系统或右心的血栓阻塞肺动脉或其分支所致的疾病.以肺循环和呼吸功能障碍为其主要临床和病理生理特征。临床表现为一系列症候群,其症状多种多样,缺乏特征性。它是广义肺栓塞(pulmonary embolism,PE)中的最常见类型,有着较高的患病率和病死率,漏诊和误诊情况严重。造成PIE的最主要原因是深静脉血栓(deep venous thrombosis,DVT)形成,DVT脱落并随血流行走最后堵塞在肺动脉即形成PIE。对PIE的研究。近年来颇受关注,本文拟就相关问题作一综述。

  10. Multiple thromboembolism with multiple causes in a 69-year-old woman: a case report

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    Pagnanelli Alessandro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Aggressive, recurrent embolisms require accurate etiologic diagnosis. We describe the case of a 69-year-old Italian Caucasian woman with recurrent arterial embolisms in whom several sources and triggers of thrombosis were detected. Case presentation The patient, a 69-year-old Italian Caucasian woman, presented with a systemic embolism that was initially attributed to atrial fibrillation. The recurrence of embolisms despite anti-thrombotic therapy prompted a re-evaluation of the clinical presentation. New potential causes of thrombosis emerged in this patient, including thrombocytosis associated with the JAK2 V617F mutation and the very rare mural thrombosis of the descending aorta. A mural thrombus in the pulmonary artery was detected contiguous with the aortic mural thrombosis, raising the possibility of a clinically silent ductus Botalli as the initiating event. The patient was treated with warfarin, aspirin, hydroxyurea, and surgery. Conclusions The diagnosis was achieved via systematic use of imaging procedures and reconsideration of blood tests performed to explore the diagnosis of thrombosis. This allowed a deeper and more detailed analysis of the case beyond the conventional approach, which would have aimed to identify one cause for the condition at hand, in this case, atrial fibrillation. The broader approach that we used resulted in the diagnosis of multiple embolisms from multiple sites and multiple causes.

  11. Clinical characters in 125 patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism%急性肺动脉栓塞125例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫少荣; 郭军; 李自成

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究急性肺动脉栓塞的临床特点,探讨如何及时准确地对急性肺动脉栓塞进行诊断.方法:回顾性总结我院近10年来收治的125例急性肺动脉栓塞患者的临床资料,对其症状、体征、实验室检查、心电图检查和影像学资料等进行分析.结果:急性肺动脉栓塞临床表现缺乏特异性,其中以不明原因的呼吸困难(83.2%)最为常见,不明原因的肺动脉高压占76.0%,二者联合诊断急性肺动脉栓塞的灵敏度为90.4%;不明原因的晕厥占21.6%,三者联合诊断急性肺动脉栓塞的灵敏度为92.8%.结论:“三个不明原因”——呼吸困难、肺动脉高压和晕厥联合诊断急性肺动脉栓塞具有较高的灵敏度,结合危险因素,可减少急性肺动脉栓塞的漏诊率.%Objective:The study was designed to investigate the clinical characteristics of acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) so as to figure out a timely and accurate diagnostic method of PTE. Method:Clinical data of 125 patients with PTE were retrospectively analyzed,including symptoms, physical signs, laboratory examination, electrocardiogram and imageology data. Result:The clinical manifestations of PTE were not specific. Among these, undetermined dyspnea was the main symptom, which accounts for 83.2%. Undetermined pulmonary hypertension accounts for 76. 0%. The sensitivity of combining the two clinical characters in diagnosis of PTE was 90. 4%. Undetermined syncope was 21. 6%. The sensitivity of combining the three clinical characters in diagnosis of PTE was 92. 8%. Conclusion:Three of undetermined causes--dyspnea, pulmonary hypertension and syncope may improve diagnosis sensitivity and decrease the rate of failing to diagnosis of PTE while the related risk factors were considered.

  12. Elevation of troponin values in differential diagnosis of chest pain in view of pulmonary thromboembolism

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    Vučić Rada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute coronary syndrome, as unstable form of ischaemic heart disease, beside clinical presentation and electrocardiographic abnormalities, is characterized by increased value of troponin one of cardiospecific enzimes. Although troponin is a high specific and sensitive indicator of acute coronary syndrome, any heart muscle injury may induce its increasing, so there are some other diseases with the increased troponin value. Case report. We presented a female patient with chest pain, admitted because of suspicioun of acute coronary sindrome. Performed coronarography excluded ischemic heart disease. Considering symtomatology, electrocardiographic abnormalities, increased troponin and D-dimer values, as well as echocardiography finding we considered pulmonary embolism as a differential diagnosis, which was confirmed by pulmoangiography. Conclusion. Isolated increased troponin values are not enough for diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

  13. Elevation of troponin values in differential diagnosis of chest pain in view of pulmonary thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucić, Rada; Knezević, Slavko; Lazić, Zorica; Andrejić, Olivera; Dincić, Dragan; Irić-Cupić, Violeta; Zdravković, Vladimir

    2012-10-01

    Acute coronary syndrome, as unstable form of ischaemic heart disease, beside clinical presentation and electrocardiographic abnormalities, is characterized by increased value of troponin one of cardiospecific enzimes. Although troponin is a high specific and sensitive indicator of acute coronary syndrome, any heart muscle injury may induce its increasing, so there are some other diseases with the increased troponin value. We presented a female patient with chest pain, admitted because of suspicioun of acute coronary syndrome. Performed coronarography excluded ischemic heart disease. Considering symtomatology, electrocardiographic abnormalities, increased troponin and D-dimer values, as well as echocardiography finding we considered pulmonary embolism as a differential diagnosis, which was confirmed by pulmoangiography. Isolated increased troponin values are not enough for diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

  14. Pulmonary embolism risk stratification by European Society of Cardiology is associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism: Findings from a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhai, Zhenguo; Yang, Yuanhua; Zhu, Jianguo; Kuang, Tuguang; Xie, Wanmu; Yang, Suqiao; Liu, Fangfang; Gong, Juanni; Shen, Ying H; Wang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence carries significant mortality and morbidity. Accurate risk assessment and effective treatment for patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is important for VTE recurrence prevention. We examined the association of VTE recurrence with risk stratification and PE treatment. We enrolled 627 patients with a first episode of confirmed PE. Baseline clinical information was collected. PE severity was assessed by the European Society of Cardiology's (ESC) risk stratification, the simplified PE Severity Index (sPESI) and the Qanadli score of clot burden. Patients were followed for 1-5 years. The cumulative recurrent VTE and all-cause death were documented. The association between recurrent VTE and risk factors was analyzed. The cumulative incidences of recurrent VTE were 4.5%, 7.3%, and 13.9% at 1, 2, and 5 years of follow-up, respectively. The VTE recurrence was associated with higher (high- and intermediate-) risk stratification predicted by ESC model (HR 1.838, 95% CI 1.318-2.571, P<0.001), as well as with unprovoked PE (HR 2.809, 95% CI 1.650-4.781, P b 0.001) and varicose veins (HR 4.747, 95% CI 2.634-8.557, P<0.001). The recurrence was negatively associated with longer (≥6 months) anticoagulation (HR 0.473, 95% CI 0.285-0.787, P=0.004), especially in patients with higher risk (HR 0.394, 95% CI 0.211-0.736, P=0.003) and unprovoked PE (HR 0.248, 95% CI 0.122-0.504, P<0.001). ESC high-risk and intermediate-risk PE, unprovoked PE and varicose veins increase recurrence risk. Longer anticoagulation treatment reduces recurrence, especially in higher risk and unprovoked PE patients.

  15. Cardiac causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension: assessment with multidetector CT

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    Hoey, Edward T.D.; Gopalan, Deepa; Agrawal, S.K.B. [Papworth Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Screaton, Nicholas J. [Papworth Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Papworth Hospital NHS Trust, Diagnostic Centre, Department of Radiology, Papworth Everard, Cambridgeshire (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    The causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are diverse and include multiple congenital and acquired cardiac diseases as well as diseases primarily affecting the pulmonary vasculature, lung, pleura and chest wall. The traditional role of CT in evaluating PAH includes assessment of pulmonary vasculature and lung parenchyma with limited assessment of the heart. Advances in multidetector CT technology with improved spatial and temporal resolution now permit accurate delineation of cardiac morphology. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is widely utilised in the workup of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease and can identify both pulmonary and cardiac causes. As the initial presentation for CTPA is often precipitated by nonspecific, unexplained symptoms and therefore undertaken by a general radiologist, it is important that a systematic approach to the interpretation of these studies, including cardiac evaluation, is routinely adopted. This paper reviews the CT evaluation in pulmonary hypertension with a particular focus on the cardiac causes, their subclassification into congenital systemic to pulmonary shunts and secondary to left heart disease, and their imaging features. It emphasises the use of a systematic approach to interpretation of CTPA examinations both in patients with known PAH and those with previously unsuspected disease. (orig.)

  16. An uncommon cause of acute pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Santosh; Giri, Smith; Bhusal, Mohan; Siwakoti, Krishmita; Pathak, Ranjan

    2016-09-01

    Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema secondary to catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy is a very uncommon and fatal initial presentation of pheochromocytoma. However, with early clinical suspicion and aggressive management, the condition is reversible. This case report describes a patient who presented with hypertension, dyspnea, and cough with bloody streaks, and who recovered within 48 hours after appropriate treatment.

  17. 孕产期易栓症与肺栓塞的诊治%The diagnosis and treatment of thrombophilia and pulmonary venous thromboembolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王谢桐; 李善玲

    2013-01-01

    The maternal hypercoagulable state is a physiological preparation for delivery. However, this hypercoagulability is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Inherited and acquired thrombophilia is the risk factor related to VTE. Although new understandings of pathogenic factors of thrombophilia in terms of gene level have been achieved, universal screening for thrombophilia in pregnancy is not reasonable in the clinical setting. Risk assessment should be done to establish the need for thromboprophylaxis during pregnancy and the postpartum period. All pregnant women with thrombophilia should undergo individualized prophylaxis strategies. However, the prophylactic anticoagulation regimen is controversial. The VTE preventive treatment object, time,and method are still not unified. There is insufficient evidence to support initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is progressing rapidly with high false-negative and false-positive results. It is crucial to reinforce the knowledge of PE. If PE is suspected,treatment with anticoagulation should be started immediately. However, anticoagulant drugs have no clinical criteria. Bleeding will occur with excessive dosage while thromboembolism will recur with inadequate dosage.%妊娠期血液高凝状态是分娩的生理准备,但血液高凝状态使静脉血栓栓塞(venous thrombo embolism,VTE)的危险性增加,围产期VTE已成孕产妇死亡主要原因.易栓症是VTE的危险因素,发病因素包括遗传性和获得性.尽管目前已从基因水平对易栓症的发病因素有了新的认识,但对妊娠期易栓症的全面筛查在临床上是不合理的.因此对孕产妇整个妊娠期及产后的血栓形成的危险因素进行评估,据其情况提供个体化的预防措施是关键.但是血栓的预防性抗凝治疗目前尚有争议,对VTE预防性治疗对象、时机以及方法尚未统一,是否启动

  18. A Rare Cause of Pulmonary Nodules

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    Michael Tsuyoshi Chew

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is a chronic, idiopathic autoimmune disorder that primarily targets the gastrointestinal (GI system. It is characterized by transmural inflammation of the GI tract that can occur anywhere from the mouth to the anus. Not infrequently, the disease may also have extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs that can affect almost any organ system. It is estimated that EIMs affect up to 36% of patients with Crohn’s disease, but the incidence and prevalence of pulmonary involvement are variable in the literature and may be as low as 0.4%. There are few case reports documenting pulmonary manifestations, as they are often overlooked, especially if respiratory symptoms are present before the diagnosis of GI manifestations, as in the present case. A 44-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with nonspecific respiratory complaints, recurrent pneumonias, and multiple computed tomography images showing diffuse, migratory, nodular, and consolidative parenchymal lung disease, with a largely unremarkable infectious and rheumatologic evaluation. Lung biopsy revealed necrotizing and nonnecrotizing granulomas, raising concern for sarcoidosis. Subsequent imaging revealed an incidental mass in the cecum. Biopsy of the cecum lesion revealed acute cryptitis, crypt abscess, and a single poorly formed granuloma, suggesting the possibility of Crohn’s disease. In this report, we present a patient whose pulmonary manifestations ultimately led to the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease.

  19. Strategy that includes serial noninvasive leg tests for diagnosis of thromboembolic disease in patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism based on data from PIOPED. Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, P D; Hull, R D; Pineo, G

    1995-10-23

    To estimate the percentage of patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism in whom a noninvasive diagnosis or exclusion of thromboembolic disease might be safely made on the basis of ventilation-perfusion (VQ) lung scans, single noninvasive tests of the lower extremities, and, in patients with adequate cardiorespiratory reserve, serial noninvasive tests of the lower extremities. Calculations were made among 662 patients who participated in the collaborative study Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) and who had blood gas values measured while breathing room air and who underwent pulmonary angiography. The diagnostic strategy recommends treatment in all patients with a high-probability VQ scan and no treatment in patients with nearly normal VQ scans. In patients with nondiagnostic VQ scans (intermediate- or low-probability scans), a single noninvasive leg test is recommended. It was assumed that 50% of patients with pulmonary embolism would show deep venous thrombosis with a single noninvasive leg test. If results are abnormal, treatment is indicated. If normal, serial noninvasive leg tests are recommended. Treatment can be withheld if results of serial tests are normal. In patients with poor cardiorespiratory reserve, pulmonary angiography is indicated. A single noninvasive leg test in patients with nondiagnostic VQ scans would show deep venous thrombosis and, therefore, eliminate the need for pulmonary angiography in 53 (11%) of 468 patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 15%) who otherwise would require angiography. Serial noninvasive leg tests in patients with adequate cardiorespiratory reserve who had a normal result of a single leg test would either show deep venous thrombosis or exclude it in 222 (47%) of 468 patients (95% CI, 43% to 52%). The need for pulmonary angiography, therefore, would be reduced from 468 (71%) of 662 (95% CI, 67% to 74%) if no noninvasive leg tests were performed to 415 (63%) of 662 (95% CI, 59

  20. C-Arm Computed Tomography Adds Diagnostic Information in Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension and a Positive V/Q SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jan B; Werncke, Thomas; Kaireit, Till; Hoeper, Marius M; Olsson, Karen M; Kamp, Jan-Christopher; Wacker, Frank K; Bengel, Frank; von Falck, Christian; Schatka, Imke; Meyer, Bernhard C

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine if C-Arm computed tomography (CACT) has added diagnostic value in patients suffering from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) with a positive mismatch pattern in ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT). Materials and Methods 28 patients (23 men, 5 women, 62 ± 18 years) with CTEPH who had undergone SPECT, followed by CACT and right heart catheterization (RHC) were included. Two independent readers reviewed SPECT and CACT. Findings indicating CTEPH and their location (segmental or sub-segmental) were identified (V/Q mismatch in SPECT and vascular pathologies in CACT). Inter-modality agreement was calculated (Cohen's Kappa). Findings were scored on a 3-point-scale. The sum of the score (pulmonary artery CTEPH severity score (PACSS)) was calculated for each patient and imaging modality, correlated to RHC (spearman's correlation) and compared to the final therapeutic decision of the CTEPH board (including the consensus of SPECT, selective pulmonary DSA and CACT). Results Overall, 504 pulmonary artery segments were assessed in SPECT and CACT. SPECT had identified 266/504 (53 %) arterial segments without and 238/504 (47 %) segments with a V/Q mismatch indicating CTEPH. CACT detected 131/504 (26 %) segments without abnormal findings and 373/504 (74 %) segments with findings indicating CTEPH. Inter-modality agreement was fair (ĸ = 0.38). PACSS of CACT correlated mildly significantly with the mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAPmean; rho = 0.48, p = 0.01), while SPECT missed significance (rho = 0.32, p = 0.1). Discrepant findings were mostly attributed to a higher frequency of sub-segmental pulmonary arterial pathologies on CACT (145 sub-segmental findings indicating CTEPH) rated as normal on SPECT. Conclusion In patients with CTEPH, contrast-enhanced CACT detects additional findings with a better correlation to the severity of PAPmean than V/Q SPECT. CACT

  1. Value of high spatial and high temporal resolution magnetic resonance angiography for differentiation between idiopathic and thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Sebastian; Eichinger, Monika [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Fink, Christian; Zaporozhan, Julia; Puderbach, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Borst, Mathias M.; Meyer, F. Joachim; Gruenig, Ekkehard [University Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Differentiation between different forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is essential for correct disease management. The goal of this study was to elucidate the clinical impact of high spatial resolution MR angiography (SR-MRA) and time-resolved MRA (TR-MRA) to differentiate between patients with chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH) and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Ten PH patients and five volunteers were examined. Twenty TR-MRA data sets (TA 1.5 s) and SR-MRA (TA 23 s) were acquired. TR-MRA data sets were subtracted as angiography and perfusion images. Evaluation comprised analysis of vascular pathologies on a segmental basis, detection of perfusion defects, and bronchial arteries by two readers in consensus. Technical evaluation comprised evaluation of image quality, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements, and contrast-media passage time. Visualization of the pulmonary arteries was possible down to a subsegmental (SR-MRA) and to a segmental (TR-MRA) level. SR-MRA outperformed TR-MRA in direct visualization of intravascular changes. Patients with IPAH predominantly showed tortuous pulmonary arteries while in CTEPH wall irregularities and abnormal proximal-to-distal tapering was found. Perfusion images showed a diffuse pattern in IPAH and focal defects in CTEPH. TR-MRA and SR-MRA resulted in the same final diagnosis. Both MRA techniques allowed for differentiation between IPAH and CTEPH. Therefore, TR-MRA can be used in the clinical setting, especially in dyspneic patients. (orig.)

  2. Diagnostic performance of state-of-the-art imaging techniques for morphological assessment of vascular abnormalities in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Sebastian [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Universitaetsmedizin, Mainz (Germany); Pitton, Michael B.; Schneider, Jens; Wirth, Gesine M.; Dueber, Christoph; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Universitaetsmedizin, Mainz (Germany); Mayer, Eckhard [Kerckhoff-Hospital Bad Nauheim, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Bad Nauheim (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    To determine the most comprehensive imaging technique for the assessment of pulmonary arteries in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). 24 patients with CTEPH were examined by ECG-gated multi-detector CT angiography (MD-CTA), contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ce-MRA) and selective digital subtraction angiography (DSA) within 3 days. Two readers in consensus separately evaluated each imaging technique (48 main, 144 lobar and 449 segmental arteries) for typical changes like complete obstructions, vessel cut-offs, intimal irregularities, incorporated thrombus formations, and bands and webs. A joint interpretation of all three techniques served as a reference standard. Based on image quality, there was no non-diagnostic examination by either imaging technique. DSA did not sufficiently display 1 main, 3 lobar and 4 segmental arteries. The pulmonary trunk was not assessable by DSA. One patient showed thrombotic material at this level only by MD-CTA and MRA. Sensitivity and specificity of MD-CTA regarding CTEPH-related changes at the main/lobar and at the segmental levels were 100%/100% and 100%/99%, of ce-MRA 83.1%/98.6% and 87.7%/98.1%, and of DSA 65.7%/100% and 75.8%/100%, respectively. ECG-gated MD-CTA proved the most adequate technique for assessment of the pulmonary arteries in the diagnostic work-up of CTEPH patients. (orig.)

  3. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: diagnostic impact of multislice-CT and selective pulmonary-DSA; Chronische thromboembolische pulmonale Hypertonie: diagnostische Wertigkeit von Mehrschicht-CT und selektiver Pulmonalis-DSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitton, M.B.; Kemmerich, G.; Herber, S.; Schweden, F.; Thelen, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie; Mayer, E. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic impact of multislice-CT and selective pulmonary DSA in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods: 994 vessel segments of 14 consecutive patients with CTEPH were investigated with multislice-CT (slice thickness 3 mm, collimation 2.5 mm, reconstruction intervall 2 mm) and selective pulmonary DSA posterior-anterior, 45 oblique, and lateral projection. Analysis was performed by 2 investigators independently for CT and DSA. Diagnostic criteria were occlusions and non-occlusive changes like webs and bands, irregularities of the vessel wall, diameter reduction and thromboembolic depositions at different levels from central pulmonary arteries to subsegmental arteries. Reference diagnosis was made by synopsis of CT and DSA by consensus. Results: Concerning patency CT and DSA showed concordant findings overall in 88.9%, 92.9% for segmental arteries and 85.4% for subsegmental arteries. Concerning any thromboembolic changes, multislice-CT was significantly inferior to selective DSA (concordance 67.0% overall, 70.4% for segments and 63.6% for subsegments). Non-occlusive changes of the vessels were significantly underdiagnosed by CT (concordance of CT versus DSA: 23.1%). Conclusion: Multislice-CT and selective pulmonary DSA are equivalent for diagnosis of vessel occlusions at the level of segmental and subsegmental arteries. However, for visualisation of the non-occlusive thromboembolic changes of the vessel wall selective pulmonary DSA is still superior compared to multislice-CT. Multislice-CT and selective pulmonary DSA are complementary tools for diagnosis and treatment planning of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). (orig.) [German] Fragestellung: Ueberpruefung der diagnostischen Aussage der Mehrschicht-CT im Vergleich zur selektiven Pulmonalis-DSA bei sehwerer thromboembolischer pulmonaler Hypertonie (CTEPH). Material und Methoden: Bei 14 konsekutiven Patienten mit CTPH wurden ein Mehrschicht-CT (SD

  4. [Cardiogenic and non cardiogenic pulmonary edema: pathomechanisms and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaus, T; Schellenberg, S; Lang, J

    2010-07-01

    The development of pulmonary edema is divided in cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic. Cardiogenic edema pathogenically is caused by elevated hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary capillaries due to left sided congestive heart failure. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is categorized depending on the underlying pathogenesis in low-alveolar pressure, elevated permeability or neurogenic edema. Some important examples of causes are upper airway obstruction like in laryngeal paralysis or strangulation for low alveolar pressure, leptospirosis and ARDS for elevated permeability, and epilepsy, brain trauma and electrocution for neurogenic edema. The differentiation between cardiogenic versus non-cardiogenic genesis is not always straightforward, but most relevant, because treatment markedly differs between the two. Of further importance is the identification of the specific underlying cause in non-cardiogenic edema, not only for therapeutic but particularly for prognostic reasons. Depending on the cause the prognosis ranges from very poor to good chance of complete recovery.

  5. C-Arm computed tomography adds diagnostic information in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and a positive V/Q SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Jan B.; Werncke, Thomas; Kaireit, Till [Hannover Medical School (Germany). Dept. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; and others

    2017-01-15

    To determine if C-Arm computed tomography (CACT) has added diagnostic value in patients suffering from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) with a positive mismatch pattern in ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT). 28 patients (23 men, 5 women, 62±18 years) with CTEPH who had undergone SPECT, followed by CACT and right heart catheterization (RHC) were included. Two independent readers reviewed SPECT and CACT. Findings indicating CTEPH and their location (segmental or sub-segmental) were identified (V/Q mismatch in SPECT and vascular pathologies in CACT). Inter-modality agreement was calculated (Cohen's Kappa). Findings were scored on a 3-point-scale. The sum of the score (pulmonary artery CTEPH severity score (PACSS)) was calculated for each patient and imaging modality, correlated to RHC (spearman's correlation) and compared to the final therapeutic decision of the CTEPH board (including the consensus of SPECT, selective pulmonary DSA and CACT). Overall, 504 pulmonary artery segments were assessed in SPECT and CACT. SPECT had identified 266/504 (53%) arterial segments without and 238/504 (47%) segments with a V/Q mismatch indicating CTEPH. CACT detected 131/504 (26%) segments without abnormal findings and 373/504 (74%) segments with findings indicating CTEPH. Inter-modality agreement was fair (k=0.38). PACSS of CACT correlated mildly significantly with the mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAPmean; rho=0.48, p=0.01), while SPECT missed significance (rho=0.32, p=0.1). Discrepant findings were mostly attributed to a higher frequency of sub-segmental pulmonary arterial pathologies on CACT (145 sub-segmental findings indicating CTEPH) rated as normal on SPECT. In patients with CTEPH, contrast-enhanced CACT detects additional findings with a better correlation to the severity of PAPmean than V/Q SPECT. CACT indicates abnormalities even in segments without V/Q abnormalities.

  6. Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükçelik, Abdullah; Akbulut, Hakan

    2004-03-01

    One hundred and forty years ago, Armand Trousseau described phlegmasia alba dolens as a sign of internal malignancy. Nowadays, it is commonly believed that the presence malignant tumaor increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (i.e deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) However, cancer is usually associated with other factors such as old age, extensive surgery,immobility, etc., which may predispose to thromboembolism. The majority of thrombotic events occur in the venous system; the incidence of arterial thrombosis is much lower.Recurrent thromboembolism in cancer patients frequently and diminishes the quality of life of the patients.Furthermore, if the thromboembolism is massive, destipte of early and aggressive treatment, it may result in death. In this article, we review thromboembolic complications in cancer patients.

  7. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: a five-year national case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Edström, Birgitte; Kreiner, Svend

    2002-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism; Oral contraceptives; Pulmonary embolism; Third-generation; Second-generation; Pill Scare......Venous thromboembolism; Oral contraceptives; Pulmonary embolism; Third-generation; Second-generation; Pill Scare...

  8. Pulmonary hemodynamics in obstructive sleep apnea: frequency and causes of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, M; Kochs, M; Marx, N; Woehrle, H; Mobarak, I; Hombach, V; Hetzel, J

    2003-01-01

    The association between nocturnal apneas and transient pulmonary hypertension (PHT) has been well documented. However, there is controversy over the frequency and pathophysiological mechanisms of daytime pulmonary hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS). The present study sought to evaluate frequency and mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension in patients with OSAS. It included 49 consecutive patients with polysomnographically proven OSAS without pathological lung function testing. All patients performed daytime measurements of pulmonary hemodynamics at rest and during exercise (50-75W). Six patients (12%) had resting PHT mean pulmonary of artery pressure (PAPM) of >20 mmHg), whereas 39 patients (80%) showed PHT during exercise (PAPM >30 mmHg). Multiple regression analysis revealed 3 independent contributing factors for mean pulmonary artery pressure during exercise (PAPMmax): body mass index, age and total lung capacity % of predicted. Twenty-five of the 39 patients with pathologically high PAPMmax (64%) showed elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressures (PCWPmax > 20 mmHg), whereas no patient had elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRmax > 120 dynes x s x cm(-5)). In conclusion, daytime PHT during exercise is frequently seen in patients with OSAS and normal lung function testing and is mainly caused by abnormally high PCWP, whereas PVR seems to play a minor role.

  9. Localization fibrosing mediastinitis causing pulmonary infraction: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, Young Keun; Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Park, Kyung Joo; Koh, Young Wha; Sun, Joo Sung [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A 44-year-old female patient visited our emergency room for hemoptysis and refractory chest wall pain of 2 months duration. She had no history of smoking or other medical conditions. Chest CT scan showed homogenously enhancing soft tissue mass without calcification at the left pulmonary hilum. Encasing and compression of the left lower pulmonary artery by the mass had resulted in pulmonary infarction in the left lower lobe. Laboratory tests for tuberculosis, fungus, and vasculitis were all negative. The patient underwent surgical biopsy and resection of infarcted left lower lobe that was histopathologically confirmed as fibrosing mediastinitis. Herein, we reported a rare case of surgically confirmed and treated localized fibrosing mediastinitis causing pulmonary infarction.

  10. Pulmonary intravascular macrophages in the pathogenesis of bovine pulmonary lesions caused by Actinomyces pyogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leifsson, Páll Skúli; Basse, A.; Jensen, Henrik Michael Elvang

    1995-01-01

    Rabbit antisera raised against somatic antigens from two strains of Actinomyces pyogenes reacted specifically in a peroxidase anti-peroxidase technique which was developed for the location of the bacteria in formalin-fixed tissues. The technique was applied on experimental murine and spontaneous...... bovine lesions caused by A. pyogenes. By electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry it was demonstrated that pulmonary intravascular macrophages play a role in the uptake of A. pyogenes from the blood, and in the production of pyaemic pulmonary lesions...

  11. Dual-energy CT angiography of chronic thromboembolic disease: Can it help recognize links between the severity of pulmonary arterial obstruction and perfusion defects?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renard, Benoit [Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, University Centre of Lille (EA 2694), Boulevard Jules Leclercq, 59037 Lille cedex (France); Remy-Jardin, Martine, E-mail: mremy-jardin@chru-lille.fr [Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, University Centre of Lille (EA 2694), Boulevard Jules Leclercq, 59037 Lille cedex (France); Santangelo, Teresa; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Tacelli, Nunzia; Remy, Jacques [Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, University Centre of Lille (EA 2694), Boulevard Jules Leclercq, 59037 Lille cedex (France); Duhamel, Alain [Department of Biostatistics, University Centre of Lille (EA 2694), 59037 Lille cedex (France)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether dual-energy CT angiography (DE-CTA) could identify links between morphologic and functional abnormalities in chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (CPTE). Materials and methods: Seventeen consecutive patients with CPTE without underlying cardio-respiratory disease were investigated with DE-CTA. Two series of images were generated: (a) transverse diagnostic scans (i.e., contiguous 1-mm thick averaged images from both tubes), and (b) perfusion scans (i.e., images of the iodine content within the microcirculation; 4-mm thick MIPs). Two radiologists evaluated by consensus the presence of: (a) pulmonary vascular features of CPTE and abnormally dilated systemic arteries on diagnostic CT scans, and (b) perfusion defects of embolic type on perfusion scans. Results: Diagnostic examinations showed a total of 166 pulmonary arteries (166/833; 19.9%) with features of CPTE, more frequent at the level of peripheral than central arteries (8.94 vs 0.82; p < 0.0001), including severe stenosis with partial (97/166; 58.4%) or complete (20/166; 12.0%) obstruction, webs and bands (37/166; 22.3%), partial filling defects without stenosis (7/166; 4.2%), focal stenosis (4/166; 2.4%) and abrupt vessel narrowing (1/166; 0.6%). Perfusion examinations showed 39 perfusion defects in 8 patients (median number: 4.9; range: 1-11). The most severe pulmonary arterial features of CPTE were seen with a significantly higher frequency in segments with perfusion defects than in segments with normal perfusion (p < 0.0001). Enlarged systemic arteries were observed with a significantly higher frequency ipsilateral to lungs with perfusion defects (9/12; 75%) compared with lungs without perfusion defects (5/22; 22.7%) (p = 0.004). Conclusion: Dual-energy CTA demonstrates links between the severity of pulmonary arterial obstruction and perfusion impairment, influenced by the degree of development of the systemic collateral supply.

  12. [Knowledge and lessons learned from the results of perioperative pulmonary thromboembolism research by the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists (JSA-PPT Research)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroiwa, Masayuki

    2007-07-01

    Knowledge and information were acquired from the results of the annual perioperative pulmonary thromboembolism (PPT) research from 2002 to 2004 by the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists. Due to the popularization and use of prophylaxis, perioperative pulmonary thromboembolism (PPT) decreased significantly in 2004 compared to the years 2002 and 2003 (P PPT were hip/extremity surgery (7.48 per 10,000 cases), spinal surgery (6.30 per 10000 cases) and laparotomy (5.32 per 10,000 cases). Compared with minor surgery, relative risks were 3.4 [2.6-4.3 95% CI] in laparotomy, 4.0 [3.7-6.1 95% CI] in hip/extremity surgery and 4.8 [2.9-5.6 95% CI] in spinal surgery. The incidence of PPT in the elderly group (over 66 yrs) was higher than that of PPT in the middle age group (19-65 yrs). The mortality in the over 86 year old group was significantly higher than that of the middle age group. Our analysis shows that, at least, we need to start prevention of PPT from the preoperative period in lower limb/hip surgery, and start it from intra-/post operative period in laparotomy for malignancy. Three major risk factors, obesity (35.9%), malignancy (34.2%) and immobility (27.7%), were found in our research. The proportion of obese men (20-40 yrs) with PPT was 2 fold higher, and in women (20-50 yrs) it was three fold higher, than that of the general population. In our investigation, the mortality rate of the PPT patient without prophylaxis was significantly higher than that of the patient with prophylaxis (P < 0.01). The predictive factors for death in our logistic regression were male gender, immobility, and lack of prophylactic treatment.

  13. Fatal pulmonary thromboembolism in gastrectomy intraoperative procedures by gastric adenocarcinoma: case report Tromboembolismo pulmonar fatal no intra-operatório de gastrectomia por adenocarcinoma gástrico: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Bresciani

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The case of a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma with indication for gastrectomy is reported. The surgery took place without complications. A palliative, subtotal gastrectomy was performed after para-aortic lymph nodes compromised by neoplasm were found, which was confirmed by pathological exam of frozen sections carried out during the intervention. At the end of the gastroenteroanastomosis procedure, the patient began to show intense bradycardia: 38 beats per minute (bpm, arterial hypotension, changes in the electrocardiogram's waveform (upper unlevelling of segment ST, and cardiac arrest. Resuscitation maneuvers were performed with temporary success. Subsequently, the patient had another circulatory breakdown and again was recovered. Finally, the third cardiac arrest proved to be irreversible, and the intra-operative death occurred. Necropsy showed massive pulmonary embolism. The medical literature has recommended heparinization of patients, in an attempt to avoid pulmonary thromboembolism following major surgical interventions. However, in the present case, heparinization would have been insufficient to prevent death. This case indicates that it is necessary to develop preoperative propedeutics for diagnosing the presence of venous thrombi with potential to migrate, causing pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE. If such thrombi could be detected, preventative measures, such as filter installation in the Cava vein could be undertaken.Relata-se um caso de paciente com adenocarcinoma gástrico com indicação de gastrectomia. O ato operatório transcorreu sem anormalidades. Foi realizada gastrectomia subtotal paliativa, pois encontrou-se linfonodos para-aórticos comprometidos pela neoplasia, confirmado por exame anátomo-patológico de congelação realizado no decorrer da intervenção. Ao fim da confecção da gastroêntero-anastomose o paciente passou a apresentar bradicardia intensa: 38 batimentos por minuto (bpm, hipotensão arterial, altera

  14. Experimental Study of Thrombolytic Therapy in Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism%急性肺血栓栓塞溶栓治疗的动物实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜琴华; 许雯; 李国平; 陈彦凡; 王良兴; 陈少贤

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish an animal model of acute pulmonary thromboembolism that may be used for throm-bolyitc therapy study. Methods; Twenty-four Japanese rabbits were randomly divided into Urokinase group (group UK) , control group (group C) and sham operation group (group S). Acute pulmonary embolism models of rabbits were established with injection of autologous blood clots through the right heart catheters. Haemodynamic monitoring were performed by introducing heart catheter through right jugular vein. The ultrastructures of lung tissue were observed by electronic microscope. Results: ( 1) Radionuclide lung perfusion scan showed radio activity defect or attenuation after embolization and radioactivity filling after thromblysis. (2)PAMP was increased after embolization in both group UK and group C(P < 0.01) and decreased immediately at 1 hour after UK administration in group UK (P <0. 01), there were no significant changes in PAMP of group C after embolization with time. (3) Histopathologic analysis showed pulmonary hemorrhage and consolidation in group UK,the swelling and karyopyknosis of capillary endothelium were observed in group UK. The injuries of endotheliums and type II alveolar cells in group UK were more severe than those in group C. Conclusion:The way of establishment of model is simple. The physiological changes of experimental model accord with the acute pulmonary thromboembolisms. It provides a good experiment model for thrombolyitc therapy in pulmonary thromboembolism.%目的:建立一种良好的适合进行溶栓治疗实验研究的急性肺血栓栓塞动物模型.方法:24只日本大耳白兔,随机分为尿激酶溶栓组(UK组)、模型组(C组)、假手术组(S组),经右心导管注入条柱状自体血栓,心导管法监测血流动力学,制备急性肺血栓栓塞实验模型.在血流动力学和核素肺灌注扫描的基础上观察溶栓疗效,采用透射电镜法观察肺组织超微结构.结果:(1)肺栓

  15. [Causes, signs and outcome of 30 patients with pulmonary embolus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diall, Ib; Coulibaly, S; Minta, I; Ba, Ho; Diakite, M; Sidibe, N; Sangare, I; Diakite, S; Sanogo, K; Diallo, Ba

    2011-01-01

    Authors studied 30 cases of pulmonary emboli in BAMAKO in the departments of Cardiology at Point G hospital. The purpose of this work was to determine the pulmonary emboli's frequency, their signs and symptoms and to observe their outcome. Was eligible to study every patient hospitalised for pulmonary emboli confirmed by clinical signs and D- dimere test, with ECG and echocardiogram in most cases. The pulmonary emboli' frequency was 1,7%, with an average age of 51 years ± 16,9. Among causes the most frequent were hypertension (50%), phlebitis (40%), chronic cor pulmonale (30%), and heart failure (40%). Signs were respiratory distress (80%), haemoptysis (43%), syncope (20%), and circulatory collapse (15%). ECG show mostly right ventricular hypertrophy (93,3%) and x ray sometimes a characteristic aspect. Cardiac echography show essentially ventricular and auricular dilatation with a thrombus in 6,7% of the cases. The treatment was by heparin, AVK and analgesic. Mortality in study was 11, 3 %. So pulmonary embolus is always at high risk and sometimes it's diagnostic is difficult.

  16. Sudden death in a case of catatonia due to pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Javadekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catatonic syndrome carries relatively high mortality. One of the causes of death is pulmonary embolism. Prolonged immobility, dehydration, use of low-potency antipsychotic drugs, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT increase the risk of venous thromboembolism. Evaluating the risk of catatonic patients is of paramount importance. Prevention of venous thromboembolism by reducing the risk factors and relieving catatonic symptoms early is essential.

  17. Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease: A Newly Recognized Cause of Severe Pulmonary Hypertension in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K; Andrie, K; Cartoceti, A; French, S; Goldsmith, D; Jennings, S; Priestnall, S L; Wilson, D; Jutkowitz, A

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a well-known though poorly characterized disease in veterinary medicine. In humans, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare cause of severe pulmonary hypertension with a mean survival time of 2 years without lung transplantation. Eleven adult dogs (5 males, 6 females; median age 10.5 years, representing various breeds) were examined following the development of severe respiratory signs. Lungs of affected animals were evaluated morphologically and with immunohistochemistry for alpha smooth muscle actin, desmin, CD31, CD3, CD20, and CD204. All dogs had pulmonary lesions consistent with PVOD, consisting of occlusive remodeling of small- to medium-sized pulmonary veins, foci of pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH), and accumulation of hemosiderophages; 6 of 11 dogs had substantial pulmonary arterial medial and intimal thickening. Ultrastructural examination and immunohistochemistry showed that smooth muscle cells contributed to the venous occlusion. Increased expression of CD31 was evident in regions of PCH indicating increased numbers of endothelial cells in these foci. Spindle cells strongly expressing alpha smooth muscle actin and desmin co-localized with foci of PCH; similar cells were present but less intensely labeled elsewhere in non-PCH alveoli. B cells and macrophages, detected by immunohistochemistry, were not co-localized with the venous lesions of canine PVOD; small numbers of CD3-positive T cells were occasionally in and around the wall of remodeled veins. These findings indicate a condition in dogs with clinically severe respiratory disease and pathologic features resembling human PVOD, including foci of pulmonary venous remodeling and PCH.

  18. CT findings of pulmonary edema: comparison of various causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyae Young; Im, Jung Gi; Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Kyo [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae Woo [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    To access the CT findings of pulmonary edema and to compare them, according to the cause. CT findings (thin section, 20 ; thick section, 16) of pulmonary edema in 36 patients [cardiac disease (group 1, n=20), renal disease (group 2, n=13), ARDS (group 3, n=3)] were analyzed and compared. There were 21 men and 15 women ranging in age from 27 to 77 years. Distribution (even, central, or peripheral) and patterns of pulmonary edema were compared between the three groups. The distribution of edema, appearing as consolidation or ground-glass opacity, was even in 75% (n=15) of group 1, even in 46% (n=6) and central in 38% (n=5) of group 2, and peripherally predominant in 100% (n=3) of group 3. Interlobular septal thickening was seen in 80% (n=16), 69% (n=9), and 0% of group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Centrilobular ground-glass opacity was noted in six patients. In spite of various findings and considerable overlapping of the findings of pulmonary edema, the distribution and pattern of edema differed according to the cause, and this can be helpful for differential diagnosis.

  19. Historical perspective: surgery for chronic thromboembolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Stuart W

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective for our current understanding of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and surgery for this disease. It chronicles the developments in surgical techniques that have made pulmonary endarterectomy the procedure of choice for obstruction of pulmonary vessels by organized thromboemboli and secondary vessel wall thickening.

  20. Familial risk of venous thromboembolism: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H T; Riis, A H; Diaz, L J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Venous thromboembolism has genetic determinants, but population-based data on familial risks are limited. Objectives: To examine the familial risk of venous thromboembolism. Methods: We undertook a nationwide study of a cohort of patients with deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary...... and expected number of venous thromboembolism cases among siblings, using population-specific, gender-specific and age-specific incidence rates. Results: We identified 30 179 siblings of 19 599 cases of venous thromboembolism. The incidence among siblings was 2.2 cases per 1000 person-years, representing...... with pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Venous thromboembolism has a strong familial component....

  1. Pulmonary Artery Intimal Sarcoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Kriz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas are rare and lethal malignant tumors that typically affect larger vessels: the aorta, inferior vena cava, and pulmonary arteries. Since symptoms and imaging of pulmonary arterial intimal sarcomas mimic pulmonary thromboembolism, the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with chest pain, dyspnea, and filling defect within the pulmonary arteries should include intimal sarcoma. Often right ventricular failure is observed due to pulmonary hypertension caused by the obstructive effect of the tumor and concomitant chronic thromboembolism. We report the case of a 72-year-old African-American male with arterial intimal sarcoma of the left and right pulmonary artery with extension through the right artery into the bronchus and right lung.

  2. Prevalence of death due to pulmonary embolism after trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverria Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary thromboembolism is an important cause of death affecting thousands of people worldwide. The current study aims to evaluate the prevalence of death due to pulmonary embolism after trauma. Materials and Methods: The diagnoses of the causa mortis of all patients treated in the Accident and Emergency Department of Hospital de Base in Sγo Josι do Rio Preto, in the period from July 2004 to June 2005, were identified from autopsy reports to check whether pulmonary thromboembolism was involved. Result: A total of 109 deaths due to trauma were detected in this period with pulmonary embolism occurring in 3 (2.75% patients. Conclusion: Pulmonary thromboembolism is an important cause of mortality in trauma patients and so prophylactic measures should be taken during the treatment of these patients.

  3. Sarcoma intimal de artéria pulmonar: um diagnóstico diferencial do tromboembolismo pulmonar crônico Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery: a differential diagnosis of chronic pulmonary thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Alves Valle Dornas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O sarcoma intimal de artéria pulmonar é um tumor raro e potencialmente letal, de diagnóstico difícil e, muitas vezes, tardio. Os sinais e sintomas clínicos são inespecíficos, simulando com frequência o tromboembolismo pulmonar crônico (TEPC. Apresentamos o caso de um homem de 45 anos em tratamento de TEPC associado com hipertensão arterial pulmonar e cor pulmonale crônico, sem resposta ao uso de anticoagulantes e sildenafil. Ressaltamos as dificuldades para o diagnóstico do sarcoma intimal de artéria pulmonar, a necessidade de se pesquisar essa neoplasia no diagnóstico diferencial do TEPC e a utilização sistemática de critérios para a adequada indicação dos novos medicamentos para a hipertensão arterial pulmonar.Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare and potentially lethal tumor, the diagnosis of which is difficult and therefore frequently delayed. The clinical signs and symptoms are nonspecific, often mimicking chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (CPTE. We report the case of a 45-year-old male under treatment for CPTE associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic cor pulmonale. There was no response to treatment with anticoagulants and sildenafil. We emphasize the difficulties in diagnosing intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery, the need to investigate this neoplasm in the differential diagnosis of CPTE and the systematic use of criteria for the appropriate prescription of new medications for pulmonary artery hypertension.

  4. Intra-arterial pulmonary thrombolysis at the postoperative period of brain aneurysm clamping: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Salomón Soriano Ordinola; Veiga, Viviane Cordeiro; Carvalho, Júlio César de; Campodônico, Luis Enrique Amaya; Assis, Fabrizio Rodrigues; Shimizu, Sandra Patrícia; Morais, Elaine Aparecida; Buesio, Roberto; Marchesini, Andréia Maria; Junqueira, Ligia Maria Coscrato; Holanda, Carlos Vanderlei

    2008-09-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to present a case of intra-arterial pulmonary thrombolysis in recent neurosurgery postoperative period. Male patient, undergoing neurosurgery, presented as a complication on the seventh day of postoperative massive pulmonary embolism with hemodynamic instability and intraarterial pulmonary thrombolysis with alteplase was indicated. Evolution was satisfactory without bleeding complications and patient was discharged. Pulmonary thromboembolism is a high morbidity and mortality condition at neurosurgical postoperative period and thrombolysis should be an alternative therapy in cases refractory to clinical treatment.

  5. Biomarkers for differentiation of causes of respiratory distress in dogs and cats: Part 2--Lower airway, thromboembolic, and inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine F; Quinn, Rebecca L; Rahilly, Louisa J

    2015-01-01

    To review the current veterinary and relevant human literature regarding biomarkers of respiratory diseases leading to dyspnea and to summarize the availability, feasibility, and practicality of using respiratory biomarkers in the veterinary setting. Veterinary and human medical literature: original research articles, scientific reviews, consensus statements, and recent textbooks. Numerous biomarkers have been evaluated in people for discriminating respiratory disease processes with varying degrees of success. Although biomarkers should not dictate clinical decisions in lieu of gold standard diagnostics, their use may be useful in directing care in the stabilization process. Serum immunoglobulins have shown promise as an indicator of asthma in cats. A group of biomarkers has also been evaluated in exhaled breath. Of these, hydrogen peroxide has shown the most potential as a marker of inflammation in asthma and potentially aspiration pneumonia, but methods for measurement are not standardized. D-dimers may be useful in screening for thromboembolic disease in dogs. There are a variety of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, which are being evaluated for their ability to assess the severity and type of underlying disease process. Of these, amino terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide may be the most useful in determining if antibiotic therapy is warranted. Although critically evaluated for their use in respiratory disorders, many of the biomarkers which have been evaluated have been found to be affected by more than one type of respiratory or systemic disease. At this time, there are point-of-care biomarkers that have been shown to reliably differentiate between causes of dyspnea in dogs and cats. Future clinical research is warranted to understand of how various diseases affect the biomarkers and more bedside tests for their utilization. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  6. A PULMONARY INFECTION CAUSED BY MYCOBACTERIUM PEREGRINUM– A CASE REPORT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatina T. Todorova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium peregrinum is a member of the group of rapidly growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM. It can be found in high frequency in natural and laboratory environments and is considered to be uncommonrare pathogen for both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. Currently, pulmonary infections caused by Mycobacterium peregrinum are unusual and diagnosed only in limited number of cases. Here, we present a clinical case of elderly man (72 years with 1 month history of non-specific respiratory symptomatic. The patient was without underlying immunosuppressive condition or lung disease. Chest X-ray demonstrated persistent pleural effusion, opacities and cavitations in the right lobe. One of the sputum culturesgrewa rapidly growing mycobacterium and the isolated strain was found to be Mycobacterium peregrinumas identified by molecular genetic detection (PCR and DNA strip technology. To our knowledge, this is the third case in the world to report Mycobacterium peregrinumas a possible causative agent of pulmonary infection.

  7. Recent research on venous thromboembolism in China: a brief report from China Venous Thromboembolism Study Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Zhen-guo; ZHAN Xi; YANG Yuan-hua; WANG Chen

    2010-01-01

    @@ Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thrombo-embolism (PTE), carries significant mortality and morbidity. As a result of the increasing awareness and improvement in diagnostic facilities, the hospital admissions have increased dramatically in China. Recent publications have reported the increasing incidences of PTE and DVT in hospitalized patients.~(1-3)

  8. Admission rates for emergency department patients with venous thromboembolism and estimation of the proportion of low risk pulmonary embolism patients: a US perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Adam J.; Thode, Henry C.; Peacock, W. Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objective Introduction of target specific anticoagulants and recent guidelines encourage outpatient management of low risk patients with venous thromboembolism. We describe hospital admission rates over time for patients presenting to US emergency departments (EDs) with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) and estimate the proportion of low-risk PE patients who could potentially be managed as outpatients. Methods We performed a structured analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (a nationally representative weighted sampling of US ED visits) database for the years 2006–2010 including all adult patients with a primary diagnosis of DVT or PE. Simplified pulmonary embolus scoring index (sPESI) scores were determined in patients with PE to identify low risk patients. Results There were an estimated 652,000 and 394,000 ED visits for DVT and PE over the 5-year period (0.17%). Mean (SE) age was 59 (1.3), 50% were female, and 40% were > 65 years. Admission rates for DVT and PE were 52% and 90% respectively with no significant changes over time. In patients with DVT, predictors for admission were age (odds ratio, 1.03 per year of age [95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.05]) and race (odds ratio, 4.1 [95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 19.8] for Hispanics and 2.9 [1.2 to 7.4] for Blacks). Of all ED patients with PE, 51% were low risk based on sPESI scores. Conclusion Admission rates for DVT and PE have remained high and unchanged, especially with PE, minorities, and in older patients. Based on sPESI scores, up to half of PE patients might be eligible for early discharge or outpatient therapy.

  9. [Outcome of patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism and low probability ventilation/perfusion lung scan who receive no long-term anticoagulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Romero, J M; Arévalo Lorido, J C; Carretero Gómez, J

    2005-08-01

    To know in our area the security of no long-term anticoagulation in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and a low probability ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) lung scan. Retrospective review of a series of consecutive outpatients with suspected PTE and a low probability V/Q lung scan, according to the modified PIOPED criteria, who receive no long-term anticoagulation. Among 38 patients with a low probability V/Q lung scan, 31 (81.6%) did not receive long-term anticoagulation. The median age was 69.1 years (range 26-88 years), and 19 (61.3%) were female. The clinical probability of PTE was moderate in 27 patients (87.1%). Twenty-two patients (71%) had a venous lower extremities echography-doppler negative for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The median follow-up was 6.3 months (range 3-12 months). There was one case (3.2%; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-16.7%) with demonstrated PTE and DVT, and there was no death. No long-term anticoagulation in outpatients with a moderate clinical probability of PTE, a low probability V/Q lung scan and a venous lower extremities echography-doppler negative for DVT may be secure in our area.

  10. Effectiveness and Safety of the Tempofilter II to Prevent the Occurrence of Pulmonary Thromboembolism in Patients with Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Byung Hyun; Jung, Min Young; Oh, Hyun Jun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Lee, Ho Kyun [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Nam Kyu [Chonnam National University Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Tempofilter II for the prevention of a pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Between January 2007 and December 2008, thirteen patients with lower extremity DVT whom were implanted with the Tempofilter II to prevent PTE were analyzed. A chest CT was compared before and after filter placement, to evaluate effectiveness of preventing PTE. Clinical symptoms of PTE were checked. Fluoroscopy and a plain radiograph were examined to evaluate filter status. The tempofilter II was successfully inserted in 13 patients. Nine patients underwent endovascular treatment after filter insertion. Trapping of thrombus was evaluated by following CT, venography, and filter retrieval. Trapped thrombus was detected in four patients by CT or retrieved filter. Two patients showed a decrease in thrombus in a follow-up chest CT. Not all patients showed symptoms of PTE. One filter was surgically removed due to the detachment of the anchoring device. The placement and retrieval of the Tempofilter II is feasible and effective for the prophylaxis of PTE in patients with lower extremity DVT; especially for patients that underwent subsequent endovascular treatment

  11. [Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism after severe stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabinkina, Iu V; Gnedovskaia, E V; Piradov, M A; Kuntsevich, G I

    2010-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), a deep and superficial thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a very important problem of severe stroke. Pulmonary embolism (PE) significantly influences the course and outcome of severe stroke. The cause of this effect lies not only in severe patient's condition, high risk of VTE and difficulties in diagnosis of VTE but in still common limits in prophylaxis and treatment of PE in severe stroke, first of all, in brain hemorrhages and large brain infarctions with secondary hemorrhage. The paper presents the main principles and methods of prophylaxis of VTE in severe stroke. The suggested approach allows to decrease the frequency of VTE and fatal outcomes in severe stroke in the modern neuro-intensive care units.

  12. Thrombolytic-plus-Anticoagulant Therapy versus Anticoagulant-Alone Therapy in Submassive Pulmonary Thromboembolism (TVASPE Study: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Taherkhani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of thrombolytic agents in the treatment of hemodynamically stable patients with acute submassive pulmonary embolism (PTE remains controversial. We, therefore, conducted this study to compare the effect of thrombolytic plus anticoagulation versus anticoagulation alone on early death and adverse outcome following submassive PTE.Methods: We conducted a study of patients with acute pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension or right ventricular dilatation/dysfunction but without arterial hypotension or shock. The patients were randomly assigned in a single-blind fashion to receive an anticoagulant [Enoxaparin (1 mg/kg twice a day] plus a thrombolytic [Alteplase (100 mg or Streptokinase (1500000 u/2 hours] or an anticoagulant [Enoxaparin (1 mg/kg twice a day] alone. The primary endpoint was in-hospital death or clinical deterioration requiring an escalation of treatment. The secondary endpoints of the study were major bleeding, pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular dilatation at the end of the first week, and exertional dyspnea at the end of the first month.Results: Of 50 patients enrolled, 25 patients were randomly assigned to receive an anticoagulant plus a thrombolytic and the other 25 patients were given an anticoagulant alone. The incidence of the primary endpoints was significantly higher in the anticoagulant-alone group than in the thrombolytic-plus-anticoagulant group (p value = 0.022. At the time of discharge, pulmonary artery pressure was significantly higher in the anticoagulant-alone group than in the thrombolytic- plus-anticoagulant group (p value = 0.018; however, reduction in the right ventricular size or normalization of the right ventricle showed non-significant differences between the two groups. There was no significant difference regarding the New York Heat Association (NYHA functional class between the two groups at the end of the first month (p value = 0.213. No fatal bleeding or cerebral bleeding

  13. Acute Pulmonary Edema Caused by a Giant Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fisicaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial myxoma is the most common primary cardiac tumor. Its clinical presentation spreads from asymptomatic incidental mass to serious life-threatening cardiovascular complications. We report the case of a 44-year-old man with evening fever and worsening dyspnea in the last weeks, admitted to our hospital for acute pulmonary edema. The cardiac auscultation was very suspicious for mitral valve stenosis, but the echocardiography revealed a huge atrial mass with a diastolic prolapse into mitral valve orifice causing an extremely high transmitral gradient pressure. Awareness of this uncommon acute presentation of atrial myxoma is necessary for timely diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention.

  14. Capnografia volumétrica como auxílio diagnóstico não-invasivo no tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo Volumetric capnography as a noninvasive diagnostic procedure in acute pulmonary thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mello Moreira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O tromboembolismo pulmonar é uma situação freqüente que pode ser diagnosticada pela cintilografia pulmonar, angiotomografia computadorizada, arteriografia pulmonar e, como método de exclusão, dosagem do dímero-D. Como estes exames nem sempre estão disponíveis, a validação de outros métodos diagnósticos é fundamental. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente com hipertensão pulmonar crônica, agudizada por tromboembolismo pulmonar. Confirmou-se o diagnóstico por cintilografia, angiotomografia computadorizada, arteriografia pulmonar; a dosagem do dímero-D resultou positiva. A capnografia volumétrica associada à gasometria arterial foi realizada na admissão e após o tratamento. As variáveis obtidas foram comparadas com os resultados dos exames de imagem.Pulmonary thromboembolism is a common condition. Its diagnosis usually requires pulmonary scintigraphy, computed angiotomography, pulmonary arteriography and, in order to rule out other diagnoses, the measurement of D-dimer levels. Due to the fact that these diagnostic methods are not available in most Brazilian hospitals, the validation of other diagnostic techniques is of fundamental importance. We describe a case of a woman with chronic pulmonary hypertension who experienced a pulmonary thromboembolism event. Pulmonary scintigraphy, computed angiotomography and pulmonary arteriography were used in the diagnosis. The D-dimer test result was positive. Volumetric capnography was performed at admission and after treatment. The values obtained were compared with the imaging test results.

  15. REMODELING OF THE RIGHT HEART AND THE LEVEL OF BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC THROMBOEMBOLIC PULMONARY HYPERTENSION: A COMPARATIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Klimenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the right heart remodeling and level of N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH. Material and methods. Patients (n=79 after pulmonary embolism were included into the study. The main group consisted of patients (n=43 with an increase in systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP >30 mm Hg: 30 (37.9%  patients had pulmonary hypertension (PH degree I, and 13 (16.5%  — PH degree II–III. Group of comparison con- sisted of 36 patients expired pulmonary embolism and having SPAP <30 mm Hg. The control group consisted of 20 people. 6-minute walk test (6-MWT and Doppler echocardiography were performed in all patients. Besides myocardial tissue Doppler echocardiography and assessment of Nt-proBNP level were performed in 38 and 71 patients, respectively. Results. Dyspnea occurred in 90.7% of patients with various degrees of PH and 80.5% of patients with normal SPAP. Patients without PH and with PH I complained of palpitations, weakness, fatigue, and dizziness with similar frequency. Patients with PH I were comparable with ones of comparison group in 6-MWT distance that dramatically decreased in patients with PH II–III. Enlargement of the right atrium (RA and/or right ventricular (RV was observed in 76.7% of patients with PH I and 100% of patients with PH II–III. RV diastolic function abnormalities (E/A<1 and E/A>2 were detected in 19.4%, 16.7% and 61.5% of patients of comparison group, PH I and PH II–III patients, respectively. According to myocardial tissue Doppler echocardiography Em/Am<1 was observed in 8 (72.7% patients of the comparison group and in 13 (76.4% patients with PH. Nt-proB-NP level was 17.3 [2.3, 33.9] fmol/ml in PH I patients and 142.1 [62.1, 171.8] fmol/ml in PH II–III patients. Nt-proBNP level was 6.5 [3.1, 18.3] fmol/mL in patients of the comparison group, and it was higher than this in patients of the control group (3.5 [1.8, 7

  16. Pulmonary Hypertension Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at www.AHeartCures.org . Help Kickoff November’s Pulmonary Hypertension Awareness Month Want to help raise awareness for ... Heart2CurePH | Help promote Awareness Month Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) Awareness Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is ...

  17. Transesophageal Echocardiographically-Confirmed Pulmonary Vein Thrombosis in Association with Posterior Circulation Infarction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Justin A

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary venous thromboembolism has only been identified as a cause of stroke with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations\\/fistulae, pulmonary neoplasia, transplantation or lobectomy, and following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary vein ostia in patients with atrial fibrillation. A 59-year-old man presented with a posterior circulation ischemic stroke. \\'Unheralded\\' pulmonary vein thrombosis was identified on transesophageal echocardiography as the likely etiology. He had no further cerebrovascular events after intensifying antithrombotic therapy. Twenty-eight months after initial presentation, he was diagnosed with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and died 3 months later. This report illustrates the importance of doing transesophageal echocardiography in presumed \\'cardioembolic\\' stroke, and that potential \\'pulmonary venous thromboembolic\\' stroke may occur in patients without traditional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Consideration should be given to screening such patients for occult malignancy.

  18. Overview of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad Rico, José Ignacio; Llau Pitarch, Juan Vicente; Rocha, Eduardo

    2010-12-14

    Thrombosis occurs at sites of injury to the vessel wall, by inflammatory processes leading to activation of platelets, platelet adherence to the vessel wall and the formation of a fibrin network. A thrombus that goes on to occlude a blood vessel is known as a thromboembolism. Venous thromboembolism begins with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which forms in the deep veins of the leg (calf) or pelvis. In some cases, the DVT becomes detached from the vein and is transported to the right-hand side of the heart, and from there to the pulmonary arteries, giving rise to a pulmonary embolism (PE). Certain factors predispose patients toward the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including surgery, trauma, hospitalization, immobilization, cancer, long-haul travel, increased age, obesity, major medical illness and previous VTE; in addition, there may also be a genetic component to VTE. VTE is responsible for a substantial number of deaths per annum in Europe. Anticoagulants are the mainstay of both VTE treatment and VTE prevention, and many professional organizations have published guidelines on the appropriate use of anticoagulant therapies for VTE. Treatment of VTE aims to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with the disease, and any long-term complications such as VTE recurrence or post-thrombotic syndrome. Generally, guidelines recommend the use of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), unfractionated heparin (UFH) or fondaparinux for the pharmacological prevention and treatment of VTE, with the duration of therapy varying according to the baseline characteristics and risk profile of the individual. Despite evidence showing that the use of anticoagulation prevents VTE, the availability of several convenient, effective anticoagulant therapies and the existence of clear guideline recommendations, thromboprophylaxis is underused, particularly in patients not undergoing surgery. Greater adherence to guideline-recommended therapies, such as LMWH, which can be

  19. Venous thromboembolism: The intricacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE has been a subject of great interest of late. Since Rudolph Virchow described the famous Virchow′s triad in 1856, there have been rapid strides in the understanding of the pathogenesis and factors responsible for it. Discovery of various thrombophilic factors, both primary and acquired, in the last 40 years has revolutionized prognostication and management of this potentially life-threatening condition due to its associated complication of pulmonary thromboembolism. Detailed genetic mapping and linkage analyses have been underlining the fact that VTE is a multifactorial disorder and a complex one. There are many gene-gene and gene-environment interactions that alter and magnify the clinical picture in this disorder. Point in case is pregnancy, where the risk of VTE is 100-150 times increased in the presence of Factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutation (Prothrombin 20210A and antithrombin deficiency. Risk of VTE associated with long-haul air flight has now been well recognized. Thrombotic events associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS are 70% venous and 30% arterial. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are the most common venous events, though unusual cases of catastrophes due to central vein thrombosis like renal vein thrombosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome (catastrophic APS may occur.

  20. Clinical Analysis of 84 Elderly Patients With Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism%老年急性肺血栓栓塞症84例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文艳; 韩晋英; 刘亚明

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To summarize the clinical characteristics of acute pulmonary thromboembolism in elderly patients,in order to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment.Methods:Clinical feature,theatment and prognosis of 84 cases aged over 60 yrars old with acute pulmonary thromboembolism were analyzed retrospectively.Results:Deep vein thromboembolism was found in 84 cases. Hypertension(43/84),Coronary heart disease (36/84),Cerebrovascular disease (28/84),diabetes(19/84),Permanent af(17/84),hyperlipidem ia(16/84),Congestive heart failure(15/84)and obesity(14/84) were the most common risk factors.The common symptoms were dyspnea (57/84),cough(30/84),chest pain(15/84),palpitation(17/84),faint(11/84),haemoptysis(10/84),fidgety(4/84),Breathing cardiac arrest(3/84), lower limb asymmetric swelling (29/84).75 patients appeared hypoxemia,62 patients d-dimer increases, 49 cases (ecg abnormalities, 78 cases of the CT pulmonary angiography diagnosis, 79 patients of low molecular heparin and warfarin anticoagulant therapy, 9 patients give thrombolysis treatment, the treatment improved 73 cases, 11 cases death.Conclusion:The incidence of PTE in older crowd is higher, the most common risk factors for chronic basic diseases and brake, the majority of the patient lacks specific symptoms and signs of VTE for high-risk patients take positive prevention measures, and do early diagnosis and early treatment is to reduce the old PTE mortality and improve the prognosis of the key.%  目的:总结老年肺血栓栓塞症的临床特点,提高诊治水平.方法:回顾性分析84例≥60岁的急性肺血栓栓塞症住院患者的临床表现及治疗转归.结果:84例老年急性肺栓塞患者中有44例下肢深静脉血栓形成,占52.4%,发生肺栓塞的基础病疾及危险因素为高血压(43/84)、冠心病(36/84)、脑血管病(28/84)、糖尿病(19/84)、永久性房颤(17/84)、高血脂症(16/84)、充血性心力衰竭(15/84)、肥胖(14/84)等.患者主

  1. ACE基因插入/缺失多态与国人肺血栓栓塞症的关联研究%Insertion/deletion polymorphsim of the angiotensin I converting enzyme gene and pulmonary thromboembolism in Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆艳辉; 惠汝太; 赵彦芬; 刘国仗; 柳志红; 陈白屏; 叶珏; 张春玲

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether there is an association between the insertiondeletion polymorphsim of human angiotensin I converting enzyme gene(ACE) and pulmonary thromboembolism and whether D allele incrases the risk of pulmonary thromboembolism in Chinese population.Methods Seventy-two Patients with pulmonary thromboembolism and 72 sex and age matched healthy controls were recruited in this study, all patients were diagnosed by lung ventilation/perfusion scan and/or ultrafast CT as well as medical bistory. Risk factor of venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism were inquired. Genome DNA was extracted from whole blood using phenol-chloroform. Subjects were genotyped for the I/D polymorphism of ACE gene using polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.Results (1)The incidences of trauma, operation, phlebitis and varicose were significant higher in the patient than in controls. No significant difference were found in the family history of pulmonary thromboembolism and cardiovascular diseases,personal history of oral contraceptive, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking between the patient and controls. (2) Frequencies of allele I and D in the controls were 0.66 and 0.34 respectively, the distribution of genotypes met the in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No significant differences were found in the frequencies of genotypeⅡ, ID and DD between patients and controls. (3)The recessive allele model was informative and the odds ratio of DD genotype was 2.51(P <0.05) compared with the othe two genotypes. (4) After further stratification , we found DD genotype was bound to be associated with an 2.64-fold risk of pulmonary thromboembolism for those individuals without existing traditional environmental risk factors and 3.36-fold risk for individuals with medical history of venous thrombosis(P<0.05).Conclusion This study shows that I/D polymorphism of ACE gene is associated with pulmonary thromboembolism in Chinese population

  2. Impact of CT perfusion imaging on the assessment of peripheral chronic pulmonary thromboembolism: clinical experience in 62 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Faivre, Julien; Khung, Suonita; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [University of Lille, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain [University of Lille, Department of Biostatistics, Lille (France); Lamblin, Nicolas [University of Lille, Department of Cardiology, Cardiology Hospital, Lille (France)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate the impact of CT perfusion imaging on the detection of peripheral chronic pulmonary embolisms (CPE). 62 patients underwent a dual-energy chest CT angiographic examination with (a) reconstruction of diagnostic and perfusion images; (b) enabling depiction of vascular features of peripheral CPE on diagnostic images and perfusion defects (20 segments/patient; total: 1240 segments examined). The interpretation of diagnostic images was of two types: (a) standard (i.e., based on cross-sectional images alone) or (b) detailed (i.e., based on cross-sectional images and MIPs). The segment-based analysis showed (a) 1179 segments analyzable on both imaging modalities and 61 segments rated as nonanalyzable on perfusion images; (b) the percentage of diseased segments was increased by 7.2 % when perfusion imaging was compared to the detailed reading of diagnostic images, and by 26.6 % when compared to the standard reading of images. At a patient level, the extent of peripheral CPE was higher on perfusion imaging, with a greater impact when compared to the standard reading of diagnostic images (number of patients with a greater number of diseased segments: n = 45; 72.6 % of the study population). Perfusion imaging allows recognition of a greater extent of peripheral CPE compared to diagnostic imaging. (orig.)

  3. Complement C3 and High Risk of Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Ina; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complement activation may contribute to venous thromboembolism, including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. We tested the hypothesis that high complement C3 concentrations are associated with high risk of venous thromboembolism in the general population. METHODS: We...... similar for deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism separately. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for venous thromboembolism for a 1-g/L increase in complement C3 was 2.43 (1.74-3.40). CONCLUSIONS: High concentrations of complement C3 were associated with high risk of venous thromboembolism...... included 80 517 individuals without venous thromboembolism from the Copenhagen General Population Study recruited in 2003-2012. Plasma complement C3 concentrations were measured at baseline, and venous thromboembolism (n = 1176) was ascertained through April 2013 in nationwide registries. No individuals...

  4. 一例接受阿那曲唑和预防性那屈肝素治疗的乳腺癌妇女发生肺动脉栓塞%Pulmonary thromboembolism in a breast cancer woman receiving anastrozole and prophylactic nadroparin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hormonal treatment is widely accepted for the adjuvant treatment of breast carcinoma, in order to get a reduction in the synthesis of estrogen or to block estrogen receptors in tumors that are hormone dependent. There are multiple risk factors that contribute to hypercoagulability in cancer patients. Hormonal therapy and chemotherapy are the main one. Type and stage of malignancy are other risk factors; so age, immobility and surgery are. The main antineoplastic therapy with definitive hypercoagulable effect is tamoxifen, because it can cause reduction in the concentrations of antithrombin Ⅲ and protein C. Here, we explain the case of a 75-year-old postmenopausal woman presenting with breast carcinoma who suffered from pulmonary thromboembolism during the treatment with anastrozole although she was taking nadroparin.

  5. 肺血栓栓塞症患者83例回顾性分析%83 patients with pulmonary thromboembolism were retrospectively analyzed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李开来; 杨珺楠; 陈名珍; 温宏

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨肺血栓栓塞症患者的诊断方法及危险因素。方法选择本院确诊为肺血栓栓塞症的患者83例,回顾性分析所有患者的危险因素、临床表现和辅助检查结果。结果呼吸困难为肺血栓栓塞症最早出现也是最常见的症状。肺血栓栓塞症时可有PaO2和PaCO2下降、pH升高、肺泡-动脉血氧分压差增大,血液中D-二聚体浓度升高(>500ng/ml),心电图SIQⅢTⅢ表现,超声心动图可见肺动脉压增高、右心扩大和三尖瓣反流增快。 V/Q扫描及CTPA检查可确诊肺血栓栓塞症。肺血栓栓塞症的高危因素主要年龄、高血压、冠心病、下肢深静脉血栓形成、脑梗死及手术外伤。结论由于大多数肺血栓栓塞症患者的临床表现不典型,临床上对于存在肺血栓栓塞症高危因素的患者应提高警惕,及早联合应用V/Q扫描及CTPA检查予以确诊以减少误诊率及漏诊率。%Objective Analysis the diagnosis method and risk factors of Pulmonary thrombo-embolism ( PTE ) Pa-tients. Method The risk factors, clinical presentation and results of auxiliary examinations in 83 PTE patients were retrospectively analyzed. Result Dyspnea was the earliest and most frequent symptom in PTE patients. PTE could have PaO2 and PaCO2 decreased, pH value increased, the difference of Alveolar arterial oxygen partial pressure in-creased. The concentration of D-dimer in blood increased. And with a SIQⅢTⅢperformance in electrocardiogram. The echocardiogram may have performance of pulmonary hypertension, right heart enlargement and atrioventricular valve reflux quicker. Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy ( V/Q scan) and Helico-Computerized Tomography Pul-monary Arteriography(CTPA) could identify PTE. The main risk factors for PTE were age, hypertension(HBP), coronary heart disease( CHD) ,deep venous thrombosis( DVT) , cerbral infarction, operation and/or trauma. Con-clusion Because most PTE patients have no typical

  6. Chest CT findings in patients with non-cardiovascular causes of chest pain: Focusing on pulmonary tuberculosis in a tuberculosis endemic country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So Won; Shim, Sung Shine; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Ryu, Yon Ju [Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To review the common causes of non-cardiovascular chest pain (NCCP) according to the location and lesion type as seen on chest CT, and to evaluate CT findings in tuberculosis (TB) as a cause of NCCP. In the period 2009 to 2012, patients having NCCP without definitive evidence of acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary thromboembolism, and aortic dissection, were included. In total, 162 patients (60.5% male; 39.5% female), with a mean age of 51 years, were enrolled. CT images were evaluated by location and lesion type, for causes of NCCP. Chest CT revealed that the most common location for the cause of NCCP was the pleura (45.1%), followed by the subpleural lung parenchyma (30.2%). The most common lesion causing NCCP was TB (33.3%), followed by pneumonia (19.1%). Of the 54 TB cases, 40 (74.1%) were stable TB and 14 (25.9%) were active TB; among these 54 patients, NCCP was most commonly the result of fibrotic pleural thickening (55.6%), followed by subpleural stable pulmonary TB (14.8%). Results of chest CT revealed that TB was a major cause of NCCP in a TB endemic area. Among the TB patients, fibrotic pleural thickening in patients with stable TB was the most common cause of NCCP.

  7. Venous thromboembolism and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristella D’Uva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Maristella D’Uva1, Pierpaolo Di Micco2, Ida Strina1, Giuseppe De Placido1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Human Reproduction, “Federico II” University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Internal Medicine Division, Buonconsiglio Fatebenefratelli Hospital of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: In recent decades, the association between a hypercoagulable state and its causes and adverse pregnancy outcome, in particular recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL has been studied extensively. Although the first studies were focused only on the association between thrombophilia and RPL, subsequent studies underlined also a potential role of antithrombotic treatment to prevent vascular complication such as venous thromboembolism (VTE during pregnancy. Thromboprophylaxis should be considered also for pregnant subjects carriers of molecular thrombophilia or that previously experienced VTE, in order to prevent VTE during pregnancy, while antithrombotic treatment for VTE should be performed during all pregnant periods.Keywords: thrombophilia, venous thromboembolism, recurrent pregnancy loss, factor V Leiden

  8. Direct oral anticoagulants in the treatment of venous thromboembolism, with a focus on patients with pulmonary embolism: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Outes, Antonio; Suárez-Gea, M Luisa; Lecumberri, Ramón; Terleira-Fernández, Ana Isabel; Vargas-Castrillón, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a relatively common cardiovascular emergency. PE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are considered expressions of the same disease, termed as venous thromboembolism (VTE). In the present review, we describe and meta-analyze the efficacy and safety data available with the direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC; dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) in clinical trials testing these new compounds in the acute/long-term and extended therapy of VTE, providing subgroup analyses in patients with index PE. We analyzed ten studies in 35,019 randomized patients. A total of 14,364 patients (41%) had index PE. In the acute/long-term treatment of VTE, the DOAC showed comparable efficacy in preventing recurrent VTE to standard treatment in patients with index PE (risk ratio [RR]: 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70-1.11) and index DVT (RR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.75-1.16) (P for subgroup differences =0.76). VTE recurrence depending on PE anatomical extension and presence/absence of right ventricular dysfunction was only reported in two trials, with results being consistent with those obtained in the overall study populations. In the single trial comparing extended therapy of VTE with DOAC versus warfarin, the point estimate for recurrent VTE tended to disfavor the DOAC in patients with index PE (RR: 2.05; 95% CI: 0.83-5.03) and in patients with index DVT (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.49-2.50) (P for subgroup differences =0.32). In trials that compared DOAC versus placebo for extended therapy, the reduction in recurrent VTE was consistent in patients with PE (RR: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.01-1.82) and in patients with DVT (RR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10-0.61) (P for subgroup differences =0.71). The DOAC were associated with a consistently lower risk of clinically relevant bleeding (CRB) than standard treatment of acute VTE and higher risk of CRB than placebo for extended therapy of VTE regardless of index event. In summary, the DOAC were as effective as, and safer than, standard

  9. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fuat Eren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a major complication of cancer and represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The incidence of VTE is 0.6-7.8% in patients with cancer more than double the incidence of VTE in patients without cancer. The risk of VTE which includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE is increased two to seven fold in patients with cancer. VTE risk is especially high among certain groups such as hospitalized patients with cancer and those receiving active antineoplastic therapy. Also cancer patients, who undergoing major surgery, are increased risk of VTE. Trauma, long-haul travel, increased age, obesity, previous VTE and genetic component are also predisposing factors for VTE. Patients with cancer who develop VTE should be managed multidisciplinary treatment guidelines. The primary goal of thromboprophylaxis in patients with cancer is to prevent VTE. The large majority of cancer patients should be treated with therapeutic doses of unfractioned heparin (UFH or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH. Prophylaxis should include cancer patients who underwent major surgery for cancer and patients with a history of VTE.

  10. Direct oral anticoagulants in the treatment of venous thromboembolism, with a focus on patients with pulmonary embolism: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Outes A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Gómez-Outes,1 Mª Luisa Suárez-Gea,1 Ramón Lecumberri,2 Ana Isabel Terleira-Fernández,3,4 Emilio Vargas-Castrillón3,41Division of Pharmacology and Clinical Evaluation, Medicines for Human Use, Spanish Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Hematology, University Clinic of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Hospital Clínico, Madrid, Spain; 4Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Pulmonary embolism (PE is a relatively common cardiovascular emergency. PE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT are considered expressions of the same disease, termed as venous thromboembolism (VTE. In the present review, we describe and meta-analyze the efficacy and safety data available with the direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC; dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban in clinical trials testing these new compounds in the acute/long-term and extended therapy of VTE, providing subgroup analyses in patients with index PE. We analyzed ten studies in 35,019 randomized patients. A total of 14,364 patients (41% had index PE. In the acute/long-term treatment of VTE, the DOAC showed comparable efficacy in preventing recurrent VTE to standard treatment in patients with index PE (risk ratio [RR]: 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70–1.11 and index DVT (RR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.75–1.16 (P for subgroup differences =0.76. VTE recurrence depending on PE anatomical extension and presence/absence of right ventricular dysfunction was only reported in two trials, with results being consistent with those obtained in the overall study populations. In the single trial comparing extended therapy of VTE with DOAC versus warfarin, the point estimate for recurrent VTE tended to disfavor the DOAC in patients with index PE (RR: 2.05; 95% CI: 0.83–5.03 and in patients with index DVT (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.49–2.50 (P for subgroup differences =0.32. In trials that compared DOAC

  11. Primary Pulmonary Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma: A Rare Cause of PET-Negative Pulmonary Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cazzuffi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a case of primary pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma diagnosed in a 67-year-old Caucasian man, presenting with exertion dyspnoea, dry cough, and multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules revealed by computed tomography. At the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, these nodules were negative. The histopathological diagnosis was made on a pulmonary wedge resection (performed during video-thoracoscopic surgery.

  12. Primary Pulmonary Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma: A Rare Cause of PET-Negative Pulmonary Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzuffi, Riccardo; Calia, Nunzio; Ravenna, Franco; Pasquini, Claudio; Saturni, Sara; Cavallesco, Giorgio Narciso; Quarantotto, Francesco; Rinaldi, Rosa; Cogo, Annaluisa; Caramori, Gaetano; Papi, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    We report here a case of primary pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma diagnosed in a 67-year-old Caucasian man, presenting with exertion dyspnoea, dry cough, and multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules revealed by computed tomography. At the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, these nodules were negative. The histopathological diagnosis was made on a pulmonary wedge resection (performed during video-thoracoscopic surgery). PMID:21869893

  13. Protective effect of simvastatin on acute pulmonary thromboembolism in rats%辛伐他汀对大鼠急性肺栓塞的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳建军; 郭军; 陆慰萱

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨辛伐他汀对大鼠急性肺栓塞的保护作用及其机制.方法 将72只Sprague-Dawley大鼠随机分为假手术组,肺栓塞模型组和辛伐他汀干预组,每组24只.在造模后2h,6h,24h分别测定各组大鼠的右心室收缩压( RVSP)和平均肺动脉压(mPAP),分离肺脏进行旺HE染色及肺脏病理学检查.在造模后6h测定各组大鼠的动脉血气和肺血管内皮型一氧化氮合酶( eNOS)蛋白表达.应用ELISA法测定各组大鼠血浆白介素-6(IL-6)和肿瘤坏死因子α( TNF-α)水平.结果 肺栓塞模型组大鼠不同时间点的mPAP,RVSP均较假手术组明显升高(P<0.01).辛伐他汀干预组大鼠不同时间点的mPAP、RVSP与肺栓塞模型组比较均显著降低(P<0.05).肺栓塞模型组大鼠6h氧分压( PaO2)与假手术组大鼠比较明显降低(P<0.01);辛伐他汀干预组大鼠6h PaO2与肺栓塞模型组大鼠比较明显升高(P<0.05).肺栓塞模型组大鼠6h肺小动脉eNOS蛋白表达较假手术组降低(P<0.01),辛伐他汀干预组组大鼠6h肺小动脉eNOS蛋白表达较肺栓塞模型组明显升高(P<0.05).肺栓塞模型组大鼠各时间点血浆IL-6,TNF-α水平较假手术组有升高趋势(P>0.05).辛伐他汀干预组大鼠各时间点血浆IL-6、TNF-α水平较肺栓塞模型组大鼠略有降低(P>0.05).结论 辛伐他汀干预可降低急性肺栓塞大鼠的mPAP和RVSP,减轻低氧血症,改善内皮细胞功能,但对血浆IL-6,TNF-α水平无影响.%Objective To explore the possible mechanisms of protective effect of simvastatin on acute pulmonary embolism(APE) in rat. Methods Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operation group, pulmonary thromboembolism(PTE) group and statins intervention group(n=24 in each group). Right ventricular systolic pressure(RVSP) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) were measured by right heart catheter at 2h, 6h, 24h after induction of PTE. Blood gas analysis was processed

  14. Pulmonary thrombo-embolic disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hypercoagulable state with increased stasis due to oedema, is also a ... Furthermore, oral contraceptive use and post- .... Surgery or immobilisation within past 4 weeks. +1.5 ... Once the diagnosis of PE has been con rmed, the patient needs to.

  15. Acute pulmonary edema caused by takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a pregnant woman undergoing transvaginal cervical cerclage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Young; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Park, Sang-Wook; Lee, Yu-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The physiological changes associated with pregnancy may predispose pregnant women to pulmonary edema. Other known causes of pulmonary edema during pregnancy include tocolytic drugs, preeclampsia, eclampsia, and peripartum cardiomyopathy. Methods: We describe a rare case of pulmonary edema caused by takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a pregnant woman at 14 weeks of gestation who was undergoing emergency transvaginal cervical cerclage. Results: Intraoperative chest radiography revealed severe pulmonary edema and echocardiography indicated moderate left ventricular dysfunction with akinesia of the mid to apical left ventricular wall segment, which is reflective of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Conclusion: With early detection and appropriate management, the patient was stabilized in a relatively short period of time. Based on her clinical signs and symptoms, we suspect that the pulmonary edema was caused by takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:28072695

  16. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized medical patients%内科住院患者静脉血栓栓塞症的预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建平; 赵梦华

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) ,which encompasses deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) ,is a leading cause of mortality following hospitalization. 70% to 80% of inpatient deaths due to pulmonary embolism ocurr in medical patients. Identifying medical patients at risk for VTE and providing effective prophylaxis is now an important health care priority to reduce the burden of this morbid and sometimes fatal disease. Pharmacologic prophylaxis is the mainstay of VTE prevention. Multiple scientific guidelines support VTE prophylaxis in medical patients.

  17. Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm as a Cause of Massive Hemoptysis: Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Corr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening medical emergency. Prompt radiological diagnosis and management are essential. I present a case of an inflammatory pulmonary aneurysm (Rasmussen aneurysm from active pulmonary tuberculosis. This is an uncommon cause for massive hemoptysis which was successfully treated by endovascular coiling.

  18. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  19. Hipertensión pulmonar tromboembólica crónica con y sin síndrome antifosfolípido Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with and without antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Colorio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La hipertensión pulmonar tromboembólica crónica (HPTC está dada por la obstrucción de arterias pulmonares y sus ramas por trombos organizados. El objetivo fue evaluar las características y evolución de la HPTC en pacientes con y sin síndrome antifosfolípido (SAF. Se analizaron retrospectivamente todos los pacientes con HPTC en nuestra institución entre junio de 1993 y junio del 2005. De los 38 pacientes evaluados, 16 tenían SAF (grupo A y 22 pacientes (grupo B presentaban estudio de trombofilia normal (n = 10 u otras anormalidades trombofílicas (n = 12. Ambos grupos fueron similares en cuanto a la media de edad (41 vs. 50 años, la clase funcional que presentaban al diagnóstico (81 vs. 100% en clase III-IV, y la presencia de trombosis en otros territorios (31 vs. 27%. El 62.5% de pacientes del grupo A y el 54.5% del grupo B fueron sometidos a tromboendarterectomía pulmonar. La media de seguimiento fue de 45 meses (rango de 0.5 a 144. Al final del mismo todos los pacientes con SAF y todos los pacientes operados estaban en clase funcional I-II. La mediana de sobrevida desde el momento del diagnóstico alcanzó los 59 meses para el grupo A vs. 27 meses en el grupo B (p = 0.199. La media de sobrevida del total de los pacientes operados fue de 56 meses para el grupo A vs. 33 meses para el grupo B (p = 0.08. En conclusión: Los pacientes con HPTC y SAF tendieron a lograr una mejor sobrevida que los pacientes con HPTC sin SAF. Aquellos con HPTC y SAF que fueron operados lograron mejoría de su clase funcional y tendieron a una mayor sobrevida respecto de los no operados.Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTE-PH is defined as the chronic obstruction by organized thrombi in pulmonary artery and their branches causing pulmonary hypertension. The objective is to evaluate features and outcome of CTE-PH in patients with and without coexisting antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. All patients studied at our Institution with CTE-PH between

  20. Upper limb arterial thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L V; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Lindholt, J S;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to focus on risk factors, risk-modifying drugs and prognosis for upper limb arterial thromboembolism, and the relationship between upper limb arterial thromboembolism and atrial fibrillation (AF).......The aim of this review is to focus on risk factors, risk-modifying drugs and prognosis for upper limb arterial thromboembolism, and the relationship between upper limb arterial thromboembolism and atrial fibrillation (AF)....

  1. Nocardia asteroids causing pulmonary nocardiosis presenting as fungal ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimoch Projna Paty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary nocardiosis presenting as a fungal ball in a preexisting cavity is a rare presentation. We report such a case in a 18 yrs old male patient presented with cough with expectoration & episodes of haemoptysis with a past history of tuberculosis. Diagnosis was done by microscopic examination of the resected sample & confirmed on culture.

  2. Refractory Pulmonary Edema Caused by Late Pulmonary Vein Thrombosis After Lung Transplantation: A Rare Adverse Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Eve J; Rischin, Adam; McGiffin, David; Williams, Trevor J; Paraskeva, Miranda A; Westall, Glen P; Snell, Greg

    2016-09-01

    After lung transplantation, pulmonary vein thrombosis is a rare, potentially life-threatening adverse event arising at the pulmonary venous anastomosis that typically occurs early and presents as graft failure and hemodynamic compromise with an associated mortality of up to 40%. The incidence, presentation, outcomes, and treatment of late pulmonary vein thrombosis remain poorly defined. Management options include anticoagulant agents for asymptomatic clots, and thrombolytic agents or surgical thrombectomy for hemodynamically significant clots. We present a rare case highlighting a delayed presentation of pulmonary vein thrombosis occurring longer than 2 weeks after lung transplantation and manifesting clinically as graft failure secondary to refractory pulmonary edema. The patient was treated successfully with surgical thrombectomy and remains well. We recommend a high index of suspicion of pulmonary vein thrombosis when graft failure after lung transplantation occurs and is not responsive to conventional therapy, and consideration of investigation with transesophageal echocardiography or computed tomography with venous phase contrast in such patients even more than 2 weeks after lung transplantation.

  3. Intravascular Talcosis due to Intravenous Drug Use Is an Underrecognized Cause of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Griffith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous injection of illegal drugs or medications meant for oral administration can cause granulomatous disease of the lung. This intravascular talcosis results in pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Nine cases of histologically confirmed intravascular talcosis were reviewed with specific attention given to the clinical histories in these patients. Five autopsy cases were included in this series with detailed investigation in the anatomic features associated with intravascular talcosis and pulmonary hypertension. All nine patients showed perivascular and/or intravascular deposition of polarizable foreign material in their lungs. Intravascular talcosis as a result of previous intravenous drug use was not clinically suspected in any patient despite clinically diagnosed pulmonary hypertension in five. All patients showed dilatation of the right and left heart, but none had dilatation of the aortic valve. Congestive heart failure with hepatosplenomegaly was also common. We conclude that intravascular talcosis is an underdiagnosed cause of pulmonary hypertension in patients with known history of intravenous drug use.

  4. Assessment of perfusion pattern and extent of perfusion defect on dual-energy CT angiography: Correlation between the causes of pulmonary hypertension and vascular parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon Beom; Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Choong Wook; Lee, Sang Min [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jeon [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To assess perfusion patterns on a dual-energy pulmonary CT angiography (DECTA) of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) with variable causes and to assess whether the extent of perfusion defect can be used in the severity assessment of PHT. Between March 2007 and February 2011, DECTA scans of 62 consecutive patients (24 men, 38 women; mean age, 58.5 ± 17.3 [standard deviation] years; range, 19-87 years) with PHT were retrospectively included with following inclusion criteria; 1) absence of acute pulmonary thromboembolism, 2) maximal velocity of tricuspid regurgitation jet (TR Vmax) above 3 m/s on echocardiography performed within one week of the DECTA study. Perfusion patterns of iodine map were divided into normal (NL), diffuse heterogeneously decreased (DH), multifocal geographic and multiple peripheral wedging patterns. The extent of perfusion defects (PD), the diameter of main pulmonary artery (MPA) and the ratio of ascending aorta diameter/MPA (aortopulmonary ratio, APR) were measured. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between TR Vmax on echocardiography and CT imaging parameters. Common perfusion patterns of primary PHT were DH (n = 15) and NL (n = 12). The perfusion patterns of secondary PHT were variable. On the correlation analysis, in primary PHT, TR Vmax significantly correlated with PD, MPA and APR (r = 0.52, r = 0.40, r = -0.50, respectively, all p < 0.05). In secondary PHT, TR Vmax significantly correlated with PD and MPA (r = 0.38, r = 0.53, respectively, all p < 0.05). Different perfusion patterns are observed on DECTA of PHT according to the causes. PD and MPA are significantly correlated with the TR Vmax.

  5. Isolated supra-cardiac partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection causing right heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sogomonian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Right heart failure (RHF has been overlooked as left heart failure has predominated. One of the many causes of RHF is partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC, an extremely rare entity in nature. Physicians should consider the unusual causes of RHF after ruling out the common causes.

  6. Pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  7. Dextromethorphan mediated bitter taste receptor activation in the pulmonary circuit causes vasoconstriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasbir D Upadhyaya

    Full Text Available Activation of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs in human airway smooth muscle cells leads to muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. This finding led to our hypothesis that T2Rs are expressed in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and might be involved in regulating the vascular tone. RT-PCR was performed to reveal the expression of T2Rs in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Of the 25 T2Rs, 21 were expressed in these cells. Functional characterization was done by calcium imaging after stimulating the cells with different bitter agonists. Increased calcium responses were observed with most of the agonists, the largest increase seen for dextromethorphan. Previously in site-directed mutational studies, we have characterized the response of T2R1 to dextromethorphan, therefore, T2R1 was selected for further analysis in this study. Knockdown with T2R1 specific shRNA decreased mRNA levels, protein levels and dextromethorphan-induced calcium responses in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells by up to 50%. To analyze if T2Rs are involved in regulating the pulmonary vascular tone, ex vivo studies using pulmonary arterial and airway rings were pursued. Myographic studies using porcine pulmonary arterial and airway rings showed that stimulation with dextromethorphan led to contraction of the pulmonary arterial and relaxation of the airway rings. This study shows that dextromethorphan, acting through T2R1, causes vasoconstrictor responses in the pulmonary circuit and relaxation in the airways.

  8. Dextromethorphan mediated bitter taste receptor activation in the pulmonary circuit causes vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Jasbir D; Singh, Nisha; Sikarwar, Anurag S; Chakraborty, Raja; Pydi, Sai P; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Chelikani, Prashen

    2014-01-01

    Activation of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in human airway smooth muscle cells leads to muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. This finding led to our hypothesis that T2Rs are expressed in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and might be involved in regulating the vascular tone. RT-PCR was performed to reveal the expression of T2Rs in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Of the 25 T2Rs, 21 were expressed in these cells. Functional characterization was done by calcium imaging after stimulating the cells with different bitter agonists. Increased calcium responses were observed with most of the agonists, the largest increase seen for dextromethorphan. Previously in site-directed mutational studies, we have characterized the response of T2R1 to dextromethorphan, therefore, T2R1 was selected for further analysis in this study. Knockdown with T2R1 specific shRNA decreased mRNA levels, protein levels and dextromethorphan-induced calcium responses in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells by up to 50%. To analyze if T2Rs are involved in regulating the pulmonary vascular tone, ex vivo studies using pulmonary arterial and airway rings were pursued. Myographic studies using porcine pulmonary arterial and airway rings showed that stimulation with dextromethorphan led to contraction of the pulmonary arterial and relaxation of the airway rings. This study shows that dextromethorphan, acting through T2R1, causes vasoconstrictor responses in the pulmonary circuit and relaxation in the airways.

  9. Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, T.J.P., E-mail: timothyjpbray@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); Mortensen, K.H., E-mail: mortensen@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); University Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Box 318, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Gopalan, D., E-mail: deepa.gopalan@btopenworld.com [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A plethora of pulmonary and systemic disorders, often associated with grave outcomes, may cause pulmonary infarction. • A stereotypical infarct is a peripheral wedge shaped pleurally based opacity but imaging findings can be highly variable. • Multimodality imaging is key to diagnosing the presence, aetiology and complications of pulmonary infarction. • Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction together with any ancillary features often guide to early targeted treatment. • CT remains the principal imaging modality with MRI increasingly used alongside nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound. - Abstract: The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis.

  10. Triple rule-out CT angiography protocol with restricting field of view for detection of pulmonary thromboembolism and aortic dissection in emergency department patients: simulation of modified CT protocol for reducing radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Su; Kim, Sung Mok; Cha, Min Jae; Kim, Yoo Na; Kim, Hae Jin; Choi, Jin-Ho; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2017-05-01

    Background Triple rule-out computed tomography (TRO CT) is a CT protocol designed to simultaneously evaluate the coronary, aorta, and pulmonary arteries. Purpose To evaluate potential diagnostic performance of TRO CT with restricted volume coverage for detection of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and aortic dissection (AD). Material and Methods This study included 1224 consecutive patients with acute chest pain who visited the emergency department and underwent TRO CT using a 128-slice dual-source CT. Image data were reconstructed according to the display field of view (DFOV) of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and TRO CT protocols in each patient. The presence of PTE and AD was evaluated by independent observers in each DFOV. The radiation dose was calculated to evaluate the potential benefits by restricting z-axis coverage to cardiac scan range instead of the whole thorax. Results Among all patients, 22 cases with PTE (1.9%) and nine cases with AD (0.8%) were found. Except for one PTE case, all cases were detected on both DFOV of TRO CT and CCTA. Mean effective dose for evaluation of entire thorax and cardiac scan coverage were 5.9 ± 1.1 mSv and 3.5 ± 0.7 mSv, respectively. Conclusion Isolated PTE and AD outside the CCTA DFOV rarely occur. Therefore, modified TRO CT protocol using cardiac scan coverage can be adopted to detect PTE and AD with reduced radiation dose.

  11. A rare cause of pulmonary edema in the postoperative period

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    Kshitij Chatterjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing longevity of the population, the annual rates of hip arthroplasties performed have been steadily increasing over the past decade. Given the presence of medical comorbidities in the older patients, the peri-operative care of these individuals requires multi-specialty care, now more than ever. Hip arthroplasty is generally well tolerated, with early mortality after the procedure being <1%. Bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS is an entity that is occasionally encountered during or after the surgery. It is characterized by hypoxemia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest leading to death, in severe cases. We report a case of a middle-aged female who developed refractory hypotension and pulmonary edema while undergoing hemiarthroplasty for a pathological femoral neck fracture and experienced cardiac arrest in the immediate postoperative period. Critical care physicians must familiarize themselves with promptly diagnosing and managing BCIS.

  12. A Rare Cause of Pulmonary Edema in the Postoperative Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Kshitij; Mittadodla, Penchala S; Colaco, Clinton; Jagana, Rajani

    2017-02-01

    With the increasing longevity of the population, the annual rates of hip arthroplasties performed have been steadily increasing over the past decade. Given the presence of medical comorbidities in the older patients, the peri-operative care of these individuals requires multi-specialty care, now more than ever. Hip arthroplasty is generally well tolerated, with early mortality after the procedure being <1%. Bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) is an entity that is occasionally encountered during or after the surgery. It is characterized by hypoxemia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest leading to death, in severe cases. We report a case of a middle-aged female who developed refractory hypotension and pulmonary edema while undergoing hemiarthroplasty for a pathological femoral neck fracture and experienced cardiac arrest in the immediate postoperative period. Critical care physicians must familiarize themselves with promptly diagnosing and managing BCIS.

  13. Pulmonary Infection Caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans in a Patient with Carcinoma of Epiglottis: A Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Priyamvada

    2014-05-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic, motile, oxidase and catalase positive, non-fermenting, gram negative bacillus. It is an opportunistic pathogen which is responsible for various nosocomial and community-acquired infections. However, there are only very few reports of pulmonary infections caused by this bacterium in cancer patients. We are presenting a case of a patient with carcinoma of epiglottis, who developed pulmonary infection caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans. According to the available literature, this is the first case of pulmonary infection caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans, which was detected in a cancer patient in India. Since Achromobacter xylosoxidans demonstrates resistance to many classes of antimicrobials, vigilant and efficient microbiological work-ups and surveillances are needed, to diagnose infections caused by this rare pathogen in clinical settings.

  14. Pulmonary embolism caused by a carbon dioxide blower during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Naoyuki; Kanaya, Noriaki; Yamazaki, Yutaka; Sonoda, Hajime; Namiki, Akiyoshi

    2010-02-01

    We report a rare case of pulmonary embolism (PE) caused by a carbon dioxide (CO2) blower during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). When the anastomosis of the right internal thoracic artery to left anterior descending artery was performed, the operator tore the right ventricle outflow track (RVOT) that was adjacent to the left anterior descending artery. Immediately after the anastomosis and repair of the torn RVOT with CO2 blower, the systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) increased from 28 to 64 mmHg, and end-tidal CO2 decreased from 32 to 12 mmHg. Because transesophageal echocardiograph (TEE) showed numerous gas bubbles in the main pulmonary artery, we diagnosed PE caused by invasion of CO2 gas bubbles via the torn RVOT. Although a CO2 blower is useful to enhance visualization of the anastomosis during OPCAB, it should not be used for the venous system because it may cause CO2 embolism.

  15. Pulmonary thromboembolism in AIDS patient with chronic venous insufficiency, pulmonary tuberculosis and breast cancer: a case report and pathophysiology review Tromboembolismo pulmonar em uma paciente com AIDS com insuficiência venosa profunda, tuberculose pulmonar e câncer de mama: relato de um caso e revisão da fisiopatologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cortez-Escalante

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature reports thrombotic episodes occurring in patients with HIV infection associated with other abnormalities including neoplasms and infections predisposing to a hypercoagulable state. We report a 47-year-old woman who developed pulmonary thromboembolism in association with HIV infection, pulmonary tuberculosis and breast cancer. She was treated with rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide; heparin, phenprocoumon, zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz. Acid fast bacilli were visualized in a sputum smear and three months after, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from lymph node biopsy during a episode of immune reconstitution. The isolated mycobacteria showed sensitivity to all first-line drugs. HIV infection, breast cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis have several mechanisms that induce hypercoagulable state and can lead to thromboembolic complications. Pulmonary thromboembolism in this patient was a diagnostic challenge because of all the other severe diseases that she experienced at the same time.Publicações recentes relatam episódios trombóticos em pacientes infectados pelo HIV associados a outras condições que incluem neoplasias e infecções que predispõem para um estado de hipercoagulabilidade. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente de 47 anos portadora do HIV que desenvolveu tromboembolismo pulmonar, tuberculose pulmonar e câncer de mama. Foi tratada com rifampicina, isoniazida, pirazinamida, heparina, femprocumona, zidovudina, lamivudina e efavirenz. Bacilos ácido-álcool-resistentes foram observados no exame de escarro e três meses depois foi isolado o Mycobacterium tuberculosis da biópsia de linfonodo durante um episódio de reconstituição imune. A micobactéria isolada demonstrou sensibilidade a todas as drogas anti-tuberculosas de primeira linha. A infecção pelo HIV, o câncer de mama e a tuberculose pulmonar possuem vários mecanismos que induzem um estado de hipercoagulabilidade e que podem produzir complica

  16. New oral antithrombotics: focus on dabigatran, an oral, reversible direct thrombin inhibitor for the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl OE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ola E Dahl1,21Department of Orthopaedics, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Elverum Central Hospital, Elverum, Norway; 2Thrombosis Research Institute, London, UKAbstract: Venous thromboembolism, presenting as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, is a major challenge for health care systems. It is the third most common vascular disease after coronary heart disease and stroke, and many hospitalized patients have at least one risk factor. In particular, patients undergoing hip or knee replacement are at risk, with an incidence of asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis of 40%–60% without thromboprophylaxis. Venous thromboembolism is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, with patients being at risk of recurrence, post-thrombotic syndrome, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Arterial thromboembolism is even more frequent, and atrial fibrillation, the most common embolic source (cardiac arrhythmia, is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of stroke. Strokes due to atrial fibrillation tend to be more severe and disabling and are more often fatal than strokes due to other causes. Currently, recommended management of both venous and arterial thromboembolism involves the use of anticoagulants such as coumarin and heparin derivatives. These agents are effective, although have characteristics that prevent them from providing optimal anticoagulation and convenience. Hence, new improved oral anticoagulants are being investigated. Dabigatran is a reversible, direct thrombin inhibitor, which is administered as dabigatran etexilate, the oral prodrug. Because it is the first new oral anticoagulant that has been licensed in many countries worldwide for thromboprophylaxis following orthopedic surgery and for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, this compound will be the main focus of this review. Dabigatran has been investigated for the treatment of established venous thromboembolism and prevention of

  17. Achados clínicopatológicos na tromboembolia pulmonar: estudo de 24 anos de autópsias Clinicopathological findings in pulmonary thromboembolism: a 24-year autopsy study

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    Hugo Hyung Bok Yoo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tromboembolia pulmonar (TEP é ainda uma afecção enigmática em diversos aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos e frequentemente erroneamente diagnosticada. OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência e os achados anatomopatológicos de TEP em uma série de 5261 autópsias realizadas em um hospital universitário de nível terciário, correlacionar estes achados com as doenças de base e verificar a freqüência de suspeita clínica antemortem de TEP. MÉTODO: Revisão dos registros das autópsias consecutivas realizadas de 1979 a 2002 para um estudo retrospectivo. Dos prontuários e dos relatórios de autópsias dos pacientes que tiveram TEP documentada, macro e/ou microscopicamente, foram extraídos dados demográficos, doenças de base, suspeita antemortem de TEP, localização dos trombos nos pulmões e provável local de origem da TEP. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de autópsias foi de 42,0% e TEP foi encontrada em 544 pacientes, sendo a principal causa da morte (TEP fatal em 225 casos. Doenças infecciosas (p=0,0003 foram associadas com TEP não fatal e trauma (p=0,007 com TEP fatal. A taxa de não suspeita antemortem de TEP foi 84,6% e 40,0% destes pacientes apresentaram TEP fatal. Doenças do sistema circulatório (p=0,0001, infecções (pBACKGROUND: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is still an enigmatic disorder in many epidemiological and clinical features, remaining one of the most commonly misdiagnosed disorders. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and pathological findings of PTE in a series of autopsies, to correlate these findings with underlying diseases, and to verify the frequency of PTE clinically suspected before death. METHOD: The reports on 5261 consecutive autopsies performed from 1979 to 2002 in a Brazilian tertiary referral medical school were reviewed for a retrospective study. From the medical records and autopsy reports of the patients found with macroscopically and/or microscopically documented PTE, were gathered

  18. A case of isolated hepatic actinomycosis causing right pulmonary empyema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonenc Kocabay; Atahan Cagatay; Haluk Eraksoy; Betul Tiryaki; Aydin Alper; Semra Calangu

    2006-01-01

    @@ The clinical picture of actinomycosis was first described in 1878.1 Actinomvcosis agents are found in the natural flora of the oral cavity, upper gastrointestinal system and female genital systems.Actinomyces israelii is usually responsible for the infections and causes chronic suppurative and granulomatous infections.1 The most common disease form is cervicofascial infection.

  19. Two cases of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp canetti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltgen, Jean; Morillon, Marc; Koeck, Jean-Louis; Varnerot, Anne; Briant, Jean-François; Nguyen, Gilbert; Verrot, Denis; Bonnet, Daniel; Vincent, Véronique

    2002-11-01

    We identified an unusual strain of mycobacteria from two patients with pulmonary tuberculosis by its smooth, glossy morphotype and, primarily, its genotypic characteristics. Spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism typing were carried out with the insertion sequence IS6110 patterns. All known cases of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium canetti have been contracted in the Horn of Africa.

  20. A Case of Infective Endocarditis and Pulmonary Septic Emboli Caused by Lactococcus lactis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Adib; Asli, Nazih; Geffen, Yuval; Miron, Dan; Elias, Nael

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a rare condition in children with normal hearts. We present here a case of previously healthy eleven-year-old girl with infective endocarditis and pulmonary septic emboli caused by a very rare bacterial etiology (Lactococcus lactis). Identification of this pathogen was only made by polymerase chain reaction.

  1. 超声引导下犬自体血栓栓塞性急性肺动脉高压模型的建立及意义%Establishment of a canine model with acute thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension guided by echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丹丹; 陈洪茂; 段云友; 尚福军; 梁宁南; 曹玮; 刘禧; 曹铁生

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨超声引导下建立肺动脉血栓栓塞所致犬急性肺动脉高压模型的可行性.方法 模拟人体急性肺动脉血栓栓塞的病理生理过程,建立肺动脉血栓栓塞所致的犬急性肺动脉高压模型.超声引导下经股静脉穿刺,放置右心导管监测肺动脉压力,同时对侧股静脉推注自体血栓,以肺动脉收缩压超过30 mmHg为模型建立成功的标准.结果 超声可以准确引导右心导管的放置.实验用犬27只,成功建立急性肺动脉高压模型24只,成功率88.9%.结论 超声引导下建立肺动脉血栓栓塞所致犬急性肺动脉高压模型的方法具有良好的可行性和可重复性.%Objective To establish a canine model with acute thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension monitored by echocardiography. Methods Simulated the pathophysiologic process of acute thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension in human, the canine model was developed. The femoral vein puncture and the right heart catheterization to monitor pulmonary artery pressure were operated guided by echocardiography, while the autologous blood clot was injected to the contralateral femoral vein. The criteria of model was the pulmonary artery systolic pressure was higher than 30 mmHg. Results Echocardiography can accurately guide the placement of right heart catheterization and ancillarily observe the pressure testing of pulmonary artery. Of twenty seven healthy experiment dogs, twenty four models with acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were successfully developed. The successful rate was 88.9 %. Conclusions This canine model with acute thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension guided by echocardiography is easy to operate and its repeatability is good.

  2. Selective D-dimer thresholds in the diagnostic management for symptomatic pulmonary embolism does not lead to acceptable 3 months venous thromboembolism recurrence rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Hulle, T.; Den Exter, P.L.; Klok, F.A.; Erkens, P.G.M.; Van Es, J.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Huisman, M.V.; Mos, I.C.M.; Ten Cate, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: With current diagnostic algorithms for pulmonary embolism (PE) CT-scan imaging is still frequently necessary. For deep vein thrombosis it was very recently shown (Linkins et al. Ann Intern Med 2013; 158:93-100) that doubling the D-dimer threshold in patients with low clinical probability

  3. Disruption of the Hepcidin/Ferroportin Regulatory System Causes Pulmonary Iron Overload and Restrictive Lung Disease

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    Joana Neves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that pulmonary iron accumulation is implicated in a spectrum of chronic lung diseases. However, the mechanism(s involved in pulmonary iron deposition and its role in the in vivo pathogenesis of lung diseases remains unknown. Here we show that a point mutation in the murine ferroportin gene, which causes hereditary hemochromatosis type 4 (Slc40a1C326S, increases iron levels in alveolar macrophages, epithelial cells lining the conducting airways and lung parenchyma, and in vascular smooth muscle cells. Pulmonary iron overload is associated with oxidative stress, restrictive lung disease with decreased total lung capacity and reduced blood oxygen saturation in homozygous Slc40a1C326S/C326S mice compared to wild-type controls. These findings implicate iron in lung pathology, which is so far not considered a classical iron-related disorder.

  4. Aloe vera affects changes induced in pulmonary tissue of mice caused by cigarette smoke inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ashwani; Bala, Shashi; Yasmeen; Arora, Neha

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the influence of Aloe vera (AV) on changes induced in pulmonary tissue of cigarette smoke (CS) inhaling mice. CS inhalation for 4 weeks caused pulmonary damage as evident by histoarchitectural alterations and enhanced serum and tissue lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities. CS inhalation also led to increased mucin production as revealed by mucicarmine and Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS) staining. Studies on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) of CS exposed animals revealed structural changes in phospholipids and increase in surface tension when compared with control counterparts. These changes were accompanied by enhanced nitric oxide (NO) levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and differential modulation of antioxidant defense system. AV administration (seven weeks, 500 mg/kg b.w. daily) to CS inhaling mice led to modulation of CS induced pulmonary changes as revealed by lesser degree of histoarchitectural alterations, lesser mucin production, decreased NO levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and serum LDH activity. AV treatment to CS inhaling mice was associated with varying response to antioxidant defense system, however balf of CS + AV treated animals did not exhibit appreciable changes when compared with that of CS exposed animals. These observations suggest that AV has the potential to modulate CS induced changes in the pulmonary tissue which could have implications in management of CS associated pulmonary diseases, however, further investigations are required to explore its complete mechanism of action.

  5. Rare Presentation of Left Lower Lobe Pulmonary Artery Dissection

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    René Hako

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary arterial dissection with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension as its major cause is a very rare but life-threatening condition. In most cases the main pulmonary trunk is the affected site usually without involvement of its branches. Segmental or lobar pulmonary artery dissection is extremely rare. Case Presentation. We report a unique case of left lower lobe pulmonary artery dissection in a 70-year-old male, with confirmed chronic pulmonary hypertension. To confirm dissection MDCT pulmonary angiography was used. Multiplanar reformation (MPR images in sagittal, coronal, oblique sagittal, and curved projections were generated. This case report presents morphologic CT features of rare chronic left lobar pulmonary artery dissection associated with chronic pulmonary hypertension at a place of localised pulmonary artery calcification. CT pulmonary angiography excluded signs of thromboembolism and potential motion or flow artefacts. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, no case of lower lobe pulmonary artery dissection with flap calcification has been reported yet. CT imaging of the chest is a key diagnostic tool that is able to detect an intimal flap and a false lumen within the pulmonary arterial tree and is preferred in differential diagnosis of rare complications of sustained pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  6. An unexpected case of venous and pulmonary thrombo-embolism in a patient treated with thalidomide for refractory erythema nodosum leprosum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamara Ratnayake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent literature reports an increased incidence of venous thrombosis following thalidomide use in the treatment of diseases with disease-related thrombotic risks such as malignancy, as well as concomitant use with chemotherapy and/or systemic corticosteroids. We report a case of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE following thalidomide use in a patient with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL reaction who was concurrently treated with prednisolone, as well as a review of relevant literature.

  7. Tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo asociado a foramen oval permeable High-risk massive pulmonary thromboembolism associated with patent foramen ovale

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    Antonio Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La alta mortalidad de los pacientes con tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo amerita un enfoque terapéutico enérgico e invasivo que incluya la embolectomía pulmonar quirúrgica en aquellos pacientes con contraindicación para trombolisis o trombolisis fallida. Describimos un caso de tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo que recibió tratamiento quirúrgico en vez de trombolisis debido a que al momento del diagnóstico presentaba un trombo móvil a través de un foramen oval permeable con altísima posibilidad de embolismo paradójico arterial.High mortality rate associated with massive pulmonary embolism requires an aggressive invasive approach including surgical pulmonary embolectomy when thrombolytic therapy has failed or is contraindicated. We describe a case of high-risk massive pulmonary embolism who underwent surgical treatment due to the presence of a mobile intracardiac clot in a patent foramen ovale, and the possible risk of paradoxical arterial embolism.

  8. Pulmonary manifestations of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, H James; Roubey, Robert A S

    2010-09-01

    A broad spectrum of pulmonary disease may occur in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. The most common pulmonary manifestations are pulmonary thromboembolism and pulmonary hypertension. In this article the authors review these manifestations, as well as less common findings including acute respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar hemorrhage, and pulmonary capillaritis.

  9. [Acute Postoperative Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema Caused by the Compression of Brachiocephalic Artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Miki; Iwai, Hidetaka; Fukatsu, Ken; Shimada, Mami; Hirabayashi, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of negative-pressure pulmonary edema occurring by tracheal obstruction caused by the brachiocephalic artery. The patient had deformed thorax with cerebral palsy, which deformed thorax placing the brachiocephalic artery high over the trachea, resulting in close and tight contact between the artery and trachea. Additional deformity of the thorax associated with myotonic attacks after general anesthesia might shorten the distance between the sternal notch and the vertebral body, resulting in the tracheal obstruction by the artery.

  10. Identification of a novel SERPINA-1 mutation causing alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in a patient with severe bronchiectasis and pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milger K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Katrin Milger,1 Lesca Miriam Holdt,2 Daniel Teupser,2 Rudolf Maria Huber,1 Jürgen Behr,1 Nikolaus Kneidinger1 1Department of Internal Medicine V, University of Munich, Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, 2Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University of Munich, Munich, Germany Abstract: Deficiency in the serine protease inhibitor, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT, is known to cause emphysema and liver disease. Other manifestations, including airway disease or skin disorders, have also been described. A 44-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with dyspnea and respiratory insufficiency. She had never smoked, and had been diagnosed with COPD 9 years earlier. Three months previously, she had suffered a pulmonary embolism. Chest computed tomography scan revealed severe cystic bronchiectasis with destruction of the lung parenchyma. The sweat test was normal and there was no evidence of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR mutation. Capillary zone electrophoresis showed a decrease of alpha-1 globin band and AAT levels were below the quantification limit (<25 mg/dL. No S or Z mutation was identified, but sequencing analysis found a homozygous cytosine and adenine (CA insertion in exon 2 of the SERPINA-1 gene, probably leading to a dysfunctional protein (PI Null/Null. This mutation has not been previously identified. The atypical presentation of the patient, with severe cystic bronchiectasis, highlights AAT deficiency as a differential diagnosis in bronchiectasis. Further, awareness should be raised regarding a possible increased risk of thromboembolism associated with AAT deficiency. Keywords: alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, bronchiectasis, SERPINA-1 mutation, pulmonary embolism

  11. Acute pulmonary edema caused by takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a pregnant woman undergoing transvaginal cervical cerclage: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Young; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Park, Sang-Wook; Lee, Yu-Mi

    2017-01-01

    The physiological changes associated with pregnancy may predispose pregnant women to pulmonary edema. Other known causes of pulmonary edema during pregnancy include tocolytic drugs, preeclampsia, eclampsia, and peripartum cardiomyopathy. We describe a rare case of pulmonary edema caused by takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a pregnant woman at 14 weeks of gestation who was undergoing emergency transvaginal cervical cerclage. Intraoperative chest radiography revealed severe pulmonary edema and echocardiography indicated moderate left ventricular dysfunction with akinesia of the mid to apical left ventricular wall segment, which is reflective of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. With early detection and appropriate management, the patient was stabilized in a relatively short period of time. Based on her clinical signs and symptoms, we suspect that the pulmonary edema was caused by takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

  12. A prominent ‘A’ notch in the pulmonary valve M mode-one more cause of the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prabha Nini; Velappan, Praveen; Thampy MS, Lakshmi; Kunju, Subair M

    2015-01-01

    The M mode echocardiogram is not the main priority, during routine echocardiographic evaluation now-a-days. However, there are still a few classical conditions where this remains instructive and educative. One such situation is the presence of an ‘a’ wave in the pulmonary valve M mode tracing in normals and it's absence in pulmonary hypertension. In valvular pulmonary stenosis we expect a deeper ‘a’ wave. We describe one more cause of a prominent ‘a’ wave in the pulmonary valve M mode. We describe this in a common tropical disease, endemic to Kerala. PMID:25833908

  13. A prominent 'A' notch in the pulmonary valve M mode-one more cause of the same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prabha Nini; Velappan, Praveen; Thampy M S, Lakshmi; Kunju, Subair M

    2015-04-01

    The M mode echocardiogram is not the main priority, during routine echocardiographic evaluation now-a-days. However, there are still a few classical conditions where this remains instructive and educative. One such situation is the presence of an 'a' wave in the pulmonary valve M mode tracing in normals and it's absence in pulmonary hypertension. In valvular pulmonary stenosis we expect a deeper 'a' wave. We describe one more cause of a prominent 'a' wave in the pulmonary valve M mode. We describe this in a common tropical disease, endemic to Kerala.

  14. Normalization of diagnosis and therapy in acute pulmonary thromboembolism%急性肺血栓栓塞症的规范化诊断和治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄岚; 周音频

    2010-01-01

    @@ 急性肺栓塞(acute pulmonary embolism,APE)是由内源性或外源性栓子(气体、羊水、脂肪等)堵塞肺动脉而引起肺循环障碍的病理生理综合征.APE在西方国家是常见疾病,住院患者APE的发生率为0.4%,美国每年新发APE人数超过60万[1-2];APE在我国也并不少见,占尸检总数的4%~11%[3].但由于其临床表现和常规检查缺乏特异性,APE的误诊和漏诊率高达80%,据估计每年仅约40~53/10万人确诊APE [4-5].

  15. The Diagnostic Value of End-tidal Carbon Dioxide (EtCO2 and Alveolar Dead Space (AVDS in Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Thrombo-embolism (PTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Basiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Capnography, is an easy, fast and practical method which its application in the diagnosis of Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy (PTE has recently been studied. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2 and the alveolar dead space (AVDS in the diagnosis of patients suspected to PTE who have been referred to the emergency department. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during one year in the emergency department of Ghaem Hospital on patients with suspected PTE who scored less than 4 for the Wells’ criteria during the initial evaluation. After excluding other differential diagnoses, all patients underwent CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA to confirm PTE. Following that, arterial blood gas sampling, ETCO2 and AVDS were requested for all the patients based on capnography. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistical tests in SPSS software version 11.5. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of AVDS and ETCO2 were measured based on (CTPA results. Results: The study was performed on 78 patients (mean age of 47.08± 15.6 years, 43 males/35 females suspected to PTE. According to the results of CTPA, 37 patients did not develop PTE while 41 patients were with PTE. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age and gender (P=0.999, while a statistically significant difference was found between the mean values of ETCO2 and AVDS between the two groups (P

  16. Pulmonary Embolism Related to Amisulpride Treatment: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skokou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism has been associated with antipsychotic drugs, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Hypotheses that have been made include body weight gain, sedation, enhanced platelet aggregation, increased levels of antiphospholipid antibodies, hyperhomocysteinemia, whereas hyperprolactinemia has recently attracted attention as a potential contributing factor. The highest risk has been demonstrated for clozapine, olanzapine, and low-potency first-generation antipsychotics; however, presently there is no data for amisulpride. In the present paper we describe a case of pulmonary embolism in a female bipolar patient, receiving treatment with amisulpride, aripiprazole, and paroxetine. Although a contribution of aripiprazole and paroxetine cannot completely be ruled out, the most probable factor underlying the thromboembolic event seems to be hyperprolactinemia, which was caused by amisulpride treatment. Increased plasma levels of prolactin should probably be taken into account during the monitoring of antipsychotic treatment as well as in future research concerning venous thromboembolism in psychiatric settings.

  17. Pulmonary embolism related to amisulpride treatment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism has been associated with antipsychotic drugs, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Hypotheses that have been made include body weight gain, sedation, enhanced platelet aggregation, increased levels of antiphospholipid antibodies, hyperhomocysteinemia, whereas hyperprolactinemia has recently attracted attention as a potential contributing factor. The highest risk has been demonstrated for clozapine, olanzapine, and low-potency first-generation antipsychotics; however, presently there is no data for amisulpride. In the present paper we describe a case of pulmonary embolism in a female bipolar patient, receiving treatment with amisulpride, aripiprazole, and paroxetine. Although a contribution of aripiprazole and paroxetine cannot completely be ruled out, the most probable factor underlying the thromboembolic event seems to be hyperprolactinemia, which was caused by amisulpride treatment. Increased plasma levels of prolactin should probably be taken into account during the monitoring of antipsychotic treatment as well as in future research concerning venous thromboembolism in psychiatric settings.

  18. [Homocysteine and venous thromboembolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerat, C; Hayoz, D

    1997-09-06

    Congenital homocysteinuria is a rare inherited metabolic disorder with early onset atherosclerosis and arterial and venous trombosis. Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is more frequently encountered and is recognized as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Several case-control studies demonstrate an association between venous thromboembolism and moderate hyperhomocysteinemia. A patient with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia has a 2-3 relative risk of developing an episode of venous thromboembolism. The occurrence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in heterozygotes for the mutation of Leiden factor V involves a 10-fold increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism. The biochemical mechanism by which homocysteine may promote thrombosis is not fully recognized. Homocysteine inhibits the expression of thrombomodulin, the thrombin cofactor responsible for protein C activation, and inhibits antithrombin-III binding. Treatment with folic acid reduces the plasma level of homocysteinemia, but no study has demonstrated its efficacy in reducing the incidence of venous thromboembolism or atherosclerosis. Hyperhomocysteinemia should be included in the screening of abnormalities of hemostasis and thrombosis in patients with idiopathic thromboembolism, and mild hyperhomocysteinemia may justify a trial of folic acid.

  19. [Prevention of venous thromboembolism in musculoskeletal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabinger-Fasching, Ingrid; Eichinger-Hasenauer, Sabine; Grohs, Josef; Hochreiter, Josef; Kastner, Norbert; Korninger, Hans Christian; Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle; Marlovits, Stefan; Niessner, Herwig; Rachbauer, Franz; Ritschl, Peter; Wurnig, Christian; Windhager, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    Musculoskeletal surgery is associated with a high risk of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAK) has broadened the possibilities for prevention of venous thromboembolism in the course of orthopedic and trauma surgery. Addressing this recent development, the Austrian Societies of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery (ÖGO), Trauma Surgery (ÖGU), Hematology and Oncology (OeGHO) and of Anaesthesiology, Reanimation und Intensive Care Medicine (ÖGARI) have taken the initiative to create Austrian guidelines for the prevention of thromboembolism after total hip and knee replacement, hip fracture surgery, interventions at the spine and cases of minor orthopedic and traumatic surgery. Furthermore, the pharmacology of the DOAK and the pivotal trial data for each of the three currently available substances - apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban - are briefly presented. Separate chapters are dedicated to "anticoagulation and neuroaxial anesthesia" and "bridging".

  20. Addison's Disease Caused by Tuberculosis with Atypical Hyperpigmentation and Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Hiroki; Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Kainuma, Shigeto; Umeda, Sakurako; Makuuchi, Ayako; Fukumoto, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Masanori; Kinuhata, Shigeki; Isaka, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Kamata, Noriko; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Hiura, Yoshikazu; Morimura, Mina; Shuto, Taichi

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a case of Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis characterized by atypical hyperpigmentation, noted as exacerbation of the pigmentation of freckles and the occurrence of new freckles, that was diagnosed in the presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis. The clinical condition of the patient was markedly ameliorated by the administration of hydrocortisone and anti-tuberculosis agents. When exacerbation of the pigmentation of the freckles and/or the occurrence of new freckles are noted, Addison's disease should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. In addition, the presence of active tuberculosis needs to be assumed whenever we treat patients with Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis, despite its rarity.

  1. Hormonal contraception and venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Milsom, Ian; Geirsson, Reynir Tomas;

    2012-01-01

    New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published.......New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published....

  2. 不同病因的肺动脉高压患者肺动脉压力水平研究%Comparison of Pulmonary Artery Pressure Levels in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension of Different Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭璐; 刘跃建; 解郑良; 周仲伟; 杨阳; 陈庆; 邹俊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze and compare the levels of pulmonary artery pressure due to different causes in patients with pulmonary hypertension ( PH ) . Methods The data of 2 240 patients diagnosed with PH were retrospectively analyzed from outpatient department, emergency center and inpatient department of Sichuan provincial people's hospital from January 2006 to December 2010. The levels of pulmonary artery systolic pressure ( PASP ) were analyzed and compared for these patients with different causes. Results The proportion of mild, moderate and severe degree of PASP among the 2 240 patients was 43. 79% ( 981/2 240 ), 37. 41% ( 838/2 240 ) and 18. 80% ( 421/2 240 ) respectively. The level of mean PASP in patients with PH due to pulmonary arterial hypertension, left heart disease, chronic lung disease and/or hypoxia, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and miscellaneous factors were respectively ( 60 ± 19 ) mm Hg, ( 52 ± 17 ) mm Hg, (50 ± 13 ) mm Hg, ( 61 ± 13 ) mm Hg and ( 56 ± 14 ) mm Hg, with a statistically significant difference by analysis of variance ( P < 0. 05 ) . The top 3 subtypes of PH which possessed the highest level of PASP were persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn being ( 97 ± 6 ) mm Hg, pulmonary hypertension due to congenital heart diseases being ( 72 ±28 ) mm Hg, and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension being ( 67 ± 14 ) mm Hg respectively, with significant difference as compared with other subtypes ( P <0. 05 ) . And the subtypes with lowest level of PASP were PH due to portal hypertension and sleep - disordered breathing, being respectively ( 35 ± 15 ) mm Hg and ( 35 ± 16 ) mm Hg, with significant difference as compared with other subtypes ( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion The degree of pulmonary artery pressure is generally mild to moderate in patients with pulmonary hypertension. The highest -leveled subtypes of PH are persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, pulmonary hypertension due to congenital heart

  3. Hyperparathyroidism caused by distant pulmonary lesions and parathyromatosis after ethanol injection/parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Michio; Tanaka, Kiho; Fujii, Takeshi

    2017-01-11

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) treatment includes parathyroidectomy and percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT), which are invasive procedures. The condition in which benign hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue is distributed throughout the neck and mediastinum is termed parathyromatosis. Here, we present the case of a 51-year-old woman who began hemodialysis in 1986 due to chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology and developed SHPT in 1999. She underwent 6 rounds of PEIT followed by total a parathyroidectomy with partial forearm autotransplantation. Between 2011 and 2013, surgeons removed several nodules from her pulmonary and cervical regions and the transplanted masses from her forearm; all showed hyperplasia but exhibited no histological evidence of malignancy. Damage to the parathyroid capsule after repeated PEITs may cause local cervical recurrence and pulmonary lesions, although distant lesions are extremely rare in SHPT. This case is of interest due to the possible association between PEIT and parathyromatosis and distal lesions.

  4. Epidemiological study of venous thromboembolism in a big Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Overvad, Kim

    Introduction: Epidemiological data on venous thromboembolism (VT), i.e. pulmonary emboli (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are sparse. We have examined VT-diagnoses registered in a big Danish Cohort study.  Methods: All first-time VT diagnoses in The Danish National Patient Register were...

  5. Prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism in orthopedic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lin-tao; MA Bao-tong

    2006-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism ( VTE), which is manifested as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), represents a significant cause of death, disability,and discomfort. They are frequent complications of various surgical procedures. The aging population and the survival of more severely injured patients may suggest an increasing risk of thromboembolism in the trauma patients. Expanded understanding of the population at risk challenges physicians to carefully examine risk factors for VTE to identify high-risk patients who can benefit from prophylaxis. An accurate knowledge of evidence-based risk factors is important in predicting and preventing postoperative DVT, and can be incorporated into a decision support system for appropriate thromboprophylaxis use.Standard use of DVT prophylaxis in a high-risk trauma population leads to a low incidence of DVT. The incidence of VTE is common in Asia. The evaluation includes laboratory tests, Doppler test and phlebography. Screening Doppler sonography should be performed for surveillance on all critically injured patients to identify DVT. D-Dimer is a useful marker to monitor prophylaxis in trauma surgery patients. The optimal time to start prophylaxis is between 2 hours before and 10 hours after surgery, but the risk of PE continues for several weeks. Thromboprophylaxis includes graduated compression stockings and anticoagulants for prophylaxis. Anticoagulants include Warfarin, which belongs to Vitamin K antagonists, unfractionated heparin,low molecular weight heparins, factor Xa indirect inhibitor Fondaparinux, and the oral Ⅱa inhibitor Melagatran and ximelagatran. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin is a new and highly effective antithrombotic agent. Prophylactic placement of vena caval filters in selected trauma patients may decrease the incidence of PE. The indications for prophylactic inferior vena cava filter insertion include prolonged immobilization with multiple injuries, closed head injury, pelvic

  6. Prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism in orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin-tao; Ma, Bao-tong

    2006-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which is manifested as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), represents a significant cause of death, disability, and discomfort. They are frequent complications of various surgical procedures. The aging population and the survival of more severely injured patients may suggest an increasing risk of thromboembolism in the trauma patients. Expanded understanding of the population at risk challenges physicians to carefully examine risk factors for VTE to identify high-risk patients who can benefit from prophylaxis. An accurate knowledge of evidence-based risk factors is important in predicting and preventing postoperative DVT, and can be incorporated into a decision support system for appropriate thromboprophylaxis use. Standard use of DVT prophylaxis in a high-risk trauma population leads to a low incidence of DVT. The incidence of VTE is common in Asia. The evaluation includes laboratory tests, Doppler test and phlebography. Screening Doppler sonography should be performed for surveillance on all critically injured patients to identify DVT. D-Dimer is a useful marker to monitor prophylaxis in trauma surgery patients. The optimal time to start prophylaxis is between 2 hours before and 10 hours after surgery, but the risk of PE continues for several weeks. Thromboprophylaxis includes graduated compression stockings and anticoagulants for prophylaxis. Anticoagulants include Warfarin, which belongs to Vitamin K antagonists, unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparins, factor Xa indirect inhibitor Fondaparinux, and the oral IIa inhibitor Melagatran and ximelagatran. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin is a new and highly effective antithrombotic agent. Prophylactic placement of vena caval filters in selected trauma patients may decrease the incidence of PE. The indications for prophylactic inferior vena cava filter insertion include prolonged immobilization with multiple injuries, closed head injury, pelvic

  7. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing for elderly with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension%老年慢性血栓栓塞性肺动脉高压患者的心肺运动试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚群英; 柳志红; 赵智慧; 顾晴; 罗勤; 马秀平; 熊长明; 倪新海

    2015-01-01

    目的:明确老年慢性血栓栓塞性肺动脉高压(CTEPH)患者与年轻患者相比心肺运动试验(CPET)指标的变化。方法2011年1月至2014年5月在阜外医院肺血管病房住院的57名CTEPH患者行CPET。按年龄是否≥60岁分为老年组(19例)和青年组(38例)。结果两组间性别、既往深静脉血栓形成(DVT)病史的概率、接受肺动脉高压靶向药物治疗的概率、基于核素肺通气/灌注显像计算的肺血管阻塞率、世界卫生组织(WHO)功能分级差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。与青年组相比,老年CTEPH患者运动心率反应减慢,一秒用力呼气量(FEV1)、用力肺活量(FVC)下降,峰值分钟通气量(VE@峰值)、峰值潮气量(VT@峰值)更低,峰值氧脉搏(VO2/HR@峰值)占预计值的百分率增高,无氧阈(AT)时的生理死腔通气与潮气量比值(VD/VT)增高,峰值时的潮气末氧分压更低。结论老年CTEPH患者有特殊的CPET表现。%ObjectiveTo investigate the differences in the indices of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) between the elderly and young patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).Methods Fifty-seven CTEPH patients admitted to the Center for Pulmonary Vascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital during January 2011 to May 2014 were enrolled in this study. They all underwent CPET, and were divided into 2 groups according to their age, that is, the elderly group (≥60 years old,n=19), and the younger group (<60 years old,n=38).Results There was no difference in gender, prevalence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary targeted drug therapy, pulmonary vascular occlusion rate detected by ventilation-perfusion lung scanning, and WHO functional class between the 2 groups. Compared with the younger patients, the elderly CTEPH patients had lower heart rate response during exercise, decreased forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital

  8. Idiopathic venous thromboembolism and thrombophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Sinescu, C; Hostiuc, M; Bartos, D.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade idiopathic venous thromboembolism has become a separate entity, a chronic illness which has required prolonged anticoagulation and other prevention strategies to avoid recurrences. This article reviews recent developments regarding unprovoked venous thromboembolism and its relation with thrombophilia. In the beginning, the latest definition of idiopathic venous thromboembolism is presented. The article continues with statistics about thrombophilia, related venous thromb...

  9. Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of Non Cardiac Cause in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Gustavo; Baptista, Maria João; Guimarães, Hercília

    2012-01-01

    Parenchymal lung diseases are the main cause of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). We aimed to assess the non cardiac conditions associated to PPHN in the newborn and the survival rate over the last 15 years, at our center. A retrospective chart review of the neonates admitted for PPHN from 1996 to 2010 was performed. New therapies were introduced in 2003, and the survival rates between two periods (1996–2002 and 2003–2010) were compared. Out of 6750 newborns, 78 (1.1%) had the diagnosis of PPHN of non cardiac cause. The most prevalent causes were associated to pulmonary hypoplasia (30.7%), infection (24.3%), and aspiration syndromes (15.3%). Many other causes were identified in 33.3%. The overall survival rate was 68%. There was a significant difference on survival rates between the two periods (1996–2002 = 63.8% and 2003–2010 = 71.4%, P = 0.04). Our study showed a myriad of non cardiac aetiologies for PPHN of the newborn, most of them related to lung disease or lung hypoplasia. We observed an improvement in survival rate since 2003, which was associated to the use of new therapies. PMID:22655195

  10. Response activity of alveolar macrophages in pulmonary dysfunction caused by Leptospira infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marinho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptopspirosis is a syndrome with different clinical manifestations including the most severe and often fatal forms of pulmonary disease of unknown etiology. Pulmonary injury during the inflammatory process has been associated with the excessive number of alveolar macrophages (AMs and polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated in the lungs and with the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates and other inflammatory mediators. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the cellular immune response of AMs or inflammatory cells of hamsters during leptospirosis. The activity of AMs was determined by measuring nitric oxide (NO and protein production as well as inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Pulmonary activity during infection was monitored by measuring pH, pressure of oxygen (PaO2, and pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 in blood samples. Cellular immune response and its role in the genesis of leptospirosis have been incriminated as the main causes of tissue and pulmonary injuries, which consequently lead to the pulmonary dysfunction in severe cases of leptospirosis. The present results show a low production of NO in both supernatant of alveolar macrophage culture and BAL. In the latter, protein production was high and constant, especially during acute infection. Total and differential cell count values were 2.5X10(6 on day 4; 7.3X10(6 on day 21; and 2.3X10(6 on day 28 after infection, with lymphocytes (84.04% predominating over neutrophils (11.88% and monocytes (4.07%. Arterial blood gas analysis showed pulmonary compromising along with the infectious process, as observed in parameter values (mean±SD evidenced in the infected versus control group: PaO2 (60.47mmHg±8.7 vs. 90.09mmHg±9.18, PaCO2 (57.01mmHg±7.87 vs. 47.39mmHg±4.5 and pH (7.39±0.03 vs. 6.8±1.3. Results indicated that Leptospira infection in hamsters is a good experimental model to study leptospirosis. However, some of the immune

  11. Review of the cost of venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez MM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria M Fernandez,1 Susan Hogue,1 Ronald Preblick,2 Winghan Jacqueline Kwong2 1RTI-Health Solutions, Market Access and Outcomes Strategy, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2Daiichi Sankyo, Inc., Health Economics & Outcomes Research, Parsippany, NJ, USA Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is the second most common medical complication and a cause of excess length of hospital stay. Its incidence and economic burden are expected to increase as the population ages. We reviewed the recent literature to provide updated cost estimates on VTE management. Methods: Literature search strategies were performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration, Health Economic Evaluations Database, EconLit, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 2003–2014. Additional studies were identified through searching bibliographies of related publications. Results: Eighteen studies were identified and are summarized in this review; of these, 13 reported data from the USA, four from Europe, and one from Canada. Three main cost estimations were identified: cost per VTE hospitalization or per VTE readmission; cost for VTE management, usually reported annually or during a specific period; and annual all-cause costs in patients with VTE, which included the treatment of complications and comorbidities. Cost estimates per VTE hospitalization were generally similar across the US studies, with a trend toward an increase over time. Cost per pulmonary embolism hospitalization increased from $5,198–$6,928 in 2000 to $8,764 in 2010. Readmission for recurrent VTE was generally more costly than the initial index event admission. Annual health plan payments for services related to VTE also increased from $10,804–$16,644 during the 1998–2004 period to an estimated average of $15,123 for a VTE event from 2008 to 2011. Lower costs for VTE hospitalizations and annualized all-cause costs were estimated in European countries and Canada. Conclusion: Costs for VTE treatment are

  12. RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF PRESUMED NONCARDIOGENIC PULMONARY EDEMA AND CORRELATION WITH THE UNDERLYING CAUSE IN DOGS AND CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyssou, Sarah; Specchi, Swan; Desquilbet, Loïc; Pey, Pascaline

    2016-12-22

    Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is an important cause of respiratory disease in dogs and cats but few reports describe its radiographic appearance. The purpose of this retrospective case series study was to describe radiographic findings in a large cohort of dogs and cats with presumed noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and to test associations among radiographic findings versus cause of edema. Medical records were retrieved for dogs and cats with presumed noncardiogenic edema based on history, radiographic findings, and outcome. Radiographs were reviewed to assess lung pattern and distribution of the edema. Correlation with the cause of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema was evaluated with a Fisher's exact test. A total of 49 dogs and 11 cats were included. Causes for the noncardiogenic edema were airway obstruction (n = 23), direct pulmonary injury (n = 13), severe neurologic stimulation (n = 12), systemic disease (n = 6), near-drowning (n = 3), anaphylaxis (n = 2) and blood transfusion (n = 1). Mixed, symmetric, peripheral, multifocal, bilateral, and dorsal lung patterns were observed in 44 (73.3%), 46 (76.7%), 55 (91.7%), 46 (76.7%), 46 (76.7%), and 34 (57.6%) of 60 animals, respectively. When the distribution was unilateral, pulmonary infiltration involved mainly the right lung lobes (12 of 14, 85.7%). Increased pulmonary opacity was more often asymmetric, unilateral, and dorsal for postobstructive pulmonary edema compared to other types of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, but no other significant correlations could be identified. In conclusion, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema may present with a quite variable radiographic appearance in dogs and cats.

  13. Lay Stress on Study of Venous Thromboembolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽霖

    2002-01-01

    @@ Venous thromboembolism (VTE) including deep vein thrombosis(DVT) and pulmonary embolism(PE).Its occurs in about 1 per 1 000 individuals per years.Thrombosis is a serious disorder. It may be fatal by PE (case fatality rate of venous thrombosis is estimated at 1% to 2%)(Figure 1 ). A substantial proportion of these deaths occur in the postoperative period, and many events are fatal before diagnosis can be made and therapy initiated. Just as well, the prophylactic treatment of thrombosis is focused on preventing first events and recurrences through adequate knowledge about risks and risk factors.

  14. Direct oral anticoagulants and venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Franchini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE, consisting of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a major clinical concern associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The cornerstone of management of VTE is anticoagulation, and traditional anticoagulants include parenteral heparins and oral vitamin K antagonists. Recently, new oral anticoagulant drugs have been developed and licensed, including direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g. rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban and thrombin inhibitors (e.g. dabigatran etexilate. This narrative review focusses on the characteristics of these direct anticoagulants and the main results of published clinical studies on their use in the prevention and treatment of VTE.

  15. Comparison of the screening effects between Wells and revised Geneva scores on suspected acute pulmonary thromboembolism%Wells与修正Geneva评分急诊筛查肺栓塞的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟程; 蔺际; 杨成彬; 吴郁珍; 俞祥玫; 刘加权; 张自立

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the screening effects between Wells and revised Geneva scores on suspected acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APTE),and to explore a optimum screening method for APTE in the emergency department of China.Methods The study was carried out by using random,crossed,prospective methods to compare the screening effects between Wells and revised Geneva scores for 167 suspected APTE patients in the emergency department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University.Results The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of Wells and revised Geneva scores for screening APTE in the emergency department were (0.917 ± 0.022 ) and (0.927 ± 0.020),respectively ( P < 0.05 ).The diagnostic concordance between the two score systems for predicting APTE was poor (Kappa value =0.276 ). In addition, the difference between their hierarchical discrimination for the possibility of APTE was statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ).Compared with revised Geneva score,fewer patients were diagnosed with low clinical probability of APTE and more patients were diagnosed with intermediate or high clinical probability of APTE through Wells score.The patients with low chnical probability of APTE were excluded from pulmonary embolism in Wells or revised Geneva score.At intermediate clinical probability,the accuracy rate of Wells score for predicting APTE (9.64%) was lower than that (32.84% ) of revised Geneva ( P < 0.05 ).At high clinical probability,there was no significant difference between their accuracy rate [ (67.24% vs.86.21%),P>0.05]. Conclusions Revised Geneva score is more suitable than Wells score in screening suspected APTE patients in the emergency department in our country.%目的 比较Wells与修正Geneva评分筛查急性肺栓塞(acute pulmonary thromboembolism,APTE)效果,寻找适合我国急诊科诊断APTE的策略.方法 对厦门大学附属第一医院急诊部诊治的167例疑似APTE患者采用随机、交叉、前瞻

  16. 急性肺血栓栓塞症患者心电图变化特点分析%Analysis of characteristic changes of electrocardiogram in patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫民; 林丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨急性肺血栓栓塞症(PTE)的心电图(ECG)变化特点.方法:收集急性PTE的ECG资料,并对相关文献进行复习.结果:急性PTE的ECG改变常见的有窦性心动过速、SⅠTⅢQⅢ、胸前导联T波倒置、右束支传导阻滞等.经过有效的溶栓或抗凝等治疗ECG可出现一系列的动态演变,包括心率减慢、SⅠTⅢQⅢ改善甚至消失、右束支传导阻滞改善或消失、房性心律失常消失、胸前导联 T 波倒置变浅或直立等.结论:急性 PTE 的 ECG 表现具有其特征性和动态演变的特点,临床医师要掌握其特点,结合临床综合分析,做到早期诊断、早期治疗,减少临床误诊率和病死率.%Objective:To discuss the characteristic changes of electrocardiogram in patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism.Methods:Acute PTE of ECG data was collected,and we reviewed the relevant literature.Results:Acute PTE ECG change the common sinus tachycardia,SⅠTⅢQⅢ,precordial T wave inversion,right bundle branch block etc.Through effective thrombolysis or anticoagulant therapy such as ECG can appear a series of dynamic evolution,including decreased heart rate, SⅠTⅢQⅢ improved or disappeared,right bundle branch block improved or disappeared,atrial arrhythmia disappeared,precordial T wave inversion of shallow or erect etc.Conclusion:The ECG manifestations of acute PTE with its characteristic and the characteristics of dynamic evolution,clinicians should understand the characteristics,combing with clinical comprehensive analysis,do early diagnosis and early treatment,reducing the misdiagnosis rate and death rate.

  17. Pulmonary artery dissection causing haemothorax in a cat: potential role of Dirofilaria immitis infection and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasato, I; Tursi, M; Zanet, S; Longato, E; Capucchio, M T

    2017-02-01

    A 7-year-old male castrated domestic short-haired cat suddenly died. Gross examination revealed severe right-sided haemothorax with blood clots, four adult filarial nematodes in the blood clots and the caudal vena cava and haemorrhage dissecting into the tunica media of the right pulmonary artery. Histopathological investigation showed fibrosis of the tunica intima and disorganization/fragmentation of the elastic fibres accompanied by fibrous tissue deposition in the tunica media of both branches of pulmonary artery. Degenerative vasculopathy (intimal fibromuscular hyperplasia and medial hypertrophy/hyperplasia) involving pulmonary arteries was also observed. The polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed the identification of the parasite as Dirofilaria immitis. A diagnosis of pulmonary artery dissection with haemothorax and concomitant heartworm disease was formulated. Degenerative processes of the tunica media have been reported to cause pulmonary artery dissection in both humans and animals. Pulmonary artery remodelling induced by heartworms may be considered the underlying cause in the first case of feline pulmonary artery dissection, herein described.

  18. 肺动脉内膜剥脱术治疗慢性栓塞性肺动脉高压——UCSD32例手术经验%Pulmonary endarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension-operative experience in UCSD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾松; 刘岩; 苏丕雄; 翟振国; 杨媛华; 王辰; Michael M.Madani; Stuart W.Jamieson

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析肺动脉内膜剥脱术(PEA)治疗慢性栓塞性肺动脉高压的围手术期资料,探讨美国加州大学圣迭戈分校(UCSD)手术经验.方法 回顾性研究UCSD 32例肺动脉血栓内膜剥脱手术资料,其中男17例,女15例;平均年龄(47.56±16.04)岁,平均病程(3.90±4.61)年;15例有深静脉血栓病史.采用全麻、胸骨正中切口、深低温、间断停循环双侧肺动脉内膜剥脱的手术方法.结果 根据术中病理标本Jamieson分型,Ⅰ型占21.8%,Ⅱ型占28.1%,Ⅲ型占37.5%.平均转机(236.32±37.27)min,主动脉阻断(111.69±28.14)min,停循环(38.00±13.58)min.术后机械通气(66.23±99.24)h,住ICU(4.62±4.50)天,无死亡.病人肺动脉收缩压由术前(81.03±16.92)mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa)降至术后(51.20±12.16)mm Hg,肺血管阻力由术前(88.91±42.32)kPa·s·L-1降至术后的(34.38±15.68)kPa·s·L-1,心排量由术前(3.65±1.08)L/min增加到术后(5.85±1.21)L/min,中心静脉压由(13.07±2.11)cmH2O(1 cmH2O=0.098 kPa)降至(9.86±3.02)cmH2O.术后短期随访显示,病人心功能(NYHA)恢复到Ⅰ级19例、Ⅱ级13例,生活质量明显改善.结论 PEA是治疗慢性栓塞性肺动脉高压的重要手段,手术成功率逐年提高;深低温、间断停循环、双侧肺动脉内膜剥脱及内膜外翻技术为PEA标准术式.多中心资料证实该术式可以有效降低肺动脉压和肺血管阻力,明显改善血流动力学指标和心肺功能.多数国内医疗中心没有足够手术经验,应尽量避免选择肺动脉压收缩≥100mmHg,肺血管阻力≥100kPa·s·L-1及Ⅲ型病变者行PEA手术.%Objective Background Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is a safe and effective surgical treatment for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. University of California at San Diego Medical Center is widely recognized as the world's leading referral center for PEA surgery with extensive surgical experience, which has surgically treated about 2400 patients till 2009

  19. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) causing portosplenic, superior mesenteric, and splenic vein thrombosis resulting in splenic rupture and pulmonary emboli formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammering, Jeanne C; Wang, David S; Shin, Lewis K

    2012-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a life-threatening complication of heparin administration. Of the few reported cases of HIT-associated intra-abdominal thrombosis, none to our knowledge provide multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) imaging findings or emphasize its utility in diagnosis. We describe a case of HIT with MDCT images demonstrating extensive intra-abdominal thrombosis and end-organ complications including splenic rupture and pulmonary emboli. This case emphasizes the potential role of MDCT in the rapid detection of HIT-related thromboembolic complications in patients with nonspecific abdominal pain.

  20. Industrial PM2.5 cause pulmonary adverse effect through RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junyan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Chen, Chongjun; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Pin-I; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2017-12-01

    According to the Chinese Ministry of Health, industrial pollution-induced health impacts have been the leading cause of death in China. While industrial fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with adverse health effects, the major action mechanisms of different compositions of PM2.5 are currently unclear. In this study, we treated normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells with industrial organic and water-soluble PM2.5 extracts under daily alveolar deposition dose to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse pulmonary effects induced by PM2.5, including oxidative damage, inflammatory response, lung epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the recruitment of macrophages. We found that water-soluble PM2.5 extracts caused more severe cytotoxic effects on BEAS-2B cells compared with that of organic extracts. Both organic and water-soluble PM2.5 extracts induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Inflammatory response, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the activation of NF-кB caused by both PM2.5 extracts were attenuated by ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. This indicated that both PM2.5 extracts could cause damage to epithelial cells through RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB activation. Furthermore, the upregulation of macrophage adhesion induced by both PM2.5 extracts was also attenuated by Y-27632 in a co-culture model of macrophages and the epithelial cells. Therefore, our results support that industrial PM2.5 extracts-induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB pathway induces pulmonary adverse effect. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of ROCK activation might have therapeutic potential in preventing lung disease associated with PM2.5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Hokusai-VTE: edoxaban versus warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprynger, M

    2013-10-01

    Currently venous thromboembolic disease (VTE), i.e. deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality all around the world. The Hokusai-VTE study is a randomized, double-blind trial to evaluate whether initial heparin (5 days) followed by the oral Xa factor inhibitor edoxaban (60 mg once daily) may be an alternative to the standard therapy, i.e. heparin (5 days) followed by warfarin (INR of 2.0-3.0) for the prevention of recurrent thromboembolism in patients with acute symptomatic VTE. In patients with VTE, including pulmonary embolism with right ventricular dysfunction, treatment with heparin followed by oral edoxaban 60 mg once daily was non inferior to the standard treatment with respect to efficacy and superior with respect to bleeding (fewer fatal and intracranial bleeds, but no statistical significance regarding major bleeding). Reducing the dosage of edoxaban to 30 mg once daily is safe in case of renal impairment and low body weight.

  2. Anomalies of Pulmonary Circulation as a Cause of Hemoptysis: A Series of Unusual Cases and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Gupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The expectoration of blood originating from the lower respiratory tract, called hemoptysis, is a common clinical condition with many potential etiologies. Massive hemoptysis is life threatening and needs urgent intervention. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT is a useful non-invasive imaging modality for the initial assessment of hemoptysis. Using MDCT with multiplanar reformatted images has improved the diagnosis and management of hemoptysis by providing a more precise depiction of bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries than conventional computed tomography (CT. In 95% of hemoptysis cases, the systemic arterial system is the origin of bleeding and pulmonary vascular anomalies are a rare cause. Among these, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Osler-Weber-Rendu disease are well known entities. However, primary anomalies affecting pulmonary vessels in the mediastinum or diseases secondarily affecting the pulmonary vessels are unusual causes. Here we present three cases where patients had pulmonary vascular anomalies causing hemoptysis. These patients had decreased pulmonary arterial pressures leading to bronchial and systemic arterial hypertrophy and development of bronchopulmonary collaterals. Secondary CT signs in the parenchyma and mediastinum (mosaic attenuation, ground glass haze, subpleural interstitial thickening, and hypertrophied bronchial arteries were similar in all patients. Hence, evaluation of the MDCT images for primary abnormality led to the diagnosis.

  3. [Diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension caused by sleep hypoventilation: analysis of 4 cases in a family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Cui, Xiao-Chuan; Qian, Xiu-Fen; Yuan, Min-Yu; Zhu, Jian-Rong; Lu, Ming-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Ping

    2008-12-02

    To summarize the experience in diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension caused by sleep hypoventilation. The clinical data of 4 patients in a family with pulmonary hypertension caused by sleep hypoventilation, full brothers and sisters, 2 (Cases 1 and 2) being treated presently and 2 (Cases 3 and 4) being deceased and traced by family medical history, were retrospectively analyzed. Three of the 4 cases (cases 1, 3, and 4) were misdiagnosed as with cor pulmonale combined with pulmonary hypertension, and one case (case 2) was misdiagnosed as with primary pulmonary hypertension. Polysomnography (PSG) revealed alveolar hypoventilation-induced long period of oxygen desaturation at sleep in Cases 1 and 2, thus confirming the diagnosis. Pulmonary function test showed that the percentage of maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax) in predicted value (51.5% and 20.9%) and the maximum expiratory pressure (PEmax) in predicted value (51.3% and 29.6%) decreased, the percentage of mouth occlusion pressure (P0.1) in predicted value (141% and 133%) compensatively increased, and the respiratory muscle strength decreased in Cases 1 and 2, which suggested that there was neuromuscular disorder in these patients. Treated by noninvasive ventilation the symptoms of these 2 patients were improved and they were discharge at last. Subsequently, they were treated by long-term night noninvasive ventilation at home, and returned to normal work and life. During the follow-up for 22 and 12 months respectively after discharge, PSG showed that the alveolar hypoventilation-induced long period oxygen desaturation at sleep had been greatly improved, and echocardiogram showed that the pulmonary pressure was greatly decreased. For the patients with unexplained pulmonary hypertension, PSG monitoring and pulmonary function tests such as PImax, PEmax, and P0.1 help determine the etiology, and long-term night noninvasive ventilation at home can improve the outcome of sleep hypoventilation

  4. 凝血酶原基因G20210A突变检测对肺血栓栓塞症的预测价值%Predictive value of prothrombin G20210A mutation detection in pulmonary thromboembolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳; 赵凤芹; 谭平; 季红

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨凝血酶原基因 G20210A(FⅡG20210A)突变在中国东北地区肺血栓栓塞症(PTE)患者中的发生频率,阐明检测该突变基因对中国东北地区人群 PTE的预测价值。方法:选择经核素肺灌注显像和(或)螺旋CT肺动脉造影(CTPA)结合临床症状确诊的PTE患者60例(病例组)和同期来自相同地区、性别和年龄相匹配的正常健康人80名(对照组)。应用蛋白酶消化及乙醇抽提获得2组研究对象的 DNA。采用聚合酶链式反应(PCR)、HindⅢ限制性内切酶片段多态性分析(RFLP )和琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测病例组和对照组研究对象FⅡG20210A基因突变情况。结果:经HindⅢ酶切后,病例组仅出现407和99 bp 2个条带,FⅡG20210A突变频率为0%,与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);病例组和对照组均未发现 FⅡG20210A基因杂合子或纯合子突变。结论:FⅡ G20210A基因突变在我国东北地区 PTE患者中发生率低,FⅡG20210A基因突变检测可能对中国东北地区人群 PTE无预测价值。%Objective To study the incidence frequency of prothrombin G20210A (FⅡ G20210A)mutation in the patients with pulmonary thromboembolism(PTE)in northeast China,and to clarify the predictive value of FⅡG20210A mutation detection in PTE of the population in northeast China.Methods 60 PTE patients(PTE group) and 80 sex-matched healthy controls(control group)from the same geographic area were selected.All the patients were diagnosed by lung ventilation/perfusion scan and/or multi-slice CT pulmonary angiography(CTPA)as well as medical history.The genome DNA was extracted from the whole blood using alcohol.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR),restriction fragment length polymorphisms(RFLP)analysis with HindⅢ restriction enzyme and sepharose gel electrophoresis were used to identify the F Ⅱ G20210A mutation in PTE group and control group. Results After digested by Hind

  5. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease: a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension in systemic sclerosis. Case presentation and review of the literature .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraban, Ana Maria; Enache, Roxana; Predescu, L; Platon, P; Constantinescu, T; Mihai, Carina; Coman, I M; Ginghina, Carmen; Jurcuţ, Ruxandra

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Because of the similar clinical picture of dyspnea on exertion and signs of right heart failure, PVOD is difficult to distinguish from idiopathic PAH. However, the distinction is mandatory because PVOD has a worse prognosis and, more importantly, the administration of PAH specific therapy (vasodilators) can precipitate severe acute pulmonary oedema. We present a challenging case of PAH in a patient with systemic sclerosis in whom a marked decrease in functional capacity after the initiation of bosentan therapy led to the diagnosis of PVOD. Management of PVOD patients is challenging and referral for lung transplantation should be done at the moment of diagnosis.

  6. Venous thromboembolism in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Venous thromboembolism is rare among children and has a multi-factorial aetiology. It’s important to establish the diagnosis and evaluate the functional prognosis. Case report: A previously healthy 11 year old adolescent was observed in the emergency room with clinical signs of superficial venous thrombosis of the upper limb. Laboratorial evaluation showed a sedimentation rate, coagulation study, autoimmune antibodies and homocysteine with normal values. Testing for heritable thrombophilia revealed prothrombin mutation (G20210A, heterozigosity and mutation of PAI-1 (4G e -844A, both of which are associated with hypercoagulable state and indication to do prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin in higher risk situations. Discussion/Conclusion: The rarity of thromboembolic events at this age and the atypical localization lead to an exhaustive laboratorial evaluation. Thrombophilia mutations may clinically become evident in adolescence, and its detection is important because of children’s lifestyle and the need of prophylactic treatment in some situations.

  7. Thromboembolic Complications Following Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    investigating stroke and neurologic outcomes in blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs). In contrast, few reports of MI or mesenteric thrombosis in the...studies will still be required to provide definitive evidence and improve clinical outcomes. CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS Cerebrovascular accidents , or...9.6 DVT 0.2-58% 0.3% PE 0.1-37.5% 0.2% MI 0.04-3.1% 0.7% Cerebrovascular accident 0.14-33% — Mesenteric thrombosis Case reports — THROMBOEMBOLISM

  8. Controversies in the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, G; Righini, M

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decades, important advances have been made in the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Current diagnostic strategies rely on the sequential use of non-invasive diagnostic tests, based on the pretest clinical probability of disease. Diagnostic tests include D-dimer measurement, leg vein compression ultrasonography, chest computed tomography pulmonary angiography, or ventilation perfusion (V/Q) lung scan. The safety and cost-effectiveness of these strategies have been extensively validated. They have been widely implemented in clinical practice and have replaced the historical gold standard diagnostic tests (venography and pulmonary angiography). However, new challenges arise, including a lower clinical suspicion threshold and concerns on potential over-diagnosis of VTE. Moreover, the diagnostic management remains suboptimal in many subgroups of patients with suspected VTE: patients with prior VTE, pregnant women, or elderly patients.

  9. What happens after venous thromboembolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglin, T

    2009-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) comprises deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with or without symptomatic pulmonary embolus (PE). The incidence of a first episode of VTE is 1.5 per 1000 person-years [1] (J Thromb Haemost, 2007;5:692-9) with a per-person lifetime incidence of 5% [2] (Arch Intern Med 1998;158:585-93). The risk of recurrence after DVT and PE is similar but the pattern of recurrence tends to reflect the initial event, for example recurrence with PE is more common in patients with previous PE [3] (Circulation 2003;107:122-30). At least 50% of patients, who present with symptomatic DVT, have asymptomatic PE and conversely, a majority presenting with symptomatic PE have asymptomatic DVT [3] (Circulation 2003;107:122-30). This suggests that whilst DVT and PE are manifestations of the same pathology, the phenotypic expression of the disease is predetermined. This may be an important consideration for long-term anticoagulant therapy as the risk of fatal PE is the greatest in patients with previous PE [4] (Ann Intern Med 2007;147:766-74). At present, the only factor reported to be associated with the pattern of VTE is the factor V Leiden mutation [5] (Thromb Haemost 1999;81:345-8). This suggests that the kinetics of thrombin generation and the resulting fibrinolytic response may influence clot structure and likelihood of embolization.

  10. [Thromboembolism in travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, I; Sándor, T

    2001-11-11

    The association between long haul travel and the risk of venous thromboembolism are suspected for long time. Mostly air travel related thrombosis series have been reported in the literature. Risk factors can be classified as: 1. travel related factors (coach position, immobilization, prolonged air travel, narrow seat and room, diuretic effect of alcohol, insufficient fluid intake, dehydration, direct pressure on leg veins, rare inspiration). 2. air plane related risk factors (low humidity, relative hypoxia, stress). 3. patient related factors (hereditary and acquired thrombophylia, previous deep venous thrombosis, age over 40, recent surgery or trauma, gravidity, puerperium, oestrogen containing pills, varicosity, chronic heart disease, obesity, fever, diarrhoea, vomiting, smoking). No patient related factors were found in some cases. To reduce the hazards air travellers are rightly concerned to know the level of the risk and the airlines should be responsible for this information. People should discuss with their physician what prophlylactic measures should be taken, such as compression stockings or low molecular weight heparin. Not only flight but car, bus and train travellers are also at risk of developing venous thromboembolism. Long haul travel alone is a separate risk factor for venous thromboembolism.

  11. AN OVERVIEW ON SYMPTOMS CAUSES TEST TREATMENT FOR CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Wasnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has a dramatic effect on quality of life. The need to formulate a different set of parameters for peoples was felt because of the differences in risk factors, disease prevalence and pattern, and above all, the different overall health-care infrastructure. Moreover a large burden of tuberculosis, which is an important cause of cough, adds to the difficulties of diagnosis and management. Worldwide, COPD ranked as the sixth leading cause of death in 1990. It is projected to be the fourth leading cause of death worldwide by 2030 due to an increase in smoking rates and demographic changes in many countries. When the damage is severe, it may become difficult to get enough oxygen into the blood and to get rid of excess carbon dioxide. These changes lead to shortness of breath and other symptoms. Unfortunately, the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cannot be completely eliminated with treatment and the condition usually worsens over time. However, treatment can control symptoms and can sometime slow the progression of the disease. More than 12 million people are currently diagnosed with COPD. An additional 12 million probably have the disease and don't know it. COPD has received scant attention in comparison to other respiratory conditions such as asthma and lung cancer. Respiratory physicians around the world now believe the attitude of little can done for this self inflicted disease is not justifiable. Attempts have been made to redress this deficit with the recent introduction of guidelines in the management and care of patients with COPD by both the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. So this review provides the overall knowledge about the COPD as well as their management.

  12. Pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium kansasii: findings on computed tomography of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogami, Roberto; Lopes, Agnaldo Jose; Marca, Patricia Gomes Cytrangulo de, E-mail: agnaldolopes.uerj@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Goldenberg, Telma; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-15

    Objective: To describe the main tomography findings in patients diagnosed with pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium kansasii. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of computed tomography scans of 19 patients with pulmonary infection by M. kansasii. Results: Of the 19 patients evaluated, 10 (52.6%) were male and 9 (47.4%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 58 years (range, 33-76 years). Computed tomography findings were as follows: architectural distortion, in 17 patients (89.5%); reticular opacities and bronchiectasis, in 16 (84.2%); cavities, in 14 (73.7%); centrilobular nodules, in 13 (68.4%); small consolidations, in 10 (52.6%); atelectasis and large consolidations, in 9 (47.4%); subpleural blebs and emphysema, in 6 (31.6%); and adenopathy, in 1 (5.3%). Conclusion: There was a predominance of cavities, as well as of involvement of the small and large airways. The airway disease was characterized by bronchiectasis and bronchiolitis presenting as centrilobular nodules. (author)

  13. Pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium kansasii: findings on computed tomography of the chest*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogami, Roberto; Goldenberg, Telma; de Marca, Patricia Gomes Cytrangulo; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Lopes, Agnaldo José

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the main tomography findings in patients diagnosed with pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium kansasii. Materials and Methods Retrospective study of computed tomography scans of 19 patients with pulmonary infection by M. kansasii. Results Of the 19 patients evaluated, 10 (52.6%) were male and 9 (47.4%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 58 years (range, 33-76 years). Computed tomography findings were as follows: architectural distortion, in 17 patients (89.5%); reticular opacities and bronchiectasis, in 16 (84.2%); cavities, in 14 (73.7%); centrilobular nodules, in 13 (68.4%); small consolidations, in 10 (52.6%); atelectasis and large consolidations, in 9 (47.4%); subpleural blebs and emphysema, in 6 (31.6%); and adenopathy, in 1 (5.3%). Conclusion There was a predominance of cavities, as well as of involvement of the small and large airways. The airway disease was characterized by bronchiectasis and bronchiolitis presenting as centrilobular nodules. PMID:27777472

  14. Muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: update on causes and biological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim; Pascual, Sergi; Casadevall, Carme; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Barreiro, Esther

    2015-10-01

    Respiratory and/or limb muscle dysfunction, which are frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, contribute to their disease prognosis irrespective of the lung function. Muscle dysfunction is caused by the interaction of local and systemic factors. The key deleterious etiologic factors are pulmonary hyperinflation for the respiratory muscles and deconditioning secondary to reduced physical activity for limb muscles. Nonetheless, cigarette smoke, systemic inflammation, nutritional abnormalities, exercise, exacerbations, anabolic insufficiency, drugs and comorbidities also seem to play a relevant role. All these factors modify the phenotype of the muscles, through the induction of several biological phenomena in patients with COPD. While respiratory muscles improve their aerobic phenotype (percentage of oxidative fibers, capillarization, mitochondrial density, enzyme activity in the aerobic pathways, etc.), limb muscles exhibit the opposite phenotype. In addition, both muscle groups show oxidative stress, signs of damage and epigenetic changes. However, fiber atrophy, increased number of inflammatory cells, altered regenerative capacity; signs of apoptosis and autophagy, and an imbalance between protein synthesis and breakdown are rather characteristic features of the limb muscles, mostly in patients with reduced body weight. Despite that significant progress has been achieved in the last decades, full elucidation of the specific roles of the target biological mechanisms involved in COPD muscle dysfunction is still required. Such an achievement will be crucial to adequately tackle with this relevant clinical problem of COPD patients in the near-future.

  15. Muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: update on causes and biological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Sergi; Casadevall, Carme; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Barreiro, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory and/or limb muscle dysfunction, which are frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, contribute to their disease prognosis irrespective of the lung function. Muscle dysfunction is caused by the interaction of local and systemic factors. The key deleterious etiologic factors are pulmonary hyperinflation for the respiratory muscles and deconditioning secondary to reduced physical activity for limb muscles. Nonetheless, cigarette smoke, systemic inflammation, nutritional abnormalities, exercise, exacerbations, anabolic insufficiency, drugs and comorbidities also seem to play a relevant role. All these factors modify the phenotype of the muscles, through the induction of several biological phenomena in patients with COPD. While respiratory muscles improve their aerobic phenotype (percentage of oxidative fibers, capillarization, mitochondrial density, enzyme activity in the aerobic pathways, etc.), limb muscles exhibit the opposite phenotype. In addition, both muscle groups show oxidative stress, signs of damage and epigenetic changes. However, fiber atrophy, increased number of inflammatory cells, altered regenerative capacity; signs of apoptosis and autophagy, and an imbalance between protein synthesis and breakdown are rather characteristic features of the limb muscles, mostly in patients with reduced body weight. Despite that significant progress has been achieved in the last decades, full elucidation of the specific roles of the target biological mechanisms involved in COPD muscle dysfunction is still required. Such an achievement will be crucial to adequately tackle with this relevant clinical problem of COPD patients in the near-future. PMID:26623119

  16. Increased pulmonary vascular permeability as a cause of re-expansion edema in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlin, D.J.; Nessly, M.L.; Cheney, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism(s) underlying re-expansion edema, we measured the concentration of labeled albumin (RISA) in the extravascular, extracellular water (EVECW) of the lung as a measure of pulmonary vascular permeability. Re-expansion edema was first induced by rapid re-expansion of rabbit lungs that had been collapsed for 1 wk by pneumothorax. The RISA in EVECW was expressed as a fraction of its plasma concentration: (RISA)L/(RISA)PL. The volume of EVECW (ml/gm dry lung) was measured using a /sup 24/Na indicator. Results in re-expansion edema were compared with normal control lungs and with oleic acid edema as a model of permeability edema. In re-expanded lungs, EVECW (3.41 +/- SD 1.24 ml/g) and (RISA)L/(RISA)PL 0.84 +/- SD 0.15) were significantly increased when compared with normal control lungs (2.25 +/- 0.41 ml/g and 0.51 +/- 0.20, respectively). Results in oleic acid edema (5.66 +/- 2.23 ml/g and 0.84 +/- 0.23) were similar to re-expansion edema. This suggested that re-expansion edema is due to increased pulmonary vascular permeability caused by mechanical stresses applied to the lung during re-expansion.

  17. FATAL RESPIRATORY-FAILURE CAUSED BY PULMONARY INFILTRATION BY PSEUDOGAUCHER CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LINKS, TP; KARRENBELD, A; STEENSMA, JT; WEITS, J; VANDERJAGT, EJ; POSTMUS, PE

    1992-01-01

    Pseudo-Gaucher cells are reticuloendothelial cells that are found in several diseases. We report a case of pulmonary tuberculosis in which extensive pulmonary involvement with these cells resulted in fatal respiratory failure.

  18. Fatal respiratory failure caused by pulmonary infiltration by pseudo-Gaucher cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, T P; Karrenbeld, A; Steensma, J T; Weits, J; van der Jagt, E J; Postmus, P E

    1992-01-01

    Pseudo-Gaucher cells are reticuloendothelial cells that are found in several diseases. We report a case of pulmonary tuberculosis in which extensive pulmonary involvement with these cells resulted in fatal respiratory failure.

  19. Aspergillus endocarditis in a paediatric patient after a cardiac surgery, associated with septic pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Joana O; de Sousa, António Rodrigues; Monterroso, José

    2015-03-01

    We report a rare case of pulmonary prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Aspergillus fumigatus, associated with septic pulmonary embolism and secondary pulmonary hypertension, in a 4-year-old boy with surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot. The diagnosis and treatment of Aspergillus endocarditis remains highly challenging. The best therapeutic option for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension due to an infectious thromboembolic event is highly debatable and the results are poor.

  20. Venous thromboembolism after oral and maxillofacial oncologic surgery: Report and analysis of 14 cases in Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Jiannan; Yin, Xuelai; Hu, Jingzhou; Kalfarentzos, Evagelos; Zhang, Chenping

    2017-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a leading cause of death in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to explore the potential risk factor of VTE in oral and maxillofacial oncological surgery. Material and Methods The data of patients who received operation in our institution were gathered in this retrospective study. A diagnosis of VTE was screened and confirmed by computer tomography angiography (CTA) of pulmonary artery or ultrasonography examination of lower extremity. Medical history and all perioperative details were analyzed. Results 14 patients were diagnosed as VTE, including 6 cases of PE, 7 cases of DVT, 1case of DVT and PE. The mean age of these patients was 62.07 years. Reconstruction was performed in 12 patients of these cases, most of which were diagnosed as malignance. Mean length of surgery was 8.74 hours, and lower extremity deep venous cannula (DVC) was performed in all these patients. Conclusions We analyzed several characters of oral and maxillofacial surgery and suggested pay attention to lower extremity DVC which had a high correlation with DVT according to our data. Key words:Venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, oral and maxillofacial surgery. PMID:27918738

  1. Structural and functional changes in pulmonary macrophages during phagocytosis caused by natural zeolite-clinoptilolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglikov, G.G.; Velichkovskii, B.T.; Garmash, T.I.; Volkogonova, V.M. (Rossiiskii Gosudarstvennyi Meditsinskii Universitet, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1992-11-01

    Invstigates cytotoxic properties of clinoptilolite and structural and functional state of pulmonary macrophages in the course of phagocytosis caused by exposure to clinoptilolite. Investigations were carried out on white rats with quartz dust and dust of black coal from the Kemerovo coal deposit used in two reference groups. Toxic dust was administered intratracheally in saline solution, coal dust in a 1% starch solution. Pathological processes in phagocytic cells observed using electron microscopy are described. More pronounced cytotoxic effects of clinoptilolite in comparison with those of coal dust are pointed out. The following pathological phenomena in cells were observed: vigorous phagocytic processes on clinoptilolite particles; active lysosome reaction and lipid accumulation; irreversible changes in mitochondrea; development of destructive types of macrophages. 5 refs.

  2. Endomyocardial fibrosis as a cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome and fatal pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Silva, Carolina M P D C; Ardito, Sabrina Q; Theodoropoulos, Tatiana A D; Cury, Patrícia M; Corbucci, Hélio A R

    2010-01-01

    A 24-year-old-man had right-sided heart failure of 3 months' duration. A Doppler echocardiogram revealed atrium and right ventricular enlargement, obliteration of the right ventricular apex, and a mass with an echolucent center measuring 20x21 mm in the right ventricular outlet. He died of pulmonary embolism. At autopsy, a huge organized thrombus obliterating the right ventricular apex passing through the tricuspid valve to the right atrium and then extending to the inferior vena cava up to the suprahepatic veins was seen. Histologically, an intense fibrotic thickening of the endomyocardium extending into the myocardium was observed. Cardiac thrombosis associated with endomyocardial fibrosis should be added to the list of causes of Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  3. Venous Thromboembolism and Risk of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia A Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte Margareta; Dahl, Morten; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard;

    2010-01-01

    Danish registries. Measurements and Main Results: Age-standardized incidence rates per 10,000 person-years for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia were higher among those ever diagnosed with venous thromboembolism (1.8; n = 158,676), pulmonary embolism (2.8; n = 70,586), and deep venous thrombosis only (1...... embolism, and 1.3 (95% CI, 1.2-1.4) in those ever diagnosed with deep venous thrombosis only, compared with control subjects. Corresponding hazard ratios in those ever diagnosed with venous thromboembolism stratified in those ever and never treated with anticoagulants were 1.4(95% CI, 1.2-1.6) and 2.8 (95......Rationale: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is characterized by pulmonary fibrosis and high mortality. Objectives: We examined the association between ever-diagnosed venous thromboembolism and risk of incident idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Venous thromboembolism was taken as a proxy...

  4. Pulmonary embolism as a cause of cardiac arrest: Hypothermia in post-resuscitation period (cooling therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niković Vuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary embolism as a possible cause of acute heart failure is a potentially fatal condition that can cause death in all age groups. Patients successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest have a high risk of increased mortality and their poor long­term outcome is often associated with severe neurological complications. Case Outline. This is a case report of a 67­year­old man after a successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR which was followed by therapeutic hypothermia (TH. The patient visited the dermatological outpatients’ department with clinical presentation of pain and swelling of the right leg, shortness of breath and chest pain. During examination the patient lost consciousness, stopped breathing and had cardiac arrest. ECG was done which registered asystole. We began CPR. After 59 minutes of resuscitation return of heartbeat was achieved. The patient was transported to the Emergency Department. On admission, after computerized tomography (CT of the chest confirmed massive pulmonary embolism (PE, the patient was administered thrombolytic therapy with Metalyse (tenecteplase and anti­coagulation therapy (heparin. After stabilization, therapeutic hypothermia was applied. Combination of EMCOOLSpad on the chest and abdomen and cold Ringer lactate 500 ml at 4°C was flushed. Temperature was decreased to 33°C and kept stabile for 24 hours. After eight days the patient was conscious with a minimal neurological deficit. Conclusion. As shown in this case report, and according to the rich experience elsewhere, cooling therapy after out­of­hospital cardiac arrest and successful CRP may be useful in preventing neurological complications.

  5. Rheumatoid arthritis associated pulmonary hypertension: Clinical challenges reflecting the diversity of pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Panagiotidou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article reports three clinical cases in order to elucidate the diversity of the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie rheumatoid arthritis associated pulmonary hypertension. The condition's three major causes are: interstitial lung disease, vasculitis, and chronic thromboembolic disease, but it should be noted that the multiple pulmonary manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis, can all contribute to chronic lung disease or hypoxia. The first patient in this report suffered from moderate restriction due to fibrosis and was diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension during an episode of life threatening hypoxia. Early upfront combination therapy prevented intubation and reversed hypoxia to adequate levels. The second presented patient was a case of isolated pulmonary hypertension attributable to vasculopathy. The patient maintained normal lung volumes but low diffusion capacity and echocardiography dictated the need for right heart catheterization. Finally, the third patient presented severe functional limitation due to several manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis, but a past episode of acute pulmonary embolism was also reported although it had never been evaluated. Chronic thromboembolic disease was eventually proved to be one major cause of the patient's pulmonary hypertension. The importance of early identification of pulmonary hypertension in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is therefore emphasized, especially since multiple treatment options are available, symptoms can be treated, and right heart failure can be avoided.

  6. Rheumatoid arthritis associated pulmonary hypertension: Clinical challenges reflecting the diversity of pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotidou, Evangelia; Sourla, Evdokia; Kotoulas, Serafim Xrisovalantis; Akritidou, Sofia; Bikos, Vasileios; Bagalas, Vasileios; Stanopoulos, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    The present article reports three clinical cases in order to elucidate the diversity of the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie rheumatoid arthritis associated pulmonary hypertension. The condition's three major causes are: interstitial lung disease, vasculitis, and chronic thromboembolic disease, but it should be noted that the multiple pulmonary manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis, can all contribute to chronic lung disease or hypoxia. The first patient in this report suffered from moderate restriction due to fibrosis and was diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension during an episode of life threatening hypoxia. Early upfront combination therapy prevented intubation and reversed hypoxia to adequate levels. The second presented patient was a case of isolated pulmonary hypertension attributable to vasculopathy. The patient maintained normal lung volumes but low diffusion capacity and echocardiography dictated the need for right heart catheterization. Finally, the third patient presented severe functional limitation due to several manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis, but a past episode of acute pulmonary embolism was also reported although it had never been evaluated. Chronic thromboembolic disease was eventually proved to be one major cause of the patient's pulmonary hypertension. The importance of early identification of pulmonary hypertension in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is therefore emphasized, especially since multiple treatment options are available, symptoms can be treated, and right heart failure can be avoided.

  7. Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution Causes Vascular Insulin Resistance by Inducing Pulmonary Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberzettl, Petra; O'Toole, Timothy E; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J

    2016-12-01

    particulate air pollution causes vascular insulin resistance by inducing pulmonary oxidative stress. Environ Health Perspect 124:1830-1839; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP212.

  8. Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, and Predictors of Patients with Thromboembolic Events in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Behnes, Michael; Hillenbrand, Dennis; Haghi, Darius; Hoffmann, Ursula; Papavassiliu, Theano; Lang, Siegfried; Fastner, Christian; Becher, Tobias; Baumann, Stefan; Heggemann, Felix; Kuschyk, Jürgen; Borggrefe, Martin; Akin, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several acute complications related to takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) have been documented recently. However, the incidence and clinical significance of acute thromboembolic events in TTC is not well established. METHODS A detailed investigation of the clinical characteristics and in-hospital complications of 114 consecutive patients diagnosed with TTC between January 2003 and September 2015 was carried out. This study was initiated to reveal the predictors, clinical significance, and short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with TTC associated with acute thromboembolic events on index presentation. RESULTS The incidence of acute thromboembolic events related to TTC was around 12.2%, and these included ventricular thrombi, cerebrovascular events, retinal and brachial artery pathologies, renal, splenic, and aortic involvement. The most frequent complication on initial presentation was cardiogenic shock (20%) accompanied with pulmonary congestion (20%). Interestingly, patients experiencing thromboembolic events had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels as compared to the non-thromboembolic group (P = 0.02). Certain thromboembolic events were characterized by the presence of ST-segment elevation in electrocardiogram (P = 0.02). Chest pain was the primary symptom in these patients (P = 0.09). Furthermore, there was significant right ventricular involvement (as assessed by transthoracic echocardiography) in patients presenting with an acute thromboembolic event (P = 0.08). A Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated a significantly higher mortality rate over a mean follow-up of three years in the thromboembolic group than the non-thromboembolic group (log-rank, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Our results confirmed the relative common occurrence of thromboembolic events in the setting of TTC. Inflammation might play an important role in the development of thromboembolic events, and a right ventricular involvement and ST-segment elevation could be positive predictors for

  9. Microscopic Pulmonary Tumour Embolism: An Unusual Presentation of Thymic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brita L Sperling

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes the first reported case of microscopic pulmonary tumour embolism (MPTE from thymic carcinoma. The carcinoma was discovered during an autopsy in a 55-year-old man who had undergone surgery for a pilonidal sinus two weeks before presentation. Pulmonary thromboembolism was suspected. This case was unusual because MPTE has never before been associated with thymic carcinoma, MPTE was the first clinical indication of an occult malignancy, and the clinical presentation was that of sudden onset of dyspnea associated with acute cor pulmonale. The cause of death was determined to be hypoxia secondary to extrinsic compression of the right pulmonary artery and extensive tumour emboli in the small arteries, arterioles and venules of the pulmonary parenchyma. A review of the clinical presentation and diagnosis of MPTE is included.

  10. Pulmonary valve endocarditis caused by right ventricular outflow obstruction in association with sinus of valsalva aneurysm: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Dean S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Right-sided infective endocarditis is uncommon. This is primarily seen in patients with intravenous drug use, pacemaker or central venous lines, or congenital heart disease. The vast majority of cases involve the tricuspid valve. Isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis is extremely rare. We report the first case of a pulmonary valve nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis caused by right ventricular outlflow tract (RVOT obstruction in association with a large sinus of Valsalva aneurysm. Case presentation A 60-year-old man with a six-week history of fever, initially treated as pneumonia and sinusitis with levofloxacin, was admitted to the hospital with a new onset of a heart murmur. An echocardiogram showed thickening of the pulmonary valve suggestive of valve vegetation. A dilated aortic root and sinus of Valsalva aneurysm measuring at least 6.4 cm were also identified. The patient was empirically treated for infective endocarditis with vancomycin and gentamycin for 28 days. Four months later, the patient underwent resection of a large aortic root aneurysm and exploration of the pulmonary valve. During the surgery, vegetation of the pulmonary valve was confirmed. Microscopic pathological examination revealed fibrinous debris with acute inflammation and organizing fibrosis with chronic inflammation, compatible with a vegetation. Special stains were negative for bacteria and fungi. Conclusion This is the first case report of a pulmonary valve nonbacterial endocarditis caused by RVOT obstruction in association with a sinus of Valsalva aneurysm. We speculate that jets created by the RVOT obstruction and large sinus of Valsalva aneurysm hitting against endothelium of the pulmonary valve is the etiology of this rare nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis.

  11. Is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Caused by Wood Smoke a Different Phenotype or a Different Entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Duque, Carlos A; García-Rodriguez, María Carmen; González-García, Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    Around 40% of the world's population continue using solid fuel, including wood, for cooking or heating their homes. Chronic exposure to wood smoke is a risk factor for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In some regions of the world, this can be a more important cause of COPD than exposure to tobacco smoke from cigarettes. Significant differences between COPD associated with wood smoke (W-COPD) and that caused by smoking (S-COPD) have led some authors to suggest that W-COPD should be considered a new COPD phenotype. We present a review of the differences between W-COPD and S-COPD. On the premise that wood smoke and tobacco smoke are not the same and the physiopathological mechanisms they induce may differ, we have analyzed whether W-COPD can be considered as another COPD phenotype or a distinct nosological entity. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. The Nature and Causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Peter W Warren

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the currently favoured name for the diseases formerly known as emphysema and bronchitis. COPD has been recognized for more than 200 years. Its cardinal symptoms are cough, phlegm and dyspnea, and its pathology is characterized by enlarged airspaces and obstructed airways. In the 19th century, the diagnosis of COPD depended on its symptoms and signs of a hyperinflated chest, and reduced expiratory breath sounds. The airflow obstruction evident on spirometry was identified in that century, but did not enter into clinical practice. Bronchitis, and the mechanical forces required to overcome its obstruction, was believed to be responsible for emphysema, although the inflammation present was recognized. The causes of bronchitis, and hence emphysema, included atmospheric and domestic air pollution, as well as dusty occupations. Cigarette smoking only became recognized as the dominant cause in the 20th century. The lessons learned of the risks for COPD in 19th-century Britain are very pertinent to the world today.

  13. Fatal pulmonary cysticercosis caused by Cysticercus longicollis in a captive ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alić, Amer; Hodžić, Adnan; Škapur, Vedad; Alić, Alma Šeho; Prašović, Senad; Duscher, Georg G

    2017-07-15

    Here we describe fatal pulmonary cysticercosis caused by Cysticercus longicollis, the larval stage of Taenia crassiceps in a 15-year-old female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) from Sarajevo Zoo. After sudden death, the lemur was subjected to necropsy and large multicystic structure, subdivided with fibrous septa and filled with numerous translucent, oval to ellipsoid bladder-like cysts (cysticerci), almost completely replacing right lung lobe was observed. In addition, numerous free and encysted cysticerci were found in the thoracic cavity. Histopathology revealed connective tissue outlined cavities that compress lung parenchyma. Each cavity contained several thin walled cysticerci with single inverted protoscolex, one or more suckers and rostelum with two rows of hooks. In many of the cysticerci one or several exogenous buds of daughter cysticerci were observed. Based on morphology and microscopic appearance the parasite was identified as C. longicollis. Subsequent molecular analysis and sequencing confirmed presumptive diagnosis. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of T. crassiceps and cysticercosis caused by C. longicollis in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CONTRAST ENHANCED CT UNVEILED GIANT RASMUSSEN’S ANEURYSM: A RARE COMPLICATION AND CAUSE OF DEATH IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Rasmussen’s aneurysm is a rare complication of pulmonary tuberculosis. Often the aneurysm ruptures in the bronchial tree causing massive hemoptysis resulting in death. We are reporting a case of partially thrombosed giant Rasmussen’s aneurysm which arose in the vicinity of a tuberculous cavity along with empyema necessitans. Unfortunately the patient died of massive hemoptysis within two days of his diagnosis.

  15. Acrolein Causes TRPA1-Mediated Sensory Irritation and Indirect Potentiation of TRPV1-Mediated Pulmonary Chemoreflex Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously demonstrated that acute exposure to acrolein causes immediate sensory irritation, with rapid decrease in heart rate (HR) and increase in inspiratory time (Ti), and potentiation of pulmonary chemoreflex response 24hrs later; of these effects only the latter is mediat...

  16. 辛伐他汀对慢性血栓栓塞性肺动脉高压患者血浆PAI-1的影响%Effects of simvastatin to PAI- 1 activity in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯鲁静; 王枫岭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of simvastatin to plasminogen activator inhibitor - 1 (PAI - 1 ) activity in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension ( CTEPH ) patients. Methods After 7、14 and 21 days continously use of different dosage of simvastatin, plasma PAI- 1 level were dected using chromogenic assay kit. Results Plasma level of PAI- lincrease significantly in CTEPH group compared with that in control group; Simvastatin decrease plasma levels of PAl - 1 in CTEPH group in a dose dependent manner (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions Simvastatin can decrease plasma levels of PAl - 1 in CTEPH patients.%目的 探讨辛伐他汀对慢性血栓栓塞性肺动脉高压(chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension,CTEPH)患者血浆纤溶酶原激活物抑制剂-1(plasminogen activator inhibitor-1,PAI-1)活性的影响.方法 CTEPH患者分别服用10、20、40mg/天辛伐他汀7、14、21d后,用PAI-1发色底物法检测血浆PAI-1活性.结果 与对照组相比,CTEPH组血浆PAI-1水平明显增高;辛伐他汀呈剂量依赖性降低CTEPH患者血浆PAI-1水平.结论 辛伐他汀可降低CTEPH患者血浆PAI-1水平.

  17. Isolated pulmonary vasculitis: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Leyre; Zurbano, Felipe; Gómez-Román, Javier; Martínez-Meñaca, Amaya; López, Marta; Hernández, Miguel A; Pina, Trinitario; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2015-04-01

    Single-organ vasculitis has been reported to affect the skin, kidneys, central nervous system, peripheral nerves, genitourinary tract, calf muscles, aorta, coronary arteries, retina, or gastrointestinal tract. However, isolated pulmonary vasculitis is a very rare entity. Our aims were to describe a case of localized pulmonary vasculitis affecting medium-sized vessels and review the literature. A patient with localized pulmonary vasculitis affecting medium-sized vessels that presented as pulmonary arterial hypertension is described. A MEDLINE database search of cases with localized pulmonary vasculitis was also conducted. A 30-year-old man presented with pulmonary hypertension due to isolated pulmonary medium-sized vessel vasculitis that was confirmed histologically. Initially he responded to corticosteroids and vasodilator treatment, but therapy eventually lost efficacy. Treatment with rituximab was not effective, and as the clinical situation worsened, lung transplant was performed. Isolated large pulmonary vessel disease, often related to Takayasu disease or giant cell arteritis, may present as pulmonary artery hypertension, thus mimicking chronic thromboembolic disease. Medium- and small-vessel pulmonary vasculitis usually develops in the context of a systemic disease. Some cases of isolated small-vessel vasculitis have been reported presenting as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. In contrast, our case developed pulmonary artery hypertension secondary to medium-sized vessels vasculitis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of lung transplantation in isolated pulmonary vasculitis. Pulmonary isolated vasculitis is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension but it must be taken into consideration after more common disorders are excluded. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Recombinant thrombomodulin protects mice against histone-induced lethal thromboembolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nakahara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that histones, the chief protein component of chromatin, are released into the extracellular space during sepsis, trauma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury, and act as major mediators of the death of an organism. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular and molecular basis of histone-induced lethality and to assess the protective effects of recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM. rTM has been approved for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in Japan, and is currently undergoing a phase III clinical trial in the United States. METHODS: Histone H3 levels in plasma of healthy volunteers and patients with sepsis and DIC were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with purified histones, and pathological examinations were performed. The protective effects of rTM against histone toxicity were analyzed both in vitro and in mice. RESULTS: Histone H3 was not detectable in plasma of healthy volunteers, but significant levels were observed in patients with sepsis and DIC. These levels were higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Extracellular histones triggered platelet aggregation, leading to thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries and subsequent right-sided heart failure in mice. These mice displayed symptoms of DIC, including thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, decreased fibrinogen, fibrin deposition in capillaries, and bleeding. Platelet depletion protected mice from histone-induced death in the first 30 minutes, suggesting that vessel occlusion by platelet-rich thrombi might be responsible for death during the early phase. Furthermore, rTM bound to extracellular histones, suppressed histone-induced platelet aggregation, thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries, and dilatation of the right ventricle, and rescued mice from lethal thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular histones cause massive

  19. Proximal pulmonary arterial obstruction decreases the time constant of the pulmonary circulation and increases right ventricular afterload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnamenta, Alberto; Vanderpool, Rebecca; Brimioulle, Serge; Naeije, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The time constant of the pulmonary circulation, or product of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and compliance (Ca), called the RC-time, has been reported to remain constant over a wide range of pressures, etiologies of pulmonary hypertension, and treatments. We wondered if increased wave reflection on proximal pulmonary vascular obstruction, like in operable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, might also decrease the RC-time and thereby increase pulse pressure and right ventricular afterload. Pulmonary hypertension of variable severity was induced either by proximal obstruction (pulmonary arterial ensnarement) or distal obstruction (microembolism) eight anesthetized dogs. Pulmonary arterial pressures (Ppa) were measured with high-fidelity micromanometer-tipped catheters, and pulmonary flow with transonic technology. Pulmonary ensnarement increased mean Ppa, PVR, and characteristic impedance, decreased Ca and the RC-time (from 0.46 ± 0.07 to 0.30 ± 0.03 s), and increased the oscillatory component of hydraulic load (Wosc/Wtot) from 25 ± 2 to 29 ± 2%. Pulmonary microembolism increased mean Ppa and PVR, with no significant change in Ca and characteristic impedance, increased RC-time from 0.53 ± 0.09 to 0.74 ± 0.05 s, and decreased Wosc/Wtot from 26 ± 2 to 13 ± 2%. Pulse pressure increased more after pulmonary ensnarement than after microembolism. Concomitant measurements with fluid-filled catheters showed the same functional differences between the two types of pulmonary hypertension, with, however, an underestimation of Wosc. We conclude that pulmonary hypertension caused by proximal vs. distal obstruction is associated with a decreased RC-time and increased pulsatile component of right ventricular hydraulic load.

  20. [Analysis in pulmonary ventilatory function from 100 patients with ano-rectal diseases caused by deficiency of qi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W

    1999-03-01

    To explore the pathogenesis of ano-rectal diseases caused by deficiency of Qi, which is correlated with obstruction of pulmonary ventilation. The pulmonary ventilatory function was measured in 100 patients with the internal piles, the interno-external hemorrhoid and prolapse of rectum, the prolapse of anus was the principal symptom of them. Data from the 100 patients showed that 67% of them were diagnosed with the obstruction of pulmonary ventilation, the ratio was far less in the health control group. FEV 1.0 (mean +/- s) (2011.65 +/- 875) ml, MMF (1.84 +/- 1.24) L/s and PEF (2.34 +/- 1.51) L/s in male patients, (1551.54 +/- 514) ml, (1.57 +/- 0.62) L/s and (1.85 +/- 0.92) L/s in female patients, but those values were higher in the control than in the patients. The statistical analysis was performed and the difference was significant between patients and the control group (P < 0.01). The patients with ano-rectal diseases caused by deficiency of Qi accompanied with obstruction of pulmonary ventilation in different degree and varied sorts, it confirmed that the pathogenesis of ano-rectal diseases caused by deficiency of Qi is related with "sinking of pectoral Qi".

  1. Focal Bronchiectasis Causing Abnormal Pulmonary Radioiodine Uptake in a Patient with Well-Differentiated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ash Gargya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. False-positive pulmonary radioactive iodine uptake in the followup of differentiated thyroid carcinoma has been reported in patients with certain respiratory conditions. Patient Findings. We describe a case of well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma treated by total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation therapy. Postablation radioiodine whole body scan and subsequent diagnostic radioiodine whole body scans have shown persistent uptake in the left hemithorax despite an undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin in the absence of interfering thyroglobulin antibodies. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography has confirmed that the abnormal pulmonary radioiodine uptake correlates with focal bronchiectasis. Summary. Bronchiectasis can cause abnormal chest radioactive iodine uptake in the followup of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Conclusions. Recognition of potential false-positive chest radioactive iodine uptake, simulating pulmonary metastases, is needed to avoid unnecessary exposure to further radiation from repeated therapeutic doses of radioactive iodine.

  2. Fatal thromboembolism following physical restraint in a patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Rossana; Lazzaro, Antonella; Catanese, Miriam; Mandarelli, Gabriele; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Fatal thromboembolism during physical restraint in patients suffering from psychotic disorders is a very rare occurrence. In the case we present here, the criteria used in forensic pathology for the age determination of venous thrombi are applied to a case of pulmonary embolism in a patient suffering from schizophrenia who died after physical restraint. The possible association between conventional antipsychotic drugs and deep venous thrombosis, followed by pulmonary embolism, in a man with no predisposing risk factors, as well as the question concerning the appropriateness of medical care, are discussed.

  3. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Pulmonary Hypertension - High Blood Pressure in the Heart-to-Lung System Updated:Sep ... Pressure" This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  4. An experimental study on intervention of Xuebijing injection for acute pulmonary thromboembolism%血必净注射液对急性肺血栓栓塞症干预作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰; 陈立; 吕波; 黄瑞峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the therapeutic effect and possible mechanisms of Xuebijing injection for treatment of rabbits with acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APTE). Methods Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) group and Xuebijing group by random number table, 8 rabbits in each group. APTE model was reproduced by re-infusing autologous blood clots, and nothing was done for the normal control group. After the model was established, intravenous injection of Xuebijing 1 mL/kg from ear marginal vein was given to the rabbits in Xuebijing group, the LMWH 100 U/kg was subcutaneously injected in LMWH group, the same amount of normal saline was given intravenously to model group and normal control group, twice daily for 7 days in all the groups. The changes of plasma D-dimer and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after modeling for 8 hours and 1, 3, 5, 7 days;after 7 days the animals were sacrificed and their lung tissues were removed for the examination of ultrastructural changes under an electron microscope. Results With the prolongation of time, the D-dimer level in the model group was gradually increased, and on the 7th day after modeling, the level was significantly higher than that of the normal control, LMWH and Xuebijing groups (g/L:3.98±1.14 vs. 0.43±0.12, 1.05±0.13, 1.04±0.15, all P0.05). Electron microscopic examination of lung tissue ultra-structure showed:in the model group, there were the lung tissue basement membrane rupture, the organelle structure in vascular endothelial cells and alveolar epithelial cells typeⅠandⅡnot clear, disappearance of microvilli on cell surface, cytoplasm concentration, nuclear chromatin condensation, a lot of debris due to nuclear lysis, formation of apoptotic bodies after shedding, and mitochondrial structural damage. In LMWH group, the capillary endothelial cell swelling, a lot of

  5. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This ... blood may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  6. Venous thromboembolism in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Group, ESHRE Capri Workshop; Skouby, Sven Olaf

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a specific reproductive health risk for women. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. The selection criteria were high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed...... is associated with an inherited thrombophilia in men and women. Changes in the coagulation system and in the risk of clinical VTE in women also occur during pregnancy, with the use of reproductive hormones and as a consequence of ovarian stimulation when hyperstimulation syndrome and conception occur together...... therapy (HRT) increases the VTE risk 2- to 4-fold. There is a synergistic effect between thrombophilia and the various reproductive risks. Prevention of VTE during pregnancy should be offered to women with specific risk factors. In women who are at high risk, CHC and HRT should be avoided. CONCLUSIONS...

  7. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis causing spontaneous bilateral pneumothorax in a child

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    Anupam Patra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral pneumothorax is very rare in childhood. Moreover, if it is due to pulmonary involvement of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, it is even rarer in childhood. In our case, a nonsmoker 12-year-old boy presented with bilateral pneumothorax, whose high-resolution computed tomography scan was highly suggestive of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Excision biopsy of a clinically palpable cervical lymph node and histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry positivity for CD1a indicated a diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Clinicians should consider pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in differential diagnoses in dealing such a case.

  8. Successful Pulmonary Endarterectomy in a Patient with Klinefelter Syndrome

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    E. Wierda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (KS is a frequent genetic disorder due to one or more supernumerary X chromosomes. KS is associated with an increased risk for venous thromboembolic events like deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. This paper describes a 37-year-old male patient with KS referred to our tertiary center with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and who was successfully treated by pulmonary endarterectomy.

  9. Pathogenesis of Thromboembolism and Endovascular Management

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    Sasan Behravesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE, a disease that includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE, is associated with high mortality, morbidity, and costs. It can result in long-term complications that include postthrombotic syndrome (PTS adding to its morbidity. VTE affects 1/1000 patients, costs $13.5 billion annually to treat, and claims 100,000 lives annually in the US. The current standard of care for VTE is anticoagulation, though thrombolysis may be performed in patients with PE and threatened limb. This review discusses pathogenesis and medical treatment of VTE and then focuses on endovascular treatment modalities. Mechanical- and catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT is discussed, as well as patient selection criteria, and complications. The first prospective study (CaVenT comparing CDT with anticoagulation alone in acute DVT, despite study shortcomings, corroborates the existing literature indicating improved outcomes with CDT. The potential of the ongoing prospective, multicenter, randomized ATTRACT trial is also highlighted.

  10. Pathogenesis of Thromboembolism and Endovascular Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behravesh, Sasan; Hoang, Peter; Nanda, Alisha; Wallace, Alex; Sheth, Rahul A.; Deipolyi, Amy R.; Memic, Adnan; Naidu, Sailendra

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), a disease that includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is associated with high mortality, morbidity, and costs. It can result in long-term complications that include postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) adding to its morbidity. VTE affects 1/1000 patients, costs $13.5 billion annually to treat, and claims 100,000 lives annually in the US. The current standard of care for VTE is anticoagulation, though thrombolysis may be performed in patients with PE and threatened limb. This review discusses pathogenesis and medical treatment of VTE and then focuses on endovascular treatment modalities. Mechanical- and catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is discussed, as well as patient selection criteria, and complications. The first prospective study (CaVenT) comparing CDT with anticoagulation alone in acute DVT, despite study shortcomings, corroborates the existing literature indicating improved outcomes with CDT. The potential of the ongoing prospective, multicenter, randomized ATTRACT trial is also highlighted. PMID:28154761

  11. Hemoptysis: a rare cause can be related to a bronchial varix due to pulmonary venous obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, Sheldon; Maclusky, Ian; Manson, David; Holowka, Stephanie; Yoo, Shi-Joon [The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, M5G 1X8, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-12-01

    Bronchial varices, which have rarely been described in the radiology literature, can be the result of pulmonary venous obstruction and may present with hemoptysis. This case is an illustration of this rare condition, which correlates CT findings with bronchoscopic findings. We also describe the findings on phase-contrast MR that demonstrated reversed diastolic flow in the branch pulmonary artery supplying the affected lung. (orig.)

  12. Pulmonary infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria−single centre experience

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    Adžić-Vukičević Tatjana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria are environmental organisms found in soil and water worldwide, and an infection caused by non-tuberculosis mycobacteria is less frequently found than the one associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This study was designed to evaluate data relating to non-tuberculosis mycobacteria in patients with clinical importance. Material and Methods. Of 12 patients (pts admitted to the Department of Pulmonology, Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade during 2010- 2011, seven (58.33% were men and five (41.67% were women. Bacteriological and radiographic findings, co−morbidity, treatment management and outcome were evaluated from medical records. Results. Using GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS (Hain Lifescience assays for identification of isolated cultures of NTM M.xenopi was found in six (50% pts, M.avium complex in two (16.67% pts, M.kansasii and M.xenopi in one (8.33%, M. gordone, M.abscessus and M.peregrinum in one (8.33% patient each. Cavitary lesions were most frequently determined on high resolution computed tomography in five (41.67% pts, followed with consolidation in two (16.67% pts, cavitation with fibronodular lesions and bronchiectasis in one (8.33% patient each. Comorbidities were noticed in nine (75% pts, with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases most frequently found in six (50% pts. According to American Thoracic Society definition and criteria, treatment was administered in nine (75% pts. Conclusion. In order to find the right treatment, it is important to identify non-tuberculosis mycobacteria lung infection by culture methods, at least two positive, accompanied with high resolution computed tomography changes.

  13. Observationally and Genetically High YKL-40 and Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Johansen, Julia S; Bojesen, Stig E

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High baseline YKL-40 is associated with later development of ischemic stroke, but not with myocardial infarction. Whether high YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism is presently unknown. We tested the hypothesis that observationally and genetically...... levels, but not with risk of venous thromboembolism. A doubling in YKL-40 was associated with a multifactorially adjusted observational hazard ratio for pulmonary embolism of 1.17 (1.00-1.38) and a genetic odds ratio of 0.97 (0.76-1.23). Corresponding risk estimates were 1.28 (1.12-1.47) observationally...... and 1.11 (0.91-1.35) genetically for deep vein thrombosis and 1.23 (1.10-1.38) observationally and 1.08 (0.92-1.27) genetically for venous thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: High YKL-40 levels were associated with a 2-fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism, but the association was not causal....

  14. Diagnostic Indication for Venous Echo-Doppler of the Lower Limbs in the Diagnosis of Thromboembolic; Indicacion de eco-Doppler venosa de extremidades inferiores en el diagnostico de la enfermedad tromboembolica ante una sospecha de tromboembolismo pulmonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado, A. G.; Barcena, M. V.; Cura, J. L. del; Gorrno, O.; Grande, D. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    To study the effectiveness of Doppler echography in the deep venous system of the lower limbs for deep venous thrombosis detection in patients suspected of having pulmonary thromboembolism. There were received 341 consecutive suspected pulmonary thromboembolism patients, all of whom were emergency room attended. All were submitted to CT pulmonary angiography in order to evaluate thrombus presence in the pulmonary tree. Without knowing the results of the previous exploration, we studied 301 of the patients using Doppler echography in deep venous system of the lower limbs in order to evaluate thrombus presence. In the group of CT-detected pulmonary thromboembolism patients, the percentage of Doppler echography-detected deep venous thrombosis was 46.3%, while in the group of non-detected patients this percentage decreased to 4.7%. Additional deep venous system exploration in clinically suspected pulmonary thiolcarbamate patients is useful, since it can increase the detection rate of venous thromboembolic disease, thereby leading to early treatment and prevention of the disease's manifestation in the lungs. Realization of Doppler echography is especially beneficial in those patients who exhibit no factors which predispose them to thromboembolic disease, as well as in patients who have previously had venous thrombosis. This exploration account for 4.7% of non-detected pulmonary embolism patients being added to the ranks of those with thromboembolic disease, an important percentage when taking into consideration the high pulmonary thromboembolism morbimortality rate. (Author) 30 refs.

  15. CONTRAST ENHANCED CT UNVEILED GIANT RASMUSSEN’S ANEURYSM: A RARE COMPLICATION AND CAUSE OF DEATH IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rasmussen’s aneurysm is a rare complication of pulmonary tuberculosis. Often the aneurysm ruptures in the bronchial tree causing massive hemoptysis resulting in death. We are reporting a case of partially thrombosed giant Rasmussen’s aneurysm which arose in the vicinity of a tuberculous cavity along with empyema necessitans. Unfortunately the patient died of massive hemoptysis within two days of his diagnosis.

  16. Renal infarction in a patient with pulmonary vein thrombosis after left upper lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Shun; Oshima, Yasuko; Nakano, Marie; Fujii, Teruhiro; Maehara, Takamitsu; Nitta, Kosaku; Hatano, Michiyasu

    2014-05-01

    A 43-year-old male experienced renal infarction (RI) following left upper lobectomy for lung cancer. The patient complained of acute-onset severe left flank pain on the 14th postoperative day. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed RI by a large wedge-shaped defect in the left kidney. A chest CT scan located the thrombus in the stump (a blind-ended vessel) of the left superior pulmonary vein. Therefore, thromboembolic RI caused by pulmonary vein thrombosis was suspected. Anticoagulation therapy was initiated with heparin and warfarin to treat RI and to prevent further embolic episodes. Two months later, pulmonary vein thrombosis had resolved without the appearance of additional peripheral infarction. This case emphasizes the need to consider thrombus in the stump of the pulmonary vein as a cause of RI.

  17. Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency as a cause of pulmonary surfactant dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzman, Eric S; Alcorn, John F; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Uppala, Radha; McHugh, Kevin J; Kosmider, Beata; Chen, Rimei; Zuo, Yi Y; Beck, Megan E; McKinney, Richard W; Skilling, Helen; Suhrie, Kristen R; Karunanidhi, Anuradha; Yeasted, Renita; Otsubo, Chikara; Ellis, Bryon; Tyurina, Yulia Y; Kagan, Valerian E; Mallampalli, Rama K; Vockley, Jerry

    2014-04-11

    Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) is a mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzyme whose expression in humans is low or absent in organs known to utilize fatty acids for energy such as heart, muscle, and liver. This study demonstrates localization of LCAD to human alveolar type II pneumocytes, which synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant. The physiological role of LCAD and the fatty acid oxidation pathway in lung was subsequently studied using LCAD knock-out mice. Lung fatty acid oxidation was reduced in LCAD(-/-) mice. LCAD(-/-) mice demonstrated reduced pulmonary compliance, but histological examination of lung tissue revealed no obvious signs of inflammation or pathology. The changes in lung mechanics were found to be due to pulmonary surfactant dysfunction. Large aggregate surfactant isolated from LCAD(-/-) mouse lavage fluid had significantly reduced phospholipid content as well as alterations in the acyl chain composition of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. LCAD(-/-) surfactant demonstrated functional abnormalities when subjected to dynamic compression-expansion cycling on a constrained drop surfactometer. Serum albumin, which has been shown to degrade and inactivate pulmonary surfactant, was significantly increased in LCAD(-/-) lavage fluid, suggesting increased epithelial permeability. Finally, we identified two cases of sudden unexplained infant death where no lung LCAD antigen was detectable. Both infants were homozygous for an amino acid changing polymorphism (K333Q). These findings for the first time identify the fatty acid oxidation pathway and LCAD in particular as factors contributing to the pathophysiology of pulmonary disease.

  18. A Case of Antiphospholipid Syndrome Refractory to Secondary Anticoagulating Prophylaxis after Deep Vein Thrombosis-Pulmonary Embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Kang Mo; Shin,Jong Wook; Park, In Won

    2014-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by a combination of clinical criteria, including vascular thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity and elevated antiphospholipid antibody titers. It is one of the causes of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that can be critical due to the mortality risk. Overall recurrence of thromboembolism is very low with adequate anticoagulation prophylaxis. The most effective treatment to prevent recurrent thromb...

  19. Thromboembolic disease in vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasson, Gunnar; Monach, Paul A.; Merkel, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review To give an overview of recent clinical findings of thromboembolic disease in vasculitis and provide insight into possible explanations of the association between thrombosis and inflammation. Recent findings A high incidence of venous thrombotic events has recently been described in four distinct cohorts of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis (AAV), especially during periods of active disease. No factors other than the vasculitis itself have been identified that explain this high occurrence of thrombosis. Several studies have shown an increased rate of thrombosis in Behçet’s disease, with a different clinical presentation than that observed in AAV. Recent laboratory findings provide exciting insights into a bidirectional feedback loop between coagulation and inflammation that may be applicable to vasculitis. Summary Thrombosis is an important clinical manifestation of some types of vasculitis. Better understanding of the association of thrombosis with inflammation in vasculitis might lead to development of clinically useful biomarkers and new approaches to therapy. Additionally, study of the specific factors involved in thrombosis in systemic vasculitis could help explain the role of inflammation in more common settings of venous thrombotic events. PMID:19077717

  20. Evaluation of thromboembolic events in cancer patients receiving bevacizumab according to the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Chikako; Chisaki, Yugo; Sakimoto, Satoko; Sakae, Honoka; Yano, Yoshitaka

    2016-11-17

    We aimed to examine the risk factors, time of onset, incidence rates, and outcomes of thromboembolic events induced by bevacizumab in patients with cancer using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Adverse event data recorded in the JADER database between January 2004 and January 2015 were used. After screening the data using the generic drug name bevacizumab, patient data were classified into two groups by age and five groups by cancer type. The histories of disorders were also categorized. Arterial thromboembolic event and venous thromboembolic event were classified as "favorable" or "unfavorable" outcomes. In total, 6076 patients were reported to have developed adverse events during the sample period, of which 233 and 453 developed arterial thromboembolic event and venous thromboembolic event, respectively. Logistic analysis suggested that the presence of cancer was a significant risk factor for both arterial thromboembolic event and venous thromboembolic event. Age (≥70 years), histories of either hypertension or diabetes mellitus were also risk factors for arterial thromboembolic event. Median cumulative times of onset for arterial thromboembolic event and venous thromboembolic event were 60 and 80 days, respectively, and were not significantly different by the log-rank test. By the chi-square test, the rate of unfavorable outcomes was found to be higher after developing arterial thromboembolic event than after venous thromboembolic event. Thromboembolism is a leading cause of mortality in patients with cancer. Patients should be monitored for the symptoms of thromboembolic events right from the initial stages of bevacizumab treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Pulmonary hydatid cyst in a pregnant patient causing acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijazi Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old primigravida, at 32 weeks of gestation, presented with acute onset of respiratory failure and circulatory shock. Chest imaging showed findings suggestive of ruptured hydatid cyst, which was confirmed by histology post-thoracotomy. Tissue cultures from the removed cyst grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis also. She was successfully managed in the intensive care unit and was then discharged home on antituberculosis medications in addition to albendazole after prolonged hospitalization and a need for chest tube for bronchopleural fistula. Acute respiratory failure and anaphylactic shock secondary to ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst and superimposed pulmonary tuberculosis in a pregnant lady should be considered in patients living in endemic areas.

  2. Tromboembolia pulmonar após videoartroscopia de ombro Thromboembolic complication after arthroscopic shoulder surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Farina Dal Molin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Embora fenômenos tromboembólicos sejam complicações frequentes em cirurgias dos membros inferiores, apenas dois relatos de casos de tromboembolia pulmonar após artroscopia de ombro são encontrados na literatura. É descrito o caso de uma paciente com 76 anos com embolia pulmonar bilateral após artroscopia cirúrgica do ombro. Não foram encontradas anormalidades vasculares e nenhuma origem do trombo foi detectada, ficando desconhecida a causa exata responsável pela tromboembolia.Though thromboembolisms are frequent complications of surgery of the lower extremities, only two cases of pulmonary thromboembolism after shoulder arthroscopy are found in the literature. We describe the case of a 76-year-old patient with pulmonary embolism in both lungs after shoulder arthroscopy. No vascular abnormalities nor the origin of the thrombus was detected. The etiology of the thromboembolism remains unknown.

  3. [Analysis of the misdiagnoses of obliterative pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y J; Cheng, X S

    1993-03-01

    In order to reduce the misdiagnostic rate of obliterative pulmonary hypertension (OPH), the clinical data was analysed of 126 cases of OPH, including 83 cases of unexplained pulmonary hypertension (UPH) and 43 cases of thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (TEPH). The results showed that the misdiagnostic rate of UPH and TEPH was 93.98% and 79.07% respectively, with a total misdiagnostic rate of 88.89%. UPH was frequently misdiagnosed as congenital heart disease (63.86%), valvular heart disease (13.5%) and coronary heart disease (9.64%). TEPH was usually misdiagnosed as cardiomyopathy (37.21%), coronary heart disease (18.61%), and valvular heart disease (18.61%). The possible causes of misdiagnosis were discussed.

  4. The correlation of pulmonary vein ostium area and left atrial volume index with the risk of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation%肺静脉开口面积及左心房容积指数与房颤患者血栓栓塞风险的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文娟; 常栋; 董颖雪; 尹晓盟; 夏云龙; 高连君; 张树龙

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of pulmonary vein ostium area and left atrial volume index(LAVI)with the risk of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation(AF). Methods A total of 206 non-valvular AF patients were continuously included in our study.Accord-ing to CHADS2 and CHA2 DS2-VASc scores,those scoring zero,1 point and no less than 2 points were divided into low-risk,average-risk and high-risk groups,respectively.All the patients were classified into thrombosis group and non-thrombosis group based on the results by transesophageal echocardiography(TEE)and brain computed tomography(CT).By the technology of multi-slice spiral computed tomography(MSCT),the ostium areas of left superior pulmonary vein (LSPV),left inferior pulmonary vein (LIPV),right superior pulmonary vein(RSPV)and right inferior pulmonary vein(RIPV)were measured.By transthoracic Doppler echocardiography,the upper and lower diam-eter,anteroposterior diameter,and left and right diameters of left atrium were measured while LAVI was calculated.By Spearman rank correlation analysis,the correlation of pulmonary vein ostium are-a and LAVI with the scores of thromboembolism risk was investigated.The clinical value of each in-dex in predicting thromboembolism of non-valvular AF patients was compared via ROC curve.Re-sults (i)According to CHADS2 scores,there were 73 cases(35.4%)in low-risk group,82 (39.8%)in average-risk group and 51 (24.8%)in high-risk group while according to CHA2 DS2-VASc scores,there were 41 cases(1 9.9%),67 cases(32.5%)and 98 cases(47.6%)separately in the three groups.LAVI,area of LSPV ostium,area of LIPV ostium,area of RSPV ostium and the total area of pulmonary vein ostium were significantly correlated with both CHADS2 and CHA2 DS2-VASc scores.(ii)LAVI,area of LSPV ostium,area of LIPV ostium and the total area of pulmonary vein ostium had diagnostic value in predicting the risk of thromboembolic events among non-valvular AF patients.Conclusion LAVI measured

  5. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Plastic Surgery: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Sergio; Valdes, Jorge; Salama, Moises

    2016-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major health concern because it increases morbidity and mortality after a surgical procedure. A number of well-defined, evidence-based guidelines are available delineating suitable use of prophylaxis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Despite the available literature, there are clear gaps between recommendations and clinical practice, affecting the incidence of VTE. Plastic surgeons underuse the substantiated literature and risk stratification tools that are available to decrease the incidence of VTE in the office-based surgical setting because of fear of bleeding or hematoma complications postoperatively. Venous thromboembolism creates an economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system. The intent of this literature review is to determine existing VTE risk using assessment models available to aid in the implementation of protocols for VTE prevention, specifically for high-risk cosmetic surgical patients in office-based settings.

  6. Heterogeneity of the efficacy of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine caused by various underlying conditions of chronic pulmonary disease in older patients: prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Yuji; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Sato, Takashi; Miyazawa, Naoki; Kaneko, Takeshi; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Morita, Satoshi; Natsumeda, Yutaka; Mizushima, Shunsaku

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the ideal conditions for use of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) in older outpatients with chronic pulmonary diseases. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants 1378 outpatients with chronic pulmonary diseases ≥60 years of age. Intervention Participants were educated about PPV23, and those who responded affirmatively were vaccinated between August and November 2002. The participants who chose no intervention served as controls. The prevaccine period was defined as August 2001 to August 2002. Participants were followed for 2 years from December 2002 or until death. Main outcome measures Events of interest included the first episode of bacterial (including pneumococcal) pulmonary infection (primary endpoint) and death of any cause (secondary endpoint). Results Frequent episodes of pulmonary infection during the prevaccine period significantly decreased event-free survival during the 2-year observation period (p<0.001). Chronic respiratory failure was associated with a decreased event-free survival only when the pulmonary infection episode did not occur in the prevaccine period (p<0.001). No significant differences in event-free survival were observed between the vaccinated and unvaccinated group during analysis of the entire cohort. In the Cox proportional hazards regression model, event-free survival decreased significantly when pulmonary infection occurred in the prevaccine period. In the subgroup analysis, the first episode of bacterial pulmonary infection (but not death of any cause) was reduced significantly by PPV23 only in patients with chronic respiratory failure who had no episodes of pulmonary infection during the prevaccine period (p=0.019). Conclusion The efficacy of PPV23 against pulmonary infection and death of any cause might be unachievable if pulmonary infection occurs during the prevaccine period. PPV23 needs to be given to older patients with chronic pulmonary disease at an earlier time in

  7. Plasma YKL-40 and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, Dennis Back; Mygind, Lone H; Titlestad, Ingrid L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is hallmarked by inflammatory processes and a progressive decline of lung function. YKL-40 is a potential biomarker of inflammation and mortality in patients suffering from inflammatory lung disease, but its prognostic value in patients with COPD remains...... unknown. We investigated whether high plasma YKL-40 was associated with increased mortality in patients with moderate to very severe COPD....

  8. The Risk of Thromboembolism in Users of Antidepressants and Antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelborg, Kasper; Sundbøll, Jens; Videbech, Poul Bror Hemming

    2017-01-01

    of thromboembolism through genetic, behavioral, and biological mechanisms. Treatment of psychiatric patients with psychotropic drugs is imperative to improve quality of life and to reduce morbidity and mortality. However, studies have shown that psychotropic drugs themselves may modify the risk of arterial......Arterial and venous thromboembolism are common causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Mental disorders are also highly prevalent with a lifetime risk of experiencing any psychiatric disease ranging between 32 % and 37 %. Depression and schizophrenia may increase the risk...

  9. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Manuel Ceresetto

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate ...

  10. [Pregnancy in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengarten, Dror; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder defined by elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure. PAH can be idiopathic or associated with a variety of medical conditions such as scleroderma, congenital heart disease, left heart failure, lung disease or chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. This progressive disease can cause severe right heart failure and death. Normal physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy may produce fatal consequences in PAH patients. Current guidelines recommend that pregnancy be avoided or terminated early in women with PAH. During the past decade, new advanced therapies for PAH have emerged gathering reports of successful pregnancies in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Substantial risk still exists and current recommendations have not changed. Nevertheless, in selected cases, if a patient insists on continuing the pregnancy, being fully aware of the risks involved, an intensive treatment approach should be implemented in experienced centers. This is necessary in order to control pulmonary hypertension during pregnancy and reduce the risk so as to improve outcomes. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of PAH in pregnancy and appropriate management during pregnancy, delivery and the post-partum period.

  11. Jobs encompassing prolonged sitting in cramped positions and risk of venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, Poul; Hannerz, Harald; Bach, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that prolonged cramped sitting in connection with long-lasting air travel increases the risk of deep vein thrombosis of the legs and pulmonary embolism, i.e. venous thromboembolism (VTE). Prolonged cramped sitting may occur even in various jobs unrelated to air travel...

  12. Diagnostic and prognostic risk stratification of venous thromboembolism in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, J.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in the diagnosis and management of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). With an incidence of approximately 2-3 cases per 1000 persons annually, GPs are encountered with this potential

  13. Low-molecular-weight heparin in the treatment of patients with venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    tenCate, JW; Buller, HR; Gent, M; Hirsh, J; Prins, MH; Baildon, R; Lensing, AWA; Anderson, DR; vanBeek, EJR; Fiesinger, JN; Tijssen, JGP; vanBarneveld, A; Eimers, LT; Graafsma, YP; Hettiarachchi, R; Hutten, B; Redekop, K; Haley, S; LIberale, L; Finch, T; Whittaker, S; Wilkinson, L; Prandoni, P; Villalta, S; Girolami, B; Bagatella, P; Rossi, L; Girolami, A; Piovella, F; Barone, M; Beltrametti, C; Serafini, S; Siragusa, S; Ascari, E; Kovacs, MJ; Morrow, B; Kovacs, J; Kuijer, PMM; Koopman, MMW; Jagt, H; Weitz, J; Kearon, C; Biagioni, L; Haas, S; Lossner, F; Spengel, FA; Berger, M; Demers, C; Poulin, J; vanderMeer, J; Que, GTH; Smid, WM; Robinson, KS; Boyle, E; Leclerc, [No Value; StJacques, B; Finkenbine, S; Gallus, AS; Cohlan, D; Rich, C; Brandjes, DPM; Hoefnagel, CA; deRijk, M; Turkstra, F; Desjardins, L; CoteDesjardins, J; Couture, L; Ruel, M; Villenueve, J; Geerts, WH; Jay, RM; Code, EKI; Turpie, AGG; Johnson, J; Nguyen, P; Cusson, [No Value; Roy, S; Wells, PS; Bormanis, J; Goudie, D; Cruickshank, M; vonLewinski, M; Monreal, M; Sahuquillo, JC; Lafoz, E; Simonneau, G; Parent, F; Jagot, J; Douketis, JD; Kinnon, K; Ginsberg, JS; BrillEdwards, P; Donovan, D; Ockelford, PA; Kassis, J; Bornais, S; Planchon, B; ElKouri, D; Pistorius, MA; Escribano, M; Garrido, G; Chesterman, CN; Chong, BH; Pritchard, S; Cade, JF; Bynon, T; Stanford, J; Brien, WM; Palmer, B; Faivre, R; Petiteau, B; Manucci, PM; Moia, M; Bucciarelli, P

    1997-01-01

    Background Low-molecular-weight heparin is known to be safe and effective for the initial Treatment of patients with proximal deep-vein thrombosis. However, its application to patients with pulmonary embolism or previous episodes of thromboembolism has not been studied. Methods We randomly assigned

  14. Low-molecular-weight heparin in the treatment of patients with venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    tenCate, JW; Buller, HR; Gent, M; Hirsh, J; Prins, MH; Baildon, R; Lensing, AWA; Anderson, DR; vanBeek, EJR; Fiesinger, JN; Tijssen, JGP; vanBarneveld, A; Eimers, LT; Graafsma, YP; Hettiarachchi, R; Hutten, B; Redekop, K; Haley, S; LIberale, L; Finch, T; Whittaker, S; Wilkinson, L; Prandoni, P; Villalta, S; Girolami, B; Bagatella, P; Rossi, L; Girolami, A; Piovella, F; Barone, M; Beltrametti, C; Serafini, S; Siragusa, S; Ascari, E; Kovacs, MJ; Morrow, B; Kovacs, J; Kuijer, PMM; Koopman, MMW; Jagt, H; Weitz, J; Kearon, C; Biagioni, L; Haas, S; Lossner, F; Spengel, FA; Berger, M; Demers, C; Poulin, J; vanderMeer, J; Que, GTH; Smid, WM; Robinson, KS; Boyle, E; Leclerc, [No Value; StJacques, B; Finkenbine, S; Gallus, AS; Cohlan, D; Rich, C; Brandjes, DPM; Hoefnagel, CA; deRijk, M; Turkstra, F; Desjardins, L; CoteDesjardins, J; Couture, L; Ruel, M; Villenueve, J; Geerts, WH; Jay, RM; Code, EKI; Turpie, AGG; Johnson, J; Nguyen, P; Cusson, [No Value; Roy, S; Wells, PS; Bormanis, J; Goudie, D; Cruickshank, M; vonLewinski, M; Monreal, M; Sahuquillo, JC; Lafoz, E; Simonneau, G; Parent, F; Jagot, J; Douketis, JD; Kinnon, K; Ginsberg, JS; BrillEdwards, P; Donovan, D; Ockelford, PA; Kassis, J; Bornais, S; Planchon, B; ElKouri, D; Pistorius, MA; Escribano, M; Garrido, G; Chesterman, CN; Chong, BH; Pritchard, S; Cade, JF; Bynon, T; Stanford, J; Brien, WM; Palmer, B; Faivre, R; Petiteau, B; Manucci, PM; Moia, M; Bucciarelli, P

    1997-01-01

    Background Low-molecular-weight heparin is known to be safe and effective for the initial Treatment of patients with proximal deep-vein thrombosis. However, its application to patients with pulmonary embolism or previous episodes of thromboembolism has not been studied. Methods We randomly assigned

  15. Aspergillus culture filtrates and sputum sols from patients with pulmonary aspergillosis cause damage to human respiratory ciliated epithelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitani, R; Murayama, T; Nawada, R; Lee, W J; Niimi, A; Suzuki, K; Tanaka, E; Kuze, F

    1995-10-01

    Aspergillus species frequently colonize lower respiratory tracts and lungs with localized underlying conditions (healed tuberculous cavity, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, etc.) even in subjects without systemic predisposing factors. We investigated the in vitro effects of culture filtrates of Aspergillus species and sputum sols from patients with pulmonary aspergillosis on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial integrity of human respiratory ciliated epithelium. Culture filtrates of 25 clinically isolated fungi (16 Aspergillus fumigatus, three Aspergillus niger, one Aspergillus flavus, three Candida albicans, and two Cryptococcus neoformans) were obtained by culturing the fungi in Medium-199 at 37 degrees C for 7 days, and five sputum sols were obtained from patients with pulmonary aspergillosis infected by A. fumigatus. During 6 h experiments using a photometric technique, 14 out of 16 A. fumigatus culture filtrates caused progressive and significant reduction in CBF associated with marked epithelial disruption, whilst the culture filtrates of A. niger and A. flavus caused minor epithelial damage without slowing of CBF, and Medium-199 alone (Control) showed neither epithelial damage nor slowing of CBF. All of the sputum sols also caused significant slowing of CBF as well as epithelial disruption. Culture filtrates of C. albicans and Cr. neoformans had no effects on human respiratory epithelium. We conclude that Aspergillus species, especially A. fumigatus release a factor (or factors) which causes damage to respiratory epithelium and slows CBF, and that these factors may contribute to the colonization of the lower respiratory tracts by the Aspergillus species and may possibly contribute to the further proliferation and spread of the lesions in pulmonary aspergillosis.

  16. [Iron deficiency, thrombocytosis and thromboembolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstatiev, Rayko

    2016-10-01

    Iron deficiency, the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide, is often associated with reactive thrombocytosis. Although secondary thrombocytosis is commonly considered to be harmless, there is accumulating evidence that elevated platelet counts, especially in the setting of iron deficiency, can lead to an increased thromboembolic risk in both arterial and venous systems. Here we present the mechanisms of iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis and summarize its clinical consequences especially in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, chronic kidney disease or cancer. We hypothesize that iron deficiency is an underestimated thromboembolic risk factor, and that iron replacement therapy can become an effective preventive strategy in a variety of clinical settings.

  17. Initial Pulmonary Respiration Causes Massive Diaphragm Damage and Hyper-CKemia in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Dog

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of muscle degeneration in a lethal muscle disorder Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD) has not been fully elucidated. The dystrophic dog, a model of DMD, shows a high mortality rate with a marked increase in serum creatine kinase (CK) levels in the neonatal period. By measuring serum CK levels in cord and venous blood, we found initial pulmonary respiration resulted in massive diaphragm damage in the neonates and thereby lead to the high serum CK levels. Furthermore, mole...

  18. Venous velocity of the right femoral vein decreases in the right lateral decubitus position compared to the supine position: a cause of postoperative pulmonary embolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato,Shizou

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The right lateral decubitus position is a risk factor for postoperative pulmonary embolism. We examined postural changes of femoral vein velocity in order to elucidate the mechanism. Thirty patients scheduled for general thoracic surgery were enrolled in this study. The common femoral veins on both sides were examined by color-duplex ultrasound for venous caliber and velocity when the patients were in the right lateral, left lateral, and supine positions. The maximum diameters of the right femoral vein in the right lateral decubitus position and the left femoral vein in the left decubitus position were significantly larger than those in the other positions. The venous velocity of the right femoral vein in the right lateral decubitus position was significantly smaller than that in the supine position, while the velocity of the left femoral vein in the left lateral decubitus position was not significantly decreased. We speculate that the decreased venous velocity of the right femoral vein in the right lateral decubitus position could result in a deep venous thromboembolism in the right leg, making this position a possible risk factor for postoperative pulmonary embolism.

  19. Extramedullary pulmonary hematopoiesis causing pulmonary hypertension and severe tricuspid regurgitation detected by {sup 99m} technetium sulfur colloid bone marrow scan and single-photon emission computed tomography/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Syed Zama; Clarke, Michael John; Kannivelu, Anbalagan; Chinchure, Dinesh; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-06-15

    Extramedullary pulmonary hematopoiesis is a rare entity with a limited number of case reports in the available literature only. We report the case of a 66-year-old man with known primary myelofibrosis, in whom a {sup 99m}technetium sulfur colloid bone marrow scan with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT revealed a pulmonary hematopoiesis as the cause of pulmonary hypertension and severe tricuspid regurgitation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of {sup 99m} technetium sulfur colloid SPECT/CT imaging in this rare condition.

  20. Neonatal Venous Thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Haley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonates are the pediatric population at highest risk for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE, and the incidence of VTE in the neonatal population is increasing. This is especially true in the critically ill population. Several large studies indicate that the incidence of neonatal VTE is up almost threefold in the last two decades. Central lines, fluid fluctuations, sepsis, liver dysfunction, and inflammation contribute to the risk profile for VTE development in ill neonates. In addition, the neonatal hemostatic system is different from that of older children and adults. Platelet function, pro- and anticoagulant proteins concentrations, and fibrinolytic pathway protein concentrations are developmentally regulated and generate a hemostatic homeostasis that is unique to the neonatal time period. The clinical picture of a critically ill neonate combined with the physiologically distinct neonatal hemostatic system easily fulfills the criteria for Virchow’s triad with venous stasis, hypercoagulability, and endothelial injury and puts the neonatal patient at risk for VTE development. The presentation of a VTE in a neonate is similar to that of older children or adults and is dependent upon location of the VTE. Ultrasound is the most common diagnostic tool employed in identifying neonatal VTE, but relatively small vessels of the neonate as well as frequent low pulse pressure can make ultrasound less reliable. The diagnosis of a thrombophilic disorder in the neonatal population is unlikely to change management or outcome, and the role of thrombophilia testing in this population requires further study. Treatment of neonatal VTE is aimed at reducing VTE-associated morbidity and mortality. Recommendations for treating, though, cannot be extrapolated from guidelines for older children or adults. Neonates are at risk for bleeding complications, particularly younger neonates with more fragile intracranial vessels. Developmental alterations in the

  1. MRA for diagnosis of venous thromboembolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sostman, H. D. [Cornell University, Weill Medical College, Chair of Radiology, New York (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Direct imaging of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with CT, and potentially with MR, will continue to replace V/Q scintigraphy. Venous imaging with MR far detecting DVT is used in a few centers, and their published accuracy figures are impressive. Recent studies of MR pulmonary angiography for PE reported that sensitivity of MRA was 85-100%, specificity 95-96%, but this data must be confirmed in other centers and patient populations. MR has advantages compared with CT, which make it worthwhile to continue MR development. Ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast material are not used. Imaging the pulmonary arteries and then imaging whichever venous region is of clinical interest is practical in a single examination. Repeated examinations can be performed safely. New contrast materials will facilitate the practically and accuracy of the MR technique and perfusion imaging may increase sensitivity. MR also has disadvantages compared with CT. It does not image effectively the non-vascular compartment of the lungs. It is more expensive, patient monitoring is more cumbersome, and a routine technique, which embodies all of MR's potential advantages, has not been packaged and tested. Accordingly, helical CT is a realistic option in clinical management of patients with suspected PE in most centers, while clinical application of MR is limited to centers with appropriate MR expertise and technology. However, MR has a number of fundamental characteristics that make it potentially ideal modality for evaluating patients with suspected acute venous thromboembolic disease and further clinical research with MRA is warranted.

  2. Postadulticide pulmonary hypertension of canine heartworm disease: successful treatment with oxygen and failure of antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, C A; Tackett, R L

    1990-10-01

    Postadulticide pulmonary hypertension mechanisms and treatment with antihistamines and supplemental oxygen were studied in eight dogs with heartworm disease. To ensure severe postadulticide thromboembolism, additional heartworms (either 20 or 40 into 4 dogs each) were transplanted into naturally infected dogs before thiacetarsamide treatment. During pentobarbital anesthesia, 2 pulmonary hemodynamic studies were conducted on each dog with a sequence of baseline, hypoxia with FlO2 = 10%, hyperoxia with FlO2 = 100%, a second baseline, treatment with either diphenhydramine (D) or cimetidine (C), and another hypoxia. All dogs were pulmonary hypertensive, with each dog having a mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA) greater than 20 mm of Hg. Mean PPA increased from baseline conditions (25.0 +/- 4.5 SD for D and 24.3 +/- 4.4 for C) to hypoxia (28.5 +/- 4.7 for D and 28.4 +/- 3.7 for C), and decreased during hyperoxia (16.9 +/- 3.0 for D and 17.4 +/- 3.0 for C), respectively. Neither antihistamine reduced PPA at normoxia. The degree of pulmonary hypertension when breathing room air increased even more during hypoxia, and this increase was not attenuated by either antihistamine. Histamine did not appear to mediate pulmonary hypertension during postadulticide thromboembolism, nor to modify the hypoxia-mediated pulmonary hypertension at this disease stage. Because baseline PO2 was low (66.6 +/- 11.7 mm of Hg for D and 69.4 +/- 14.2 for C) and because PPA decreased during administration of oxygen, the pulmonary hypertension was mostly hypoxia-induced. In addition to the arterial lesions, much of the pulmonary hypertensive mechanism was an active and reversible vasoconstriction in response to hypoxia caused by the secondary lung disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Venous Thromboembolism in Children: A Review of Published Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, E. Vincent S.; Raffini, Leslie J.

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism, which includes deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a potentially preventable condition in children. In adults, pharmacologic prophylaxis has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism in distinct patient cohorts. However, pediatric randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate the efficacy of pharmacologic prophylaxis against thrombosis associated with central venous catheters, the most important risk factor for venous thromboembolism in children. Despite the lack of supporting evidence, hospital-based initiatives are being undertaken to try to prevent venous thromboembolism in children. In this study, we sought to review the published guidelines on the prevention of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized children. We identified five guidelines, all of which were mainly targeted at adolescents and used various risk-stratification approaches. In low-risk children, ambulation was the recommended prevention strategy, while mechanical prophylaxis was recommended for children at moderate risk and pharmacologic and mechanical prophylaxis were recommended for the high-risk group. The effectiveness of these strategies has not been proven. In order to determine whether venous thromboembolism can be prevented in children, innovative clinical trial designs are needed. In the absence of these trials, guidelines can be a source of valuable information to inform our practice. PMID:28184368

  4. Different Finite Durations of Anticoagulation and Outcomes following Idiopathic Venous Thromboembolism: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B. Holley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Controversy remains over the optimal length of anticoagulation following idiopathic venous thromboembolism. We sought to determine if a longer, finite course of anticoagulation offered additional benefit over a short course in the initial treatment of the first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism. Data Extraction. Rates of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, combined venous thromboembolism, major bleeding, and mortality were extracted from prospective trials enrolling patients with first time, idiopathic venous thromboembolism. Data was pooled using random effects meta-regression. Results. Ten trials, with a total of 3225 patients, met inclusion criteria. For each additional month of initial anticoagulation, once therapy was stopped, recurrent venous thromboembolism (0.03 (95% CI: −0.28 to 0.35; =.24, mortality (−0.10 (95% CI: −0.24 to 0.04; =.15, and major bleeding (−0.01 (95% CI: −0.05 to 0.02; =.44 rates measured in percent per patient years, did not significantly change. Conclusions: Patients with an initial idiopathic venous thromboembolism should be treated with 3 to 6 months of secondary prophylaxis with vitamin K antagonists. At that time, a decision between continuing with indefinite therapy can be made, but there is no benefit to a longer (but finite course of therapy.

  5. MASSIVE PULMONARY EMBOLISM IN OLDER PATIENT: SURVIVAL DESPITE STATISTIC DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Makharynska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Massive pulmonary thromboembolism is presented in this article on example of clinical case. Clinical investigation, prognosis evaluation tools, diagnosis and acute phase treatment along with prevention of recurrent episode of pulmonary embolism presented. Observed and described clinical case of pulmonary embolism in older patient, when patient was mistakenly diagnosed in emergency department as acute coronary syndrome patient.

  6. Pulmonary embolism presenting with ST segment elevation in inferior leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kahyaoğlu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a form of venous thromboembolism that is widespread and sometimes mortal. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is variable and often nonspecific making the diagnosis challenging. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary embolism characterized by ST segment elevation in inferior leads without reciprocal changes in the electrocardiogram.

  7. Life-Threatening Contraceptive-Related Pulmonary Embolism in a 14-Year-Old Girl with Hereditary Thrombophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2015-01-01

    in patients with thrombophilia. CASE REPORT: A 14-year-old girl presented with acute onset of chest pain and dyspnea followed by syncope. She was hypoxic and hemodynamically compromised at admission. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography revealed a large central "saddle" pulmonary embolism causing nearly...... found heterozygote for the prothrombin G20210A mutation, and 9 months before admission she had initiated use of second-generation COCs. CONCLUSIONS: Hereditary thrombophilia and a family history of early-onset venous thromboembolism (VTE) each pose an increased risk of VTE and should be considered...

  8. C-reactive protein and risk of venous thromboembolism in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Jeppe; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2010-01-01

    To examine the robustness of the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and to examine whether genetically elevated CRP levels cause VTE....

  9. Serum-borne bioactivity caused by pulmonary multiwalled carbon nanotubes induces neuroinflammation via blood–brain barrier impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Mario J.; Topper, Lauren; Tyler, Christina R.; Sanchez, Bethany; Zychowski, Katherine; Young, Tamara; Herbert, Guy; Hall, Pamela; Erdely, Aaron; Eye, Tracy; Bishop, Lindsey; Saunders, Samantha A.; Muldoon, Pretal P.; Ottens, Andrew K.; Campen, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) causes indirect systemic inflammation through unknown pathways. MWCNTs translocate only minimally from the lungs into the systemic circulation, suggesting that extrapulmonary toxicity may be caused indirectly by lung-derived factors entering the circulation. To assess a role for MWCNT-induced circulating factors in driving neuroinflammatory outcomes, mice were acutely exposed to MWCNTs (10 or 40 µg/mouse) via oropharyngeal aspiration. At 4 h after MWCNT exposure, broad disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was observed across the capillary bed with the small molecule fluorescein, concomitant with reactive astrocytosis. However, pronounced BBB permeation was noted, with frank albumin leakage around larger vessels (>10 µm), overlain by a dose-dependent astroglial scar-like formation and recruitment of phagocytic microglia. As affirmed by elevated inflammatory marker transcription, MWCNT-induced BBB disruption and neuroinflammation were abrogated by pretreatment with the rho kinase inhibitor fasudil. Serum from MWCNT-exposed mice induced expression of adhesion molecules in primary murine cerebrovascular endothelial cells and, in a wound-healing in vitro assay, impaired cell motility and cytokinesis. Serum thrombospondin-1 level was significantly increased after MWCNT exposure, and mice lacking the endogenous receptor CD36 were protected from the neuroinflammatory and BBB permeability effects of MWCNTs. In conclusion, acute pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs causes neuroinflammatory responses that are dependent on the disruption of BBB integrity. PMID:28223486

  10. Serum-borne bioactivity caused by pulmonary multiwalled carbon nanotubes induces neuroinflammation via blood-brain barrier impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Mario J; Topper, Lauren; Tyler, Christina R; Sanchez, Bethany; Zychowski, Katherine; Young, Tamara; Herbert, Guy; Hall, Pamela; Erdely, Aaron; Eye, Tracy; Bishop, Lindsey; Saunders, Samantha A; Muldoon, Pretal P; Ottens, Andrew K; Campen, Matthew J

    2017-03-07

    Pulmonary exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) causes indirect systemic inflammation through unknown pathways. MWCNTs translocate only minimally from the lungs into the systemic circulation, suggesting that extrapulmonary toxicity may be caused indirectly by lung-derived factors entering the circulation. To assess a role for MWCNT-induced circulating factors in driving neuroinflammatory outcomes, mice were acutely exposed to MWCNTs (10 or 40 µg/mouse) via oropharyngeal aspiration. At 4 h after MWCNT exposure, broad disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was observed across the capillary bed with the small molecule fluorescein, concomitant with reactive astrocytosis. However, pronounced BBB permeation was noted, with frank albumin leakage around larger vessels (>10 µm), overlain by a dose-dependent astroglial scar-like formation and recruitment of phagocytic microglia. As affirmed by elevated inflammatory marker transcription, MWCNT-induced BBB disruption and neuroinflammation were abrogated by pretreatment with the rho kinase inhibitor fasudil. Serum from MWCNT-exposed mice induced expression of adhesion molecules in primary murine cerebrovascular endothelial cells and, in a wound-healing in vitro assay, impaired cell motility and cytokinesis. Serum thrombospondin-1 level was significantly increased after MWCNT exposure, and mice lacking the endogenous receptor CD36 were protected from the neuroinflammatory and BBB permeability effects of MWCNTs. In conclusion, acute pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs causes neuroinflammatory responses that are dependent on the disruption of BBB integrity.

  11. Lethal factor, but not edema factor, is required to cause fatal anthrax in cynomolgus macaques after pulmonary spore challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, Julie A; Lovchik, Julie A; Drysdale, Melissa; Sherwood, Robert L; Brasel, Trevor; Lipscomb, Mary F; Lyons, C Rick

    2014-12-01

    Inhalational anthrax is caused by inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. The ability of B. anthracis to cause anthrax is attributed to the plasmid-encoded A/B-type toxins, edema toxin (edema factor and protective antigen) and lethal toxin (lethal factor and protective antigen), and a poly-d-glutamic acid capsule. To better understand the contribution of these toxins to the disease pathophysiology in vivo, we used B. anthracis Ames strain and isogenic toxin deletion mutants derived from the Ames strain to examine the role of lethal toxin and edema toxin after pulmonary spore challenge of cynomolgus macaques. Lethal toxin, but not edema toxin, was required to induce sustained bacteremia and death after pulmonary challenge with spores delivered via bronchoscopy. After intravenous challenge with bacilli to model the systemic phase of infection, lethal toxin contributed to bacterial proliferation and subsequent host death to a greater extent than edema toxin. Deletion of protective antigen resulted in greater loss of virulence after intravenous challenge with bacilli than deletion of lethal toxin or edema toxin alone. These findings are consistent with the ability of anti-protective antigen antibodies to prevent anthrax and suggest that lethal factor is the dominant toxin that contributes to the escape of significant numbers of bacilli from the thoracic cavity to cause anthrax after inhalation challenge with spores.

  12. A rare cause of fatal pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: Niemann-Pick disease type C2 and a novel mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ayhan; Eminoğlu, Fatma T; Kendirli, Tanıl; Ödek, Çağlar; Ceylaner, Serdar; Kansu, Aydan; İnce, Elif; Deda, Gülhis

    2015-09-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a fatal autosomal recessive lipid storage disease associated with impaired trafficking of unesterified cholesterol and glycolipids in lysosomes and late endosomes. This disease is commonly characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and severe progressive neurological dysfunction. There are two defective genes that cause this illness. One of these genes is NPC1 gene which is the cause of illness in 95% of the patients. The other gene is the rare type NPC2 which is the cause of illness in 5% of the patients. Patients with NPC2 usually present with respiratory distress in early infancy, which is rather unusual with NPC1. This article discusses about a patient who died at an early age from pulmonary involvement and who subsequently was found to have a novel homozygous mutation of NPC2 gene.

  13. Familial clustering of venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindet-Pedersen, Caroline; Østergaard, Louise Bruun; Gundlund, Anna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is of utmost importance to improve current prophylactic regimes and treatment guidelines. The extent to which a family history contributes to the risk of VTE needs further exploration. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative ...

  14. Management of Venous Thromboembolism%肺栓塞治疗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐萍芳; 周伟英(综述); 姜衡(审校)

    2015-01-01

    静脉血栓栓塞是心肌梗死和脑卒中后最常发生的急性心血管并发症之一,其中肺栓塞又是致残和致死率最高的临床表现形式。因此,一旦确诊肺栓塞,即应进行积极干预,目前常用的治疗手段包括抗凝、溶栓、介入和外科手术。近年来,肺栓塞危险分层策略的演变,新型口服抗凝药的出现,溶栓适应证的改变等为肺栓塞的治疗带来了革命性的发展。现就肺栓塞治疗的最新研究进展进行简要综述。%Venous thromboembolism is one of the most frequent acute cardiovascular complication.Its most serious clinical presenta-tion, acute pulmonary embolism, is a major cause of mortality and morbidity.Therefore, upon the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, active treatments such as anticoagulation, thrombolysis, interventional or surgical operation, should be considered.Recently, the evolution of risk stratification strategies, the emergence of new oral anticoagulants, and changes in thrombolysis indications, have created a new therapy for pulmonary embolisms.Here, we briefly review the recent advances in the management of pulmonary embolisms.

  15. High incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism in Thai hospitalized medical patients without thromboprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniwan, Satimai; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat

    2010-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common preventable cause of mortality during hospitalization. However, prophylaxis is frequently under-utilized due to the belief that it is rare in Asia. The objective of the study was to estimate the incidence of symptomatic VTE in hospitalized nonsurgical Thai patients. We performed a prospective study in medical wards in Chulalongkorn Hospital, a tertiary care university-based center, from June 2007 to December 2008. We included adult patients admitted beyond 3 days. Patients with VTE before admissions or undergoing major surgery during hospitalization were excluded. According to the usual practice, heparin prophylaxis was not given. However, the program of primary physician education and fast-track diagnostic imaging were implemented. Forty-two VTEs from 7126 susceptible patients [0.59%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.77%] were found; 20 (48%) definite pulmonary embolism, four of which also had symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 19 (45%) definite DVT and three sudden deaths from possible pulmonary embolism. Immobilization (74%), active cancer (52%) and rheumatologic diseases (12%), including arthritis of lower extremities and systemic lupus erythematosus with antiphospholipid, were common VTE risk factors, which were present in our patients. The incidences in total cases of arthritis, cancer, mechanical ventilation and congestive heart failure were 7.7, 1.8, 1.5 and 0.5%, respectively. Notably, nine of 23 (39%) pulmonary embolism cases were fatal and two more patients (9.5%) expired from bleeding after treatment (one pulmonary embolism and one DVT). In conclusion, VTE contributes significant hazard to hospitalized nonsurgical Thai patients. Appropriate measures to assure proper thromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients are strongly needed.

  16. Bilateral pulmonary thromboembolism and Budd-Chiari syndrome in a patient with Crohn's disease on oral contraceptives Tromboembolismo de pulmón bilateral y síndrome de Budd-Chiari en paciente con enfermedad de Crohn y toma de anticonceptivos orales

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    M. Valdés Mas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Budd-Chiari syndrome can be defined as an interruption or diminution of the normal blood flow out of the liver. Patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome present with varying degrees of symptomatology that can be divided into the following categories: fulminant, acute, subacute and chronic. The subacute form is the most common presentation. A majority of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome have an underlying hypercoagulability state. We present the case of a young woman with Crohn's disease on oral contraceptives who developed bilateral pulmonary thromboembolism and Budd-Chiari syndrome.El síndrome de Budd-Chiari consiste en la interrupción o disminución de flujo de las venas suprahepáticas. Tiene una gran variabilidad clínica en cuanto a su forma de presentación siendo la más frecuente la forma subaguda. La gran mayoría de los pacientes responden a estados de hipercoagulabilidad. Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven con enfermedad de Crohn que estaba en tratamiento con anticonceptivos orales y desarrolló un cuadro clínico de tromboembolismo de pulmón bilateral y síndrome de Budd-Chiari.

  17. The role of invasive ventilation in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease causing respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosky, Christopher; Turton, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Acute hypercapnic respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can usually be managed initially with medical treatment and non- invasive ventilation. In circumstances where non- invasive ventilation cannot be used or has failed, intubation and invasive ventilation may be lifesaving. The outcome of patients with an exacerbation of COPD requiring invasive ventilation is better than often thought, with a hospital survival of 70-89%. Decisions regarding invasive ventilation made by physicians and patients with COPD are unpredictable and vary with the individual. This article reviews the role of invasive ventilation in exacerbations of COPD to assist decision making.

  18. A case report: Cavitary infarction caused by pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy in a patient with pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoung Kyg; Kwon, Woon Jung; Choi, Seong Hoon; Lee, Jong Hwa; Cha, Hee Jeong [Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan School of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Pulmonary tumor embolism is commonly discovered at autopsy, but is rarely suspected ante-mortem. Microangiopathy is an uncommon and distinct form of simple tumor pulmonary embolism. Here, we present a 52-year-old male with tumor thrombotic microangiopathy and pulmonary infarction, which might have originated from intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas. Multiple wedge-shaped consolidations were found initially and aggravated with cavitation. These CT features of pulmonary infarction were pathologically confirmed to result from pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy.

  19. Pulmonary sequestration causing severe cardiac failure requiring lobectomy in an extreme preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Nagar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a large, extralobar pulmonary sequestration in a preterm infant born at 25 weeks gestational age. A computed tomography (CT angiogram demonstrated that the arterial supply arose from the celiac trunk while an abnormally large, single left pulmonary vein drained the sequestration. This, along with the large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, created a double left to right shunt, which resulted in severe, high output cardiac failure. Despite aggressive medical management for 3 weeks, he remained critically ill and developed renal failure. Therefore, after multiple, extensive multi-disciplinary discussions with the family, resection was offered as the only possibility for survival. He underwent a left thoracotomy and resection of the extra-lobar sequestration, which was occupying the lower two-thirds of his left hemithorax. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient in the literature to undergo resection of an extra-lobar sequestration. Management challenges in terms of balancing the cardiac failure against the timing, approach and success of surgical intervention are also discussed along with a review of the literature.

  20. Laguna Negra Virus Infection Causes Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Turkish Hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, K; Scott, D; Safronetz, D; Brining, D L; Ebihara, H; Feldmann, H; LaCasse, R A

    2016-01-01

    Laguna Negra virus (LNV) is a New World hantavirus associated with severe and often fatal cardiopulmonary disease in humans, known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Five hamster species were evaluated for clinical and serologic responses following inoculation with 4 hantaviruses. Of the 5 hamster species, only Turkish hamsters infected with LNV demonstrated signs consistent with HPS and a fatality rate of 43%. Clinical manifestations in infected animals that succumbed to disease included severe and rapid onset of dyspnea, weight loss, leukopenia, and reduced thrombocyte numbers as compared to uninfected controls. Histopathologic examination revealed lung lesions that resemble the hallmarks of HPS in humans, including interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary edema, as well as generalized infection of endothelial cells and macrophages in major organ tissues. Histologic lesions corresponded to the presence of viral antigen in affected tissues. To date, there have been no small animal models available to study LNV infection and pathogenesis. The Turkish hamster model of LNV infection may be important in the study of LNV-induced HPS pathogenesis and development of disease treatment and prevention strategies.

  1. Challenges facing venous thromboembolism in China: more public awareness and research needed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chen; ZHAI Zhen-guo; Ying H Shen

    2010-01-01

    @@ Venous thromboembolism (VTE), composed of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), has been recognized as worldwide health problem not only in the western countries but also in Asian-Pacific regions. Tremendous progress has been made in recent years in identifying the potential risk factors, understanding the pathogenesis and developing therapeutic approaches for VTE. However, most of the currently available data are from American and European populations. Limited data from Chinese population are validated. Efforts should be made to increase public awareness, and promote clinical and translational research of VTE in modern China.

  2. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America.

  3. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Ceresetto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America.

  4. Observationally and Genetically High YKL-40 and Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in the General Population: Cohort and Mendelian Randomization Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Johansen, Julia S; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-05-01

    High baseline YKL-40 is associated with later development of ischemic stroke, but not with myocardial infarction. Whether high YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism is presently unknown. We tested the hypothesis that observationally and genetically high YKL-40 is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism in the general population. Cohort and Mendelian randomization studies in 96 110 individuals from the Danish general population, with measured plasma levels of YKL-40 (N=21 647) and CHI3L1 rs4950928 genotype (N=94 579). From 1977 to 2013, 1489 individuals developed pulmonary embolism, 2647 developed deep vein thrombosis, and 3750 developed venous thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis). For the 91% to 100% versus 0% to 33% YKL-40 percentile category, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio was 2.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.25-4.55) for pulmonary embolism, 1.98 (1.09-3.59) for deep vein thrombosis, and 2.13 (1.35-3.35) for venous thromboembolism. Compared with rs4950928 GG homozygosity, presence of C-allele was associated with a doubling (CG) or tripling (CC) in YKL-40 levels, but not with risk of venous thromboembolism. A doubling in YKL-40 was associated with a multifactorially adjusted observational hazard ratio for pulmonary embolism of 1.17 (1.00-1.38) and a genetic odds ratio of 0.97 (0.76-1.23). Corresponding risk estimates were 1.28 (1.12-1.47) observationally and 1.11 (0.91-1.35) genetically for deep vein thrombosis and 1.23 (1.10-1.38) observationally and 1.08 (0.92-1.27) genetically for venous thromboembolism. High YKL-40 levels were associated with a 2-fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism, but the association was not causal. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Initial experience of emergent intrapulmonary interventional therapy for acute pulmonary thromboembolism%经皮导管碎栓取栓联合局部溶栓治疗急性肺栓塞的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 唐忠志; 邱怀明; 杨剑虹; 程青; 邬明; 赵智刚; 陈晓娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨应用经皮导管碎栓、取栓联合局部溶栓治疗急性肺栓塞的可行性、疗效和安全性.方法 分析33例采用导管碎栓、取栓联合局部溶栓治疗急性肺栓塞患者的临床资料,观察患者临床症状、肺动脉平均压、血氧分压和肺动脉开通情况.结果 33例患者均成功行经皮导管碎栓、取栓联合局部溶栓治疗,有效率为90.9%,无严重手术相关并发症.结论 对急性肺栓塞患者行介入治疗是一种起效快、疗效确切、并发症少的方法,值得临床应用及推广.%Objective To investigate the methods,efficacy and security of intrapulmonary interventional therapy on acute pulmonary embolism. Methods 33 cases with acute pulmonary embolism were treated with intrapulmonary interventional therapy. The patients were treated with the catheter to mash and suck thrombosis, and then followed by transcatheter thrombolysis therapy. The clinical symptoms, pulmonary arterial recanalization, MPAP and PaO2 were observed before and after the procedure. The patients who had deep vein thrombus were putted the inferior caval vein filters at the same time. Results 33 cases showed clinical symptoms improvement immediately, and PaO2 increased while MAPA dropped 90.9 percent of cases had eliminated thrombus in pulmonary artery almost completely without related complications 9. 1 percent of cases had some thrombus still in the pulmonary artery branches but no obvious clinical symptoms. Conclusions The application of intrapulmonary interventional therapy and combine the thrombolysis medicine for the acute pulmonary embolism is feasible, effective and safe. It is worth to be used and promoted.

  6. [Negative D-dimers and exclusion of venous thromboembolism--own experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworakowska, Dorota; Kazimierska, Ewa; Weyer-Hepka, Jolanta; Skibowska-Bielińska, Anna; Swiatkowska-Stodulska, Renata; Lubińska, Monika; Czestochowska, Eugenia

    2005-12-01

    The assessment of D-dimer concentration has become essential step during diagnostic algorithm of venous thromboembolism (VTE). This test characterizes high sensitivity but limited specificity. Negative D-dimer with high probability excludes VTE. The aim of this study was to assess the percentage of patients treated in Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Haemostatic Disorders, Medical University of Gdańisk, who in spite of clinical signs of VTE showed normal D-dimer level. Between 2000 and 2004 in our department 57 cases with recent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were diagnosed, in 2 cases with co-existence of pulmonary embolism (PE). The D-dimer concentration was assessed in patients' plasma with the use of immunoturbidometry. Between 57 cases with VTE, 7 patients (12%) showed normal D-dimer level (<500 microg/ml). This group consisted of 4 men and 3 women, aged from 40 to 82 years (the mean age of 58 years). In all 7 cases DVT was diagnosed, in 2 patients with concomitent PE. The final diagnosis was confirmed by compression ultrasonography and pulmonary scintigraphy. Our analysis underlines the observation that occurrence of VTE and negative d-dimer concentration is possible and may probably be related to methodological limitations. However, the lack of increase of D-dimer could also be caused by fibrinolysis alteration.

  7. Elevated risk of venous thromboembolic events in patients with inflammatory myopathies

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    Nowak M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michał Nowak, Katarzyna Królak-Nowak, Aleksandra Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Jakub Fichna, Marcin Włodarczyk Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Abstract: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a multifactorial disease manifesting as either deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Its prevalence makes VTE a significant issue for both the individual – as a negative factor influencing the quality of life and prognosis – and the society due to economic burden. VTE is the third most common vascular disorder in Western countries, after myocardial infarction and stroke, making it a major cause of in-hospital mortality, responsible for 5%–10% of hospital deaths. Despite many studies conducted, only 50%–60% provoking factors have been identified, while the remaining 40%–50% have been classified as idiopathic or unprovoked. Chronic inflammatory disorders, with their underlying prothrombotic state, reveal an increased risk of VTE (six to eight times compared with the general population. Among the inflammatory disorders, we can identify inflammatory myopathies – a group of rare, chronic diseases featuring weakness and inflammation of muscles with periods of exacerbation and remission; their main classes are polymyositis and dermatomyositis. The objective of this review is to emphasize the need of VTE prophylaxis in individuals with inflammatory myopathies in order to reduce morbidity and mortality rates among those patients and improve their quality of life and prognosis. Keywords: deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, inflammation, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, prothrombotic state

  8. Causes of High Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Causes of High Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 If you have high ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes ...

  9. Initial pulmonary respiration causes massive diaphragm damage and hyper-CKemia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akinori; Kobayashi, Masanori; Kuraoka, Mutsuki; Yuasa, Katsutoshi; Yugeta, Naoko; Okada, Takashi; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of muscle degeneration in a lethal muscle disorder Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD) has not been fully elucidated. The dystrophic dog, a model of DMD, shows a high mortality rate with a marked increase in serum creatine kinase (CK) levels in the neonatal period. By measuring serum CK levels in cord and venous blood, we found initial pulmonary respiration resulted in massive diaphragm damage in the neonates and thereby lead to the high serum CK levels. Furthermore, molecular biological techniques revealed that osteopontin was prominently upregulated in the dystrophic diaphragm prior to the respiration, and that immediate-early genes (c-fos and egr-1) and inflammation/immune response genes (IL-6, IL-8, COX-2, and selectin E) were distinctly overexpressed after the damage by the respiration. Hence, we segregated dystrophic phases at the molecular level before and after mechanical damage. These molecules could be biomarkers of muscle damage and potential targets in pharmaceutical therapies.

  10. Immunization with recombinant Pb27 protein reduces the levels of pulmonary fibrosis caused by the inflammatory response against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Elis Araujo; Martins, Estefânia Mara do Nascimento; Boelone, Jankerle Neves; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; Goes, Alfredo Miranda

    2015-02-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis in which the host response to the infectious agent typically consists of a chronic granulomatous inflammatory process. This condition causes lesions that impair lung function and lead to chronic pulmonary insufficiency resulting from fibrosis development, which is a sequel and disabling feature of the disease. The rPb27 protein has been studied for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment against PCM. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown a protective effect of rPb27 against PCM. However, these studies have not determined whether rPb27 immunization prevents lung fibrosis. We therefore conducted this study to investigate fibrosis resulting from infection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the lungs of animals immunized with rPb27. Animals were immunized with rPb27 and subsequently infected with a virulent strain of P. brasiliensis. Fungal load was evaluated by counting colony-forming units, and Masson's trichrome staining was performed to evaluate fibrosis at 30 and 90 days post-infection. The levels of CCR7, active caspase 3, collagen and cytokines were analyzed. At the two time intervals mentioned, the rPb27 group showed lower levels of fibrosis on histology and reduced levels of collagen and the chemokine receptor CCR7 in the lungs. CCR7 was detected at higher levels in the control groups that developed very high levels of pulmonary fibrosis. Additionally, the immunized groups showed high levels of active caspase 3, IFN-γ, TGF-β and IL-10 in the early phase of P. brasiliensis infection. Immunization with Pb27, in addition to its protective effect, was shown to prevent pulmonary fibrosis.

  11. Pulmonary hypertension

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    Lauro Martins Júnior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension is a pathological condition associated with various diseases, which must be remembered by the physicians, since early diagnosis may anticipate and avoid dangerous complications and even death if appropriate measures were not taken. The relationship with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, important pathological process that is in increasing prevalence in developing countries, and leading position as cause of death, emphasizes its importance. Here are presented the classifications, pathophysiology, and general rules of treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  12. [Current and future diagnostic strategies in venous thromboembolic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel Botella, F; Labiós Gómez, M; Brasó Aznar, J V; Llavador Ros, G; Bort Martí, J

    1999-08-01

    Thromboembolic disease (TD), which includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is the most common acute cardiovascular condition after ischemic cardiopathy and stroke. It is often difficult to diagnose, as it is well-known that half of PE episodes appear are recognized while the patient is still alive and which appear in 30-40% of symptomatic patients. Nonetheless, there are two well-differentiated phases in the diagnosis of TD: the suspicion, and the diagnosis. The first is very important, and is within the competence of any physician. The second can be ratified when carrying out specific tests. We have developed successive steps in the two phases of diagnosis, we critically review the distinct parts currently implicated in the strategic diagnosis of TD. Finally, we analyze the new diagnostic techniques to substitute, possibly, angiography in many cases, and perhaps to include ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) pulmonary gammagraphy, once become generally available.

  13. 肺通气/灌注显像在慢性血栓栓塞性肺动脉高压诊断中的临床价值%Lung ventilation/perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in comparison with CT pulmonary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春; 王铁; 马展鸿; 丁毅; 曲士颖; 黄京伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the lung V/Q imaging in the diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).Methods Seventy-six patients (46 males,30 females,age 27-84 y) with clinically suspected CTEPH who had undergone lung V/Q imaging,CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA),pulmonary angiography (PA) and right heart cardiac catheterization were studied.The sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,positive predictive value and negative predictive value of lung V/Q imaging in detecting CTEPH were calculated and compared with those of CTPA.The x2 test was used for statistical analysis with SPSS 11.5.The distribution of involvement of segments in 47 patients with CTEPH was analyzed.Results Forty-seven patients had a final diagnosis of CTEPH and 29 had non-CTEPH etiology.The sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,positive predictive value and negative predictive value of lung V/Q imaging were 97.9% (46/47),86.2% (25/29),93.4% (71/76),92.0% (46/50) and 96.2% (25/26),while those of CTPA were 78.7% (37/47),93.1% (27/29),84.2% (64/76),94.9% (37/39) and 73.0% (27/37),respectively.The sensitivity (x2 =5.818,P=0.012) and negative predictive value (x2 =5.693,P =0.017) for lung V/Q imaging were significantly higher than those of CTPA.V/Q imaging could identify patients with CTEPH from those with idiopathic PAH and familial PAH based on the almost normal ventilation imaging.The lung perfusion SPECT imaging detected 585 (62.2%) of involved segments among 940 segments in 47 patients with CTEPH,with an average of 12.4 involved segments in each patient.The number of involved segments in the right lung was significantly higher than that in the left lung (36.2% (340/940) vs 26.1% (245/940) ; x2 =40.85,P<0.01).Conclusions Lung V/Q imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of CTEPH and in identification of CTEPH from other types of PAH.A normal V/Q imaging can effectively exclude CTEPH.In addition,V/Q imaging can provide more diagnostic information in patients with a

  14. Familial Primary Pulmonary Hypertension (Gene PPH1) Is Caused by Mutations in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor–II Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Zemin; Morse, Jane H.; Slager, Susan L.; Cuervo, Nieves; Moore, Keith J.; Venetos, George; Kalachikov, Sergey; Cayanis, Eftihia; Stuart G Fischer; Barst, Robyn J.; Hodge, Susan E.; Knowles, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Familial primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that has reduced penetrance and that has been mapped to a 3-cM region on chromosome 2q33 (locus PPH1). The phenotype is characterized by monoclonal plexiform lesions of proliferating endothelial cells in pulmonary arterioles. These lesions lead to elevated pulmonary-artery pressures, right-ventricular failure, and death. Although primary pulmonary hypertension is rare, cases secondary to known etiologies are more co...

  15. Inhaled anticholinergic use and all-cause mortality among elderly Medicare beneficiaries with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmera M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mayank Ajmera,1 Chan Shen,2 Xiaoyun Pan,1 Patricia A Findley,3 George Rust,4 Usha Sambamoorthi1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Systems and Policy, School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA; 2Department of Biostatistics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX, USA; 3School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA; 4Department of Family Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between use of inhaled anticholinergics and all-cause mortality among elderly individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, health, functional status, smoking, and obesity. Methods: We used a retrospective longitudinal panel data design. Data were extracted for multiple years (2002–2009 of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS linked with fee-for-service Medicare claims. Generic and brand names of inhaled anticholinergics were used to identify inhaled anticholinergic utilization from the self-reported prescription medication files. All-cause mortality was assessed using the vital status variable. Unadjusted group differences in mortality rates were tested using the chi-square statistic. Multivariable logistic regressions with independent variables entered in separate blocks were used to analyze the association between inhaled anticholinergic use and all-cause mortality. All analyses accounted for the complex design of the MCBS. Results: Overall, 19.4% of the elderly Medicare beneficiaries used inhaled anticholinergics. Inhaled anticholinergic use was significantly higher (28.5% among those who reported poor health compared with those reporting excellent or very good health (12.7%. Bivariate analyses indicated that inhaled anticholinergic use was associated with significantly higher rates of all-cause mortality (18.7% compared with nonusers (13.6%. However

  16. Exome sequencing identifies a novel intronic mutation in ENG that causes recurrence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saji, Naoki; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Miyamoto, Ryosuke; Sato, Takahiro; Morino, Hiroyuki; Orlacchio, Antonio; Oki, Ryosuke; Kimura, Kazumi; Kaji, Ryuji

    2015-05-15

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) occasionally can be discovered in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is one of the complications in HHT and occasionally is causative for life-threatening embolic stroke. Several genetic defects have been reported in patients with HHT. The broad spectrum of phenotype and intrafamilial phenotype variations, including age-at-onset of vascular events, often make an early diagnosis difficult. We present here a Japanese family with a novel intronic heterozygous mutation of ENG, which was identified using whole exome sequencing (WES). The intronic mutation, IVS3+4delAGTG, results in in-frame deletion of exon 3 and would produce a shorter ENG protein lacking the extracellular forty-seven amino acid sequences, which is located within the orphan domain. Our findings highlight the importance of the domain for the downstream signaling pathway of transforming growth factor-beta and bone morphogenesis protein superfamily receptors. Considering the phenotype variations and the available treatment for vascular complications, an early diagnosis using genetic testing, including WES, should be considered for individuals at risk of HHT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Profile of betrixaban and its potential in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan NC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Noel C Chan,1,2 Vinai Bhagirath,1,3 John W Eikelboom1,3,41Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Department of Haematology, Monash Medical Center, Clayton, VIC, Australia; 3Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute, 4Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, CanadaAbstract: Venous thromboembolism (VTE, which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common and potentially preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and warfarin have been the cornerstone of VTE prevention and treatment but are being replaced by recently approved non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs: dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. The NOACs are at least as effective and as safe as heparins and warfarin for VTE prevention and treatment and are more convenient because they have a low propensity for food and drug interactions and are given in fixed doses without routine coagulation monitoring. The remaining limitations of currently available NOACs include their dependence on renal and hepatic function for clearance, and the lack of an approved antidote. Betrixaban is a new NOAC with distinct pharmacological characteristics: minimal renal clearance, minimal hepatic metabolism, and long half-life. It has undergone successful Phase II studies in orthopedic thromboprophylaxis, and in stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Currently, it is being evaluated in a Phase III trial of extended thromboprophylaxis in medical patients (APEX study. In this article, we describe the development of betrixaban, review its pharmacological profile, discuss the results of clinical trials, and examine its potential for VTE prevention and treatment.Keywords: betrixaban, factor Xa inhibitors, anticoagulant, pharmacology, venous thromboembolism

  18. Venous thromboembolism: have we made headway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a primary cause of preventable hospital death. The need for effective VTE prophylaxis has been recognized by the Surgical Care Improvement Program (SCIP) and the Joint Commission, which is offering VTE prevention as a core measure set, starting October 1, 2009. The adoption of SCIP VTE measures and mandate to publicly report these rates offers the opportunity to improve the use of prophylaxis in surgical patients and reduce VTE-related morbidity, mortality, and costs. Essential to this reduction is a team approach to implementing real-time interventions. Crucial to the success of the team is early identification of each patient's VTE risk and a mechanism to provide key information to ensure that the physician prescribes appropriate prophylaxis. In addition, it may be the nurse who is responsible for ensuring that a patient receives the appropriate prophylaxis, as well as being the first clinician to observe the clinical signs of a VTE event.

  19. Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy for Pulmonary Hypertension Before Considering Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooperkamp, Hannah; Mehta, Inder; Fary, David; Bates, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: In cases of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), referral for possible surgical intervention is important because surgery can be curative. Surgery necessitates cardiopulmonary bypass and deep circulatory arrest with pulmonary thrombectomy and bilateral endarterectomy (PTE). If surgery fails, lung transplant is the next best surgical option. Medical treatment is also an important adjunct. Case Report: A 35-year-old female presented 3 months after a pulmonary embolus was found to be completely occluding her left pulmonary artery. She was found to have pulmonary hypertension with a pulmonary artery pressure of 81/33 mmHg, with a mean pressure of 52 mmHg. The right atrial pressure was also severely elevated at 29 mmHg, and her echocardiogram revealed severe tricuspid regurgitation and severe right ventricular dysfunction. She underwent PTE and postoperatively was followed by the heart failure team. Her 6-minute walk distance improved from 396 meters at 1 month to 670 meters at 7 months, and her pulmonary artery pressure improved significantly to 55/17 mmHg with a mean pressure of 31 mmHg. The patient's right atrial pressure also improved significantly from 29 mmHg to 13 mmHg. Conclusion: CTEPH is likely underrecognized, and patients with pulmonary hypertension or a history of pulmonary embolism should be screened for CTEPH. This case illustrates the surgical treatment for CTEPH and discusses alternative and adjunctive treatments. Residual pulmonary hypertension after PTE occurs in approximately 35% of patients. Overall, 4-year mortality rates after surgery appear to be approximately 15%, and mortality rates correlate with the postoperative pulmonary vascular resistance. Recognition of chronic pulmonary thromboembolic disease as the etiology of pulmonary hypertension warrants evaluation for surgery.

  20. Acute effects of riociguat in borderline or manifest pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Hossein A; Staehler, Gerd; Grünig, Ekkehard; Halank, Michael; Mitrovic, Veselin; Unger, Sigrun; Mueck, Wolfgang; Frey, Reiner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Schermuly, Ralph T; Behr, Juergen

    2015-06-01

    Riociguat is the first oral soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator shown to improve pulmonary hemodynamics in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH). This pilot study assessed the impact of a single dose of riociguat on hemodynamics, gas exchange, and lung function in patients with PH associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Adults with COPD-associated borderline or manifest PH (pulmonary vascular resistance > 270 dyn·s·cm(-5), mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 23 mmHg, ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] to forced vital capacity 70%, and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood > 50 and ≤ 55 mmHg, respectively) received riociguat 1 or 2.5 mg during right heart catheterization. Twenty-two patients completed the study (11 men, 11 women, aged 56-82 years; 1-mg group: n = 10 [mean FEV1: 43.1%]; 2.5-mg group: n = 12 [mean FEV1: 41.2%]). Riociguat caused significant improvements (P mmHg [-11.44%]; 2.5 mg: -4.83 mmHg [-14.76%]) and pulmonary vascular resistance (1 mg: -58.32 dyn·s·cm(-5) [-15.35%]; 2.5 mg: -123.8 dyn·s·cm(-5) [-32.96%]). No relevant changes in lung function or gas exchange were observed. Single doses of riociguat were well tolerated and showed promising hemodynamic effects without untoward effects on gas exchange or lung function in patients with COPD-associated PH. Placebo-controlled studies of chronic treatment with riociguat are warranted.

  1. The inflammatory response mechanism in experimental acute pulmonary thromboembolism rats and the intervention effect of atorvastatin%实验性肺血栓栓塞症大鼠肺炎症反应的变化及阿托伐他汀的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蓓蓓; 刘现亮; 赵希军; 陈良华; 姚力

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the inflammatory response mechanism in experimental acute pulmonary thromboembolism rats and the intervention effect of atorvastatin.Methods Forty-two 6-8 weeks-old male Wista rats were randomly divided into Sham group(n =6),PTE model group(n =18),Statin group(n =18).The PTE models were established by intravenous injection of autologous blood clots.Rats in Statin group were intragastrically perfused with atorvastatin [10 mg/(kg · day)] for 7 days and rats in the other two groups were given equal saline.The arterial blood was extracted for bloodgas analysis.The pathological changes of the lung were examined under a light microscope.By using Immunohistochemistry,the expression levels of P38MAPK and TNF-α were detected.Results The PaO2 degree in PTE group and Statin group were significantly lower than that in Sham group (P < 0.05),and Statin group was significantly higher than PTE group (P < 0.05).The levels of P38 MAPK and TNF-α expression in lung tissue were significantly higher in PTE group and Statin group than in Sham group(P < 0.05).But the expression levels in Statin group were significantly lower than that in PTE group(P <0.05).Conclusions The acute pulmonary thromboembolism may be related to P38MAPK pathway,P38MAPK and TNF-α were activated.Atorvastatin can reduce the expression levels of P38MAPK and TNF-o and alleviate the inflammatory response.Atorvastatin should be considered in acute PTE therapy.%目的 探讨实验性肺血栓栓塞症大鼠肺炎症反应的变化及阿托伐他汀的干预作用.方法 42只大鼠随机分为假手术组(Sham组)、肺栓塞模型组(PTE组)、阿托伐他汀干预组(Statin组).采用自体血栓回输法建立肺栓塞大鼠动物模型,取动脉血行血气分析,取肺组织行常规病理检查,免疫组化测定P38促分裂原活化蛋白激酶(P38MAPK)及TNF-α在肺组织中的表达.结果 PTE组明显缺氧,且肺组织炎症损伤较Statin组明显.PTE组肺组织P38MAPK、TNF

  2. Thrombocytosis in asplenia syndrome with congenital heart disease: a previously unrecognized risk factor for thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Kenichiro; Joo, Kunitaka; Ohga, Shouichi; Nagata, Hazumu; Ikeda, Kazuyuki; Muneuchi, Jun; Watanabe, Mamie; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-09-01

    Thrombocytosis and thromboembolic complications occur after splenectomy. However, there is no previous report investigating the presence of thrombocytosis and its association with thromboembolic events in patients having asplenia syndrome with congenital heart disease. Enrolled were 161 consecutive patients with functionally single ventricle who underwent cardiac catheterization between 1997 and 2010. They were divided into two groups: patients having asplenia (Group A, n=46) and patients having no asplenia (Group B, n=115). Aspirin therapy was employed in all patients after surgical interventions except for pulmonary artery banding. We retrospectively reviewed the platelet counts at each seven stage of cardiac catheterization (for pre- and postoperative evaluation of the first palliation, Glenn operation, and Fontan operation, and for late evaluation after Fontan operation), incidence of thromboembolic events, and other possible risk factors for thromboembolism. The median platelet counts in Group A were consistently higher than those in Group B at any of the seven stages of cardiac catheterizations (pthrombocytosis is present in patients with asplenia syndrome. It may greatly contribute to the development of thromboembolism during the management of congenital heart disease than expected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The economic burden of incident venous thromboembolism in the United States: A review of estimated attributable healthcare costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D.; Nelson, Richard E.; Nyarko, Kwame A.; Richardson, Lisa C.; Raskob, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity. In this study, we summarize estimates of per-patient and aggregate medical costs or expenditures attributable to incident VTE in the United States. Per-patient estimates of incremental costs can be calculated as the difference in costs between patients with and without an event after controlling for differences in underlying health status. We identified estimates of the incremental per-patient costs of acute VTEs and VTE-related complications, including recurrent VTE, post-thrombotic syndrome, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and anticoagulation-related adverse drug events. Based on the studies identified, treatment of an acute VTE on average appears to be associated with incremental direct medical costs of $12,000 to $15,000 (2014 US dollars) among first-year survivors, controlling for risk factors. Subsequent complications are conservatively estimated to increase cumulative costs to $18,000–23,000 per incident case. Annual incident VTE events conservatively cost the US healthcare system $7–10 billion each year for 375,000 to 425,000 newly diagnosed, medically treated incident VTE cases. Future studies should track long-term costs for cohorts of people with incident VTE, control for comorbid conditions that have been shown to be associated with VTE, and estimate incremental medical costs for people with VTE who do not survive. The costs associated with treating VTE can be used to assess the potential economic benefit and cost-savings from prevention efforts, although costs will vary among different patient groups. PMID:26654719

  4. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yochai Adir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a major complication of several haematological disorders. Chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPDs associated with pulmonary hypertension have been included in group five of the clinical classification for pulmonary hypertension, corresponding to pulmonary hypertension for which the aetiology is unclear and/or multifactorial. The aim of this review is to discuss the epidemiology, pathogenic mechanism and treatment approaches of the more common forms of pulmonary hypertension in the context of CMPD's: chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, precapillary pulmonary hypertension and drug-induced PH.

  5. Hypereosinophilia with Multiple Thromboembolic Cerebral Infarcts and Focal Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Hyun Young [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    We report a case of hypereosinophilia causing multiple areas of cerebral infarcts. A 52-year-old Korean man presented with dysarthria and weakness in both arms. A brain MRI revealed multiple acute infarcts in the distal border zone with focal intracerebral hemorrhage, whereas a cerebral angiogram was not remarkable. The eosinophil count was 5,500/{mu}L and was accompanied by elevated cardiac enzyme levels. The pattern of cerebral infarcts and laboratory results suggest a thromboembolic infarction associated with hypereosinophilia.

  6. Cinacalcet for hypercalcemia caused by pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma producing parathyroid hormone-related Peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bech, A.; Smolders, K.; Telting, D.; Boer, H. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current treatments for hypercalcemia caused by lung cell carcinomas producing parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTH-rp) have limited efficacy, probably because of their lack of effect on PTH-rp secretion. In this case study we explored the efficacy of the calcimimetic cinacalcet as su

  7. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi;

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  8. Microalbuminuria and Risk of Venous Thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Matthews, Abigail G.; Navis, Gerjan; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Meer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Context Microalbuminuria (albuminuria 30-300 mg per 24-hour urine collection) is a well-known risk marker for arterial thromboembolism. It is assumed that microalbuminuria reflects generalized endothelial dysfunction. Hence, microalbuminuria may also predispose for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Obje

  9. Chronic allergic inflammation causes vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in BMPR2 hypomorph and wild-type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Mushaben

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2 gene have been identified in patients with heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH; however, disease penetrance is low, suggesting additional factors play a role. Inflammation is associated with PAH and vascular remodeling, but whether allergic inflammation triggers vascular remodeling in individuals with BMPR2 mutations is unknown. Our goal was to determine if chronic allergic inflammation would induce more severe vascular remodeling and PAH in mice with reduced BMPR-II signaling. Groups of Bmpr2 hypomorph and wild-type (WT Balb/c/Byj mice were exposed to house dust mite (HDM allergen, intranasally for 7 or 20 weeks to generate a model of chronic inflammation. HDM exposure induced similar inflammatory cell counts in all groups compared to controls. Muscularization of pulmonary arterioles and arterial wall thickness were increased after 7 weeks HDM, more severe at 20 weeks, but similar in both groups. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP was measured by direct cardiac catheterization to assess PAH. RVSP was similarly increased in both HDM exposed groups after 20 weeks compared to controls, but not after 7 weeks. Airway hyperreactivity (AHR to methacholine was also assessed and interestingly, at 20 weeks, was more severe in HDM exposed Bmpr2 hypomorph mice versus WT. We conclude that chronic allergic inflammation caused PAH and while the severity was mild and similar between WT and Bmpr2 hypomorph mice, AHR was enhanced with reduced BMPR-II signaling. These data suggest that vascular remodeling and PAH resulting from chronic allergic inflammation occurs independently of BMPR-II pathway alterations.

  10. Combined CT Angiography and CT Venography in Thromboembolic disease: clinical impact; Angio TC y flebo TC combinados en el diagnostico de la enfermedad tramboembolica: impacto clinico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzas, R.; Migueles, Y.; Gomez, S.; Mallo, R.; Garcia-Tejedor, J. L.; Diaz Vega, M. J. [Complejo Hospitalario Xerar-Cies. Vigo. Pontevedra (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Combined CT Venography and Pulmonary Angiography was described in 1998 as a tool for diagnostic Thromboembolic Disease. The purpose is to relate our own experience with this technique in a population with suspected pulmonary embolism. 46 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism underwent combined CT Venography after Pulmonary CT Angiography to depict Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT). CT Venography where obtained with a 3 minutes delay from injection, without additional intravenous contrast, from upper abdomen to fibular head. A prospective study from emergency reports where used. The reports where aimed by nine different radiologist at diary emergency room (images where not retrospective review). We report if a pulmonary embolus or deep venous thrombus or another alternative diagnostic where done. An endo luminal thrombus in any pulmonary arteries was assessed as a positive study for PE. A Thrombus in the leg veins or in an abdominal vein without diminished size of vein was assessed as an acute DVT. In those patients with a CT negative to Thromboembolic Disease was the clinician who decide if more proves where needed. Those patients without evidence in CT of Thromboembolic Disease where asked for symptoms related to the episode in a 3 months period after initial CT. Patients free of symptoms for 3 months without anticoagulation therapy where considered true negative for CT. CT shows Thromboembolic Disease in 23 of 46 patients. 21PE, 14 DVT 2 of 14 patients with DVT don't show PE, CT excluded thromboembolic disease in 23 patients and in 15 of those patients an alternative diagnostic was shown. In 22 of those 23 patients CT excluded correctly Thromboembolic Disease. One patient result in a false negative CT, Pulmonary Angiography of that patient shows us a subsegmentary embolus. (Author) 9 refs.

  11. Venous thromboembolism and subsequent hospitalisation due to acute arterial cardiovascular events: a 20-year cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Horvath-Puho, Erzsebet; Pedersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    of myocardial infarction and stroke in 25,199 patients with deep venous thrombosis, 16,925 patients with pulmonary embolism, and 163,566 population controls. FINDINGS: For patients with deep venous thrombosis, the relative risks varied from 1.60 for myocardial infarction (95% CI 1.35-1.91) to 2.19 (1......-up, with 20-40% increases in risk for arterial cardiovascular events. Relative risks were similar for those with provoked and unprovoked deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. INTERPRETATION: Patients with venous thromboembolism have a substantially increased long-term risk of subsequent arterial......BACKGROUND: In some studies, venous thromboembolism has been associated with atherosclerosis and with the risk of arterial cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Other studies, however, do not show this association. To help clarify these discrepant findings, we aimed...

  12. Role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in evaluating the efficiency of targeted drug therapy for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension%心肺运动试验在评估慢性血栓栓塞性肺动脉高压患者靶向药物治疗效果中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚群英; 柳志红; 赵智慧; 顾晴; 罗勤; 马秀平; 熊长明; 倪新海

    2015-01-01

    目的:以心肺运动试验(CPET)评估慢性血栓栓塞性肺动脉高压(CTEPH)患者接受肺动脉高压靶向药物治疗后运动能力有无改善。方法2011年1月至2014年5月在阜外医院心内科肺血管病房住院的14例CTEPH患者,接受肺动脉靶向药物治疗3~12个月,治疗前后均进行CPET评估其运动能力。结果 CTEPH患者接受靶向药物治疗3~12个月后峰值氧耗量和氧脉搏均有明显改善(P<0.05);潮气末肺泡二氧化碳分压明显增加(P<0.001);分钟通气量/二氧化碳排出量(VE/VCO2)斜率及VE/VCO2最低值均显著下降(P<0.05)。但世界卫生组织功能分级较治疗前无明显改变(P>0.05);超声心动图检测右心室舒张末期内径及其与左心室舒张末期内径之比、肺动脉收缩压无明显差异(P>0.05);N端脑钠肽前体水平在治疗前后无显著性差异(P>0.05)。结论 CPET是评估CTEPH患者肺动脉高压靶向药物治疗后运动耐力的良好工具。%ObjectiveTo investigate the value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in the evaluation of the motor function improvement in the patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) after targeted therapeutic drugs.Methods Fourteen CTEPH patients admitted to the Center for Pulmonary Vascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital from January 2011 to May 2014 were enrolled in this study. They all received targeted drug therapy for 3 to 12 months. CPET was employed to evaluate their motor functions before and after the treatment.Results Significant improvements were observed in peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2), oxygen consumption/heart rate peak (VO2/HR peak), along with remarkably reduced minute ventilation volume/CO2 production (VE/VCO2) slope, the lowest VE/VCO2 ratio, and the increased levels of end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PetCO2) after 3 to 12 months’ treatment with targeted drug therapy for pulmonary arterial

  13. [Risk of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: Reality, actuality and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerotziafas, Grigoris T; Elalamy, Ismail

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and vice versa. Pulmonary embolism is the second cause of death in cancer patients. Tumor progression is associated with coagulation activation. The pathogenesis of thrombosis during cancer is particularly complex stemming from multiple connections of this disease with both systems of inflammation and hemostasis. The risk of VTE depends on cancer type and the stage of the disease, the anticancer treatments and the time since cancer diagnosis as well as on the presence of patient-related risk factors (i.e. age, obesity, previous history of VTE, underlying diseases…). The presence of other precipitating factors and the duration of the exposure to them are also key elements in the assessment of such a thrombotic risk. It is therefore important to identify all the VTE risk factors to identify patients at high vascular risk and to determine the period during which this risk is significantly increased. The integration of biomarkers of hypercoagulability in proposed risk assessment models for VTE will improve their capacity to identify patients eligible for pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. In this review, we report the current status of knowledge on the connection between cancer and hypercoagulability, the numerous risk factors for VTE must be identified in cancer patients and the best methodology to build a more accurate assessment of this vascular risk in such a complex medical context.

  14. Tuberculous liver abscess in an immunocompetent child with pulmonary tuberculosis as a cause of fever of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Bahar; Somer, Ayper; Hatipoğlu, Nevin; Keser, Melike; Yekeler, Ensar; Gün, Feryal; Güllüoğlu, Mine; Salman, Tansu; Salman, Nuran

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of FUO. A case of prolonged fever with hepatic and pulmonary tuberculosis as a final diagnosis is herein presented. A 4-year-old, otherwise healthy boy presented with an axillary temperature of up to 39.5ºC for the previous 3 weeks. His medical history revealed an occasional increase in body temperature up to 38.5ºC for the last 6 months. Physical examination revealed coarse breath sounds on the basal lung area. Chest X-ray showed mediastinal lymphadenomegaly and computed tomography revealed paratracheal conglomerated lymph nodes and a groundglass appearance on the right lung. There were multiple contrast-enhanced, hypoechoic nodules with central necrosis in the liver parenchyma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Open liver biopsy yielded chronic granulomatous inflammation compatible with pathological findings of tuberculosis infection. The culture specimen was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patient improved rapidly after antituberculous therapy was initiated. Tuberculosis, especially in its disseminated form, poses a distinct diagnostic challenge in cases of prolonged fever with unproven etiology, and thus persistence should be exercised in disclosing the cause of such fevers.

  15. Thromboembolic events in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farjah H Algahtani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease is characterized by a chronic inflammatory condition, and is accompanied by abnormalities in coagulation and a hyper-coagulable state. This study was conducted to examine the risk factors for developing Thromboembolic Events in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD in a population with prevalent consanguinity. Patients and Methods: Patients with a definitive diagnosis of IBD who were seen in the gastroenterology clinic of King Khalid University Hospital (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from 2010- to 2012, were asked to participate in this prospective cohort study, and were followed for one 1 year. Data was collected using specifically designed case report forms (CRF by trained research personnel. Results: A total of 100 Saudi patients with IBD were studied. There were 51 (51% women and the mean ± standard deviation (SD age of the group was 31.24 ± 10.78 years. Those with Crohn's disease constituted 72% of the patients, and 28% had ulcerative colitis. Eight patients (8% had at least one Thrombotic Event ([six deep venous thrombosis (DVT, and two pulmonary embolism (PE]. Family history of deep venous thrombosis was present in 5%, and family history of pulmonary embolism (PE in 4% of the patients. After adjusting for age and gender, a family history of Thrombotic event was identified as to be the only statistically significant predictor of thrombosis in IBD patients (RR = 9.22, 95% CI: 2.10-–40.43. Conclusion: In a population with high consanguinity, Thromboembolic events (DVT and PE had a prevalence of 8% among IBD patients, positive family history of pulmonary embolism was a predictor of thrombosis. Further studies are needed to explore the role of genetic factors in this population.

  16. Thromboembolic events in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algahtani, Farjah H; Farag, Youssef M K; Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Alazzam, Nahla A; Aleem, Aamer S; Jabri, Fouad F; Rajab, Mohammad H; Shoukri, Mohamed M

    2016-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) is characterized by a chronic inflammatory condition, and is accompanied by abnormalities in coagulation and a hyper-coagulable state. This study was conducted to examine the risk factors for developing Thromboembolic Events in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in a population with prevalent consanguinity. Patients with a definitive diagnosis of IBD who were seen in the gastroenterology clinic of King Khalid University Hospital (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) from 2010- to 2012, were asked to participate in this prospective cohort study, and were followed for one 1 year. Data was collected using specifically designed case report forms (CRF) by trained research personnel. A total of 100 Saudi patients with IBD were studied. There were 51 (51%) women and the mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of the group was 31.24 ± 10.78 years. Those with Crohn's disease constituted 72% of the patients, and 28% had ulcerative colitis. Eight patients (8%) had at least one Thrombotic Event ([six deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and two pulmonary embolism (PE)]. Family history of deep venous thrombosis was present in 5%, and family history of pulmonary embolism (PE) in 4% of the patients. After adjusting for age and gender, a family history of Thrombotic event was identified as to be the only statistically significant predictor of thrombosis in IBD patients (RR = 9.22, 95% CI: 2.10--40.43). In a population with high consanguinity, Thromboembolic events (DVT and PE) had a prevalence of 8% among IBD patients, positive family history of pulmonary embolism was a predictor of thrombosis. Further studies are needed to explore the role of genetic factors in this population.

  17. Distribution of clinical phenotypes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by biomass and tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpe, Rafael; Sanjuán López, Pilar; Cano Jiménez, Esteban; Castro Añón, Olalla; Pérez de Llano, Luis A

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to biomass smoke is a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is unknown whether COPD caused by biomass smoke has different characteristics to COPD caused by tobacco smoke. To determine clinical differences between these two types of the disease. Retrospective observational study of 499 patients with a diagnosis of COPD due to biomass or tobacco smoke. The clinical variables of both groups were compared. There were 122 subjects (24.4%) in the biomass smoke group and 377 (75.5%) in the tobacco smoke group. In the tobacco group, the percentage of males was higher (91.2% vs 41.8%, P<.0001) and the age was lower (70.6 vs 76.2 years, P<.0001). Body mass index and FEV1% values were higher in the biomass group (29.4±5.7 vs 28.0±5.1, P=.01, and 55.6±15.6 vs 47.1±17.1, P<.0001, respectively). The mixed COPD-asthma phenotype was more common in the biomass group (21.3% vs 5%, P<.0001), although this difference disappeared when corrected for gender. The emphysema phenotype was more common in the tobacco group (45.9% vs 31.9%, P=.009). The prevalence of the chronic bronchitis and exacerbator phenotypes, the comorbidity burden and the rate of hospital admissions were the same in both groups. Differences were observed between COPD caused by biomass and COPD caused by tobacco smoke, although these may be attributed in part to uneven gender distribution between the groups. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulmonary Agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Rakesh K; Madan, Arun; Chawla, Aditya; Arora, Harsh Nandini; Chawla, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral opaque lung with ipsilateral mediastinal shift is an uncommon cause of respiratory distress in newborn which can be found on simple radiograph of the chest. Pulmonary agenesis is a rare cause of unilateral opaque lung in the newborn. Nearly 50% cases of pulmonary agenesis are associated with other congenital defects including cardiovascular, skeletal, gastrointestinal or genitourinary systems. We report an infant with agenesis of the right lung associated with other congenital anomalies.

  19. Bacteria-associated haemophagocytic syndrome and septic pulmonary embolism caused by Burkholderia cepacia complex in a woman with chronic granulomatous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Michi; Sugawara, Kana; Tatsuzawa, Osamu; Kitagawa, Michihiro; Murashima, Atsuko; Yamaguchi, Koushi

    2007-05-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections with certain types of bacteria and fungi. Presented herein is the case of a 29 year old woman with CGD who suffered from bacteria-associated haemophagocytic syndrome and a septic pulmonary embolism following a uterine infection and sepsis, caused by Burkholderia cepacia complex.

  20. A Case of Recurrent Breast Cancer Identified by Pulmonary Tumor Thrombotic Microangiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Abe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM is a rare, cancer-related, pulmonary complication that causes hypoxia and pulmonary hypertension. We report on a 42-year-old woman who was diagnosed with recurrent breast cancer that was detected due to the presence of PTTM. Eleven months after surgery for heterochronous bilateral cancer of the left breast, she developed progressive dyspnea but computerized tomography showed no pulmonary thromboembolism, and a transthoracic echocardiography revealed mild pulmonary hypertension. She was diagnosed with PTTM by cytology from pulmonary artery catheterization and perfusion lung scintigraphy. Also, the patients complained of back pain after admission, bone scintigraphy showed multiple bone metastases. Despite the early diagnosis of PTTM, her platelet count decreased, her performance status rapidly deteriorated, and her dyspnea worsened. Thus, we could not treat her with chemotherapy. She died due to respiratory failure 19 days after admission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of recurrent breast cancer identified by the manifestation of PTTM. Although PTTM is a rare phenomenon, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute dyspnea or pulmonary hypertension in patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, upon diagnosis, the patient should be referred to a cardiologist as soon as possible.

  1. Psoriasis complicated with venous thromboembolism: report of two cases and a literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yun-xia; CHEN Gang; ZHAO Rui-zhen; ZHANG Xiao-guang

    2011-01-01

    Cases of psoriasis complicated with venous thromboembolism are rarely reported. Here, we report two cases and review the current literature on the subject. Two patients with long-standing severe psoriasis presented with chest pain,shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. The patients were diagnosed using lung ventilation-perfusion scans or computed tomographic pulmonary angiography. Anticoagulation or thrombolytic therapy was initiated, and long-term continuous anticoagulation with warfarin prevented any recurrences.

  2. HTA of genetic testing for susceptibility to venous thromboembolism in Italiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betti Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a condition in which a thrombus (a solid mass of blood constituents forms in a vein. VTE represents an extremely common medical problem manifested as either deep venous thrombosis (DVT or pulmonary embolism (PE affecting apparently healthy as well as hospitalized patients. Often PE is the physiopathological consequence of the DVT of low extremities vessels, in particular of the calve......

  3. METABOLIC DISORDERS AND PULMONARY EMBOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ya. Vasiltseva

    2015-01-01

    patients (40%. In the group body mass index (BMI was (29.24 ± 7.87 kg/m2 . Obesity diagnosed in 157patients (20.9%. It occurs in24.7% of cases for women andin 15.2% of cases for men. If a patient had obesity grade 3 was found to increase the risk of a massive thromboembolism in 3.27 times (OR = 3.27; 95% confidence interval [1.60–6.69]; p = 0.001 and an increase in the risk of fatal thromboembolism 3.56 times(OR = 3.56; 95% CI [1.73–7.43]; p = 0.001. It does not detect the influence of obesity 1 and 2 degrees on the development of a massive pulmonary embolism, or PE, which would cause the patient's death. Significant effect of type 2 diabetes was found on the development of the heavy flow of fatal pulmonary embolism. 

  4. Photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms which cause pulmonary diseases with infrared light: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ilaiáli S.; Geralde, Mariana C.; Salina, Ana C.; Medeiros, Alexandra I.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Inada, Natalia M.

    2014-03-01

    Lower respiratory infections are among the leading causes of death worldwide. In this study, it was evaluated the interaction of indocyanine green, a photosensitizer activated by infrared light, with alveolar macrophages and the effectiveness of the photodynamic therapy using this compound against Streptococcus pneumoniae . Initial experiments analyzed indocyanine green toxicity to alveolar macrophages in the dark with different drug concentrations and incubation times, and macrophage viability was obtained with the MTT method. The average of the results showed viability values below 90% for the two highest concentrations. Experiments with Streptococcus pneumoniae showed photodynamic inactivation with 10 μM indocyanine green solution. Further experiments with the bacteria in co-culture with AM will be conducted verifying the photodynamic inactivation effectiveness of the tested drug concentrations and incubation periods using infrared light.

  5. Erythema nodosum caused by ascariasis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae pulmonary infection--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Lis-Swiety, Anna; Kamińska-Winciorek, Grazyna; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2009-12-01

    Erythema nodosum belongs to a group of relatively common hypodermal inflammations. It occurs mainly among women, particularly young women. The etiology of the disease is not clear. Most frequently, changes appear on the surface of the frontal part of the shins. Initially, red nodules change in color to dark brown and then to yellow and green. There is neither dissolution nor cicatrization of the exanthema. Regression is frequent. We present a case of erythema nodosum caused by Ascaris lumbricoides infection as well as by an early Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection, whose etiology has rarely been described in the literature. We were not able to confirm which factor was responsible for the occurrence of the skin changes as treatment of both infections was effective and all skin changes later disappeared completely. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that precise diagnosis of a patient and the search for etiologic factors, even rare ones, are crucial to obtain good results with treatment of erythema nodosum.

  6. Cinacalcet for Hypercalcemia Caused by Pulmonary Squamous Cell Carcinoma Producing Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Bech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current treatments for hypercalcemia caused by lung cell carcinomas producing parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTH-rp have limited efficacy, probably because of their lack of effect on PTH-rp secretion. In this case study we explored the efficacy of the calcimimetic cinacalcet as suppressor of PTH-rp production. Patient: A 57-year-old male with severe and recurrent hypercalcemia induced by a PTH-rp-producing squamous cell lung carcinoma, stage cT4N3M1b, poorly responding to standard treatments. Results: Serum PTH-rp levels were not affected by saline, calcitonin or zoledronate. PTH-rp decreased during chemotherapy and cinacalcet monotherapy. The combination of chemotherapy plus cinacalcet was most effective in rapidly reducing serum calcium and PTH-rp. Conclusion: This case study is the first to suggest that cinacalcet may be of value in some cases of PTH-rp-dependent hypercalcemia. Corroborative evidence is needed.

  7. Cinacalcet for Hypercalcemia Caused by Pulmonary Squamous Cell Carcinoma Producing Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Anneke; Smolders, Koen; Telting, Darryl; de Boer, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background Current treatments for hypercalcemia caused by lung cell carcinomas producing parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTH-rp) have limited efficacy, probably because of their lack of effect on PTH-rp secretion. In this case study we explored the efficacy of the calcimimetic cinacalcet as suppressor of PTH-rp production. Patient A 57-year-old male with severe and recurrent hypercalcemia induced by a PTH-rp-producing squamous cell lung carcinoma, stage cT4N3M1b, poorly responding to standard treatments. Results Serum PTH-rp levels were not affected by saline, calcitonin or zoledronate. PTH-rp decreased during chemotherapy and cinacalcet monotherapy. The combination of chemotherapy plus cinacalcet was most effective in rapidly reducing serum calcium and PTH-rp. Conclusion This case study is the first to suggest that cinacalcet may be of value in some cases of PTH-rp-dependent hypercalcemia. Corroborative evidence is needed. PMID:22379470

  8. Diagnosis of suspected venous thromboembolic disease in pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarsbrook, A.F. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Evans, A.L. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Owen, A.R. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gleeson, F.V. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: fergus.gleeson@radiology.oxford.ac.uk

    2006-01-15

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a leading cause of maternal mortality during pregnancy. Early and accurate radiological diagnosis is essential as anticoagulation is not without risk and clinical diagnosis is unreliable. Although the disorder is potentially treatable, unnecessary treatment should be avoided. Most of the diagnostic imaging techniques involve ionizing radiation which exposes both the mother and fetus to finite radiation risks. There is a relative lack of evidence in the literature to guide clinicians and radiologists on the most appropriate method of assessing this group of patients. This article will review the role of imaging of suspected venous thromboembolic disease in pregnant patients, highlight contentious issues such as radiation risk, intravenous contrast use in pregnancy and discuss the published guidelines, as well as suggesting an appropriate imaging algorithm based on the available evidence.

  9. Presenting features and clinical course of 34 patients with septic pulmonary embolism caused by right-sided infective endocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shuang; Xie Jiang; Chen Yong; Yang Jinghua; Zhang Jianqun; Meng Xu; Liu Yinglong

    2014-01-01

    Backgroud Misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis of septic pulmonary embolism (SPE),a rare disease,occurs among the patients with right heart infective endocarditis.The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of SPE and improve the early diagnosis and treatment.Methods We retrospectively studied 34 patients with septic pulmonary embolism caused by right-sided infective endocarditis who were seen from June 1,2002 to June 1,2013.We reviewed the medical records and radiological images of these cases and extracted the following information:age,gender,and symptoms,physical examination,laboratory findings,transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) results,treatment information,comorbid medical conditions,and outcomes.Microbiological samples were collected and processed according to well-established and published guidelines.Results We identified basic heart disease in 97.1% of the patients.A high proportion of the right-sided infective endocarditis patients had congenital heart defects (82.4%); predominantly,ventricular septal defects.Clinical symptoms were fever (97.1%),cardiac murmurs (94.1%) and fatigue (88.2%).Respiratory symptoms included cough (58.8%),pleuritic chest pain (47.1%) and hyoxemia (52.9%).Positive blood cultures were grown from 35.2% of patients and 50.0% were caused by staphylococcal species.Chest X-rays or CT examinations detected patchy infiltrates and/or nodules in all cases.Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated infectious foci of the right-side heart in all cases.Parenteral antibiotics were administered for all,and cardiac surgery was carried out for 76.5% of patients with an effective rate of 82.3%.Conclusions SPE lacks characteristic clinical manifestation.Congenital heart disease is a common risk of SPE.Most patients with SPE have a good prognosis as long as early diagnosis and proper treatment can be provided.

  10. [Venous thromboembolism's risk assessment: rationale, objectives, and methodology--the ARTE study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Ana; De Sousa, Joaquim Abreu; Felicíssimo, Paulo; Ferreira, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a frequent clinical condition with high impact on both morbidity and mortality. Venous thromboembolism risk is particularly high in hospitalized patients as well as in oncologic patients, being a factor of poor prognosis for the oncologic disease. Several clinical studies have shown the need to develop effective hospital strategies using a systematic and individualized assessment of venous thromboembolism risk, and additionally to optimize the institution of prophylaxis treatment and its proper use in the context of in-hospital and outpatient management. The ARTE national study is a non-interventional, multicentre, prospective study which is divided in two phases. In the first phase patients are followed in the hospital; in the second phase patients are followed in ambulatory context for a period of 6 months after discharge. Four thousand patients will be included, equally distributed over medical, surgical, oncologic and orthopaedic patients. Data will be collected from the patient's clinical files and through direct clinical evaluation of risk factors for venous thromboembolism, in the departments of medicine, oncology, surgery, and orthopaedics of the participating centres. The main objectives of the study are to assess the risk profile of venous thromboembolism of the study population using a risk assessment model adapted from the Caprini and Khorana et al models, and the validation of the score for the Portuguese population. Simultaneously, the secondary objectives are as follows: to determine the proportion of patients with venous thromboembolism risk, according to the risk assessment model, that are doing prophylaxis; to determine the duration of prophylaxis during the hospitalization; to determine the proportion of patients doing long-term prophylaxis, at the moment of the discharge; to determine the incidence of thromboembolic events (deep venous thrombosis; stroke; pulmonary thromboembolism; transient ischemic attack

  11. Feasibility and safety of rehabilitation after venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noack F

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Frank Noack,1,2 Bernd Schmidt,1 Mroawan Amoury,2 Dietrich Stoevesandt,3 Stephan Gielen,4 Birgit Pflaumbaum,5 Christiane Girschick,5 Heinz Völler,6 Axel Schlitt5,7 1Department of Medicine I, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, 3Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 4Department of Medicine III, University Clinic Halle (Saale, Halle, Germany; 5Department of Cardiology and Pulmology, Paracelsus-Harz-Clinic Bad Suderode, Quedlinburg, Germany; 6Klinik am See, Rüdersdorf, Germany; 7Medical Faculty, Martin Luther University Halle, Wittenberg, Germany Background: Venous thromboembolism is a life-threatening disease. In survivors, different degrees of functional complaints need to be restored or prevented (eg, post-thrombotic syndrome, pulmonary hypertension. Therefore, rehabilitation after venous thromboembolism is recommended in Germany. However, a structured rehabilitation program has not been defined for this indication. Here, we present the experience of a single rehabilitation center. Methods: Data from consecutive pulmonary embolism (PE patients who were referred for a 3-week inpatient rehabilitation program from 2006 to 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Results: In all, 422 patients were identified. The mean age was 63.9±13.5 years, the mean body mass index (BMI was 30.6±6.2 kg/m2, and 51.9% were female. Deep vein thrombosis according to PE was known for 55.5% of all patients. We applied a wide range of therapeutic interventions such as bicycle training with monitored heart rate in 86.7%, respiratory training in 82.5%, aquatic therapy/swimming in 40.1%, and medical training therapy in 14.9% of all patients. Adverse events (AEs occurred in 57 patients during the 3-week rehabilitation period. The most common AEs were cold (n=6, diarrhea (n=5, and infection of the upper or lower respiratory tract that was treated with antibiotics (n=5. However, three patients under anticoagulation therapy suffered from bleeding, which was clinically relevant in

  12. PRIMARY PULMONARY-HYPERTENSION IN A PATIENT WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS-ERYTHEMATOSUS - PARTIAL IMPROVEMENT WITH CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROEN, H; BOOTSMA, H; POSTMA, DS; KALLENBERG, CGM

    Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed in a patient with SLE after her 5th delivery. Time of onset and absence of thromboembolism and severe interstitial lung disease suggested primary pulmonary hypertension. Administration of vasodilators did not decrease pulmonary artery pressure which amounted to

  13. 急性肺血栓栓塞大鼠血浆MMP-2和MMP-9的活性变化及意义%Change and significance of plasma MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in acute pulmonary thromboembolism rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳建军; 郭军; 王晓芳; 施举红; 王静; 陆慰萱

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the change and significance of plasma MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE).Methods 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:Sham group,PTE group and Statins group.Right ventricular systolic pressure and mean pulmonary arterial pressure were measured by right heart catheter at different time points following the induction of PTE.The enzymic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in plasma were detected through gelatin zymography.Results Compared with Sham Group,the plasma MMP-9 activity at every time point in PTE Group increased significantly ( P < 0.05).Compared with PTE Group,the plasma MMP-9 activity at every time point in Statins Group decreased significantly ( P <0.05),but was still higher than that of Sham Group ( P <0.05).No significant difference in MMP-2 activity at every time point was observed among three groups ( P >0.05).Conclusions The plasma MMP-9 activity was increased in the PTE rats,pretreatment with simavastatin attenuated acute PTE-induced pulmonary.hypertension through attenuationing of MMP-9 activity.%目的 探讨基质金属蛋白酶2(MMP-2)和MMP-9在急性肺血栓栓塞(PTE)中的变化及意义.方法 将72只Sprague-Dawley大鼠随机分为假手术组(Sham组),肺血栓栓塞模型组(PTE组)和辛伐他汀干预组(Statins组),每组24只.在造模后2h、6h、24 h分别测定各组大鼠的右心室收缩压和肺动脉平均压.应用明胶酶谱法测定各组大鼠血浆MMP-2和MMP-9的活性.结果 PTE组大鼠各时间点的血浆MMP-9活性明显升高,与Sham组大鼠比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05); Statins组大鼠各时间点的血浆MMP-9活性与PTE组大鼠比较明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),但仍高于Sham组大鼠,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).PTE组大鼠各时间点的血浆MMP-2活性有升高的趋势,但与Sham组大鼠和Statins组大鼠比较,差异无统计学意义.结论 急性PTE可引起血浆MMP-9活

  14. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett MA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Matthew A Bartlett, Karen F Mauck, Paul R Daniels Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic Thrombophilia Center, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Bariatric surgical procedures are now a common method of obesity treatment with established effectiveness. Venous thromboembolism (VTE events, which include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are an important source of postoperative morbidity and mortality among bariatric surgery patients. Due to an understanding of the frequency and seriousness of these complications, bariatric surgery patients typically receive some method of VTE prophylaxis with lower extremity compression, pharmacologic prophylaxis, or both. However, the optimal approach in these patients is unclear, with multiple open questions. In particular, strategies of adjusted-dose heparins, postdischarge anticoagulant prophylaxis, and the role of vena cava filters have been evaluated, but only to a limited extent. In contrast to other types of operations, the literature regarding VTE prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is notable for a dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials, and current professional guidelines reflect the uncertainties in this literature. Herein, we summarize the available evidence after systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to VTE prevention in bariatric surgery. Identification of risk factors for VTE in the bariatric surgery population, analysis of the effectiveness of methods used for prophylaxis, and an overview of published guidelines are presented. Keywords: bariatric surgery, venous thromboembolism, prophylaxis, vena cava filter, heparin

  15. Mechanisms responsible for pulmonary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Pulmonary hypertension is a pathophysiologic process characterized by progressive elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance and right heart failure, which is a common complication of many diseases. Pulmonary hypertension with no apparent causes (unknown etiology) is termed primary pulmonary hypertension or, more recently, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH).

  16. [Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis with dendriform pulmonary ossification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Ana Madeleine; Vargas, Leslie

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary ossification is a rare and usually asymptomatic finding reported as incidental in lung biopsies. Similarly, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare cause of pulmonary infiltrates. We report the case of a 64-year old man with chronic respiratory symptoms in whom these two histopathological findings converged.

  17. Results of a venous thromboembolism prophylaxis program for hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso LF

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Luiz Francisco Cardoso, Daniella Vianna C Krokoscz, Edison Ferreira de Paiva, Ilka Spinola Furtado, Jorge Mattar Jr, Marcia Martiniano de Souza e Sá, Antonio Carlos Onofre de Lira Sírio Libanês Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil Introduction: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is the leading cause of preventable death in hospitalized patients. However, existing prophylaxis guidelines are rarely followed. Objective: The aim of the study was to present and discuss implementation strategies and the results of a VTE prophylaxis program for medical and surgical patients admitted to a large general hospital. Patients and methods: This prospective observational study was conducted to describe the strategy used to implement a VTE prophylaxis program in hospitalized medical and surgical patients and to analyze the results in terms of the risk assessment rate within the first 24 hours after admission, adequacy of the prophylaxis prescription, and prevalence of  VTE in the discharge records before and after program implementation. We used the Mantel–Haenszel chi-square test for the linear trend of the data analysis and set the significance level to P<0.05. Results: With the support of an institutional VTE prophylaxis committee, a multiple-strategy approach was used in the implementation of the protocol, which included continuing education, complete data recording using computerized systems, and continuous auditing of and feedback to the medical staff and multidisciplinary teams. Approximately 90% of patients were evaluated within the first 24 hours after admission, and no significant difference in this percentage was observed among the years analyzed. A progressive increase in adherence to protocol recommendations, from 63.8% in 2010 to 75.0% in 2014 (P<0.001, was noted. The prevalence of symptomatic VTE in the discharge records of patients decreased from 2.03% in 2009 to 1.69% in 2014 (P=0.033. Conclusion: The implementation of a VTE prophylaxis program

  18. A Rare Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension Resistant to Therapy in The Newborn: Short-Rib Polydactyly Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Demir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-rib polydactyly syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited lethal skeletal dysplasia. The syndrome is characterized by marked narrow fetal thorax, short extremities, micromelia, cleft palate/lip, polydactyly, cardiac and renal abnormalities, and genital malformations. In cases with pulmonary hypoplasia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn can develop. In this paper, we present a term newborn with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, which has developed secondary to short-rib polydactyly syndrome and was resistant to therapy with inhaled nitric oxide and oral sildenafil.

  19. Study of pulmonary function injury caused by system scleroderma%系统性硬化症致肺功能损害的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张生山; 竺红

    2000-01-01

    Objectives Study changing of pulmonary function injury caused by scleroderma system. Methods Test 30 patients pulmonary function with system scleroderma using U. S. A Sensormedics 6200 Automate Body Plethysmograph Results There are 28 patients with system scleroderma that have the changes of pulmonary function. It is the change of small airway function, the increase of airway resistance, and there are negative correlation. Conclusions It is mainly the change of small airway function and the increase of airway resistance for change of pulmonary function caused by system scleroderma.%目的 研究系统性硬化症导致肺功能损害的变化。方法 采用美国Sensormedics 6200型人体体积描记仪检测30例系统性硬化症患者的肺功能。结果  28例系统性硬化症患者有肺功能改变,主要表现为小气道功能改变,气道阻力增高,且两者存在负相关性(P<0.05)。结论 系统性硬化症引起肺功能改变以小气道功能改变及气道阻力增高为主。

  20. Venous thromboembolism after fibula fracture: a patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Carol V; Runner, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant healthcare issue in the United States. This article presents information on the scope of the problem of VTE through a case study demonstrating the physical and psychosocial experiences of a 24-year-old woman with a fibula fracture treated in a short leg cast who developed a deep vein thrombosis that went on to become a pulmonary embolism. The patient experience is evaluated and supported by literature review in terms of risk factors as well as diagnostic, prophylaxis, medical treatment, and nursing implications. Analysis of a patient experience with VTE is valuable to add to the nursing body of knowledge for improvement of evidence-based practice.

  1. Venous thromboembolism: awareness and practice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    thromboprophylaxis among physicians in a tertiary-care hospital. Ekwere TA1* ... Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major public health challenge globally due to its ... multicenter study conducted in Canada to determine the ...

  2. [Risk of venous thromboembolic disease in general surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Francisco S; Arcelus, Juan I; Ramos, José L; Alós, Rafael; Espín, Eloy; Rico, Pedro; Ros, Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Despite preventive efforts, venous thromboembolic disease (VTED) is still a major problem for surgeons due to its frequency and the morbidity, mortality and enormous resource consumption caused by this entity. However, the most important feature of VTED is that it is one of the most easily preventable complications and causes of death. To take appropriate prophylactic decisions (indication, method, initiation, duration, etc.), familiarity with the epidemiology of VTED in general surgery and some of its most significant populations (oncologic, laparoscopic, bariatric, ambulatory and short-stay) is essential. These factors must also be known to determine the distinct risk factors in these settings with a view to stratifying preoperative risk.

  3. Histoplasmosis - acute (primary) pulmonary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000098.htm Histoplasmosis - acute (primary) pulmonary To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis is a respiratory infection that is caused by ...

  4. Endothelin-1-Rho kinase interactions impair lung structure and cause pulmonary hypertension after bleomycin exposure in neonatal rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gien, Jason; Tseng, Nancy; Seedorf, Gregory; Kuhn, Katherine; Abman, Steven H

    2016-12-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the chronic lung disease associated with premature birth, characterized by impaired vascular and alveolar growth. In neonatal rats bleomycin decreases lung growth and causes pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is poorly responsive to nitric oxide. In the developing lung, through Rho kinase (ROCK) activation, ET-1 impairs endothelial cell function; however, whether ET-1-ROCK interactions contribute to impaired vascular and alveolar growth in experimental BPD is unknown. Neonatal rats were treated daily with intraperitoneal bleomycin with and without selective ETA (BQ123/BQ610) and ETB (BQ788) receptor blockers, nonselective ET receptor blocker (ETRB) (bosentan), or fasudil (ROCK inhibitor). At day 14, lungs were harvested for morphometrics, and measurements of Fulton's index (RV/LV+S), medial wall thickness (MWT), and vessel density. Lung ET-1 protein and ROCK activity (phospho-MYPT-1:total MYPT-1 ratio) were also measured by Western blot analysis. Bleomycin increased lung ET-1 protein expression by 65%, RV/LV+S by 60%, mean linear intercept (MLI) by 212%, and MWT by 140% and decreased radial alveolar count (RAC) and vessel density by 40 and 44%, respectively (P < 0.01 for each comparison). After bleomycin treatment, fasudil and bosentan partially restored RAC and vessel density and decreased MLI, RV/LV+S, and MWT to normal values. Bleomycin increased ROCK activity by 120%, which was restored to normal values by bosentan but not selective ETRB. We conclude that ET-1-ROCK interactions contribute to decreased alveolar and vascular growth and PH in experimental BPD. We speculate that nonselective ETRB and ROCK inhibitors may be effective in the treatment of infants with BPD and PH. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from household water and shower aerosols in patients with pulmonary disease caused by NTM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rachel; Tolson, Carla; Carter, Robyn; Coulter, Chris; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-09-01

    It has been postulated that susceptible individuals may acquire infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from water and aerosol exposure. This study examined household water and shower aerosols of patients with NTM pulmonary disease. The mycobacteria isolated from clinical samples from 20 patients included M. avium (5 patients), M. intracellulare (12 patients), M. abscessus (7 patients), M. gordonae (1 patient), M. lentiflavum (1 patient), M. fortuitum (1 patient), M. peregrinum (1 patient), M. chelonae (1 patient), M. triplex (1 patient), and M. kansasii (1 patient). One-liter water samples and swabs were collected from all taps, and swimming pools or rainwater tanks. Shower aerosols were sampled using Andersen six-stage cascade impactors. For a subgroup of patients, real-time PCR was performed and high-resolution melt profiles were compared to those of ATCC control strains. Pathogenic mycobacteria were isolated from 19 homes. Species identified in the home matched that found in the patient in seven (35%) cases: M. abscessus (3 cases), M. avium (1 case), M. gordonae (1 case), M. lentiflavum (1 case), and M. kansasii (1 case). In an additional patient with M. abscessus infection, this species was isolated from potable water supplying her home. NTM grown from aerosols included M. abscessus (3 homes), M. gordonae (2 homes), M. kansasii (1 home), M. fortuitum complex (4 homes), M. mucogenicum (1 home), and M. wolinskyi (1 home). NTM causing human disease can be isolated from household water and aerosols. The evidence appears strongest for M. avium, M. kansasii, M. lentiflavum, and M. abscessus. Despite a predominance of disease due to M. intracellulare, we found no evidence for acquisition of infection from household water for this species.

  6. Causes of Delay in Diagnosis of Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients Referred to the Tuberculosis Center of Zahedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosayeb Shahriyar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is now the major cause of mortality in the world. This study has tried to identify the factors affecting the diagnosis of this disease by determining the relationship between delay in diagnosis and factors associated with patient and health system.Materials and Methods: This research was a cross-sectional study conducted on smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients referred to the tuberculosis center in the first half of 2008. Required information was completed through patient records and patient interviews.Results: A total 98 patients were studied including 42 males and 56 females. Average age of patients was 51.6±19.57. Average delay in diagnosis was 2.8±1.78 months. The average delay of patients and health system was respectively 2.6±1.76 months and 6±4.27days. Data analysis showed that there is no relationship between the delay in diagnosis and individual variables such as age, gender, occupation, etc., and examination of sputum smears at the first visit. However, there is a significant relationship between patient delay with different factors such as education (p=0.03, marital status (p=0.03, existence of hospital or medical centers in the residence (p=0.02, distance to the medical center (p=0.02 and between health system delay and residence in the city (p=0.01, distance to this medical center (p=0.03 and obtaining chest X-ray (CXR in the first visit (p=0.003.Conclusion: The results showed that with the increase of literacy, the establishment of new hospitals and health centers in remote areas and suburbs as well as chest X-ray in the first visit, the amount of delay in diagnosis can be reduced.

  7. Venous thromboembolism in pregnant and puerperal women in Denmark 1995-2005. A national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virkus, Rie Adser; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the leading cause of maternal death in the Western world, and the risk increases during pregnancy and puerperal period. It was the objective of the present study to estimate the absolute and the relative risk of VTE at different weeks of gestation and in the postna......Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the leading cause of maternal death in the Western world, and the risk increases during pregnancy and puerperal period. It was the objective of the present study to estimate the absolute and the relative risk of VTE at different weeks of gestation...

  8. Current practice for pulmonary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toru Satoh

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current practice of pulmonary hypertension including current epidemiology,diagnosis and treatment.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and guidelines.Study selection Articles with high level of evidence or current best evidence in each issue were selected to be reviewed.Results Overall prevalence of pulmonary hypertension was 0.3% to 6% with left heart disease occupying the most proportion,followed by pulmonary disease,pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.In diagnosis,a flow diagram of diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension,differential diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and how to determine the severity of pulmonary hypertension are explained including recent development of magnetic resonance imaging and gene abnormality study on bone morphogenetic protein receptor Ⅱ.In treatment,newlydeveloped pulmonary vasodilators and the way to use them are shown to treat pulmonary hypertension.Conclusion Safer and more effective treatment algorithm and basic researches and clinical trials are warranted to be explored.

  9. A sazonalidade do tromboembolismo venoso no clima subtropical de São Paulo Seasonal variation of venous thromboembolism in the subtropical climate of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kleinfelder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Os fatores desencadeantes da doença tromboembólica venosa vêm sendo cada vez melhor identificados. Causas externas podem influir na sua ocorrência, e algum destaque tem sido dado a fatores climáticos. Nada se sabe quanto a essa interferência em nossa latitude. OBJETIVOS: Analisar se há diferença na incidência do tromboembolismo venoso de acordo com as estações do ano, num hospital da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, cujo clima é categorizado como subtropical. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado trabalho retrospectivo de levantamento de dados a partir de prontuários de pacientes cujo diagnóstico de internação ou óbito foi de trombose venosa profunda ou tromboembolismo pulmonar, no período de janeiro de 1996 a outubro de 2003, no Hospital da Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo. Para comparação e estudo, os casos foram agrupados em trimestres (primeiro trimestre = janeiro, fevereiro e março; segundo trimestre = abril, maio e junho; terceiro trimestre = julho, agosto e setembro; e quarto trimestre = outubro, novembro e dezembro e conforme sua ocorrência nos chamados meses quentes e frios, de acordo com a média de temperatura mensal (meses quentes = outubro a abril; meses frios = maio a setembro. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 955 casos de tromboembolismo venoso no período analisado. Foi utilizado o teste ANOVA para análise, que não revelou diferença estatisticamente significativa na incidência do tromboembolismo venoso de acordo com os trimestres. Quando analisados separadamente, também não se evidenciou significância estatística em relação ao tromboembolismo pulmonar e à trombose venosa profunda. Quando comparados os meses quentes e frios, observou-se aumento da incidência de trombose venosa profunda nos meses quentes (p BACKGROUND: The triggering factors of venous thromboembolic disease have been increasingly clarified. External causes may influence its occurrence, and some climactic factors have stood out. Nothing

  10. Algorithm for the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pulmonary embolisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvillo Batllés, P

    The urgent diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism benefits from the use of evidence-based clinical guidelines that improve patients' prognoses and reduce the unnecessary use of imaging tests. This article explains the diagnostic algorithms for pulmonary thromboembolism most recently published by the relevant scientific societies both for the general population and for special situations, trying to clear up common doubts and analyzing persistent controversies. It also discusses the need to follow up the thromboembolism after anticoagulation treatment, which is not currently recommended in the guidelines. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. A case of congenital afibrinogenemia complicated with thromboembolic events that required repeated amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Mehmet A; Işik, Bilgen; Patiroglu, Turkan; Karakukcu, Musa; Mutlu, Fatma T; Yilmaz, Ebru; Unal, Ekrem

    2015-04-01

    Although congenital afibrinogenemia is a rare autosomal recessive bleeding disorder, it can be more frequently encountered in countries where consanguineous marriages are common. Congenital afibrinogenemia is characterized by the undetectable low level of fibrinogen, which causes hemorrhagic diathesis. Paradoxically, arterial and venous thromboembolic complications can develop in patients with afibrinogenemia, which may cause a diagnostic problem to anyone unfamiliar with its clinical features. We report a case of congenital afibrinogenemia presenting with bilateral ischemic lesions of bilateral foot and ankle that required amputations. The patient was treated with fibrinogen concentrate, low-molecular-weight heparin, aspirin, and nifedipine. In conclusion, arterial and venous thromboembolic complications are rare, but severe complications of afibrinogenemia. The management of thromboembolic complications in patients with afibrinogenemia is a balance game. At one end of the scale, there is a bleeding disorder, and at the other end, there is a thrombosis. This fine adjustment is a job of mastery.

  12. 内科住院患者静脉血栓栓塞症的临床防治%Clinical prevention of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized medical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    户海宁

    2015-01-01

    静脉血栓栓塞症(venous thromboembolism,VTE)是一种多种危险因子共同参与其发病机制的全身性疾病,VTE最终产生两种主要的临床类型,包括深静脉血栓形成(deep venous thrombosis,DVT)和肺血栓栓塞症(pulmonary thromboembolism,PTE),前者最为常见,而后者则较为严重。作为一种疾病的两种表现,DVT与PTE的防治方法相似,主要为抗凝治疗。文章就近年来内科住院患者静脉血栓栓塞症临床防治的相关研究进展进行阐述。%Venous thromboembolism (venous thromboembolism, VTE) is a systemic disease which multiple risk factors involved in the pathogenesis, VTE finally produced two major clinical types, including deep venous thrombosis (deep venous thrombosis, DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (pulmonary thromboembolism, PTE), The former is most common, While the latter is more serious. As two kinds of manifestations of one disease, the preventive treatments of DVT and PTE are similar, mainly for anticoagulation therapy. This article reviews the related research progress about clinical prevention of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized medical patients.

  13. Venous thromboembolic disease. CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, L. R. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Pulmonary Medicine and Intensive Care, Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Helical and multidetector CT has proven to be a valuable imaging modality for both pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis. This paper will review the sensitivity and specificity of CT and discuss diagnostic algorithms utilizing CT and more established imaging technologies.

  14. Non-congenital heart disease associated pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy, D D; Feinstein, J. A.; Humpl, T; Rosenzweig, E. B.

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of causes of pulmonary hypertension other than congenital heart disease is increasing in children. Diagnosis and treatment of any underlying cause of pulmonary hypertension is crucial for optimal management of pulmonary hypertension. This article discusses the available knowledge regarding several disorders associated with pulmonary hypertension in children: idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, he...

  15. Epoxy composite dusts with and without carbon nanotubes cause similar pulmonary responses, but differences in liver histology in mice following pulmonary deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Mortensen, Alicja; Szarek, Jozef;

    2016-01-01

    . Both CNT and epoxy dusts induced DNA damage in lung tissue up to 3 days after intratracheal instillation but not in liver tissue. There was no additive effect of adding CNT to epoxy resins for any of the pulmonary endpoints. In livers of mice instilled with CNT and epoxy dust with CNTs inflammatory......Background: The toxicity of dusts from mechanical abrasion of multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) epoxy nanocomposites is unknown. We compared the toxic effects of dusts generated by sanding of epoxy composites with and without CNT. The used CNT type was included for comparison.Methods: Mice...... received a single intratracheal instillation of 18, 54 and 162 mu g of CNT or 54, 162 and 486 mu g of the sanding dust from epoxy composite with and without CNT. DNA damage in lung and liver, lung inflammation and liver histology were evaluated 1, 3 and 28 days after intratracheal instillation. Furthermore...

  16. Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity caused by a single intratracheal instillation of colloidal silver nanoparticles in mice: pathobiological changes and metallothionein responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth; Banlunara, Wijit; Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Thammachareon, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-01-01

    To study the acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), 0 or 100 ppm of Ag-NPs were instilled intratracheally in mice. Cellular and biochemical parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and histological alterations were determined 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after instillation. Ag-NPs induced moderate pulmonary inflammation and injury on BALF indices during the acute period; however, these changes gradually regressed in a time-dependent manner. Concomitant histopathological and laminin immunohistochemical findings generally correlated to BALF data. Superoxide dismutase and metallothionein expression occurred in particle-laden macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells, which correlated to lung lesions in mice treated with Ag-NPs. These findings suggest that instillation of Ag-NPs causes transient moderate acute lung inflammation and tissue damage. Oxidative stress may underlie the induction of injury to lung tissue. Moreover, the expression of metallothionein in tissues indicated the protective response to exposure to Ag-NPs.

  17. Pulmonary Hypertension Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chest X-ray, a breathing test called a pulmonary function test and an echocardiogram (sometimes called an “echo”). Your doctor may also need to do other tests to find out whether another medical condition is causing your pulmonary hypertension. TreatmentHow is pulmonary hypertension treated?If the ...

  18. Pulmonary Artery Leiomyosarcoma Diagnosed without Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohisa Yamasaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old female presented with abnormal lung shadows but had, apart from this, few symptoms. Computed tomography (CT revealed multiple nodules and blockage of the pulmonary artery. She was immediately diagnosed with pulmonary artery sarcoma based on a careful differential diagnosis and underwent surgery. Her tumor was pathologically diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma (i.e. intimal sarcoma. Pulmonary artery sarcoma can be easily confounded with thromboembolism in a clinical setting and some cases are diagnosed post mortem only. In our case, clinical prediction scores (Wells score, Geneva score, and revised Geneva score for the pulmonary embolism showed low probability. Moreover, chest CT showed uncommon findings for pulmonary thromboembolism, as the nodules were too big for thrombi. Because surgical resection can provide the only hope of long-term survival in cases of pulmonary artery sarcoma, clinicians should consider this possibility in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Clinical prediction scores and CT findings might help to reach the correct diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma.

  19. Allergy and Venous Thromboembolism: A Casual or Causative Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2016-02-01

    Allergic diseases are very frequent conditions worldwide. The pathogenesis of allergic reactions and venous thromboembolism (VTE) shares several risk factors and predisposing conditions. In particular, the concentration of immunoglobulin E (IgE) is considerably increased in patients with allergic diseases, and this immunoglobulin exert many prothrombotic and antifibrinolytic activities, especially through interaction with mast cells. Therefore, this narrative review is aimed to provide an overview of the current scientific evidence supporting a potential relationship between allergy and the risk of VTE. Although no prospective studies have been published so far, the evidence provided by six large cross-sectional studies and several case reports support the existence of an unquestionable epidemiological association between different allergic diseases (especially atopy, asthma, and celiac disease) and venous thrombosis. Two additional investigations reported that the concentration of IgE might predict the onset of severe complications of pulmonary embolism such as pulmonary infarction and pleural fluid accumulation. Therefore, the existence of a convincing epidemiologic link between allergy and VTE paves the way to future investigations aimed to establish whether the prevention or treatment of allergic diseases might be regarded as an effective measure to lower the risk of VTE.

  20. Potential role of new anticoagulants for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Outes A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Gómez-Outes,1 M Luisa Suárez-Gea,1 Ramón Lecumberri,2 Ana Isabel Terleira-Fernández,3,4 Emilio Vargas-Castrillón,3,4 Eduardo Rocha51Division of Pharmacology and Clinical Evaluation, Medicines for Human Use, Spanish Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices, Madrid, 2Department of Hematology, University Clinic of Navarra, Pamplona, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Hospital Clínico, Madrid, 4Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, 5Department of Hematology, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Pamplona, SpainAbstract: Venous thromboembolism (VTE, encompassing deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. Low molecular weight heparins are the preferred option for anticoagulation in cancer patients according to current clinical practice guidelines. Fondaparinux may also have a place in prevention of VTE in hospitalized cancer patients with additional risk factors and for initial treatment of VTE. Although low molecular weight heparins and fondaparinux are effective and safe, they require daily subcutaneous administration, which may be problematic for many patients, particularly if long-term treatment is needed. Studying anticoagulant therapy in oncology patients is challenging because this patient group has an increased risk of VTE and bleeding during anticoagulant therapy compared with the population without cancer. Risk factors for increased VTE and bleeding risk in these patients include concomitant treatments (surgery, chemotherapy, placement of central venous catheters, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, angiogenesis inhibitors, antiplatelet drugs, supportive therapies (ie, steroids, blood transfusion, white blood cell growth factors, and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and tumor-related factors (local vessel damage and invasion, abnormalities in platelet function, and number. New anticoagulants in development for prophylaxis

  1. Thromboembolism and anticoagulation after Fontan surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sangeetha

    2016-01-01

    This review attempts to answer the common questions faced by a clinician regarding thromboembolism and thromboprophylaxis in patients following Fontan surgery. The review is in an easy to understand question and answer format and discusses the currently available literature on the subject in an attempt to arrive at practical clinically relevant solutions. Patients who have undergone the Fontan operation are at a high risk for thromboembolism. Based on available evidence, there is a strong rationale for thromboprophylaxis. However, it is not clear as to which agent should be administered to prevent thromboembolic events. While the available evidence suggests that antiplatelet agents alone may be as good as oral anticoagulants, there is a need for a large multicenter randomized control trial comparing these two common strategies to deliver a clear verdict.

  2. Thromboembolism prophylaxis practices in orthopaedic arthroplasty patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cawley, D

    2010-10-01

    Thromboembolic events are a post-operative complication of arthroplasty surgery for up to 3 months. The incidence however, is not fully known. Some form of prophylaxis should be provided to all arthroplasty patients. Clinicians are wary of side effects, compliance profile and the associated cost. The objective of this study is to investigate practice patterns and their relevance to 3 risk groups. Ninety questionnaires were sent to orthopaedic surgeons with 3 hypothetical clinical scenarios and 10 prophylaxis regimes for thromboembolism across different risk groups. The response rate was 81\\/90 (90%). The most popular options in all 3 cases were early mobilisation, thrombo-embolism deterrant (TED) stockings and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (51\\/81, 62% of all cases). An inconsistent relationship exists between preferred practice and relevant guidelines. Preferred practice does not correlate with each level of risk.

  3. Thromboembolism and anticoagulation after fontan surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review attempts to answer the common questions faced by a clinician regarding thromboembolism and thromboprophylaxis in patients following Fontan surgery. The review is in an easy to understand question and answer format and discusses the currently available literature on the subject in an attempt to arrive at practical clinically relevant solutions. Patients who have undergone the Fontan operation are at a high risk for thromboembolism. Based on available evidence, there is a strong rationale for thromboprophylaxis. However, it is not clear as to which agent should be administered to prevent thromboembolic events. While the available evidence suggests that antiplatelet agents alone may be as good as oral anticoagulants, there is a need for a large multicenter randomized control trial comparing these two common strategies to deliver a clear verdict.

  4. [Pulmonary embolism in patients with cancer: foundations of the EPIPHANY study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Carme; Carmona-Bayonas, Alberto; Plasencia, Juana M; Calvo-Temprano, David; Sánchez, Marcelo; Jiménez-Fonseca, Paula; Beato, Carmen; Biosca, Mercè; Vicente, Vicente; Otero, Remedios

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. Having cancer is an independent risk factor for death in the general series of patients with PE and is included as a variable in the prognostic scales of acute symptomatic PE. This fact limits the discriminatory power of these general scales for patients with cancer and has prompted the development of specific prognostic tools: POMPE-C and a scale derived from the RIETE registry. Whether the increased risk of death by PE in patients with cancer is due to complications related to the neoplasm or to a greater severity of the thromboembolic episode in this population has not been well studied. Moreover, the introduction of computed multidetector tomography in recent years has led to a growing diagnosis of