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Sample records for causing mulberry morus

  1. [Introduction trial of medicine mulberry (Morus nigra) in Chongqing].

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    Zeng, Qi-Wei; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Hong-Yu; Ding, Tian-Long; Zhao, Ai-Chun; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; He, Ning-Jia

    2016-04-01

    Medicine mulberry (Morus nigra) mainly distributed in southern areas of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region and introduced by grafting, is a unique Morus species, whose plant number is little. As a traditional herbal medicine, medicine mulberry with high levels of secondary metabolites has important values of scientific research and utilization. In order to solve the introduction problems for medicine mulberry, we have established its rapid propagation system through tissue culture since 2011. The shoots of medicine mulberry through tissue culture were transplanted into the field to carry out an introduction experiment. Here, we firstly reported that the growth status and pest and disease occurrence of medicine mulberry in the field of Chongqing and found that the medicine mulberry through tissue culture had well-developed root system, it showed better growth than medicine mulberry by grafting technique, and Pseudodendrothrips moil was a major pest of medicine mulberry. The introduction technique for medicine mulberry established successfully in this study could lay the foundation for large-scale cultivation and high efficiency utilization of medicine mulberry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Nutrient digestibility of mulberry leaves (Morus alba

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    Riyadh A. Al-Kirshi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to determine the chemical composition of mulberry (Morus alba leaf meal (MLM and its nutritive value as a feed ingredient. Fifteen layer and fifteen broiler chickens were used in the digestibility trial. The dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, fat (EE, crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P and gross energy (GE content of MLM were analyzed. The precision-feeding technique was applied to feed the birds 30 g/kg DM of MLM. The results showed that MLM contained a high content of CP (29.8%, Ca (2.73% and NDF (35.77%. Layers and broilers chicken could utilize 73% and 72% of CP, respectively, in MLM. The nutrient digestibility of DM and NDF was higher in layers than in broilers. No significant effect was observed in ME and other nutrient digestibility between the two classes of fowls. In general, the incorporation of MLM into the chickens’ diet could be a good source of protein despite its high fibre content.

  3. Phytochemical Content of Some Black (Morus nigra L. and Purple (Morus rubra L. Mulberry Genotypes

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    Murat Tosun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright black (Morus nigra and purple mulberry (Morus rubra are particularly desirable fruits in Turkey. More recently, the interest in these bright black and purple mulberry fruits has also increased because of the popularization of healthy properties of these fruits. The study was carried out in 2008 aiming to determine the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP, total phenolic, total anthocyanin, mineral, soluble solid, vitamin C, and total acid content of four black and four purple mulberry genotypes grown in Turkey. The results show that black mulberry genotypes have a higher bioactive content than purple mulberry genotypes. The average total phenolic content and total anthocyanins of black mulberry genotypes were 2149 μg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g and 719 μg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-glu per g of fresh mass. In purple mulberry, these values were for GAE 1690 μg/g and for Cy 3-glu 109 μg/g on fresh mass basis. The average antioxidant activity of black mulberry genotypes was also found to be higher than that of the purple ones according to FRAP assay (Trolox equivalent (TE per fresh mass of black and purple mulberries was 13.35 and 6.87 μmol/g, respectively.

  4. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

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    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phytochemical profile and biological potential of mulberry teas (Morus nigra L.)

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    Čestić, Slađana; Radojković, Marija M.; Cvetanović, Aleksandra; Mašković, Pavle; Đurović, Saša

    2016-01-01

    Black mulberry is the most medicinally important plant of the genus Morus. This study examines the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of mulberry leaves tea. The tea drinks were prepared in water (70, 80, 90 ° C and boiling temperature). This study has shown that mulberry teas have high antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Experimental investigation has shown that the best conditions for preparing mulberry tea are with boiling water. Mulberry...

  6. Phytochemical profiles of different mulberry (Morus sp.) species from China.

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    Song, Wei; Wang, Han-Jing; Bucheli, Peter; Zhang, Pei-Fang; Wei, Dong-Zhi; Lu, Yan-Hua

    2009-10-14

    Mulberry is rich in alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, which have been suggested to be responsible for health benefits. The concentrations of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), resveratrol, oxyresveratrol, cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucoside (Cy-3-glu), cyanidin-3-O-beta-rutinoside (Cy-3-rut), and rutin in mulberry juice, fruits, and leaves of 8 species grown in China were examined. It is the first time content determination of DNJ in mulberry juice and oxyresveratrol in mulberry fruits and leaves has been reported. Among the varieties tested, Da 10 (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) was the most valuable cultivar considering its high content of functional components. Besides, Hetianbaisang (M. alba Linn.), Taiwanguosang (M. atropurpurea Roxb.), Fujian 2 hao (M. alba Linn.), Gaozhoujisang (M. australis Poir.), and Shanxiguosang (M. nigra Linn.) were rich in DNJ, resveratrol, oxyresveratrol, anthocyanins, and flavonoids, respectively. The high contents of functional compounds in mulberry juice, fruits, and leaves implied that they might be potential resources for the development of functional drinks and food.

  7. MorusDB: a resource for mulberry genomics and genome biology.

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    Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2014-01-01

    Mulberry is an important cultivated plant that has received the attention of biologists interested in sericulture and plant-insect interaction. Morus notabilis, a wild mulberry species with a minimal chromosome number is an ideal material for whole-genome sequencing and assembly. The genome and transcriptome of M. notabilis were sequenced and analyzed. In this article, a web-based and open-access database, the Morus Genome Database (MorusDB), was developed to enable easy-to-access and data mining. The MorusDB provides an integrated data source and an easy accession of mulberry large-scale genomic sequencing and assembly, predicted genes and functional annotations, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transposable elements (TEs), Gene Ontology (GO) terms, horizontal gene transfers between mulberry and silkworm and ortholog and paralog groups. Transcriptome sequencing data for M. notabilis root, leaf, bark, winter bud and male flower can also be searched and downloaded. Furthermore, MorusDB provides an analytical workbench with some built-in tools and pipelines, such as BLAST, Search GO, Mulberry GO and Mulberry GBrowse, to facilitate genomic studies and comparative genomics. The MorusDB provides important genomic resources for scientists working with mulberry and other Moraceae species, which include many important fruit crops. Designed as a basic platform and accompanied by the SilkDB, MorusDB strives to be a comprehensive platform for the silkworm-mulberry interaction studies. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/morusdb. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Phytochemical profile and biological potential of mulberry teas (Morus nigra L.

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    Čestić Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Black mulberry is the most medicinally important plant of the genus Morus. This study examines the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of mulberry leaves tea. The tea drinks were prepared in water (70, 80, 90 ° C and boiling temperature. This study has shown that mulberry teas have high antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Experimental investigation has shown that the best conditions for preparing mulberry tea are with boiling water. Mulberry teas could be regarded as a promising source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and herbal remedy.

  9. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of mulberry (Morus spp. L., Moraceae extracts

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    Radojković Marija M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry (Morus spp. L., Moraceae fruits, leaves, bark and branch have been used in traditional medicine as diuretic, hypoglycemic and hypotensive. The mechanism of their effects is correlated with the content of active components. Objective of this work was to evaluate and compare antioxidant properties of different extracts of two Morus species growing in Serbia: Morus alba L. (white mulberry and Morus nigra L. (black mulberry. Potential antioxidant activity, content of antioxidant compounds (phenolics and flavonoids and radical scavenging capacity, tested by DPPH method, were evaluated. The phenolic and flavonoid composition of different Morus extracts was determined by the HPLC method. The extracts prepared from fruits, leaves and roots of M. alba and M. nigra exhibited different characteristics. The highest extraction yield was achieved by M. alba leaves extraction (23.40%. M. nigra roots extract shown the highest total phenolics (186.30 mg CAE/g, while highest total flavonoids content (67.37 mg RE/g was determined for M. nigra leaves extracts. In addition, black mulberry leaves extracts with the highest antioxidant activity had the highest phenolic acids contents. The dominant phenolic components in the samples were rutin and chlorogenic acid. All investigated mulberry dry extracts shown high content of phenolic compounds and significant antioxidant activity. This work contributes to knowledge of the antioxidant properties of Morus species. The obtained results may be useful in the evaluation of new dietary supplements and food products.

  10. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.

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    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus.

  11. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.

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    Qiwei Zeng

    Full Text Available Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp and the longest (233 bp ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus.

  12. Genetic relationships between selected Turkish mulberry genotypes (Morus spp) based on RAPD markers.

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    Orhan, E; Ercisli, S

    2010-11-03

    Mulberry (Morus spp, Moraceae) is an important horticultural crop in Turkey, which is one of the main world producers of mulberry fruit. We evaluated the genetic relationships among 26 mulberry genotypes selected for agronomic characteristics, using RAPD markers. A total of 367 DNA markers were generated with 34 random primers. The highest genetic similarity (0.80) was observed between Oltu58 (M. nigra) and Olur90 (M. nigra) genotypes. The genotypes Oltu3 (M. alba) and Oltu18 (M. rubra) were the most distant (0.36). We found that the RAPD technique is a useful tool to discriminate mulberry genotypes at both the intra- and interspecific level. This type of information will aid in accurate identification of useful genotypes for breeding programs.

  13. Genome-wide identification and expression analyses of cytochrome P450 genes in mulberry (Morus notabilis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Ma; Yiwei Luo; Ling Jia; Xiwu Qi; Qiwei Zeng; Zhonghuai Xiang; Ningjia He

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s play critical roles in the biosyn-thesis of physiological y important compounds in plants. These compounds often act as defense toxins to prevent herbivory. In the present study, a total of 174 P450 genes of mulberry (Morus notabilis C.K.Schn) were identified based on bioinfor-matics analyses. These mulberry P450 genes were divided into nine clans and 47 families and were found to be expressed in a tissue-preferential manner. These genes were compared to the P450 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Families CYP80, CYP92, CYP728, CYP733, CYP736, and CYP749 were found to exist in mulberry, and they may play important roles in the biosynthesis of mulberry secondary metabolites. Analyses of the functional and metabolic pathways of these genes indicated that mulberry P450 genes may participate in the metabolism of lipids, other secondary metabolites, xenobiotics, amino acids, cofactors, vitamins, terpenoids, and polyketides. These results provide a foundation for understanding of the structures and biological functions of mulberry P450 genes.

  14. Precooling and ozone treatments affects postharvest quality of black mulberry (Morus nigra) fruits.

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    Han, Qiang; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Fang, Xiangjun; Wu, Weijie

    2017-04-15

    Mulberry (Morus spp.) fruits are delicious and nutritious, but they are highly perishable and have a very short shelf-life for sale in the market. This study investigated the effect and mechanisms of 2ppm ozone and precooling treatments on the postharvest quality of mulberry fruit during refrigerated storage. The results revealed that mulberry fruit subjected to ozone and precooling treatment had higher levels of titratable acidity and total soluble solids content, better retention in firmness and color, and lower decay rate, respiratory intensity, and polyphenol oxidase activity compared to the control. From the analysis of cell ultrastructure and cell wall components of fruit, ozone and precooling treatments also induced shrinkage of the stomata in the epidermis, inhibited bacteria invasion, reduced water transpiration, and delayed the decomposition of the cell walls and the degradation of epidermal tissues. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) polyphenol enhanced extract.

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    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  16. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L. polyphenol enhanced extract.

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    Yihai Wang

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L. were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated serum protein (GSP, and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  17. Physical and chemical characterization of fruits of mulberry cultivars from genus Morus

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    Fumiko Okamoto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of mulberry cultivars fruits (Morus spp.. The experiment was conducted at Marilia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, it was evaluated fruits of ten mulberry cultivars, IZ 1/1, IZ 1/2, IZ 1/3, IZ 1/12, IZ 2/1, IZ 3/1, IZ 4/1, IZ 15/1, Korin and Miura. The physical and chemical characteristics of mulberry fruits varied according to cultivar. Cultivar Korin stood out because showed higher soluble solids content and higher acidity, important requirements for better tasting fruit. When considering the volume for processing, the cultivars IZ 1/3, IZ 1/12 and IZ 15/1 had a higher mass.

  18. New methodologies for the extraction and fractionation of bioactive carbohydrates from mulberry (Morus alba) leaves.

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    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sonia; Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; Sanz, María L; Soria, Ana C

    2013-05-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was applied for the first time to extract bioactive low molecular weight carbohydrates (iminosugars and inositols) from mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaves. Under optimized conditions, PLE provided a similar yield to the conventional process used to extract these bioactives, but in less time (5 vs 90 min). To remove carbohydrates that interfere with the bioactivity of iminosugars from PLE extracts, two fractionation treatments were evaluated: yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) incubation and cation-exchange chromatography (CEC). Both methods allowed complete removal of major soluble carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, galactose, and sucrose), without affecting the content of mulberry bioactives. As an advantage over CEC, the yeast treatment preserves bioactive inositols, and it is an affordable methodology that employs food grade solvents. This work found PLE followed by yeast treatment to be an easily scalable and automatable procedure that can be implemented in the food industry.

  19. Genetic diversity and relationships in mulberry (genus Morus as revealed by RAPD and ISSR marker assays

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    Thangavelu K

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Morus, known as mulberry, is a dioecious and cross-pollinating plant that is the sole food for the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Traditional methods using morphological traits for classification are largely unsuccessful in establishing the diversity and relationships among different mulberry species because of environmental influence on traits of interest. As a more robust alternative, PCR based marker assays including RAPD and ISSR were employed to study the genetic diversity and interrelationships among twelve domesticated and three wild mulberry species. Results RAPD analysis using 19 random primers generated 128 discrete markers ranging from 500–3000 bp in size. One-hundred-nineteen of these were polymorphic (92%, with an average of 6.26 markers per primer. Among these were a few putative species-specific amplification products which could be useful for germplasm classification and introgression studies. The ISSR analysis employed six anchored primers, 4 of which generated 93 polymorphic markers with an average of 23.25 markers per primer. Cluster analysis of RAPD and ISSR data using the WINBOOT package to calculate the Dice coefficient resulted into two clusters, one comprising polyploid wild species and the other with domesticated (mostly diploid species. Conclusion These results suggest that RAPD and ISSR markers are useful for mulberry genetic diversity analysis and germplasm characterization, and that putative species-specific markers may be obtained which can be converted to SCARs after further studies.

  20. Observation and Comparison of Pollen Submicroscopic Morphology of Seven MulberryMorus alba Linn.) Cultivars%Observation and Comparison of Pollen Submicroscopic Morphology of Seven Mulberry (Morus alba Linn.) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the submicroscopic structure and morphological characteristics of mulberry pollen. [Method] Mulberry pollen of seven cultivars were treated by glutaraldehyde fixing, alcohol gradient dehydration, freeze-drying and metal plating to observe the size and surface ornamentation under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). [Result] The pollen surface characteristics and ornamentation were clearly visible, indicating that this method is suitable for SEM observation of mulberry pollen; experimental mulberry pollen was nearly spher- ical, with two germination apertures and processes on aperture membrane; polar axis was 15.99-22.63 μm long, and equatorial axis was 14.98-20.78 μm long; the pollen volume of "Yu No.2' was the maximum, while that of "Jinxuan No.7' was the minimum; the surface of mulberry pollen showed smooth and tumor-like protuberance ornamentations, covered with different densities of particles. [Conclusion] Glutaralde- hyde fixative-alcohol gradient dehydration is an ideal method for morphological char- acteristics of mulberry pollen. This study may provide useful information for palynology identification of Morus plants or even species-level systematic classification.

  1. Fig and mulberry cross-allergy.

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    Caiaffa, Maria Filomena; Cataldo, Vito Michele; Tursi, Alfredo; Macchia, Luigi

    2003-11-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to ingestion of figs (Ficus carica) and mulberries (Morus nigra and Morus alba) are considered uncommon and have never been reported as occurring in the same patient. To determine whether hypersensitivity to figs and mulberries can induce cross-allergy. We describe 3 cases of associated fig and mulberry allergy in 3 patients with multiple sensitizations to food allergens (mostly fruit) and airborne allergens. The presence of specific IgE was investigated by skin prick tests and radioallergosorbent tests. The 3 patients had a convincing clinical history of food allergy caused by eating fresh figs, and in all 3 cases clinical and/or laboratory evidence of sensitization to mulberries was also collected. We reason that Ficus and Morus are closely related genera of the Moraceae family and speculate that hypersensitivity to figs and mulberries might be associated as the result of allergen cross-reactivity rather than mere coincidence.

  2. Analysis and characterisation of phytochemicals in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruits grown in Vojvodina, North Serbia.

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    Natić, Maja M; Dabić, Dragana Č; Papetti, Adele; Fotirić Akšić, Milica M; Ognjanov, Vladislav; Ljubojević, Mirjana; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2015-03-15

    In this study, the polyphenolic profile of 11 Morus alba fruits grown in the Vojvodina region was investigated. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer, and UHPLC coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer were used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols, respectively. A total of 14 hydroxycinnamic acid esters, 13 flavonol glycosides, and 14 anthocyanins were identified in the extracts with different distributions and contents according to the sampling. The total phenolic content ranged from 43.84 to 326.29 mg GAE/100g frozen fruit. The radical scavenging capacity (50.18-86.79%), metal chelating ability (0.21-8.15%), ferric ion reducing power (0.03-38.45 μM ascorbic acid) and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (16.53-62.83%) were assessed. The findings indicated that mulberry polyphenolics may act as potent superoxide anion radical scavengers and reducing agents.

  3. Odisolane, a Novel Oxolane Derivative, and Antiangiogenic Constituents from the Fruits of Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

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    Lee, Seoung Rak; Park, Jun Yeon; Yu, Jae Sik; Lee, Sung Ok; Ryu, Ja-Young; Choi, Sang-Zin; Kang, Ki Sung; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-05-18

    Mulberry, the fruit of Morus alba L., is known as an edible fruit and commonly used in Chinese medicines as a warming agent and as a sedative, tonic, laxative, odontalgic, expectorant, anthelmintic, and emetic. Systemic investigation of the chemical constituents of M. alba fruits led to the identification of a novel oxolane derivative, (R*)-2-((2S*,3R*)-tetrahydro-2-hydroxy-2-methylfuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (1), namely, odisolane, along with five known heterocyclic compounds (2-6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) data analysis. Compound 1 has a novel skeleton that consists of 8 carbon units with an oxolane ring, which until now has never been identified in natural products. The isolated compounds were subjected to several activity tests to verify their biological function. Among them, compounds 1, 3, and 5 significantly inhibited cord formation in HUVECs. The action mechanism of compound 3, which had the strongest antiangiogenic activity, was mediated by decreasing VEGF, p-Akt, and p-ERK protein expression. These results suggest that compounds isolated from M. alba fruits might be beneficial in antiangiogenesis therapy for cancer treatment.

  4. Accumulation of Rutin and Betulinic Acid and Expression of Phenylpropanoid and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

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    Zhao, Shicheng; Park, Chang Ha; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Yang, Jingli; Sung, Gyoo Byung; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Soonok; Park, Sang Un

    2015-09-30

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is the sole food source of the silkworm. Here, 21 cDNAs encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and 21 cDNAs encoding triterpene biosynthetic genes were isolated from mulberry. The expression levels of genes involved in these biosynthetic pathways and the accumulation of rutin, betulin, and betulinic acid, important secondary metabolites, were investigated in different plant organs. Most phenylpropanoid and triterpene biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or fruit, and most genes were downregulated during fruit ripening. The accumulation of rutin was more than fivefold higher in leaves than in other organs, and higher levels of betulin and betulinic acid were found in roots and leaves than in fruit. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression levels, we speculate that MaUGT78D1 and MaLUS play important regulatory roles in the rutin and betulin biosynthetic pathways.

  5. Identification and characterization of genes involved in the jasmonate biosynthetic and signaling pathways in mulberry (Morus notabilis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wang; Bi Ma; Xiwu Qi; Qing Guo; Xuwei Wang; Qiwei Zeng; Ningjia He

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) is an important phytohormone regulating growth, development, and environmental response in plants, particularly defense response against herbivorous insects. Recently, completion of the draft genome of the mulberry (Morus notabilis) in conjunction with genome sequencing of silkworm (Bombyx mori) provides an opportuni-ty to study this unique plant-herbivore interaction. Here, we identified genes involved in JA biosynthetic and signaling pathways in the genome of mulberry for the first time, with the majority of samples showing a tissue-biased expression pattern. The analysis of the representative genes 12-oxophy-todienoic acid reductase (OPRs) and jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZs) was performed and the results indicated that the mulberry genome contains a relatively smal number of JA biosynthetic and signaling pathway genes. A gene encoding an important repressor, MnNINJA, was identified as an alternative splicing variant lacking an ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression motif. Having this fundamental information wil facilitate future functional study of JA-related genes pertaining to mulberry-silkworm interactions.

  6. (Poly)phenolic fingerprint and chemometric analysis of white (Morus alba L.) and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry leaves by using a non-targeted UHPLC-MS approach.

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    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Tassotti, Michele; Del Rio, Daniele; Hernández, Francisca; Martínez, Juan José; Mena, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    This study reports the (poly)phenolic fingerprinting and chemometric discrimination of leaves of eight mulberry clones from Morus alba and Morus nigra cultivated in Spain. UHPLC-MS(n) (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) high-throughput analysis allowed the tentative identification of a total of 31 compounds. The phenolic profile of mulberry leaf was characterized by the presence of a high number of flavonol derivatives, mainly glycosylated forms of quercetin and kaempferol. Caffeoylquinic acids, simple phenolic acids, and some organic acids were also detected. Seven compounds were identified for the first time in mulberry leaves. The chemometric analysis (cluster analysis and principal component analysis) of the chromatographic data allowed the characterization of the different mulberry clones and served to explain the great intraspecific variability in mulberry secondary metabolism. This screening of the complete phenolic profile of mulberry leaves can assist the increasing interest for purposes related to quality control, germplasm screening, and bioactivity evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

  8. Proximate composition and antioxidant potential of leaves from three varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28-13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21-24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41-31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97-1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging actity, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS(•+)) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89-2.12, 6.12-9.89 and 0.56-0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences.

  9. Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Adil Sarfraz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC, total flavonoids (TFC and ascorbic acid (AA ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging actity, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+ radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences.

  10. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA.

  11. A structural basis for the difference in specificity between the two jacalin-related lectins from mulberry (Morus nigra) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougé, Pierre; Peumans, Willy J; Barre, Annick; Van Damme, Els J M

    2003-04-25

    The activity and specificity of a galactose-specific and a mannose-specific jacalin-related lectin from the bark of the black mulberry (Morus nigra) tree has been re-investigated using different experimental approaches. Both lectins definitely behave as polyspecific lectins recognizing galactose, mannose, and glucose even though MornigaG and MornigaM interact preferentially with galactose and mannose, respectively. The exceptionally extended size of the carbohydrate-binding site of both lectins apparently accounts for their polyspecific character. Parallel studies with other mannose-specific jacalin-related lectins confirmed that their exclusive specificity towards mannose/glucose relies on a reduced size of their carbohydrate-binding site.

  12. STRUCTURES OF TWO NEW BENZOFURAN DERIVATIVES FROM THE BARK OF MULBERRY TREE (MORUS MACROURA MIQ.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG-GUO SUN; RUO-YUN CHEN; DE-QUAN YU

    2001-01-01

    Two new benzofuran derivatives, macrourins A (1) and B (2), together with two known stilbene derivatives, were isolated from the barks of Morus macroura Miq. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic evidence.

  13. Purification, characterization and immunomodulating activity of a pectic polysaccharide isolated from Korean mulberry fruit Oddi (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Sun; Synytsya, Andriy; Kim, Hyun Bok; Choi, Doo Jin; Lee, Seul; Lee, Jisun; Kim, Woo Jung; Jang, Seongjae; Park, Yong Il

    2013-11-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (JS-MP-1) was isolated and purified from the Korean mulberry fruits Oddi (Morus alba L.) by crushing the fresh fruits then performing ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. The neutral monosaccharide composition of the purified JS-MP-1 was determined to be composed mainly of galactose (37.6%, in mole percent), arabinose (36.3%), and rhamnose (18.4%), while other major sugars such as glucose, xylose, mannose, and fucose were present as minor components. HPLC analysis revealed that JS-MP-1 contains both galacturonic acid (GalA) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) at approximately 4:1 in mole percent. Monosaccharide composition, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, biochemical analysis, and elemental analysis suggested that JS-MP-1 is an acidic heteropolysaccharide, most likely a rhamnoarabinogalacturonan type plant pectic polysaccharide, with an apparent molecular mass of 1600 kDa containing no, or if any, negligible level of sulfate esters and proteins. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that JS-MP-1 significantly stimulates murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells to release chemokines (RANTES and MIP-1α) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and to induce the expression of iNOS and COX-2, which are responsible for the production of NO and prostaglandin PGE2, respectively. These results suggest that the mulberry fruit-derived polysaccharide JS-MP-1 can act as a potent immunomodulator, and these observations may support the applicability of this polysaccharide as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant or the water extracts of the mulberry fruit as a beneficial health food.

  14. Degradability of mulberry (Morus alba and rice bran in the rumen of sheep fed different diets

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    Dwi Yulistiani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate degradation of dry matter (DM and protein of mulberry and rice bran when incubated in nylon bag in the rumen at different incubation times and different rumen environments of rumen-cannulated adult sheep. Three different rumen conditions were created by feeding the three rumen-cannulated sheep with urea-treated rice straw as basal diet and offered with three supplemental treatment diets on different source of energy and nitrogen. Mulberry, urea and rice bran were used as source of fermentable energy and protein. Treatments consisted of control diet mulberry and molasses (T0; 50% mulberry was replaced by rice bran and urea (T1; and 100% of mulberry was replaced with rice bran and urea (T2. The diets were formulated in iso protein and iso energy. Supplemental diets were offered at 1.2% BW. The study was conducted in three periods. For each period, the sheep was offered with one of three supplemental treatment diets. The nylon bags each, contains sample of either mulberrry or rice bran were incubated in the rumen of sheep at different incubation times in reverse order (48, 24, 12, 9, 6, and 3h. Degradation characteristic data were obtained by analyzing degradability data with the equation of p = a+b(1-e-ct using Neway computer package. Data of degradation characteristic, degradability of DM and CP, DMI, rumen NH3-N and pH were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using a SAS software package. The results showed that the dry matter intake (DMI and rumen pH were not significantly different between diets. The rumen ammonia concentration of T1 and T2 was significantly higher than that of T0. However, the rumen ammonia concentration was higher than that of critical value for rumen microbial synthesis (>5mg/100ml. The rate (c value of DM degradability of mulberry and rice bran was affected by diet treaments, where T2 diet resulted in lower c of mulberry and rice bran. Only CP degradability of mulberry on

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of mulberry (Morus nigra) leaves extract against methotrexate induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tag, Hend M

    2015-07-25

    Drug-induced liver injury is a major health problem that challenges not only health care professionals but also the pharmaceutical industry and drug regulatory agencies. The possible hepatoprotective effect of the administration of mulberry ethanolic extract (MUL) leaves against hepatotoxic effect of the anti-rheumatic drug, methotrexate (MTX) was evaluated in this study both vivo (using animal models) and in vitro (human hepatoma HepG2 cells). In the in-vivo study, 20 male albino rats were equally assigned into four groups; control group received distilled water orally; MUL treated-group received 500 mg/kg/day of MUL extract; MTX treated-group was injected with a single dose of 20 mg/kg MTX intraperitoneally on the 4th day; MUL-MTX treated-group received the previously mentioned doses of MUL and MTX (both control and MUL treated groups were administered a single dose of a physiological saline i.p.). At the end of the experimental period (14 days) activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as total serum protein (TP) and albumin (ALB) levels were evaluated to assess liver function. A marked reduction in the viability of HepG2 cells was observed after 48 h with IC50 equal to 14.5 μg/mL of MUL administration. Treating the animals with MUL in combination with MTX mitigated liver injury, causing a significant reduction in activities of AST, ALT, ALP and LDH as compared to the MTX-group. The liver architecture revealed more or less normal appearance with the combined treatment when compared with MTX treatment alone. This study recommends that the co-administration of MUL with MTX that may have therapeutic benefits against MTX-hepato-cytotoxicity.

  16. The isolation and the characterization of two polysaccharides from the branch bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fan; He, Tian-Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2016-07-01

    Two water-soluble polysaccharides termed MBBP-1 and MBBP-2 were isolated from the branches of the mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) using hot water extraction and purified on Anion-exchange DEAE52-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column. MBBP-1 was shown to be composed of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 4.53:2.49:4.38:4.67:17.85:5.88. MBBP-2 was composed of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, galactose and galacturonic acid in the molar ratio of 26.85:13.8:3.14:4.4:6.1:3.19:4.9. Their structural characteristics were further investigated by FI-IR spectroscopy, Smith degradation, methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. Based on the data obtained, MBBP-1 had a backbone mainly consisting of (1 → 3)-linked glucose. MBBP-2 had a backbone mainly consisting of (1 → 3)-linked rhamnose and (1 → 2, 4)-linked xylose. Antioxidant assays indicated that antioxidant activities of MBBP-2 were significantly stronger than those of MBBP-1, and this was likely in relation to the different content of 8.2 % galacturonic acid in MBBP-2.

  17. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  18. White mulberry (Morus alba) foliage methanolic extract can alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila infection in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R; Webster, Carl D; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  19. Preparation of the Branch Bark Ethanol Extract in Mulberry Morus alba, Its Antioxidation, and Antihyperglycemic Activity In Vivo

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    Shu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of the branch bark ethanol extract (BBEE in the mulberry Morus alba L. were investigated. The determination of active component showed that the flavonoids, phenols, and saccharides are the major components of the ethanol extract. The BBEE had a good scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical with around 100 μg/mL of IC50 value. In vitro assay revealed that the BBEE strongly inhibited both α-glucosidase and sucrase activities whose IC50 values were 8.0 and 0.24 μg/mL, respectively. The kinetic analysis showed that the BBEE as a kind of α-glucosidase inhibitor characterized a competitive inhibition activity. Furthermore, the carbohydrate tolerance of the normal mice was obviously enhanced at 0.5 h (P<0.05 and 1.0 h (P<0.05 after the BBEE intragastric administration as compared to negative control. At 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 h after the intragastric administration with starch, the postprandial hyperglycemia of the type 2 diabetic mice can be significantly decreased (P<0.01 by supplying various concentrations of the BBEE (10–40 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, the BBEE could effectively inhibit the postprandial hyperglycemia as a novel α-glucosidase activity inhibitor for the diabetic therapy.

  20. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba leaf volatiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Tang

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: β-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and β-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and β-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by β-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol.

  1. Changes in leaf organisation, photosynthetic performance and wood formation during ex vitro acclimatisation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misalová, A; Durkovic, J; Mamonová, M; Priwitzer, T; Lengyelová, A; Hladká, D; Lux, A

    2009-09-01

    Changes in anatomical organisation of the leaf, photosynthetic performance and wood formation were examined to evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of acclimatisation of micropropagated slow-growing black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) plantlets to the ex vitro environment. Leaf structure differentiation, the rates of net photosynthesis (P(n)), transpiration (E) and stomatal conductance (g(s)), and secondary xylem growth were determined in the course of a 56-day acclimatisation. Differentiation of palisade parenchyma was observed 7 days after transfer. At this stage, the rates of P(n), E and g(s) reached maximum values, after which the rates of all three gas exchange parameters gradually decreased. The highest proportion of woody area occupied by vessels was also observed 7 days after transfer. An important feature of developing woody tissue is the difference in patterns of vessel distribution from the characteristic differentiation patterns of earlywood and latewood vessels in mature wood of ring-porous trees. Vessels with lumen areas over 3000 microm(2) were only differentiated in acclimatised plantlets, whereas vessels in stems sampled on days 0 and 7 had very small lumen areas of up to 560 microm(2). Full acclimatisation, observed 56 days after transfer to the ex vitro environment, was associated with the rapid growth of new in vivo formed leaves, very low rates of E and g(s), and much increased secondary xylem tissue within the stem area.

  2. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba) leaf volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: β-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and β-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and β-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by β-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol.

  3. Inhibition of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (Ex Vivo by Morus indica (Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Reddy Palvai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals are the bioactive components that contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular and other degenerative diseases. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA reductase would be an effective means of lowering plasma cholesterol in humans. The present study explores the HMG CoA reductase inhibitory effect of extracts from leaves of Morus indica varieties, M5, V1, and S36, compared with the statin, using an ex vivo method. The assay is based on the stoichiometric formation of coenzyme A during the reduction of microsomal HMG CoA to mevalonate. Dechlorophyllised extract of three varieties was studied at 300 µg. The coenzyme A released at the end of assay in control (100.31 nmoles and statins (94.46 nm was higher than the dechlorphyllised extracts of the samples. The coenzyme A released during the reduction of HMG CoA to mevalonate in dechlorophyllised extracts of the samples was as follows: S36 < M5 < V1. The results indicated that the samples were highly effective in inhibiting the enzyme compared to statins (standard drug. The results indicate the role of Morus varieties extracts in modulating the cholesterol metabolism by inhibiting the activity of HMG CoA reductase. These results provide scope for designing in vivo animal studies to confirm their effect.

  4. Comportamiento morfoagronómico de variedades de morera (Morus alba L. durante el establecimiento Morphoagronomic performance of mulberry (Morus alba L. varieties during the establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Pentón

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En áreas de la EEPF "Indio Hatuey" se realizó un estudio con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento morfoagronómico de cuatro variedades de morera (Morus alba L. (Criolla, Indonesia, Cubana y Tigreada, durante la etapa de establecimiento de plantas trasplantadas. El material vegetativo (posturas fue aviverado durante 120 días. La dinámica de emergencia de las yemas fue significativamente superior en las variedades Indonesia, Tigreada y Cubana con respecto a la Criolla. La variedad Tigreada alcanzó la mayor tasa promedio de desarrollo de nuevas ramas (0,25 ramas/día, aunque sin diferencias significativas respecto a las restantes variedades. La longitud de las ramas tendió a ser superior en la var. Tigreada (0,89 cm promedio por día, seguida por las variedades Indonesia, Cubana y Criolla (0,77; 0,73 y 0,63 cm/día, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el grosor de las ramas fue mayor en las variedades Cubana y Criolla. La variedad Indonesia se caracterizó por un significativo crecimiento en altura y grosor de la base del tallo principal (154 cm y 14,6 mm respecto al resto de las variedades. Todo ello tuvo una repercusión marcada en la producción de hojas, en lo cual se destacó la variedad Tigreada; le siguieron, aunque con diferencias significativas entre ellas, las variedades Indonesia, Cubana y Criolla. Se concluye que Tigreada e Indonesia resultaron ser las variedades de mejor comportamiento morfoagronómico durante el establecimiento; la primera se caracterizó por un alto potencial de producción de hojas y la segunda por una notable capacidad de acumulación de tejido leñoso.A study was carried out in areas of the EEPF "Indio Hatuey" in order to evaluate the morphoagronomic performance of four mulberry (Morus alba L. varieties (Criolla, Indonesia, Cubana and Tigreada, during the establishment stage of transplanted plants. The vegetative material (seedlings was placed in a nursery for 120 days. The bud emergence dynamics was

  5. A novel lectin (Morniga M) from mulberry (Morus nigra) bark recognizes oligomannosyl residues in N-glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Albert M; Wu, June H; Singh, Tanuja; Chu, Kang-Chuang; Peumans, Willy J; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M

    2004-01-01

    Morniga M is a jacalin-related and mannose-specific lectin isolated from the bark of the mulberry (Morus nigra). In order to understand the function and application of this novel lectin, the binding property of Morniga M was studied in detail using an enzyme-linked lectinosorbent assay and lectin-glycan inhibition assay with extended glycan/ligand collection. From the results, it was found that the di-, tri-, and oligomannosyl structural units of N-glycans such as those of the bovine alpha1-acid glycoprotein (gp) and lactoferrin were the most active gps, but not the O-glycans or polysaccharides including mannan from yeast. The binding affinity of Morniga M for ligands can be ranked in decreasing order as follows: gps carrying multiple N-glycans with oligomannosyl residues > N-glycopeptide with a single trimannosyl core > Tri-Man oligomer [Man alpha1-->6(Man alpha1-->3) Man], Penta-Man oligomer [Man alpha1-->6(Man alpha1-->3)Man alpha1-->6(Man alpha1-->3) Man] > or = Man alpha1-->2, 3 or 6 Man > Man > GlcNAc, Glc > L-Fuc, Gal, GalNAc (inactive), demonstrating the unique specificity of this lectin that may not only assist in our understanding of cell surface carbohydrate ligand-lectin recognition, but also provide informative guidelines for the application of this structural probe in biotechnological and clinical regimens, especially in the detection and purification of N-linked glycans. 2004 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Enterobacter spp.: A new evidence causing bacterial wilt on mulberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PRAPHAT; Kawicha

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six pathogenetic bacterial strains were isolated from wilted mulberry plants in Hangzhou,Zhejiang province of China.The six representative strains were confirmed to be involved in more than one Enterobacter species by common bacteriological test,electron microscope observation,hypersensitive reaction,Koch’s postulates,physiological and biochemical test,biolog,fatty acid methyl esters analysis (FAMEs),enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR),16s rRNA sequences analysis,and comparative analysis with 7 type strains and 3 reference strains.This is the first report on mulberry disease caused by Enterobacter spp.in the world providing new evidence on induction of the plant disease in this genus.The results are not only important in the mulberry disease management but also have significant scientific value for further studies of opportunistic human pathogens and environmental strains in Enterobacter.

  7. Energy Sufficiency of Feed Containing Fermented Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba) Determined by measurement of Glucose, Abdominal Fat and Feed Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Has, Hamdan; V. D.Yunianto; Sukamto, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of using rumen liquid fermented mulberry leaves in boiler???s diet on feed consumption, blood glucose, and abdominal fat. This research used 100 of day old CP 707 broiler chicks, as well as concentrate, fermented mulberry leaves and other feed stuffs. The experiment was carried out according to completely randomized design consisted of five treatments, i.e. T0 (control), T1 (10% mulberry leaf), T2 (10% fermented mulberry leaf), T3 (20% mulberry...

  8. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qingxia; Xie, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yuhua; Ye, Hong; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-05

    Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves (MLP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 10.0 ± 0.5% for MLP were determined as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extraction time 3.5h and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 34. Two purified fractions, MLP-3a and MLP-3b with molecular weights of 80.99 and 3.64 kDa, respectively, were obtained from crude MLP by chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy revealed that crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b were acidic polysaccharides. Furthermore, crude MLP and MLP-3a had more complicated monosaccharide compositions, while MLP-3b had a relatively higher content of uronic acid. Crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b exhibited potent Fe(2+) chelating power and scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. The results suggested that MLP could be explored as natural antioxidant.

  9. Fortification of dark chocolate with spray dried black mulberry (Morus nigra) waste extract encapsulated in chitosan-coated liposomes and bioaccessability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin-Özgüven, Mine; Karadağ, Ayşe; Duman, Şeyma; Özkal, Burak; Özçelik, Beraat

    2016-06-15

    Fine-disperse anionic liposomes containing black mulberry (Morus nigra) extract (BME) were prepared by high pressure homogenization at 25,000 psi. Primary liposomes were coated with cationic chitosan (0.4, w/v%) using the layer-by-layer depositing method and mixed with maltodextrin (MD) (20, w/v%) prior to spray drying. After that, spray dried liposomal powders containing BME were added to chocolates with alkalization degrees (pH 4.5, 6, 7.5) at conching temperatures of 40 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C. The results showed that, compared to spray dried extract, chitosan coated liposomal powders provided better protection of anthocyanin content in both increased temperature and pH. In addition, encapsulation in liposomes enhanced in vitro bioaccessability of anthocyanins. Chocolate was fortified with encapsulated anthocyanins maximum 76.8% depending on conching temperature and pH. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Lead in the soil-mulberry (Morus alba L.)-silkworm (Bombyx mori) food chain: translocation and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng; Han, Shasha; Liu, Jing

    2015-06-01

    The translocation of lead (Pb) in the soil-mulberry-silkworm food chain and the process of Pb detoxification in the mulberry-silkworm chain were investigated. The amount of Pb in mulberry, silkworm, feces and silk increased in a dose-responsive manner to the Pb contents in the soils. Mulberry roots sequestered most of the Pb, ranging from 230.78 to 1209.25 mg kg(-1). Over 92% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was deposited in the cell wall, and 95.29-95.57% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was integrated with oxalic acid, pectates and protein, and it had low bioavailability. The Pb concentrations in the silkworm feces were 4.50-4.64 times higher than those in the leaves. The synthesis of metallothioneins in three tissues of the silkworms was induced to achieve Pb homeostasis under Pb stress. These results indicated the mechanism involved in Pb transfer along the food chain was controlled by the detoxification of Pb in different trophic levels. Planting mulberry and rearing silkworm could be a promising approach for the remediation of Pb-polluted soils due to the Pb tolerance of mulberry and silkworm.

  11. Statistical interpretation of chromatic indicators in correlation to phytochemical profile of a sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchabo, William; Ma, Yongkun; Kwaw, Emmanuel; Zhang, Haining; Xiao, Lulu; Apaliya, Maurice T

    2018-01-15

    The four different methods of color measurement of wine proposed by Boulton, Giusti, Glories and Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) were applied to assess the statistical relationship between the phytochemical profile and chromatic characteristics of sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes. The alteration in chromatic properties and phenolic composition of non-thermal aged mulberry wine were examined, aided by the used of Pearson correlation, cluster and principal component analysis. The results revealed a positive effect of non-thermal processes on phytochemical families of wines. From Pearson correlation analysis relationships between chromatic indexes and flavonols as well as anthocyanins were established. Cluster analysis highlighted similarities between Boulton and Giusti parameters, as well as Glories and CIE parameters in the assessment of chromatic properties of wines. Finally, principal component analysis was able to discriminate wines subjected to different maturation techniques on the basis of their chromatic and phenolics characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. High throughput deep degradome sequencing reveals microRNAs and their targets in response to drought stress in mulberry (Morus alba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruixue; Chen, Dandan; Wang, Taichu; Wan, Yizhen; Li, Rongfang; Fang, Rongjun; Wang, Yuting; Hu, Fei; Zhou, Hong; Li, Long; Zhao, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Identification of miRNA targets is essential to better understanding the roles of miRNAs. miRNA targets have not been well characterized in mulberry (Morus alba). To anatomize miRNA guided gene regulation under drought stress, transcriptome-wide high throughput degradome sequencing was used in this study to directly detect drought stress responsive miRNA targets in mulberry. A drought library (DL) and a contrast library (CL) were constructed to capture the cleaved mRNAs for sequencing. In CL, 409 target genes of 30 conserved miRNA families and 990 target genes of 199 novel miRNAs were identified. In DL, 373 target genes of 30 conserved miRNA families and 950 target genes of 195 novel miRNAs were identified. Of the conserved miRNA families in DL, mno-miR156, mno-miR172, and mno-miR396 had the highest number of targets with 54, 52 and 41 transcripts, respectively, indicating that these three miRNA families and their target genes might play important functions in response to drought stress in mulberry. Additionally, we found that many of the target genes were transcription factors. By analyzing the miRNA-target molecular network, we found that the DL independent networks consisted of 838 miRNA-mRNA pairs (63.34%). The expression patterns of 11 target genes and 12 correspondent miRNAs were detected using qRT-PCR. Six miRNA targets were further verified by RNA ligase-mediated 5’ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-5’ RACE). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that these target transcripts were implicated in a broad range of biological processes and various metabolic pathways. This is the first study to comprehensively characterize target genes and their associated miRNAs in response to drought stress by degradome sequencing in mulberry. This study provides a framework for

  13. Influence of Organic Manures (Biofertilizers on Soil Microbial Population in the Rhizosphere of Mulberry (Morus Indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Christilda Louis Mary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different kinds of organic manures on soil microbial population and mulberry production was assessed. A field experiment wascarried out at Periyar EVR College, Tamil Nadu, India in basic soil to study the influence of organic manures on soil bacterial population andmulberry production. The 4 groups of mulberry plants of MR2 variety were biofertilized with FYM, Azospirillum, Phosphobacteria andVermicompost respectively. The biofertilizers lodged bacteria on the rhizosphere of mulberry plants. When the root microorganism areanalyzed Farm yard manure biofertilized mulberry plant root tips had Gluconacobacter diazotrophicus, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas putida,Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus sonorensis, Azotobacter chrococcum; Azospirillum biofertilized mulberry plants root tips had Bacillus coaculans,Azotobactor chrococcum, Azotobactor vinelandii, Bacillus subtilis and Azospirillum brasilense. Phosphobacteria biofertilized mulberry plantroot tips had Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Brevibacillus borslelansis and Streptomycies thermonitrificans andvermicompost biofertilized mulberry plant root tips had lodged bacterias like Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Gluconacobacterdiazotrophicus, Pseudomonas putida, Azotobacter chrococcum, Azotobacter vinelandi, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Brevibacillus borslelansisand Bacillus sonorensis. Microbiology work reveals luxuriant growth of bacteria in all the biofertizer treated rhizosphere in the order FYM

  14. Storage condition of mulberry branches (Morus sp. in the survival, development and production of Bombyx mori L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Porto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried with the objective of evaluate the survival, development and cocoons production of silkworm fed with mulberry leaves (Cultivar IZ 56/4 from branches stored in warehouse(24 hours or stored in the system of covering with wet cloth and immersion of bases in water, for a period of 72 hours. It was used a completely randomized design, with two treatments and six replications. Caterpillars fed with mulberry leaves from branches stored in the system of covering and immersion for 72 hours had conditions suitable for survival, development and production of cocoon, not differing from those who received leaves from branches stored in the warehouse.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of Flavonoids from the Fruits of Black Mulberry (Morus nigra L..

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    Hu Chen

    Full Text Available We analyzed the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of total flavonoids (TF found in black mulberry fruits. The TF content was 20.9 mg/g (dry weight. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (8.3 mg/g and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside (2.9 mg/g, were identified in the fruits by UPLC. The TF of black mulberry fruits had significant reducing power and radical (OH(-, O2(·-, DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities that was demonstrated in a dose-response curve. The TF had inhibitory activities on xylene-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. In addition, TF had antinociceptive activities in the two nociceptive phases of formalin test. We used ELISA to detect the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and NO in the serum of mice. These cytokines were significantly inhibited or scavenged by TF (50 and 100 mg/kg. The results demonstrated that TF of black mulberry possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects that might correlate to its antioxidant activities and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of Flavonoids from the Fruits of Black Mulberry (Morus nigra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hu; Pu, Junsong; Liu, Dan; Yu, Wansha; Shao, Yunying; Yang, Guangwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of total flavonoids (TF) found in black mulberry fruits. The TF content was 20.9 mg/g (dry weight). Two anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (8.3 mg/g) and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside (2.9 mg/g), were identified in the fruits by UPLC. The TF of black mulberry fruits had significant reducing power and radical (OH(-), O2(·-), DPPH and ABTS) scavenging activities that was demonstrated in a dose-response curve. The TF had inhibitory activities on xylene-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. In addition, TF had antinociceptive activities in the two nociceptive phases of formalin test. We used ELISA to detect the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and NO in the serum of mice. These cytokines were significantly inhibited or scavenged by TF (50 and 100 mg/kg). The results demonstrated that TF of black mulberry possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects that might correlate to its antioxidant activities and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  17. Leaf cuticular wax amount and crystal morphology regulate post-harvest water loss in mulberry (Morus species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamrutha, H M; Mogili, T; Jhansi Lakshmi, K; Rama, N; Kosma, Dylan; Udaya Kumar, M; Jenks, Matthew A; Nataraja, Karaba N

    2010-08-01

    Mulberry leaves are the sole source of food for silkworms (Bombyx mori), and moisture content of the detached leaves fed to silkworms determines silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Since leaf dehydration in commercial sericulture is a serious problem, development of new methods that minimize post-harvest water loss are greatly needed. In the present study, variability in moisture retention capacity (MRC, measured as leaf relative water content after one to 5 h of air-drying) was examined by screening 290 diverse mulberry accessions and the relationship between MRC and leaf surface (cuticular) wax amount was determined. Leaf MRC varied significantly among accessions, and was found to correlate strongly with leaf wax amount. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicated that leaves having crystalline surface waxes of increased facet size and density were associated with high MRC accessions. Leaf MRC at 5 h after harvest was not related to other parameters such as specific leaf weight, and stomatal frequency and index. This study suggests that mulberry accessions having elevated leaf surface wax amount and crystal size and density exhibit reduced leaf post-harvest water loss, and could provide the foundation for selective breeding of improved cultivars. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of the ethanol extract of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) fruit on experimental atherosclerosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Dai, Min; Nie, Wen-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Rong; Zeng, Xian-Chun

    2017-03-22

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is the major pathogenic component of coronary artery and cardiovascular disease. Studies have increasingly focused on natural medicines that have lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and endothelial-protection activities. Black mulberry fruits are traditionally used in Uyghur folk medicine for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in southern Xinjiang region of China. However, its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, our objective was to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of ethanol extract of black mulberry (EEBM) in experimental atherosclerotic rats. The black mulberry fruit was extracted with acid ethanol and chromatographed on an AB-8 macroporous resin to obtain EEBM. Atherosclerotic rats were divided into five groups: normal, model, model plus simvastatin (5mg/kgd·body weight), and model plus low-dose and high-dose EEBM groups (105 and 210mg/kgd·body weight, respectively). Serum lipid profiles were measured by an automatic biochemistry analyser. The activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were determined using the chemical colorimetric method. Pathological changes in liver and arteries were examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), and the intima-media thickness was measured. The high-dose EEBM group showed significantly reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, as well as atherogenic index. Furthermore, treatment with high-dose EEBM markedly decreased malondialdehyde content and enhanced anti-oxidative enzyme activities. Histopathological examination showed that EEBM attenuated hepatic steatosis and reduced intima-media thickness and arterial atherosclerotic lesions in atherosclerotic rats. These results suggest that EEBM suppressed atherosclerosis development in atherosclerotic rats by regulating lipid metabolism abnormalities, enhancing anti-oxidative activities, and reducing atherosclerotic lesions, which could be attributed to anthocyanins (23.75%), or the

  19. Optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds in mulberry (Morus nigra) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada-Bellido, Estrella; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Carrera, Ceferino; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G; Barbero, Gerardo F

    2017-03-15

    New ultrasound-assisted extraction methods for the determination of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds present in mulberries have been developed. Several extraction variables, including methanol composition (50-100%), temperature (10-70°C), ultrasound amplitude (30-70%), cycle (0.2-0.7s), solvent pH (3-7) and solvent-solid ratio (10:1.5-20:1.5) were optimized. A Box-Behnken design in conjunction with a response surface methodology was employed to optimize the conditions for the maximum response based on 54 different experiments. Two response variables were considered: total anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds. Extraction temperature and solvent composition were found to be the most influential parameters for anthocyanins (48°C and 76%) and phenolic compounds (64°C and 61%). The developed methods showed high reproducibility and repeatability (RSD<5%). Finally, the new methods were successfully applied to real samples in order to investigate the presence of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds in several mulberry jams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Long Non-Coding RNAs from Mulberry (Morus notabilis RNA-seq Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous sources of evidence suggest that most of the eukaryotic genome is transcribed into protein-coding mRNAs and also into a large number of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs, a group consisting of ncRNAs longer than 200 nucleotides, have been found to play critical roles in transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic gene regulation across all kingdoms of life. However, lncRNAs and their regulatory roles remain poorly characterized in plants, especially in woody plants. In this paper, we used a computational approach to identify novel lncRNAs from a published RNA-seq data set and analyzed their sequences and expression patterns. In total, 1133 novel lncRNAs were identified in mulberry, and 106 of these lncRNAs displayed a predominant tissue-specific expression in the five major tissues investigated. Additionally, functional predictions revealed that tissue-specific lncRNAs adjacent to protein-coding genes might play important regulatory roles in the development of floral organ and root in mulberry. The pipeline used in this study would be useful for the identification of lncRNAs obtained from other deep sequencing data. Furthermore, the predicted lncRNAs would be beneficial towards an understanding of the variations in gene expression in plants.

  1. Adaptación de tres variedades de morera (Morus spp. en el estado de Hidalgo Adaptation of three mulberry (Morus spp. varieties in Hidalgo State

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    Alejandro Rodríguez-Ortega

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la adaptación de tres variedades de morera en las regiones del Valle del Mezquital, Huasteca y Otomí-Tepehua del estado de Hidalgo, establecidas a principios de octubre de 2010 para el fomento de la sericultura. Se empleó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 3 (región x 3 (variedad. Se registró información de 35 plantas por variedad por 6 meses de estudio. Las variables analizadas fueron: porcentaje de supervivencia, vigor de la planta, incidencia de plagas y enfermedades, altura, número de yemas, número de ramas, número de hojas por planta y área foliar. Se realizó ANOVA y comparación de medias, encontrando porcentajes de super vivencia mayores a 95% en lastres regiones de estudio (p> 0.05. La variedad SLP5 en la región Otomí-Tepehua (p> 0.05, presentó el menor porcentaje de supervivencia (89%. El vigor de planta fue inferior en el Valle del Mezquital y en la variedad SLP5. La altura final de plantas fue diferente entre regiones; Otomí-Tepehua (67.7 cm, Huasteca (63 cm y Valle del Mezquital (44.7 cm. Las variedades SLP3 y SLP5 presentaron mayor altura (p> 0.05. En la región del Valle del Mezquital y en la variedad SLP5 se registró mayor emisión de yemas. La variedad SLP3 y Kamva registraron mayor número de ramas, hojas y área foliar en las regiones Huasteca y Otomí-Tepehua, mientras que la variedad SLP5presentó hojas pequeñas y fue susceptible a enfermedades. Se concluye que es factible el establecimiento de la variedad SLP3 y Kamva por su alta adaptabilidad a las tres regiones del estado de Hidalgo.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the adaptation of three varieties of mulberry in the regions of Valle del Mezquital, Huasteca and Otomí-Tepehua, Hidalgo State, established in early October, 2010, for the promotion of sericulture. We used a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement 3 (region x 3 (variety. The information was recorded from 35

  2. Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Mahboubeh; Hojjatpanah, Ghazale; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating, at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100 kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42° Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95 min at 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa respectively by using a rotary evaporator. Applying microwave energy decreased required times to 115, 95, and 60 min. The changes in color, anthocyanin content during the concentration processes were investigated. Hunter parameters (L, a, and b) were measured to estimate the intensity of color loss. All Hunter color parameters decreased with time. Results showed that the degradation of color and consequently anthocyanins, was more pronounced in rotary evaporation compared to microwave heating method.

  3. Absorption and metabolism of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside extracted from wild mulberry (Morus nigra L.) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Genovese, Maria Inés; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2008-03-01

    The mechanism of uptake of anthocyanins (as well as the type) from food in the intestine is not clear. Anthocyanin-rich extract from wild mulberry, composed of cyanidin-3-glucoside (79%) and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (cy-3-rut) (19%), was orally administered to Wistar rats, and their concentrations were determined in plasma, kidney, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The 2 glycosylated forms showed maximum concentration at 15 minutes after oral administration, both in plasma and kidney. The cyanidin-3-glucoside and cy-3-rut were found in plasma as glucuronides, as sulfates of cyanidin, and as unchanged forms. The area under the curve of concentration vs time (AUC(0-8h)) was 2.76 +/- 0.88 microg hour/mL and 9.74 +/- 0.75 microg hour/g for plasma and kidney, respectively. In spite of the low absorption, the increase in plasma anthocyanin level resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant capacity (P < .05). In the GI tract (stomach and small and large intestines), cyanidin glycosides were found unchanged, but a low amount of the aglycone form was present. Anthocyanin glycosides were no longer detected in the GI tract after 8 hours of administration. In vitro fermentation showed that the 2 cyanidin glycosides were totally metabolized by the rat colonic microflora, explaining their disappearance. In addition, the 2 products of their degradation, cyanidin and protocatechuic acid, were not detected in plasma and probably do not influence plasma antioxidant capacity. As found by the everted sac model, anthocyanins were transported across the enterocyte by the sodium-dependent glucose transporter.

  4. Electrophysiological Responses and Reproductive Behavior of Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea Drury are Influenced by Volatile Compounds from Its Mulberry Host (Morus alba L.

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    Rui Tang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyphantria cunea (Drury is an invasive pest of Morus alba L. in China. β-ocimene and cis-2-penten-1-ol among eleven electro-physiologically active leaf volatiles from M. alba have been reported to influence captures of Hyphantria cunea moths when added into sex pheromone traps. This study further investigated influences of volatile types and their dosages on the electro-physiological responses in the antennae of male and female moths, as well as on mating and oviposition behaviors. Females were, regardless of dosages, more sensitive to β-ocimene and cis-2-penten-1-ol in electro-physiological response tests than males. For males, a dose response was detected, i.e., a dosage of 10 μg and 100 μg of either chemical stimulated higher electric response in their antennae than 1 μg. Moth pairs either exposed respectively to a herbivore-induced M. alba volatile blend (HIPV, to a mechanically-damaged M. alba volatile blend (MDV, to β-ocimene, to cis-2-penten-1-ol, or to pentane as a control showed that pairs exposed to β-ocimene most likely mated, followed by HIPV blends and least by the other volatiles or the control. In contrast, β-ocimene induced about 70% of the female oviposition behaviors and was nearly 4.5 times the oviposition rate than cis-2-penten-1-ol and 2 times than the control. However, none of the chemicals had any effect on the 48 h fecundity or on egg sizes. In conclusion, β-ocimene from mulberry plants alone could promote mating and oviposition in H. cunea at a dosage of 1 mg. The results indicate that reproductive behaviors of H. cunea moths can be enhanced through HIPV blends and β-ocimene induced by feeding of larvae. This contra phenomenon has revealed a different ecology in this moth during colonizing China as local pests would commonly be repelled by herbivore induced chemicals. These chemicals can be used for the development of biological control approaches such as being used together with sex pheromone traps.

  5. The Effects of Supplementary Mulberry Leaf (Morus alba) Extracts on the Trace Element Status (Fe, Zn and Cu) in Relation to Diabetes Management and Antioxidant Indices in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Ewelina; Jeszka-Skowron, Magdalena; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Flaczyk, Ewa; Wójciak, Rafał W

    2016-11-01

    Mulberry leaves (Morus alba) have been used in folk medicine to mitigate symptoms of diabetes. The mulberry plant contains phenolic compounds that are able to decrease blood glucose concentration. Since various phenolics have antioxidant and metal binding properties, they can be used to alleviate oxidative stress and chelate trace elements involved in redox reactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with mulberry leaf extracts (acetone-water (AE) and ethanol-water (EE)) on the trace element status (Fe, Zn and Cu) in relation to diabetes management and antioxidant indices in high-fat diet-fed/STZ diabetic rats. The experiment was performed on 38 male Wistar rats with diabetes (induced by high-fat diet (HF) and streptozotocin injection) or the control fed with AIN-93M or high-fat diet. As a result, five experimental groups were used: (1) a healthy control group fed with AIN-93M; (2) an HF control group; (3) a diabetic HF group; (4) a diabetic HF + AE group (6 g/kg diet); (5) a diabetic HF + EE group (6 g/kg diet). The rats were fed with appropriate diets for 4 weeks. The content of trace elements (Fe, Zn and Cu) in the serum and tissues was measured by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Biochemical analyses (glucose, TBARS, FRAP) were performed on the blood serum. It was shown that the AE decreased hepatic and renal Fe stores, while the EE increased hepatic Cu levels in diabetic rats and confirmed their ability to regulate the Fe and Cu status in diabetes. The results confirmed a significant hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of both mulberry leaf extracts in diabetic rats.

  6. Molecular characterization of mulberry germplasm from Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... Morus indica (Indian mulberry), Morus microphylla (Texas .... Taq DNA Polymerase (Fermentas) (5unit) 0.2 µl, water 9.4 µl sample DNA 1.3 µl (100 ng/ ..... Methods in the Conservation and Use of the Plant Genetic. Resources.

  7. Production Efficiency of Cocoon Shell of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Bombycidae: Lepidoptera, as an Index for Evaluating the Nutritive Value of Mulberry, Morus sp. (Moraceae, Varieties

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    Jalaja Suresh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional efficiency of mulberry leaves consumed by silkworms, Bombyx mori L., is usually evaluated in terms of the proportion of cocoon shell weight to the amount of food ingested. The production efficiency of cocoon shell is generally used to identify the superiority of a mulberry variety for silkworm rearing. In this study the production efficiency of cocoon shell was used as an index for evaluating the nutritive value of different mulberry varieties of India. Among the varieties, V-1, having highest production efficiency of cocoon shell with less amount of food ingested and highest digestibility, is regarded as the best suitable variety with nutritive values ideal for silkworm rearing.

  8. The mulberry plant (Morus alba), tool for combating desertification the experience of the sericulture promotion and development association (Ghana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntaanu, P. K.

    2009-07-01

    Desertification may be defined as the loss of fertility of the land in semi-arid and sub-humid regions of the world. Its causes are broadly categorized into natural and anthropogenic and includes soil erosion (wind, water), soil exploitation (nutrients depletion), salination (primary and secondary) and others including soil compaction, contamination, etc. Desertification is on-going in all parts of Ghana but it is quite extensive and more visible in the north, upper-east and upper-west regions of the country. this area is desert prone and is in the guinea savannah agro-ecological zone. It occupies about 40% of the total area of the country. The desert prone region otherwise termed as semi-arid Ghana is located between latitude eight degrees north and eleven degrees north of the equator. (Author) 2 refs.

  9. Influência de genótipos de amoreira (Morus sp. e substratos no peso e características de casulos do bicho-da-seda (Bombyx mori L. Influence of mulberry (Morus sp. genotypes and substrates in weight and characteristics of silkworm cocoons (Bombyx mori L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odinete Murari

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de três genótipos de amoreira, Morus sp. (Moraceae: Miura, FM Shima Miura e IZ 56/4, três tipos de esteiras de criação: terra compactada, concreto e tela plástica sobre o peso e algumas características industriais de casulos produzidos pelo bicho-da-seda, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera. Houve influência das interações de genótipos com esteiras de criação sobre o peso dos casulos produzidos. Com relação às características industriais, os tratamentos que mais se sobressaíram foram: Miura / terra compactada, FM-SM / tela plástica, IZ 56/4 / terra compactada e IZ 56/4 / tela plástica.The effect of three genotypes of mulberry, Morus sp. (Moraceae, namely, Miura, FM Shima Miura and IZ 56/4, and three types of rearing substrate comprising compact soil, concrete and plastic screen were estimated on weight and on certain industrial characteristics of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera cocoons. Genotype interactions with rearing substrates affected weight of cocoons produced. Analysis showed the best treatments for manufacturer parameters were Miura / compact soil, FM-Shima Miura / plastic screen, IZ 56/4 / compact soil and IZ 56/4 / plastic screen.

  10. Effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on the maternal-fetal outcome, oxidative stress status and lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, G T; Calderon, I M P; Sinzato, S; Campos, K E; Rudge, M V C; Damasceno, D C

    2011-12-08

    Morus nigra, commonly known as black mulberry, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. To evaluate the effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on maternal lipid and oxidative stress profile, reproductive outcomes, and also fetal anomaly incidence from diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) in virgin female Wistar rats. Morus nigra leaf aqueous extract (400 mg/kg) was administered from day 0 to 20 of pregnancy. At day 21 of pregnancy, all rats were anesthetized and killed to obtain blood samples and maternal-fetal data. After treatment with Morus nigra extract, non-diabetic and diabetic rats presented no glycemic changes. Fetuses from diabetic dams, regardless of Morus nigra treatment, were small for pregnancy age. In diabetic dams, plant treatment caused reduced MDA, cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL levels, and decreased placental index and weight as compared to diabetic group. The fetuses from diabetic rats treated with Morus nigra extract had lower frequency of skeletal and visceral anomalies as compared to diabetic group. Thus, Morus nigra leaf aqueous extract failed to control hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. However, Morus nigra treatment had antioxidant effect, contributing to reduce incidence of internal anomalies in offspring from diabetic dams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Leaf Surface Scanning Electron Microscopy of 16 Mulberry Genotypes (Morus spp. with Respect to their Feeding Value in Silkworm (Bombyx mori L. Rearing Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido de la Superficie Foliar de 16 Genotipos de Morus spp. en Relación a su Valor Alimenticio para Crianza del Gusano de la Seda (Bombyx mori L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K Singhal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry (Morus spp. is the only silkworm (Bombyx mori L. food plant. In Indian sub tropics, S-146 is the only popular and ruling mulberry genotype for silkworm rearing. As a result, mulberry leaf availability is always the limiting factor, and therefore, sub tropics are contributing less than 1% of the country’s total silk production compared with more than 60% under tropical conditions. Besides climatic conditions, this is due to a very limited number of mulberry genotypes available in this region for silkworm rearing. However, in the mean time, 15 mulberry genotypes viz. ‘Tr-10’,‘Chinese White’,‘K-2’,‘Sujanpur Local’,‘BC2-59’,‘S-1635’,‘C-1730’,‘Mandalaya’,‘S-30’‘(Vishala,‘RFS-175’,‘Anantha’,‘C-2016’,‘C-2017’,‘S-41’ and‘V-1’ were also introduced in the sub tropics, but remained unexplored. In sericulture, leaf surface is also an important parameter for, both, the silkworm’s acceptability of not having any feeding impediment and the mulberry improvement programs. The objective of this study was to explore the possibilities of using these 16 mulberry genotypes for their leaf surface characteristics by scanning electron microscopy and using them for sericulture. Based on leaf yield, stomatal size, stomatal number per unit of area and trichomes and idioblasts length, these genotypes were grouped into different categories. The mulberry genotype ‘Mandalaya’, in addition to the ruling genotype ‘S-146’ excelled because of their higher leaf yield and desired leaf surface characteristics. Furthermore, the genotypes ‘K-2’, ‘S-41’ and ‘Sujanpur Local’ are also suggested to develop high yield mulberry genotypes in the Indian sub tropics.La morera (Morus spp. es la única planta de alimento para el gusano de la seda (Bombyx mori L.. En los sub-trópicos de la India, ‘S-146’ es el único genotipo popular y predominante de morera para criarlo. Como resultado, la

  12. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Fruit Extract Containing Anthocyanins Improves Glycemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Diabetic C57BL/Ksj-db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung Ha; Lee, Hyun Ah; Park, Mi Hwa; Han, Ji-Sook

    2016-08-01

    The effect of mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit extract (MFE) on hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in an animal model of type 2 diabetes was evaluated. C57BL/Ksj-diabetic db/db mice were divided into three groups: diabetic control, rosiglitazone, and MFE groups. Blood glucose, plasma insulin, and intraperitoneal glucose were measured, and an insulin tolerance test was performed after MFE supplementation in db/db mice. In addition, the protein levels of various targets of insulin signaling were measured by western blotting. The blood levels of glucose and HbA1c were significantly lower in the MFE-supplemented group than in the diabetic control group. Moreover, glucose and insulin tolerance tests showed that MFE treatment increased insulin sensitivity. The homeostatic index of insulin resistance significantly decreased in the MFE-supplemented group relative to the diabetic control group. MFE supplementation significantly stimulated the levels of phosphorylated (p)-AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) and p-Akt substrate of 160 kDa (pAS160) and enhanced the level of plasma membrane-glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscles. Further, dietary MFE significantly increased pAMPK and decreased the levels of glucose 6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the liver. MFE may improve hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMPK and AS160 in skeletal muscles and inhibition of gluconeogenesis in the liver.

  13. Production and characterization of distilled alcoholic beverages obtained by solid-state fermentation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) and black currant (Ribes nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso González, Elisa; Torrado Agrasar, Ana; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo M; Orriols Fernández, Ignacio; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

    2010-02-24

    The present study was conducted to appraise the potential of black mulberry and black currant to be used as fermentation substrates for producing alcoholic beverages obtained by distillation of the fruits previously fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae IFI83. In the two distillates obtained, the volatile compounds that can pose health hazards are within the limits of acceptability fixed by the European Council (Regulation 110/2008) for fruit spirits. However, the amount of volatile substances in the black currant distillate (121.1 g/hL absolute alcohol (aa)) was lower than the minimum limit (200 g/hL aa) fixed by the aforementioned regulation. The mean volatile composition of both distillates was different from other alcoholic beverages such as four commercial Galician orujo spirits, Portuguese bagaceiras, and two distillates obtained from fermented whey and blackberry. The results obtained showed the feasibility for obtaining distillates from fermented black mulberry and black currant, which have their own distinctive characteristics.

  14. The Effects of Dietary Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba L. on Chicken Performance, Carcass, Egg Quality and Cholesterol Content of Meat and Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paichok PANJA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiment I (Broilers The experimental design was completely randomized. Two hundred and forty of 3 week old male broilers were divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates of 12 birds each. The protein and metabolizable energy content of basal diets were 20 % and 3,000 kcal/kg, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with mulberry leaves at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of diet. The results demonstrated that feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, nitrogen and energy intake were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05. The carcass quality showed that carcass weight, dressing percentage and percent of abdominal fat pad were also not significantly different (P > 0.05. The blood cholesterol and triglyceride were significant (P < 0.05 lower at higher levels of mulberry leaves. However, the cholesterol content in thigh meat was not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05.   Experiment II (Layers The experimental design was completely randomized and two hundred of 27 week old laying hens were divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. The protein and metabolizable energy content of basal diet were 16 % and 2,750 kcal/kg, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with mulberry leaves at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of diet. The results found that feed intake, egg weight, egg mass, and egg quality were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05. The blood cholesterol was found to decrease (P < 0.05 at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 % of mulberry leaves inclusion. Likewise, triglyceride was also found to decrease (P < 0.05 at 0.5 to 1.5 % of inclusion. In addition, yolk cholesterol content was found to decrease and was significantly different (P < 0.05 at 2 % of inclusion.

  15. The use of in vitro gas production technique to evaluate molasses supplementation to mulberry (morus alba and rice straw mixed diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry foliages have high nutritive value (protein content, digestibility and degradability, therefore it is potential to be used as a supplement to poor quality roughages. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of addition of fermentable energy in the mixed of mulberry and rice straw basal diet. A control diet consisted of either rice straw (RS or urea treated rice straw mixed with mulberry foliage (URS with ratio of 60 : 40%. Treatment was formulated by supplementation of control diet with molasses (as sources of fermentable energy at 3 levels (5, 10 and 15%. The study was conducted in a 2 x 4 factorial experiment, consisted of 2 levels rice straw (untreated and urea treated and 4 levels molasses supplementation (control and 3 levels for molasses. Diets were evaluated using in vitro gas production. The fermentation kinetics was determined from the incubation of 200 mg sample during 96 hours. The calculation of the kinetics based on exponential equation P = A+ B (1-e-ct. A shorter gas production test was carried out to determine truly degradable fermented substrates (in vitro true organic matter degradability/IVTOMD by incubating 500 mg of samples 24 hours. The result showed that there was no significant interaction between rice straw treatment and molasses supplementation on fermentation characteristics, in vitro true dry matter digestibility, fermented substrate and total volatile fatty acid (VFA production. However there was a significant interaction between rice straw treatment on partitioning factor (PF, gas produced, propionic acid production and ratio between acetic acid and propionic acid. Molasses supplementation significantly (P<0.05 decreased gas production and ratio of acetic to propionic acid, and increase PF, propionic acid production in untreated rice straw mulberry (RSM basal diet. It is concluded that molasses supplementation to RSM diet decreased gas production and ratio of C2/C3, and increased PF and

  16. Identification of small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes in Urticales plants: mulberry (Morus notabilis), hemp (Cannabis sativa) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xing Huang; Yaning Bao; Bo Wang; Lijun Liu; Jie Chen; Lunjin Dai; Sana Ullah Baloch; Dingxiang Peng

    2016-03-01

    Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are important gene families in auxin signalling transduction and are commonly used asearly auxin responsive markers. Till date, no SAUR gene is identified in Urticales plants despite of the published bioinformationof mulberry, hemp and ramie. In this study, we used Arabidopsis sequences as query to search against mulberry, hempgenomes and ramie transcriptome database. In total, we obtained 62, 56 and 71 SAUR genes in mulberry, hemp and ramie,respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Urticales specific expansion of SAUR genes. Expression analysis showed 15 randomly selected ramie SAUR genes that were diversely functioned in ramie tissues and revealed a series of IAA-responsive,drought-responsive and high temperature-responsive genes. Moreover, comparison of qRT-PCR data and previous RNA-Seqdata suggested the reliability of our work. In this study, we first report the identification of SAUR genes in Urticales plants.These results will provide a foundation for their function validation in Urticales plant growth and development.

  17. Amelioration of drought-induced negative responses by elevated CO2 in field grown short rotation coppice mulberry (Morus spp.), a potential bio-energy tree crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Kalva Madhana; Reddy, Kanubothula Sitarami; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2017-02-25

    Present study describes the responses of short rotation coppice (SRC) mulberry, a potential bio-energy tree, grown under interactive environment of elevated CO2 (E) and water stress (WS). Growth in E stimulated photosynthetic performance in well-watered (WW) as well as during WS with significant increases in light-saturated photosynthetic rates (A Sat), water use efficiency (WUEi), intercellular [CO2], and photosystem-II efficiency (F V/F M and ∆F/F M') with concomitant reduction in stomatal conductance (g s) and transpiration (E) compared to ambient CO2 (A) grown plants. Reduced levels of proline, H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and higher contents of antioxidants including ascorbic acid and total phenolics in WW and WS in E plants clearly demonstrated lesser oxidative damage. Further, A plants showed higher transcript abundance and antioxidant enzyme activities under WW as well as during initial stages of WS (15 days). However, with increasing drought imposition (30 days), A plants showed down regulation of antioxidant systems compared to their respective E plants. These results clearly demonstrated that future increased atmospheric CO2 enhances the photosynthetic potential and also mitigate the drought-induced oxidative stress in SRC mulberry. In conclusion, mulberry is a potential bio-energy tree crop which is best suitable for short rotation coppice forestry-based mitigation of increased [CO2] levels even under intermittent drought conditions, projected to prevail in the fast-changing global climate.

  18. Identification of small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes in Urticales plants: mulberry (Morus notabilis), hemp (Cannabis sativa) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xing; Bao, Yaning; Wang, B O; Liu, Lijun; Chen, Jie; Dai, Lunjin; Baloch, Sana Ullah; Peng, Dingxiang

    2016-03-01

    Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are important gene families in auxin signalling transduction and are commonly used as early auxin responsive markers. Till date, no SAUR gene is identified in Urticales plants despite of the published bioinformation of mulberry, hemp and ramie. In this study, we used Arabidopsis sequences as query to search against mulberry, hemp genomes and ramie transcriptome database. In total, we obtained 62, 56 and 71 SAUR genes in mulberry, hemp and ramie, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Urticales specific expansion of SAUR genes. Expression analysis showed 15 randomly selected ramie SAUR genes that were diversely functioned in ramie tissues and revealed a series of IAA-responsive, drought-responsive and high temperature-responsive genes. Moreover, comparison of qRT-PCR data and previous RNA-Seq data suggested the reliability of our work. In this study, we first report the identification of SAUR genes in Urticales plants. These results will provide a foundation for their function validation in Urticales plant growth and development.

  19. 桑树脱落酸生物合成相关基因的鉴定及转录表达分析%Characterization and Transcriptional Expression Analysis of ABA Biosynthesis Related Genes from Mulberry (Morus albaL.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱攀攀; 余茂德; 刘长英; 赵爱春; 裴汭超; 李军; 王晓红; 李镇刚; 王茜龄; 鲁成

    2015-01-01

    被下调,MnAAO和MnZEP1只在第4天升高,MnZEP1只在处理后第1天被下调,MnNCED2在ABA和氟啶酮处理后均被下调。【结论】从桑树中获得了6个ABA合成相关基因MnAAO、MnZEP1—MnZEP2和NCED1—NcED3,MnNCEDs在果实发育中后期的转录表达相对较高,并与ABA的含量变化相一致,可能对ABA的合成起主要调控作用,外源ABA处理能够促进桑椹的成熟和脱落,氟啶酮处理能够抑制桑椹的成熟和脱落。%[Objective] 9-cisepoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), ABA-aldehyde oxidase(AAO), Zeaxanthinepoxidase (ZEP) are the key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) via indirect pathway. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcriptional expression of ABA biosynthesis related genes and detect the content of ABA during Jialing 40 (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) fruit development. The effects of ABA and its synthesis inhibitors on fruit development were also explored. This work will lay a foundation for further studying the role of ABA on mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit maturity and senescence.[Method]In this study, the sequences of six putative ABA biosynthesis related genes were obtained fromMorusnotabilis genome database and its deduced amino acid sequences were analyzed by using bioinformatics tools. Total RNA was extracted from mulberry fruit using RNAiso Plus (TaKaRa) and reverse transcribed to synthesize cDNA. The relative transcriptional expression of ABA biosynthesis related genes in different developmental stages and treated mulberry fruits was investigated by using qRT-PCR. The content of ABA was determined by using HPLC.[Result]Six ABA biosynthesis related genes were isolated from mulberry, including one AAO gene, twoZEP genes and three NCED genes. Multiple-sequence alignment results showed thatMnNCEDs amino acids are relatively conserved in higher plants. Cluster analysis revealed that MnNCED1-3 are closely related with dicotyledons plants and farther with monocotyledons plants. Transcription

  20. The application of response surface methodology in studying the effect of heat and high hydrostatic pressure on anthocyanins, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase of mulberry (Morus nigra) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Felix N; Ma, Yongkun; Zhang, Haining; Yu, Lizhi; Deng, Nana

    2014-08-01

    Mulberry juice is an excellent source of phytochemicals with medicinal properties. The effects of four independent variables (temperature, heating time, pressure, and pressurising time) on three response variables [% anthocyanin retained, and % residual activities of the enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD)] of mulberry juice were studied using response surface methodology. Mathematical models and optimum levels of the response variables were generated. Temperature had the greatest effect on all the response variables. The synergistic effect of temperature and pressure had significant effect (P < 0.05) on anthocyanin retained and residual PPO activity. The prediction of the desirability model, based on 95% confidence in the range of the independent variables, gave optimal treatment conditions of 83.39°C, 2.38 min, 480.00 MPa, and 21.67 min, respectively for temperature, heating time, pressure, and pressurising time. At these levels, the corresponding response variables were 91.68%, 44.69% and 20.17% for the amounts of anthocyanin retained, and residual activities of PPO and POD, respectively. The desirability index obtained was 0.741. The results were desirable and the mathematical models developed could be used to predict the outcome of the response variables to a high degree of accuracy. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of black mulberry (Morus nigra) extract treatment on cognitive impairment and oxidative stress status of D-galactose-induced aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Nergiz Hacer; Mert, Derya Guliz; Kara, Haki; Egilmez, Hatice Reyhan; Arslanbas, Emre; Tepe, Bektas; Gungor, Huseyin; Yilmaz, Nese; Tuncel, Necati Baris

    2016-01-01

    Morus nigra L. (Moraceae) has various uses in traditional medicine. However, the effect of M. nigra on cognitive impairment has not been investigated yet. The objective of this study is to determine the phenolic acid content and DNA damage protection potential of M. nigra leaf extract and to investigate the extract effect on cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in aging mice. Phenolic acid content was determined by quantitative chromatographic analysis. DNA damage protection potential was evaluated on pBR322 plasmid DNA. Thirty-two Balb-C mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, d-galactose, d-galactose + M. nigra 50, and d-galactose + M. nigra 100). Mice were administered d-galactose (100 mg/kg, subcutaneous) and M. nigra (50 or 100 mg/kg, orally) daily for 8 weeks. Behavioral responses were evaluated with Morris water maze. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assayed in serum, brain, and liver. In extract, vanillic (632.093 μg/g) and chlorogenic acids (555.0 μg/g) were determined. The extract between 0.02 and 0.05 mg/mL effectively protected all DNA bands against the hazardous effect of UV and H2O2. Morus nigra significantly improved learning dysfunctions (p nigra has the potential in improving cognitive deficits in mice and that M. nigra may be useful to suppress aging, partially due to its scavenging activity of free radicals and high antioxidant capacity.

  2. Aroma profile and sensory characteristics of a sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine subjected to non-thermal accelerating aging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchabo, William; Ma, Yongkun; Kwaw, Emmanuel; Zhang, Haining; Xiao, Lulu; Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid

    2017-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess accelerating aging effects of high pressure, ultrasound and manosonication on the aromatic profile and sensorial attributes of aged mulberry wines (AMW). A total of 166 volatile compounds were found amongst the AMW. The outcomes of the investigation were presented by means of geometric mean (GM), cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares regressions (PLSR) and principal component regression (PCR). GM highlighted 24 organoleptic attributes responsible for the sensorial profile of the AMW. Moreover, CA revealed that the volatile composition of the non-thermal accelerated aged wines differs from that of the conventional aged wines. Besides, PCA discriminated the AMW on the basis of their main sensorial characteristics. Furthermore, PLSR identified 75 aroma compounds which were mainly responsible for the olfactory notes of the AMW. Finally, the overall quality of the AMW was noted to be better predicted by PLSR than PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.)%桑树MaACS和MaACO基因的鉴定和表达模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-ying LIU; Shu-mei HAN; Cheng LU; Mao-de YU; Rui-hua LÜ; Jun LI; Ai-chun ZHAO; Xi-ling WANG; Umuhoza DIANE; Xiao-hong WANG; Chuan-hong WANG; Ya-sheng YU

    2014-01-01

    研究目的:分离和鉴定桑树中参与乙烯生物合成的酶的编码基因MaACS 和MaACO,研究其表达模式。创新要点:基于最新公布的桑树基因组数据库数据,获得5个MaACS 基因和2个MaACO 基因,对其进行了生物信息分析,同时鉴定了其在不同桑树组织中、不同发育时期桑椹中和不同激素作用下的表达模式。研究方法:通过生物信息学方法筛选和鉴定基因,利用荧光定量逆转录聚合酶链式反应(qRT-PCR)分析基因的表达量。重要结论:MaACS 和MaACO 基因在根、茎、叶等不同组织中呈现出不同的表达模式,在桑椹发育过程中呈现出两种表达模式,其表达量被脱落酸和乙烯利上调。%1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal se-quences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demon-strated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon.

  4. Chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities of eight mulberry cultivars from China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, Linghong; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Maomao; Zhao, Weiguo; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Yang, Liuqing

    2012-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) is widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, or tropical regions of the world, while there are no conclusive reports on the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant properties...

  5. La morera (Morus alba, Linn.: una especie de interés para la alimentación animal Mulberry (Morus alba, Linn.: a species of interest for livestock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J Martín

    2007-12-01

    ón, sobre todo para alimentar especies menores en los diferentes subprogramas pecuarios de la agricultura urbana.Mulberry is a multipurpose plant which originated in China. For more than 5 000 years it has been the only feedstuff for the silkworm, due to its excellent nutritional qualities, especially its high content of protein and energy. In addition, it is used in several regions of the world for livestock feeding. For such reasons, in 1996 the researchers of the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages "Indio Hatuey", taking into consideration the need to search for new sources of forages for animal feeding, re-considered the possibility of introducing to the country four mulberry varieties from Costa Rica, based on relationships established with the Tropical Agronomic Center of Research and Training (CATIE from that country, with the objective of evaluating their performance under different edaphoclimatic conditions and carrying out trials with different animal species. In order to achieve these objectives a multidisciplinary group was created involving specialists from several institutions and studies were performed which have allowed to characterize the bromatological and phytochemical composition of the varieties introduced, learn the effect of the factors of agronomic management for determining the production potential of total and edible biomass, as well as the intake, digestibility and animal response. Thus, this plant was demonstrated to have great adaptive capacity to different edaphoclimatic conditions all over the country; it can produce between 10 and 12 t DM/ha/year (edible biomass, has a DM digestibility higher than 80%, and the values of live weight gain and milk production are similar to the ones obtained with the use of imported concentrates. Nowadays mulberry has become a species known and used all over the country by entrepreneurs and farmers and has great acceptance, especially for feeding small species in the different livestock subprograms of

  6. Processing black mulberry into jam: Effects on antioxidant potential and in vitro bioaccessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    Black mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialized scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose-fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurization. Qualitative and

  7. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS...

  8. Efecto de la fertilización biológica y/o mineral en la producción de forraje de morera (Morus alba L. (Nota técnica Effect of biological and/or mineral fertilization on mulberry (Morus alba L. forage production (Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerine Oropesa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación durante un año en áreas de la EEPF “Indio Hatuey”, con el objetivo de estudiar la respuesta morfoagronómica de Morus alba L. cv. Tigreada asociada con Canavalia ensiformis como abono verde, inoculada con micorrizas a través del producto EcoMic® (fertilización biológica, y su combinación o no con fertilización mineral. Los tratamientos consistieron en: testigo (T, fertilización mineral (FM, fertilización biológica (FB y fertilización combinada mineral y biológica (FM+ FB en ambas épocas del año. La fertilización mineral consistió en N y K, a razón de 300 y 150 kg/ha/año, respectivamente. El intercalamiento de la canavalia como abono verde inoculada con HMA, condicionó en el período lluvioso una mejora en la respuesta productiva, sin afectar el aprovechamiento del forraje como biomasa comestible (6 250 kg de hojas/ha y 18 194,4 kg de biomasa combustible. Se recomienda continuar los estudios para determinar la combinación óptima de fertilización mineral y biológica que permita incrementar el rendimiento y la relación tallo tierno:tallo leñoso.A study was conducted during a year in areas of the EEPF “Indio Hatuey”, in order to study the morphoagronomic response of Morus alba L. cv. Tigreada associated to Canavalia ensiformis as green manure, inoculated with mycorrhizas through the product EcoMic® (biological fertilization, and their combination or not with mineral fertilization. Treatments consisted in: control (C, mineral fertilization (MF, biological fertilization (BF and combined mineral and biological fertilization (MF + BF in both seasons. Mineral fertilization consisted in N and K, at a rate of 300 and 150 kg/ha/year, respectively. The intercropping of C. ensiformis as green manure inoculated with AMF, caused in the rainy season an improvement of the productive response, without affecting the utilization of forage as edible biomass (6 250 kg of leaves/ha and 18 194,4 kg of

  9. Effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on the maternal-fetal outcome, oxidative stress status and lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Sinzato, S. [UNESP; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha [UNESP; Damasceno,Débora Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Morus nigra, commonly known as black mulberry, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment.Aim of this study: To evaluate the effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on maternal lipid and oxidative stress profile, reproductive outcomes, and also fetal anomaly incidence from diabetic and non-diabetic rats.Materials and methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) in virgin female Wistar rats. Morus nigra leaf aqueou...

  10. Characterization of Morus species in respect to micro, macro, and toxic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojković Marija M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the mineral composition of the extracts of the fruits, leaves and roots of white mulberry (Morus alba L. and black mulberry (Morus nigra L. grown in Serbia. All extract samples of white and black mulberry were analyzed for the content of micro (B, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Zn, macro (Ca, Mg, Na, and toxic metals (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The study revealed that parts of the plant had statistically significant impact on the levels of the examined elements among the two Morus species. All extracts contained high amounts of Ca, Mg, Na, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. The studies showed that in the most of extracts dominant macro element was Mg (591- 1942 μg/g of dry extract, while dominant microelements were Zn, B, Cu in all extracts, except for the black mulberry leaves, whose extract was most abundant in Fe (143 μg/g of dry extract. The highest content of micro and macro elements was detected in the extract of black mulberry leaves. This work contributes to the knowledge of the nutritional properties of Morus species. The obtained results may be useful in the evaluation of new dietary and food products.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31013

  11. Chemical properties in fruits of mulberry species from the Xinjiang province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Nie, Wen-Jing

    2015-05-01

    Mulberries are a widely cultivated foodstuff both in China and worldwide. However, there are stark differences in the nutritional values of mulberry species. To better appreciate these differences, we here describe the chemical characteristics of white (Morus alba L.), Russian (M. alba var. tatarica L.), and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry fruits cultivated in the Xinjiang province of China. The chemical composition analysis was performed by official methods procedures. The amino acids were analysed by the phenyl isothiocyanate method. The 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetric method, the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, and the pH differential method were also used in measuring the content of reduced ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, and total monomeric anthocyanins, respectively. The black mulberry fruits had the highest content of reduced ascorbic acid (48.4 mg/100 g fw), titratable acidity (47.1 mg/g fw), and Fe (11.9 mg/100 g fw) of these 3 species. The Russian mulberry fruits had the highest EAA/TAA (essential amino acid/total amino acid) ratio at 44% followed by the white mulberry (42%) and the black mulberry (29%). The black mulberry fruits had found to be richest in terms of total flavonoids and total monomeric anthocyanins. These results are helpful for selecting mulberry species with abundant nutrients and phytochemicals for commercial cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Avaliação nutricional do feno das folhas da amoreira (Morus alba L. em frangos de corte - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.10679 Nutritional assessment of mulberry (Morus alba L. leaf hay in broilers - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.10679

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar nutricionalmente o feno das folhas de amoreira, utilizando-se de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados cinco tratamentos (Testemunha (sem amoreira, 3,16% FB, 15% de amoreira (4,14% FB, 30% de amoreira (5,09% FB, Sem amoreira (4,14% FB e Sem amoreira (5,09% FB usando-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com dois blocos e três repetições dentro de cada bloco e avaliados os índices de desempenho, o exame histopatológico dos órgãos viscerais e medidas morfométricas do núcleo dos hepatócitos e ácinos pancreáticos. Foi verificado o pior desempenho produtivo para as aves que ingeriram feno de folhas de amoreira, além de lesões tais como esteatose, proliferação de células de ductos hepáticos e necrose focal múltipla no fígado das aves alimentadas com o tratamento 30% de amoreira (5,09% FB, além da diminuição nas dimensões do núcleo dos hepatócitos e dos ácinos pancreáticos.The trial was carried to evaluate the nutritional effects of mulberry leaf hay in broiler chickens. Five treatments were used: control (no mulberry, 3.16% CF; 15% mulberry (4.14% CF; 30% mulberry (5.09% CF, no mulberry (4.14% CF; no mulberry (5.09% CF. A randomized blocks design was used, with two blocks and three replications into the blocks to evaluate performance index, histopathological examination of the visceral organs and morphometric measurements of the hepatocyte nucleus and pancreatic acini. A poor performance index was observed for broilers feeding on mulberry leaves; lesions such as steatosis, proliferation of hepatic duct cells and multiple necrosis were found in the livers of the chickens fed with 30% mulberry (5.09% CF, as well as size reduction of the hepatocyte nucleus and pancreatic acini. From these data, it is concluded that mulberry probably has some toxic substance which can interfere in the improvement of diet ingredients, resulting in damage to broiler chickens.

  13. Wood Anatomical Structure of Morus alba L. and Morus nigra L., Native to Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham KARAMI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Iran is a wast country with many different tree species. Among those there are two species of Morus genus including alba and nigra. Since long time ago, white mulberrys wood (Morus alba has been used for making musical instruments especially bowl shaped instruments in Iran.. In contrast, black mulberrys wood (Morus nigra has never been used for these types of applications. In order to investigate the possible replacement choices, this study has been carried out to investigate the anatomical differences and similarities between these two species. Wood samples of the two species have been collected from same site and microsections for light microscopic studies and maceration samples have been prepared. The anatomical characteristics were studied according to the IAWA List of Hardwoods. The most important similarities between them are: vessel solitary in short radial multiples or irregular clusters, fiber nonseptate, rays uniseriate and multiseriate type, paratracheal parenchyma, varying from vasicentric to aliform confluent, apotracheal as marginal bands, Rhombic crystals present in rays and sometimes in parenchyma. The main differences are: semi-ring porous distribution of vessels in M. alba, fewer number of vessels and presence of aliform parenchyma in M. nigra. Taking these results into consideration, the most important features of both species are similar and it could be recommended to use the nigra species as well as the alba for making musical instruments.

  14. Analysis of Genetic Relationship of 24 Mulberry (Morus L.) Variety Resources Based on SRAP Molecular Markers%24份桑树品种资源基于SRAP分子标记的亲缘关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德昌; 张萍; 王照红; 陈传杰

    2015-01-01

    应用SRAP分子标记引物对24份桑树品种资源的基因组DNA进行PCR,检测其遗传多样性,分析品种间的亲缘关系.15对SRAP引物扩增产生126条谱带,平均每对引物产生8.4条谱带,其中多态性条带共99条,多态性比率为78.57%,说明24个桑树品种间具有丰富的遗传多样性.基于品种间遗传相似系数的UPGMA聚类图和基于品种的SRAP标记类型的主成分分析中,蒙桑种(Morus mongolica Schneid)的品种吉蒙桑、白桑种(Morus albaL.)的品种垂枝桑和山桑种(Morus bombycis Koidz.)的品种昌农山桑单独聚类,其他来自白桑种、广东桑种(Morus atropurpurea Roxb.)、鲁桑种(Morus multicaulis Perr.)的栽培品种分为3组;白桑种种内各品种间的遗传变异较小,而广东桑种、鲁桑种种内各品种间的遗传变异相对较大;广东桑3个品种间的遗传背景差异较大;鲁桑栽培品种农桑12号与其父本桐乡青的遗传相似度高,而与母本北区一号的差异显著,并且鲁桑种内各品种间未能完全聚类,品种间的亲缘关系与地理分布位置的距离相关.筛选的15对SRAP引物能够有效地检测供试桑树品种的遗传多样性,揭示品种间的亲缘关系.

  15. Alcoholic Beverages Obtained from Black Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Darias-Martín

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Black mulberry (Morus nigra is a fruit not known only for its nutritional qualities and its flavour, but also for its traditional use in natural medicine as it has a high content of active therapeutic compounds. However, this fruit is not widely produced in Spain but some trees are still found growing in the Canary Islands, particularly on the edges of the ravine. The inhabitants of these islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, El Hierro and Lanzarote collect the fruit and prepare homemade beverages for medicinal purposes. Numerous authors have reported that type II diabetes mellitus can be controlled by taking a mixture containing black mulberry and water. Apart from that, this fruit has been used for the treatment of mouth, tongue and throat inflammations. In this study we present some characteristics of black mulberry juice (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, citric acid, lactic acid, polyphenols, anthocyanins, the potassium etc. and alcoholic beverages (alcoholic grade, pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, tannins, phenols etc. obtained from black mulberry. Moreover, we have studied the quality of liquors obtained from black mulberry in Canary Islands.

  16. Six new record species of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infesting Morus alba in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Rui; Song, Zao-Qin; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    To determine the species of whiteflies occurring on mulberry, Morus alba L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in China, we collected samples in more than 87 sites in 16 provinces of China from 2008 to 2011. In total, 10 species, representing seven genera of the subfamily Aleyrodinae, were identified. Of these, six species are newly recorded on mulberry in China, namely, Aleuroclava ficicola Takahashi, Aleuroclava gordoniae (Takahashi), Aleurotrachelus camelliae (Kuwana), Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny), Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, and Pealius machili Takahashi. Information on the taxonomy, distribution, and host plants of the whitefly species found on mulberry in China, along with a brief description and illustrations of each species are provided.

  17. Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb.

  18. Intravascular "mulberry-like" bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G; Henriques, U V

    1988-01-01

    Intravascular "mulberry-like" bodies in a stillborn female infant with moderate maceration are reported. The histogenesis of these structures is discussed based on light-microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings. No demonstrable causal relation between the intravascular lesions...... and fetal death was found, the cause of death being attributed to intrauterine asphyxia. It is concluded, that intravascular "mulberry-bodies" most likely represent artifacts due to red blood cell autolysis....

  19. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eric Wei-Chiang; Lye, Phui-Yan; Wong, Siu-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary on the botany, utility, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba (mulberry or sang shu). The mulberry foliage has remained the primary food for silkworms for centuries. Its leaves have also been used as animal feed for livestock and its fruits have been made into a variety of food products. With flavonoids as major constituents, mulberry leaves possess various biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, glucosidase inhibition, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and cognitive enhancement activities. Rich in anthocyanins and alkaloids, mulberry fruits have pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotective activities. The root bark of mulberry, containing flavonoids, alkaloids and stilbenoids, has antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Other pharmacological properties of M. alba include anti-platelet, anxiolytic, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Clinical trials on the efficiency of M. alba extracts in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels and enhancing cognitive ability have been conducted. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the different parts of the mulberry tree confer its traditional and current uses as fodder, food, cosmetics, and medicine. Overall, M. alba is a multi-functional plant with promising medicinal properties.

  20. Effect of marine extracts on the microbial pathogens causing flacherie in the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KChairman; AJARanjit Singh; GAmalarani; CPadmalatha; GAlagumuthu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Silkworms are invertebrate animals that are killed by bacteria pathogenic against humans, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholera. Biochemical characterization of the microbes in the haemolymph of diseased silkworm collected during the survey indicated the presence of Bacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in the culture. Methods: Studies were carried out in vitro to assess the efficacy of some marine extracts for the containment of these microbes through turbidimetry analysis and zone of inhibition test. Results: The observations made during this study revealed that the ethyl acetate crude extracts of two marine samples are Auroraglobostellata and Spirostella inconstans var. moendrina Dendy effective against these microbes causing flacherie diseases in silkworm. The comparison of their effects indicated that ethyl acetate extracts were generally more effective Extensive studies using these extracts on the growth and cocoon production of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L. are likely to throw much light on the possibility of using such extracts as a prophylactic measure during silkworm rearing to improve silk production. Conclusions: Also, the results indicate that maybe plays a possible role in the contamination of humans and animals, in particular silkworms, while marine extracts showed a potential to control the contamination caused by bacterial diseases.

  1. Gender Influenced Spore Dimorphism in Nosema bombycis Nageli Causing Pebrine Disease in Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satadal CHAKRABARTY

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nosema bombycis is a pathogen causing pebrine disease of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori. The disease spreads mainly through transovarian transmission of environmental spore and secondarily through contaminated food, rearing appliances, etc. by primary spores. Ultra-structure studies using Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy of the two spores revealed differences in the primary spore which contained a Short Polar Tube (ST with a thin wall (< 200 nm, and the environmental spore which contained a Long Polar Tube (LT with a thick wall (> 200 nm. It is observed that the yield of spore with LT is highest in female moths, whereas, it is spores with ST are highest in male moths. Besides ultra-structures, the development pattern of the two types of spores is also different. It is an interesting finding in the present study that, spores of N. bombycis produced two types of spores and multiplied in different gender under the influence of the host’s reproductive role and physiology for transmission of disease. The detailed study on ultra-structure of disporous N. bombycis in both the sexes of B. mori along with their development in the life cycle stages of silkworms with special reference to the inoculum concentration of spore is discussed.  

  2. The Antioxidative Fraction of White Mulberry Induces Apoptosis through Regulation of p53 and NFκB in EAC Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Ali; Kabir, Syed Rashel; Reza, Md Abu; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Islam, Mohammad Saiful; Rahman, Md Aziz Abdur; Rashid, Mamunur; Sadik, Md Golam

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidative fraction of white mulberry (Morus alba) was found to have an apotogenic effect on Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma cell-induced mice (EAC mice) that correlate with upregulated p53 and downregulated NFκB signaling. The antioxidant activities and polyphenolic contents of various mulberry fractions were evaluated by spectrophotometry and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) was selected for further analysis. Strikingly, the EAF caused 70.20% tumor growth inhibition with S-phase cell cycle arrest, normalized blood parameters including red/white blood cell counts and suppressed the tumor weight of EAC mice compared with untreated controls. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of EAF-treated EAC cells revealed DNA fragmentation, cell shrinkage, and plasma membrane blebbing. These characteristic morphological features of apoptosis influenced us to further investigate pro- and anti-apoptotic signals in EAF-treated EAC mice. Interestingly, apoptosis correlated with the upregulation of p53 and its target genes PARP-1 and Bax, and also with the down-regulation of NFκB and its target genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Our results suggest that the tumor- suppressive effect of the antioxidative fraction of white mulberry is likely due to apoptosis mediated by p53 and NFκB signaling. PMID:27936037

  3. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Shah, Mohibullah; Khan, Rasool; Khan, Faridullah

    2010-12-01

    In the present work, the fruits of four Morus species, namely Morus alba (white mulberry), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Morus laevigata (large white fruit), and Morus laevigata (large black fruit), were analyzed for proximate composition, essential minerals, and antioxidant potentials. For this purpose, the ripe fruits were collected from the northern regions of Pakistan. The major nutritional components (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fibres, carbohydrates, and total sugar) were found to be in the suitable range along with good computed energy. Total dry weight, pH, and titratable acidity (percent citric acid) were (17.60±1.94)-(21.97±2.34) mg/100 g, (3.20±0.07)-(4.78±0.15), and (0.84±0.40)%-(2.00±0.08)%, respectively. Low riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) and niacin (vitamin B(3)) contents were recorded in all the fruits, while ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was in the range from (15.20±1.25) to (17.03±1.71) mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The mulberry fruits were rich with regard to the total phenol and alkaloid contents, having values of (880±7.20)-(1650±12.25) mg/100 g FW and (390±3.22)-(660±5.25) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Sufficient quantities of essential macro-(K, Ca, Mg, and Na) and micro-(Fe, Zn, and Ni) elements were found in all the fruits. K was the predominant element with concentration ranging from (1270±9.36) to (1731±11.50) mg/100 g, while Ca, Na, and Mg contents were (440±3.21)-(576±7.37), (260±3.86)-(280±3.50), and (240±3.51)-(360±4.20) mg/100 g, respectivly. The decreasing order of micro-minerals was Fe>Zn>Ni. The radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of fruits was concentration-dependent and showed a correlation with total phenolic constituents of the respective fruits. Based on the results obtained, mulberry fruits were found to serve as a potential source of food diet and natural antioxidants.

  4. Degradation kinetics of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside during hot air and vacuum drying in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit: A comparative study based on solid food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Chen, Qinqin; Bi, Jinfeng; Wang, Yixiu; Wu, Xinye

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the degradation kinetic of anthocyanin in dehydration process of solid food system. Mulberry fruit was treated by hot air and vacuum drying at 60 and 75°C. The contents of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated for analysing the degradation characteristics. Model fitting results showed monomeric anthocyanin degradations were followed the second-order kinetic. Vacuum drying presented high kinetic rate constants and low t1/2 values. Thermodynamic parameters including the activation energy, enthalpy change and entropy change appeared significant differences between hot air and vacuum drying. Both heating techniques showed similar effects on polyphenol oxidase activities. These results indicate the anthocyanin degradation kinetic in solid food system is different from that in liquid and the oxygen can be regarded as a catalyst to accelerate the degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quali-quantitative analyses of Flavonoids of Morus nigra L. and Morus alba L. (Moraceae) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Agata Maria; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Braca, Alessandra

    2008-05-14

    Morus nigra L., belonging to the Moraceae family, is a decidious tree widely cultivated in Europe and West Asia. It has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, as a remedy for many kinds of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the profile of the phenolic constituents of M. nigra fruits and to compare their content with the fruits of another species of Morus, Morus alba, which is also very well known in folklore medicine. The fruits of black and white mulberries have been studied, and five compounds from the methanol extract have been identified by means of HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS. Four compounds (quercetin 3- O-glucoside, quercetin 3- O-rutinoside, kaempferol 3- O-rutinoside, and 5- O-caffeoylquinic acid) have been isolated by use of Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and HPLC and characterized by means of NMR and ESI-MS. Furthermore, HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS analysis of the red pigment of M. nigra fruits revealed the presence of four anthocyanins recognized as cyanidin 3- O-glucoside, cyanidin 3- O-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3- O-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3- O-rutinoside. All of the compounds were quantified.

  6. 桑树花青素合酶基因的克隆与信息学分析%Molecular Cloning and Information Analysis of ANS Genes Encoding Anthocyanin Synthases from Mulberry (Morus alba)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琼予; 李军; 赵爱春; 王茜龄; 金筱耘; 李镇刚; 余茂德

    2012-01-01

    花青素合酶ANS是花青素合成过程中的一个关键限速酶.本文利用同源克隆、RT-PCR从桑椹中克隆出花青素合酶(MaANS)基因,并进行生物信息学分析和组织特异性表达分析.通过染色体步移法获得的MaANS基因的5’端和3’端,获得基因全长1 535 bp,由2个外显子和1个内含子组成,包含完整CDS区域为1 077 bp,编码358个氨基酸,与来源于草莓、甘薯、苹果、沙梨的ANS基因同源性均达到80%以上.MaANS编码的蛋白质属于2-酮戊二酸双加氧酶家族.MaANS在进化树中的位置与草莓最近,与苹果、沙梨次之.组织表达分析表明,MaANS基因在幼叶和成熟果实中高水平表达,表明该基因的表达具有组织特异性,为研究桑树果色的形成原因和表达调控奠定了基础.%Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS, leucoanthocyanidin oxygenase) is one of the critical enzymes in the biosynthesis of the anthocyanin. Anthocyanidin synthase gene fragment (designated as MaANS) was isolated from mulberry fruit (Mom alba) by RT-PCR based on homology cloning and genome walking technology. MaANS with the 5' and 3' was cloned by genome-walking. The full-length genomic sequence of MaANS is 1 535 bp, which consists of two exons and one intron. The coding region length was 1 077 bp, and their deduced protein consisted of 358 amino acid residues. Multiple alignments revealed that the nucleic acid of MaANS shared above 80% identity with that of Fragaria x ananassa, Ipomoea batatas, Mains domestica, and Pyrus pyrifolia. Structural analysis showed that the MaANS protein might belong to the 2 OG and Fe(H)-dependent oxygenase family. Phyloge-netic tree analysis revealed that MaANS was the most close with Fragaria x ananassa, then Malus domestica and Pyrus pyrifolia. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses of MaANS transcripts showed that it was abundantly expressed in the young leaves and ripened fruit. All research made an essential foundation for pathway and

  7. 桑树DNA连接酶Ⅰ基因MuLigⅠ的获取和序列分析%Acquisition and Sequence Analysis of MuLig Ⅰ Gene from Mulberry (Morus alba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桃妮; 孔卫青; 杨金宏

    2015-01-01

    为进一步研究DNA连接酶Ⅰ在类病毒复制中的作用,以感染桑花叶萎缩类病毒的桑树叶片为材料,通过在同源基因保守区设计简并引物进行PCR扩增和cDNA末端扩增,获取桑树DNA连接酶Ⅰ基因.结果获得桑树DNA连接酶Ⅰ基因MuLigI长2730bp的mRNA序列,基因编码区长2367 bp,编码788个氨基酸,含典型的DBD结构域(173~351 aa)和CD催化结构域(405~771aa),N端含有核定位(NLS)和线粒体定位信号(MLS).研究所得桑树DNA连接酶Ⅰ基因具有保守的结构域和活性位点,可能和番茄的DNA连接酶Ⅰ基因一样,参与了桑花叶萎缩类病毒的复制过程.%For further study on the role of DNA ligase Ⅰ in the replication of viroid,the DNA ligase Ⅰ gene was obtained from MMDVd-infected mulberry leaf.The gene was amplified by degenerate primer designed in the conserved domain according to the homologous genes and RACE methods.The results showed that the mRNA sequence of MuLig Ⅰ was 2730 bp in length.The open reading frame (ORF) was 2367 bp and encoding 788 amino acid residues.There were conserved DBD domain (173-351 aa),catalytic domain (405-771 aa),and mitochondrion and nuclear location signal (MLS and NLS) in MuLig Ⅰ.The MuLig Ⅰ gene in this study contained conserved structural domain and active site,and like the DNA ligase Ⅰ gene of tomato,might be involved in the replication of MMDVd.

  8. Morus nigra and its major phenolic, syringic acid, have antidepressant-like and neuroprotective effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmagro, Ana Paula; Camargo, Anderson; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2017-08-18

    Depression is a disorder with a high incidence that has been increasing worldwide although the pathophysiology remains unclear. Moreover, some studies revealed a higher concentration of glutamate and oxidative stress in the patients' brain, which causes cell death by excitotoxicity. Morus nigra L. is known as black mulberry and its leaves are popularly used to treat affections related to menopause, obesity and high cholesterol. M. nigra leaves are a rich fount of phenolics which well-known by the antioxidant property. Herein, we examined the phenolic profile and the antidepressant-like effect of the Morus nigra aqueous extract (MN) and its major phenolic constituent, syringic acid (SA). Furthermore, the involvement of antioxidant and neuroprotective activities were further evaluated. Our results show that acute and subchronic MN or SA administration exerted antidepressant-like property in the behavioral testes in mice. The results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of MN, at least in part, could be due to the SA influence. Moreover, the observed effect involves the nitro-oxidative system modulation in both the serum and brain of mice. Furthermore, MN or SA was able to contain the glutamate-induced cell death in the hippocampal and cortical slices implicating the neuroprotection activity in the antidepressant-like effect.

  9. THE AGRO PRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISATION OF THE MULBERRY VARIETIES USED IN THE AMELIORATION PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA TANASE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The germplasm stock of the mulberry from Romania includes 64 mulberryvarieties from 5 Morus species, from which 16 are indigene varieties, 11 areJapanese, 13 Chinese, 14 from ex-URSS, 5 Italian and 5 Bulgarian.Up to the present there were monitored 50 mulberry varieties with variousproveniences, by filling in the Assessment Forms.The agro productive characterization of these varieties is realised based on theAssessment Forms, in which it is observed the phenotypic and genotypic diversityof the vegetal sericulture germplasm stock; the agro productive parameters suchas branch numbers/shrub, leaf surface, leaf weight, leaf production/ha, the proteincontent expressed in %SU, are significant.The phenotypic and agro productive characters of the mulberry varieties are takeninto consideration when choosing the parental forms in order to obtain some hybridpopulation that shall constitute the base for new mulberry varieties selection.

  10. UV-B Induced Changes in the Secondary Metabolites of Morus alba L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Da-Wei Zhang; Jing-Kui Tian; Run-Ze Chen; Lei Cui; Hong-Wei Fu; Lin Zhang; Ming-Yao Sun; Xi-Da Gu

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is harmful to plants and human beings. Many secondary metabolites, like flavonoids, alkaloids, and lignin, are UV-B absorbing compounds, which can protect the genetic material of plants. Furthermore, they are active components of herbal drugs. UV-B radiation can activate the self-protective secondary metabolism system. The results of this paper provide a method to induce bioactive secondary metabolites from mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) by UV-B irradiation in ...

  11. Protective effect of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Song-Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. are a traditional Chinese medicine for blood serum glucose reduction. This study evaluated the protective effects of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 80 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: A (control, B (diabetic treated with saline, C-D (diabetic treated with 0.3, 0.1 g/kg mulberry flavonoids once a day for 8 weeks and E (diabetic treated with 0.3 mg/kg methycobal. The diabetic condition was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. At the end of the experimental period, blood, and tissue samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation. Treatment with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids significantly inhibited the elevated serum glucose (P< 0.01. The increased myelin sheath area (P< 0.01, myelinated fiber cross-sectional area and extramedullary fiber number (P< 0.05 were also reduced in alloxan-induced rats treated with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids. 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids also markedly decreased onion-bulb type myelin destruction and degenerative changes of mitochondria and Schwann cells. These findings demonstrate that mulberry flavonoids may improve the recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and is likely to be useful as a potential treatment on peripheral neuropathy (PN in diabetic rats.

  12. Substitution of Concentrate with Mulberry Leaves in Ongole Grade Cattle Fed Rice Straw Based Diet

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    S. Syahrir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to assess the substitution of concentrate with mulberry (Morus spp. leaves combined with rice straw offered to beef cattle. The study used 12 male Ongole grade cattle weighing 217+10.53 kg. Rations consisted of rice straw, mulberry leaves and concentrate. Research was carried out according to completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 4 replications for each treatment. The treatments were: P1= 50% rice straw + 50% concentrate; P2= 50% rice straw + 25% concentrate + 25% mulberry; P3= 50% rice straw + 50% mulberry. The results of the study indicated that rumen fermentation in cattlle fed on P2 ration was more effective than those receiving P1 and P3 rations. The fermentation was characterized by a higher production of total VFA and allantoin excretion in the urine. The presence of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ compound of mulberry leaves in the rumen system in treatment P2 and P3 improved digestibility of fiber fractions of rice straw-based rations. Mulberry leaves in rations also accounted for isoacids in the rumen system, which supported the development of cellulolytic bacteria. In conclusion, mulberry leaves containing concentrate had a potency to substitute concentrate when used together with fiber source feed such as rice straw.

  13. Effect of Cultivar, Temperature, and Environmental Conditions on the Dynamic Change of Melatonin in Mulberry Fruit Development and Wine Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Yin, Li-Yuan; Shi, Xue-Ying; Xiao, Hua; Kang, Kun; Liu, Xing-Yan; Zhan, Ji-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2016-04-01

    High levels of melatonin have been reported in various foods but not in mulberry or its wine. This study investigated the dynamic changes of melatonin levels during mulberry fruit development and ethanol fermentation of 2 different colored mulberry cultivars ("Hongguo2ˮ Morus nigra, black and "Baiyuwangˮ Morus alba, white) at 2 fermentation temperatures (16 and 25 °C). Our results showed that the melatonin level increased in the beginning of mulberry development but decreased in the end. The MnTDC gene expression level correlated with melatonin production, which implied that TDC may be the rate-limiting enzyme of the melatonin biosynthetic process in mulberries. During mulberry fermentation, the melatonin concentration increased rapidly in the beginning and then decreased gradually. Low temperature delayed the melatonin production during fermentation. A relatively high level of melatonin was found in "Hongguo2ˮ compared with "Baiyuwangˮ during fruit development and fermentation. The variation of melatonin correlated with the ethanol production rate, suggesting that melatonin may participate in physiological regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the fermentation stage. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Colorability of Wood Material with Punica granatum and Morus nigra Extracts

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    Ertan Özen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the development of an eco-friendly dye that may be used in furniture, woodworking, and upper surface treatment, with no ill effects to human health. The plant dyestuff was extracted from pomegranate skin (Punica granatum and black mulberry (Morus nigra using an ultrasonic method at different rates. The extraction percentage ratios were, by weight in distilled water, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% and were applied to Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L. through an immersion method. After that, the determination of color change under the accelerated weathering conditions and the feasibility as the upper surface stain of this dyestuff were studied. The values of total color change of the natural dye samples that were applied to the test material were determined after accelerated weathering processes lasting 50, 100, and 150 h, according to ISO 2470. The results showed the best color stability in Oriental beech wood that was treated with 30% pomegranate skin or black mulberry extract as well as Scotch pine wood that was treated with 25% pomegranate skin extract or 50% black mulberry extract. Exactly the same ΔE* values were obtained with the same dyestuff and same wood type, indicating close color stability behaviors. According to the results, both pomegranate skin (Punica granatum and black mulberry (Morus nigra can be used to color wood materials.

  15. Effects of Water Stress on Physiological Characteristics of Mulberry(Morus alba)seedlings in the Hydro-Fluctuation Belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area%水分胁迫对三峡库区消落带桑树幼苗生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小辉; 刘芸; 李佳杏; 熊兴政; 尹小华; 陈阳; 秦俭; 黄先智; 杜英武

    2012-01-01

    chlorophyll content of mulberry seedlings was increased by 10. 4% under the drought hardening ( DH) condition than that of CK, while decreased by 3.2% under the waterlogging hardening ( WH ) condition than that of CK. With the soil moisture content reducing, the stomatal conductance ( Gs) and transpiration rate ( Tr) of mulberry seedlings both declined remarkably; The photosynthetic rate (Pn) of mulberry seedlings under the drought hardening and waterlogging hardening conditions was all higher than that of CK, and the intercellular CO2 concentration ( Ci) under the two conditions was lower than that of CK; The instantaneous water use efficiency of mulberry seedlings under the drought hardening and waterlogging hardening conditions was remarkably increased by 57% and 27% than that of CK, respectively, and the abscisic acid (ABA) content in the two conditions were remarkably increased by 79% and 29% than that of CK, respectively.

  16. Preferences, digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics of several mulberry species in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Petrus Ginting

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the preferences and nutritional qualities of four mulberry species (Morus cathyana, Morus nigra, Morus indica and Morus multicaulis in goat diet. Foliages were fed to six adult Boer x Kacang goats in a cafetaria style for preference analyses. Nutritional qualities (feed intake, apparent digestibility, N balances, rumen fermentation characteristics and blood metabolites were measured in a digestion trial. Twenty male goats were used in a completely randomised arrangement of four treatments (mulberry species and five replications. The selectivity indices were +0,389, -0,156, -0,154 and -0,234 for M. multicaulis, M. nigra, M. cathyana and M. indica, respectively, indicating that M. multicaulis was the most and M. indica was the least preferred species. When fed as the sole foliage the DM intake was higher (P0.05 among the species ranging from 60-65%. The N balances (N retained was highest (P0,05 among treatments. The ammonia concentration was higest (P>0,05 in the M. multicaulis and was lowest in the M. indica and M. cathyana groups. The bacteria and protozoa population was not different (P>0,05 among the treatments. It is concluded that M. multicaulis was more preferred by goats compared to M. nigra, M. indica and M. cathyana, but all species have potential as foliages for goats as shown by its high intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation rates.

  17. The antiproliferative effect of mulberry (Morus alba L.) plant on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shadia A. Fathy

    2013-08-12

    Aug 12, 2013 ... well-differentiated transformed cell line closely related to. HCC. 2. Materials ... methanol (MeOH) high-performance liquid chromatography. HPLC grade ... chased from the holding company for biological products. (VACSERA); in a .... might constitute an effective strategy to be a preferential meth- od for the ...

  18. 桑叶褐斑病病原菌的生物学特性研究%Bilolgical Characteristics of Pathogenic Fungus Causing Brown Spot on Mulberry Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庭观; 章一鸣; 叶政平; 何永宏; 张泽; 徐升胜; 洪逗

    2014-01-01

    Through cultivating pathogenic fungi of mulberry brown rot disease under 6 conditions such as different media, temperature, carbon source and nitrogen source after 6 days, research on the biological characteristics of pathogenic fungus causing brown spot on mulberry leaves was conducted .The results showed that nutrition , tem-perature and pH had significant influence on mycelial growth . It was found that the best medium for mycelial growth was oatmeal medium , the proper temperature was 20~30℃, the optimal temperature for mycelial growth was 25℃, the light had no obvious promotion effect on mycelial growth .It was also found that the optimal pH was 9 to 10 , the best carbon source and nitrogen source for mycelial grow are α-Galoctaose and Carbamide , and the mycelial could not survive above 55℃more than 10 min.%通过对桑叶褐斑病病原菌在不同种类培养基培养、不同氮源与碳源、不同温度等6种条件下培养6天后,测定菌落直径,观察菌丝颜色和菌落形态,分析了桑褐斑病病原菌的生物学特性。结果表明,在室内培养条件下,不同的营养成分、 pH值、温度、光照都对菌丝的生长有影响。病原菌菌丝生长的最适宜培养基是燕麦片培养基,适宜生长温度范围是20~30℃,最适生长温度为25℃,光照对菌丝生长无显著影响,最适pH值为9~10,最适碳源为α-乳糖,最适氮源为尿素,菌丝在55℃水浴10 min后则不能生长。

  19. Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on the Content and Yield of DNJ of Mulberry Leaves in Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang LIU; Hao YIN; Wanhong TONG; Gaiqun HUANG; Li WANG; Ling WEI; Jichuan ZHENG; Xiaorong SHUAI; 无

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to scientifically improve the 1-deoxynojimycin (DNJ) yield of mulberry leaves in spring. [Method] "3414" experimental design was adopted to investigate the effects of different fertilizer application rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the DNJ content in mulberry leaves. The regression relationship was further simulated with DNJ yield as the objective function and fertil- izer application rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as the regulatory factors. [Result] The results showed that nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium all have great effects on the DNJ content in mulberry leaves at different parts of mulberry tree (Morus alba); the DNJ content in mulberry leaves increases with the increasing single-factor fertilizer application rate and reaches the maximum under N2P2K2 level; different fertilizer application rates and combinations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium can significantly affect the DNJ content in mulberry leaves; according to the simulated fertilizer effect function, the optimal economic yield of total DNJ in mul- berry leaves was 23.23 kg/hm^2, the recommended fertilization indicators were 286.11 kg/hm^2 N, 95.22 kg/hm^2 P2O5 and 159.62 kg/hm^2 K20. [Conclusion] After confirmation in productive practice, this optimal fertilization program can provide reference for the construction of mulberry plantation with high yield and high quality of DNJ.

  20. Antibacterial activities of Diospyros blancoi, Phoenix dactylifera and Morus nigra against dental caries causing pathogens: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Lubna; Aslam, Ayesha; Ahmed, Safia

    2017-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the in-vitro antibacterial potential of Diospyrosblancoi, Phoenix dactylifera and Morusnigra leaf extracts in hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethyl-acetate and aqueous extracts against dental caries causing bacteria. Disc diffusion assay was used to determine the antibacterial efficacy; the extracts were further separated using Thin Layer Chromatography and the anti-biofilm activity of the extracts was also determined. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presences of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and tannins because of which the extracts showed strong antibacterial activity against the selected pathogens. The ethyl-acetate extracts showed maximum inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by S. mutans.96% inhibition was observed in methanol extract of Diospyrosblancoi, and 95% in ethyl acetate extract. The results evidenced that the plants inhibit the growth of oral bacteria responsible for dental caries with their abundance source of secondary metabolites and can be used as an alternative treatment for caries, thus minimizing the antibiotics used to treat the disease in local medicine.

  1. The Prokinetic, Laxative, and Antidiarrheal Effects of Morus nigra: Possible Muscarinic, Ca(2+) Channel Blocking, and Antimuscarinic Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaq, Anam; Mehmood, Malik Hassan; Rehman, Abdul; Ashraf, Zohaib; Syed, Sadia; Bawany, Samira Ahmed; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Ilyas, Maimoona; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

    2016-08-01

    Morus nigra Linn. (black mulberry) is used in gastrointestinal ailments. This study demonstrates gut modulatory properties of M. nigra. The prokinetic, laxative, and antidiarrheal activities of M. nigra were assessed in mice, while isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum were used to explore insight into mechanism(s). At 30 and 70 mg/kg, the crude extract of M. nigra (Mn.Cr) exhibited atropine-sensitive prokinetic and laxative effects, similar to carbachol (CCh). While at higher doses (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg), Mn.Cr offered protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea. In rabbit jejunum, Mn.Cr and its chloroform fraction inhibited CCh-induced contractions more potently compared with high K(+) (80 mm). Conversely, petroleum fraction was more potent against high-K(+) -induced contractions. At 0.01 mg/mL, Mn.Cr caused a parallel shift in acetylcholine concentration-response curves (CRCs) followed by a non-parallel shift at 0.03 mg/mL, similar to dicyclomine. At further tested concentrations, Mn.Cr (0.1 and 0.3 mg/mL) and petroleum fraction suppressed Ca(2+) CRCs, similar to verapamil. In guinea-pig ileum, Mn.Cr, its aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited atropine-sensitive gut stimulant activity along with additional uncharacterized excitatory response in the aqueous fraction only. These results suggest that black mulberry possesses prokinetic, laxative, and antidiarrheal effects, putatively mediated through cholinomimetic, antimuscarinic, and Ca(2+) antagonist mechanisms, respectively. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. JNK1/2 Activation by an Extract from the Roots of Morus alba L. Reduces the Viability of Multidrug-Resistant MCF-7/Dox Cells by Inhibiting YB-1-Dependent MDR1 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells acquire anticancer drug resistance during chemotherapy, which aggravates cancer disease. MDR1 encoded from multidrug resistance gene 1 mainly causes multidrug resistance phenotypes of different cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that JNK1/2 activation by an extract from the root of Morus alba L. (White mulberry reduces doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Dox cell viability by inhibiting YB-1 regulation of MDR1 gene expression. When MCF-7 or MCF-7/Dox cells, where MDR1 is highly expressed were treated with an extract from roots or leaves of Morus alba L., respectively, the root extract from the mulberry (REM but not the leaf extract (LEM reduced cell viabilities of both MCF-7 and MCF-7/Dox cells, which was enhanced by cotreatment with doxorubicin. REM but not LEM further inhibited YB-1 nuclear translocation and its regulation of MDR1 gene expression. Moreover, REM promoted phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2 and JNK1/2 inhibitor, SP600125 and rescued REM inhibition of both MDR1 expression and viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. Consistently, overexpression of JNK1, c-Jun, or c-Fos inhibited YB-1-dependent MDR1 expression and reduced viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that REM-activated JNK-cJun/c-Fos pathway decreases the viability of MCF-7/Dox cells by inhibiting YB-1-dependent MDR1 gene expression. Thus, we suggest that REM may be useful for treating multidrug-resistant cancer cells.

  3. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LEAF TEAS BLACKBERRY (MORUS NIGRA)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Zanco; de Souza, E F; Bonacorsi,C.

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has a long tradition in the use of plants, and is the same used in different ways, such as in the form of infusions and decoctions, for therapeutic purposes. Morus nigra species is a plant that has been used in different parts of the world as phytotherapy. This plant is known as mulberry, black, blackberry black or blackberry and various parts of the plant, such as leaves, fruit, bark and roots are used by the population, demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant, hypoglyce...

  4. Bioactive compounds and sensory quality of black and white mulberries grown in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calín-Sánchez, Angel; Martínez-Nicolás, Juan José; Munera-Picazo, Sandra; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare, for the first time, white and black mulberry species in terms of main phytochemical, volatile composition and sensory profile characteristics in eight Spanish clones. The results showed that black and white mulberry species displayed significant different characteristics. PLS analysis has allowed grouping of the clones into four groups (i) MA1, MA2 and MN2, (ii) MN3 and MN4, (iii) MA3 and MA4, and (iv) MN1. Experimental results proved that Spanish mulberries have potential for fresh consumption due to their high antioxidant capacity (10.7-86.1 mg Trolox 100 g(-1)), polyphenol (76.7-180 mg gallic acid 100 g(-1)) and ellagic acid content (8.7-15.5 mg 100 g(-1)) as well as considerable amount of volatile compounds (35) with desirable attributes, which were scored high by a trained panel. Cultivars from the Morus nigra species seem to provide fruits with higher content of bioactive compounds and better aptitude for fresh consumption than Morus alba. Differences among the species should be attributed to genetics because they were cultivated under same conditions.

  5. Mulberry trees conserved soil and protected water quality in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin; Wan, Pan; Xiong, Xing-Zheng; Ou, Yang; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Jingchun; Zhou, Hao; Xu, Qiao; Chen, Guohui; Xili, Yuanzi; Nie, Jiasheng

    2016-03-01

    China's Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) was designed to restore perennial plant cover on sloping land in western China, in part to protect the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). In this study, we examined use of white mulberry (Morus alba L.) in the SLCP to protect water quality and conserve soil. We established nine runoff monitoring plots divided among three categories (vegetable farming, fallow control, and mulberry plantation) on a bank of the Liangtan River situated at the western margin of the TGR. The land had been used previously by farmers for growing vegetables. We found that soil loss and surface water runoff were lowest in the mulberry plots and highest in the vegetable plots. We used inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to assess the concentration of selected heavy metal pollution indicators (Zn, Hg, As, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Cu) in the monitoring plot soils at the beginning of the experiment in May 2009. The heavy metals were assessed again at the end of the experiment in October 2012, and we found that the concentrations of these pollutants had been reduced in all fallow and mulberry plots, and to the greatest extent in the mulberry plots. We found that levels of Hg, Pb, and Cu increased in the vegetable plots. For these reasons, we conclude that riparian mulberry plantations are useful for reducing rapid runoff of storm water, conserving soil, and sequestering heavy metal pollutants in the TGR region.

  6. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LEAF TEAS BLACKBERRY (MORUS NIGRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zanco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has a long tradition in the use of plants, and is the same used in different ways, such as in the form of infusions and decoctions, for therapeutic purposes. Morus nigra species is a plant that has been used in different parts of the world as phytotherapy. This plant is known as mulberry, black, blackberry black or blackberry and various parts of the plant, such as leaves, fruit, bark and roots are used by the population, demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, among others. Because of the interest in research on the bioactivity of plant products and use of blackberry tea in the population, present study evaluated the antibacterial activity of teas M. nigra leaves obtained by infusion and decoction against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium, as well as the antioxidant potential of preparations by DPPH technique. Results revealed that the infusions and decoctions prepared with Morus nigra leaves showed no ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria tested. However, all preparations (decoctions and infusions obtained from the leaves showed antioxidant potential, demonstrated ability to reduce DPPH radical. Despite infusions and decoctions evaluated in this study do not show antimicrobial activity, both had significant antioxidant property. Considering the use of different plants, including mulberry tree, by the people, it is considered always important proof of their biological activities.

  7. Processing black mulberry into jam: effects on antioxidant potential and in vitro bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Merve; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert D; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-08-01

    Black mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialised scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose-fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurisation. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of antioxidants in black mulberry samples were performed using spectrophotometric methods, as well as HPLC- and LC-QTOF-MS-based measurements. These analyses included the determination of total polyphenolic content, % polymeric colour, total and individual anthocyanin contents, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro bioaccessibility in processing samples. Jam processing led to a significant reduction in total phenolics (88%), total flavonoids (89%), anthocyanins (97%), and antioxidant capacity (88-93%) (P < 0.05). Individual anthocyanin contents, determined using HPLC analysis, also showed a significant decrease (∼99% loss). In contrast, % recovery of bioaccessible total phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS assay) increased after jam processing (16%, 12%, and 37%, respectively). Fruit processing resulted in losses of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity of black mulberry jam. Optimisation of food processing could help to protect the phenolic compounds in fruits which might be helpful for the food industry to minimise the antioxidant loss and improve the final product quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Controle de Qualidade e triagem fitoquímica da droga vegetal das folhas de Morus nigra L. (MORACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis Guizzo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma rigorosa análise de controle de qualidade é uma das etapas na produção de fitoterápicos. Devido a escassez de estudos sobre Morus nigra L. (MORACEAE, mais conhecida como amora, este trabalho teve como objetivo o controle de qualidade das folhas da amoreira, incluindo uma análise Fitoquímica preliminar, controle de qualidade físico-químico e microbiológico utilizando metodologias farmacopeicas e não farmacopeicas. Os testes fitoquímicos evidenciaram a presença de isoflavonas, taninos hidrolisáveis e alcaloides. Os resultados do controle físico-químico e microbiológico mostraram-se de acordo com as especificações. Isso destaca a importância do estabelecimento de normas para o controle da qualidade para as plantas, a fim de que sejam utilizadas como fitoterápicos.Palavras-chave: Controle de qualidade. Droga vegetal. Fitoquímica. Morus nigra. ABSTRACT A rigorous quality control analysis is one of the steps in the production of herbal medicines. Due to lack of studies on Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, better known as mulberry, this study had as objective the quality control of mulberry leaves, including a preliminary Phytochemical analysis of physical-chemical and microbiological quality control methodologies, using pharmacopoeic and non pharmacopoeic. Phytochemicals tests revealed the presence of isoflavones, hydrolysable tannins and alkaloids. The results of the physic-chemical and microbiological control shown in accordance with the specifications. This shows the importance of establishing standards for quality control for plants, to be used as herbal medicines.Keywords: Quality control. vegetal drug. Phytochemistry. Morus nigra.

  9. TEST OF Morus khunpai AND M.indica HYBRID TOWARDS SILKWORM FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhaedah Muin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of silkworm rearing depends on the availability of qualified mulberry plants. The research is aimed to observe the compatibility of hybrid Morus khunpai and M.indica (KI hybrid for silkworm's feeding. It is related to the cocoon and filament quality. KI hybrids are a result of pollination control male parent M.khunpai and female parent M.indica S-54. The research applied a Randomized Complete Design by measuring variables, i.e.: the percentage of cocoon, number of normal cocoon, cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, cocoon shell ratio and filament length. The result showed that cocoon and filament quality of silkworm fed by mulberry hybrid M.khunpai and M.indica (KI have shown non-significant differences compared with silkworm fed by mulberry parents (M.khunpai and M.indica and the control (M.nigra. This situation showed that there has not been recognised yet as the compatibility of hybrid M.khunpai and M.indica (KI hybrid for silkworm feeding.

  10. In Vivo Hypoglycaemic Effect and Inhibitory Mechanism of the Branch Bark Extract of the Mulberry on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Hua-Yu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch bark extract (BBE derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L. with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of α-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, glucokinase (GCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1 and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value.

  11. An Assay on the Antiviral Activity of Mulberry Leaf Extract%桑叶提取物的抗病毒活性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 吴莎; 孙毅凡; 江振友; 廖森泰; 刘凡

    2011-01-01

    桑叶作为中药或功能饮品的重要成分在民间和临床上广泛应用.用70%乙醇对广东桑、白桑、鸡桑、鲁桑等桑种共20个品种的桑叶进行浸提,并依次用石油醚、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇萃取得到不同萃取组分及剩余水相组分.利用细胞病变减少法(CPE法)检测发现多个桑叶样品的萃取组分或水相组分含有抗病毒活性物质,且抗病毒活性具有选择性.其中,能有效抑制单纯疱疹病毒l型(HSV-1)的样品最多,6个桑品种桑叶的乙酸乙酯萃取组分对HSV-1的半数抑制浓度(IC50)≤12.5μg/mL;广东桑品种桑叶的水相组分和石油醚萃取组分具有较高的抗甲型流感病毒(Flu A)活性;部分桑品种桑叶的萃取组分对登革病毒2型(DV2)也有一定的抑制活性;20个桑品种桑叶的4种萃取组分对柯萨奇B3病毒(CVB3)均无抑制活性.上述结果表明桑叶含有丰富、较为广谱的抗病毒活性成分,但不同桑品种间的桑叶化学成分及抗病毒活性有一定差异.%Mulberry leaves are widely used in clinic and in public as an important ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine and functional drinks. In this study, mulberry leaves of 20 varieties from Morus atropurpurea Roxb. , Morus alba L , Morus australis Poir., and Morus multicaulis Perr. Were extracted with 70% ethanol first and then the crude products were further extracted in order of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butyl alcohol to obtain the correspondent extracted fraction and residue water fraction. Cytopathic effect reduction assay (CPE assay) on the antiviral effects of these different extracted fractions revealed that many extracted fractions or water residue fractions of mulberry leaves had antiviral activity, and the antiviral activity had selectivity. Leaf extracts of most mulberry varieties could effectively inhibit the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). The ethyl acetate extracts of 6 mulberry species had an inhibitory concentration 50

  12. Mulberry Fruit Mitigates Alcohol Neurotoxicity and Memory Impairment Induced by Chronic Alcohol Intake

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    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To date, the therapeutic strategy efficacy against memory impairment induced by alcohol intoxication is still limited. The novel therapeutic strategy which is easy to approach, less toxic and less cost is required. Based on the role of oxidative stress in memory impairment induced by alcohol, the neuroprotective effect of substance possessing antioxidant has gained much attention. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Morus alba fruits, substance possessing antioxidant, on spatial memory and brain damage in hippocampus. Approach: Male Wistar rats were induced alcoholism by increasing the alcohol concentration in drinking water gradually increased to 30% within 15-week period. Then, the alcoholic rats were orally given mulberry fruits powder at doses of 2, 10 and 50 mg kg-1 BW at a period of 14 days. The memory was assessed using Morris water maze after single administration and every 7 days until the end of the experimental period and at the end of experiment, hippocampus was isolated and determined the neuron density. In addition, the evaluation of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and Malondialdehyde (MDA level were also performed. Results: Our results showed that all doses of mulberry fruits enhanced spatial memory and neurons density in hippocampus. The suppression of both AChE activity and MDA level were also observed. These results suggested that the neuroprotection of mulberry fruits might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress damage while the cognitive enhancing effect might occur partly via the increased hippocampal neuron density and the suppression of AChE activity. Conclusion: Mulberry fruits can protect against brain damage and memory impairment induced by alcoholism. Therefore, mulberry fruits may be served as natural resource for developing food supplement against alcoholism. However, further researches about possible active ingredient and pharmacokinetic are required before moving forward

  13. 568 Prevalence of Sensitization to Parietaria, Pinus, Cupressus and Morus Pollens in Patients from Craic

    OpenAIRE

    Leal-Garcia, Liborio Rafael; González-Díaz, Sandra; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; del Carmen Zarate, Maria; Garcia-Calderin, Diego; Gallego, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Background The pollens of Cupressus, Parietaria, Pinus and Morus are important causes of allergic respiratory diseases. In a study of pollen concentration in Monterrey in 2004, these pollens occupied the first places in frequency. The objective was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to Parietaria, Pinus, Cupressus and Morus in patients from CRAIC (Regional Center of allergy and clinical immunology, Monterrey, México) Methods Is an observational, cross-comparative, double-blind study...

  14. Chaenomeles japonica, Cornus mas, Morus nigra fruits characteristics and their processing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarko, Tomasz; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Satora, Paweł; Sroka, Paweł; Pogoń, Piotr; Machalica, Justyna

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and black mulberry (Morus nigra) fruits as raw materials for processing. All analyzed fruits were characterized by high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Fruits of Japanese quince and cornelian cherry had also high acidity. Products such as fruit wines and liquors were prepared from the tested fruits. In respect of soluble solid content and reducing sugars content the obtained wine should be classified as dry wines. All analyzed liquors were characterized by similar alcohol content and the soluble solid content. Moreover, liquors made from Japanese quince and cornelian cherry were characterized by high total acidity and antioxidant capacity. The results of sensory analysis showed high commercial potential of the examined fruits.

  15. Plant propagation of Morus alba var. Criolla using Temporary Immersion Systems

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    J. E. Salas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The mulberry (Morus alba L. it is a forage plant of great economic importance. The present work was carried out with the purpose of to in vitro propagate the variety ‘Criolla’ via organogenesis with the use of Temporary Immersion Systems. It were defined the media and culture conditions for the temporary immersion systems. The results demonstrated that it was possible to obtain a high multiplication coefficient of 15.5. The immersion frequency had a significant influence on the evaluated variables. Maximum values were observed in the number of buds, the longitude of the buds and the multiplication coefficient with four immersions per day. The plants in vitro cultivated in temporary immersion systems were established in the acclimatization phase in a substrate compound for 85% worm humus and 15% zeolita. It were superior in the morphological variables evaluated regarding those propagated by the conventional method of stakes. Key words: multiplication coefficient, in vitro plants, morphologic variations

  16. UV-B induced changes in the secondary metabolites of Morus alba L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xi-Da; Sun, Ming-Yao; Zhang, Lin; Fu, Hong-Wei; Cui, Lei; Chen, Run-Ze; Zhang, Da-Wei; Tian, Jing-Kui

    2010-04-27

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is harmful to plants and human beings. Many secondary metabolites, like flavonoids, alkaloids, and lignin, are UV-B absorbing compounds, which can protect the genetic material of plants. Furthermore, they are active components of herbal drugs. UV-B radiation can activate the self-protective secondary metabolism system. The results of this paper provide a method to induce bioactive secondary metabolites from mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) by UV-B irradiation in vitro. Five significantly different chromatographic peaks were found by HPLC fingerprint after induction, from which two active compounds were identified: One was chalcomoracin, a natural Diels-Alder type adduct with antibacterial activity; the other one was moracin N, which is a precursor of chalcomoracin. Their contents were 0.818 mg/g and 0.352 mg/g by dry weight, respectively.

  17. UV-B Induced Changes in the Secondary Metabolites of Morus alba L. Leaves

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    Da-Wei Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet-B (UV-B radiation is harmful to plants and human beings. Many secondary metabolites, like flavonoids, alkaloids, and lignin, are UV-B absorbing compounds, which can protect the genetic material of plants. Furthermore, they are active components of herbal drugs. UV-B radiation can activate the self-protective secondary metabolism system. The results of this paper provide a method to induce bioactive secondary metabolites from mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. by UV-B irradiation in vitro. Five significantly different chromatographic peaks were found by HPLC fingerprint after induction, from which two active compounds were identified: One was chalcomoracin, a natural Diels-Alder type adduct with antibacterial activity; the other one was moracin N, which is a precursor of chalcomoracin. Their contents were 0.818 mg/g and 0.352 mg/g by dry weight, respectively.

  18. Stress-inducible expression of barley Hva1 gene in transgenic mulberry displays enhanced tolerance against drought, salinity and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checker, Vibha G; Chhibbar, Anju K; Khurana, Paramjit

    2012-10-01

    Coping with different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses is the foundation of sustainable agriculture. Although conventional breeding and marker-assisted selection are being employed in mulberry (Morus indica L.) to develop better varieties, nonetheless the longer time periods required for these approaches necessitates the use of precise biotechnological approaches for sustainable agriculture. In an attempt to improve stress tolerance of mulberry, an important plant of the sericulture industry, an encoding late embryogenesis abundant gene from barley (HVA1) was introduced into mulberry plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic mulberry with barley Hva1 under a constitutive promoter actin1 was shown to enhance drought and salinity tolerance. Here, we report that overexpression of barley Hva1 also confers cold tolerance in transgenic mulberry. Further, barley Hva1 gene under control of a stress-inducible promoter rd29A can effectively negate growth retardation under non-stress conditions and confer stress tolerance in transgenic mulberry. Transgenic lines display normal morphology to enhanced growth and an increased tolerance against drought, salt and cold conditions as measured by free proline, membrane stability index and PSII activity. Protein accumulation was detected under stress conditions confirming inductive expression of HVA1 in transgenics. Investigations to assess stress tolerance of these plants under field conditions revealed an overall better performance than the non-transgenic plants. Enhanced expression of stress responsive genes such as Mi dnaJ and Mi 2-cysperoxidin suggests that Hva1 can regulate downstream genes associated with providing abiotic stress tolerance. The investigation of transgenic lines presented here demonstrates the acquisition of tolerance against drought, salt and cold stress in plants overexpressing barley Hva1, indicating that Arabidopsis rd29A promoter can function in mulberry.

  19. Kauplus Mulberry - Oksana Tandit = Mulberry - Oksana Tandit store

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Inglise firma Mulberry ja eesti moekunstniku Oksana Tanditi kauplusest Tallinnas Suur-Karja 2. Sisearhitektid Tiina Talvi ja Elo Pärlioja. Loetletud sisearhitektide tehtud töid. Interjööris kasutatud sepised valmistasid Tõnu Narro ja Märt Vaidla

  20. Kauplus Mulberry - Oksana Tandit = Mulberry - Oksana Tandit store

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Inglise firma Mulberry ja eesti moekunstniku Oksana Tanditi kauplusest Tallinnas Suur-Karja 2. Sisearhitektid Tiina Talvi ja Elo Pärlioja. Loetletud sisearhitektide tehtud töid. Interjööris kasutatud sepised valmistasid Tõnu Narro ja Märt Vaidla

  1. Shotgun proteomic analysis of mulberry dwarf phytoplasma

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    Zheng Chengchao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulberry dwarf (MD, which is caused by phytoplasma, is one of the most serious infectious diseases of mulberry. Phytoplasmas have been associated with diseases in several hundred plant species. The inability to culture phytoplasmas in vitro has hindered their characterization at the molecular level. Though the complete genomes of two phytoplasmas have been published, little information has been obtained about the proteome of phytoplasma. Therefore, the proteomic information of phytoplasmas would be useful to elucidate the functional mechanisms of phytoplasma in many biological processes. Results MD phytoplasmas, which belong to the 16SrI-B subgroup based on the 16S DNA analysis, were purified from infected tissues using a combination of differential centrifugation and density gradient centrifugation. The expressed proteome of phytoplasma was surveyed by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and nanocapillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 209 phytoplasma proteins were unambiguously assigned, including the proteins with the functions of amino acid biosynthesis, cell envelope, cellular processes, energy metabolism, nucleosides and nucleotide metabolism, replication, transcription, translation, transport and binding as well as the proteins with other functions. In addition to these known function proteins, 63 proteins were annotated as hypothetical or conserved hypothetical proteins. Conclusions Taken together, a total of 209 phytoplasma proteins have been experimentally verified, representing the most extensive survey of any phytoplasma proteome to date. This study provided a valuable dataset of phytoplasma proteins, and a better understanding of the energy metabolism and virulence mechanisms of MD phytoplasma.

  2. Plants regenerated from mesophyll protoplasts of white mulberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIZHIMING; ZHIHONGXU; 等

    1994-01-01

    Morus alba(white mulberry) mesophyll protoplasts were isolated from leaves of 30-45 day old sterile shoots,with protoplast yields of 2.5×107 g-1/F.W.after purification.The protoplasts were cultured in a modified K8P liquid medium containing 0.2mg/L 2,4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid),1mg/L NAA(Naphthyl acetic acid) and 0.5mg/L BA(6-benzylaminopurine).A low plating density(5×104/ml) proved to be favourable to the division of protoplast-derived cells.The first division occurred 4 days after culture,and the division frequency reached 24% at 10 days.A number of cell colonies and microcalli formed in 6 weeks.The microcalli were transferred onto MSB medium with 0.5mg/L NAA and 0.5mg/L BA for further proliferation.Shoot formation was initiated when the calli of 3-4 mm in size were transferred onto MSB differentiation medium with 0.1mg/L NAA and 1mg/L BA.The frequency of shoot formation was 35%.The shoots of 4-5 cm in height were excised from the callus and rooted on half strength MS medium with 0.5 mg/L IBA and 0.1 mg/L BA.After transplantation into pots,the regenerated plants grew vigorously in the phytotron.

  3. KARAKTERISASI SENYAWA FENOL DARI KAYU BATANG MORUS NIGRA

    OpenAIRE

    Ferlinahayati; Euis Holisotan Hakim; Yana Maolana Syah; Lia Dewi Juliawaty

    2013-01-01

    Tumbuhan Morus merupakan salah satu genus utama dalam famili Moraceae. Senyawa-senyawa turunan fenol merupakan kandungan utama dari genus ini, diantaranya kelompok stilben, 2-arilbenzofuran, flavonoid dan adduct Diels Alder. Penelitian ini merupakan bagian dari penelitian mengenai kajian fitokimia terhadap tumbuhan Morus. Ekstraksi dilakukan secara maserasi terhadap kayu batang Morus nigra menggunakan pelarut metanol yang dilanjutkan dengan pemisahan menggunakan berbagai teknik kromatografi s...

  4. Efecto del forraje de Morus alba en los indicadores productivos y de salud de bovinos jóvenes en pastoreo Effect of Morus alba forage on the productive and health indicators of grazing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildrey Soca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las potencialidades de la morera (Morus alba var. Cubana para la suplementación de bovinos jóvenes en pastoreo y sus efectos en la productividad y la salud de los animales, se desarrolló esta investigación en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey" durante la época lluviosa, con dos tratamientos: el grupo experimental recibía 6 kg de morera fresca troceada y 500 g de concentrado/animal/día (A; mientras que en el grupo control la suplementación era de 1 kg de concentrado/animal/día y heno de pangola a voluntad (B. Se evalúo la composición bromatológica y fitoquímica de la morera, el peso vivo, la ganancia media diaria (GMD y el conteo fecal de huevos (CFH de nemátodos gastrointestinales en los animales. Se observaron diferencias significativas (PIn order to evaluate the potential of mulberry (Morus alba var. Cubana for the supplementation of young grazing cattle and its effects on the productivity and health of the animals, this study was conducted at the EEPF "Indio Hatuey" during the rainy season, with two treatments: the experimental group received 6 kg of fresh chopped mulberry and 500 g of concentrate/animal/day (A; while in the control group supplementation was 1 kg of concentrate/animal/day and pangola grass hay ad libitum (B. The bromatological and phytochemical composition of mulberry, live weight, mean daily gain (MDG and fecal egg count (FEC of gastrointestinal nematodes in the animals were evaluated. Significant differences (P<0,001 were observed in the live weight between treatments (186,06 vs 169,01 kg. Likewise, a significant effect (P<0,05 of the MDG was detected, with values higher than 600 g in the supplemented animals. On the other hand, the FEC showed significant differences (P<0,01 since the second month of evaluation, with stable performance and values lower than 100 epg in the experimental group. Seven groups of secondary metabolites were found; the most representative ones were phenols, tripertene

  5. Antiinflammatory properties of Morus nigra leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Marina M; Vilela, Fabiana C; Rocha, Cláudia Q; Dias, Marcelo J; Soncini, Roseli; dos Santos, Marcelo H; Alves-da-Silva, Geraldo; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate antiinflammatory activity of the methylene chloride extract of Morus nigra in animal models. Carrageenan-induced paw edema as well as fibrovascular tissue growth induced by s.c. cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the antiinflammatory activity of Morus nigra extract (MnE) in rats. A HPLC fingerprint was used for phytochemical analysis of the extracts. The MnE at test doses of 100-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated antiinflammatory effects by reduced paw edema induced by carragenan and significantly inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue. In addition, chemical compounds isolated from Morus nigra, including betulinic acid, β-sitosterol and germanicol, may be responsible for the antiinflammatory effect of the extract. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Research Progress in Mulberry Pathogenic Prokaryotes and Their Diseases (Ⅰ)%桑树病原原核生物及其病害的研究进展(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒯元璋

    2012-01-01

    侵染桑树的病原原核生物有细菌、菌原体、螺原体、立克次体等,其中由病原细菌引发的桑树细菌病害时蚕桑生产的危害极大.主要介绍原核生物界薄壁菌门的病原细菌侵染桑树导致的桑疫病、桑青枯病、桑枝软腐病、桑枯萎病和桑叶斑病等重要桑树细菌病害,从病原及其侵染循环,桑树发病规律、发病症状,病害防治方法几个方面概述其研究进展.%Pathogenic prokaryotes infecting mulberry include bacteria, mycoplasms, spiroplasmas and rickettsia, among which mulberry bacterial diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria greatly endanger sericultural production. This paper mainly introduces important mulberry bacterial diseases including mulberry bacterial blight, mulberry bacterial wilt, mulberry shoot soft rot, mulberry enterobacterial wilt and mulberry bacterial leaf spot caused by infection of pathogenic bacteria from Gracilicutes of Prokaryota. The research progress in pathogens and their infection cycle, mulberry disease onset and disease symptoms, and control measures against mulberry diseases was reviewed.

  7. Mulberry anthocyanin biotransformation by intestinal probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Rong; Liu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Yi; Zhang, You-Sheng; Zhang, Ye-Hui

    2016-12-15

    This study was designed to evaluate mulberry anthocyanins bioconversion traits for intestinal probiotics. Five intestinal beneficial bacteria were incubated with mulberry anthocyanins under anaerobic conditions at 37°C, and bacterial β-glucosidase activity and anthocyanin level were determined. Results demonstrated that all strains could convert mulberry anthocyanins to some extent. With high β-glucosidase production capacity, Streptococcus thermophiles GIM 1.321 and Lactobacillus plantarum GIM 1.35 degraded mulberry anthocyanins by 46.17% and 43.62%, respectively. Mulberry anthocyanins were mainly biotransformed to chlorogenic acid, crypto-chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid during the anaerobic process. Non-enzymatic deglycosylation of anthocyanins also occurred and approximately 19.42% of the anthocyanins were degraded within 48h by this method.

  8. COCOON PRODUCTION OF THE SILKWORM, Bombyx mori L. (LEPIDOPTERA: BOMBYCIDAE, FED ON LEAVES OF MULBERRY HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERBSON AZEVEDO DE MENDONÇA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the fourth cocoon producer in the world. In São Paulo State there are mulberry some hybrids whose productivity are higher than the commonly cultivated varieties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mulberry hybrids (Morus spp. on the cocoon production of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.. The experiment was conducted at the Unidade Regional de Pesquisa de Gália do Instituto de Zootecnia, SP. The caterpillars were fed on leaves of the hybrids IZ-3/2, IZ-13/6, IZ-15/7, IZ-19/13, IZ-56/4, IZ-57/2, IZ- 40, IZ-64, in a rearing hut at 25 oC ± 3 oC and 75% ± 5% relative humidity. 'Korin' was used as standard. The hybrids affected the duration of the larval period and the weight of the caterpillars, prepupaes and the silk glands as well. There was a reduction in the duration of larval development when the caterpillars had been fed with hybrid IZ-56/4 and the 'Korin' variety. Hybrids IZ-57/2, IZ-56/4 and IZ-15/7 presented the highest cocoon production.

  9. Metabolic Effects of Mulberry Leaves: Exploring Potential Benefits in Type 2 Diabetes and Hyperuricemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hunyadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Morus alba L. have a long history in Traditional Chinese Medicine and also became valued by the ethnopharmacology of many other cultures. The worldwide known antidiabetic use of the drug has been suggested to arise from a complex combination effect of various constituents. Moreover, the drug is also a potential antihyperuricemic agent. Considering that type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia are vice-versa in each other’s important risk factors, the use of mulberry originated phytotherapeutics might provide an excellent option for the prevention and/or treatment of both conditions. Here we report a series of relevant in vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of an extract of mulberry leaves and its fractions obtained by a stepwise gradient on silica gel. In vivo antihyperglycemic and antihyperuricemic activity, plasma antioxidant status, as well as in vitro glucose consumption by adipocytes in the presence or absence of insulin, xanthine oxidase inhibition, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were tested. Known bioactive constituents of M. alba (chlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, and loliolide were identified and quantified from the HPLC-DAD fingerprint chromatograms. Iminosugar contents were investigated by MS/MS, 1-deoxynojirimycin was quantified, and amounts of 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimicin and fagomine were additionally estimated.

  10. Mulberry leaves treated with bordeaux mixture protect silkworm caterpillars against fungal and viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fernandes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The bordeaux mixture is used as a natural agricultural fungicide, and its application in sericulture can benefit the production of silkworm cocoons, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae. The aim of this study was to verify whether the bordeaux mixture exerts a protective effect in B. mori against fungal and viral diseases. This experiment was performed during two seasons, autumn and spring, in which 7,500 caterpillars were used at the beginning of the third instar and divided into five groups, with three repetitions of 500 individuals each. In the three groups, the caterpillars were fed leaves of Mulberry (Morus spp. that were enriched with an aqueous bordeaux mixture solution at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20%. One group was fed exclusively mulberry leaves (control, and another was fed leaves that were moistened with water. Fungal contamination was evaluated in the integumentary surface of the insect and the mulberry leaves in the bed of creation by checking the number of colony-forming units (CFU. In the analysis of viral contamination, 20 caterpillars from each group at the beginning of the fifth instar were inoculated with 10 ?l of a suspension of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV. Daily, from the second to the ninth day after inoculation (dai, two caterpillars of each group were anesthetized and formalin-fixed 7% for microscopic processing and viral cytopathology analysis. A completely randomized design was used, and the CFU were compared by Tukey test with 5% significance. The results showed a decrease of 55.1% in CFU present on the mulberry leaves in the fall, when the 5% bordeaux mixture solution was used. There was no significant difference between the groups based on the bordeaux mixture in this period. During the same period, reductions of CFU of 28.5, 74.9 and 74.4% were verified in the integument of B. mori when bordeaux mixture solutions of 5, 10 and 20% were used, respectively, compared with the data that were obtained in

  11. Optimization of Solid-Liquid Extraction of Antioxidants from Black Mulberry Leaves by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Zeković

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of active components from natural sources depends on different factors. The knowledge of the effects of different extraction parameters is useful for the optimization of the process, as well for the ability to predict the extraction yield. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of solvent concentration (ethanol/water 40–80 %, by volume, temperature (40–80 °C and solvent/raw material ratio (10–30 mL/g on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity from black mulberry (Morus nigra L. leaves. Experimental values of total phenolic content were in the range from 18.6 to 48.7 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents per g of dried leaves and total flavonoids in the range from 6.0 to 21.4 mg of rutin eqivalents per g of dried leaves. Antioxidant activity expressed as the inhibition concentration at 50 % (IC50 value was in the range from 0.019 to 0.078 mg of mulberry extract per mL. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to determine the optimum extraction conditions and to investigate the effect of different variables on the observed properties of mulberry leaf extracts. The results show a good fit to the proposed model (R˄2>0.90. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of phenolics and flavonoids were within the experimental range. The experimental values agreed with those predicted, thus indicating suitability of the used model and the success of RSM in optimizing the investigated extraction conditions.

  12. DECISION TOOLS FOR MULBERRY THRIPS PSEUDODENDROTHRIPS MORI (NIWA, 1908) MANAGEMENT IN SERICULTURAL REGIONS; AN OVERVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KayvanEtebari; L.Matindoost; R.N.Singh

    2004-01-01

    Mulberry thrips Pseudodendrothrips mori (Niwa, 1908) is a major pest of mulberry trees recorded from different sericultural regions of the world. The thrips infestation affects the qualitative and quantitative characters of mulberry leaf, by direct feeding damage to leaves and the ingestion of sap, which in turn affects the silkworm cocoon crop. This is most harmful in dry climates and seasons when heavily attacked plants lose moisture heavily. Under these conditions infestation can seriously deplete yields. The seasonal population fluctuation and the degree of damage caused to the host plant are influenced by various environmental factors including climate, host-plant variety, topography, soil type, and management regimes.This article attempts to review all available documents on mulberry thrips and to discuss the practical approaches for best control of this pest.

  13. An Analysis on Phylogenetic Relationship and Divergence Time of Yunnan Guangye Sang and Qinzhou Changguo Sang in Morus Genus Based on ITS Sequence%基于ITS分析云南光叶桑和钦州长果桑在桑属中的亲缘关系及分化时间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仁芳; 陈祥平; 范小敏; 陈家元; 刘泽听; 虞志伟

    2012-01-01

    云南光叶桑、钦州长果桑在形态分类学上均属同一桑种Morus macroura.通过PCR扩增2份地方品种资源材料的ITS序列并分析序列差异及构建系统进化树,阐明各自在桑属中的遗传分化关系.2份材料的ITS序列长度均为576 bp,其中:云南光叶桑的G+C含量为59.90%,碱基序列45位A变G,560位T变G,与昆明奶桑(Morus macrou,)、荥经川桑(Morus notabilis)、云南毛叶奶桑(Morus macroura var.mawa)、云南长穗桑(Morus wittiorum)、云南奶桑(Morus macroura)、雅安华桑(Morus cathayana)同在第Ⅰ类群,有较近的亲缘关系;钦州长果桑的G+C含量为59.72%,碱基序列45位为A,560位T变G,与云南华桑(Morus cathayana)同在第Ⅱ类群,有较近的亲缘关系.应用松散分子钟方法估算云南光叶桑与荥经川桑、雅安华桑、云南长穗桑的分化时间为8.23 Ma,钦州长果桑与云南华桑的分化时间为9.67 Ma,二者起源的地质年代是新第三纪中新世与上新世之交,是为了抵御地球寒冷、旱化,向南、向山地迁移形成的物种.%Yunnan Guangye Sang and Qinzhou Changguo Sang belong to the same mulberry species, Morus macroura, in morphological taxonomy. In this study, the ITS sequences of both local variety materials were PCR amplified, analyzed on their sequence difference, and used to construct phylogenetic trees for elucidation of their inheritance and divergence behavior in the Morus genus. The ITS sequence of both materials is 576 bp. However, the G +C content in Yunnan Guangye Sang is 59. 90%, and A has been replaced by G at nucleotide 45 and T by G at nucleotide 560. It has close phylogenetic relationship with Kunming Nai Sang (Morus macroura), Yingjing Chuan Sang (Morus notabilis), Yunnan Maoyenai Sang (Morus macroura var. Mawa), Yunnan Changsui Sang ( Morus wittiorum), Yunnan Nai Sang ( Morus macroura), and Ya'an Hua Sang (Morus cathayana), all of which belong to group | in the constructed phylogenetic tree. The G + C

  14. The response of mulberry trees after seedling hardening to summer drought in the hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohui; Liu, Yun; Li, Jiaxing; Xiong, Xingzheng; Chen, Yang; Yin, Xiaohua; Feng, Dalan

    2013-10-01

    Interest has developed in the potential of mulberry (Morus alba), a woody perennial, for revegetating the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir due to its resistance to water-logging stress. To be useful, the trees must also be able to withstand dry conditions in summer when temperatures can be very high and droughts become severe quickly. Here, we report a study in which mulberry seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under a variety of simulated soil water conditions reflecting potential summer scenarios in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. We compared the responses of two pretreatment groups of mulberry seedlings to different levels of drought stress. The pretreatment groups differed with respect to drought hardening: the daily-managed (DM) group had relative soil moisture held constant in the range 70-80 %, while the drought-hardened (DH) group had relative soil moisture held constant at 40-50 %. Following the month-long pretreatment of seedlings, the two groups of young trees (DM and DH) were then respectively subjected to three levels of drought stress for a month: normal watering, moderate drought stress, and severe drought stress. A series of measurements comparing the physiological status of the plants in the two groups were then made, and the following results were obtained: (1) As drought stress increased, the heights, base diameters, root surface areas, photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductances (Gs), and transpiration rates (Tr) of the mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) decreased significantly, while the specific root area and abscisic acid (ABA) contents had increasing trends. Root activity and instantaneous water use efficiency of mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) were all raised under drought stress conditions than under normal watering, but the root/shoot ratio and leaf water potential were lowered. (2) At the same level of soil water content, the heights, base diameters, root

  15. DECISION TOOLS FOR MULBERRY THRIPS PSEUDODENDROTHRIPS MORI (NIWA, 1908) MANAGEMENT IN SERICULTURAL REGIONS; AN OVERVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kayvan Etebari; L. Matindoost; R.N. Singh

    2004-01-01

    Mulberry thrips Pseudodendrothrips mori (Niwa, 1908) is a major pest of mul berry trees recorded from different sericultural regions of the world. The thrips infestation affects the qualitative and quantitative characters of mulberry leaf, by direct feeding damage to leaves and the ingestion of sap, which in turn affects the silkworm cocoon crop. This is most harmful in dry climates and seasons when heavily attacked plants lose moisture heavily. Under these conditions infestation can seriously deplete yields. The seasonal population fluctuation and the degree of damage caused to the host plant are influenced by various environmental factors including climate, host-plant variety, topography, soil type, and management regimes.This article attempts to review all available documents on mulberry thrips and to discuss the practical approaches for best control of this pest.

  16. 药桑椹花青素的体外抗氧化作用%Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanins from Morus nigra L. in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江岩; 郑力; 克热木江·吐尔逊江

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from Morus nigra L.(AMNL) in vitro was determined and compared with that of anthocyanins from Morus alba L.(AMAL) and Morus alba Linn.var.tatarica.(AMALV).The antioxidant evaluation was performed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl(DPPH),superoxide anion,hydroxyl and alkyl free radical scavenging assays and total antioxidant capacity(TOA) assay using rutin and VC as controls.The results showed that AMNL had stronger scavenging effect on DPPH free radicals with IC50 of 9.07 mg/L than AMAL and AMALV,but weaker scavenging effect on DPPH free radicals than rutin and vitamin C.Similarly,AMNL had more powerful scavenging effect on superoxide anion free radicals with IC50 of 2.82 mg/L and hydroxyl free radicals with IC50 of 7.77 mg/L than AMAL,AMALV,rutin and VC.However,anthocyanins from all the three cultivars of mulberry had a scavenging rate of less than 50% against alkyl free radicals.The total antioxidant capacity of AMNL revealed 11.8-,2.6-and 1.3-fold enhancement when compared with AMAL,AMALV and rutin,but was lower than that of vitamin C.%研究药桑椹花青素(anthocyanins from Morus nigra L.,AMNL)的体外抗氧化作用,并与白桑椹花青素(anthocyanins from Morus alba L.,AMAL)和黑桑椹花青素(anthocyanins from Morus alba Linn.var.tatarica,AMALV)的体外抗氧化作用进行比较。以芦丁和VC为对照,测定AMNL对二苯代苦味酰肼自由基(DPPH自由基)、超氧阴离子自由基(O2.)、羟自由基(.OH)和烷基自由基的清除能力,同时测定其体外

  17. Anticancer activity of Morus nigra leaves extract

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Imran Qadir; Muhammad Ali; Zubair Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Plants are screened for treatment of many ailments including cancer because they possess certain potential constituents which are effective for treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of Morus nigra leaves against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). n-Hexane and aqueous methanolic extract of plant’s leaves were made by maceration. Anticancer activity was estimated by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and percentage inhibition of cells was calculated...

  18. Effect of maturity on phenolics (phenolic acids and flavonoids) profile of strawberry cultivars and mulberry species from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5-53.3%, 491-1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83-327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9-54.0%, 201-2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110-1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages.

  19. Effect of Maturity on Phenolics (Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids Profile of Strawberry Cultivars and Mulberry Species from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Mahmood

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%, total phenolics (TPC and total flavonoids (TFC ranged from 8.5–53.3%, 491–1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g DW and 83–327 mg catechin equivalents (CE/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%, total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9–54.0%, 201–2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110–1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW, the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages.

  20. Determination of 1-Deoxynojimycin Contents in Leaves of Mulberry Cultivars in Shandong Province%山东省部分桑树栽培品种桑叶中的1-脱氧野尻霉素含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施新琴; 陈传杰; 李峰; 李智峰; 王照红; 顾寅钰; 李化秀

    2013-01-01

    为了选择适合开发桑叶药用及保健产品的桑树品种,以山东蚕区栽培的具有代表性的59个桑树品种为材料,采用反相高效液相色谱法测定各品种春季桑叶中的1-脱氧野尻霉素(DNJ)含量.结果表明,不同桑树品种间的DNJ含量存在极显著差异,含量最高和含量最低的桑树品种之间相差3.2倍,鲁桑品种沂源黄鲁和白桑品种红玛瑙桑叶中的DNJ含量较高,质量分数分别达到0.4097%和0.3828%.综合考虑各品种的桑叶DNJ含量以及单位面积桑园桑叶年产量和抗逆性等因素,认为青黄桑和选792两个桑品种的实用价值比较高,适合直接作为桑叶DNJ开发专用桑品种或育种材料.%In order to select mulberry cultivars suitable for development of medicinal and healthcare product prepared with mulberry leaves, the contents of 1 -deoxynojimycin (DNJ) in leaves of representative 59 mulberry varieties cultivated in sericultural areas of Shandong Province in spring were determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chroma-tography (RP-HPLC). The results indicated that the contents of DNJ in different mulberry cultivars had extremely significant difference. The ratio between maximum and minimum DNJ content can reach 3. 2. DNJ contents in leaves of Yiyua-nhuanglu of Morus multicaulis Perr. and Hongmanao of Morus alba Linn. were relatively higher, with mass fraction as high as 0. 409 7% and 0. 382 8% respectively. In comprehensive consideration of DNJ content in mulberry leaves, annual mulberry leaf yield per unit area of mulberry field and resistance against environmental stresses, Qinghuangsang and Xuan 792 had higher practical value, being appropriate special mulberry varieties or breeding materials for development of mulberry leaf DNJ.

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL, and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE. The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  2. Antioxidant activity of mulberry fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75-1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC(50) from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  3. Research Progress in Mulberry Pathogenic Prokaryotes and Their Diseases (Ⅱ)%桑树病原原核生物及其病害的研究进展(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒯元璋

    2012-01-01

    After introducing the research progress in mulberry bacterial diseases including mulberry bacterial blight, mulberry bacterial wilt, mulberry shoot soft rot, mulberry enterobacterial wilt and mulberry bacterial leaf spot caused by infection of pathogenic bacteria from Gracilicutes of Prokaryota, this paper introduced major advances in pathogen classification, and their infection cycle, mulberry disease onset and disease control measures of mulberry dwarf disease and mulberry reductus mosaic disease caused by pathogenic bacteria from Tenericutes of Prokaryota and mulberry leaf scorch caused by pathogenic bacterium from Mendosicutes of Prokaryota. In the article, mulberry dwarf disease was summarized with special emphasis, covering the research achievements obtained by scholars at home and abroad for nearly a century.%前文报道了原核生物界薄壁菌门中引发桑疫病、桑青枯病、桑枝软腐病、桑枯萎病、桑叶斑病的病原细菌及其病害的研究进展.本文介绍原核生物界软壁菌门中引发桑萎缩病、桑皱褶花叶病和疵壁菌门中引发桑叶日灼病等的病原菌分类演变及其侵染循环,桑树发病规律与病害防治方面的主要研究进展,其中对桑萎缩病进行了重点介绍,内容涵盖国内外学者近一个世纪的研究成果.

  4. Specific detection and identification of mulberry-infecting strains of Xylella fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular land...

  5. Environ: E00394 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00394 Morus alba shoot Crude drug Morus alba [TAX:3498] Moraceae (mulberry family) Morus... alba shoot Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Moraceae (mulberry family) E00394 Morus alba shoot ...

  6. Morus nigra leaf extract improves glycemic response and redox profile in the liver of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Carolina Morais; Lúcio, Karine de Pádua; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Isoldi, Mauro César; de Souza, Gustavo Henrique Bianco; Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Schulz, Richard; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and alterations in the carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. DM is associated with increased oxidative stress and pancreatic beta cell damage, which impair the production of insulin and the maintenance of normoglycemia. Inhibiting oxidative damage and controlling hyperglycemia are two important strategies for the prevention of diabetes. The pulp and leaf extracts of mulberry (Morus nigra L.) have abundant total phenolics and flavonoids, and its antioxidant potential may be an important factor for modulating oxidative stress induced by diabetes. In this study, DM was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (135 mg kg(-1)). Female Fischer rats were divided into four groups: control, diabetic, diabetic pulp, and diabetic leaf extract. Animals in the diabetic pulp and diabetic leaf extract groups were treated for 30 days with M. nigra L. pulp or leaf extracts, respectively. At the end of treatment, animals were euthanized and, liver and blood samples were collected for analysis of biochemical and metabolic parameters. Our study demonstrated that treatment of diabetic rats with leaf extracts decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase (CAT) ratio and carbonylated protein levels by reducing oxidative stress. Moreover, the leaf extract of M. nigra L. decreased the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity, increased insulinemia, and alleviated hyperglycemia-induced diabetes. In conclusion, our study found that the leaf extract of M. nigra L. improved oxidative stress and complications in diabetic rats, suggesting the utility of this herbal remedy in the prevention and treatment of DM.

  7. Colonization with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Promotes the Growth of Morus alba L. Seedlings under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morus alba L. is an important tree species planted widely in China because of its economic value. In this report, we investigated the influence of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF species, Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices, alone and together, on the growth of M. alba L. seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The growth parameters and physiological performance of M. alba L. seedlings were evaluated 90 days after colonization with the fungi. The growth and physiological performance of M. alba L. seedlings were significantly affected by the AMF species. The mycorrhizal seedlings were taller, had longer roots, more leaves and a greater biomass than the non-mycorrhizae-treated seedlings. In addition, the AMF species-inoculated seedlings had increased root activity and a higher chlorophyll content compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Furthermore, AMF species colonization increased the phosphorus and nitrogen contents of the seedlings. In addition, simultaneous root colonization by the two AMF species did not improve the growth of M. alba L. seedlings compared with inoculation with either species alone. Based on these results, these AMF species may be applicable to mulberry seedling cultivation.

  8. Preparation of Paper Mulberry Fibers and Possibility of Cotton/Paper Mulberry Yarns Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoon Jitjaicham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The novelty of yarn production from cotton/paper mulberry fiber blends was reported. The objective of this research was to prepare the paper mulberry fibers and study the possibility of production of yarns from cotton/paper mulberry fibers. For preparation of paper mulberry fibers, the inner bark was first immersed in water for 24 h. Then, the fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide at concentration of 5–10% (w/v for 1–3 h. After that, the bleaching process was conducted with hydrogen peroxide at concentration of 5–25% (v/v for different temperature and time. Finally, the fibers were washed with 10% (v/v of nonionic surfactant at temperature of 90°C for 30 minute to remove the residual gum from the fibers. The results showed that optimum condition for scouring of the paper mulberry fibers was 15% (w/v sodium hydroxide at 90°C for 2 h. The bleaching process with 15% (v/v H2O2 at 90°C for 90 minute was suitable. The obtained fibers were blended with the cotton fibers to produce yarns by open-end spinning method. The % elongation and tenacity of the blended yarns increased with the increasing of the paper mulberry ratio. Also, the antifungal property of yarns was improved by the blending of cotton fibers with the paper mulberry fibers.

  9. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Responses in Young Leaves of Mulberry Plants Grown Under Nitrogen,Phosphorus or Potassium Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh Kumar Tewari; Praveen Kumar; Parma Nand Sharma

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to associate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with induced antioxidant responses and disturbed cellular redox environment in the nltrogen-(N), phosphorus-(P), or potassium-(K) deficient mulberry (Morus alba L. var. Kanva-2) plants. The indicators of oxidative stress and cellular redox environment and antioxidant defense-related parameters were analyzed. Deficiency of N, P or K suppressed growth,accelerated senescence, and decreased concentrations of chloroplastic pigments and glutathione. Lipid peroxidation and activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were also increased in these N, P, or K deprived plants. Concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased in plants deficient in N or P. Deftciency of N or P particularly altered the cellular redox environment as indicated by changes in the redox couples,namely ascorblc acid/total ascorbate decreased in P-, glutathione sulfydryl/total glutathione decreased in N-, and increased in P-deficient plants. Activity staining of native gels for superoxide dismutase revealed increased activity as indicated by increased intensity of bands, and induction of few new isoforms in P- and K-deficient plants.Differences in the patterns of superoxide dismutase isoforms and redox status (ascorbic acid/total ascorbate and glutathlone sulfydryl/total glutathione) indicate that N-, P-, or K-deficiency altered antioxidant responses to varying extents in mulberry plants.

  10. Mulberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陌上

    2013-01-01

    玛百莉(Mulberry)创始人RogerSaul,自1970年在Somerset田园建立MULBERRY皮件王国后,便将当时的时空背景精神保存至今,而皮件的真材实料和外型原创性更是吸引人,是MULBERRY翻红的重要因素之一。MULBERRY这个超过百年的英国老牌,和多数历史悠久的精品一样,也曾经历低潮期,但经品牌年轻化,多口袋、多扣环、多铆钉结合美观与实用的设计之后,就再度风靡全球。

  11. Mulberry fruit protects dopaminergic neurons in toxin-induced Parkinson's disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Ju, Mi Sun; Shim, Jin Sup; Kim, Min Cheol; Lee, Sang-Hun; Huh, Youngbuhm; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Myung Sook

    2010-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, is characterised by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) to the striatum (ST), and involves oxidative stress. Mulberry fruit from Morus alba L. (Moraceae) is commonly eaten, and has long been used in traditional oriental medicine. It contains well-known antioxidant agents such as anthocyanins. The present study examined the protective effects of 70 % ethanol extract of mulberry fruit (ME) against neurotoxicity in in vitro and in vivo PD models. In SH-SY5Y cells stressed with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), ME significantly protected the cells from neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Other assays demonstrated that the protective effect of ME was mediated by its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects, regulating reactive oxygen species and NO generation, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, mitochondrial membrane depolarisation and caspase-3 activation. In mesencephalic primary cells stressed with 6-OHDA or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), pre-treatment with ME also protected dopamine neurons, showing a wide range of effective concentrations in MPP+-induced toxicity. In the sub-acute mouse PD model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), ME showed a preventative effect against PD-like symptoms (bradykinesia) in the behavioural test and prevented MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage in an immunocytochemical analysis of the SNpc and ST. These results indicate that ME has neuroprotective effects in in vitro and in vivo PD models, and that it may be useful in preventing or treating PD.

  12. KARAKTERISASI SENYAWA FENOL DARI KAYU BATANG MORUS NIGRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferlinahayati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumbuhan Morus merupakan salah satu genus utama dalam famili Moraceae. Senyawa-senyawa turunan fenol merupakan kandungan utama dari genus ini, diantaranya kelompok stilben, 2-arilbenzofuran, flavonoid dan adduct Diels Alder. Penelitian ini merupakan bagian dari penelitian mengenai kajian fitokimia terhadap tumbuhan Morus. Ekstraksi dilakukan secara maserasi terhadap kayu batang Morus nigra menggunakan pelarut metanol yang dilanjutkan dengan pemisahan menggunakan berbagai teknik kromatografi sehingga diperoleh senyawa murni. Berdasarkan data-data spektroskopi yang meliputi spektrum UV, IR dan NMR maka senyawa murni hasil isolasi tersebut merupakan senyawa fenol yaitu b-resorsilaldehid

  13. Determination and Analysis of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Content in Latex of Mulberry Branch%桑树枝干乳汁中的1-脱氧野尻霉素含量测定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张和禹; 汪泰初; 刘金珠; 胡娟霞; 刘朝良

    2011-01-01

    Latex of mulberry trees and other plants of Moraceae family mainly contains alkaloids and other chemical substances. In order to screen medicinal mulberry materials of which latex has rich content of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a pre-column derivatization reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detection method was employed to determine DNJ content in latex collected from various mulberry varieties, from different portions of mulberry tree, and in various seasons. It was found that different mulberry varieties had great difference in DNJ content of latex collected from middle portion of branch, among which DNJ content in Jinzhaihuasang (Morus cathayana) was 3 times higher over that in Huangluxuan ( Morus multicaulis). In the same mulberry variety ( Nongsang 14), DNJ content in latex collected from different portions of the tree and in different seasons was also varied. DNJ content in latex from the middle portion of mulberry branch collected in summer was 6. 338 mg/g. That from the upper portion of mulberry branch was 5. 813 mg/g. And that from the lower portion of mulberry trunk was only 1. 638 mg/g. DNJ content in latex of mulberry branch and trunk in summer was significantly higher than that in winter.%桑树等桑科植物的乳汁中主要含有生物碱等化学物质.为筛选乳汁中富含1-脱氧野尻霉素(DNJ)的药用桑树材料,采用柱前衍生化反相高效液相色谱紫外检测法,测定不同桑树品种及桑树不同部位、不同季节采集乳汁中的DNJ含量.不同桑树品种枝条中部乳汁中的DNJ含量有较大差异,其中华桑种的金寨华桑的DNJ含量高于鲁桑种的黄鲁选品种3倍之多.同一桑树品种(农桑14号)的桑树不同部位及不同收获季节采集乳汁中的DNJ含量也有差异:夏季采集的枝条中部乳汁中的DNJ质量比为6.338 mg/g,枝条顶部乳汁中的质量比为5.813 mg/g,主干基部乳汁中的质量比仅为1.638 mg/g;夏季枝干乳汁中的DNJ含

  14. Wood Anatomical Structure of Morus alba L. and Morus nigra L., Native to Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham KARAMI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Iran is a wast country with many different tree species. Among those there are two species of Morus genus including alba and nigra. Since long time ago, white mulberry�s wood (Morus alba has been used for making musical instruments especially bowl shaped instruments in Iran.. In contrast, black mulberry�s wood (Morus nigra has never been used for these types of applications. In order to investigate the possible replacement choices, this study has been carried out to investigate the anatomical differences and similarities between these two species. Wood samples of the two species have been collected from same site and microsections for light microscopic studies and maceration samples have been prepared. The anatomical characteristics were studied according to the IAWA List of Hardwoods. The most important similarities between them are: vessel solitary in short radial multiples or irregular clusters, fiber nonseptate, rays uniseriate and multiseriate type, paratracheal parenchyma, varying from vasicentric to aliform confluent, apotracheal as marginal bands, Rhombic crystals present in rays and sometimes in parenchyma. The main differences are: semi-ring porous distribution of vessels in M. alba, fewer number of vessels and presence of aliform parenchyma in M. nigra. Taking these results into consideration, the most important features of both species are similar and it could be recommended to use the nigra species as well as the alba for making musical instruments.

  15. Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins with Macroporous Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueming Liu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46 mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91 mg/mL resin. The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing.

  16. Specific Detection and Identification of American Mulberry-Infecting and Italian Olive-Associated Strains of Xylella fastidiosa by Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guan

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular landscape tree-infecting X. fastidiosa strain is capable of infecting multiple landscape tree species in an urban environment. We developed two PCR primers specific for mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa based on the nucleotide sequence of a unique open reading frame identified only in mulberry-infecting strains among all the North and South American strains of X. fastidiosa sequenced to date. PCR using the primers allowed for detection and identification of mulberry-infecting X. fastidiosa strains in cultures and in samples collected from naturally infected mulberry trees. In addition, no mixed infections with or non-specific detections of the mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa were found in naturally X. fastidiosa-infected oak, elm and sycamore trees growing in the same region where naturally infected mulberry trees were grown. This genotype-specific PCR assay will be valuable for disease diagnosis, studies of strain-specific infections in insects and plant hosts, and management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Unexpectedly but interestingly, the unique open reading frame conserved in the mulberry-infecting strains in the U. S. was also identified in the recently sequenced olive-associated strain CoDiRO isolated in Italy. When the primer set was tested against naturally infected olive plant samples collected in Italy, it allowed for detection of olive-associated strains of X. fastidiosa in Italy. This PCR assay, therefore, will also be useful for detection and identification of the Italian group of X. fastidiosa strains to aid understanding of the occurrence, evolution and biology of this new group of X. fastidiosa strains.

  17. Sol-Gel TiO2 thin films sensitized with the mulberry pigment cyanidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Henrique de Faria

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 films have various applications, among them solar cells and photodegradation of pollutants. In this study, we investigated TiO2 films functionalized with the organic dye cyanidin extracted from black mulberry (Morus nigra. The TiO2 was functionalized by the sol-gel method and the film was deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating. Our aim was to investigate the interaction between the semiconductor and the dye, as well as the influence of the velocity and number of deposits on the characteristics of the film. Using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, we observed a shift from the maximum absorption band at 545 nm for the dye’s ethanol solution to 595 nm for the film, indicating interaction of the cyanidin with the TiO2. The absorption spectra in the infrared region of the functionalized TiO2 particles showed bands characteristic of the oxide and indicated their interaction with the dye. Using profilometry and m-line techniques, we found that the films presented thicknesses in the order of 100 nm. A SEM analysis confirmed the high density of the films.

  18. Brazilian Morus nigra Attenuated Hyperglycemia, Dyslipidemia, and Prooxidant Status in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivanildo I. da S. Júnior; Humberto de Moura Barbosa; Débora C. R. Carvalho; Ruideglan de Alencar Barros; Flávia Peixoto Albuquerque; Dionísio Henrique Amaral da Silva; Grasielly R. Souza; Nathália A. C. Souza; Larissa A. Rolim; Flaviane M. M. Silva; Glória I. B. P. Duarte; Jackson R. G. da S. Almeida; Flávio Monteiro de Oliveira Júnior; Dayane A. Gomes; Eduardo C. Lira

    2017-01-01

      Morus nigra has been used popularly for several proposes, including diabetic. In an attempt to support medicinal value, the acute hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects of the ethanolic extract of Morus nigra...

  19. Anticancer activity of Morus nigra leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Qadir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are screened for treatment of many ailments including cancer because they possess certain potential constituents which are effective for treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of Morus nigra leaves against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa. n-Hexane and aqueous methanolic extract of plant’s leaves were made by maceration. Anticancer activity was estimated by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT assay and percentage inhibition of cells was calculated. Results of MTT showed that 100 µg/ml aqueous methanol extract of M. nigra inhibited 89.5-31.99% of HeLa cell line. It was concluded that M. nigra possess anticancer activity.

  20. Three new compounds from Morus nigra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Yan; Liu, Chao; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2010-06-01

    A new 2-arylbenzofuran derivative, mornigrol D (1), along with two new flavones, mornigrol G (2) and mornigrol H (3), and six known compounds, norartocarpetin (4), dihydrokaempferol (5), albanin A (6), albanin E (7), moracin M (8), and albafuran C (9), were isolated from the barks of Morus nigra. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1 and 9 showed antioxidative activities in vitro with inhibition ratios of 98 and 99% at the concentration of 10(-4) mol/l, and of 74 and 75% at the concentration of 10(-5) mol/l. In addition, compounds 1 and 4 showed potent anti-inflammatory activities (inhibition of release of beta-glucuronidase from rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes induced by platelet activating factor) with inhibitory ratios of 65.9% (P < 0.01) and 67.7% (P < 0.01) at a concentration of 10(-5) mol/l.

  1. Isolation and Identification of Antagonistic Bacterium Strain JK-7Against the Pathogenic Fungi Causing Mulberry Root Rot Disease%桑树根腐病真菌病原拮抗细菌JK-7的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳东; 曹梦琪; 王俊; 王凯旋; 孙国霞; 吴福安

    2013-01-01

    Mulberry root rot is a soil-borne infectious disease in mulberry root. In order to implement biological control a-gainst mulberry root rot disease, 84 strains of Bacillus were isolated from mulberry rhizospheric soil. A Bacillus strain which has antagonistic activity against Fusarium solani strain FS-1, the pathogenic fungi causing mulberry root rot disease, was screened by confrontation culture method and numbered as JK-7. The colonial morphology of strain JK-7 on LB medium was translucent, smooth and waxy on surface, and irregular at edge. Strain JK-7 is a Gram positive bacterium, rod-shaped and 0. 5 ~0. 7 μm ×1. 0 ~1. 2 μm in size. The oval-shaped spores located on middle or sub-terminal of bacterium. This strain could make use of starch and tyrosine. Its parasporal crystal was determined to be negative and reaction with peroxidase was positive. 16S rDNA sequence of strain JK-7 was amplified by PCR using a pair of bacterial universal primers and the obtained fragment size was 1 477 bp. Phylogenetic tree revealed that strain JK-7 had the closest genetic relationship with Bacillus cereus. Taken together, strain JK-7 was identified as Bacillus cereus. Plate confrontation test showed that strain JK-7 had inhibitory effect on hypha growth of pathogenic strain FS-1. Scanning electron microscopic observation indicated that strain JK-7 colonized on the surface of hyphae of FS-1, and caused deformity and breakage of mycelia, showing antagonistic effect to FS-1.%桑树根腐病是一类土壤传染性桑树根部病害.为了实施对这类病害的生物防治,从桑树根际土壤分离到84株芽孢杆菌,通过对峙培养法从中筛选出一株对桑树根腐病真菌病原腐皮镰刀菌(Fusarium solani)FS-1具有拮抗作用的菌株,将该菌株编号为JK-7.JK-7菌株在LB培养基上的菌落呈半透明、光滑蜡状,边缘不规则;为革兰阳性菌,杆状,大小0.5~0.7μm×1.0~1.2 μm,芽孢呈椭圆形,位于菌体中部或亚末端;菌株能

  2. Non-Mulberry and Mulberry Silk Protein Sericins as Potential Media Supplement for Animal Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Neety; Pal, Shilpa; Sapru, Sunaina; Kundu, Joydip; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Singh, N Ibotambi; Yao, Juming; Kundu, Subhas C

    2016-01-01

    Silk protein sericins, in the recent years, find application in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as biomaterials. We investigate the potential of sericin, extracted from both mulberry Bombyx mori and different non-mulberry sources, namely, tropical tasar, Antheraea mylitta; muga, Antheraea assama; and eri, Samia ricini, as growth supplement in serum-free culture medium. Sericin supplemented media containing different concentrations of sericins from the different species are examined for attachment, growth, proliferation, and morphology of fibrosarcoma cells. The optimum sericin supplementation seems to vary with the source of sericins. The results indicate that all the sericins promote the growth of L929 cells in serum-free culture media; however, S. ricini sericin seems to promote better growth of cells amongst other non-mulberry sericins.

  3. Gastroprotective Value of Berries: Evidences from Methanolic Extracts of Morus nigra and Rubus niveus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Angela Nottar Nesello

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the gastroprotective value of the methanol extracts from fruits of Morus nigra L. (black mulberry (MEMN and Rubus niveus Thunb (raspberry (MERN. The total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were measured, as well as the in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenger activity. The gastroprotective effects of the extracts against 60% ethanol/0.3 M HCl were evaluated in mice. After that, the lipid hydroperoxides and reduced glutathione levels at ulcerated tissue were determined. The effects of extracts on H+/K+-ATPase activity were also verified. The extracts exhibited high contents of polyphenols; however, MERN presented 1.5-fold higher levels. The presence of flavonoids also was confirmed. In addition, MEMN (IC50 = 13.74 μg/mL and MERN (IC50 = 14.97 μg/mL scavenged DPPH radical. The MEMN reduced the ulcer area only at 300 mg/kg (p.o. by 64.06%. Interestingly, MERN decreased the ulcer area in a superior potency (ED50 = 20.88 mg/kg, reducing the ulcer area by 81.86% at 300 mg/kg, and increased the gastric mucin levels. The antioxidant effects of extracts were evidenced by reduced lipoperoxides and increased reduction of glutathione amount in the gastric mucosa. However, MEMN or MERN did not change the H+/K+-ATPase activity. These results confirm that M. nigra and R. niveus are berries with a gastroprotective value by strengthening of gastric protective factors.

  4. The effects of juice processing on black mulberry antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, M.; Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    Black mulberry fruit is processed to juice at significant scale in Turkey. The effect of industrial-scale juice production on black mulberry antioxidants was evaluated using samples collected from the main steps of processing; including the selection of fruits, washing, mechanical milling, mashing,

  5. The effects of juice processing on black mulberry antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, M.; Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    Black mulberry fruit is processed to juice at significant scale in Turkey. The effect of industrial-scale juice production on black mulberry antioxidants was evaluated using samples collected from the main steps of processing; including the selection of fruits, washing, mechanical milling, mashing,

  6. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of prenylated substances isolated from Morus alba and Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelová, Hana; Hanáková, Zuzana; Čermáková, Zuzana; Šmejkal, Karel; Dalĺ Acqua, Stefano; Babula, Petr; Cvačka, Josef; Hošek, Jan

    2014-06-27

    Chromatographic separation of root extracts of Morus alba and M. nigra led to the identification of the 2-arylbenzofurans moracin C (1), mulberrofuran Y (2), and mulberrofuran H (3), and the prenylated flavonoids kuwanon E (4), kuwanon C (5), sanggenon H (6), cudraflavone B (7), and morusinol (8), and the Diels-Alder adducts soroceal (9), and sanggenon E (10). The cytotoxicity and their antiphlogistic activity, determined as the attenuation of the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β and the inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation in LPS-stimulated macrophages, were evaluated for compounds 1-10.

  7. Research of Degumming Process, Microstructure and Properties of Mulberry Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    More and more novel nature fibers are used in textiles. The natural fibers include banana fiber, pineapple fiber and bamboo fiber etc. In this paper, as a kind of novel natural fiber, mulberry fiber is studied. The chemical component of mulberry bast is tested and analyzed.Meanwhile, the degumming method and process of mulberry bast are studied. Chemical degumming experiments to investigate the influence of alkali concentration, alkali boiling time and sodium phosphate tribasic ratio to material are conducted. Consequently, optimum parameters are obtained. The crystallinity of mulberry fiber is tested by using X-ray line, and the photos of scanning electron microscope (SEM) are observed. Testing results of the fiber properties (e. g. fineness, tenacity, length and elongation)show that mulberry fiber can be spun blend with cotton.

  8. ESTIMATION OF EXPENSES, INCOME AND PROFIT IN MULBERRY TREE GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to comparatively analyze the economic efficiency for two experimental variants in Mulberry tree growing as follows: V1 – Mulberry planatation 0.5 ha + Layer maker 0.5 ha; V2 – Mulberry plantation 0.5 ha + Seed Field 0.2 ha + Layer maker 0.1 ha + Sowing Field 0.2 ha. The V2 variant assured Euro 51,915.49 profit, while V1 just Euro 3,675.41 profit. Therefore, the most profitable variant is V2. This means that production diversification in mulberry tree growing could have positive effects leading to an increased profitability. The hierarchy of the variants was made based on profit that the sericiculturist could get in the first 8 years of activity when mulberry plantation will reach the maximum production.

  9. Morus alba leaf extract mediates neuroprotection against glyphosate-induced toxicity and biochemical alterations in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebai, Olfa; Belkhir, Manel; Boujelben, Adnen; Fattouch, Sami; Amri, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that glyphosate exposure is associated with oxidative stress and some neurological disorders such as Parkinson's pathology. Therefore, phytochemicals, in particular phenolic compounds, have attracted increasing attention as potential agents for neuroprotection. In the present study, we investigate the impact of glyphosate on the rat brain following i.p. injection and the possible molecular target of neuroprotective activity of the phenolic fraction from Morus alba leaf extract (MALE) and its ability to reduce oxidative damage in the brain. Wistar rats from 180 to 240 g were i.p. treated with a single dose of glyphosate (100 mg kg(-1) b.w.) or MALE (100 μg mL(-1) kg(-1) b.w.) for 2 weeks. Brain homogenates were used to evaluate neurotoxicity induced by the pesticide. For this, biochemical parameters were measured. Data shows that MALE regulated oxidative stress and counteracted glyphosate-induced deleterious effects and oxidative damage in the brain, as it abrogated LDH, protein carbonyls, and malonyldialdehyde. MALE also appears to be able to scavenge H2O2 levels, maintain iron and Ca(2+) homeostasis, and increase SOD activity. Thus, in vivo results showed that mulberry leaf extract is a potent protector against glyphosate-induced toxicity, and its protective effect could result from synergism or antagonism between the various bioactive phenolic compounds in the acetonic fraction from M. alba leaf extract.

  10. Extraction and antioxidant activity of flavonoids of Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui-Zhang; Wang, Qin; Tong, Wen-Zhi; Xiong, Juan; Wei, Qin; Zhou, Wan-Hai; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Yin, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Ya-Qin; Lai, Yong-Hong; Huang, Hong-Yan; Luo, Qiao-Li; Wang, Lu; Jia, Ren-Yong; Song, Xu; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Li, Li-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Morus nigra has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, but the study on it is limited, the flavonoids are one of the main biological active substances. In this study, the Morus nigra flavonoids were extracted by ultrasonic and antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo were measured. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals clearance rate and superoxide radical anion clearance rate in vitro increased with the concentration of the total flavonoids in the range of 0-1.05 mg/mL and the maximum clearance rate was 80.33% and 87.69%, respectively. After mice were treated with flavonoids, the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum and liver decreased; the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and liver, catalase (CAT) in liver and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in blood and liver increased; Langhans cells increased in spleen. These results revealed that the Morus nigra flavonoids possessed strong antioxidant activity.

  11. Ectopic Expression of FaDREB2 Enhances Osmotic Tolerance in Paper Mulberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Ru Li; Yan Li; Hong-Qing Li; Guo-Jiang Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) proteins are a subfamily of AP2/ERF transcription factors that have been shown to improve tolerance to osmotic stresses in plants.To improve the osmotic stress tolerance of paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera L.Vent),an economically important tree,we transformed it with a plasmid carrying tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) FaDREB2 under the control of CaMV 35S.The ectopic expression of FaDREB2 did not cause growth retardation,and the paper mulberry seedlings expressing FaDREB2 showed higher salt and drought tolerance than wild-type plants (WT).After 13 d of withholding water,or 15 d in the presence of 250 mM NaCI,all the WT plants died,while the plants expressing FaDREB2 survived.The FaDREB2 transgenic plants had higher leaf water and chlorophyll contents,accumulated more proline and soluble sugars,and had less membrane damage than the WT plants under high salt and water-deficient conditions.Taken together,the results indicate the feasibility of improving tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in paper mulberry seedlings via genetic engineering,by introducing FaDREB2,which promotes the increased accumulation of osmolytes (soluble sugars and proline),to counter osmotic stresses caused by abiotic factors.

  12. Mulberry leaf extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its anti-bacterial activity against human pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adavallan, K.; Krishnakumar, N.

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were synthesized at room temperature using Morus alba (mulberry) leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The development of plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining importance due to its simplicity, low cost, non-toxicity, eco-friendliness, long term stability and reproducible aqueous synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of nearly monodispersed Au-NPs. The formation and morphology of biosynthesized nanoparticles are investigated with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Au-NPs formation was screened by UV-Vis spectroscopy through color conversion due to surface plasmon resonance band at 538 nm for Au-NPs. DLS studies revealed that the average size of Au-NPs was 50 nm. TEM studies showed the particles to be nearly spherical with few irregular shapes and particle size ranges 15-53 nm. The AFM image clearly shows the surface morphology of the well-dispersed Au-NPs with less than 50 nm. The high crystallinity of nanoparticles is evident from bright circular spots in the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face-centered cubic structure of Au-NPs. The FT-IR results indicate the presence of different functional groups present in the biomolecule capping the nanoparticles. Further, biosynthesized Au-NPs show strong zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholera (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) whereas, chemically synthesized Au-NPs and mulberry leaf extract exhibit a fair zone of inhibition.

  13. Toxic effects of cadmium on Morus alba L. and Bombyx moril L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, K.R.; Gong, H.; Wang, Y.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    A 3-year micro-plot experiment of mulberry cultivation with Cd-polluted soil and silkworm breeding experiments by feeding with exogenous or endogenous ¿Cd-polluted mulberry leaves were conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of Cd on mulberry and silkworms. There was no apparent harmful effect on mu

  14. Molecular Cloning and Expressional Pattern of Anthocyanidin Synthase Gene in Two Mulberry Species with Different Fruit Colors%桑树花青素合成酶(ANS)基因的克隆及在2种果色桑树中的表达特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓希武; 帅琴; 范丽; 曾其伟; 向仲怀; 何宁佳

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) is one of the key enzymes in the biosynthesis of plant anthocyanidin, which catalyzes conversion of leucoanthocyanidin into colored anthocyanidin. Here, we cloned an ANS sequence from Yuesh-enda 10, a mulberry variety of Morus atropurputea Roxb. This sequence had an ORF of 1 077 bp which coded for 358 a-mino acids with predicted molecular weight of 41 kD and theoretical pl of 5. 62. Domain prediction indicated that ANS had the conserved domain of 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase. Multiple sequence alignment showed that ANS sequences were highly conserved among different species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that mulberry ANS clustered into one clade with those of Vitaceae, Paeoniaceae and Rutaceae. RT-PCR assay displayed that mulberry ANS was specifically expressed in young leaves and fruits of the purple fruit bearing Yueshenda 10 and the expression level increased with fruit maturation. No expression of ANS was detected in young leaves and fruits of the white fruit bearing Zhenzhubai, a mulberry variety of Morus alba, suggesting that mulberry ANS plays an important role in the formation of mulberry fruit color.%花青素合成酶(anthocyanidin synthase,ANS)是植物花青素生物合成途径末端的关键酶,催化无色花色素到有色花色素的转变.从广东桑品种粤椹大10中克隆得到一条ANS序列,其ORF为1077 bp,编码358个氨基酸,预测蛋白质分子质量为41 kD,等电点为5.62,具有2-酮戊二酸双加氧酶的保守结构域.多重序列比对表明物种间的ANS序列高度保守,系统进化树中桑树ANS与芍药科、芸香科、葡萄科等植物的同源序列聚在一个类群上.RT-PCR检测桑树ANS在结紫色果的粤椹大10的幼叶和桑椹中特异性表达,并且随着果色加深其表达水平呈上升趋势,而在结白色果的桑品种珍珠白的幼叶和桑椹中检测不到ANS的表达,暗示桑树ANS在桑椹的颜色形成中起到重要作用.

  15. Effect of Neem seed kernel extract on the incidence of major pest (tukra in mulberry leaves on excretory products in Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaindira P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of pesticides over a period of time cannot sustain the crop yield and also harmful effects on soil and environment. Mulberry leaves are the predominant food source for silkworm, Bombyx mori rearing. The incidence of Pink mealy bug occurring in mulberry plantation can cause tukra disease that leads to qualitative loss of mulberry plantation. The present study was undertaken to study the effect of neem seed kernel extract having potential against the pests and insects as natural botanicals origin by foliar spray. The seed kernel extract of Azadirachta indica sprayed to occurring mealy bugs at the early cause of infection to V1 mulberry variety and reared to Silkworm. The total ammonia, urea and uric acid parameters were studied in tissue like haemolymph. The ammonia and uric acid activity gradually increased this increase however was significant at (P>0.05. There were a gradual decrease of urea level from day 3 to day 6, this decrease was however non-significant. Foliar spray of seed kernel extract hold greater promise for control of tukra infested mulberry leaves and did not affect the excretory system in silkworms.

  16. Isoprenylated flavonoids and adipogenesis-promoting constituents from Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Wu, Jin-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Qin-Shi; Huang, Jian-Ming; Wang, He-Yao; Hou, Ai-Jun

    2011-04-25

    Ten new isoprenylated flavonoids, nigrasins A-J (1-10), and three known compounds were isolated from the twigs of Morus nigra. Compounds 8 and 9 promoted adipogenesis, characterized by increased lipid droplet and triglyceride content in 3T3L1 cells, and induced up-regulation of the expression of adipocyte-specific genes, aP2 and GLUT4.

  17. Three new compounds from the barks of Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Cui, Xi-Qiang; Gong, Ting; Yan, Ren-Yi; Tan, Yong-Xia; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2008-01-01

    Three new compounds including two flavonoids and a new 2-phenylbenzofuran, named morunigrols A-C (1-3), together with three known compounds albafuran A (4), albafuran B (5), and mulberrofuran L (6), have been isolated from the barks of Morus nigra. Their structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  18. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. Please cite this article as: Hajizadeh MR, Eftekhar E, Zal F, Jaffarian A, Mostafavi-Pour Z. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in

  19. Determinación de antioxidantes enzimáticos en variedades e híbridos de Morus alba Determination of enzymatic antioxidants in Morus alba varieties and hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó la actividad específica de las enzimas antioxidantes catalasa y guaiacol peroxidasa en extractos frescos de variedades e híbridos de morera (Morus alba, obtenidos a partir de las raíces, los tallos y las hojas. Las muestras de los diferentes órganos en estudio fueron colectadas aleatoriamente, maceradas en nitrógeno líquido, resuspendidas en tampón fosfato de sodio y centrifugadas. El sobrenadante se utilizó para las determinaciones enzimáticas. Se empleó el ANOVA de clasificación simple y la prueba de rangos múltiples de Duncan para la comparación de medias (PIn this work the specific activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and guaiacol peroxidase was evaluated in fresh extracts of mulberry (Morus alba varieties and hybrids, obtained from the roots, stems and leaves. The samples of the different organs under study were randomly collected, macerated in liquid nitrogen, resuspended in sodium phosphate buffer and centrifuged. The supernatant was used for the enzymatic determinations. The simple classification ANOVA and Duncan´s multiple range test were used for mean comparison (P<0,05. The highest values of specific catalase and peroxidase activity were found, in general, in the leaves, followed by stems and roots. The varieties and hybrids with higher specific activity for both enzymes were: Tigreada, Criolla, IZ 15-9 and IZ 64. The results showed the protective antioxidant role of the extracts, mainly from leaves, from the important functions played by these enzymatic systems in the elimination of reactive oxygen species. The potential of this species for animal nutrition and health is corroborated, which gives it more value as a multipurpose forage plant. It is recommended to continue making other determinations of compounds with antioxidant activities and studying the catalase and peroxidase enzymatic systems in multipurpose species, such as M. alba, used in animal feeding and traditional

  20. Antioxidant activity of three extracts of Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Gholam Ali; Asgary, Seddigheh; Sarraf-Zadegan, Nizal; Oroojy, Heshmatallah; Afshin-Nia, Farsad

    2004-05-01

    The antioxidant effect of three different extracts of Morus nigra fruit (fruit juice, hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic) on haemoglobin glycosylation, peroxidative damage to human erythrocytes, liver hepatooytes of rats and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were studied. The results show that all three extracts inhibited haemoglobin glycosylation induced by glucose to differing degrees. The haemolysis of human erythrocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide was also inhibited. The production of malondialdehyde (MDA) during peroxidative damage to plasma membranes of isolated rat hepatocytes induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH) was also inhibited. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation of LDL induced by copper (II) ion was achieved during the study. The results suggest that Morus nigra fruit has a protective action against peroxidative damage to biomembranes and biomolecules. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [Studies on chemical constituents from bark of Morus nigra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Hong-Qing; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents in the barks of Morus nigra. The nine compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography over silica gel, LH -20 and preparative HPLC and their structures were identified by various spectroscopic methods. The nine compounds were isolated and identified as olcancolic acid , apigenin, cyclocommunol, morusin, cyclomorusin, kuwanon C, daucosterol, ursolic acid, 63-sitosterol. Olcancolic acid, apingenin, cyclocommunol, morusin, cyclomorusin, kuwanon C, daucosterol were firstly isolated from the M. nigra.

  2. Recognition profile of Morus nigra agglutinin (Morniga G) expressed by monomeric ligands, simple clusters and mammalian polyvalent glycotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanuja; Wu, June H; Peumans, Willy J; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M; Wu, Albert M

    2007-01-01

    The carbohydrate binding properties of a novel member of the subfamily of galactose-specific jacalin-related lectin isolated from the bark of black mulberry (Morus nigra) (Morniga G) was studied in detail by enzyme-linked lectinosorbent and inhibition assays using panels of monomeric saccharides, mammalian polyvalent glycotopes and polysaccharides. Among the natural glycans tested for lectin binding, Morniga G reacted best with glycoproteins (gps) presenting a high density of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens Tn (GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr) and Talpha (Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha1-). Their reactivities, on a nanogram basis, were up to 72.5, 3.9x10(3), 6.0x10(3), 8.8x10(3) and 2.9x10(4) times higher than that of Tn-containing glycopeptides (M.W.Man/Glc, GlcNAc and lFuc; (ii) the mammalian glycotope specificity is Talpha1-benzyl>T>Tn>GalNAcbeta1-3Gal (P), while B/E (Galalpha1-3/4Gal), I/II (Galbeta1-3/4GlcNAc), S (GalNAcbeta1-4Gal), F/A (GalNAcalpha1-3GalNAc/Gal) and L (Galbeta1-4Glc) are inactive; (iii) the most active ligand is T/Tn; (iv) simple clustered Tn or triantennary N-glycans with II termini (Tri-II) have limited impact; (v) high-density polyvalent glycotopes play a prominent role for enhancing Morniga G reactivity. These results provide evidence for the binding of this lectin to dense cell surface T/Tn glycoconjugates and facilitate future usage of this lectin in biotechnological and medical applications.

  3. [Emergy analysis of mulberry-silkworm ecosystem in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingang; Jin, Peihua; Huang, Lingxia; Lu, Xingmeng

    2006-02-01

    Mulberry-silkworm ecosystem is one of the important agro-ecosystems in China. Based on the principles and methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the interior structure of mulberry-silkworm ecosystem and its relationship with exterior environment and economy. Some emergy indices for this ecosystem were quantitatively calculated, and compared with those of the agro-ecosystem in China. The results showed that the emergy investment ratio, emergy yield ratio, environmental loading ratio and emergy sustainability index was 3.78, 4.68, 0.18 and 26.0, respectively, suggesting the low environmental pressure and good ecological benefit in mulberry-silkworm ecosystem in China. Hi-technology was required to further decrease the labor force input and enhance the comprehensive utilization of sericultural resources.

  4. A New Benzofuran Derivative from the Bark of Mulberry Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Jun DAI; Zhi Bo MA; Shuai LI; Ruo Yun CHEN; De Quan YU

    2004-01-01

    From the EtOH extract of the barks of Morus macroura Miq, a new benzofuran derivative, macrourin D 1, together with four known benzofuran derivatives, macrourin B 2, 2-(3, 5-dihydroxyphenyl)-5, 6-dihydroxybenzofuran 3, moracin M 4, and mulberroside C 5 were isolated, and their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and chemical correlation with known compounds.

  5. Utilización de la morera Morus indica L. como reemplazo parcial del concentrado en la crianza de terneras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Fernando

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Was made a technical and economical evaluation of three substitution levels of commercial concentrate (16% of crude protein by fresh Mulberry Morus indica Leaves, in growing replacement calves. Thirty calves of the Lucerna breed, weighing an average of 30 kg were fed during 112 days by means of the restricted suckling system. The statical analysis was a complete random desing, with three treatments: 100 (T1 75 (T2 and 50% concentrate (T3 two replicates were taken for each treatment and five calves were the experimental unit. The nutritional quality of Mulberry leaves was high, with 85.6% of dry matter degradability at 48 hours, 15.2% crude protein, 52 tonnes/ha/year with tour harvests per year and a cost of $137. I/kg of dry matter. The average weight gains were 0.406, 0.437, 0.406 kg/day and the concentrate consumptions 0.372, 0.207 and 0.115 kg/day, for T1 T2, and T3 respectively, with statistical difference (P<.05 for concentrate consumption. The Mulberry leaves consumption was 0.307 and 0.299 kg of D.M./day for T2  and T3, respectively. The economical analysis done by the partial budget technique indicated a net income of $190.864/calf for T2 followed for T3 with $185.027/calf and the for TI $178.109/calf.

    Se hizo una evaluación técnica y económica de tres niveles (T1:0, T2:25, y T3:50% de sustitución de concentrado comercial (16% de PC por hojas frescas de morera Monis indica en la cría de terneras de reemplazo. Se utilizaron 30 terneras de la raza Lucerna de cinco días (de edad y peso promedio de 30 kg, durante 112 días alimentadas por el sistema de amamantamiento restringido. El análisis de los resultados se hizo mediante un diseño completamente al azar, con tres tratamientos y dos repeticiones por tratamiento; la unidad experimental la constituyeron cinco terneras. La calidad nutricional de las hojas de morera

  6. Sex Distribution of Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñailillo, Johany; Olivares, Gabriela; Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Chang, Chi-Shan; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Matthews, Peter J.; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Seelenfreund, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent) is a dioecious tree native to East Asia and mainland Southeast-Asia, introduced prehistorically to Polynesia as a source of bark fiber by Austronesian-speaking voyagers. In Oceania, trees are coppiced and harvested for production of bark-cloth, so flowering is generally unknown. A survey of botanical records of paper mulberry revealed a distributional disjunction: the tree is apparently absent in Borneo and the Philippines. A subsequent study of chloroplast haplotypes linked paper mulberry of Remote Oceania directly to a population in southern Taiwan, distinct from known populations in mainland Southeast-Asia. Methodology We describe the optimization and use of a DNA marker designed to identify sex in paper mulberry. We used this marker to determine the sex distribution in selected localities across Asia, Near and Remote Oceania. We also characterized all samples using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence (ITS) in order to relate results to a previous survey of ITS diversity. Results In Near and Remote Oceania, contemporary paper mulberry plants are all female with the exception of Hawaii, where plants of both sexes are found. In its natural range in Asia, male and female plants are found, as expected. Male plants in Hawaii display an East Asian ITS genotype, consistent with modern introduction, while females in Remote Oceania share a distinctive variant. Conclusions Most paper mulberry plants now present in the Pacific appear to be descended from female clones introduced prehistorically. In Hawaii, the presence of male and female plants is thought to reflect a dual origin, one a prehistoric female introduction and the other a modern male introduction by Japanese/Chinese immigrants. If only female clones were dispersed from a source-region in Taiwan, this may explain the absence of botanical records and breeding populations in the Philippines and Borneo, and Remote Oceania. PMID

  7. Environ: E00366 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00366 Morus leaf Crude drug Morus alba [TAX:3498], Morus bombycis [TAX:66393] Mora...ceae (mulberry family) Morus leaf or small branch with leaf Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Moraceae (mulberry family) E00366 Morus leaf ...

  8. Volatile Components of Essential Oil from Mulberry Variety “Longsang 1” Leaves%龙桑一号桑叶精油的挥发性组分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志明; 王海英; 刘姗姗; 蒋乃翔

    2011-01-01

    The mulberry variety “Longsang 1” (Morus alba) was cultivated in Gannan Forest Mulberry Industry Science and Technology Demonstration Field of the Qiqihar City in Heilongjiang Province in Northeastern China.In July,August and September of 2009,the leaves of “Longsang 1” were collected,then the volatile components of the essential oils in the leaves were hydrodistillated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The results showed that phytol (alcohols),hexahydrofamesyl acetone (ketones),heptacosane,and pentacosane (hydrocarbons) were the common volatile components of the essential oil.Hexadecanoic acid was dominant in the essential oil from leaves collected in July and August.(E) -β-farnesene,(Z) -β-famesene,β-bisabolene,trans-α-bergamotene and α-curcumene were the main volatile flavor compounds in the essential oil from leaves collected in September.Air-dried mulberry leaves collected in September has relatively high medicinal value due to their higher content of terpenoids in the essential oil.%桑品种龙桑一号(Morus alba)栽培于中国东北黑龙江省齐齐哈尔市甘南林场桑产业科技示范园.2009年7月、8月和9月的桑品种龙桑一号干桑叶精油中的挥发性组分经水蒸馏提取后进行了气相色谱-质谱(GCMS)分析.结果表明桑叶精油的共有组分是植醇(醇类化合物)、六氢金合欢丙酮(酮类化合物)、二十七烷和二十五烷(烃类化合物).棕榈酸为7月和8月采集桑品种龙桑一号干桑叶精油的共有第一主成分.顺式-β-金合欢烯、反式-β-金合欢烯、β-甜没药烯、反式-α-佛手柑油烯和α-姜黄烯是9月采集桑品种龙桑一号干桑叶精油的主要芳香组分.萜类化合物相对含量较高的9月份采集的干桑叶精油具有药用价值.

  9. Mulberry Fruit Extract Affords Protection against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl carbamate (EC is a food and environmental toxicant and is a cause of concern for human exposure. Several studies indicated that EC-induced toxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Mulberry fruits are reported to have a wide range of bioactive compounds and pharmacological activities. The present study was therefore aimed to investigate the protective property of mulberry fruit extract (MFE on EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Chemical composition analysis showed that total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in MFE were 502.43 ± 5.10 and 219.12 ± 4.45 mg QE/100 g FW. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were the major anthocyanins in MFE. In vitro antioxidant studies (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays jointly exhibited the potent antioxidant capacity of MFE. Further study indicated that MFE protected human liver HepG2 cells from EC-induced cytotoxicity by scavenging overproduced cellular ROS. EC treatment promoted intracellular glutathione (GSH depletion and caused mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP collapse, as well as mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation, whereas MFE pretreatment significantly inhibited GSH depletion and restored the mitochondrial membrane function. Overall, our study suggested that polyphenolic-rich MFE could afford a potent protection against EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  10. Chemical Weeding in Mulberry Nursery and Mulberry Garden%桑苗圃和桑园的化学除草

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健明; 仇广泰; 薛彦明

    2001-01-01

    用氟乐灵和精稳杀得或高效盖草能进行桑苗圃除草,用草甘磷和乙草胺混合进行桑园除草,可有效地防除杂草。%The present experiment showed that the herbicide,Fu-Le-Lin andJin-Wen-Sha-De or Gao-Xiao-Gai-Chao,could effectively control and prevent weed growth in mulberry nursery, and the mixture of Chao-Gan-Lin and Yi-Chao-An could weed effectively the mulberry garden.

  11. FLAVANONES FROM THE WOOD OF Morus nigra WITH CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferlinahayati Ferlinahayati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two flavanone derivatives, norartocarpanone (1 and euchrenone a7 (2 had been isolated for the first time from the methanol extract of the wood of Morus nigra. The structures of these compounds were determined base on spectral evidence, including UV, IR, and NMR. The first compound also confirmed by comparison with the reported data. Cytotoxic properties of these compounds were evaluated against murine leukemia P-388 cells. Euchrenone a7 (2 was found more cytotoxic than norartocarpanone (1 with their IC50 7.8 and 12.7 mg/mL respectively.

  12. Chalcone dimethylallyltransferase from Morus nigra cell cultures. Substrate specificity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Alberto; Giardina, Bruno; Delle Monache, Giuliano; Rocca, Filippo; Silvestrini, Andrea; Tafi, Andrea; Botta, Bruno

    2004-01-16

    A new prenyltransferase (PT) enzyme derived from the microsomal fractions of cell cultures of Morus nigra was shown to be able to prenylate exclusively chalcones with a 2',4'-dihydroxy substitution and the isoflavone genistein. Computational studies were performed to shed some light on the relationship between the structure of the substrate and the enzymatic activity. PT requires divalent cations, particularly Mg(2+), to be effective. The apparent K(m) values for gamma,gamma-dimethylallyldiphosphate and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone were 63 and 142 microM, respectively. The maximum activity of the enzyme was expressed during the first 10 days of cell growth.

  13. THE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STEMS OF MORUS NIGRA

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. A. Vakhrusheva; I. I. Kharchenko; A. S. Nikitina; E. T. Oganesyan

    2015-01-01

    Until now, plants have been the main source of new drugs. Morus nigra, which contains a rich complex of biologically active substances necessary for an organism (vitamins, anthocyanins, macro- and microelements, organic acids) is of great interest. We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of stems of Morus nigra, identified the main diagnostic characters of the studied medicinal plants. Experimental studies have shown that the stems of Morus nigra are characterized by the presen...

  14. Stress Monitoring of Mulberry Plants by Finding Rep Using Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosle, K.; Musande, V.

    2017-05-01

    Stressed on crop can be monitored using different indices. Red Edge position is good estimator for stress monitoring. The red edge position (REP) is strongly correlated with foliar chlorophyll content. Strong chlorophyll absorption causes the abrupt change in the 680-800 nm region of reflectance spectra of green vegetation. The red edge consist the point of maximum slope between red and near-infrared wavelengths. REP can be used to recognize green zone of the observation area. The REP is present in spectra for vegetation recorded by remote sensing methods. REP is clearer and significant in hyper spectral data as hyper spectral consist of more and continuous bands data. In this paper experiments were carried out for mulberry crop using USGS EO-1 Hyperion data. Atmospheric corrected data is used for classification. Classification is carried out on small cluster of 14 field samples. Ground truth is verified and classified by comparing with Hyperion data. REP is different for different stressed condition of crops and shows healthy and diseased crop condition. Nutritional stresses, diseases, drought of plants are detected using REP. Stressed and healthy field of mulberry are estimated by calculating REP using maximum first derivative, linear interpolation, linear extrapolation method. Finally REP is compared using above methods. It is noticeable difference of REP for healthy and stressed crop. The research indicates that overall accuracy using maximum first derivative was 92.85 % and it was more compared to other methods. Linear extrapolation gives less accuracy compared to linear interpolation method.

  15. Two distinct jacalin-related lectins with a different specificity and subcellular location are major vegetative storage proteins in the bark of the black mulberry tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Els J M; Hause, Bettina; Hu, Jialiang; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre; Proost, Paul; Peumans, Willy J

    2002-10-01

    Using a combination of protein isolation/characterization and molecular cloning, we have demonstrated that the bark of the black mulberry tree (Morus nigra) accumulates large quantities of a galactose-specific (MornigaG) and a mannose (Man)-specific (MornigaM) jacalin-related lectin. MornigaG resembles jacalin with respect to its molecular structure, specificity, and co- and posttranslational processing indicating that it follows the secretory pathway and eventually accumulates in the vacuolar compartment. In contrast, MornigaM represents a novel type of highly active Man-specific jacalin-related lectin that is synthesized without signal peptide or other vacuolar targeting sequences, and accordingly, accumulates in the cytoplasm. The isolation and cloning, and immunocytochemical localization of MornigaG and MornigaM not only demonstrates that jacalin-related lectins act as vegetative storage proteins in bark, but also allows a detailed comparison of a vacuolar galactose-specific and a cytoplasmic Man-specific jacalin-related lectin from a single species. Moreover, the identification of MornigaM provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bark cells accumulate large quantities of a cytoplasmic storage protein. In addition, due to its high activity, abundance, and ease of preparation, MornigaM is of great potential value for practical applications as a tool and bioactive protein in biological and biomedical research.

  16. Two Distinct Jacalin-Related Lectins with a Different Specificity and Subcellular Location Are Major Vegetative Storage Proteins in the Bark of the Black Mulberry Tree1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Els J.M.; Hause, Bettina; Hu, Jialiang; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre; Proost, Paul; Peumans, Willy J.

    2002-01-01

    Using a combination of protein isolation/characterization and molecular cloning, we have demonstrated that the bark of the black mulberry tree (Morus nigra) accumulates large quantities of a galactose-specific (MornigaG) and a mannose (Man)-specific (MornigaM) jacalin-related lectin. MornigaG resembles jacalin with respect to its molecular structure, specificity, and co- and posttranslational processing indicating that it follows the secretory pathway and eventually accumulates in the vacuolar compartment. In contrast, MornigaM represents a novel type of highly active Man-specific jacalin-related lectin that is synthesized without signal peptide or other vacuolar targeting sequences, and accordingly, accumulates in the cytoplasm. The isolation and cloning, and immunocytochemical localization of MornigaG and MornigaM not only demonstrates that jacalin-related lectins act as vegetative storage proteins in bark, but also allows a detailed comparison of a vacuolar galactose-specific and a cytoplasmic Man-specific jacalin-related lectin from a single species. Moreover, the identification of MornigaM provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bark cells accumulate large quantities of a cytoplasmic storage protein. In addition, due to its high activity, abundance, and ease of preparation, MornigaM is of great potential value for practical applications as a tool and bioactive protein in biological and biomedical research. PMID:12376642

  17. Nota Técnica: Comportamiento productivo de la morera sometida a dos alternativas de fertilización orgánica Technical Note: Productive performance of mulberry subject to two alternatives of organic fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Pentón

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento agronómico de la morera (Morus alba L. var. Acorazonada ante dos alternativas de fertilización orgánica, se realizó un estudio en áreas de la EEPF «Indio Hatuey». El suelo característico del lugar es del tipo Ferralítico Rojo hidratado; las precipitaciones oscilaron entre 1 000 y 1 145 mm de lluvia por año. En el corte de establecimiento se obtuvieron variaciones altamente significativas entre los tratamientos: testigo sin fertilizar, asociación morera-Albizia lebbeck como abono verde vs morera fertilizada con materia orgánica (41,6; 45,0 y 72,4 g de biomasa seca comestible por individuo, respectivamente. Sin embargo, en la época lluviosa del segundo año de explotación, la producción acumulada no mostró variaciones significativas entre la asociación y la morera fertilizada (88,8 y 86,7 g de biomasa seca comestible por individuo, aunque sí con respecto al testigo que solo produjo 40,7 g. Se concluye que el aporte de materia orgánica al suelo durante el establecimiento de las plantaciones de morera y/o la asociación de A. lebbeck manejada como abono verde, proporcionan una ventaja significativa en la respuesta productiva del arbusto forrajero, y se destacó la segunda alternativa por su carácter endógeno.A study was carried out in areas of the EEPF “Indio Hatuey”, with the objective of evaluating the agronomic performance of mulberry (Morus alba L. var. Acorazonada before two alternatives of organic fertilization. The soil of the site is hydrated Ferralitic Red; rainfall oscillated between 1 000 and 1 145 mm per year. In the establishment cutting highly significant variations were obtained among the treatments: control without fertilization, association mulberry-Albizia lebbeck as green manure vs mulberry fertilized with organic matter (41,6; 45,0 and 72,4 g of edible dry biomass per individual, respectively. Nevertheless, in the rainy season of the second year of exploitation

  18. 不同果桑品种雌花差异表达蛋白质的分离与鉴定%Separation and Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Pistillate Flowers between Different Mulberry Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛瑞鹤; 陈媛媛; 张萍萍; 祁伟; 郑必平; 谈建中

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to explore the proteins related to pistil ate flower development in different mulberry cultivars. [Method] The total proteins of the pistil ate flowers of two mulberry cultivars Da10 (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) and SG01 (Morus multicaulis Perr.) were extracted, separated and detected through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. [Result] There was sig-nificant difference in the expression of proteins from the pistil ate flowers of different mulberry cultivars. From the 2-DE images of Da10 and SG01, 445±17 and 425±12 protein spots were respectively detected. The expression levels of 75 protein spots differed significantly. Thirteen spots those were expressed at high levels and wel separated were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and nine of them were identified successful y. The nine proteins are involved in the glycometabolism, protein and amino acid metabolism and defense responses during the development of mulberry pistil ate flower after they were pol inated. [Conclusion] The findings wil provide refer-ence for further study on the molecular mechanism of mulberry pistil ate flower de-velopment.%[目的]探讨不同果桑品种雌花发育相关蛋白质的表达特征。[方法]以果桑品种“大10”和“SG01”为材料,采用双向电泳和质谱技术对授粉后雌花蛋白质组的差异表达进行分离与鉴定。[结果]在不同果桑品种间,授粉后雌花蛋白质的表达存在较大差异,从“大10”与“SG01”雌花穗蛋白质的2-DE图谱中分别检测到了445±17和425±12个蛋白质斑点,其中表达量差异达2倍及以上的斑点共有75个。从中选取13个表达量较为丰富且分离效果良好的蛋白斑点进行质谱分析,结果成功鉴定了其中的9个,这些蛋白质组分分别参与了桑雌花发育过程中糖代谢、蛋白质及氨基酸代谢以及防御应答反应等生命活动。[结论]该研究为深入研究桑雌花发育的分子机理奠定了基础。

  19. Effect of geographical distributions on the nutrient composition, phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of Morus nigra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Tajur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    .... The current study was carried out to see the effect of geographical locations on the nutrient composition, mineral contents, phytochemical profile and free radical scavenging activity of Morus nigra fruit...

  20. A new benzofuranolignan and a new flavonol derivative from the stem of Morus australis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Jian Zhang; Di Zao Li; Ruo Yun Chen; De Quan Yu

    2008-01-01

    A new benzofuranolignan austrafuran A(1)and a new flavonol derivative 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxyflavone(2)were isolated from the stem of Morus australis.Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Mulberry Vein Banding Associated Virus, a New Tospovirus Infecting Mulberry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaorong Meng

    Full Text Available Mulberry vein banding associated virus (MVBaV that infects mulberry plants with typical vein banding symptoms had been identified as a tentative species of the genus Tospovirus based on the homology of N gene sequence to those of tospoviruses. In this study, the complete sequence of the tripartite RNA genome of MVBaV was determined and analyzed. The L RNA has 8905 nucleotides (nt and encodes the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp of 2877 aa amino acids (aa in the viral complementary (vc strand. The RdRp of MVBaV shares the highest aa sequence identity (85.9% with that of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, and contains conserved motifs shared with those of the species of the genus Tospovirus. The M RNA contains 4731 nt and codes in ambisense arrangement for the NSm protein of 309 aa in the sense strand and the Gn/Gc glycoprotein precursor (GP of 1,124 aa in the vc strand. The NSm and GP of MVBaV share the highest aa sequence identities with those of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV and Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV (83.2% and 84.3%, respectively. The S RNA is 3294 nt in length and contains two open reading frames (ORFs in an ambisense coding strategy, encoding a 439-aa non-structural protein (NSs and the 277-aa nucleocapsid protein (N, respectively. The NSs and N also share the highest aa sequence identity (71.1% and 74.4%, respectively with those of CaCV. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp, NSm, GP, NSs, and N proteins showed that MVBaV is most closely related to CaCV and GBNV and that these proteins cluster with those of the WSMoV serogroup, and that MVBaV seems to be a species bridging the two subgroups within the WSMoV serogroup of tospoviruses in evolutionary aspect, suggesting that MVBaV represents a distinct tospovirus. Analysis of S RNA sequence uncovered the highly conserved 5'-/3'-ends and the coding regions, and the variable region of IGR with divergent patterns among MVBaV isolates.

  2. Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The present study was conducted to evaluate the entrance of Zn(II) into the food chain of Bombyx mori (silk worm) from mulberry plants ...

  3. Cloning and expression analyses of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in mulberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiwu; Shuai, Qin; Chen, Hu; Fan, Li; Zeng, Qiwei; He, Ningjia

    2014-10-01

    Anthocyanins are natural food colorants produced by plants that play important roles in their growth and development. Mulberry fruits are rich in anthocyanins, which are the most important active components of mulberry and have many potentially beneficial effects on human health. The study of anthocyanin biosynthesis will bring benefits for quality improvement and industrial exploration of mulberry fruits. In the present study, nine putative genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in mulberry plants were identified and cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that the mulberry anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were conserved and had counterparts in other plants. Spatial transcriptional analysis showed detectable expression of eight of these genes in different tissues. The results of expression and UPLC analyses in two mulberry cultivars with differently colored fruit indicated that anthocyanin concentrations correlated with the expression levels of genes associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis including CHS1, CHI, F3H1, F3'H1, and ANS during the fruit ripening process. The present studies provide insight into anthocyanin biosynthesis in mulberry plants and may facilitate genetic engineering for improvement of the anthocyanin content in mulberry fruit.

  4. Effects of Cornus mas L. and Morus rubra L. extracts on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity: an electrophysiological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaş, Filiz; Per, Sedat; Taşdemir, Abdulkadir; Bayram, Ayşe Kaçar; Yıldırım, Mehmet; Uzun, Aydın; Saraymen, Recep; Gümüş, Hakan; Elmalı, Ferhan; Per, Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, Morus rubra L. (Moraceae) (red mulberry) and Cornus mas L. (Cornacea) (cornelian cherry) fruits are eaten fresh and are also used in marmalades, juices, jam, natural dyes in Turkey and are believed to have beneficial effects in case of multiple health issues such as antipyretic, diarrhea and intestinal parasites. However, the effects of M. rubra and C. mas on epilepsy has not been known. This study evaluates the effects of M. rubra and C. mas extracts on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. Sixty Wistar rats randomly divided into ten groups (n=6): control, sham, penicillin, penicillin+M. rubra extract (2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) and penicillin+C. mas extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg). Epileptiform activity was induced by using penicillin (500 IU, i.c.) and electrocorticogram records (150 min) were obtained. Also, biochemical analysis in blood samples were evaluated. According to the electrocorticogram analysis, the effective dose was detected as 10 mg/kg for both C. mas and M. rubra. This dose decreased the spike frequencies of convulsions while amplitude wasn't changed by both substances. In erythrocyte studies, there were significant differences regarding nitric oxide in the control, sham and penicillin groups. There were significant differences regarding malondialdehyde in all groups. In the plasma, there were significant differences among groups regarding xanthine oxidase in the penicillin‑C. mas and penicillin‑M. rubra groups. There were differences regarding malondialdehyde in the penicillin-C. mas and M. rubra-C. mas groups. Both extracts reduced the frequency of epileptiform activity. After administration of the extracts malondialdehyde levels decreased also in both erythrocytes and plasma.

  5. BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MULBERRY ASSOCIATED WITH INTERCROPPING OF MEDICINAL PLANTS UNDER TEMPERATE CLIMATIC CONDITIONSBIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MULBERRY ASSOCIATED WITH INTERCROPPING OF MEDICINAL PLANTS UNDER TEMPERATE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Rathore

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Kashmir valley represents temperate climatic conditions and is known for its bivoltine sericulture. The sericulture in the region however, sustains on tree type of plants. Majority of sericulturists in this traditional area have taken up mulberry cultivation on small land holdings as a life sustaining occupation. Other farmers with more land have taken up it as subsidiary occupation. Mulberry is facing stiff competition from other economic crops. In order to make the mulberry cultivation more profitable and sustainable, intercrops can be practiced with them. Medicinal plants like Lavendula officinalis, Atropa belladonna and Echinacea purpurea are important source of alkaloids and essential oils, which have huge demand in pharmaceutical industry. The wider spacing available in the tree type of plantation of mulberry facilitates the cultivation of these medicinal plants as an intercrop. The present paper focuses on utilization of medicinal plants as an intercrop with mulberry to generate an additional income to the progressive farmers as the biochemical studies shows that there is no significant impact on mulberry leaf quality and soil health.

  6. STRESS MONITORING OF MULBERRY PLANTS BY FINDING REP USING HYPERSPECTRAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bhosle

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stressed on crop can be monitored using different indices. Red Edge position is good estimator for stress monitoring. The red edge position (REP is strongly correlated with foliar chlorophyll content. Strong chlorophyll absorption causes the abrupt change in the 680–800 nm region of reflectance spectra of green vegetation. The red edge consist the point of maximum slope between red and near-infrared wavelengths. REP can be used to recognize green zone of the observation area. The REP is present in spectra for vegetation recorded by remote sensing methods. REP is clearer and significant in hyper spectral data as hyper spectral consist of more and continuous bands data. In this paper experiments were carried out for mulberry crop using USGS EO-1 Hyperion data. Atmospheric corrected data is used for classification. Classification is carried out on small cluster of 14 field samples. Ground truth is verified and classified by comparing with Hyperion data. REP is different for different stressed condition of crops and shows healthy and diseased crop condition. Nutritional stresses, diseases, drought of plants are detected using REP. Stressed and healthy field of mulberry are estimated by calculating REP using maximum first derivative, linear interpolation, linear extrapolation method. Finally REP is compared using above methods. It is noticeable difference of REP for healthy and stressed crop. The research indicates that overall accuracy using maximum first derivative was 92.85 % and it was more compared to other methods. Linear extrapolation gives less accuracy compared to linear interpolation method.

  7. THE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STEMS OF MORUS NIGRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Vakhrusheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, plants have been the main source of new drugs. Morus nigra, which contains a rich complex of biologically active substances necessary for an organism (vitamins, anthocyanins, macro- and microelements, organic acids is of great interest. We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of stems of Morus nigra, identified the main diagnostic characters of the studied medicinal plants. Experimental studies have shown that the stems of Morus nigra are characterized by the presence of thick-walled epidermal cells with slightly convoluted walls and a large number of ordinary thick-walled fuzz.

  8. 桑树硝酸还原酶基因MaNR的克隆及其表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of Nitrate Reductase Gene (MaNR) of Morus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜龄; 余亚圣; 杨艳; 李军; 刘长英; 吕蕊花; 余茂德

    2014-01-01

    Objective]The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between nitrate reductase (NR) and growth and regeneration of mulberry. A full length cDNA named MaNR was cloned from mulberry cultivar Guiyou No.62 and the sequence characteristics of MaNR were analyzed. Furthermore, the expression mode and influence factors during regeneration of mulberry hypocotyl regeneration in vitro was studied.[Method] Specific primer sequences were designed according to the annotated gene scaffold 570 released in Morus notabilis genome database http://morus.swu.edu.cn/morusdb. Total RNA and DNA were extracted from mulberry leaf treated by KNO3, using RNAiso Plus (TaKaRa) and a modified CTAB method. cDNA and DNA were used as templates, RT-PCR was used to amplify MaNRcDNA sequence from RNA pools generated from KNO3-treated mulberry leaves. Bioinformatical tools were employed to analyze its deduced aimino acid sequence. Mulberry hypocotyls used as explants were inoculated in different nitrogen sources and growth regulating substances of the medium under aseptic conditions. Real-time PCR was used to investigate its relative expression level during hypocotyls regeneration in vitro and effects of different nitrogen sources and growth regulating substances.[Result]The obtained cDNA sequence of NR was 2 730 bp in length, encoding a polypeptide of 909 amino acid residues consisting of five classic conserved domain, protein molecular weight was 102.84 kD and the isoelectric point was 6.76. It showed that the sequence of NR has 95%identity compared with Morus notabilis and 78%indentity with other Rosaceae trees by NCBI BLAST. The obtained DNA sequence of NR was 5 142 bp including five exons and four introns. Cluster analysis showed that monocotyledons were clustered to one group, Mulberry and Rosaceae were clustered to one group, and the GenBank number was KF992020.1 and KF992021.1 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that this gene was highly expressed in roots, low

  9. Feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing mulberry hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% of mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty four Ile de France lambs, non castrated, with 25 kg of body weight and four months old, confined, in a completely randomized design, were used. The feeding daily time (242.01 minutes, rumination (435.48 minutes and leisure (762.50 minutes, the numbers of cakes ruminated per day (658.36 and the time spent per cake (40.03 sec were not affected (P>0.05 by different levels of hay in mulberry concentrate. The dry matter voluntary intake (1.258 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber intake (0.302 kg/day, as well as the efficiency of dry matter intake and rumination (316.24 and 173.54 g/h, respectively and efficiency of neutral detergent fiber intake and rumination (75.89 and 41.68 g/h, respectively were similar in all treatments. The ruminating chew expressed in hour/day (11.29 and the number of chews expressed per cake (72.65 and per day (47.638.06, as well as the number and the feeding time (22.02 meals and 11.23 min/meal, rumination (25.95 ruminations and 17.29 min/rumination and idle (41.81 idle and 18.30 min/idle time, were also not affected (P>0.05. The inclusion of mulberry hay did not change the rumination expressed in g of DM and NDF/cake (1.91 and 0.46, respectively and min/kg of DM and NDF (361.51 and 1.505.78, respectively, as well as the total chew expressed in min/kg of DM and NDF (563.70 and 2.347.19, respectively. The use of mulberry hay partially replacing the concentrated, does not change the feeding behavior of feedlot lambs.

  10. Reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fangling; Xie, Deti; Wei, Chaofu; Ni, Jiupai; Yang, John; Tang, Zhenya; Zhou, Chuan

    2015-09-01

    Sloping croplands could result in soil erosion, which leads to non-point source pollution of the aquatic system in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Mulberry, a commonly grown cash plant in the region, is traditionally planted in contour hedgerows as an effective management practice to control soil erosion and non-point source pollution. In this field study, surface runoff and soil N and P loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management were investigated. The experiments consisted of six crop-mulberry treatments: Control (no mulberry hedgerow with mustard-corn rotation); T1 (two-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T2 (three-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T3 (border mulberry and one-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T4 (border mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T5 (two-row longitudinal mulberry with mustard). The results indicated that crop-mulberry systems could effectively reduce surface runoff and soil and nutrient loss from arable slope land. Surface runoff from T1 (342.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T2 (260.6 m(3) hm(-2)), T3 (113.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T4 (114 m(3) hm(-2)), and T5 (129 m(3) hm(-2)) was reduced by 15.4, 35.6, 72.0, 71.8, and 68.1%, respectively, while soil loss from T1 (0.21 t hm(-2)), T2 (0.13 t hm(-2)), T3 (0.08 t hm(-2)), T4 (0.11 t hm(-2)), and T5 (0.12 t hm(-2)) was reduced by 52.3, 70.5, 81.8, 75.0, and 72.7%, respectively, as compared with the control. Crop-mulberry ecosystem would also elevate soil N by 22.3% and soil P by 57.4%, and soil nutrient status was contour-line dependent.

  11. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE2, and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods.

  12. Spatial variation of important mulberry pests and their natural enemies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry is a silkworm food plant (Bombyxmori. L that is seriously affected by many insect pests. The incidence of Diaphania pulverulentalis (Hampson, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, Paracoccus marginatus (Williams and Granara de Willink, Aleurodiscus dispersus (Russels and Pseudodendrothrips mori (Niwa and their natural enemies, viz. coccinellids and spiders (/100 plants, were observed through survey and surveillance for 3 months. In February 2013, the incidence of insect pests in Vaikkalpattarai and Reddipudur villages (India was: D. pulverulentalis, 1.20 and 0.85%; P. marginatus, 6.80 and 33.10%; P. mori 42.98 and 45.50%, respectively. Further, the infestation of M. hirsutus (1.40% and A. dispersus (59.72% was also observed in February at Vaikkalpattarai. The population of coccinellids was high in December (1.02 and 0.84/100 plants, but the spider population was even higher in February and January (1.04 and 1.81/100 plants. Population of pests had a significant positive correlation with relative humidity. The population of coccinellids and spiders have positive correlation with temperature and mulberry pests infestation. The natural enemies observed in the study were mostly the ladybird beetles, Psyllobora bisoctonotata and unidentified species of spiders.

  13. In vitro propagation of Morus alba L. in semisolid culture medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Salas Barbosa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Apical buds as explants were used with the objective to propagate in vitro mulberry plants in semisolid MS culture medium suplemented with 6-BAP and KIN in their establishment and, with different combinations of 6-BAP with ANA in the multiplication phase. In vitro plants were evaluated during the acclimatization phase. It is necessary to supplement the basal MS culture media with 0.5 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP to induce the sprouting and, 0.5 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP and 0.5 mg.l-1 of ANA to multiply the mulberry by nodal segments. In the acclimatization phase a 95% of survival, 30.2 cm of height, 9.8 leaves and 2.02 g.plant-1 of dry mass was observed. In vitro propagation of mulberry was achieved as an alternative for plants production. Key words: acclimatization, apical buds, establishment, explant, shooting

  14. Quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and related Genera by HPTLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four aromatic compounds; oxyresveratrol (1), mulberroside A (2), cudraflavone C (3) and kuwanone J (4) were isolated from the stems of Morus rubra L. The quantitative determination of oxyresveratrol from M. rubra L., M. alba L. and related genera by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)...

  15. CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MORUS ALBA L. LEAVES IN ISOPRENALINE INDUCED RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Madhumitha and A. Indhuleka*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves against isoprenaline- induced myocardial infarction and was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups (n=6. Group I rats served as normal control. Group II rats served as isoprenaline induced toxic control (110 mg/kg body weight which was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. for two consecutive days (14th and 15th days. Group III rats were given Morus alba intragastric intubation (500 mg/kg body weight for 15 days. Group IV rats were also given Morus alba as in Group III and additionally isoprenaline was given for two consecutive days (14th and 15th days.The results described the cardioprotective effect that was observed in Group IV which showed a significant (P< 0.05 decreased levels of TBARS and enhanced the activities of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in myocardial infarcted rats when compared to Groups II and III. In serum, the biomarkers (LDH, CK activities were significantly (P< 0.05 increased in Group II compared to pretreated Group IV. Histopathological studies were also co-relating with the above biochemical parameters. These findings concluded the cardioprotective effect of Morus alba on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system during isoprenaline -induced myocardial infarction in rats.

  16. Application of hybrid microwave thermal extraction techniques for mulberry root bark

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Cheng-Chi; Yau Her-Terng

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is the extraction of compounds from the mulberry root bark using a hybrid microwave thermal process. The shearing mechanism and an integrated circulation system, which increases the rate of contact between the solvent and extractive, are studied. The results are analyzed by the Taguchi method and verified by high performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the optimal operating parameters of the extraction of mulberry root b...

  17. Single primer amplification reaction methods reveal exotic and indigenous mulberry varieties are similarly diverse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Esha Bhattacharya; S B Dandin; Shirish Anand Ranade

    2005-12-01

    Mulberry is the sole food source for mulberry silkworm and a number of indigenous and exotic varieties are used in sericulture. Studies on assessment of genetic diversity have been done amongst a few mulberry varieties using one or at the most two methods. However, no comprehensive study on a large number of varieties has been carried out. In present study, single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods have been used for determination of diversity in 27 mulberry varieties (exotic as well as indigenous), using four minisatellite core sequence primers for directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD), three simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs as primers for inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and 20 arbitrary sequence decamer primers for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) reactions. The Jaccard coefficients were determined for the DAMD, ISSR and RAPD band data (total of 58, 39 and 235 bands respectively). All three methods revealed wide range of distances supporting a wide range of mulberry genetic diversity. A cumulative analysis of the data generated by three methods resulted in a neighbour-joining (NJ) tree that gave a better reflection of the relatedness and affinities of the varieties to each other. Comparison of the three methods by marker indices and the Mantel test of correlation indicated that though all methods were useful for the assessment of diversity in mulberry, the DAMD method was better. When considered as two groups (10 exotic and 17 indigenous varieties), the mulberry varieties in the exotic group were found to have slightly greater diversity than the indigenous ones. These results support the concept of naturalization of mulberry varieties at locales distant from their origins.

  18. Structural analysis of the jacalin-related lectin MornigaM from the black mulberry (Morus nigra) in complex with mannose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabijns, Anja; Barre, Annick; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; De Ranter, Camiel J; Rougé, Pierre

    2005-07-01

    The structures of MornigaM and the MornigaM-mannose complex have been determined at 1.8 A and 2.0 A resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the typical beta-prism motif found in other jacalin-related lectins and their tetrameric assembly closely resembles that of jacalin. The carbohydrate-binding cavity of MornigaM readily binds mannose. No major structural rearrangements can be observed in MornigaM upon binding of mannose. These results allow corroboration of the structure-function relationships within the small group of Moraceae lectins.

  19. Astragalin, a Flavonoid from Morus alba (Mulberry Increases Endogenous Estrogen and Progesterone by Inhibiting Ovarian Granulosa Cell Apoptosis in an Aged Rat Model of Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the mechanism by which the flavonoid glycoside astragalin (AST reduces ovarian failure in an aged rat model of menopause. Methods: The in vivo effect of AST on granulosa cell (GC apoptosis in aged female rats was determined using flow cytometry. In vitro, the effects of AST on cultured GCs were investigated using the MTT proliferation assay and western blot assays. Results: Aged rats had significantly higher GC apoptosis as compared with young female rats. Treatment of aged rats with AST (all three doses; p < 0.01 or Progynova (p < 0.01 significantly reduced GC apoptosis as compared with the aged controls. The proportions of total apoptotic GCs was 25.70%, 86.65%, 47.04%, 27.02%, 42.09% and 56.42% in the normal, aged, 17β-estradiol (E2, high dose AST, medium dose AST, and low dose AST-treated groups, respectively. Significant increases of serum E2 and P4 levels, as well as altered levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH levels. In cultured rat GCs, AST stimulated GC proliferation, E2 and progesterone (P4 secretion, reduced apoptosis, reduced the level of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (p < 0.01, but had no effect on BAX. Conclusions: AST enhanced ovarian function in aged female rats by increasing E2 and P4 levels, and reducing ovarian GC apoptosis via a mechanism involving Bcl-2. These data demonstrate a new pharmacological activity for AST, as well as a novel mechanism of action, and further suggest that AST may be a new therapeutic agent for the management of menopausal symptoms.

  20. Cadmium transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system: phytoremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng

    2015-11-01

    Phytoremediation has been proven to be an environmentally sound alternative for the recovery of contaminated soils, and the economic profit that comes along with the process might stimulate its field use. This study investigated cadmium (Cd) transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system to estimate the suitability of the mulberry and silkworm as an alternative method for the remediation of Cd-polluted soil; it also explored the underlying mechanisms regulating the trophic transfer of Cd. The results show that both the mulberry and silkworm have high Cd tolerance. The transfer factor suggests that the mulberry has high potential for Cd extraction from polluted soil. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in mulberry leaves show that cell wall deposition and vacuolar compartmentalization play important role in Cd tolerance. In the presence of increasing Cd concentrations in silkworm food, detoxification mechanisms (excretion and homeostasis) were activated so that excess Cd was excreted in fecal balls, and metallothionein levels in the mid-gut, the posterior of the silk gland, and the fat body of silkworms were enhanced. And, the Cd concentrations in silk are at a low level, ranging from 0.02 to 0.21 mg kg(-1). Therefore, these mechanisms of detoxification can regulate Cd trophic transfer, and mulberry planting and silkworm breeding has high phytoremediation potential for Cd-contaminated soil.

  1. Effects of Flavonoids in Morus indica on Blood Lipids and Glucose in Hyperlipidemia-diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dong-qing; JIANG Zheng-ju; XU Shi-qiang; YU Xing; HU Xia-min; PAN Hong-yan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect and possible mechanism of flavonoids extracted from Morus indica(FMI)on blood lipids and glucose.Methods The experimental hyperlipidemia-diabetic rats were induced by high-fat diet(HFD)and low dose of Streptozotocin(STZ).Flavonoids-treated rats were pretreated with FMI(50,100,and 200 mg/kg).The plasma,skeletal muscle,and livers were isolated for biochemical assays,HE staining,immunohistochemistry,and Western blotting analysis.Results The results showed that the body weight in flavonoidstreated(100 and 200 mg/kg)rats was reduced(P<0.05,0.01)compared to HFD-fed rats.FMI obviously reduced total cholesterol(P<0.01),triglycerides(P<0.05),and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(P<0.05),increased high-density lipoprotein(P<0.05),and significantly decreased the atherosclerosis index(P<0.01);FMI(100 and 200 mg/kg)also down-regulated the elevation of blood glucose induced by STZ(P<0.05,0.01);At the meantime,FMI increased hepatic superoxide dismutase(SOD)activity and reduced hepatic malondialdehyde(MDA)content obviously.In addition,the results showed that the expression of hepatic CYP2E1 was markedly decreased while the expression of GLUT-4 in skeletal muscles was increased by FMI.Conclusion The above results demonstrate that the effect of FMI is related to its up-regulation of hepatic SOD activity,reduction of hepatic MDA content,down-regulation of hepatic CYP2E1 expression,and increase of GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle,which suggests that FMI may prevent or improve hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia caused by an excessive HFD.

  2. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Freitas, Marcela Medeiros; Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2016-01-01

    .... Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order...

  3. Industrial dust sulphate and its effects on biochemical and morphological characteristics of Morus (Morus alba) plant in NCR Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gyan Prakash; Singh, Sudha; Kumar, Bablu; Kulshrestha, U C

    2015-03-01

    Abundance of CaCO3 rich soil dust is a typical feature of atmospheric environment in the Indian region. During prevailing dry weather conditions, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces of plant affecting their morphology, stomata and the levels of biochemical constituents. This study reports the chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of a medicinal plant (Morus alba) at two sites which are differentiated on the basis of landuse pattern, viz., (i) residential, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), and (ii) industrial, Sahibabad (SB), located in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. Dustfall was characterized for major anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and SO4 (--)) and cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(++) and Ca(++)). Biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, proline and ascorbic acid were determined in foliar samples. The results showed that the dustfall fluxes of all the major ions were found to be higher at the industrial site (SB) as compared to the residential site (JNU). Foliar analysis revealed that the levels of biochemical parameters were more affected at SB site due to higher levels of dust SO4 (--) contributed by various anthropogenic sources resulting in more stressful conditions affecting the biochemistry of the plant. The possible entry pathways for dust SO4 (--) into foliar cells are also discussed in the paper. It was noticed that the deposition of urban dust was responsible for the damage of trichome, epidermis, cuticle and stomatal guard cells significantly affecting foliar morphology. SB exhibited more damage to these morphological parts suggesting that industrial dust is harmful to the plants.

  4. Biochar amendment improves soil fertility and productivity of mulberry plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruque Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has the potential to improve soil fertility and crop productivity. A field experiment was carried out at the experimental field of Bangladesh Sericulture Research and Training Institute (BSRTI, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of biochar on soil properties, growth, yield and foliar disease incidence of mulberry plant. The study consisted of 6 treatments: control, basal dose of NPK, rice husk biochar, mineral enriched biochar, basal dose + rice husk biochar and basal dose + mineral enriched biochar. Growth parameters such as node/meter, total branch number/plant, total leaf yield/hectare/year were significantly increased in basal dose + mineral enriched biochar treated plot in second year compared with the other fertilizer treatments. In second year, the total leaf yield/hectare/year were also 142.1% and 115.9% higher in combined application of basal dose + mineral enriched biochar and basal dose + rice husk biochar, respectively, than the control treatment. The soil properties such as organic matter, phosphorus, sulphur and zinc percentage were significantly increased with both the (mineral enriched and rice husk biochar treated soil applied with or without recommended basal dose of NPK than the control and only the recommended basal dose of NPK, respectively. Further, the lowest incidences of tukra (6.4%, powdery mildew (10.4% and leaf spot (7.6% disease were observed in second year under mineral enriched biochar treated plot than the others. The findings revealed that utilization of biochar has positive effect on the improvement of soil fertility and productivity as well as disease suppression of mulberry plant.

  5. 三峡库区桑树菌根发育特征及菌根对桑苗生长的促进作用%Developmental Features of Mycorrhiza and Its Promotion Effect on Growth of Mulberry Saplings in Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒玉芳; 叶娇; 潘程远; 杨晓红; 黄先智; 秦俭

    2011-01-01

    In order to further explore the ecological reconstruction potential of mulberry (Morus L ) in adverse environment of the southwestern mountainous region, an investigation was conducted on the formation of mycorrhiza by arbus-cular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and root system of mulberry naturally growing at 170 ~175 m altitude of the Three Gorges Reservoir area. Moreover, AM fungi were used to inoculate potted mulberry saplings for evaluation of the effect of mycorrhiza to mulberry sampling growth. The results showed that about 82% of the mulberry root tips were colonized by arbus-cular mycorrhizal fungi and developed into mycorrhiza in various degrees. There were hyphae, arbuscules, vesicules, spores and other structures in the mycorrhiza and accessory cells on external hyphae of the mycorrhiza. Mulberry saplings grown in both illuminated incubator and netted chamber were easily colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. At 15 d after inoculation, there were hyphae adhered on the root and formed appressoria. The mycorrhizal colonization rate increased with time. The colonization rate of mulberry saplings in illuminated incubator was 40. 56% ±3. 61 % at 90 d after inoculation, and that in netted chamber were 46.82% ± 4. 10% and 50. 72%±5. 32% at 70 d and 90 d after inoculation, respectively. The inoculated mulberry saplings grew significantly better than the control on plant height, taproot length, root tip quantity per plant, total root tip length per plant, number of leaves per plant as well as the length, width and area of the third true leaf. The relative growth rates of root tip quantity per plant, total root tip length per plant and leaf area of the inoculated mulberry were over 100%, which remarkably enhanced the absorptive ability of root system and photosynthetic areas of the aerial part. These research results confirm that mulberry is a typical arbuscu-lar mycorrhizal plant. Mycorrhiza is favorable to the growth of mulberry in extreme adverse environment

  6. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal processing on bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and volatile profile of mulberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Du, Bao-Lei; Cui, Zheng-Wei; Xu, Li-Ping; Li, Chun-Yang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal processing on microbiological quality, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and volatile profile of mulberry juice. High hydrostatic pressure processing at 500 MPa for 10 min reduced the total viable count from 4.38 log cfu/ml to nondetectable level and completely inactivated yeasts and molds in raw mulberry juice, ensuring the microbiological safety as thermal processing at 85 ℃ for 15 min. High hydrostatic pressure processing maintained significantly (p juice than thermal processing. The main volatile compounds of mulberry juice were aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones. High hydrostatic pressure processing enhanced the volatile compound concentrations of mulberry juice while thermal processing reduced them in comparison with the control. These results suggested that high hydrostatic pressure processing could be an alternative to conventional thermal processing for production of high-quality mulberry juice.

  7. Progress of Mulberry Vinegar%桑椹果醋的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁贵秋; 吴婧婧; 陆春霞; 沈蔚

    2012-01-01

    果醋作为一种新型保健饮料,因其营养丰富、风味独特、口感俱佳而备受广大消费者的欢迎。桑椹果醋就是以桑椹为主要原料,经酒精和醋酸发酵而成,既可作为调味品,又可作为饮料直接饮用。该文从桑椹的营养、加工现状等方面综述桑椹果醋的研究进展,证明桑椹果醋的开发具有广阔的前景。%Fruit vinegar is accepted by people because of its rich nutrients,good healthy function and unique flavor.Mulberry vinegar is produced by alcohol and acetic acid fermentation,which uses mulberry as raw nuterial. Mulberry vinegar is not only used as seasoning,but also directly drunk as beverage.The nutritional components and processing current situation of mulberry vinegar were summarized in this paper, so as to prove that the development of mulberry vinegar had broad prospects.

  8. Mulberry hypertrophy and accompanying sinonasal pathologies: A review of 68 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akduman, Davut; Haksever, Mehmet; Yanilmaz, Muhammed; Solmaz, Fevzi

    2016-08-01

    Mulberry hypertrophy occasionally coexists with sinonasal pathologies. There are very few reports in the literature on this clinical entity. We conducted a retrospective study to draw attention to this condition in the context of accompanying sinonasal pathologies. Our study group was made up of 68 patients-51 males and 17 females, aged 13 to 57 years (mean: 34.9)-who had been diagnosed with mulberry hypertrophy and at least one accompanying sinonasal pathology. All patients had a long-standing chronic discharge. Forty-nine of these patients (72.1%) had unilateral mulberry hypertrophy. The most common concomitant pathologies were chronic rhinosinusitis and ostiomeatal complex disease; others included septal deviation, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, and concha bullosa. Thirty-six patients (52.9%) with varying degrees of choanal/nasal obstruction were operated on with endoscopic excision to treat the mulberry hypertrophy. In all, most patients underwent some sort of surgery to treat either the mulberry hypertrophy or the accompanying sinonasal pathology. Based on our findings, we suggest a clinical staging system to serve as a way to standardize management and guide future basic and clinical research.

  9. Antinociceptive properties of morusin, a prenylflavonoid isolated from Morus nigra root bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M M; Bittar, M; Cechinel-Filho, V; Yunes, R A; Messana, I; Delle Monache, F; Ferrari, F

    2000-01-01

    The antinociceptive effects of morusin (1), the main prenylflavonoid present in the Morus nigra root barks have been investigated in classical models of pain in mice. The results showed that 1 exhibits a promising antinociceptive or analgesic profile by the intraperitoneal route, being more potent than some standard drugs used as reference. The mechanism by which the morusin exerts antinociceptive activity still remains undetermined, but our results strongly suggest that it involves the participation of the opioid system.

  10. ANTI-DIABETIC EFFECT OF MORUS ALBA ON RABBIT AS ANIMAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laddha G. P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of ancient literature indicates that diabetes was fairly well known and well conceived as an entity in India. The nature has provided abundant plant wealth for all the living creatures, which possess medicinal virtues. Therefore, there is a necessity to explore their uses and to conduct Pharmacognostic and pharmacological studies to ascertain their therapeutic properties. In fact, nowadays diabetes is a global problem. Hence, the present study aims to open new avenues for the improvement of medicinal uses of Morus alba. for the area for diabetes. Another important objective of such study is to bring the anti-diabetic medicinal plants sector on a firm scientific footing, raise awareness and add value to the resource. Dried petroleum ether (60-80°C extracts of leaves of Morus alba. were subjected for hypoglycemic activity in New Zealand rabbits (1.5-3.5 kg. Blood sugar level was determined using digital glucometer. The oral administration of leaf extracts at doses of 200 mg/ kg− lead to a significant blood glucose reduction. This laid the foundation to study the active compounds of such anti-diabetic plants that are responsible for the hypoglycemic activities. It also proves the traditional claim of Kachh region with regard to Morus Alba for its anti-diabetic activity.

  11. Allelopathic influence of aqueous extracts from the leaves of Morus alba L. on seed germination and seedling growth of Cucumis sativus L. and Sinapsis alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Możdżeń

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to elucidate impact of the aqueous extracts from leaves of Morus alba L. on germination, growth and photosynthetic activity of Cucumis sativus L. and Sinapis alba L. Plants were grown for 21 days at the temperature 25°C (day and 18°C (night, within 12/12 hours photoperiod, light intensity 150 μmol·m-2·s-1 and relative humidity 60-70% (day/night. Our experiments proved that allelopathic compounds in aqueous extracts of the leaves M. alba at high concentrations, reduce power and energy of germination. Biometric analysis of seedlings and adult plants grown showed that allelopathic substances have stimulating or inhibiting function depending on the stage of treatment. Moreover, they cause changes in chlorophyll contents and activity of photosystem II (PS II.

  12. Clinical Observation of Chinese Herbal Fumigation plus Mulberry Stick Beating for Heel Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Qing-he; Shen Zhi-fang; Yan Yu-qin; Zhu Gao-feng

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of Chinese herbal fumigation plus beating with mulberry stick in treating heel pain. Methods: Sixty patients with heel pain were randomized into a treatment group and a control group, 30 in each group. The treatment group was intervened by Chinese herbal fumigation plus beating with mulberry stick, and the control group was by orally taking Diclofenac Sodium Sustained Release Tablets plus external use of She Xiang Zhen Tong Gao (Moschus Analgesic Plaster). After one treatment course, the visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to observe the change of pain, and the clinical efficacies were also evaluated. Results: After intervention, the improvement of VAS score in the treatment group was more significant than that in the control group (P Conclusion:Chinese herbal fumigation plus beating with mulberry stick can produce a higher clinical efficacy than orally taking Diclofenac Sodium Sustained Release Tablets in treating heel pain.

  13. Characterization of Melanogenesis Inhibitory Constituents of Morus alba Leaves and Optimization of Extraction Conditions Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yeon Jeong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a natural pigment that plays an important role in the protection of skin, however, hyperpigmentation cause by excessive levels of melatonin is associated with several problems. Therefore, melanogenesis inhibitory natural products have been developed by the cosmetic industry as skin medications. The leaves of Morus alba (Moraceae have been reported to inhibit melanogenesis, therefore, characterization of the melanogenesis inhibitory constituents of M. alba leaves was attempted in this study. Twenty compounds including eight benzofurans, 10 flavonoids, one stilbenoid and one chalcone were isolated from M. alba leaves and these phenolic constituents were shown to significantly inhibit tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B6F10 melanoma cells. To maximize the melanogenesis inhibitory activity and active phenolic contents, optimized M. alba leave extraction conditions were predicted using response surface methodology as a methanol concentration of 85.2%; an extraction temperature of 53.2 °C and an extraction time of 2 h. The tyrosinase inhibition and total phenolic content under optimal conditions were found to be 74.8% inhibition and 24.8 μg GAE/mg extract, which were well-matched with the predicted values of 75.0% inhibition and 23.8 μg GAE/mg extract. These results shall provide useful information about melanogenesis inhibitory constituents and optimized extracts from M. alba leaves as cosmetic therapeutics to reduce skin hyperpigmentation.

  14. Morus sp. para la alimentación de bovinos en desarrollo (Nota técnica Morus sp. to feed growing bulls (Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Milera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la Estación Experimental "Indio Hatuey"en la provincia de Matanzas, sobre un suelo Ferralítico Rojo, con el objetivo de evaluar la inclusión del forraje de morera en bovinos en crecimiento en condiciones de pastoreo. La prueba se realizó con machos mestizos del cruce Holstein x Cebú, que tenían ocho meses de edad y un peso promedio de 108 kg, y tuvo una duración de 140 días. En una primera etapa (53 días, el forraje de morera se suministró ad libitum sin trocear y los animales pastorearon cuatro horas durante la mañana, el resto del tiempo permanecieron en el establo; mientras que en un segunda fase (58 días estos animales recibieron el forraje de morera troceado y permanecieron en los establos desde las 11:00 a.m. hasta las 5:00 p.m., el resto del tiempo tenían acceso al pastoreo. La disponibilidad de pasto fue de 3,5 y 2,8 t de MS/ha/rotación para la primera y segunda etapa, respectivamente. El forraje de morera presentó altos valores en proteína (20,5-24,6% y bajos en fibra (16,6-20,3%; los consumos fueron de 3,93 y 3,12 kg/animal/día en cada etapa, respectivamente. Las ganancias fueron de 0,759 y 0,405 kg/animal/día en la etapa I y la II, respectivamente. Se concluye que la morera posee alta calidad cuando se utiliza la biomasa comestible como forraje y se observó un mejor aprovechamiento al entregar el forraje troceado. Además, con el uso de la morera los bovinos en desarrollo pueden alcanzar ganancias superiores a los 0,400 kg/animal/día como promedio, sin concentrado.The work was developed at the Experimental Station "Indio Hatuey"in Matanzas province, on a Ferralitic Red soil, with the objective of evaluating the inclusion of mulberry forage in growing bull calves under grazing conditions. The trial was conducted with crossbred Holstein x Zebu bull calves, which were eight months old and weighed 108 kg as average, and lasted for 140 days. In a first stage (53 days, the mulberry forage was

  15. Comparative study of aromatic compounds in fruit wines from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry in central Shaanxi area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Feng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although grape wines have firmly dominated the production and consumption markets of fruit wines, raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry have been utilized to make wines because of their joyful aroma and high contents of polyphenolic phytochemicals and essential fatty acids. However, little is known about aromatic compounds of the wines produced from these three fruits. Methods: The aromatic composition of fruit wines produced from raspberry, strawberry, mulberry, and red grape was analyzed by GC-MS. Odor activity values (OAVs and relative odor contributions (ROCs were used to estimate the sensory contribution of the aromatic compounds to the overall flavor of the wines. Results: In strawberry, raspberry, and mulberry wines, 27, 30, and 31 odorants were detected, respectively. Alcohols formed the most abundant group, followed by esters and acids. The grape wine contained a wider variety (16 types of alcohols, and 4-methyl-2-pentanol and 2,3-butanediol were not present in the three fruit wines. The quantity of esters in raspberry (1.54% and mulberry wines (2.08% were higher than those of strawberry wine (0.78%, and mulberry wine contained more types of esters. There were no significant differences of acids between the three fruit wines and the control wine. In addition, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone were unique to raspberry wine, and nonanal was present only in mulberry wine. The indistinguishable aroma of the three fruit wines was attributed to the dominance of fruity and floral odor components derived from ethyl esters of fatty acids and their contributions to the global aroma of the three fruit wines. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that there were significant differences in the volatile components of fruit wines made from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry. The aroma compounds were more abundant in the raspberry and mulberry wines than in the strawberry wine, but the quality of strawberry wine was

  16. Transformation Efficiency of Sulfur for a Mulberry Leaf-Silkworm Cocoon System in the Lower-Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-Wen; HU Zheng-Yi; CAO Zhi-Hong; J. D. BEATON; A. M. HENDERSON; M. X. FAN; XU Cheng-Kai

    2005-01-01

    Cocoon samples were collected from fifty-two mulberry gardens with high, intermediate, and low silkworm cocoon productivities in the lower-middle reaches of the Yangtze River in the six China's provinces of Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Anhui,Fujian, Hunan, and Hubei to determine the transformation efficiency of S from mulberry leaves to silkworm cocoons,and to evaluate the sulfur cycle (uptake and output) in the mulberry leaf-silkworm cocoon system with typical mulberry gardens in the lower-middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China. The transformation efficiency of sulfur (TES) from mulberry leaves into silkworm cocoons in the high-productivity mulberry gardens was significantly lower (P <0.05) than that in the low-productivity gardens. For the high-productivity mulberry gardens the TES from mulberry leaves into the cocoon shells was significantly higher (P <0.05) than that for low-yield mulberry gardens. Producing 1 kg dry cocoon in mulberry gardens required uptake of about 20 g S, however 1 kg of dry cocoon only removed about 4 g S. Therefore,recycling of these organic wastes with silkworm cultivation was important for sulfur balance.

  17. The Influence of Mulberry Fruit Juice on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Colon Cancer Cell Line SW620%桑椹汁对结肠癌细胞株SW620增殖和凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕欢; 闻燕; 王俊; 许晓风; 吴宇; 江明珠

    2013-01-01

    To confirm anti-tumor function of mulberry fruit, colon cancer cell line SW620 was treated with different concentrations of mulberry fruit juice. The growth curve was drawn by MTT method to investigate proliferation of SW620 cells. Change of transcriptional level of apoptosis-related gene p53 in SW620 cells and expression level of its encoded protein were detected by fluorescent quantitative PCR and SDS-PAGE to analyze the influencing mechanism of mulberry fruit juice on proliferation and apoptosis of colon cancer cell line SW620. It was found that the inhibitory effect of mulberry fruit juice on the proliferation of SW620 cells was enhanced obviously with the increase of mulberry fruit juice concentration. After being treated with mulberry fruit juice containing 6. 267 3 ×10-3 mg/mL anthocyanin for 24 h, SW620 cells had the following remarkable changes. Cell growth was obviously inhibited. Cells exfoliated and deformed. Cell adherence declined and cell apoptosis was observed. Genomic DNA of SW620 cells showed obvious degradation. The result of fluorescent quantitative PCR showed that expression level of gene p53 in the experimental group increased by 6. 5 folds compared with the control group. In addition, SDS-PAGE assay indicated that the expression level of protein p53 in the experimental group was also obviously higher than that in the control group. These results indicated that mulberry fruit juice has inhibitory effect on proliferation of colon cancer cell line SW620. The inhibitory mechanism may be related to cell apoptosis caused by up-regulation of p53 gene in SW620 cells which was induced by active ingredients of mulberry fruit juice.%为证实桑椹的抗肿瘤功能,以不同浓度桑椹汁处理结肠癌细胞株SW620,应用MTT法对比绘制生长曲线,调查SW620细胞的增殖情况,通过荧光定量PCR、SDS-PAGE检测SW620细胞凋亡相关基因p53的转录及蛋白质表达变化,分析桑椹汁对SW620细胞增殖、凋亡的影响机制.

  18. Changes in the Quality of Black Mulberry and Blueberry Sherbets During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsen Rayman Ergün

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was evaluated the quality properties of traditional drink sherbets that are prepared from black mulberry and blueberry fruits. After production sherbets were investigated to determine their pH, acidity, °brix and colour values, total sugar, phenolic, anthocyanin and antioxidant contents. Moreover the sherbets stored at 4°C during 2 months and the changes in these quality properties were examined per month. As a result statistically significant changes were observed in the quality properties of these sherbets of black mulberry and blueberry fruits which are known with their rich content of phytochemical compounds. The results show that in blueberry sherbet the degradation of phenolics was faster than black mulberry sherbet. Anthocyanins that are higher in black mulberry sherbets after production were preserved better in blueberry sherbets at the end of 2nd month. L*and a* values decreased for blackberry and blueberry sherbets during storage. b* value decreased from 5.59 to 4.92 for blackberry sherbet while it increased from 0.62 to 0.79 for blueberry sherbet at the end of the storage time.

  19. Characteristics,Cloning and Expression of the MLX56 Gene Family in Mulberry%桑树MLX56基因家族特性、克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩淑梅; 李军; 吕蕊花; 王晓红; 刘长英; 赵爱春; 鲁成; 余茂德

    2015-01-01

    Objective]Mulberry( Morus) latex gene plays an important role in determining anti-insect and defense. Identification the MLX56 gene family from the mulberry genome database,and analysis of phylogeny,gene structure and gene expression in mulberry will be helpful to study the functions of plant latex genes.[Method]Based on mulberry genome database,bioinformatics approach was used to analyze the structure and evolution of mulberry MLX56 gene family, a phylogenetic tree was created using the MEGA4. 1 program. The expression of MLX56 gene in different mulberry species and different tissues were analyzed using semi-quantitative TR-PCR. A recombinant plasmid pET-28a-MLX56-6 was constructed and transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 ( DE3 ) . IPTG was used to induce MLX56-6 protein expression. Samples were collected from bacterial suspension at different times of induction and SDS-PAGE was used to analyze the protein expressed by E. coli BL21 ( DE3 ) . Ultrasonic wave was used to break the efficiently expressed bacterial suspension,and SDS-PAGE was used to detect the solubility of MLX56-6 protein. Western Blot confirmed the successful expression of MLX56-6 in E. coli BL21 (DE3),and the effect of the MLX56 gene on the growth rate of E. coli was also studied.[Result]A total of 6 MLX56 genes were identified from mulberry genome database,the mulberry MLX56 contains two chitin-binding domains,and they all have signal peptide,belongs to secretory protein. A new MLX56 gene MLX56-7 (GenBank number:KJ496133) was cloned. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the highest homdogy (66%) was between mulberry MLX56 gene and Sambucus nigra hevein-like protein,and a lower value ( 49%,48%) between mulberry MLX56 and Camellia sinensis chitinase and Vitis vinifera chitinase. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that MLX56-1, MLX56-2, MLX56-4, MLX56-5,MLX56-6 and MLX56-7 were expressed in all mulberry species. Tissue specific expression analysis revealed that MLX56-2,MLX56-4,MLX56-5,MLX56-6 and

  20. Comparison Between in Vivo and in Vitro Metabolite Production of Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, F; Monacelli, B; Messana, I

    1999-02-01

    Nine flavonoids and seven Diels-Alder type adducts were isolated from the acetonic extract of MORUS NIGRA I. root bark, and three flavonoids and six Diels-Alder type adducts were isolated from the acetonic extract of M. NIGRA L. callus. However, none of the metabolites isolated from the root bark was found in the cell culture. Moreover, adducts isolated from the plant and cell culture showed not only a different cyclohexene ring substitution but also a different stereochemistry, that was found CIS-TRONS in the metabolites isolated from callus, and TRANS-TRANS in those isolated from the root bark.

  1. Elaboración de Bebida Filtrante de la Hoja Morus Alba L con Efecto Hipoglucemiante

    OpenAIRE

    Ccopa Ihui, Giovanna; Universidad Alas Peruanas; Quispe Cruz, Ruth; Fernández Ccapatinta, Karina

    2008-01-01

    En el presente trabajo de investigación se evaluó el efecto reductor sobre la hiperglucemia (niveles de azúcar altos) del Morus alba L. (mora blanca) en ratas inducidas a la diabetes experimental a nivel de laboratorio.Luego de las pruebas bioquímicas con respecto al efecto hipoglucemiante (niveles de azúcar bajos) de la mora, se concluyó que en su composición intervienen flavonoides, sustancias que participan a nivel celular en la disminución de azúcar en la sangre.Con esta información se bu...

  2. Chalcone-derived Diels-Alder adducts as NF-κB inhibitors from Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Thi Xuan Binh; Tran, Thi Hong Hanh; Dan, Thi Thuy Hang; Chau, Van Minh; Hoang, Thanh Huong; Nguyen, Tien Dat

    2012-01-01

    A bioassay-guided phytochemical fractionation of the methanol extract of the Morus alba root barks led to the isolation of two chalcone-derived Diels-Alder adducts (1 and 2). Their structures were elucidated as kuwanon J 2,4,10″-trimethyl ether (1) and kuwanon R (2) by means of spectroscopic methods. Both compounds strongly inhibited nuclear transcription factor.κB activity with the IC₅₀ values of 4.65 and 7.38 μM, respectively.

  3. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-03-31

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis.

  4. Processing Technology of Composite Mulberry Leaf Tea%浅谈复合桑叶茶加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡利; 贾孟周; 黄仁志; 周跃斌

    2012-01-01

    桑叶中含有17种氨基酸和多种营养物质,具有较好的保健作用。该文概要叙述了桑叶茶的主要成分与功效,着重介绍了复合桑叶茶的加工制作过程与工艺,并针对桑叶茶制作中存在的问题简要提出了相应的初步建议。%Mulberry leaves contain 17 amino acids and other nutrients,which have good effect to health.This article briefly describes the composition and roles of mulberry tea,systematically introduces the processing technologies of composite mulberry leaf tea.Furthermore,some countermeasures and proposes of the processing technologies of mulberry tea are put forward based on the problems in their processing technology.

  5. Effect of four varieties of mulberry on biochemistry and nutritional physiology of mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oftadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of four mulberry varieties (Kenmochi, Ichinose, Shin Ichinose, Mahalii on nutritional indices and digestive proteolytic and amylolytic activities of Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae were determined at 24±1°C, 75±5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 L:D. Fifth instar larvae reared on Shin Ichinose showed the highest efficiency of conversion of digested food and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (3.82±0.16% and 3.11±0.07%, respectively. Approximate digestibility values of the fourth instar larvae were highest (95.23±0.73% and lowest (91.77±1.45% on Kenmochi and Shin Ichinose, respectively. The fifth instar larvae fed on Kenmochi had the highest consumption index (4.6±0.73 and lowest relative growth rate (0.03±0.10, respectively. Our results showed that the highest protease activity in optimal pH was on Malalii variety (0.97 U/mg and the lowest was on Kenmochi (0.75 U/mg. In addition, the highest amylase activity in optimal pH was on Mahalii (0.17 U/mg and lowest on Kenmochi (0.103 U/mg. Specific proteolytic analysis showed that larvae feeding on Mahalii had the highest activity of trypsin and elastase (2.30 and 2.13 U/mg, respectively. This research showed that plasticity in food utilization and enzyme activity is functionally relevant to host plant cultivars. The results of nutritional indices and activity of digestive enzymes indicated that Kenmochi was an unsuitable host for feeding of Glyphodes pyloalis.

  6. A New Diels-Alder Type Adduct and a New Flavone from the Stem and Root Bark of Morus mongolica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie KANG; Ruo Yun CHEN; De Quan YU

    2005-01-01

    A new Diels-Alder type adduct mongolicin G (1) and a new flavone 5'-(1", 1"-dimethylallyl)-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (2) were isolated from the stem and root bark of Morus mongolica. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chiroptical methods.

  7. Tyrosinase inhibitory constituents from the roots of Morus nigra: a structure-activity relationship study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zong-Ping; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Zhu, Qin; Wang, Xia-Chang; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Wang, Mingfu

    2010-05-12

    The phytochemical profiles of Morus nigra roots and twigs were compared by HPLC with those of the old and young twigs of Morus alba which are known to contain oxyresveratrol and mulberroside A as major components. It was found that M. nigra root extract contains some unknown natural products with potential tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The extract (95% ethanol) of the roots of M. nigra was further investigated in this study. One new compound, 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone, and twenty-eight known phenolic compounds were isolated. Their structures were identified by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Nine compounds, 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone, steppogenin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside, 2,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone, moracin N, kuwanon H, mulberrofuran G, morachalcone A, oxyresveratrol-3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and oxyresveratrol-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, showed better tyrosinase inhibitory activities than kojic acid. It was noteworthy that the IC(50) values of 2,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone and morachalcone A were 757-fold and 328-fold lower than that of kojic acid, respectively, suggesting a great potential for their development as effective natural tyrosinase inhibitors.

  8. Morus nigra plant leaves as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Waheed, S.; Wasim, M.; Arif, M.; Zaidi, J.H. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper deals with the determination of 36 elements in 120 leaf samples of Morus nigra plant to assess their potential as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring. The elemental quantification was made by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The leaf samples were collected in spring, summer and winter seasons from various sites in Islamabad with different types of anthropogenic activities as well as from a reference site with minimum of such activities. Twenty four soil samples from the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the adopted procedures was established by analyzing the certified reference materials, i.e., citrus leaves-1572 and soil-7, from NIST and IAEA, respectively, under identical experimental conditions and comparing the results obtained with the certified values which are in quite good agreement with each other. The enrichment values and Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the determined elements were computed and discussed accordingly. The elemental translocation from soil to roots, stem and leaves has also been studied by analyzing these parts of the same plant. The results indicated that the leaves of Morus nigra plant have promising potential to monitor the extent of air pollution in the vicinity of industrial as well as in high traffic areas. (orig.)

  9. Brazilian Morus nigra Attenuated Hyperglycemia, Dyslipidemia, and Prooxidant Status in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, Ivanildo I da S; Barbosa, Humberto de Moura; Carvalho, Débora C R; Barros, Ruideglan de Alencar; Albuquerque, Flávia Peixoto; da Silva, Dionísio Henrique Amaral; Souza, Grasielly R; Souza, Nathália A C; Rolim, Larissa A; Silva, Flaviane M M; Duarte, Glória I B P; Almeida, Jackson R G da S; de Oliveira Júnior, Flávio Monteiro; Gomes, Dayane A; Lira, Eduardo C

    2017-01-01

    Morus nigra has been used popularly for several proposes, including diabetic. In an attempt to support medicinal value, the acute hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects of the ethanolic extract of Morus nigra (EEMn 200 or 400 mg/kg b.w.) were evaluated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic treated for 14 days. Serum biochemical and antioxidant analysis were performed at the end of experiment. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed at 10th and 15th days. Chromatographic analysis by HPLC-DAD of EEMn was performed. Insulin was used as positive control to glycemic metabolism as well as fenofibrate to lipid metabolism. EEMn (400 mg/kg/day) reduced fasting and postprandial glycaemia, improved oral glucose tolerance, and reduced lipolysis and proteolysis in diabetic rats. EEMn decreased the blood levels of total cholesterol and increased HDL level when compared to the diabetic control rats. At higher levels, EEMn reduced triglycerides and VLDL levels in diabetic rats. Also, EEMn reduced malondialdehyde and increased the reduced glutathione levels in liver of diabetic rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the presence of the flavonoids rutin, isoquercetin, and kaempferitrin. Acute EEMn treatment reduced hyperglycemia, improved oral glucose tolerance, and minimized dyslipidemia and oxidative stress leading to a reduction in atherogenic index in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  10. Brazilian Morus nigra Attenuated Hyperglycemia, Dyslipidemia, and Prooxidant Status in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo I. da S. Júnior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morus nigra has been used popularly for several proposes, including diabetic. In an attempt to support medicinal value, the acute hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects of the ethanolic extract of Morus nigra (EEMn 200 or 400 mg/kg b.w. were evaluated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic treated for 14 days. Serum biochemical and antioxidant analysis were performed at the end of experiment. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed at 10th and 15th days. Chromatographic analysis by HPLC-DAD of EEMn was performed. Insulin was used as positive control to glycemic metabolism as well as fenofibrate to lipid metabolism. EEMn (400 mg/kg/day reduced fasting and postprandial glycaemia, improved oral glucose tolerance, and reduced lipolysis and proteolysis in diabetic rats. EEMn decreased the blood levels of total cholesterol and increased HDL level when compared to the diabetic control rats. At higher levels, EEMn reduced triglycerides and VLDL levels in diabetic rats. Also, EEMn reduced malondialdehyde and increased the reduced glutathione levels in liver of diabetic rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the presence of the flavonoids rutin, isoquercetin, and kaempferitrin. Acute EEMn treatment reduced hyperglycemia, improved oral glucose tolerance, and minimized dyslipidemia and oxidative stress leading to a reduction in atherogenic index in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  11. Formulation and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Morus alba sol-gel against periodontal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Gunjal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis has a multifactorial etiology, with primary etiologic agents being pathogenic bacteria that reside in the subgingival area. Recent advances in the field of alternative medicine introduced various herbal products for the treatment of periodontitis. Aim: To assess and compare the antimicrobial activity of Morus alba sol-gel with chlorhexidine sol-gel against ATCC standard strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Materials and Methods: Crude extract of Morus alba leaves was prepared by Soxhlet method by using ethanol as a solvent. Phytochemical screening of the crude extract of M. alba was performed to check the various chemical constituents. M. alba sol-gel and chlorhexidine sol-gel were formulated using Pluronic f127 and Pluronic f108 and compared for their antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of both the gels was performed using agar well diffusion technique. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration of M. alba sol-gel and chlorhexidine sol-gel against A. actinomycetemcomitans is 19 and 17 mm, T. forsythia is 12 and 21 mm, and P. gingivalis is 16 and 18 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Both M. alba and chlorhexidine sol-gel exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against periodontal pathogens.

  12. EFEITO ALELOPÁTICO E MOLUSCICIDA DE AMORA (Morus rubra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CRISTINA MENDES MIRANDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolite produced in some plants can provoke alterations in the development of other plants or even other organisms. The aim of this paper was to identify possible allelopathic effects and biologic control of Achatina fulica Bowdich with aqueous extracts of Morus rubra L. leaves. For obtaining the aqueous extract, we used previously dried leaves in concentration of 1g 10 mL-1. Five concentrations of each aqueous extract were tested (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100% and compared to control (0.0%, distilled water. The aqueous extracts of Morus rubra showed up allelopathic potentialities on the seed germination and in the growth of the shoot and the root system of the tested species, considering that the reduction in the germination and initial growth increased with the rising of the aqueous extracts concentrations used and, in the biologic control, only in the final mass of A. fulica. The results indicated the existence of allelopathic effect, but not molluscicide of M. rubra.

  13. Extraction of pectins with different degrees of esterification from mulberry branch bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Cao, Jing; Huang, Jian; Cai, Yurong; Yao, Juming

    2010-05-01

    Pectins were extracted from mulberry branch bark, a byproduct of the sericulture industry. A single-factor experiment was used to optimize the production conditions. Under optimal conditions, the galacturonic acid yields from bark with and without epidermis were 61.73 + or - 1.39% and 35.12 + or - 0.24%, respectively. The extracted pectins mainly consisted of galacturonic acid with a trace amount of neutral sugars, and the total galacturonic acid content in the pectins extracted from the bark without epidermis reached 85.46 + or - 2.76%. Pectins extracted from bark without epidermis had a higher degree of esterification (71.13 + or - 1.67%) than those extracted from bark with epidermis (24.27 + or - 2.89%). Pectin solution from bark without epidermis showed higher apparent viscosity, suggesting its higher gelation ability. Thus, the mulberry branch bark is a potential source of pectin with different degrees of esterification.

  14. Biobleaching of Paper Mulberry (Broussentia papyrifera Pulp Using Laccase Mediator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Chauhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, demand for cleaner production techniques in the handmade paper industry is on rise. Use of enzymes in prebleaching might be very useful in this regard. The laccase enzyme produced from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus was tested as an aid to the bleaching of paper mulberry (Broussentia papyrifera pulp. For this, enzymatic prebleaching was carried out for two different durations i.e. 3 hours and 48 hours. The pulp was then subjected to chemical bleaching by hydrogen peroxide either directly (LP sequence or after an alkaline extraction stage (LEP sequence. The synergistic effect of xylanase enzyme on laccase mediator system was also evaluated and found to be negligible. Under the defined conditions, a gain of up to ten points in brightness value of the treated pulps as compared to the control pulps could be obtained. Thus, laccase mediator system was found to be very effective in boosting the brightness of paper mulberry pulp.

  15. Stacking faults and microstructural parameters in non-mulberry silk fibres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Divakara; S Madhu; R Somashekar

    2009-11-01

    We have analysed the broadening of X-ray reflections observed in non-mulberry silk fibres in terms of stacking faults and microstructural parameters using a single-order method and have, with these parameters, developed, for the first time, a procedure to compute the whole pattern of these silk fibres. The essential deviations in the values of microstructural parameters obtained from line profile and whole pattern fitting procedures are discussed in this paper.

  16. Biobleaching of Paper Mulberry (Broussentia papyrifera) Pulp Using Laccase Mediator System

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Chauhan; M. Krishna Mohan; Pradeep Bhatnagar

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, demand for cleaner production techniques in the handmade paper industry is on rise. Use of enzymes in prebleaching might be very useful in this regard. The laccase enzyme produced from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus was tested as an aid to the bleaching of paper mulberry (Broussentia papyrifera) pulp. For this, enzymatic prebleaching was carried out for two different durations i.e. 3 hours and 48 hours. The pulp was then subjected to chemical bleaching by hydrogen peroxide either...

  17. Antidiabetic effects of Morus alba fruit polysaccharides on high-fat diet- and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yukun; Wang, Xueqian; Jiang, Xiang; Kong, Fansheng; Wang, Shumei; Yan, Chunyan

    2017-03-06

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is becoming a serious threat to human health. The fruit of Morus alba L. is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of DM, dizziness, tinnitus, insomnia, and premature graying, as well as to protect the liver and kidneys. Several studies have demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of the roots bark, leaves, and ramuli of mulberry, which are known to contain polyphenols and polysaccharides, have antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the active polysaccharides from M. alba fruit by evaluating the antidiabetic activities of different fractions on T2DM rats and elucidate the mechanism underlying these activities. Diabetic rats were treated with two fractions of M. alba fruit polysaccharides (MFP50 and MFP90). The disease models were induced by a high-fat diet and low dose injection of streptozotocin and were compared to normal rats and metformin-treated diabetic rats. After seven weeks, the fasting blood glucose (FBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting serum insulin (FINS) levels, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glycated serum protein (GSP), and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, as well as serum lipid profiles and histopathological changes in the pancreas were measured. Next, the expressions of the insulin signaling pathway were measured by western blot analysis to elucidate the potential mechanism underlying these antidiabetic activities. After seven weeks of treatment, a significant reduction in the FBG levels, OGTT-area under the curve (OGTT-AUC), FINS, HOMA-IR, ALT, and triglyceride (TG) values of the MFP50 group was observed. On the other hand, in the MFP90 group, the FBG, OGTT-AUC, FINS, HOMA-IR, GSP, and TG levels were significantly reduced. The level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and the proportion of HDL-c to total cholesterol (TC) significantly increased in the MFP50

  18. Environ: E00819 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00819 Mulberry Medicinal herb Deoxynojirimycin [CPD:C16843] [DR:D09605], 4-Aminobu...icinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Moraceae (mulberry family) E00819 Mulberry ... ...076], Zinc [CPD:C00038] Morus alba [TAX:3498] Moraceae Mulberry leaves Major component: Deoxynojirimycin [CPD:C16843] [DR:D09605] Med

  19. Investigation of some pretreatments on energy and specific energy consumption drying of black mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adabi Esmaeili Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive consumption of energy in drying industry makes it a matter of challenge regarding economical aspects and limited recourses. Several methods for drying including hot air convection, vacuum, infrared and hot air convection-infrared technologies were applied in order to estimate the consumed energy during the drying of mulberry fruit. Moreover, microwave heating, chemical (ethyl oleate and potassium, mechanical (ultrasonic and blanching (hot water pretreatments were compared. According to the Results, maximum energy consumption was recorded when no pretreatment was performed. Microwave heating in the hot air convection-infrared dryer resulted in the lowest consumption of energy. Total energy requirement decreased with the temperature in the convection dryer res. Conversely, energy increased with air velocity. The vacuum dryer consumed the highest amount of energy which was measured to be 46.95 kWh while the lowest energy was recorded with using infrared-convective dryers. Also Experimental results showed that minimum and maximum specific energy consumption in the drying of black mulberry were associated with microwave pretreatment in IR-hot air dryer and control treatment in vacuum dryer, respectively. The minimum color change (ΔE for drying of black mulberry was found in microwave pretreated samples dried with the vacuum dryer, yet maximum ΔE was observed in hot air dryer when no pretreatment was applied.

  20. Role of Organic Matter in Formation and Stability of Aggregates in Mulberry Plantation Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The role of organic matter in the formation and stability of soil aggregates in mulberry plantation in the Hang-Jia-Hu Plain,northern Zhejiang Province,was evaluated in this study.A positive correlation was found between water-stable aggregate contents and organic matter contents in the mulberry plantation soils,which supported the hypothesis that organic matter was the main cementing agent in formation of aggregates.A close correlation was also found between stability of aggregate and organic matter contents.Regression analysis showed that total nitrogen content was also an indicator of water-stable aggregate content and stability.The aggregate size distribution indicated that the water-stable aggregates 1~0.25 mm in diameter were the major component of the aggregates in the mulberry plantation soils.The organic matter contents of aggregates ranging from 5 to 0.25 mm in diameter increased with the decrease of aggregate sizes,and the aggregates 1~0.25 mm in diameter had the maximum organic matter content.

  1. Persistent stimulation of photosynthesis in short rotation coppice mulberry under elevated CO2 atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhana Sekhar, Kalva; Rachapudi, Venkata Sreeharsha; Mudalkar, Shalini; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2014-08-01

    Current study was undertaken to elucidate the responses of short rotation coppice (SRC) mulberry under elevated CO2 atmosphere (550μmolmol(-1)). Throughout the experimental period, elevated CO2 grown mulberry plants showed significant increase in light saturated photosynthetic rates (A') by increasing intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci) despite reduced stomatal conductance (gs). Reduced gs was linked to decrease in transpiration (E) resulting in improved water use efficiency (WUE). There was a significant increase in carboxylation efficiency (CE) of Rubisco, apparent quantum efficiency (AQE), light and CO2 saturated photosynthetic rates (AMAX), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE), chlorophyll a fluorescence characteristics (FV/FM and PIABS), starch and other carbohydrates in high CO2 grown plants which clearly demonstrate no photosynthetic acclimation in turn resulted marked increase in above and below ground biomass. Our results strongly suggest that short rotation forestry (<1year) with mulberry plantations should be effective to mitigate raising CO2 levels as well as for the production of renewable bio-energy.

  2. 养蚕生产中桑叶管理要点%Study on Mulberry Leaves Management in Sericulture Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      桑叶是养蚕的基础,是蚕唯一的饲料,蚕的营养完全来源于桑叶,蚕的健康与桑叶管理有很大关系。现针对养蚕生产中桑叶管理易出现的问题,结合实际操作经验,从桑叶管理中的叶质选择、采集、运输、贮藏和调节等方面进行阐述。%Mulberry leafs are the basis of sericulture ,only feed of silkworm .The nutrition of silkworm comes from mulberry leaves competely ,health of silkworm has much relation with mulberry leaves management .Ac-cording to problems of mulberry leaf management in sericulture production ,combined with actual operation ex-perience ,the selection ,collection ,transportation ,storage ,regulation of mulberry leaves in the management were discussed .

  3. Identification and Determination of the Polyhydroxylated Alkaloids Compounds with α-Glucosidase Inhibitor Activity in Mulberry Leaves of Different Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tao; Li, Jun; Su, Shu-Lan; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Guo, Sheng; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2016-02-08

    Mulberry leaves have commonly been utilized in China as a herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes for thousands of years. To evaluate the quality, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) method was developed for identification of polyhydroxylated alkaloids with α-glucosidase inhibitor activity in mulberry leaf. As a result, five alkaloid compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Among them, the compound 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) was selected as the most typical and active chemical marker and quantified using an improved high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) normal phase coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) method. The developed method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision and repeatability, as well as recovery, and subsequently applied to evaluate twenty-nine batches of mulberry leaves from different collections. From the analytical data it was discovered that the average content of DNJ is 1.53 mg/g, while the total contents of DNJ in the 29 mulberry leaf sample ranged from 0.20 to 3.88 mg/g, which suggested remarkable differences, although it reached the highest levels in early August. These data may provide an important reference for the quality of mulberry leaves used as herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes or as a material to obtain the DNJ of α-glucosidase inhibitor or as a functional food.

  4. Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Random Frog and Calibration Models for Assessment of Total Soluble Solids in Mulberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ru Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemometrics methods coupled with hyperspectral imaging technology in visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR region (380–1030 nm were introduced to assess total soluble solids (TSS in mulberries. Hyperspectral images of 310 mulberries were acquired by hyperspectral reflectance imaging system (512 bands and their corresponding TSS contents were measured by a Brix meter. Random frog (RF method was used to select important wavelengths from the full wavelengths. TSS values in mulberry fruits were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM models based on full wavelengths and the selected important wavelengths. The optimal PLSR model with 23 important wavelengths was employed to visualise the spatial distribution of TSS in tested samples, and TSS concentrations in mulberries were revealed through the TSS spatial distribution. The results declared that hyperspectral imaging is promising for determining the spatial distribution of TSS content in mulberry fruits, which provides a reference for detecting the internal quality of fruits.

  5. Antinociceptive effect of the extract of Morus nigra leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mesquita Padilha, Marina; Vilela, Fabiana Cardoso; da Silva, Marcelo José Dias; dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Alves-da-Silva, Geraldo; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2009-12-01

    Morus nigra has been used to relieve pain in Brazilian folk medicine. This study was conducted to establish the antinociceptive properties of dichloromethane extract from leaves of M. nigra. The formalin, hot plate, and tail immersion tests as well as acetic acid-induced writhing were used to investigate the antinociceptive activity in mice. The extract at test doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. clearly demonstrated antinociceptive activity in all tests. The extract administered at 300 mg/kg, p.o. had a stronger antinociceptive effect than indomethacin (5 mg/kg, p.o.) and morphine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), which supports previous claims for its traditional use.

  6. Kara Dut (Morus nigra L.) Bitkisinin In Vitro Çoğaltımı

    OpenAIRE

    KALKIŞIM, Özgün; Turan, Ali; AZERİ, Fatma Nur; ÖZDEŞ, Duygu

    2014-01-01

    Karadutun (Morus nigra L.) doku kültürü ile çoğaltılabilme imkanlarını belirlemek amacıyla yapılan bu çalışmada, erişkin ağaçların obur dallarından alınan nodal eksplantlardan çoklu sürgün teşvikini sağlamaya yönelik etkili bir protokol standardize edilmek üzere, bitki büyüme düzenleyicilerin farklı konsantrasyon ve kombinasyonu ile zenginleştirilmiş MS ortamları denenmiştir. Beş ayrı konsantrasyonda BAP (6-enzylaminopurine; 1,0, 2,0, 3,0, 4,0, 5,0 mg/L) ile desteklenmiş ve ayrıca BAP, NAA (...

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Morus nigra against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Morus nigra (Family Moraceae is traditionally used injaundice, diabetes, hypertension, cough, fever and cancer. The current study was conducted to determine hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of leaves of M. nigra. Two doses of 250 mg/kg p.o and 500 mg/kg p.o showed that extract of M. nigra produced significant (p<0.001 reduction in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin induced by paracetamol and the results are comparable to silymarin (p<0.001. Results were supported by histopathologi-cal investigations, phytochemical screening and detection of active consti-tuents by HPLC. The current study showed that aqueous methanolic extract of M. nigra possess hepatoprotective activity that might be due to quercetin, luteolin and isorhamnetin. It was concluded from this study that M. nigra has hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver injury in mice.

  8. Involvement of histaminergic system in the anxiolytic-like activities of Morus alba leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungheon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Ji Hye; Ko, Eun Seong; Oh, Won Bo; Seo, Yong Taek; Jang, Young Pyo; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Jung, Ji Wook

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of 85% methanolic extract of Morus alba leaves (EMA), which is a traditional herb, in mice. The effects of EMA on the anxiolytic-like behaviour were studied using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and hole-board test. To elucidate the mode of action of the anxiolytic-like effects of EMA, the mice were subjected to the co-administration of EMA (200 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) and either antagonist. EMA (at 200 or 400 mg/kg) significantly increased the percentages of time-spent in the open arms and entries into the open arms of the EPM versus vehicle-treated control group (phistaminergic system in central nerve system.

  9. Neutralization of local and systemic toxicity of Daboia russelii venom by Morus alba plant leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekara, K T; Nagaraju, S; Nandini, S Usha; Kemparaju, K

    2009-08-01

    Antivenom therapy is the current best therapy available for the treatment of fatal snake envenomation. However, the antivenom offers less or no protection against local effects such as extensive edema, hemorrhage, dermo-, myonecrosis and inflammation at the envenomed region. Viperidae snakes are highly known for their violent local effects and such effects have been commonly treated with plant extracts without any scientific validation in rural India. In this investigation Morus alba plant leaf extract has been studied against the Indian Vipera/Daboia russelii venom induced local and systemic effects. The extract completely abolished the in vitro proteolytic and hyaluronolytic activities of the venom. Edema, hemorrhage and myonecrotic activities were also neutralized efficiently. In addition, the extract partially inhibited the pro-coagulant activity and completely abolished the degradation of Aalpha chain of human fibrinogen. Thus, the extract processes potent antisnake venom property, especially against the local and systemic effects of Daboia russelii venom.

  10. Three New Isoprenylated Flavonoids from the Root Bark of Morus alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woo Jung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the root bark of Morus alba has led to the isolation and identification of three new isoprenylated flavonoids, namely sanggenon U (1, sanggenon V (2, and sanggenon W (3, along with four known isoprenylated flavonoids: euchrenone a7 (4, sanggenon J (5, kuwanon E (6, and kuwanon S (7. All compounds were isolated by repeated silica gel (SiO2, octadecyl SiO2 (ODS, and Sephadex LH-20 open column chromatography. The structure of the compounds were determined based on spectroscopic analyses, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, mass spectrometry (MS, circular dichroism (CD, and infrared (IR. In addition, compounds 1–4 were isolated for the first time from the root bark of M. alba in this study.

  11. Locational differences in metal concentrations in feathers of Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Veitch, C R; Gochfeld, M

    1994-08-01

    Levels of lead, cadmium, mercury, selenium, manganese and chromium were examined in breast feathers of Australasian Gannets (Morus serrator) from New Zealand waters, where they breed on coastal rocky stacks, islands, and occasionally coastal headlands. There were significant differences in the concentrations of all metals except mercury, with gannets from Ninety Mile Beach having significantly lower levels of all metals than those from the other beaches. Ninety Mile Beach is on the northern tip of the North Island, away from urbanization and industrialization, whereas the other beaches are closer to Auckland, the largest city in New Zealand. The levels of most metals were similar or lower than those reported for feathers from elsewhere around the world. Mercury, however, was at the high end, being exceeded only by raptors and gulls from industrialized countries. Several metal levels were highly correlated, indicating that gannets were usually exposed to several metals at once.

  12. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Morus nigra extract on human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Turan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morus nigra L. belongs to the family Moraceae and is frequently used in traditional medicine. Numerous studies have investigated the antiproliferative effects of various extracts of different Morus species, but studies involving the in vitro cytotoxic effect of M. nigra extract are very limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of dimethyl sulfoxide extract of M. nigra (DEM and to investigate, for the first time, the probable cytotoxic effect in human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3 cells together with the mechanism involved. Methods: Total polyphenolic contents (TPC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and phenolic compounds of DEM were evaluated using spectrophotometric procedures and HPLC. The cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells was revealed using the MTT assay. Mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells were then investigated in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle using flow cytometry, while caspase activity was investigated using luminometric analysis. Results: TPC and FRAP values were 20.7 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalents and 48.8 ± 1.6 mg trolox equivalents per g sample, respectively. Ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid were the major phenolic compounds detected at HPLC analysis. DEM arrested the cell cycle of PC-3 cells at the G1 phase, induced apoptosis via increased caspase activity and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusions: Our results indicate that M. nigra may be a novel candidate for the development of new natural product based therapeutic agents against prostate cancer.

  13. Induction of Biologically Active Flavonoids in Cell Cultures of Morus nigra and Testing their Hypoglycemic Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M A; Mohamed, Khaled M; Mostafa, Ashraf M

    2011-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of both leaves and MJ-treated cell cultures of Morus nigra was evaluated after their oral administration to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic activity of extracts from leaves given to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats for 10 days increased with increasing doses of leaves extract up to 500 mg/kg/day. The administration of 500 mg/kg/day of leaves extract reduced the concentration of glucose from 370 ± 7.31 mg/dl (control) to 154 ± 6.27 mg/dl, and a significant increase in the insulin level from 11.3 ± 0.31 μU/ml (control) to 14.6 ± 0.43 μU/ml was recorded. Cell suspension cultures were established from the young leaves of Morus nigra cultivated on modified MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 0.2 mg/l 6-(furfurylamino)purine (kinetin). The changes in cell weight and flavonoid content were monitored between day zero and 12. The linear increase in fresh weight was found to be parallel to flavonoids production. Cell cultures treated with 100 μM methyl jasmonate for 24 hours showed a noticeable increase in level of flavonoids and significant and more effective hypoglycemic activity than that for extract from leaves. The major flavonoids were isolated by TLC and HPLC and identified as rutin, quercetin, Morusin and cyclomorusin by co-chromatography and mass spectrometry in comparison to samples of authentic reference compounds.

  14. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Morus nigra extract on human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Ibrahim; Demir, Selim; Kilinc, Kagan; Burnaz, Nesibe Arslan; Yaman, Serap Ozer; Akbulut, Kubra; Mentese, Ahmet; Aliyazicioglu, Yuksel; Deger, Orhan

    2017-02-01

    Background: Morus nigra L. belongs to the family Moraceae and is frequently used in traditional medicine. Numerous studies have investigated the antiproliferative effects of various extracts of different Morus species, but studies involving the in vitro cytotoxic effect of M. nigra extract are very limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of dimethyl sulfoxide extract of M. nigra (DEM) and to investigate, for the first time, the probable cytotoxic effect in human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) cells together with the mechanism involved. Methods: Total polyphenolic contents (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and phenolic compounds of DEM were evaluated using spectrophotometric procedures and HPLC. The cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells was revealed using the MTT assay. Mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells were then investigated in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle using flow cytometry, while caspase activity was investigated using luminometric analysis. Results: TPC and FRAP values were 20.7 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalents and 48.8 ± 1.6 mg trolox equivalents per g sample, respectively. Ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid were the major phenolic compounds detected at HPLC analysis. DEM arrested the cell cycle of PC-3 cells at the G1 phase, induced apoptosis via increased caspase activity and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusions: Our results indicate that M. nigra may be a novel candidate for the development of new natural product based therapeutic agents against prostate cancer.

  15. N-containing sugars from Morus alba and their glycosidase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, N; Oseki, K; Tomioka, E; Kizu, H; Matsui, K

    1994-06-17

    The reexamination of N-containing sugars from the roots of Morus alba by improved purification procedures led to the isolation of eighteen N-containing sugars, including seven that were isolated from the leaves of Morus bombycis. These N-containing sugars are 1-deoxynojirimycin (1), N-methyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (2), fagomine (3), 3-epi-fagomine (4), 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (5), 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-ribitol (6), calystegin B2 (1 alpha,2 beta,3 alpha,4 beta-tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane, 7), calystegin C1 (1 alpha,2 beta,3 alpha,4 beta,6 alpha-pentahydroxy-nor-tropane, 8), 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-arabinitol (9), and nine glycosides of 1. These glycosides consist of 2-O- and 6-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycins (10 and 11, respectively), 2-O-, 3-O- and 4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycins (12, 13, and 14, respectively), and 2-O-, 3-O-, 4-O- and 6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycins (15, 16, 17, and 18, respectively). Compound 4 is a new member of polyhydroxylated piperidine alkaloids, and the isolation of 6 is the first report of its natural occurrence. It has recently been found that the polyhydroxy-nor-tropane alkaloids possess potent glycosidase inhibitory activities. Calystegin A3 is the trihydroxy-nor-tropane, and calystegins B1 and B2 are the tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane. Calystegin C1, a new member of calystegins, is the first naturally occurring pentahydroxy-nor-tropane alkaloid. The inhibitory activities of these compounds were investigated against rat digestive glycosidases and various commercially available glycosidases.

  16. Potential antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Morus indica and Asystasia gangetica in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R Pradeep; Sujatha, D; Saleem, Ts Mohamed; Chetty, C Madhusudhana; Ranganayakulu, D

    2010-01-01

    Herbal drugs are frequently considered to be less toxic and also free from side effects, than synthetic ones. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate one such combination of herbal drugs, Asystasia gangetica and Morus indica for their antidiabetic and antioxidant potential against alloxan-induced diabetes in albino rats. The effect of both individual and a combination of Asystasia gangetica and Morus indica on blood glucose and liver glycogen were studied in the diabetic rats. The study also assessed for the effect of selected plant extracts for their effect on Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the homogenates of the pancreas. The results of the present study attests significant antidiabetic and antioxidant potential for the selected plants individually and also in combination as a prominent decrease in blood glucose and liver glycogen was observed in the rats treated with the extracts of the selected plants. Similarly, the levels of the protective antioxidant enzymes like SOD, CAT and GSH were increased along with decrease in the LPO levels. The present study provides a scientific evidence for antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Asystasia gangetica and Morus indica. Further studies to isolate bioactive compounds will pave the way to identify potential lead compounds for developing safe and efficacious antidiabetic agents.

  17. Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.

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    Zhenming Zhou

    Full Text Available Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP. Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and metabolizable energy (ME. Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT, 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG, and dry matter intake (DMI, was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks. There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743, ADG (P = 0.425, DMI (P = 0.642, or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236 between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024 in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076 in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098. No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513, tenderness (P = 0.844, adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149, and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400; however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034. In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content.

  18. Atividade antinociceptiva do extrato etanólico das folhas de Morus nigra L. (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielly Rocha Souza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O extrato etanólico bruto das folhas de M. nigra (Mn-EtOH foi avaliado quanto à atividade antinociceptiva em modelos experimentais em camundongos. Foram usados os métodos de contorções abdominais induzidas pelo ácido acético, teste da formalina e placa quente. No teste de contorções abdominais induzidas pelo ácido acético, Mn-EtOH (100, 200 e 400 mg/kg, i.p. reduziu o número de contorções em 38,82, 97,65 e 100%, respectivamente. O extrato também produziu uma significativa inibição de ambas as fases do teste da formalina, sendo que o efeito foi mais significativo na segunda fase (dor inflamatória. O extrato diminuiu em 42,19, 56,96 e 40,50%, respectivamente, o tempo de lambida da pata na primeira fase do teste de formalina, assim como 84,04, 77,20 e 61,07%, respectivamente, na segunda fase. Além disso, não apresentou efeito no teste da placa quente. Os dados obtidos sugerem que o extrato tem efeito antinociceptivo, provavelmente mediado através de mecanismos periféricos. Novos estudos estão sendo realizados para caracterizar o mecanismo responsável por esse efeito.Palavras-chave: Morus nigra. Moraceae. Atividade antinociceptiva. Dor. ABSTRACTAntinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Morus nigra L. (MoraceaeThe crude ethanolic extract of the leaves of M. nigra (Mn-EtOH was evaluated for antinociceptive activity in mice using models of nociception. The evaluation of antinociceptive activity was carried out by the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot plate tests. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the Mn-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. reduced the number of writhing by 38.82, 97.65 and 100%, respectively. The extract also produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin test, and the effect was more significant in the second phase (inflammatory pain. The extract decreased by 42.19, 56.96 and 40.50%, respectively, the paw licking time in the first phase of

  19. Genome-wide analysis, expression dynamics and varietal comparison of NAC gene family at various developmental stages in Morus notabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Vinay Kumar; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-06-01

    NAC genes are important transcription factors and forms a large family in plants. They have shown to play an important role in growth and development and have also been shown to involve in regulation of stress-responsive genes. In the present study, a repertoire of NAC genes in recently published mulberry genome has been identified which consists of a total of 79 members. Structural analysis revealed that most of the NAC genes in mulberry contain two introns. The proteins encoded by them show a wide range of isoelectric points suggestive of their varied roles in varying microcellular environment. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analysis elucidate the presence of 15 sub-groups of these genes along with two novel sub-groups having distinct conserved motifs which are not present in Arabidopsis. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis and cis-element identification from their putative 1 K upstream regulatory region indicates their possible role in important biological processes like organ formation, meristem establishment, senescence, and various biotic and abiotic stresses. Expression analysis across various developmental stages led to identification of their preferential expression in diverse tissues. Taken together, this work provides a solid background information related to structure, function, expression and evolution of NAC gene family in mulberry.

  20. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for the Rapid Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype I Mulberry Strains in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Jingsheng; Wang, Shuai; Kong, Xiangjiu; Ding, Wei; Xu, Jin; Feng, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype I mulberry strains are causative agent of bacterial wilt of mulberry. Current diagnostic methods are not adopted to the mulberry wilt disease. In this study, we developed a rapid method, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), to detect R. solanacearum phylotype I mulberry strains. A set of six primers was designed to target the clone MG67 sequence in this LAMP detection which can be completed in 20 min at 64°C. The results of the LAMP reaction could be observed with the naked eye due to magnesium pyrophosphate precipitate produced during the reaction or the color change after adding SYBR Green I. The specificity of the LAMP was confirmed using DNA from 46 representative strains of R. solanacearum and 7 other soil-borne bacteria strains. This method was also of high sensitivity and could be used to detect the presence of less than 160 fg genomic DNA or 2.2 × 102 CFU/ml of bacterial cells per 25 μl reaction volume, moreover, the presence of plant tissue fluid did not affect the sensitivity. Since it does not require expensive equipment or specialized techniques, this LAMP-based diagnostic method has the potential to be used under field conditions to make disease forecasting more accurate and efficient.

  1. Avaliação da atividade fitoestrogênica do extrato hidroalcoólico e da infusão das folhas de Morus nigra L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Nunes Bitencourt Vanoni

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se a influência do extrato hidroalcoólico e da infusão das folhas de Morus nigra L. em diferentes ensaios biológicos (uterotrófico em ratas adultas ovariectomizadas e em pré-púberes, e pubertal) em ratas Wistar. O objetivo dos ensaios foi avaliar a atividade estrogênica de Morus nigra observando-se o desenvolvimento uterino de ratas adultas ovariectomizadas e pré-púberes, e, a manifestação da abertura do canal vaginal, regularidade do ciclo estral e desenvolvimento uterino de ratas do...

  2. Ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves and their effect on enhancing antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Yang; Wan, Yi; Xu, Jian-Yi; Wu, Guo-Hua; Li, Long; Yao, Xiao-Hui

    2016-02-10

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves. Under the optimum conditions of an extraction temperature of 57 °C, an extraction time of 80 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 53 mL/g, the mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) yield was 6.92 ± 0.29%. Then, three fractions of MLPs were obtained by deproteinization, dialysis and decolorization. The carbohydrate content, FT-IR spectrum and monosaccharide composition of the MLPs were also investigated. The antioxidant activities of the three fractions were compared, and the results indicated that the antioxidant activities decreased with the increasing MLP purity. Therefore, highly concentrated MLPs were shown to have very little antioxidant activity. After quercetin (10 μg/mL) was added, the antioxidant activities were improved significantly. This result showed that MLPs and quercetin have a synergistic effect on the antioxidant activity. Although the MLPs have very little antioxidant activity alone, they greatly enhance the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Thus, MLPs can be used as an antioxidant activity enhancer in the food industry.

  3. Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

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    Suthin Audomkasok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 106 infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment.

  4. Synthesis and urea-loading of an eco-friendly superabsorbent composite based on mulberry branches

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    Xiying Liang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry branch, consisting of bark and stalk, was used as raw skeleton material without any chemical pre-treatment to synthesize an eco-friendly mulberry branch-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide (PMB/P(AA-co-AM superabsorbent composite. The synthesis conditions and properties of the PMB/P(AA-co-AM superabsorbent composite were investigated. The results showed that under the optimal synthesis conditions, the water absorbency of the prepared PMB/P(AA-co-AM reached 570.5 g/g in deionized water, 288.0 g/g in tap water, and 70.0 g/g in 0.9 wt% aqueous NaCl solution. The PMB/P(AA-co-AM composite also exhibited excellent water retention capacity as well as a rapid water absorbency rate. The urea loading percentage of the PMB/P(AA-co-AM composite was controlled by the concentration of aqueous urea solution. The release of urea from the loaded PMB/P(AA-co-AM composite in deionized water initially exhibited a high rate of release for 60 min, followed by a rapid decline. Meanwhile, the PMB/P(AA-co-AM superabsorbent composite with larger particle size achieved a better sustained release of urea.

  5. Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-09-22

    Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10 wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60 nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5 wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3 wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials.

  6. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts from Morus alba L. leaves, stems and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts (leaves, stems and fruits) from Morus alba L., a traditional Chinese medicine, were evaluated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Ethanolic extracts showed higher contents of both total phenolics and flavonoids than aqueous extracts. The total phenolic content was in the order of: leaf extracts > fruit extracts > stem extracts, whereas the total flavonoids was: leaf extracts > stem extracts > fruit extracts. Using DPPH assays, the concentrations providing 50% inhibition (IC(50)) values of aqueous extracts from leaves, stems and fruits were 7.11 ± 1.45 mg/ml, 86.78 ± 3.21 mg/ml and 14.38 ± 2.83 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the IC(50) values of ethanolic extracts were 3.11 ± 0.86 mg/ml, 14.62 ± 2.45 mg/ml and 12.42 ± 2.76 mg/ml, respectively. In sum, the antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from M. alba L. were stronger than the aqueous extracts, and in the order of: leaf extracts > fruit extracts > stem extracts. The ethanolic extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial activities, whereas the aqueous extracts showed poor antimicrobial properties in our test system. This study validated the medicinal potential of M. alba L.

  7. Effect of geographical distributions on the nutrient composition, phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Tajur Rahman

    2015-09-01

    Recent worldwide inclination for the consumption of natural compounds has extremely augmented the significance of persistent quality of plant materials. Consequently, there is an escalating scientific concern in the impact of geographical distributions of the plants on their chemical constituents, physical characteristics and biological activities. The current study was carried out to see the effect of geographical locations on the nutrient composition, mineral contents, phytochemical profile and free radical scavenging activity of Morus nigra fruit. The samples were collected from five different locations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, which included districts of D. I. Khan, Karak, Peshawar, Swabi and Swat. The results revealed the considerable impact of geographical locations on the levels of proximate nutrient and selected minerals. Likewise, the concentrations of phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin and alkaloidal contents varied significantly (p<0.05) with respect to their geographical distributions. The physicochemical characteristic, extraction yields and DPPH scavenging activity of the samples also showed strong link with the sites of their cultivation. The data suggest that geographical distributions affect the levels of phytochemicals and conversely their biological activities. These variations must be taken into consideration while utilizing raw plant materials for industrial applications and traditional therapies.

  8. Assessment of the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, G R; Oliveira-Junior, R G; Diniz, T C; Branco, A; Lima-Saraiva, S R G; Guimarães, A L; Oliveira, A P; Pacheco, A G M; Silva, M G; Moraes-Filho, M O; Costa, M P; Pessoa, C Ó; Almeida, J R G S

    2017-08-17

    This study was carried out to assess the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of extracts of Morus nigra L. HPLC was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram of the crude ethanolic extract (Mn-EtOH). The antibacterial effect was assessed through the method of microdilution. The cytotoxicity was tested against human tumour cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also assessed through the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching methods. The presence of phenolic compounds in Mn-EtOH was confirmed using HPLC. The extracts showed activity against most microorganisms tested. The extracts did not show any expressive antiproliferative effect in the assessment of cytotoxicity. The most significant total phenolic content was 153.00 ± 11.34 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g to the ethyl acetate extract (AcOEt). The total flavonoid content was 292.50 ± 70.34 mg of catechin equivalent/g to the AcOEt extract, which presented the best antioxidant activity (IC50 50.40 ± 1.16 μg/mL) for DPPH scavenging. We can conclude that this species shows strong antibacterial and antioxidant activities, as well as weak cytotoxic effects.

  9. A new antioxidant stilbene and other constituents from the stem bark of Morus nigra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghada M; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; Baraka, Hany N; Gohar, Ahmed A; Lahloub, Mohammed-Farid

    2014-01-01

    A new stilbene, 2',3,4',5,5'-pentahydroxy-cis-stilbene (1), along with 13 known compounds, resveratrol (2), oxyresveratrol (3), norartocarpetin (4), kuwanon C (5), morusin (6), cudraflavone A (7), kuwanon G (8), albafurane C (9), mulberrofuran G (10), 3-O-acetyl-α-amyrin (11), 3-O-acetyl-β-amyrin (12) ursolic acid-3-O-acetate (13) and uvaol (14), were isolated from the barks of Morus nigra. Compounds 2, 8, 10, 12 and 14 are reported for the first time from this plant. The isolated compounds were elucidated by means of 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR and MS, as well as by comparison with the literature data. The isolated compounds and the different extracts were evaluated for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)(+) radical-scavenging capacity assay and compared with ascorbic acid. The new stilbene (1) exhibited remarkable antioxidant capacity with IC50 of 4.69 μM.

  10. Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

    2012-07-01

    The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG(o)). The values of K(ao) and ΔG(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction.

  11. Renal biochemical and histopathological alterations of diabetic rats under treatment with hydro alcoholic Morus nigra extrac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Madiseh, Mohammad; Naimi, Azar; Heydarian, Esfandiar; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Morus nigra fruit is known to have antioxidant effects and used to control the blood sugar level in traditional medicine. Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the biochemical and histopathological changes in the serum and kidneys of diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic M. nigra extract. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 12 each. After induction of diabetes with alloxan, the diabetic rats were treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. nigra at different concentrations. Then, the animals were anesthetized and the serum levels of glucose, creatinine, and urea as well as kidney tissue catalase level measured. The kidney tissue was also histopathologically examined. Results: Milder glomerular damage was seen in the group treated with 800 mg/kg of the M. nigra extract compared with diabetic and positive controls, and no difference in the expansion of mesenchymal tissue into renal glomerular vessels observed between the group treated with 800 mg/kg of M. nigra extract and diabetic and positive controls. Furthermore, creatinine levels were significantly higher and urea levels significantly lower in the group treated with 800 mg/kg of M. nigra extract than healthy and positive control groups (Pnigra extract at 800 mg/kg can prevent kidney tissue damage in diabetic rats and this fruit seems to be beneficial to patients with diabetes.

  12. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Characterization of Wound Healer Compounds from Morus nigra L. (Moraceae

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    Esra Küpeli Akkol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaves and fruits of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae are used for the treatment of wounds especially mouth sore in Turkish traditional medicine. The present study was designed to investigate wound healing activity of M. nigra by using incision and excision wound models. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by Whittle method. Lyophilized fruit extract (MNF displayed significant wound healing activity, while aqueous leaf extract of M. nigra (MNL did not. Through biological activity guided fractionation technique, MNF was subjected to successive solvent extraction. Among the subextracts obtained, n-butanol (MNF-n-BuOH subextract was found to possess wound healing activity. MNF -n-BuOH was subjected Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain three fractions, which then applied to the same biological activity tests. Compounds 1 and 2 were isolated from the active fraction and their structures were identified as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, respectively. The isolates were investigated for their in vitro enzyme inhibitory activities.

  13. Efficacy of Morus nigra L. on reproduction in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Graziela Tonioni; Santos, Tatianne Rosa; Macedo, Renato; Peters, Vera Maria; Leite, Magda Narciso; de Cássia da Silveira e Sá, Rita; de Oliveira Guerra, Martha

    2012-03-01

    Morus nigra L. is a plant employed as a substitute for the conventional hormonal replacement therapy. This work analyzes the estrogenic effect of M. nigra on the reproductive system and embryonic development of Wistar rats. Female rats were orally treated with M. nigra hydroalcoholic extract (MnHE) at the dose levels of 25, 50, 75, 350 and 700 mg/kg of body weight over 15 days, and continued through mating until the 14th day of gestation. Vaginal smears were performed daily and the body weight of the females was recorded at 5 days intervals. On day 15 of gestation, the females were killed and their kidneys, liver, spleen and ovaries were removed and weighed. The number of implants, resorptions, and live and dead fetuses were evaluated. Histological sections of ovaries, measurement of the height of the uterine epithelium and vaginal smears were performed to assess the estrogenic activity. The results showed that the administration of MnHE did not significantly alter the analyzed variables. Therefore, considering the experimental model used in this study, the data obtained indicate that M. nigra did not exhibit any estrogenic activity nor did exert a toxic effect on the female reproductive system and on the embryonic development of rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4

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    Bo Yoon Chang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE. MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent.

  15. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-10-13

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent.

  16. Antiosteoporotic Effect of Combined Extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum

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    Sudarat Sungkamanee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the limitation of osteoporosis therapy, the alternative therapies from natural sources have been considered. In this study, we aimed to determine the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum leaves. Ovariectomized rats, weighing 200–220 g, were orally given the combined extract at doses of 5, 150, and 300 mg·kg−1 BW for 3 months. At the end of study, blood was collected to determine serum osteocalcin, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase level. In addition, tibia bone was isolated to determine bone oxidative stress markers, cortical bone thickness, and density of osteoblast. The combined extract decreased oxidative stress and osteoclast density but increased osteoblast density and cortical thickness. The elevation of serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin was also observed. These results suggested the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract via the increased growth formation together with the suppression of bone resorption. However, further studies concerning chronic toxicity and the underlying mechanism are required.

  17. Improved micropropagation and in vitro fruiting of Morus indica L. (K-2 cultivar

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    Gaurab Gogoi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A rapid economically viable micropropagation protocol has been developed in the present work for Morus indica L. (K-2 cultivar utilizing the readily available nodal explants. Explants were established on different plant growth regulators (PGRs either individually or in combinations. MS medium containing 1 mg L−1 Kinetin (Kin showed the best shoot multiplication with 4.8 ± 0.23 cm average shoot length and 6.5 ± 0.03 number of internodes. Regenerated shoots were elongated in MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L−1 gibberellic acid (GA3. Elongated shoots cultured in full-strength MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L−1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D for one week and then cultured in half-strength MS proved to be more effective in rooting compared to other PGRs in significantly shorter duration. Micropropagated plants transferred to soil fortified with the quarter-strength of MS salts along with humidity regulation process showed 89% survival frequency. In vitro flowering in the regenerated shoots was also observed in the MS medium supplemented with (1.5 mg L−1 Kin and carbon source replaced by commercial sugar cubes. This method can be effectively used for in vitro culture of M. indica in commercial scale owing to its enhanced quality and reduced time frame.

  18. Acaricidal activity of leaves of Morus nigra against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus

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    A.C.S. Dantas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The acaricidal activity of crude ethanolic extract and fractions from the leaves of Morus nigra (Moraceae was carried out on female cattle ticks Rhipicephalus microplus, using the adult immersion test. The mortality and fertility of females exposed to different concentrations of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions, as well as ethanolic extract of M. nigra with concentrations of 5, 10 and 25mg/ml were evaluated using three treatment groups, two control groups and triplicate tests. The study also identified the main phenolic compounds of the extract and fractions of this species by HPLC. The chloroform fraction of leaves of M. nigra (25mg/mL showed the best results for this species, obtaining 62.6% of inhibition of oviposition, 39.3% of eggs eclosion average and 65.4% of effectiveness. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, which may be related to biological activity shown by the extracts, which can be used as an alternative control against R. microplus adult tick.

  19. Characterization of a New Flavone and Tyrosinase Inhibition Constituents from the Twigs of Morus alba L.

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    Long Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The twigs of Morus alba L. were found to show strong tyrosinase inhibition activity, and the responsible active components in the extract were further investigated in this study. A flavone, named morusone (1, and sixteen known compounds 2–17 were isolated from M. alba twigs and their structures were identified by interpretation of the corresponding ESI-MS and NMR spectral data. In the tyrosinase inhibitory test, the compounds steppogenin (IC50 0.98 ± 0.01 µM, 2,4,2′,4′-tetrahydroxychalcone (IC50 0.07 ± 0.02 µM, morachalcone A (IC50 0.08 ± 0.02 µM, oxyresveratrol (IC50 0.10 ± 0.01 µM, and moracin M (8.00 ± 0.22 µM exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibition activities, much stronger than that of the positive control kojic acid. These results suggest that M. alba twig extract should served as a good source of natural tyrosinase inhibitors for use in foods as antibrowning agents or in cosmetics as skin-whitening agents.

  20. Protective Effects of Morus alba Leaves Extract on Ocular Functions of Pups from Diabetic and Hypercholesterolemic Mother Rats

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    H.I.H. El-Sayyad, M.A. El-Sherbiny, M.A. Sobh, A.M. Abou-El-Naga, M.A.N. Ibrahim, S.A. Mousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE, adrenaline (AD, nor-adrenaline (NAD, serotonin (5-HT, histamine (HS, dopamine (DA and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA. The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract.

  1. The crystals of a mannose-specific jacalin-related lectin from Morus nigra are merohedrally twinned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabijns, A; Verboven, C; Novoa de Armas, H; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; De Ranter, C J

    2001-04-01

    MornigaM, a lectin from Morus nigra, belongs to the mannose-binding subgroup of the family of jacalin-related plant lectins. It was crystallized in the P6(5) space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 110.74, c = 159.28 A. The partially merohedrally twinned crystals could be detwinned and a subsequent molecular-replacement solution could be found using the coordinates of jacalin. Preliminary analysis clearly shows the tetrameric assembly of this protein. Furthermore, data from MornigaM crystals soaked in a mannose solution were collected.

  2. Controle de Qualidade e triagem fitoquímica da droga vegetal das folhas de Morus nigra L. (MORACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luis Guizzo; Thaís Cristina Cuba Bredda; Maria Virgínia Costa Scarpa; Fernanda Flores Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Uma rigorosa análise de controle de qualidade é uma das etapas na produção de fitoterápicos. Devido a escassez de estudos sobre Morus nigra L. (MORACEAE), mais conhecida como amora, este trabalho teve como objetivo o controle de qualidade das folhas da amoreira, incluindo uma análise Fitoquímica preliminar, controle de qualidade físico-químico e microbiológico utilizando metodologias farmacopeicas e não farmacopeicas. Os testes fitoquímicos evidenciaram a presença de isoflavonas, taninos hidr...

  3. Effects of Diets Supplemented with Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on the Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Composition of Finishing Steers.

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    Yuhong Niu

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal community composition of finishing steers. Corn grain- and cotton meal-based concentrate was partially replaced with EML or SMFP. The diets had similar crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and metabolizable energy. Following the feeding trial, the steers were slaughtered and ruminal liquid samples were collected to study the ruminal microbiome. Extraction of DNA, amplification of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and Illumina MiSeq pyrosequencing were performed for each sample. Following sequence de-noising, chimera checking, and quality trimming, an average of 209,610 sequences were generated per sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to examine the selected bacterial species in the rumen. Our results showed that the predominant phyla were Bacteroidetes (43.90%, Firmicutes (39.06%, Proteobacteria (4.31%, and Tenericutes (2.04%, and the predominant genera included Prevotella (13.82%, Ruminococcus (2.51%, Butyrivibrio (2.38%, and Succiniclasticum (2.26%. Compared to the control group, EML and SMFP groups had a higher abundance of total bacteria (p < 0.001; however, the bacterial community composition was similar among the three groups. At the phylum level, there were no significant differences in Firmicutes (p = 0.7932, Bacteroidetes (p = 0.2330, Tenericutes (p = 0.2811, or Proteobacteria (p = 0.0680 levels among the three groups; however, Fibrobacteres decreased in EML (p = 0.0431. At the genus level, there were no differences in Prevotella (p = 0.4280, Ruminococcus (p = 0.2639, Butyrivibrio (p = 0.4433, or Succiniclasticum (p = 0.0431 levels among the groups. Additionally, the dietary treatments had no significant effects on the archaeal community composition in the rumen. Therefore, EML and SMFP supplementation had no significant effects on the ruminal bacterial or archaeal

  4. The summary of γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA) in mulberry leaf(Morus alba L.)%桑叶中γ-氨基丁酸的研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈恒文; 林健荣

    2008-01-01

    γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)在动植物体内广泛存在,是中枢神经系统内重要的抑制性神经递质.本文对植物中GABA的分布、代谢、生理功能及桑叶中的GABA研究进展作一归纳与论述,以供读者更方便对GABA的了解,为研究和开发富含GABA的食品和饮料提供帮助.

  5. Molluscicidal activity of Morus nigra against the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata

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    Farheen Hanif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Morus nigra fruit, bark and leaf powder against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. Toxicity of fruit powder (96h LC50: 166.92 mg/L was more pronounced in comparison to bark powder (96h LC50: 173.17 mg/L and leaf powder (96h LC50: 173.69 mg/L. Ethanolic extracts of M. nigra fruit, bark and leaf was more toxic than their other organic solvent extracts. The molluscicidal activity of ethanolic extract of M. nigra fruit powder (24h LC50: 116.23 mg/L was more effective than the ethanolic extract of bark powder (24h LC50: 154.41 mg/L and leaf powder (24h LC50: 139.80 mg/L. The 96h LC50 of column-purified fraction of M. nigra fruit powder was, 10.03 mg/L whereas that of bark and leaf powder was 8.69 mg/L and 4.97 mg/L, respectively. Column and thin layer chromatography analysis demonstrates that the active molluscicidal component in M. nigra is quercetin (96h LC50: 1.11 mg/L, apigenin (96h LC50: 1.92 mg/L and morusin (96h LC50: 2.12 mg/L, respectively. Co-migration of quercetin (Rf 0.49, apigenin (Rf 0.51 and morusin (Rf 0.52 with column-purified fruit, bark and leaf of M. nigra on thin layer chromatography demonstrates same Rf value. The present study indicates that M. nigra may be used as potent source of molluscicides against the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

  6. Atividade Antimicrobiana e Citotoxicidade do extrato bruto obtido de Morus Alba L. (Moraceae

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    Camila Bugnotto Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do extrato hidroetanólico e frações hexânica, clorofórmica, acetato de etila e butanólica das folhas de Morus alba L. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada frente à Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus e Prothoteca zophii. As frações que apresentaram melhores respostas para a atividade antimicrobiana foram acetato de etila e clorofórmica com CIM de 256 µg/mL. Não foi possível detectar atividade antimicrobiana para Aspergillus fumigatus em nenhuma das concentrações testadas. A citotoxidade do extrato hidroetanólico foi avaliada através de culturas de células de ovário de hamster chinês (CHO e células do tecido conectivo de camundongo (NCTC clone 929, determinando o índice de citotoxidade (IC50. O IC50 foi de 0,34 mg/mL para as células CHO e 3,24 mg/mL para as células NCTC 929. De modo geral, as frações acetato de etila e clorofórmica das folhas de M. alba L. apresentaram moderada atividade antimicrobiana e o extrato bruto demonstrou ação citotóxica in vitro frente as células CHO e NCTC 929.

  7. Biphasic effects of Morus alba leaves green tea extract on mice in chronic forced swimming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattayasai, Jintana; Tiamkao, Siriporn; Puapairoj, Prapawadee

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of Morus alba leaves green tea (ME) on mouse behaviors (depression, anxiety, climbing activity and thermal response), muscle coordination and muscle strength were studied. Male IRC mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of either the ME, desipramine or diazepam. Thirty minutes after injection, the mice were tested in all experimental models. A significant antidepressant-like effect could be detected in the animals receiving either 100 or 200 mg/kg ME. The effect of 200 mg/kg ME in decreasing the immobility time was comparable to 10 mg/kg desipramine. With higher dose (1000 mg/kg), a significant increase in immobility time could be observed. In the elevated plus maze, no increase in time in the open arm could be observed in mice treated with ME at either 100 or 200 mg/kg. However, high doses of ME (500 or 1000 mg/kg) decreased both time in the open arm and the number of entries in the maze. No change in thermal response could be seen in mice treated with ME at doses up to 500 mg/kg, however, at 1000 mg/kg, the response time to heat was increased significantly. The ME at either 500 or 1000 mg/kg also decreased muscle coordination, strength and climbing activity significantly when compared with the control. This study suggests that ME possesses an antidepressant- without an anxiolytic-like effect, however, at high doses, the extract might show the sedative effect and alter other functions such as muscle strength, animal activity in the maze and pain response.

  8. The anti-angiogenic herbal extracts Ob-X from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris suppresses adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yeonhee; Kim, Min-Young; Yoon, Michung

    2011-08-01

    Growing adipose tissue is thought to require adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Close examination of developing adipose tissue microvasculature reveals that angiogenesis often precedes adipogenesis. Since our previous study demonstrated that Ob-X, the anti-angiogenic herbal composition composed of Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae), reduced adipose tissue mass in obese mice, we hypothesized that adipogenesis can be inhibited by Ob-X. To investigate the effects of the anti-angiogenic herbal extracts Ob-X on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. After differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with Ob-X, we studied the effects of Ob-X on triglyceride accumulation and expression of genes involved in adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and ECM remodeling. Treatment of cells with Ob-X inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte-specific gene expression caused by troglitazone or monocyte differentiation-inducing (MDI) mix. Ob-X reduced mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor-A, -B, -C, -D, and fibroblast growth factor-2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs; MMP-2 and MMP-9), whereas it increased mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors [(thrombospondin-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and TIMP-2)] in differentiated cells. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were also decreased in Ob-X-treated cells. These results suggest that the anti-angiogenic herbal composition Ob-X inhibits differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. These events may be mediated by changes in the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, angiogenesis, and the MMP system. Thus, by reducing adipogenesis, anti-angiogenic Ob-X provides a possible therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of human obesity and its related disorders.

  9. UP1304, a botanical composition containing two standardized extracts of Curcuma longa and Morus alba, mitigates pain and inflammation in Adjuvant-induced arthritic rats

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    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though, the initial etiologies of arthritis are multifactorial, clinically, patients share pain as the prime complaints. Present day pain relief therapeutics heavily relies on the use of prescription and over the counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as the first line of defense where their long-term usage causes gastrointestinal and cardiovascular-related side effects. Hence, the need for evidence-based safer and efficacious alternatives from natural sources to overcome the most prominent and disabling symptoms of arthritis is an overdue. Here, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of UP1304, a composition that contains a standardized blend of two extracts from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and the root bark of Morus alba in adjuvant-induced arthritis models in rats. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the botanical composition were demonstrated in adjuvant-induced arthritis models in rats with oral dose ranges of 50–200 mg/kg. Ibuprofen at a dose of 100 mg/kg was used as a reference compound. Ex vivo sulfated glycosaminoglycan inhibition assays were performed. Results: Statistically significant improvements in pain resistance, suppression of paw edema and ankle thickness were observed in animals treated with UP1304 compared to vehicle-treated diseased rats. These results were similar to those achieved by ibuprofen treatment. Inhibitions of proteoglycan degradation were observed in a range of 37.5–61.7% for concentration of UP1304 at 50–200 μg/mL when compared to interleukin-1α-exposed untreated explants. Conclusions: These data suggest that UP1304, for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, could potentially be considered agent of botanical origin for the improvement of arthritis associated symptoms.

  10. Analgesic and anti-Inflammatory effect of UP3005, a botanical composition Containing two standardized extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is a chronic debilitating degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation and synovial inflammation exhibited by clinical symptoms such as joint swelling, synovitis, and inflammatory pain. Present day pain relief therapeutics heavily relies on the use of prescription and over the counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as the first line of defense where their long-term usage causes detrimental gastrointestinal and cardiovascular-related side-effects. As a result, the need for evidence based safer and efficacious alternatives from natural sources to overcome the most prominent and disabling symptoms of arthritis is a necessity. Materials and Methods: Describe the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of UP3005, a composition that contains a standardized blend of two extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, abdominal constriction (writhing′s and ear swelling assays in mouse with oral dose ranges of 100-400 mg/kg. Results: In vivo, statistically significant improvement in pain resistance, and suppression of paw edema and ear thickness in animals treated with UP3005 were observed compared with vehicle-treated diseased rats and mice. Ibuprofen was used a reference compound in all the studies. In vitro, enzymatic inhibition activities of UP3005 were determined with IC50 values of 12.4 μg/ml, 39.8 μg/ml and 13.6 μg/ml in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-1, COX-2 and lipoxygenase (5-LOX enzyme activity assay, respectively. Conclusions: These data suggest that UP3005, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent of botanical origin with balanced dual COX-LOX inhibition activity, could potentially be used for symptom management of OA.

  11. Variation of Several Mulberry Leaf and Fruit Quality Characters of Mulberry Tree After Chromosome Doubling%桑树染色体加倍后桑叶和桑果的部分品质性状变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜龄; 余茂德; 李镇刚; 金筱耘

    2012-01-01

    为了明确多倍体育种对果叶兼用桑树品质性状的改良作用,测定了四倍体果叶兼用桑树新品种嘉陵30号及其二倍体亲本中桑5801桑叶和桑果的部分品质性状成绩.与二倍体亲本比较,四倍体品种嘉陵30号成熟叶片干物中的粗蛋白含量增加2.90个百分点、可溶性糖含量增加1.34个百分点,桑叶用于家蚕饲养的万蚕产茧量提高6.2%、万蚕茧层量提高4.7%,果用品质中的鲜果榨汁率增加6.3个百分点、糖度增加1.5 ~2.0个百分点,且桑籽的可育性降低.同时检测6个人工诱导四倍体桑树育种材料桑叶中的可溶性蛋白含量及超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)活性均较二倍体亲本提高.由此表明,染色体加倍后桑树的部分生理代谢活性增强,多倍体果叶兼用桑树品种的桑果和桑叶品质都有不同程度改善,其经济价值提高.%In order to have a clear view on the effect of polyploidy breeding in improving quality characters of leaf and fruit dual-purpose mulberry variety, several mulberry leaf and fruit quality characters of the tetraploid new mulberry variety Jialing 30 of leaf and fruit dual purposes and its diploid parental mulberry variety Zhongsang 5801 were determined. Compared with its diploid parent, the content of crude protein in dry matter of mature leaves in the tetraploid variety Jialing 30 increased by 2. 90 percentage points, and the content of soluble sugar increased by 1. 34 percentage points. Cocoon yield per 10 000 larvae fed with leaves of Jialing 30 increased by 6. 2%, and cocoon shell weight per 10 000 larvae increased by 4. 7%. As of fruit quality, the juice rate and sugar content in fresh fruit increased by 6. 3 and 1. 5 ~2. 0 percentage points respectively, while fertility of the seeds decreased. Besides, soluble protein content, superoxide dis-mutase (SOD) activity, and peroxidase (POD) activity of 6 artificially induced tetraploid mulberry breeding materials

  12. Cytotoxic Effects of Strawberry, Korean Raspberry, and Mulberry Extracts on Human Ovarian Cancer A2780 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dahae; Kang, Ki Sung; Lee, Sanghyun; Cho, Eun Ju; Kim, Hyun Young

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are tumorigenic by their ability to increase cell proliferation, survival, and cellular migration. The purpose of the present study was to compare the antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effects of 3 berry extracts (strawberry, Korean raspberry, and mulberry) in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells. Except for raspberry, the ethyl acetate or methylene chloride fractions of berries containing phenolic compounds exerted dose dependent free radical scavenging activities. In the raspberry fractions, the hexane fraction also exhibited potent antioxidant activity. The cytotoxic effects of berries extracts in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells were measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Surprisingly, co-treatment with n-butanol (BuOH) fractions of berries showed stronger cytotoxic effects compared to the other fractions. These findings suggest that potent anticancer molecules are found in the BuOH fractions of berries that have stronger cytotoxic activity than antioxidants. PMID:28078263

  13. Development of Fermenting-type Mulberry Wine%发酵型桑葚果酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄星源; 郭正忠

    2014-01-01

    以广东云浮优质成熟桑葚为原料,对桑葚果酒发酵工艺进行研究,通过正交试验及感官品评和理化指标检测,确定其最佳生产工艺为:将桑葚破碎后添加70 mg/L的果胶酶进行酶解浸渍,酶解温度25℃,时间10 h,酶解完成后,添加600 mg/L的M06酵母在20℃下进行发酵,48 h后进行清汁分离,并按要求补加糖分后继续发酵,使其最终酒度为12%vol。最后经澄清、冷冻、除菌过滤、包装后得到酒体丰满、酸涩适中、呈紫红色的澄清桑葚果酒。%High-quality mature mulberry from Yunfu, Guangdong was used to produce fermenting-type mulberry wine and the optimum pro-ducing conditions were determined as follows through orthogonal test, sensory evaluation, and physiochemical indexes measurement: after the breaking of mulberry, 70 mg/L pectinase was added for the hydrolysis and impregnation, hydrolysis temperature was at 25℃ and hydrolysis time was 10 h, after the hydrolysis, 600 mg/L M06 yeast was added for the fermentation at 20℃, 48 h later, the clear juice was separated, and sugar was added according to the requirements for continued fermentation until the final alcohol content reached up to 12%vol, then after the clarifica-tion, freezing, sterilization, filtration, and packaging, full-bodied mulberry wine in purple with enjoyable taste was finally obtained.

  14. Effects of Exogenous Indole Butyric Acid and Callus Formation on the Anti-oxidant Activity, Total Phenolic, and Anthocyanin Constituents of Mulberry Cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of exogenous indole butyric acid (IBA) and callus formation on the antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and anthocyanin constituents of Morus nigra L. and M. alba L. cuttings, we investigated the variations before and after the treatment. The results indicate that anti-oxidant ability, total phenolic, and anthocyanin constituents of the callus stems of both Morus species were higher than those of non-callus forming species. There were also increases observed in anti-oxidant ability, total phenolic,and anthocyanin constituents of calli treated with IBA (1 000-3 000 mg/L).

  15. Effect of High Pressure Homogenization and Dimethyl Dicarbonate (DMDC) on Microbial and Physicochemical Qualities of Mulberry Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Wu, Jijun; Xu, Yujuan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Zou, Bo

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) and dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) on microbial and nutrient qualities of mulberry juice was evaluated. Results showed that repeated HPH passes at 200 MPa or adding DMDC at 250 mg/L significantly inactivated the indigenous microorganisms in mulberry juice (P 0.05) in the population of microorganisms during subsequent storage at 4 °C. Moreover, no significant changes (P > 0.05) in the physical attributes, including pH, TSS ((o) Brix), L*, a*, and b* values were observed in the samples treated by the HPH-DMDC or by HT. Compared with HT, HPH-DMDC treatment resulted in a higher degree of retention in total phenolics, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, although the treatment led to higher losses in cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and antioxidant capacity. Overall, HPH-DMDC treatment can be a useful alternative to conventional thermal pasteurization of mulberry juice, considering its ability to inactive, and inhibit indigenous microorganisms.

  16. Resultados preliminares del forraje de Morus alba en la alimentación de vacas lecheras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Milera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en evaluar el potencial del forraje de M. alba con vacas mestizas para la producción de leche. El trabajo se desarrolló en Cuba, la cual se encuentra localizada entre los 19° y 81’ de longitud oeste. La Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes “Indio Hatuey” está ubicada en el municipio de Perico, provincia de Matanzas, sobre un suelo ferralítico rojo, a los 22° 40’ 7’’ de latitud norte y 81° 2’ de longitud oeste, a una altura de 10.91 msnm. La evaluación se hizo con vacas mestizas del cruce Holstein x Cebú, que tenían 54 días de lactancia. El estudio se dividió en dos periodos: en el primero (que duró 53 días se suministró el forraje de morera ad libitum, sin trocear, y se pastoreó de forma restringida en gramíneas mejoradas de secano, sin fertilización; en el segundo periodo, los animales dispusieron de pastoreo de gramíneas mejoradas con un 10% de un área establecida con Leucaena leucocephala y recibieron forraje de morera restringido hasta el 1% del peso vivo; éste tuvo una duración de 87 días. Se determinó la disponibilidad de pasto, la composición bromatológica y el consumo de forraje de Morus alba, así como la producción de leche de las vacas. El forraje de morera presentó altos va- lores de proteína y bajos contenidos de fibra; los consumos en el primer periodo llegaron hasta 2.7% del peso vivo. La producción de leche promedio fue de 10.6 kg/vaca/día durante los 140 días de evaluación y la máxima producción se registró en los primeros 53 días (1 kg/vaca/día. Los resultados demostraron la alta calidad de la morera cuando se utiliza como forraje para la alimentación de vacas mestizas. En las condiciones evaluadas, es posible obtener producciones de 10 litros por animal diariamente, cuando se utiliza el forraje de morera en adición al pasto de especies mejoradas, sin suplementación de concentrados.

  17. Mulberry (桑葚子 Sang Shèn Zǐ and its Bioactive Compounds, the Chemoprevention Effects and Molecular Mechanisms In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Pei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry (桑葚子 sāng shèn zǐ, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM in Taiwan, has many bioactive substances, including polyphenol and anthocyanins compounds. Over the past decade, many scientific and medical studies have examined mulberry fruit for its antioxidation and antiinflammation effects both in vitro and in vivo. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of mulberry extracts (MEs and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancer, liver disease, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The ME modulates several apoptotic pathways and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs to block cancer progression. Mulberry can increase detoxicated and antioxidant enzyme activities and regulate the lipid metabolism to treat hepatic disease resulting from alcohol consumption, high fat diet, lipopolysaccharides (LPS and CCl4 exposure. Of the various compounds in ME, cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G is the most abundant, and the active compound studied in mulberry research. Herein, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions of C3G to improve diabetes and cardiovascular disease are also discussed. These studies provide strong evidence ME may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases.

  18. Review on Drying Technology for Mulberry Food Processing%桑椹食品加工的干燥技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婧婧; 梁贵秋; 祁广军; 李全; 陆飞

    2011-01-01

    Drying technology is one way of mulberry food processing industry.This article mainly introduced application situation,research progress,existing problems and development trends about hot air drying of mulberry,mulberry spray drying,vacuum drying of mulberry and vacuum freeze drying technology.The purpose was to explore and develop the mulberry food drying technology industry and provide better reference and basis.%干燥是桑椹食品产业深加工的方式之一。该文主要介绍了桑椹热风干燥技术、桑椹喷雾干燥技术、桑椹真空干燥技术和桑椹真空冷冻干燥技术等的应用现状、研究进展、存在的问题和发展趋势。目的是为开拓和发展桑椹食品的干燥技术产业,提供更好的参考和依据。

  19. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Marcela Medeiros; Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin

  20. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2016-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin

  1. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)

    2010-10-15

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

  2. Mulberry Tumors in Retina and Nasal Hamartoma in a Patient With Tuberous Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reshadat

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberous Sclerosis (TS is an autosomal dominant disease that affects the brain, skin, eye, heart, kidney even bones. The commonest presentation is seizures in infancy or early childhood (in 80% of cases, mental retardation (in 44%of cases. Characteristic skin lesion includes facial angiofibromas, adenoma sebaceum, hypopigmented macules, shagreen patches ungual ungual fibromas, ash leaf spots, cafe'-au-lait spots.Case Report: A nine years old male was admitted in a pediatric hospital because of the status myoclonic seizures. Seizures had been started since infancy. In physical exam he had some hypopigmented macules, cafe'-au-lait spots and ash leaf lesions, frontal fibrosis and also shagreen patches. Patient was a case of mild mentally retardation with no any focal neurological deficit. Computed tomography scan of brain and MRI imaging revealed sub ependymal tubers with multiple calcification in both sides of parietal region. Electroencephal-ogram recording suggested abnormal spike, sharp wave discharges and lennox-Gastaut pattern. The diagnosis based on the history and physical exam and MRI were tuberous sclerosis. His foundoscopic exam revealed two prominent calcified mass around right optic disc in supratemporal arch, left eye was normal. Retinal angiography revealed the mulberry tumors and right phakoma of retina. Conclusion: Computed tomography also revaled the nasal hamartoma. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of angiomyolipoma because the lesion was composed of smooth muscle bundles, mature adipose tissue and blood vessels of different sizes. He remained seizures free after treatment.

  3. Mercury adsorption of modified mulberry twig chars in a simulated flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Tong; Lu, Ping; He, Nan

    2013-05-01

    Mulberry twig chars were prepared by pyrolysis, steam activation and impregnation with H2O2, ZnCl2 and NaCl. Textural characteristics and surface functional groups were performed using nitrogen adsorption and FTIR, respectively. Mercury adsorption of different modified MT chars was investigated in a quartz fixed-bed absorber. The results indicated that steam activation and H2O2-impregnation can improve pore structure significantly and H2O2-impregnation and chloride-impregnation promote surface functional groups. However, chloride-impregnation has adverse effect on pore structure. Mercury adsorption capacities of impregnated MT chars with 10% or 30% H2O2 are 2.02 and 1.77 times of steam activated MT char, respectively. Mercury adsorption capacity of ZnCl2-impregnated MT char increase with increasing ZnCl2 content and is better than that of NaCl-impregnated MT char at the same chloride content. The modified MT char (MT873-A-Z5) prepared by steam activation following impregnation with 5% ZnCl2 exhibits a higher mercury adsorption capacity (29.55 μg g(-1)) than any other MT chars.

  4. Hydrologic data for a subsurface waste-injection site at Mulberry, Florida; 1972-77

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William Edward; Parsons, David C.; Spechler, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Since October 1972, industrial liquid waste has been injected into a brine aquifer of limestone and dolomite in Mulberry, FL., at a depth of more than 4,000 feet below land surface. During 1977, the injection rate was about 8.8 million gallons per month. To determine what effect the injected waste has on the ground-water body, water levels have been measured and water samples collected from two monitor wells that tap different permeable zones above the injection zone, and from a satellite monitor well that taps the injection zone. The monitor wells are in the annulus of the injection well, and the satellite monitor well is 2,291 feet from the injection well. This report updates previous data reports and includes all hydrologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1972-77. Included is a table of well-construction data, a graph showing the volume of waste injected each month, and hydrographs of the annulus monitor wells and the satellite monitor well. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mulberry white caterpillar Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Jun, Jumin; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana, belongs to the lepidopteran family Bombycidae, in which the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori is included. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome of R. menciana in terms of general genomic features and characteristic features found in the A+T-rich region. The 15,364 bp long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes [PCGs], 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and 1 major non-coding A+T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. Twelve of the 13 PCGs started with typical ATN codons, except for the COI, which began with CGA and twelve of 13 PCGs had complete stop codons, except for the COII, which ended with a single T. The 360 bp long A+T-rich region harbored the conserved sequence blocks typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A+T-rich region of R. menciana contained one tRNA(Met)-like structure, which had a proper anticodon and secondary structure.

  6. Anti-adipogenic effect of mulberry leaf ethanol extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soo Jin; Park, Na-Young; Lim, Yunsook

    2014-12-01

    Adipogenesis is part of the cell differentiation process in which undifferentiated fibroblasts (pre-adipocytes) become mature adipocytes with the accumulation of lipid droplets and subsequent cell morphological changes. Several transcription factors and food components have been suggested to be involved in adipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry leaf ethanol extract (MLEE) affects adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of MLEE for 8 days starting 2 days post-confluence. Cell viability, fat accumulation, and adipogenesis-related factors including CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), PPARγ coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and adiponectin were analyzed. Results showed that MLEE treatments at 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml had no effect on cell morphology and viability. Without evident toxicity, all MLEE treated cells had lower fat accumulation compared with control as shown by lower absorbances of Oil Red O stain. MLEE at 50 and 100 µg/ml significantly reduced protein levels of PPARγ, PGC-1α, FAS, and adiponectin in differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, protein level of C/EBPα was significantly decreased by the treatment of 100 µg/ml MLEE. These results demonstrate that MLEE treatment has an anti-adipogenic effect in differentiated adipocytes without toxicity, suggesting its potential as an anti-obesity therapeutic.

  7. Response of Bacteria Community to Long-Term Inorganic Nitrogen Application in Mulberry Field Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingming; Deng, Wen; Li, Yong; Han, Guangming; Xiong, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial community and diversity in mulberry field soils with different application ages of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer (4Y, 4-year-old; 17Y, 17-year-old; 32Y, 32-year- old) were investigated using next-generation sequencing. The results demonstrated that the application ages of nitrogen fertilizer significantly altered soil bacterial community and diversity. Soil bacterial Shannon diversity index and Chao 1 index decreased with the consecutive application of nitrogen fertilizer, and the 4Y soil exhibited the highest bacterial relative abundance and diversity. Of 45 bacterial genera (relative abundance ratio of genera greater than 0.3%), 18 were significantly affected by the plant age, and seven belong to Acidobacteria. The relative abundances of Acidobacteria Gp 1, Gp4 and Gp6 in the 4Y soil were significantly lower than that of in the 17Y and 32Y soils. However, the relative abundance of Pseudononas sp. in the 4Y soil was significantly higher than that of in the 17Y and 32Y soils. Most microbial parameters were significantly affected by soil pH and organic matter content which were significantly changed by long-term application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer. PMID:27977728

  8. Accumulation and spatial distribution of Cd, Cr, and Pb in mulberry from municipal solid waste compost following application of EDTA and (NH4)2SO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shulan; Shang, Xiaojuan; Duo, Lian

    2013-02-01

    Municipal solid waste compost can be used to cropland as soil amendment to supply nutrients and improve soil physical properties. But long-term application of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost may result in accumulation of toxic metals in amended soil. Phytoremediation, especially phytoextraction, is a novel, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach that uses metal-accumulating plants to concentrate and remove metals from contaminated soils. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) was applied to metal-contaminated soil to increase the mobility and phytoavailability of metals in soil, thereby increasing the amount of toxic metals accumulated in the upper parts of phytoextracting plants. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the accumulation and spatial distribution of toxic metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb) in mulberry from MSW compost with the application of EDTA and (NH(4))(2)SO(4), (2) to examine the effectiveness of EDTA and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) applied together on toxic metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb) removal by mulberry under field conditions, and (3) to evaluate the potential of mulberry for phytoextraction of toxic metals from MSW compost. The tested plant-mulberry had been grown in MSW compost field for 4 years. EDTA solution at five rates (0, 50, 100, 50 mmol L(-1) + 1 g L(-1) (NH(4))(2)SO(4), and 100 mmol L(-1) + 1 g L(-1) (NH(4))(2)SO(4)) was added into mulberry root medium in September 2009. Twenty days later, the plants were harvested and separated into six parts according to plant height. Cd, Cr, and Pb contents in plant samples and MSW compost were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In the same treatment, Cd, Cr, and Pb concentrations in mulberry shoot were all higher than those in root, and Cd and Pb concentrations in shoot increased from lower to upper parts, reaching the highest in leaves. Significant increases were found in toxic metal concentration in different parts of mulberry with increasing EDTA concentration

  9. UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA- induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10 mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4, 40.5% (week 5, and 22.0% (week 6 in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects of mulberry leaf and fruit extract on high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Hwa; Lee, Sung Ok; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Yunsook

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effect of combinational mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a control diet or a HF diet for nine weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered with single MLE at low dose (133 mg/kg/day, LMLE) and high dose (333 mg/kg/day, HMLE) or combinational MLE and MFE (MLFE) at low dose (133 mg MLE and 67 mg MFE/kg/day, LMLFE) and high dose (333 mg MLE and 167 mg MFE/kg/day, HMLFE) by stomach gavage for 12 weeks. The mulberry leaf and fruit extract treatment for 12 weeks did not show liver toxicity. The single MLE and combinational MLFE treatments significantly decreased plasma triglyceride, liver lipid peroxidation levels and adipocyte size and improved hepatic steatosis as compared with the HF group. The combinational MLFE treatment significantly decreased body weight gain, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. HMLFE treatment significantly improved glucose control during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with the HF group. Moreover, HMLFE treatment reduced protein levels of oxidative stress markers (manganese superoxide dismutase) and inflammatory markers (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1) in liver and adipose tissue. Taken together, combinational MLFE treatment has potential antiobesity and antidiabetic effects through modulation of obesity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in HF diet-induced obesity.

  11. Pollution trends using bark of morus alba in the cities of buenos aires and mendoza (Argentina Tendências de poluição usando cascas de morus alba nas cidades de buenos aires e mendoza (Argentina

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    Patricia Perelman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of elements deposited on tree bark was carried out for urban and periurban areas of two of the most important cities in Argentina. The content of Fe, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ba, Cr, Hg, Cu, Ni, Cd and Sb was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES in Morus alba tree bark collected in the cities of Buenos Aires and Mendoza. The main air pollutants detected in the Buenos Aires urban area were Ba, Cr, Cu and Ni and indicate significative difference from the Mendoza urban and periurban areas. Significantly, higher concentrations of Zn, Ba, Cr and Cu were recorded in the periurban area of the city of Buenos Aires than in Mendoza. Bark samples were strongly influenced by dust and show Al, Fe, Mg and other element accumulations that indicate that soil particles were carried out by wind. Elements like Ba and Zn, commonly linked to traffic emissions, showed the highest concentrations in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area, possibly due to more intensive vehicular traffic. Our results indicated that intensity of vehicular traffic and not city structure is responsible for air pollution.Um estudo comparativo dos elementos depositados nas cascas das árvores foi realizado nas áreas urbanas e na periferia de duas cidades das mais importantes da Argentina. Os índices do Fe, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni e do Sb foram determinados pela espectrometria da emissão atômica com plasma acoplado indutivamente (ICP-OES nas cascas da árvore Morus alba, coletados nas cidades de Buenos Aires e Mendoza. Os principais elementos da contaminação do ar detectadas na área urbana de Buenos Aires foram Ba, Cr, Cu e Ni, que indicaram diferenças significativas nas áreas urbanas e na periferia de Mendoza. Uma concentração do Zn, Ba, Cr e do Cu foi achada na periferia da cidade de Buenos Aires, significativamente mais elevada do que em Mendoza. As amostras da casca foram influenciadas fortemente pela poeira e

  12. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h....

  13. 桑叶黄酮多酚类物质提取优化试验%Mulberry Leaf Flavonoid Polyphenols Extraction Optimization Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆旋; 周达炜

    2012-01-01

    采用正交实验法(采用b(34))对桑叶中黄酮多酚类物质提取条件进行了分析,优化乙醇浓度、料液比、提取时间和温度等因素对桑叶中总黄酮与桑多酚提取率的影响。结果表明:当料液比1:60,乙醇体积浓度60%,提取温度100℃,提取时间2.5h,从桑叶中提取的总黄酮与桑多酚的提取率达最高。%By using the orthogonal experiment method (using L9 (34) to optimize the ethanol concentration, ratio of material to liquid, extraction time and temperature on the flavonoids in the mulberry leaves and mulberry polyphenol extraction rate influence.The results show that: when the liquid than 1: 60, 60% volume of ethanol eoncentration, extraction temperature 100 ℃, extraetlon time of 2.5 h, total flavonoids extracted from mulberry and mulberry polyphenol extraction rate was the highest.

  14. 桑树修复土壤重金属污染的研究进展%Research Progress of Remedying the Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils with Mulberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宁; 俞燕芳; 毛平生; 杜贤明; 彭晓虹; 石旭平

    2015-01-01

    Remediation of heavy metals has become a hot topic of international environmental science, and remedying the heavy metal contaminated soils with mulberry was an effective phytoremediation technology. This paper briefly introduced the concept of heavy metals in soil and phytoremediation technology, described the growth characteristics of mulberry, and mulberry growing relationship with Cd, Pb, Zn, As and other heavy metals pollution. Combined with the heavy metals pollution situation in Jiangxi Province, and discussed the potential of repair tree in soil heavy metal pollution with mulberry.%重金属污染修复已成为当前国际环境科学研究的热点问题,利用桑树修复土壤重金属污染也是一种有效的植物修复技术。笔者简单介绍了土壤重金属与植物修复技术的概念,并阐述了桑树的生长特性,桑树生长与土壤中镉、铅、锌、砷等重金属元素的关系,并结合江西省土壤重金属污染的形势,探讨了桑树作为江西省土壤重金属污染修复树种的潜力。

  15. Research on Comprehensive Utilization of Mulberry Leaf and Branch%桑叶和桑枝综合利用概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙波; 周洪英; 吴洪丽

    2015-01-01

    Great progress has been made on the research of mulberry comprehensive utilization in recent years .The mul‐berry leaves containing variety of health care and nutritional components have been applied to make tea and feed ,and its development has taken shape .T he rich mulberry branch resources and low cost result in many by -products of sericul‐ture ,for example ,cultivating edible mushrooms with mulberry branches ,making floor board ,paper and even pharma‐ceutical raw materials .The comprehensive utilization of mulberry leaves and branches will produce extensive ecological , economic and social benefits ,which has significant meaning to promoting the transformation and upgrade of sericulture in‐dustry .%近年来,桑叶和桑枝的综合利用研究取得较大进展。桑树资源的开发利用,具有广泛的生态、经济和社会效益,对促进传统蚕桑产业的转型升级具有重要意义。桑叶富含多种保健和营养成分,桑叶茶和桑叶饲料开发已初具规模;桑枝资源丰富,成本低廉,桑枝食用菌栽培、桑枝地板、桑枝造纸以及桑枝制药原料已初见成效。

  16. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH scoring was conducted. Results. Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion. UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management.

  17. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Tae-Woo; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring was conducted. Results. Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline) and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week) were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion. UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management. PMID:27699065

  18. Nutrigenetic screening strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, for nutritional efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesha, Chinnaswamy; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu Sugnana; Anuradha, Chevva M; Kumar, Chitta Suresh

    2012-01-01

    The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW(2), RMW(3), RMW(4), RMG(3), RMG(1), RMG(4), RMG(5), RMG(6) and APM(1) as the control. The 1(st) day of 5(th) stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering 3 different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were found; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or 'biomarkers', three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG(4), RMW(2), and RMW(3)) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds

  19. Protective effects of strawberry and mulberry fruit polysaccharides on inflammation and apoptosis in murine primary splenocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Jung Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study isolated polysaccharides from strawberry (SP and mulberry (MP fruit juice to compare their cytokine secretion regulatory and antiapoptotic activities using murine primary splenocytes. SP and MP in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS were administered to splenocytes for 48 hours. The culture supernatant was used for cytokine secretion assay using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The cell pellet was used for the determination of anti-/proapoptotic protein (B cell lymphoma 2/Bak levels in the cells using the Western blotting method. The results showed that SP and MP treatment at appropriate concentrations significantly increased the proliferation of splenocytes (p < 0.05. SP and MP treatments in the absence of LPS, and SP treatments in the presence of LPS significantly decreased T helper type 1/T helper type 2 (p < 0.05, and SP in the presence of LPS slightly decreased tumor necrosis factor-α/interleukin-10 (pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion ratios by splenocytes, suggesting that SP has strong and MP has mild anti-inflammation potential via modulating cytokine secretion profiles. However, MP treatment at an appropriate concentration in the absence of LPS exhibited an antiapoptotic activity via modulating pro- (Bak and antiapoptotic (B cell lymphoma 2 protein expression ratios, suggesting that MP may protect primary immune cells from apoptotic cell death. Overall, our findings suggest that SP has better anti-inflammation potential, whereas MP has better cell proliferation and antiapoptotic potential in vitro.

  20. Biomimetic, Osteoconductive Non-mulberry Silk Fiber Reinforced Tricomposite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prerak; Adhikary, Mimi; M, Joseph Christakiran; Kumar, Manishekhar; Bhardwaj, Nandana; Mandal, Biman B

    2016-11-16

    Composite biomaterials as artificial bone graft materials are pushing the present frontiers of bioengineering. In this study, a biomimetic, osteoconductive tricomposite scaffold made of hydroxyapatite (HA) embedded in non-mulberry Antheraea assama (A. assama) silk fibroin fibers and its fibroin solution is explored for its osteogenic potential. Scaffolds were physico-chemically characterized for morphology, porosity, secondary structure conformation, water retention ability, biodegradability, and mechanical property. The results revealed a ∼5-fold increase in scaffold compressive modulus on addition of HA and silk fibers to liquid silk as compared to pure silk scaffolds while maintaining high scaffold porosity (∼90%) with slower degradation rates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed deposition of HA crystals on composite scaffolds. Furthermore, the crystallite size of HA within scaffolds was strongly regulated by the intrinsic physical cues of silk fibroin. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy studies indicated strong interactions between HA and silk fibroin. The fabricated tricomposite scaffolds supported enhanced cellular viability and function (ALP activity) for both MG63 osteosarcoma and human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) as compared to pure silk scaffolds without fiber or HA addition. In addition, higher expression of osteogenic gene markers such as collagen I (Col-I), osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and bone sialoprotein (BSP) further substantiated the applicability of HA composite silk scaffolds for bone related applications. Immunostaining studies confirmed localization of Col-I and BSP and were in agreement with real-time gene expression results. These findings demonstrate the osteogenic potential of developed biodegradable tricomposite scaffolds with the added advantage of the affordability of its components as bone graft substitute materials.

  1. Efeito, no primeiro ano agrícola, da época de poda e do espaçamento sôbre a produção de fôlhas de amoreira, de diferentes variedades, formadas pelo sistema de cepo: parte I - estudo na região de Pindorama Effect of pruning season and spacing stated in the first crop season upon leaf production on the mulberry trees of different varieties shaped by the "cepo" system: part 1 - studies in the Pindorama region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Castilho Rúbia

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados da produção de fôlhas de três variedades comuns de amoreira: Calabreza, Fernão Dias e Lopes Lins, conduzidas no sistema de formação em cepo, com mudas plantadas em diferentes espaçamentos e épocas de poda de produção. No primeiro ano agrícola, as melhores produções foram obtidas com a variedade Calabreza, no espaçamento de 1,50 X 1,00 m e com a época de poda mais atrazada, de 20 de julho.Preliminary results are presented in this paper of an experiment with Morus albaL. designed for the purpose of leaf production and laid out as a factorial 3³ experiment (Cochran - 2 replications, in which were studied three common varieties of mulberry trees : Calabreza, Fernão Dias and Lopes Lins, same being grown and shaped through the "cepo" system and planted in the three spacings 1.5 by 1.0, 1.5 by 1.5 and 1.5 by 2.0 meters, the pruning time having been in three different seasons, i. e., June 10, June 30 and July 20. The first crop year (1964/1965 proved that this trial, installed at the Experiment Station of Pindorama, of the Instituto Agronômico, showed the best production of leaves obtained with the variety Calabreza, when using the 1.5 X 1.0 m spacing and the latest pruning season, namely July 20.

  2. Protective property of mulberry digest against oxidative stress - A potential approach to ameliorate dietary acrylamide-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linxia; Xu, Yang; Li, Yuting; Bao, Tao; Gowd, Vemana; Chen, Wei

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was investigating the protective effect of mulberry digest (MBD) on acrylamide-induced oxidative stress. Composition analysis of MBD revealed that it contained six major phenolic compounds (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin hexoside, quercetin rhamnosylhexoside hexoside, kaempferol rhamnosylhexoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside). After in vitro digestion, the contents of two anthocyanins were both decreased significantly, while the contents of four flavonoid glycosides were all increased. In addition, MBD was found to successfully suppress acrylamide-induced ROS overproduction, restore the mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibit the mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion. More interestingly, the protective effect of MBD against acrylamide-induced oxidative damage was enhanced compared with mulberry fruits without digestion (MBE). Further study revealed that MBD enhanced the cell resistance capacity to acrylamide-induced oxidative stress, rather than its direct reaction with acrylamide. Overall, our results indicate that MBD provides a potent protection against acrylamide-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Approach to Function Annotation for Proteins of Unknown Function (PUFs in the Transcriptome of Indian Mulberry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K H Dhanyalakshmi

    Full Text Available The modern sequencing technologies are generating large volumes of information at the transcriptome and genome level. Translation of this information into a biological meaning is far behind the race due to which a significant portion of proteins discovered remain as proteins of unknown function (PUFs. Attempts to uncover the functional significance of PUFs are limited due to lack of easy and high throughput functional annotation tools. Here, we report an approach to assign putative functions to PUFs, identified in the transcriptome of mulberry, a perennial tree commonly cultivated as host of silkworm. We utilized the mulberry PUFs generated from leaf tissues exposed to drought stress at whole plant level. A sequence and structure based computational analysis predicted the probable function of the PUFs. For rapid and easy annotation of PUFs, we developed an automated pipeline by integrating diverse bioinformatics tools, designated as PUFs Annotation Server (PUFAS, which also provides a web service API (Application Programming Interface for a large-scale analysis up to a genome. The expression analysis of three selected PUFs annotated by the pipeline revealed abiotic stress responsiveness of the genes, and hence their potential role in stress acclimation pathways. The automated pipeline developed here could be extended to assign functions to PUFs from any organism in general. PUFAS web server is available at http://caps.ncbs.res.in/pufas/ and the web service is accessible at http://capservices.ncbs.res.in/help/pufas.

  4. Gamma-phase homogenization and texture in U–7.5Nb–2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Denise Adorno, E-mail: deniseadorno@hotmail.com [Escola Politécnica USP, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes 2463, 05508-030 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Restivo, Thomaz Augusto Guisard [Escola Politécnica USP, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes 2463, 05508-030 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); UNISO, Universidade de Sorocaba, Rod. Raposo Tavares km 92.5, 18023-000 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Batista de Lima, Nelson [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares-IPEN, Travessa R, 400 Cidade universitária, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Padilha, Angelo Fernando [Escola Politécnica USP, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes 2463, 05508-030 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-06-01

    This work investigates the phenomena of homogenization and texture of the γ phase in U–7.5Nb–2.5Zr (Mulberry) alloy prepared by induction melting and cold-rolling. The microstructural characterization of the as-cast and homogenized alloy (heat treated in γ phase region and then quenched in water), as well as the deformed state, was performed using optical and electron microscopy techniques, hardness testing and X-ray diffraction, employing the Rietveld method. The as-cast microsegregation was qualitatively observed by optical microscopy whereas the quantitative evaluation was obtained by electronprobe micro-analysis (EPMA). The homogenization state of the structure was evaluated after heat treatment at 1000 °C in a tube furnace for 5 h. It was found that this treatment is effective in eliminate dendritic segregation in this alloy. The texture of the Mulberry alloy was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the γ-phase stabilized condition and deformed state (rolled at room temperature). The stabilized γ alloy showed moderate texture mainly on the components (0 2 3)〈1 0 0〉 and (0 3 2)〈1 0 0〉. After 80% deformation, the sample showed a fiber texture (0 0 1)〈u v w〉, not commonly found in BCC metals, besides the γ fiber (1 1 1)〈u v w〉 with intermediate intensity.

  5. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ≥ 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ≥ 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage.

  6. Optimization of Protoplast Isolation Condition in Mulberry%桑树原生质体分离条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽霞; 蒋冬梅

    2012-01-01

    The factors affecting mulberry protoplast isolation were studied by the enzyme hydrolysis and hemacytometer methods to optimize the mulberry protoplast isolation condition and to provide the theoretical basis for mulberry protoplast fusion, new germplasm and plant genetic improvement. The results showed that enzyme type, different enzyme combination, enzymolysis time and osmotic pressure had significant effect on mulberry protoplast isolation. The higher mulberry protoplast yield could be obtained under the optimum condition including 1.0% cellulase, 0. 5% pectolase, 0. 2% macerozyme, 0. 6 mol/L mannitol, CPW, and 28 "C +2 °C for 6 h.%为了获得桑树原生质体分离的最优条件,为今后桑树原生质体融合、新种质的获取等植物遗传改良提供理论基础,采用酶解法和血球板计数法,对桑树原生质体分离的影响因素进行研究.结果表明,酶、酶液组合、酶解时间和渗透压稳定剂等都对原生质体的制备有显著的影响,较适宜桑树叶片游离的组合条件是1.0%纤维素酶+0.5%果胶酶+0.2%离析酶+0.6 mol/L甘露醇+CPW盐溶液,酶解温度为28℃±2℃,酶解时间为6h.在此条件下可获得高产量的原生质体.

  7. Use of cyclodextrins in biotransformation reactions with cell cultures of Morus nigra: biosynthesis of prenylated chalcone isocordoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolasco, Adriana; Fioravanti, Rossella; Rossi, Francesca; Rossi, Paola; Vitali, Alberto

    2010-06-16

    In vivo biotransformation experiments were performed by using a cell suspension culture of Morus nigra expressing a high PT (prenyltransferase) activity, fed with the target substrate 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone. In order to improve the reaction yields by enhancing the chalcone solubility, three different cyclodextrins have been used to host the substrate. The respective complexes have been studied by means of both spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques (Fourier-transform infrared, 1H-NMR and differential scanning calorimetry) and the solution behaviours have been characterized by solubility phase studies. The hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin complex was found to be the most suitable for biotransformation, and the reaction of prenylation resulted in a 6-fold higher yield of the final product when compared with the use of the free substrate. The reaction provided as the sole product the 3'-dimethylallyl derivative isocordoin, a biologically active plant compound. The results obtained allow the development of systems based on the use of biofermentors or the use of immobilized cells in order to enhance the biotransformation yields.

  8. Morus alba o Hibiscus rosa-sinensis como sustituto parcial de soya en dietas integrales para conejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Lara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los conejos pueden aprovechar los nutrientes contenidos en los forrajes y subproductos agrícolas eficientemente gracias a la fermentación cecal y a la cecotrofía. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron: evaluar la tasa de crecimiento y el rendimiento de la canal en conejos alimentados con minibloques de harina de morera (Morus alba o tulipán (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis en sustitución parcial de pasta de soya; y determinar el consumo y digestibilidad de la dieta. Para esto, se utilizaron 18 conejos de 30 días de edad, distribuidos al azar en tres dietas experimentales (n=6, ac (alimento convencional, mbm (minibloque con 30% de morera y, mbt (minibloque con 27% de tulipán, durante nueve semanas. La ganancia diaria y el rendimiento en canal fue mejor (p0.10 en los tres grupos. Es factible sustituir parcialmente la proteína de la soya por harina de hojas de morera o tulipán, aunque presentan una menor respuesta productiva con respecto a la alimentación convencional.

  9. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  10. Evaluation of Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of an Ethanolic Extract from Leaves of Morus alba L. (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Macário de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated an ethanolic extract from Morus alba leaves for toxicity to Artemia salina, oral toxicity to mice, and antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, and triterpenes in the extract, which did not show toxicity to A. salina nauplii. No mortality and behavioral alterations were detected for mice treated with the extract (300 and 2000 mg/kg b.w. for 14 days. However, animals that received the highest dose showed reduced MCV and MCHC as well as increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. In treatments with the extract at both 300 and 2000 mg/kg, there was a reduction in number of leukocytes, with decrease in percentage of lymphocytes and increase in proportion of segmented cells. Histopathological analysis of organs from mice treated with the extract at 2000 mg/kg revealed turgidity of contorted tubules in kidneys, presence of leukocyte infiltration around the liver centrilobular vein, and high dispersion of the spleen white pulp. The extract showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus flavus. In conclusion, the extract contains antimicrobial agents and was not lethal for mice when ingested; however, its use requires caution because it promoted biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations.

  11. Evaluation of Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of an Ethanolic Extract from Leaves of Morus alba L. (Moraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alisson Macário; Mesquita, Matheus da Silva; da Silva, Gabriela Cavalcante; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; de Souza, Ivone Antônia; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluated an ethanolic extract from Morus alba leaves for toxicity to Artemia salina, oral toxicity to mice, and antimicrobial activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, and triterpenes in the extract, which did not show toxicity to A. salina nauplii. No mortality and behavioral alterations were detected for mice treated with the extract (300 and 2000 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days. However, animals that received the highest dose showed reduced MCV and MCHC as well as increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. In treatments with the extract at both 300 and 2000 mg/kg, there was a reduction in number of leukocytes, with decrease in percentage of lymphocytes and increase in proportion of segmented cells. Histopathological analysis of organs from mice treated with the extract at 2000 mg/kg revealed turgidity of contorted tubules in kidneys, presence of leukocyte infiltration around the liver centrilobular vein, and high dispersion of the spleen white pulp. The extract showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus flavus. In conclusion, the extract contains antimicrobial agents and was not lethal for mice when ingested; however, its use requires caution because it promoted biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations. PMID:26246840

  12. Genetic diversity analyses of Lasiodiplodia theobromae on Morus alba and Agave sisalana based on RAPD and ISSR molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-hui Xie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of 23 Lasiodiplodia theobromae isolates on Morus alba and 6 isolates on Agave sisalana in Guangxi province, China, was studied by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers. Results of two molecular markers showed that the average percentage of polymorphic loci of all isolates was more than 93%. Both dendrograms of two molecular markers showed obvious relationship between groups and the geographical locations where those strains were collected, among which, the 23 isolates on M. alba were divided into 4 populations and the 6 isolates on A. sisalana were separated as a independent population. The average genetic identity and genetic distance of 5 populations were 0.7215, 0.3284 and 0.7915, 0.2347, respectively, which indicated that the genetic identity was high and the genetic distance was short in the 5 populations. Average value of the gene diversity index (H and the Shannon’s information index (I of 29 isolates were significantly higher than 5 populations which showed that genetic diversity of those isolates was richer than the populations and the degree of genetic differentiation of the isolates was higher. The Gst and Nm of 29 isolates were 0.4411, 0.6335 and 0.4756, 0.5513, respectively, which showed that the genetic diversity was rich in those isolates.

  13. Schisandra chinensis and Morus alba Synergistically Inhibit In Vivo Thrombus Formation and Platelet Aggregation by Impairing the Glycoprotein VI Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Seon Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morus alba L. (MAL extract has been used in traditional medicine for its cardioprotective and antiplatelet effects, while another herbal remedy, Schisandra chinensis (SCC, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We evaluated underlying cellular changes exerted by extracts of these plants on platelet function and effects of SCC + MAL on in vivo thrombus formation using AV shunt and tail thrombosis-length models in rats. In vitro platelet aggregation, granule secretion, and Ca2+i release assays were carried out. The activation of integrin αIIbβ3 and phosphorylation of downstream signaling molecules, including MAPK and Akt, were investigated using cytometry and immunoblotting, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to evaluate changes in platelet shape and HPLC analysis was carried out to identify the marker compounds in SCC + MAL mixture. In vivo thrombus weight and average length of tail thrombosis were significantly decreased by SCC + MAL. In vitro platelet aggregation, granule secretion, Ca2+i release, and integrin αIIbβ3 activation were notably inhibited. SCC + MAL markedly reduced the phosphorylation of MAPK pathway factors along with Akt. HPLC analysis identified four marker compounds: isoquercitrin, astragalin, schizandrol A, and gomisin A. The extracts exerted remarkable synergistic effects as natural antithrombotic and antiplatelet agent and a potent drug candidate for treating cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Producción y calidad de la morera (morus alba cosechada en diferentes modalidades de poda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera (Morus alba cosechada en diferentes modalidades de poda. Una plantación establecida en 1993, con un distanciamiento entre plantas de 60, 90 y 120 cm entre hileras y plantas, fue cosechada 26 veces a diferentes intervalos (56 a 112 días de poda durante cinco años consecutivos, a la altura de 60 cm sobre el nivel del suelo. Se practicaron tres tipos de poda: testigo, semilimpio y limpio. Con un intervalo de 84 días de crecimiento se cosecharon los rebrotes y se determin ó el contenido de materia seca, proteína cruda, fibra neutro detergente y cenizas totales. La poda semilimpia provocó una pérdida del 10% en la producción de materia seca de hoja por hectárea y un 13% en el rendimiento de tallo con respecto al tratamiento testigo. La cosecha conjunta de hojas y tallos decreció un 11%. La poda limpia provocó una disminuci ón de 32% en el rendimiento de materia seca de hoja por hectárea y 36% en la producción de tallo con relación al tratamiento testigo. La producción compuesta decreció 33%. La calidad nutricional de los rebrotes, hojas y tallos, fue similar entre los diferentes tratamientos de poda

  15. Examination of correlation between histidine and nickel absorption by Morus L., Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Populus nigra L. using HPLC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Sukran Akkus; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-08-02

    In this study, HPLC-MS and ICP-MS methods were used for the determination of histidine and nickel in Morus L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Populus nigra L. leaves taken from industrial areas including Gaziantep and Bursa cities. In the determination of histidine by HPLC-MS, all of the system parameters such as flow rate of mobile phase, fragmentor potential, injection volume and column temperature were optimized and found to be 0.2 mL min(-1), 70 V, 15 µL, and 20°C, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, histidine was extracted from plant sample by distilled water at 90°C for 30 min. Concentrations of histidine as mg kg(-1) were found to be between 2-9 for Morus L., 6-13 for Robinia pseudoacacia L., and 2-10 for Populus nigra L. Concentrations of nickel were in the ranges of 5-10 mg kg(-1) for Morus L., 3-10 mg kg(-1) for Robinia pseudoacacia L., and 0.6-4 mg kg(-1) for Populus nigra L. A significant linear correlation (r = 0.78) between histidine and Ni was observed for Populus nigra L., whereas insignificant linear correlation for Robinia pseudoacacia L. (r = 0.22) were seen. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.025 mg Ni L(-1) and 0.075 mg Ni L(-1), respectively.

  16. Historic Resources Assessment, Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway Wildlife Mitigation Project, Mobile and Tensaw River Deltas, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Quercus nigra ), sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), American holly (Ilex opaca...Rhamnus caroliniana), red mulberry ( Morus rubra), and dwarf palmetto (Sabal minor) occur. The transition between the bottomland hardwood forest and the

  17. Archaeological Investigations in the Upper Tombigbee Valley, Mississippi: Phase I. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    badstraw (Gal ium) blackberries (Rubus) black walnut (Jaglans nigra ) blueberry (Vaccinium-) bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) butternut (Juglans...americana) post oad (Quercus stel lata) pine (Pinus) purselane (Portulaca oleracea) ragweed (Ambrosia) red mulberries ( Morus rubra) sassafras (Sassafras

  18. Environmental Assessment: Land Acquisition at Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Quercus alba), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum), while understory species include dogwood (Cornus sp.), red mulberry ( Morus rubra), spicebush (Lindera sp...Salix nigra ), box elder (Acer negundo), broadleaf arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia), broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia), spikerush (Eleocharis sp

  19. Archaeological Surveys and Evaluations of Four Construction Areas in the Vicinity of Fort Jackson, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Virginia live oak (Quercus virginiana), hackberry (Celtis laevigata), persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), marsh elder (Ivafrutescens), mulberry ( Morus ...include black willow (Salix nigra ), which can be used for making baskets, traps, and other bentwood applications; bald cypress (Taxodium distichum

  20. Comparative micropropagation efficiency of diploid and triploid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Production of saplings in nursery is .... Mroginski, 2006), asparagus (Kunitake et al., 1998) and cucumber (Sarreb .... production of mulberry (Morus alba) plant lets for commercial purpose. ... Factors influencing morphogenetic ...

  1. Role of non-mulberry silk fibroin in deposition and regulation of extracellular matrix towards accelerated wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Dimple; Chakraborty, Bijayshree; Nandi, Samit K; Mandal, Biman B

    2017-01-15

    Bombyx mori silk fibroin (BMSF) as biopolymer has been extensively explored in wound healing applications. However, limited study is available on the potential of silk fibroin (SF) from non-mulberry (Antheraea assama and Philosamia ricini) silk variety. Herein, we have developed non-mulberry SF (NMSF) based electrospun mats functionalized with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and ciprofloxacin HCl as potential wound dressing. The NMSF based mats exhibited essential properties of wound dressing like biocompatibility, high water retention capacity (440%), water vapor transmission rate (∼2330gm(-2)day(-1)), high elasticity (∼2.6MPa), sustained drug release and antibacterial activity. Functionalized NMSF mats enhanced the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT cells in vitro as compared to non-functionalized mats (p⩽0.01) showing effective delivery of EGF. Extensive in vivo wound healing assesment demonstrated accelerated wound healing, enhanced re-epithelialization, highly vascularized granulation tissue and higher wound maturity as compared to BMSF based mats. NMSF mats treated wounds showed regulated deposition of mature elastin, collagen and reticulin fibers in the extracellular matrix of skin. Presence of skin appendages and isotropic collagen fibers in the regenerated skin also demonstrated scar-less healing and aesthetic wound repair. A facile fabrication of a ready-to-use bioactive wound dressing capable of concomitantly accelerating the healing process as well as deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to circumvent further scarring complicacies has become a focal point of research. In this backdrop, our present work is based on non-mulberry silk fibroin (NMSF) electrospun antibiotic loaded semi-occlusive mats, mimicking the ECM of skin in terms of morphology, topology, microporous structure and mechanical stiffness. Regulation of ECM deposition and isotropic orientation evinced the potential of the mat as an instructive platform for skin

  2. 人工四倍体桑树新品种强桑2号的育成%Breeding of a New Mulberry Artificial Tetraploid Variety, Qiangsang 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕志强; 杨今后; 计东风; 杨新华; 张正国; 林天宝; 朱燕; 骆承军

    2012-01-01

    通过人工诱导加倍桑树染色体的方法,获得丰产性能更优的桑树多倍体品种.将鲁桑系二倍体杂交组合塔桑×农桑14号F1代的幼苗,用秋水仙碱处理诱导出人工四倍体植株,经过对优良人工四倍体株系的选择、扩大繁殖以及区域适应性鉴定试验和农村生产试验,2011年通过浙江省农作物品种审定委员会审定并定名为强桑2号.该人工四倍体桑树新品种在区域性试验中与对照二倍体桑树品种湖桑32号比较,桑叶增产18.93%,桑叶养蚕的万蚕茧层量提高3.03%,并表现出抗桑疫病、抗旱耐瘠等特点.新品种适合在长江流域蚕区栽植.%A mulberry polyploidy variety with better productive performance was obtained by means of artificially inducing and doubling mulberry chromosomes. Artificial tetraploid mulberry plants were induced by colchicine treatment to young seedlings of diploid F, hybrid combination, Tasang × Nongsang 14. After selection and extended propagation of excellent artificial tetraploid plant lines, regional adaptation test and rural production test, the new mulberry variety was approved by Crop Variety Evaluation Committee of Zhejiang Province in 2011 and named Qiangsang 2. The leaf production and cocoon shell weight per 10 000 larvae reared with leaves of this artificial tetraploid mulberry variety increased by 18.93% and 3. 03% respectively compared with Husang 32, the control diploid cultivar. Moreover, it showed high resistance to mulberry blight disease, strong endurance to drought and arid land and other favorable traits, being suitable for growing in sericultural regions of the Yangtze River Valley.

  3. A Cultural Resources Literature Search of the Bayou Du Chien Drainage Project Area in Fulton, Graves, and Hickman Counties, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-10

    tulipfera sweetgum Liquididambar styraciflua cucumber tree Magnolia acuminata mulberry Morus rubla sour gum Nyssa syTvatica hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana...tuliptree -•i:Todendron tulipfera mulberry Morus rubla sour gum Nyssa spp. white oak Qiecus alba southern red oak Quercus falTcata blackjack oak Quercus...Acer negundo forests valleys red maple Acer rubrum silver maple Aer saccarinum river birch B-i-f1a nigra pecan Carya pecan smooth hackberry Celtis

  4. Descomposición del follaje de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham asociada con Morus alba var. tigríada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ruz Súarez

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se diseñó en una parcela experimental donde se utiliza, desde hace diez años, el follaje de Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena como abono verde en el cultivo de Morus alba (morera, con el objetivo de determinar la velocidad de descomposición del follaje de la leguminosa y la relación de este proceso con algunos de los factores bióticos y abióticos presentes en el sistema. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición del follaje se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags. El follaje depositado en estas bolsas fue evaluado en seis momentos durante la etapa de estudio, que abarcó dos años. En cada fecha de recolección, a la hojarasca remanente de cada bolsa se le determinó la población de macrofauna mediante la separación manual, según la metodología del Programa de Investigación Internacional "Biología y Fertilidad del Suelo Tropical" (TSBF. La composición taxonómica de la macrofauna asociada al proceso de descomposición del follaje de leucaena estuvo constituida por cuatro Phylum, seis clases y siete órdenes. El 97% de los organismos eran detritívoros y el 3% depredadores. El tipo de bolsa no influyó en la descomposición del follaje y los factores climáticos desempeñaron un rol decisivo en este proceso.

  5. Producción y valor nutricional del cultivo de morera (Morus alba L. con intercalamiento de leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Judith Delgado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Una de las principales preocupaciones en la alimentación animal es la búsqueda de alternativas rentables para el productor y eficientes desde el punto de vista nutricional para los animales. Para que el volumen de la producción de estos alimentos sea el adecuado, se han utilizado prácticas como las planteadas en la revolución verde, que incluyen el uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados químicos, lo que ha traído secuelas negativas sobre el medioambiente. En la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas nutricionales se encontraron algunos forrajes, como la morera (Morus alba L., que tiene un alto nivel de proteína, entre otras propiedades nutricionales; pero, alternativas nutricionales como ésta requieren fertilización nitrogenada en elevadas cantidades.Con el interés de generar alternativas amigables con el medioambiente y que además logren mantener o incrementar el volumen de producción y el valor nutricional de la morera, surgió la idea de estudiar la intersiembra de este arbusto con leguminosas, como arveja (Pisum sativum L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L y fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L., analizando variables nutricionales y parámetros de crecimiento del cultivo de morera. Además, se trabajó con un grupo de fertilización nitrogenada y un grupo de control (sin modificación alguna del cultivo. Al finalizar el estudio se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0.05 para la mayoría de parámetros, exceptuando la variable altura, que no presentó diferencias importantes (p>0.05.

  6. Comportamiento productivo de reproductoras porcinas alimentados con follaje fresco de Morus alba. IIndicadores hematológicos y estructurales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contino Yuván; Ojeda Félix; Herrera Rafael; Altunaga Nancy; Pérez Guadalupe.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en evaluar el comportamiento hematológico, morfométrico e histológico de las reproductoras porcinas alimentadas con follaje fresco de Morus alba (hojas y tallos tiernos como sustituto parcial del concentrado comercial en diferentes estados reproductivos comparadas con un grupo control el que no consumió el follaje fresco como sustituto parcial del concentrado. Las investigaciones se efectuaron en el Módulo de Investigación-Producción Porcina de la EEPF “Indio Hatuey. Los indicadores hematológicos medidos fueron el hematocrito, la hemoglobina y el leucograma con diferencial, en el Laboratorio Provincial del IMV ubicado en el municipio de Jovellanos. Elanálisis morfométrico de los órganos del tracto gastrointestinal,hemolinfopoyéticos y accesorios, se realizó mediante la medición y elpesaje en las reproductoras posterior al sacrificio. El rocesamiento histológico se realizó mediante la tinción hematoxilina-eosina. En el estudio estadístico se empleó el paquete SPSS Versión 10.1. Se obtuvo un mejor comportamiento hematológico, morfométrico e histológico al incluir en la dieta de las reproductoras el follaje de morera fresca como sustituto parcial del concentrado. Los resultados demuestran la factibilidad económica del empleo de esta alternativa alimentaría.

  7. A novel bioactive chalcone of Morus australis inhibits tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Takara, Kensaku; Toyozato, Tomonao; Wada, Koji

    2012-01-01

    The methanol extract of Morus australis (shimaguwa) acts as a whitening agent due to the inhibition of tyrosinase activity. In order to explore the mechanism(s) of the whitening action, constituents of the 95% methanol extract from the dried stems of shimaguwa were isolated and their skin-whitening capacity was examined. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol soluble extract of shimaguwa led to the isolation of 2, 4, 2', 4'-hydroxycalcone (chalcone 1) and three analogues of chalcone 1 with 3'-substituted resorcinol moieties (chalcones 2-4). Chalcone derivative 4 proved to be a novel compound and was fully characterized. Chalcones 1-4 were evaluated for inhibition activity on mushroom tyrosinase using L-tyrosine as the substrate. The parent chalcone 1 was a highly effective inhibitor of tyrosinase activity (IC₅₀ = 0.21 μM) compared to arbutin (IC₅₀ = 164 μM). Compared to chalcone 1, chalcones 2 and 3, which possess 3'-substituted isoprenyl or bulky 2-benzoylbiphenyl, showed significantly decreased tyrosinase activity, while chalcone 4, possessing 3'-substituted 2-hydroxy-1-pentene group, showed slightly increased activity.The effects of chalcones 1-4 on melanin synthesis, without affecting cell growth, were assayed in melanin-producing B16 murine melanoma cells. Chalcone 3 significantly reduced cell viability before reaching the IC₅₀ value for melanin synthesis. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of chalcones 1, 2 and 4 were more than 100-fold greater than that of arbutin, with little or no cytotoxicity. More significantly, chalcone 2, which exhibited less tyrosinase inhibitory activity compared to the parent chalcone 1, showed the highest inhibition of melanin synthesis in B16 cells among the chalcones tested. Accordingly, chalcones 1 and 2, and the novel chalcone 4 might be the active components responsible for the whitening ability of shimaguwa. Moreover, whitening ability was not exclusively due to tyrosinase inhibition.

  8. Optimization of Extraction Process for Pectin from Mulberry Stalk Bark%桑枝皮中果胶的提取工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田继武; 刘朝良; 朱保建; 魏国清

    2011-01-01

    One-factor-at-a-time combined with orthogonal array design method was used to optimize process conditions for pectin extraction from mulberry stalk bark by ammonium oxalate-oxalic acid hydrolysis and subsequent ethanol precipitation.The effects of solid-to-liquid ratio,pH,temperature and time on pectin extraction rate were investigated.Pectin extraction rates from the bark of different stalk positions of mulberry cultivars Husang 32,Yu 711,Nongsang 8 and Nongsang 14 at different growth stages were compared.The optimal conditions for extracting pectin from mulberry stalk bark were solid-to-liquid ratio(g/mL) 1:14,pH 2.0,temperature 90 ℃,and extraction time 120 min,and the addition of activated carbon at 1 g/100 mL for decolorization at 60 ℃ for 30 min resulted in the best decolorization.Under these conditions,the pectin extraction rate was roughly 12%.Cultivars,harvest periods and stalk bark positions showed a difference in the extraction rate of pectin.Among the four cultivars investigated,Husang 32 revealed the highest pectin extraction rate.In summer a higher pectin extraction rate from mulberry stalk bark was observed than in spring and autumn.In spring and autumn,the bark of the middle position of mulberry stalk exhibited a higher pectin extraction rate than that of the top and bottom.In summer,the pectin extraction rate from the bark of one-year-old mulberry stalk was higher than that of newly grown mulberry stalk.In addition,an increase in pectin extraction rate was found from fresh mulberry stalk bark as compared with its dried counterpart.%以桑枝皮为原料,采用草酸铵-草酸水解、乙醇法沉淀提取果胶,研究料液比、pH值、提取温度和提取时间对果胶提取率的影响,并分析湖桑32、育711、农桑14和农桑8桑树品种在不同时期和不同部位的桑枝皮中果胶的提取率。结果表明,提取桑枝皮中果胶的最佳工艺条件为料液比1:14(g/mL)、pH2.0、提取温度90

  9. Cloning of low-temperature induced gene from Morus mongolica CK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... gene WAP25 was then cloned by means of RT-PCR technique. The cloned gene has ..... clearing concentrated ions caused by cell dehydration when plants .... Canadian journal of botany-revue canadienne de botanique. 49.

  10. 桑树毛状根生长动力学研究%Study on the Growth Dynamics of Mulberry Hairy Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金宏

    2013-01-01

    为建立桑树毛状根的高效培养体系,采用液体摇瓶培养法,以培养30天的毛状根湿重为指标,对桑树毛状根的培养基及培养条件进行研究.结果表明,桑树毛状根的最佳培养基是pH 6.0的MS培养基,最优培养条件为26℃,130 r/min,暗培养.桑树毛状根的生长表现为“慢—快—慢”的趋势,呈“S”型曲线,生长21天左右进入稳定期.%In order to establish the high efficient culture system of mulberry hairy root, the medium formula and culture conditions of mulberry hairy roots in submerged culture with shake flask were studied according to the index of the wet weight cultured 30 d. The content of total flavonoids in mulberry hairy roots was determined by spectrophotometry using rutin as standard substance. The results showed that the optimum medium was pH 6.0 MS culture medium, and the optimum culture condition was 26℃, 130 r/min, dark culture. The growth trends of mulberry hairy roots was "slow-fast-slow", as "S" type curve, and the stable period was after cultured 21 days.

  11. Comparison of Volatile Components in Different Mulberry Vine%不同品种桑果酒挥发性成分比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁贵秋; 陆春霞; 周晓玲; 吴婧婧; 董桂清

    2013-01-01

      利用顶空固相微萃取方法对不同品种桑果酒中的挥发性成分进行提取,并用气相色谱-质谱技术(GC-MS)对化合物进行分析和分类,同时经过NIST 05谱库检索定性。结果表明:大十桑果酒中检测到35种挥发性成分化合物;特2桑果酒中检测到33种挥发性化合物;12桑果酒中检测到35种挥发性化合物。大十桑果酒、桑特优2号桑果酒、桂桑优12桑果酒所含的挥发性成分中,均以醇类化合物为主,相同的化合物有17种。%  The volatile components in different mulberry wines were extracted by headspace solid phase micro-ex-traction method and the compounds analyzed and classified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), contracted with NIST 05 library to qualitative. The results show that: the dashi mulberry wine contains 35 volatile components; Sant and NO.2 mulberry wine contains 33 kinds and guisangyou 12 mulberry vinegar contains 35 kinds, mainly to alcohols, and 17 kinds was the same one in all.

  12. 采用离心喷雾干燥技术制备桑葚果粉%Study on Centrifugal Spay Drying Technology in Preparing Mulberry Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔素芬; 廖芬; 何全光; 孙健; 张娥珍; 辛明; 黄茂康; 李丽

    2012-01-01

    Mulberry powder was produced by fresh mulberry and mahodextrin as wall material through Centrifugal Spay Drying technology. Through single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment, the influence of the Centrifugal Spay Drying processing parameters such as inlet air temperature, outlet air temperature, and rotation rate to the prod- uct quality were studied. The processes evaluated by the yield rate of powder, water content and vitamin C content. The optimum production conditions were : the inlet temperature was 200℃ , the outlet temperature was 100℃ , the ro- tation rate was 260 r/min, and the pump flow speed was 24 mL/min. The Centrifugal Spay Drying technology is a very useful technology which use less energy and highly efficient. It will help to broaden the comprehensive utilization of mulberry in the fields of food and medical industries and provide the guidance to the mulberry powder industrial production.%以新鲜桑葚果浆为原料,麦芽糊精为壁材,采用离心喷雾干燥技术制备桑葚果粉。通过单因素试验、正交试验,以产品得粉率、含水量、Vc含量等为考察指标,研究了进风温度、出风温度、离心泵转速等离心喷雾干燥设备工艺参数对桑葚果粉产品的影响,得到适宜的工艺条件是:进风温度为200℃,出风温度为100℃,离心泵转速为260 r/min,流量泵流速为24 mL/min。该技术制备桑葚粉效率高,耗能小,且产品风味接近原浆。

  13. The Processing Technology of Mulberry Black Tea Beverage%桑葚红茶饮料制作工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明明; 葛丹丹; 马泉来; 殷丹婷; 李艾黎; 李洪羽

    2012-01-01

    With mulberry and black tea as the main raw materials to make mulberry black beverage, the optimal technological conditions were determined, the extraction pH of black tea was controlled at about 4.5, extraction time was 3 h, the ratio of tea to water was 1:50, the ratio of mulberry to black tea juice was 2:8, the addition of VC was 0.03%, sterilization temperature was 105 ℃. The product showed fresh tea aroma and rich fruit aroma, and had a sweet and sour taste.%以桑葚和红茶为主要原料研制桑葚红茶饮料,确定最佳制作工艺条件为:红茶浸提pH控制在4.5左右,浸提时间3h,茶水比为1∶50,桑葚汁液:红茶汤为2∶8,VC添加量为0.03%,灭菌温度为105℃,所制得的产品茶香清新,果香浓郁,酸甜可口.

  14. Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Murat

    2014-12-15

    Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The δ(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the δ(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups.

  15. Partial or total replacement of commercial concentrate with on-farm-grown mulberry forage: effects on lamb growth and feeding costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpízar-Naranjo, A; Arece-García, J; Esperance, M; López, Y; Molina, M; González-García, E

    2017-03-01

    Replacing commercial concentrate with mulberry foliage was evaluated in a feeding trial lasting 126 days. Forty-eight weaned male Pelibuey lambs (20.6 ± 0.80 kg of BW) were randomly allocated to four groups: (1) supplementing the basal diet with mulberry at 1% (DM basis; M-1), (2) mulberry at 0.75% plus 0.1 kg concentrate fresh matter basis (M-0.75), (3) mulberry at 0.50% plus 0.2 kg concentrate (M-0.50) and (4) basal diet plus 0.3 kg concentrate (control; M-0). During the first 90 days, the basal diet was Pennisetum purpureum forage which was substituted by a mixture of guinea grass and sugarcane from 90 days. Average daily gain (ADG, g/day), dry matter intake (DMI) and feed conversion rate (FCR; DMI/ADG) were determined. The ADG was affected (P < 0.01) by the diet, with the lowest obtained in M-1 lambs (71 ± 6.4 g/day), whereas no differences among the other groups were observed (94 ± 6.4 g DM/lamb). The DMI was higher (P < 0.01) in M-0 (937 g DM/lamb) which concomitantly affected differences in FCR (11.9, 9.9, 10.5 and 9.7 kg DMI/kg BW gain for M-1, M-0.75, M-0.50 and M-0 lambs, respectively). Final BW at slaughtering and hot or cold carcass yields were coherent with growth rate findings. Biological yield (cold carcass weight/empty BW) was higher (P < 0.01) in M-0.75. Without compromising animal productivity, replacing imported concentrate with mulberry reduced the feeding cost. Optimum results were obtained with M-75 diet. Further studies must be conducted for optimizing energy/protein ratios with different ingredients while increasing DMI and lamb growth rates in this tropical genotype.

  16. Mulberry-extract improves glucose tolerance and decreases insulin concentrations in normoglycaemic adults: Results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background High sugar and refined carbohydrate intake is associated with weight gain, increased incidence of diabetes and is linked with increased cardiovascular mortality. Reducing the health impact of poor quality carbohydrate intake is a public health priority. Reducose, a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (ME), may reduce blood glucose responses following dietary carbohydrate intake by reducing absorption of glucose from the gut. Methods A double-blind, randomised, repeat measure, phase 2 crossover design was used to study the glycaemic and insulinaemic response to one reference product and three test products at the Functional Food Centre, Oxford Brooks University, UK. Participants; 37 adults aged 19–59 years with a BMI ≥ 20kg/m2 and ≤ 30kg/m2. The objective was to determine the effect of three doses of mulberry-extract (Reducose) versus placebo on blood glucose and insulin responses when co-administered with 50g maltodextrin in normoglycaemic healthy adults. We also report the gastrointestinal tolerability of the mulberry extract. Results Thirty-seven participants completed the study: The difference in the positive Incremental Area Under the Curve (pIAUC) (glucose (mmol / L x h)) for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -6.1% (-18.2%, 5.9%; p = 0.316), -14.0% (-26.0%, -2.0%; p = 0.022) and -22.0% (-33.9%, -10.0%; p<0.001) respectively. The difference in the pIAUC (insulin (mIU / L x h)) for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -9.7% (-25.8%, 6.3%; p = 0.234), -23.8% (-39.9%, -7.8%; p = 0.004) and -24.7% (-40.8%, -8.6%; p = 0.003) respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the 4 groups in the odds of experiencing one or more gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, abdominal cramping, distension or flatulence). Conclusions Mulberry leaf extract significantly reduces total blood glucose rise after ingestion of maltodextrin over 120 minutes. The pattern of effect demonstrates a

  17. The Influence Concentration to Mulberry Juice Nutritional Quality%浓缩对桑葚汁营养品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕春玲; 姜绍通; 沈鸿; 齐路路

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨旋转蒸发浓缩的温度和浓缩度对桑葚汁营养品质和有机酸含量的影响,将鲜榨的桑葚汁于不同温度的条件下进行旋转蒸发浓缩处理,得到可溶性固形物含量为30、40、50、60°Brix的四种浓缩汁,比较分析各复原汁与新鲜桑葚汁的色泽、总糖、花青素、总酚、总黄酮、Vc、5-HMF以及有机酸种类和含量。结果表明:随着浓缩温度和浓缩汁可溶性固形物含量的增加,桑葚复原汁的颜色变暗,色差值△E值逐渐变大,总糖、花青素、总酚、总黄酮和维生素C的含量有所减少,而褐变度和5-HMF含量逐渐升高。桑葚汁中主要的有机酸是苹果酸和柠檬酸,随着可溶性固形物含量的不断增加,有机酸中除了柠檬酸的含量有所增加,其余五种有机酸的含量逐渐下降。综上,旋转蒸发的温度为60℃、浓缩度为50°Brix时能更好的保持桑葚复原汁中的风味营养物质。%Fresh mulberry juice was rotaried,evaporated and concentrated in the conditions of different temperature in order to explore the influence of rotary evaporation concentration to mulberry juice nutritional quality and organic acid content. Take four concentrations respectively includes soluble solids content of 30°Brix,40°Brix,50°Brix,and 60°Brix, and compare and analyze the color,total sugar,anthocyanin,total phenol and flavonoids,Vc,5-HMF,organic acid types and levels between reconstituted juice and fresh mulberry juice. Results indicate that with the increase of concentrated temperature and soluble solids content in the concentrate mulberry reconstituted juice,color darkened;total color difference△E value increased gradually;total sugar,anthocyanin,Vc,total flavonoids and total phenol content have decreased but the 5-HMF content has increased. The main organic acids in mulberry juice are malic acid and citric acid. With the increase of concentrated temperature and soluble solids content

  18. RP-HPLC测定桑椹中芦丁的含量%Determination of Rutin in Morus alba by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿旦; 马雯芳; 甄汉深; 丘琴; 韦良宏; 唐霞丽

    2011-01-01

    目的:优化桑椹中芦丁的提取条件并建立芦丁的HPLC测定方法.方法:采用单因素考察法优化桑椹中芦丁的提取条件,采用HPLC法测定芦丁的含量,色谱柱为Agilent Zobax C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),以乙腈-0.1%磷酸(19:81)为流动相,流速1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长360 nm,柱温30℃.结果:芦丁最佳提取条件为料液比1:25,50%乙醇回流60min,芦丁在0.1~2.0μg有良好线性关系(r=0.999 9).平均回收率为102.4%,RSD 1.8%(n=6).结论:该方法简便、准确、可靠,可作为桑椹中芦丁含量测定的方法.%Objective:Optimize the extract condition of rutin in Morus alba to establish a quantification method for rutin. Method: Single-factor analysis was applied to optimize the extract condition of rutin in Morus alba HPLC was used in the determination of rutin on C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) with a mixture of acetonitrile-0. 1% phosphoric acid (19:81 ) as a mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1. Rutin was detected at 360 nm, column temperature was 30 ℃. Result: The optimal extract condition was the solid-to-liquid ratio 1: 25, 50% ethanol refluxed for 60 min. The linearity of rutin was in the range of 0. 1-2.0 μg. The average recovery rate of rutin was 102.4% with RSD 1.8% (n =6). Conclusion: The determination method was simple,accurate and reliable, it could be used as the determination method of rutin in Morus alba.

  19. Research of Ecological Restoration of Mycorrhizal Mulberry in Karst Rocky Desertification Area%菌根桑恢复喀斯特石漠化地区的研究探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢丹; 王震洪; 张爱民; 付文婷; 韩世玉

    2014-01-01

    菌根桑能与石漠化地区贫瘠、干旱等主要生态障碍相耦合,有利于减轻贫瘠干旱胁迫,成为喀斯特石漠化生态治理的一种新的有效措施。在综述丛枝菌根真菌的结构、生理生态功能的基础上,初步探讨了石漠化恢复过程中菌根桑的可利用性以及在调查桑树根系丛枝菌根真菌多样性、影响丛枝菌根真菌多样性的关键因子、筛选优良抗性菌株、丛枝菌根真菌与喀斯特石漠化地区桑树的共生机制等几个方面开展前期研究工作,旨在从全新的角度探讨菌根桑对喀斯特生境的适应对策以及为岩溶生态系统退化与恢复机理奠定基础,从而保证菌根桑在石漠化地区的可持续发展。%Mycorrhizal mulberry is a plant, whose mulberry root and Arbuscular Myc-orrhizal fungi came into being a symbiotic relationship by a mean of natural or artifi-cial inoculation. Mycorrhizal mulberry coupling with main ecological barriers, such as barren soil drought in rocky desertification area, wil be beneficial to recovering the karst degraded ecosystem by removing these stresses. So, mycorrhizal mulberry is considered a new effective way in ecological control of karst rocky desertification. The research summarized the structures and the characteristic eco-physiological functions of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), and preliminarily discussed its availability and research in karst rocky desertification restoration ,including investiga-tion of AMF diversity, the key affecting factor of AMF species diversity, the sym-biosis mechanism between AMF and mulberry, promoting the development of agri-cultural economy in Karst Rocky Desertification area by mycorrhizal mulberry. These elaborate efforts are to demonstrate mycorrhizal mulberry adapting to karst environ-ment from a new view, lay a theoretical basis for karst degraded-ecosystem restoration, and final y guarantee sustainable development of mycorrhizal mulberry in rocky

  20. Identification of novel catalytic features of endo-β-1,4-glucanase produced by mulberry longicorn beetle Apriona germari

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari, has been reported to produce two endo-β-l,4-glucanases or AgEGases (accession Nos. Q6SS52 and Q5XQD1). AgEGase sequence contains catalytic motif (amino acid residues 37~48), which is the characteristic of family Glycohydrolase 45 and is identified as the substrate binding site. The application of bioinformatics approaches includes sequence analysis, structural modeling and inhibitor docking to relate the structure and function of AgEGases.We have dissected the sequence and structure of AgEGase catalytic motif and compared it with crystal structure of Humicola insolens endoglucanases Ⅴ. The results show an involvement of sulfur containing amino acid residues in the active site of the enzyme. Cys residues and position of disulfide bonds are highly conserved between the two structures of endoglucanases of A.germari. Surface calculation of AgEGase structure in the absence of Cys residues reveals greater accessibility of the catalytic site to the substrate involving Asp42, a highly conserved residue. For the inhibition study, tannin-based structure was docked into the catalytic site of AgEGase using ArgusLab 4.0 and it resulted in a stable complex formation. It is suggested that the inhibition could occur through formation of a stable transition state analog-enzyme complex with the tannin-based inhibitor, as observed with other insect cellulases in our laboratory.

  1. Mulberry water extracts possess an anti-obesity effect and ability to inhibit hepatic lipogenesis and promote lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Huei; Liu, Li-Kaung; Chuang, Chao-Ming; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Huang, Chieng-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2011-03-23

    Obesity plays a critical role in dyslipidemia and related disorders. Mulberry water extracts (MWEs) contain polyphenols, including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin, and anthocyanins. In this study, using 6-week-old male hamsters, we investigated the anti-obese effect of MWEs. After 12 weeks of treatment, MWEs lowered high-fat diet (HFD)-induced body weight and visceral fat, accompanied with hypolipidemic effects by reducing serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, free fatty acid, and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio (n=8 for each group). MWEs decreased hepatic lipids, thus protected livers from impairment. The hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 were elevated, while fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase were reduced by MWEs, indicating that MWEs regulated lipogenesis and lipolysis, which exerted the anti-obese and hypolipidemic effects. Noticeably, MWEs showed both efficacy and safety in vivo. In concluson, MWEs can be used to reduce body weight, serum, and liver lipids.

  2. Development of Portable Circular Saw Multifunctional Mulberry Shoot Cutter%便携式圆盘锯多功能桑树伐条机的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟国; 朱滢元; 董瑞华; 计东风; 孙海燕; 戴建忠

    2012-01-01

    为推进省力化栽桑养蚕技术体系的实施,以适合桑枝剪伐的农艺要求及成本低、结构简单、操作安全、效率高、性能稳定、机型轻便为设计目标,研制出便携式圆盘锯多功能桑树伐条机.该机采用蓄电池供给电源,直流电机驱动木工圆盘锯片以6 000 r/min左右的高速旋转,完成对桑枝条的横截切割.该机的主要性能特点是:桑枝剪伐截面光滑平整;整机结构简单,购置费用低,使用轻便灵活,能够显著降低桑枝剪伐的劳动强度;机械效率高,桑园伐条工效是手工剪伐的3倍左右;设计的分体式防护罩结构能最大程度保护操作者的安全;换装金属磨光片、陶瓷切割片等工作刀具后可扩展多种用途.该机已获得国家实用新型专利(专利号:ZL201020541087.0).%To advance the implementation of labor-saving technology in mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing, a portable circular saw multifunctional mulberry shoot cutter was developed to meet the agricultural demands of cutting mulberry branch with low cost, simple structure, safe operation, high efficiency, stable performance and portability as the design target. This cutter uses DC motor powered by storage battery to drive a carpenter's circular saw at a rotating speed of about 6 000 r/min to transversely cut the mulberry branch. Major functioning features of this cutter include smooth and level cuts to mulberry branch, simple structure of the whole machine with low cost and easy operation, effectiveness in lowering labor intensity of cutting mulberry branches, and high mechanical efficiency (work efficiency is about 3 times to manual cutting). The designed split-type protective cover can prevent the circular saw from injuring human body to the maximum extent. After replacement with other cutting tools such as metal polishing sheet and ceramic cutter, the cutter can be used for other purposes. This machine has obtained the National Practical New

  3. Diurnal variation of photosynthesis in leaves of soybean and mulberry in intercropping mode%间作模式下桑树与大豆叶片的光合日变化特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会慧; 赵莉; 许楠; 朱文旭; 李鑫; 岳冰冰; 孙广玉

    2011-01-01

    为了提高桑树与大豆间作模式下地上部分的光能利用率,优化桑树与大豆复合经营的空间配置,研究了在这一间作模式下生育后期速生桑树和大豆叶片的光合日变化特点.结果表明:无论在单作还是间作模式下大豆叶片在13:00时均表现出明显的光合"午休"现象,其光合性能并未因间作桑树而受到影响;一天之中,桑树叶片分别在9:00时和13:00时出现光抑制现象,并且13:00时光抑制的程度和持续的时间均大于9:00时出现的,不同种植模式下桑树叶片的光合日变化情况存在着明显的差异,一天之中,间作模式下桑树叶片的P_r、_r、和F_v /F_m等光合指标值均优于单作模式的桑树叶片,桑树与大豆间作具有一定程度的种间促进作用,1年生桑树幼苗与大豆间作能明显提高生育后期速生桑树叶片的光合生产能力,从而可实现高产的目的.%In order to improve the solar energy utilization efficiency in mulberry and soybean intercropping and optimize the spatial management, diurnal variation of photosynthesis in leaves of soybean and mulberry in intercropping system was investigated.The results showed that an obvious midday depression in the leaves of soybean appeared at 13:00 pm, but the photosynthetic efficiency in leaves of soybean was not significantly affected by intercropping mulberry.Diurnal variation of photosynthesis of mulberry leaf had two photoinhibition at 9: 00 am and those at 13:00 pm, respectively, and the degree of photoinhibition and duration at 13:00 pm were higher than at 9:00 am.The diurnal variation in the mulberry leaves had significant differences in different planting mode.Photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), minimal fluorescence (Fo) and maximum PS Ⅱ photochemical efficiency (Fy /Fm) in leaves of mulberry in mulberry and soybean intercropping were higher than monoculture mulberry, indicating interspecific facilitation was due to in mulberry and

  4. Vacuum Freezing and Drying Technology of Mulberry Fruit%桑果真空冷冻干燥技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晋军; 乔邓君; 张洁花; 罗锋; 韩睿; 闫伟

    2015-01-01

    Dashi mulberry was taken to measure the eutectic point and cosolvent point of mulberry vacuum freezing and dr‐ying ,which were‐23℃ and‐20℃ respectively .The final freezing temperature was‐33 to‐28℃ .The lyophilization trend during the drying process was analyzed and the factors affecting the quality and yield of the lyophilized product were also measured and studied .The results show that when mulberries were evenly laid on the plate and quickly frozen when they are not fully ripen ,the best quality of lyophilized product can be achieved by adopting second stage temperature control curve at sublimation drying period and keeping the heating plate at 35℃ at drying period .%以大十桑果为原料,测得桑果真空冷冻干燥的共晶点和共溶点分别为-23℃和-20℃,冻结的最终温度为-33~-28℃。分析干燥过程中冻干曲线变化趋势;并对影响冻干品质量和产量因素进行测试研究。结果表明:桑果成熟度为八九成熟,装盘时单层平放,以速冻方法冻结,在升华干燥阶段采用二段温控曲线,在解析干燥阶段将加热板最高温度控制在35℃,加工出来的冻干品质量最好,保质期长。

  5. 桑叶中芦丁含量的动态变化研究%Study on the dynamic change of rutin content in mulberry leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正; 沈华; 李蕾; 郦红岩

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究不同时期桑叶中芦丁的含量。方法 Kromasil C18柱(4.6 mm ×250 mm,5μm);流动相:甲醇-0.5%磷酸水溶液(梯度洗脱),检测波长:358 nm;柱温:30℃;结果芦丁在0.1262~2.02μg范围内有良好的线性关系,r=0.9999,平均回收率为97.88%,桑叶中芦丁含量最高在霜降前后。结论初步表明了桑叶中芦丁含量随季节变化的规律。%Objective To study the content of rutin in different period of mulberry leaf. Methods The Kromasil C18 column(4. 6 mm × 250 mm,5μm)was used,and mobile phase was composed of methanol-0. 5% phosphoric acid solution ( gradient elution),Detection wavelength was at 358 nm,the column temperature was at 30℃. Results The linear range of rutin was 0. 126 2~2. 02 μg( r=0. 999 9). The average recovery of rutin was 97. 88%,the highest content of rutin in mul-berry leaves before and after the frost. Conclusion Preliminary results suggested that rules of rutin in mulberry leaves sea-sonal changes.

  6. 桑叶金银花复合保健饮料的研制%Study on the Compound Health Beverage of the Mulberry Leaves and Honeysuckle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚新; 祝艳梅

    2013-01-01

      以桑叶和金银花为原料,采用正交实验及感官评定确定了桑叶金银花复合保健饮料生产工艺及产品配方。实验结果表明,金银花最适浸提工艺为90℃,30 min,料水比1∶50(g/mL),桑叶最适浸提工艺为80℃,20 min,料水比1∶5(g/mL)。成品配方为白砂糖6%,柠檬酸0.1%,桑叶浸提液30%,金银花浸提液10%,CMC-Na0.08%,果胶0.14%。%With mulberry leaves and honeysuckles as the main materials, the optimal prescription and process of a compound beverage was studied by orthogonal design and sensory organ. Results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were as follows, temperature 90℃,time 30 min, and the ratio of material to water 1∶50 for honeysuckles, and 80℃,20 min, 1∶5 for mulberry leaves. The optimal prescription is as follows, sugar 6%, lemon acid 0.1%, mulberry leaf liquid 30%, honeysuckle liquid 10%, CMC-Na 0.08%and pectin 0.14%.

  7. Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, L; Yu, X; Liu, H

    2011-10-01

    In this study, silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were regarded as an animal protein source for astronauts in the bioregenerative life support system during long-term deep space exploration in the future. They were fed with mulberry and stem lettuce leaves during the first three instars and the last two instars, respectively. In addition, this kind of environmental approach, which utilised inedible biomass of plants to produce animal protein of high quality, can likewise be applied terrestrially to provide food for people living in extreme environments and/or impoverished agro-ecosystems, such as in polar regions, isolated military bases, ships, submarines, etc. Respiration characteristics of the larvae during development under two main physiological conditions, namely eating and not-eating of leaves, were studied. Nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP), ground and freeze-dried silkworms on the 3rd day of the 5th instar larvae, including protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, were measured using international standard methods. Silkworms' respiration rates, measured when larvae were eating mulberry leaves, were higher than those of similar larvae that hadn't eaten such leaves. There was a significant difference between silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and those fed on stem lettuce in the 4th and 5th instars (Pinsects were under the two physiological statuses (Prespiration quotient under the eating regime was larger than when under the not-eating regime. The SP was found to be rich in protein and amino acids in total; 12 essential vitamins, nine minerals and twelve fatty acids were detected. Moreover, 359 kcal could be generated per 100 gram of SP (dry weight).

  8. Anti-diabetic constituents of mulberry leaf%桑叶抗糖尿病活性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娅; 李嘉盈

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究桑叶抗糖尿病的活性成分。方法桑叶用80%乙醇和水提取。利用硅胶、凝胶等柱色谱及制备液相色谱进行分离,并根据理化性质和有机波谱技术鉴定了化合物的结构,进一步通过测定生物碱类化合物和黄酮苷类化合物对胰岛素抵抗的 HepG2细胞葡萄糖消耗量来评价其抗糖尿病活性。结果从桑叶中分离鉴定了8个化合物,分别为:1-脱氧野尻霉素(1),1,4-dideoxy -1,4-imino -D -arabinitol(2),山奈酚-3-O -β-D -吡喃葡萄糖苷(3),β-谷甾醇(4),正三十四烷醇(5),oxyresveratrol(6),熊果酸(7),葡萄糖乙醇苷(8),此外化合物3能够显著提高胰岛素抵抗 HepG2细胞葡萄糖消耗量。结论化合物3具有较强的抗糖尿病活性。%Objective To study the chemical constituents and their anti -diabetic activity from the mulberry leaf.Methods Extrac-ted with 80% ethyl alcohol and water,the constituents were isolated by chromatography of silica gel,ODS and p -HPLC,whose struc-tures were identified on the basis of the physical properties and spectral analysis.Furthermore,glucose consumption assays in insulin -resistance HepG2 cells were used to assay the anti -diabetic activity of flavonoid glycosides and alkaloids.Results Eight compounds were isolated from mulberry leaf and identified as 1 -deoxynojirimycin(1),1,4 -dideoxy -1,4 -imino -D -arabinitol(2),Kaemper-ol -3 -O -β-D -glucopyranoside(3),β-stigmasterol (4),n -tetratriacontanol (5),oxyresveratrol (6),ursolic acid (7),ethyl-β-D -glucopyranoside(8)and compound 3 significantly stimulated glucose consumption and phosphorylation of Akt in insulin re-sistance HepG2 cells.Conclusions Compound 3 exhibits excellent anti -diabetic activity.

  9. 桑椹酒酿造工艺以及理化和营养指标分析%Study on Mulberry Wine Brewing Process and Analyze on Physical and Chemical Index and Nutrition Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婧婧; 梁贵秋; 陆春霞

    2011-01-01

    采用桑椹为原料,运用桑椹发酵酒酿造技术与桑椹果汁浸泡工艺技术相结合可获得风味独特的桑椹酒.通过对桑椹发酵原酒主发酵的正交试验分析,结果表明:桑椹果汁中,添加初始含糖量为23%,亚硫酸氢钠含量为0.08g/L和酵母接种量为0.21g/L为最佳工艺条件.将桑椹发酵原酒和桑椹浸泡原酒按照5.6:1的比例混合之后,检测表明,桑椹酒中维生素C的含量较高,为23.3μg/100mL,维生素E的含量达到19.1μg/100mL.桑椹酒的矿物质元素含量也很高,其中微量元素硒含量为0.002mg/L.%Combined fermentation technology with original fruit soaked process could get unique flavor mulberry wine which made mulberry fruitfas raw material. Analyzed orthogonal experiment on conditions of the main fermentation of mulberry original wine, the results showed that 23% of initial sugar content, 0.08g/L of sodium bisulfate content and 0.21 g/L of yeast as the best factors of process. Mixed the mulberry of fermented original wine with mulberry of the soaked original wine in ratio of 5.6:1, the test showed that the mulberry wine was high in vitamin C content, had 23.3|Xg/100mL and vitamin E content was 19.1u,g/100mL Mulberry wine is also very high content of minerals, including microelement 0.002mg / L of selenium content.

  10. Use of headspace mulberry paper bag micro solid phase extraction for characterization of volatile aromas of essential oils from Bulgarian rose and Provence lavender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Mi-Mi; Cha, Eun-Ju; Yoon, Ok-Kyung; Kim, Nam-Sun; Kim, Kun; Lee, Dong-Sun

    2009-01-05

    In this study, a new sampling method called headspace mulberry paper bag micro solid phase extraction (HS-MPB-mu-SPE) combined to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been applied for the analysis of volatile aromas of liquid essential oils from Bulgarian rose and Provence lavender. The technique uses an adsorbent (Tenax TA) contained in a mulberry paper bag, minimal amount of organic solvent. Linearities for the six-points calibration curves were excellent. LOD values were in the rage from 0.38 ng mL(-1) to 0.77 ng mL(-1). Overall, precision and recovery were generally good. Phenethyl alcohol and citronellol were the main components in the essential oil from Bulgarian rose. Linalyl acetate and linalool were the most abundant components in the essential oils from true lavender or lavandin. Additionally, the relative extraction efficiencies of proposed method have been compared with HS-SPME. The overall extraction efficiency was evaluated by the relative concentration factors (CF) of the several characteristic components. CF values by HS-MPB-mu-SPE were lower than those by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The HS-MPB-mu-SPE method is very simple to use, inexpensive, rapid, requires small sample amounts and solvent consumption. In addition, this method allowed combining of extraction, enrichment, and clean-up in a single step. HS-MPB-mu-SPE and GC/MS is a promising technique for the characterization of volatile aroma compounds from liquid essential oils.

  11. 桑叶在动物饲料的应用研究现状与发展策略%Current Status and Development Strategy of Using Mulberry Leaf as Animal Forage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静; 邝哲师; 刘吉平; 邹宇晓; 赵祥杰; 沈维治; 廖森泰

    2014-01-01

    Mulberry leaf has been widely used in many kinds of animal feeds for its rich nutrients,which present high feeding value in promoting the growth,slaughter performance and product quality of various animals.This article introduced the nutrition constituent characteristics and feeding value of mulberry leaf compared to other forage crops,and reviewed the application status of mulberry leaf used as forage for cattle,sheep,swine,chicken,rabbit and fish etc or feed ingredient.Moreover,because mulberry leaf is rich in crude fiber and contains tannins,plant lectins and other toxic substances,preliminary technological solutions were proposed to solve these problems,and main directions for future development of mulberry leaf forage industry were put forward.%桑叶的营养物质丰富,已应用于多种动物饲料并在提升动物的生长性能、屠宰性能和产品品质等方面展现出良好的饲用价值.本文介绍了桑叶相对于其他饲料作物的营养组成特点与饲用价值,总结了桑叶作为牛、羊、猪、鸡、兔等畜禽饲料及鱼饲料或饲料成分的应用研究现状,并针对桑叶粗纤维含量较高和含单宁、植物凝集素及其他有毒物质等问题,提出了初步的技术解决方案,同时还探讨了今后桑叶饲料开发研究的主要方向.

  12. Avaliação toxicológica pré-clínica do chá das folhas de Morus nigra L. (Moraceae) Pre-clinical toxicological evaluation of tea from the leaves of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,A.C.B.; Oliveira, A.P.; Guimarães,A.L.; R A Oliveira; Silva, F.S.; S.A.G.B. Reis; Ribeiro,L.A.A.; Almeida,J.R.G.S.

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo desse estudo foi realizar um ensaio toxicológico pré-clínico para analisar a toxicidade do chá das folhas de Morus nigra L. (Moraceae). A toxicidade subcrônica do chá (CF-Mn) foi avaliada durante 30 dias por via oral em ratos. Ao grupo controle foi administrado água, para comparação. Durante o período experimental foi avaliada a presença de sinais de toxicidade, variação do peso corporal, e o consumo de líquido e alimento. Ao final do experimento o sangue dos animais foi retirado p...

  13. Optimization of Extraction Condition for Phytic Acid from Mulberry Leaf and Determination of Phytic Acid Contents in Mulberry Leaf and Silkworm Excrement%桑叶植酸的提取条件优化及桑叶和蚕粪中的植酸含量检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李镇刚; 赵爱春; 王茜龄; 吴文铂; 金筱耘; 李军; 余茂德

    2012-01-01

    建立高效提取桑叶植酸的方法,并应用于检测分析不同品种、不同成熟度桑叶中的植酸含量和蚕粪中的植酸含量,有助于进一步开展降低桑叶中的植酸含量及提高桑叶营养利用率的研究.运用Design-Expert 8.0.4 Trial软件的Box-Behnken模型,分析不同提取条件因子对桑叶植酸提取效果的影响作用为原料质量浓度>提取液中盐酸的浓度>浸提时间,确定最佳提取条件:提取液为1.25%盐酸+0.1 g/mL硫酸钠,浸提时间为2.18h,原料质量浓度为0.05 g/mL.在此优化条件下提取桑叶和蚕粪中的植酸,并应用比色法测定5个桑品种春季成熟叶、嫩叶以及秋季成熟叶、嫩叶中的植酸平均质量比分别为3.98、3.55、3.75、3.52 mg/g,5龄幼虫蚕粪中的植酸含量为3.78 mg/g,与桑叶中的植酸含量接近.检测结果说明桑叶中的植酸随着桑叶的成熟其含量不断增加,家蚕不能吸收利用植酸态的磷.%The establishment of extraction protocol for phytic acid from mulberry leaf and its application of the method for determining phytic acid contents in mulberry leaves of different varieties and different maturities and in silkworm excrement would promote further studies on reducing phytic acid content in mulberry leaves and improving their nutrient utilization rate.In this study,we analyzed effect of different extraction conditions and factors on the yield of phytic acid from mulberry leaves by means of Box-Behnken model of the Design-Expert 8.0.4 Trial software.The results showed that the effective factors for phytic acid extraction were in the order of raw material mass concentration,hydrochloric acid concentration in the extraction solution,and extraction time.The optimum extraction condition was as follows: 1.25% hydrochloric acid and 0.1 g/mL sodium sulfate in extraction solution,extraction time 2.18 h,and raw material mass concentration 0.05 g/mL.Based on this optimum condition,we extracted phytic acid from

  14. Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... The pollution of aquatic ecosystems caused by heavy metals from industrial ... Effect of synthetic effluent pH on Zn(II) deposition in soil. In this regard the ... present study will be helpful in evaluating ecological transportation of ...

  15. Velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling in woody stems of Castanea sativa, Morus nigra and Quercus robur measured by IDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Gilbert; Xu, Bingcheng; Hacker, Juergen

    2010-08-01

    Infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) was used to monitor the velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling of xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) during freezing of stems of Castanea sativa L., Morus nigra L. and Quercus robur L. that exhibit a macro- and ring-porous xylem. Measurements were conducted on the surface of cross- and longitudinal stem sections. During high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs; -2.8 to -9.4°C), initial freezing was mainly observed in the youngest year ring of the sapwood (94%), but occasionally elsewhere (older year rings: 4%; bark: 2%). Initially, ice propagated rapidly in the largest xylem conduits. This resulted in a distinct freezing pattern of concentric circles in C. sativa and M. nigra. During HTEs, supercooling of XPCs became visible in Q. robur stems, but not in the other species that have narrower pith rays. Intracellular freezing of supercooled XPCs of Q. robur became visible by IDTA during low-temperature freezing exotherms (<-17.4 °C). Infrared differential thermal analysis revealed the progress and the two-dimensional pattern of XPC freezing. XPCs did not freeze at once, but rather small cell groups appeared to freeze at random anywhere in the xylem. By IDTA, ice propagation and deep supercooling in stems can be monitored at meaningful spatial and temporal resolutions.

  16. Phytochemical and in vitro screening of some Ficus and Morus spp. for hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities and in vivo assessment of Ficus mysorensis (Roth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Nagwa E; Seida, Ahmed A; Hamed, Manal A; Mahmoud, Ahlam H; Elbatanony, Marwa M

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical screening of air-dried leaves and fruit juice of certain Ficus and Morus spp. have been studied. In an in vitro study, the ethanol and hexane extracts of the investigated plants were evaluated against hyperlipidaemia by estimating the rate limiting enzyme of cholesterol biothenysis; β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by reduction of DPPH(-) free radical. Extra phytochemical screening of Ficus extracts was undertaken, which recorded potent hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. The more pronounced extract, Ficus mysorensis (hexane extract), was evaluated in vivo by estimation of the lipid profile and certain antioxidant parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. The hexane fraction was chromatographed and six isolated compounds were identified. Furthermore, its saponifiable fraction was identified by a MS/MS technique. In conclusion, F. mysorensis recorded hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects. Detailed studies of the isolated compounds must be undertaken for an evaluation against hypercholesterolemia and free radical elevation.

  17. Selection and characterisation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from different origins for ensilingRobinia pseudoacacia and Morus alba L. leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Kui-kui; YANG Hui-xiao; HUA Wei; WANG Yan-ping; PANG Hui-li

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains from different origins and to select the best strains for ensilingRobinia pseudoacacia (RB) and Morus albaL. (MB)leaves. The LAB strains were inoculated into the extracted liquid obtained from RB and MB leaves to evaluate the fermentation products. 11 LAB strains were selected for further experiments based on the highest products of lactic or acetic acid, including 1 strain of Weissela confusa, 2 ofLactobacilus reuteri and 8 ofLactobacilus plantarum.The API 50 CH fermentation experiment indicated that al of the selected 11 LAB strains utilised most of the carbohydrates. Al the strains grew at temperatures between 10 and 45°C and at a pH of 3.5 to 4.5; however,L. reuteri F7 and F8 tolerated a pH as low as 3.0. Al 11 LAB strains showed antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogens,Escherichia coil,Salmonelasp. and Acetobacter pasteurianus; however, after excluding the effect of organic acids, only F7 and F8 stil exhibited antibacterial activity. The present study indicated that the selected 11 LAB strains could be used to prepare silages of RB and MB leaves, especialyL. reuteri F7 and F8.

  18. Nonclinical Safety Assessment of Morus alba L. Fruits: Study of 90-D Toxicity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Genotoxicity in Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2016-05-01

    Morus alba L. is a traditional herb with a long history of consumption, both as an edible fruit and as medicine. However, its safety evaluation has not yet been established. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic oral toxicity and genotoxicity of M. alba L. fruits (MFE). The subchronic toxicity after daily oral administration of MFE at 0, 40, 200, and 1000 mg/kg for 90 d was examined in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. MFE administration did not lead to death, adverse effects, change in food and water consumption, and body weight gain. Significant toxic effects were not found within the parameters of organ weight, biochemical values, and hematological and urine analysis between the control and the MFE group. The genotoxicity of MFE was assayed by Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA102, and TA1535. No genotoxicity was found in all the tested strains. Thus in this study, a no-observed-adverse-effect level for MFE in 90 d repeated oral toxicity study in rats was determined to be greater than 1000 mg/kg regardless of gender. The results also suggested that MFE does not have a genotoxicity potential.

  19. Effects of drying method and particle size on the antioxidant properties of leaves and teas of Morus alba, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Thunbergia laurifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wei Chiang Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties (AOP of leaves and teas of Morus alba L., Lagerstroemia speciosa (L. Pers. and Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. as affected by microwave, oven and freeze drying were assessed. Total phenolic content (TPC, radical scavenging ability expressed as ascorbic acid equivalent capacity (AEAC and ferric reducing power (FRP were screened using the Folin-Ciocalteu, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and potassium ferricyanide assays, respectively. The effects of particle size were also investigated. Microwave drying resulted in enhanced AOP in M. alba and T. laurifolia. Oven drying resulted in declined AOP in T. laurifolia with M. alba and L. speciosa relatively unchanged. Significant increase in AOP was observed in freeze-dried leaves of M. alba with L. speciosa and T. laurifolia showing no change or slight increase. TPC, AEAC and FRP of ground microwave-, oven- and freeze-dried leaves of M. alba extracted with 50% methanol were significantly higher than shredded leaves. For tea infusions extracted with hot water, three categories were recognised, i.e. species with shredded leaves yielding stronger AOP (M. alba, species with ground leaves yielding stronger AOP (L. speciosa, and species with ground and shredded leaves yielding comparable AOP (T. laurifolia.

  20. Atividade Anti-inflamatória e Avaliação da Toxicidade do Extrato Hidroetanólico de Morus alba (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Bugnotto Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a atividade antiinflamatória do extrato hidroetanólico das folhas de Morus alba, através do modelo de indução de tecido granulomatoso e analisaram-se os efeitos toxicológicos sobre o fígado pela dosagem de AST e ALT e sobre o rim, pela dosagem de creatinina. O extrato hidroetanólico das folhas de M. alba foi administrado oralmente, três vezes ao dia, durante 6 dias. A nimesulida (5 mg/kg/dia foi utilizada como controle positivo e o propilenoglicol 20% como controle negativo. Após o tratamento, foi avaliada a formação do granuloma e realizada a dosagem de AST, ALT e creatinina em todos os grupos. Os animais tratados com o extrato de M. alba apresentaram inibição do processo inflamatório de 20,24 ± 6,94%, enquanto que os tratados com controle positivo apresentaram 21,42 ± 6,52%. O extrato hidroetanólico de M. alba demonstrou atividade antiinflamatória semelhante à nimesulida com ausência de indícios de hepatotoxicidade e nefrotoxicidade.

  1. Antidepressant-Like Effects of the Ethyl Acetate Soluble Fraction of the Root Bark of Morus alba on the Immobility Behavior of Rats in the Forced Swim Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST. Male Wistar rats (9-week-old were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01 with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05 and swimming (p < 0.05 behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity.

  2. Antidepressant-like effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the root bark of Morus alba on the immobility behavior of rats in the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

    2014-06-12

    In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity.

  3. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Sanggenon G, Isolated from the Root Bark of Morus alba, in Rats: Involvement of the Serotonergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Wook; Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Yun Tai; Kim, In-Ho; Han, Daeseok

    2015-01-01

    The root bark of Morus alba is commonly used as an alternative medicine due to its numerous health benefits in humans. However, the antidepressant effects of various active components from M. alba have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine whether sanggenon G, an active compound isolated from the root bark of M. alba, exhibited antidepressant-like activity in rats subjected to forced swim test (FST)-induced depression. Acute treatment of rats with sanggenon G (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) significantly reduced immobility time and increased swimming time without any significant change in climbing. Rats treated with sanggenon G also exhibited a decrease in the limbic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the FST, as indicated by attenuation of the corticosterone response and decreased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). In addition, the antidepressant-like effects of sanggenon G were significantly inhibited by WAY100635 (1 mg/kg, i.p.; a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) receptor antagonist), but not SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, i.p.; a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist). Our findings suggested that the antidepressant-like effects of sanggenon G were mediated by an interaction with the serotonergic system. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of sanggenon G as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression.

  4. Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from Morus macroura Miq.%光叶桑中酚类化合物的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴胜军; 于德泉; 吕子明; 陈若芸

    2006-01-01

    目的对光叶桑(Morus macroura Miq.)中的酚类化合物进行分离、鉴定.方法以硅胶、Sephadex LH-20、Rp C18、Rp C8色谱柱进行分离纯化,经理化性质、光谱数据鉴定化合物的结构.结果分离鉴定了7个酚类化合物,分别为moracin M(1)、2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,6-dihydroxybenzofuran(2)、mulberroside C(3)、oxyresveratrol(氧化白藜芦醇,4)、3',5',2,4-tetrahydroxy-4'-(3-methyl-1-butenyl)stilbene(5)、mulberrofuran G (6)、mulberrofuran K(7).结论化合物1~7为首次从该植物中分离得到,化合物3、5为首次从桑属植物中发现.

  5. Inhibitory effects of constituents from Morus alba var. multicaulis on differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Gang; Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2011-07-19

    A new arylbenzofuran, 3',5'-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-7-prenyl-2-arylbenzofuran (1), and 25 known compounds, including moracin R (2), moracin C (3), moracin O (4), moracin P (5), artoindonesianin O (6), moracin D (7), alabafuran A (8), mulberrofuran L (9), mulberrofuran Y (10), kuwanon A (11), kuwanon C (12), kuwanon T (13), morusin (14), kuwanon E (15), sanggenon F (16), betulinic acid (17), uvaol (18), ursolic acid (19), β-sitosterol (20), oxyresveratrol 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (21), mulberroside A (22), mulberroside B (23), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (24), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (25) and adenosine (26), were isolated from Morus alba var. multicaulis Perro. (Moraceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The prenyl-flavonoids 11-14, 16, triterpenoids 17,18 and 20 showed significant inhibitory activity towards the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The arylbenzofurans 1-10 and prenyl-flavonoids 11-16 also showed significant nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory effects in RAW264.7 cells.

  6. Determination of 1-deoxynojirimycin in Morus alba L. leaves by derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, Soo-Un; Lee, Heui Sam; Kim, Iksoo; Ahn, Mi Young; Ryu, Kang Sun

    2003-06-20

    A rapid and reliable method suitable for assays of a large number of Morus alba leaves for 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) has been developed. DNJ in 0.1 g of freeze-dried leaves was double-extracted in 10 mL of aqueous 0.05 M HCl by vortexing for 15 s at room temperature, derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl), and analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector. The double extraction recovered > 99% of extractable DNJ from the leaves. Stabilization of FMOC-derivatized DNJ (DNJ-FMOC) was achieved by diluting the reactant with aqueous acetic acid after derivatization. DNJ-FMOC was stable for at least 16 days under acidic conditions at room temperature (24 degrees C). Linearity ranged between 0.3 and 30 microg mL(-1). The intra- and inter-day precision for DNJ-spiked biological samples was between 0.6 and 1.8% and between 3.7 and 4.5%, respectively.

  7. Neuroprotective effect of prenylated arylbenzofuran and flavonoids from morus alba fruits on glutamate-induced oxidative injury in HT22 hippocampal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Lee, Dae-Young; Jeong, Rak-Hun; Lee, Dong-Sung; Kim, Young-Eon; Hong, Eock-Kee; Kim, Youn-Chul; Baek, Nam-In

    2015-04-01

    A prenylated arylbenzofuran and six flavonoids were isolated from the fruits of Morus alba L. through silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Diaion HP-20 column chromatography. Based on the nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopic data, the chemical structures of the compounds were determined to be artoindonesianin O (1), isobavachalcone (2), morachalcone A (3), quercetin (4), astragalin (5), isoquercetin (6), and rutin (7). The isolated compounds were evaluated for protection of HT22-immortalized hippocampal cells against glutamate-induced oxidative stress. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibited protective effects with EC(50) values of 19.7±1.2 and 35.5±2.1 μM, respectively. The major compounds 1-3 and 7 were quantified using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and were determined to be 1.88±2.1, 1.90±1.8, 0.78±1.5, and 37.29±2.2 mg/kg, respectively, in the ethanol extract of M. alba L. fruits.

  8. Characteristics of Heredity and Variation in Mulberry and Their Application in Selection and Breeding of Varieties%桑树的遗传变异特点及在品种选育中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏超; 焦锋

    2011-01-01

    我国具有悠久的桑树栽培历史,拥有3 000余份桑树种质资源,分属15个桑种和4个变种,并逐渐形成适应不同生 长环境的8个生态类型.依据已有的研究结果,综述桑树遗传变异的特点包括:广泛分布、自然有性杂交和异花授粉以及缺乏稳定性选择等,促进了桑树的突变发生,形成遗传变异的多样性;无性繁殖方式产生了丰富的无性系变异;性状遗传值中非加性效应占有较大比例;无性系品种间杂种一代存在复杂的多样性分离和经济性状的普遍退化;存在丰富的多倍体系列和普遍的混倍现象等.对桑树品种选育研究提出建议:基于桑树的高度杂合习性,不仅要重视研究不同品种中加性效应在遗传值中所占比率,更要研究非加性效应所占比率及充分利用的方法;基于桑树遗传变异的多样性和丰富的无性系变异,加强无性系和田间选优育种;利用桑树混倍现象,将培育多倍体特别是三倍体品种作为一条有效的多倍体育种途径.%Mulberry cultivation has a long history in China. Until now, more than 3 000 genetic resources have been collected, which belong to 15 mulberry species and 4 variants. Besides, they have gradually formed 8 ecological types a-daptable to various growth environments. Based on existing research results, this article summarized the characteristics of genetics and variation of mulberry including; wide distribution, natural sexual hybridization, heterogeneous pollination and lack of multigenerational successive selection that promoted mutation in mulberry to generate diversity of heredity and variation; asexual reproduction that generated rich variations in vegetative lines; non-additive effects that contributed a comparatively large portion to genetic values of characters;F1 generation between two asexual varieties that showed a large degree of diversity segregation and a general degeneration of economic characters;and the

  9. A Quality Test and Analysis to Mulberry Leaf Tea Prepared by Different Fixation Methods%不同杀青方法制备桑叶茶的品质测试分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施英; 廖森泰; 肖更生; 邹宇晓; 刘凡; 刘军; 高云超

    2012-01-01

    杀青是桑叶茶形状和品质形成的关键工序.将采摘的新鲜桑叶采用微波加热、蒸气加热和滚筒加热的方法进行杀青处理,测试不同杀青方法加工后成品桑叶茶的感官品质及营养保健品质.结果表明,微波杀青加工桑叶茶的外形色泽、汤色、叶底等感官品质较好,总浸出率、总黄酮含量和游离氨基酸含量等各项指标均高于其它2种杀青方法加工的桑叶茶,且对水浸出率、可溶性糖含量以及总多酚含量3项指标的影响达到显著水平,但香气和滋味欠佳.综合各项测试结果认为,微波杀青能较好保持桑叶茶的营养保健品质和感官品质,可考虑优化微波杀青工艺参数改善桑叶茶的香气和滋味.%Fixing is the key process to ensure good appearance and quality of mulberry leaf tea product.The present study used microwave heating,steam heating and rolling press heating methods to fix freshly picked mulberry leaves and compared the quality of mulberry leaf tea products prepared from different fixation methods through sensory organ assessment and nutritional component analysis.The results showed that mulberry leaf tea prepared by microwave heating had good appearance,good tea liquid color,good infused leaf color and other favorable sensory quality.Its total infusion rate,total flavonoid content,free amino acid content and other various indexes were higher than those of the mulberry leaf tea prepared by the other two fixation methods.Nevertheless,its difference reached significant level on three indexes namely water infusion rate,soluble sugar and total polyphenol contents.However,its fragrance and taste was not of the mostly favored.Taken together,microwave fixation could preserve nutritional components and sensory quality well and further experiments are expected to optimize microwave fixation process for improving the fragrance and taste of mulberry leaf tea product.

  10. Stability of natural dye mulberry sorosis and mordant dyeing of silk fabrics with it%桑椹天然染料的稳定性及其对丝织物媒染染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林龙; 王华印; 李萍; 封怀兵

    2011-01-01

    Low affinity and poor color fastness are confronted when dyeing silk fabrics with mulberry dye. For fully displaying the color feature of mulberry dyes, proper dyeing parameters and mordant dyeing processes were selected to dye silk fabrics. The stability of natural dye mulberry sorosis and its mordant dyeing effects on silk fabrics were investigated by testing the visible absorption spectra of mulberry sorosis dye solutions, color depth(K/S value) and color fastness of the dyed silk fabrics. The results indicated that natural dye mulberry sorosis solution showed satisfactory color feature at pH of 4 and 80 ℃ . Mordant dyeing, especially post-mordanting dyeing process, can greatly improve the performances on both color depth and color fastness of the silk fabrics dyed with natural dye mulberry sorosis.%针对桑椹染料对丝织物染色亲和力低、色牢度差的问题,为最大程度表现桑椹染料颜色特点,选择合理的桑椹染料染色工艺参数、媒染工艺对丝织物进行染色.通过测试桑椹染液的可见吸收光谱、染色织物色度(K/S值)及染色牢度来探讨桑椹天然染料的颜色稳定性及其对丝织物的媒染效果.研究结果显示:桑椹染液在pH值为4以下、温度为80℃以下表现出良好的颜色特征;利用媒染工艺,尤其是后媒染色工艺可以较大程度提升桑椹染料在丝织物上的染色深度和牢度.

  11. Determination on Contents of Major Stilbenes in Different Varieties and Different Sampling Positions of Mulberry%桑树不同品种及取材部位中的主要芪类成分含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晋; 李顺祥; 龚昕; 颜新培; 虢小翊; 佟志远; 郑群怡; 黄丹; 魏宝阳

    2012-01-01

    Stilbenes, one of secondary metabolites of mulberry, have been well characterized to possess various bioac-tive properties. A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detection method was employed to de termine the contents of three major stilbenes, namely mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol and resveratrol, from different portions of different mulberry varieties. It was found that mulberry varieties Zhongsheng Huosang, Hei-lusang, Tang 10, and Xiaojiguan Sang had high content of stilbenes. The mass ratio of stilbenes in samples of these mulberry varieties were 3 228. 3, 3 162. 7, 3 049. 7 and 2 462. 4 μg/g respectively. Among various sampling positions of mulberry, the annual branch had higher content of stilbenes than young shoot and leaf. The mass ratio of stilbenes in annual branch, young shoot and leaf was 3 879.0, 813.2 and 501.6 μg/g, respectively. These test results can be used as a reference to screen medicinal mulberry materials with high content of stilbenes.%芪类物质是桑树的次生代谢产物之一,具有多种生物活性功能.采用反相高效液相色谱-紫外检测法,测定不同桑树品种及同一品种不同取材部位的桑皮苷A、氧化白藜芦醇、白藜芦醇等主要芪类成分含量.芪类成分含量相对较高的桑树品种有中生火桑、黑鲁桑、塘10、小鸡冠桑等,4个桑树品种样品中芪类成分的质量比分别为3228.3、3162.7、3049.7、2462.4μg/g.桑树不同取材部位中,以1年生枝条中的芪类成分含量较高,新梢和桑叶中的含量较低,3个部位样品中的芪类成分质量比分别为3879.0、813.2、501.6 μg/g.检测结果可作为筛选芪类成分含量高的桑树药用材料的依据.

  12. 高效液相色谱法测定桑枝黑木耳中 DNJ 的含量%Determination of DNJ in Black Fungus Planted on Mulberry Branches by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞雪; 王钰婷; 胡飞; 王伟; 高新文; 汪泰初

    2015-01-01

    通过柱前衍生化高效液相色谱法测定桑枝黑木耳中1-脱氧野尻霉素(1-deoxynojimycin ,DNJ)的含量.结果表明 ,用芴甲氧酰氯(FMOC-Cl)为衍生化试剂衍生化DNJ ,选择Waters X-bridge C18色谱柱 ,流动相为乙腈-0 .1% 醋酸(体积比55︰45) ,流速为1 .0 mL/min ,UV检测波长为254nm时 ,DNJ-FMOC 的峰面积与DNJ浓度呈高度正相关 ,相关系数为0 .9966 ,该检测方法灵敏、准确、稳定的、快捷 ,适合桑枝黑木耳等桑枝食用菌中 DNJ含量的检测.普通黑木耳不能自我合成DNJ ,但对桑枝中的DNJ有较好的富集能力 ,桑枝黑木耳中DNJ含量高达0 .3854% ,可利用桑枝黑木耳等桑枝食用菌对DNJ的富集能力来提高桑枝食用菌的开发利用价值.%Pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to determine the content of 1-deoxynojimycin (DNJ) in black fungus planted on mulberry branches .The results showed that when the DNJ marked with 9-fluorenyl methyl chloroformate was detected with WatersX-bridge C18 column ,the mobilephase consisted of aceto-nitrile-0 .1% aqueous acetic acid (55︰45) ,the rate of 1 .0mL/min ,the excitation wave length of 254nm ,and there was a high positive correlation between the peak area and concentration of DNJ-FMOC with a correlation coefficient of 0 .9966 . This method is sensitive ,accurate ,stabilized ,rapid and applicable for the determination of DNJ in black fungus planted on mulberry branches .The common black fungus could not synthesize DNJ by itself ,but it could enrich DNJ from mul-berry branches ,and the content of DNJ in black fungus on mulberry branches was up to 0 .3854% .In the future ,we can cultivate edible fungi with stronger enrichment ability of DNJ by mulberry branches to improve development and utilization of mulberry branches black fungus .

  13. Improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of date plum, persimmon and mulberry on UVB-induced skin damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Shin, Jae Young; Fang, Chong Zhou; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of Date Plum, Persimmon and Mulberry (γ-DPME) on UVB induced skin damage. The samples were gamma irradiated at doses of 10 kGy. γ-DPME treatment tended to decrease UVB-induced immune cell infiltration and erthyderma index than the groups treated with non-gamma-irradiated DPME (n-DPME) and L-ascobic acid (AA). In addition, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased skin thickness, melanin index and mast cell infiltration in UVB-irradiated skin. Moreover, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased the compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and immune cell infiltration than n-DPME group. These results show that gamma irradiation can be used to increase the physiological activities of DPME.

  14. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry ( Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS. The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05 among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75 and DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP. The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber was significantly lower (p<0.05 for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively. Nitrogen (N intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05 higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d. In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05 in T1 (120.3 mM, whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%. However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05 higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  15. Determination of quercetin in Mulberry Concentrate Granules by HPLC%HPLC 法测定桑椹配方颗粒中槲皮素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任菲菲; 郑艳青; 马斐; 张静; 李智慧

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for the determination of quercetin in Mulberry Concentrate Gran-ules. Methods Quercetin was separated on Krcomasil C18(4. 6 mm × 200 mm,5 μm)column,the mobile phase was meth-anol - 0. 4% phosphate(43:57)with the flow rate of 1. 0 mL·min - 1 and the detection wavelength was 360 nm. Results The linear range of quercetin was 0. 003 424 ~ 0. 017 12 μg(r = 0. 999 7). The average recovery was 98. 16% and the RSD was 1. 6%(n = 6). Conclusion The method was simple,accurate and reproducible,and it could be used for the determi-nation of quercetin in Mulberry Concentrate Granules.%目的:建立用高效液相色谱法测定桑椹配方颗粒中槲皮素的含量的方法。方法色谱柱为 Krcomasil C18(4.6 mm ×200 mm,5μm);流动相:甲醇-0.4%磷酸(43:57);流速:1.0 mL·min -1;检测波长:360 nm。结果槲皮素进样量为0. 003 424 ~0. 017 12 μg(r =0. 999 7)范围内与线性关系良好;平均回收率为98. 16%,RSD 为1. 6%(n =6)。结论 该方法简便、准确、重复性好,可用于桑椹配方颗粒中槲皮素的测定。

  16. Combined treatment of mulberry leaf and fruit extract ameliorates obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Hwa; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Yuri; Lee, Myoungsook; Lim, Yunsook

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined treatment of mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) was effective for improving obesity and obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. After obesity was induced by HF diet for 9 weeks, the mice were divided into eight groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF diet-induced obese control, (3) 1:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L1:1), (4) 500 (M1:1), and (5) 1000 (H1:1) mg/kg per day, and (6) 2:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L2:1), (7) 500 (M2:1), and (8) 1000 (H2:1) mg/kg per day. All six combined treatments significantly lowered body weight gain, plasma triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation levels after the 12-week treatment period. Additionally, all combined treatments suppressed hepatic fat accumulation and reduced epididymal adipocyte size. These improvements were accompanied by decreases in protein levels of proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and phospho-nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor alpha) and oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase). M2:1 was the most effective ratio and dose for the improvements in obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that a combined MLE and MFE treatment ameliorated obesity and obesity-related metabolic stressors and suggest that it can be used as a means to prevent and/or treat obesity.

  17. Removal of Ni(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions using 'green' zero-valent iron nanoparticles produced by oak and mulberry leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poguberović, S S; Krčmar, D M; Dalmacija, B D; Maletić, S P; Tomašević-Pilipović, D D; Kerkez, Dj V; Rončević, S D

    2016-11-01

    The production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles, using extracts from natural products, represents a green and environmentally friendly method. Synthesis of 'green' zero-valent nanoparticles (nZVI) using oak and mulberry leaf extracts (OL-nZVI and ML-nZVI) proved to be a promising approach for Ni(II) and Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the produced green nZVI materials had been conducted previously and confirmed the formation of nanosize zero-valent iron particles within the size range of 10-30 nm, spherical with minimum agglomeration observed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscope morphology measurements. Batch experiments revealed that the adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order rate equation. The obtained adsorption isotherm data could be well described by the Freundlich model and OL-nZVI showed higher adsorption capacity for Ni(II) removal than ML-nZVI, while ML-nZVI adsorption capacity was higher for Cu(II). In addition, investigation of the pH effect showed that varying the initial pH value had a great effect on Ni(II) and Cu(II) removal. Adsorbed amounts of Ni(II) and Cu(II) increased with pH increase to pH 7.0 and 8.0. This study indicated that nZVI produced by a low-cost and non-toxic method with oak and mulberry leaf extracts could be used as a new material for remediation of water matrices contaminated with Ni(II) and Cu(II).

  18. Comparison of Total DNA Extraction Methods for Studying Endophyte Diversity in Mulberry%DNA提取方法对桑树内生菌多样性研究的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雅丽; 马嫚; 张韧; 万幸; 邝枣园

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the advantages and disadvantages of the four DNA extraction methods according to the endophytic diversity in the roots, stems, and leaves of mulberry analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) , and by taking the yield, purity and PCR amplification as indexes. Methods Four common methods, i.e., cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide ( CTAB) , sterile phosphate buffered saline (SPBS) vibration, liquid nitrogen grinding (LNG) , and KIT methods, were used to extract the total DNA from different tissues of mulberry, and then were compared based on the diversity analysis results for endophyte by PCR-DGGE. Results From the roots and stems of mulberry, we got the highest concentration of DNA by LNG extraction method, and got the lowest concentration by SPBS extraction method. But for the leaves of mulberry, the results of the four extraction methods were completely opposite to those for the roots and stems. For different tissues of mulberry, the purity of DNA extracted by KIT method was the best. According to the endophytic bacteria diversity analyzed by 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE, the appropriate method for extraction of DNA was LNG or CTAB, but was not KIT. And according to the results of endophytic fungi diversity analyzed by ITS PCR-DGGE, the best extraction method was KIT, and the unsuited methods varied from the tissues of mulberry. Conclusion The optimum DNA extraction method for mulberry varies from the tissues of mulberry and endophtic bacteria.%【目的】基于聚合酶链式反应—变性梯度凝胶电泳(PCR-DGGE)对桑树根、茎、叶组织内生菌多样性的分析,结合浓度、纯度、 PCR扩增性等指标,比较4种DNA提取方法之优劣。【方法】采用常见的DNA提取方法十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTAB)法、缓冲液振荡(SPBS)法、液氮研磨(LNG)法和试剂盒(KIT)法提取桑树各组织DNA,从PCR-DGGE多样性等多方面对4种方法进行比较

  19. Bird Diversity During Ripe Berry Period of Morus Mocrora in Mountain Region,Xishuangbanna,Yunnan%长果桑果熟期摄食鸟类多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王直军; 陈进; 邓晓保; 白智林; 刘勇; 刘志秋

    2001-01-01

    A gap in current knowledge is in the ways of conver sion and recovery of mountain ecosystem, however, mobile species such as birds c an help us to know the basic dynamics of the natural processes. This work was th rough a comparative study on Morus mocroura and bird divers ity in Menglun and Nangong Mountain of Xishuangbanna to understand the dynamics. Data were analyzed using the Shannon-Wiener function formula and overlap functi on formula.   This field work was carried out during the ripe period of polymeric berries of Morus mocroura which were eaten by birds. The sizes of the fragrant polymeric berri es are suitable for different gape width that attract many species of birds, and these birds easily swallow the berries in different ways. There is a harmonious relationship between birds and food resources to coexist, however it is changin g because of the influence of human in some areas of Xishuangbanna. Through a c omparativ e study in Menglun and Nangong Mountain, concerning forest plots, the diversity( H and Hmax) of birds, and foraging ratio is higher at the Nangong Mountain, the overlap of the foraging birds and their competition is higher in Menglun forest plots. There are 35 species including 23 species and subspecies of native birds , 10 species of special protected birds have been recorded in Nangong Mountain, only 20 species including 12 species and subspecies of native birds in Menglun f orest plots. Many species of birds are quickly disappearing with the destruction of primary frest ecosystem in Menglun mountain region.   Biodiversity conservation should be put into ecosystem as a whole. If we do n ot study mountain ecosystem soon, we shall face a grave problem with a poorer en vironment and living condition. It is essential that restoration and conservatio n should be undertaken before substantial losses of species have occurred. The p roblem of bird diversity reducing should be solved by applying a system matical approach combining

  20. Isolation and Screening of Antagonistic Microorganisms Against Pathogenic Bacteria of Mulberry Red Rust%桑赤锈病病原菌拮抗微生物的分离与筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔萍; 安慧; 李美娜

    2015-01-01

    为寻求生防微生物用于防治桑赤锈病,采用平板对峙法初步筛选农田根际及非根际土壤、贫瘠山地土壤及健康桑叶分离的微生物,用琼脂平板扩散法测定初筛拮抗菌株发酵液的抑菌活性。结果表明:初筛共得到25株菌株对桑赤锈病病原菌有明显的抑菌带,复筛共得到 5株菌株对其具有较强的拮抗作用,以细菌 C53的抑菌效果最好,抑菌率达65.4%。%Microorganisms isolated from farmland rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil,rhizosphere soil of plants grown in infertile mountainous area and healthy mulberry leaves were preliminarily screened by the agar plate method,and then the bacteriostatic activity of fermentation broth of screened antagonistic strains was determined by the agar plate diffusion method to probe biological control of mulberry red rust. The results showed that 25 preliminarily screened strains have obvious inhibition zones against mulberry red rust and five secondarily screened strains have the stronger antagonism against mulberry red rust.The antibacterial rate of C53 strain can be up to 65.4%.

  1. An Analysis on the Origin and Implied Meaning of "Mulberry Forest Musical Dance Figure"%“桑林乐舞图”来源疏证与形态寓意分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向春香; 陶红; 向仲怀

    2013-01-01

    “桑林”最初是商朝成汤王祈雨救济天下苍生的地点,后成为祭祀先祖的重要场所和男女相属之观,“桑林乐舞”也就成为国之“禘乐”,有固定的节奏和程式,在春秋战国至魏晋时期的青铜礼器、汉砖以及墓室壁画中均有图像呈现.本文通过对先秦文献的梳理和考古器物的归类,以及民间风俗的佐证,认为“桑林乐舞图”既是古代农业技术图谱的源头,也反映了桑植活动在中华农耕文明中的重要作用.%" Mulberry forest" was initially the location where King Cheng-tang of Shang Dynasty prayed for rain to relieve people. Later, it became an important place for people to worship their ancestors as well as a place for young men and women meeting each other. "Mulberry Forest Musical Dance" thus became a national sacrifice activity with fixed rhythm and procedure, which was expressed on bronze ritual vessels, Han dynasty bricks and tomb murals from Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period to Wei and Jin Dynasties. Through referencing to literatures of pre-Qin period, careful examination to archaeological artifacts and acquiring verification from folk customs, it is concluded that "Mulberry Forest Musical Dance Figure" is not only the source of pictures ancient agricultural techniques but also a symbol reflecting the important role of mulberry planting activity in Chinese agricultural civilization.

  2. The anti-angiogenic herbal composition Ob-X from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris regulates obesity in genetically obese ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Michung; Kim, Min-Young

    2011-06-01

    The growth and development of adipose tissue leading to obesity is suggested to depend on angiogenesis. Our previous study showed that Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are involved in the regulation of angiogenesis. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, M. alba, M. officinalis, and A. capillaris, can regulate obesity. To investigate the inhibitory effect of Ob-X on obesity in genetically obese ob/ob mice. The effect of Ob-X on angiogenesis was measured using a mouse Matrigel plug assay. The effects of Ob-X on obesity were investigated in ob/ob mice. Ob-X inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by decreased blood vessel density in a mouse matrigel plug assay. Administration of Ob-X to ob/ob mice for 5 weeks produced a significant reduction in body weight gain by 27% compared with control (12.1 ± 3.01 vs. 16.6 ± 2.24 g, respectively). Ob-X also significantly decreased visceral adipose tissue mass by 15% (0.87 ± 0.12 vs. 1.02 ± 0.15 g, respectively). The size of adipocytes in visceral adipose tissue was reduced by 46% in Ob-X-treated mice. Ob-X treatment inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation and significantly decreased circulating glucose levels compared with controls (197 ± 56.5 vs. 365 ± 115 mg/dL, respectively). These results suggest that Ob-X, which has an anti-angiogenic activity, reduces body weight gain and visceral adipose tissue mass in genetically obese mice, providing evidence that obesity can be prevented by angiogenesis inhibitors.

  3. Composición química de la morera (morus alba, para uso en la alimentación animal: densidades y frecuencias de poda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Composición química de la morera (Morus alba, para uso en la alimentación animal: densidades y frecuencias de poda. El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental de Ganado Lechero “Alfredo Volio Mata”, Cartago, Costa Rica. Las muestras fueron obtenidas de una plantación de morera dividida en tres lotes, con un distanciamiento entre plantas de 60, 90 y 120 cm entre hileras y plantas. Cada parcela se uniformó en dos alturas de poda, 30 y 60 cm sobre el nivel del suelo. Las subparcelas se podaron en forma consecutiva cada 56, 84 y 112 días durante 336 días. Los factores distancia se siembra, altura de poda y frecuencia de corte, influyeron sobre los contenidos químicos de la materia seca. La distancia de siembra y la altura de poda produjeron pequeñas variaciones en la composición de la hojas y en los tallos de la morera. La frecuencia de corte produjo cambios en la composición del las hojas y tallos de la morera; sin embargo, las diferencias en materia seca, proteína, carbohidratos estructurales o en las cenizas totales de las hojas no fueron superiores al 3% entre las frecuencias experimentadas. En el tallo los cambios mayores fueron de un 9% y se produjeron en los contenidos de materia seca, pared celular y en algunos de sus constituyentes estructurales como la celulosa. El número de corte dentro de cada frecuencia influyó de manera significativa sobre las proporciones químicas de hojas y tallos

  4. In vitro antioxidant, collagenase inhibition, and in vivo anti-wrinkle effects of combined formulation containing Punica granatum, Ginkgo biloba, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract

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    Ghimeray AK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Amal Kumar Ghimeray,1 Un Sun Jung,1,2 Ha Youn Lee,1 Young Hoon Kim,1 Eun Kyung Ryu,1 Moon Sik Chang11R&D Center, Natural Solution Co., Ltd, Gojan-dong, Namdong-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Horticultural Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of KoreaBackground: In phytotherapy, the therapeutic potential is based on the combined action of different herbal drugs. Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-collagenase (in vitro, and anti-wrinkle (in vivo effect of combined formulation containing Ginkgo biloba, Punica granatum, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract.Methods: Antioxidant evaluation was based on the scavenging activity of free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H2O2, and O2- and the anti-collagenase activity was based on the reduction of collagenase enzyme in vitro. In an in vivo study, 21 female subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled trail. Facial wrinkle, especially the crow's feet region of eyes, was treated with topical formulated 2% cream for 56 days and compared with the placebo.Results: In the in vitro study, the combination of fruits extract showed a higher antioxidant activity which was comparable with the positive standard (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, and Trolox. The data also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase. In the in vivo study, treatment with 2% formulated cream for 56 days significantly reduced the percentage of wrinkle depth, length, and area with 11.5, 10.07, and 29.55, respectively.Conclusion: The combined formulation of fruit extracts showed excellent antioxidative and anti-collagenase activity as well as a significant effect on anti-wrinkle activity on human skin.Keywords: antioxidant, anti-collagenase, anti-wrinkle, fruits, topical formulation

  5. Integrated HPTLC-based Methodology for the Tracing of Bioactive Compounds in Herbal Extracts Employing Multivariate Chemometrics. A Case Study on Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaita, Eliza; Gikas, Evagelos; Aligiannis, Nektarios

    2017-03-01

    In drug discovery, bioassay-guided isolation is a well-established procedure, and still the basic approach for the discovery of natural products with desired biological properties. However, in these procedures, the most laborious and time-consuming step is the isolation of the bioactive constituents. A prior identification of the compounds that contribute to the demonstrated activity of the fractions would enable the selection of proper chromatographic techniques and lead to targeted isolation. The development of an integrated HPTLC-based methodology for the rapid tracing of the bioactive compounds during bioassay-guided processes, using multivariate statistics. Materials and Methods - The methanol extract of Morus alba was fractionated employing CPC. Subsequently, fractions were assayed for tyrosinase inhibition and analyzed with HPTLC. PLS-R algorithm was performed in order to correlate the analytical data with the biological response of the fractions and identify the compounds with the highest contribution. Two methodologies were developed for the generation of the dataset; one based on manual peak picking and the second based on chromatogram binning. Results and Discussion - Both methodologies afforded comparable results and were able to trace the bioactive constituents (e.g. oxyresveratrol, trans-dihydromorin, 2,4,3'-trihydroxydihydrostilbene). The suggested compounds were compared in terms of Rf values and UV spectra with compounds isolated from M. alba using typical bioassay-guided process. Chemometric tools supported the development of a novel HPTLC-based methodology for the tracing of tyrosinase inhibitors in M. alba extract. All steps of the experimental procedure implemented techniques that afford essential key elements for application in high-throughput screening procedures for drug discovery purposes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Determination of the genetic structure of remnant Morus boninensis Koidz. trees to establish a conservation program on the Bonin Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Naoki; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Takayuki; Hoshi, Yoshio; Nobushima, Fuyuo; Yasui, Takaya

    2006-10-11

    Morus boninensis, is an endemic plant of the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands of Japan and is categorized as "critically endangered" in the Japanese red data book. However, little information is available about its ecological, evolutionary and genetic status, despite the urgent need for guidelines for the conservation of the species. Therefore, we adopted Moritz's MU concept, based on the species' current genetic structure, to define management units and to select mother tree candidates for seed orchards. Nearly all individuals of the species were genotyped on the basis of seven microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity levels in putative natural populations were higher than in putative man-made populations with the exception of those on Otouto-jima Island. This is because a limited number of maternal trees are likely to have been used for seed collection to establish the man-made populations. A model-based clustering analysis clearly distinguished individuals into nine clusters, with a large difference in genetic composition between the population on Otouto-jima Island, the putative natural populations and the putative man-made populations. The Otouto-jima population appeared to be genetically differentiated from the others; a finding that was also supported by pairwise FST and RST analysis. Although multiple clusters were detected in the putative man-made populations, the pattern of genetic diversity was monotonous in comparison to the natural populations. The genotyping by microsatellite markers revealed strong genetic structures. Typically, artificial propagation of this species has ignored the genetic structure, relying only on seeds from Otouto-jima for replanting on other islands, because of a problem with inter-specific hybridization on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima Islands. However, this study demonstrates that we should be taking into consideration the genetic structure of the species when designing a propagation program for the conservation of this species.

  7. Determination of the genetic structure of remnant Morus boninensis Koidz. trees to establish a conservation program on the Bonin Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobushima Fuyuo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morus boninensis, is an endemic plant of the Bonin (Ogasawara Islands of Japan and is categorized as "critically endangered" in the Japanese red data book. However, little information is available about its ecological, evolutionary and genetic status, despite the urgent need for guidelines for the conservation of the species. Therefore, we adopted Moritz's MU concept, based on the species' current genetic structure, to define management units and to select mother tree candidates for seed orchards. Results Nearly all individuals of the species were genotyped on the basis of seven microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity levels in putative natural populations were higher than in putative man-made populations with the exception of those on Otouto-jima Island. This is because a limited number of maternal trees are likely to have been used for seed collection to establish the man-made populations. A model-based clustering analysis clearly distinguished individuals into nine clusters, with a large difference in genetic composition between the population on Otouto-jima Island, the putative natural populations and the putative man-made populations. The Otouto-jima population appeared to be genetically differentiated from the others; a finding that was also supported by pairwise FST and RST analysis. Although multiple clusters were detected in the putative man-made populations, the pattern of genetic diversity was monotonous in comparison to the natural populations. Conclusion The genotyping by microsatellite markers revealed strong genetic structures. Typically, artificial propagation of this species has ignored the genetic structure, relying only on seeds from Otouto-jima for replanting on other islands, because of a problem with inter-specific hybridization on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima Islands. However, this study demonstrates that we should be taking into consideration the genetic structure of the species when designing a

  8. Efecto de la inclusión de diferentes niveles de morera (Morus alba en la calidad nutricional de ensilajes de sorgo (Sorghum almum

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    A Alpízar

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto de la inclusión de diferentes niveles de morera (Morus alba en la calidad nutricional de ensilajes de sorgo (Sorghum almum. Se evaluaron cinco proporciones de sorgo:morera (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 y 0:100, con un diseño completamente aleatorizado y tres réplicas por cada tratamiento. Las mezclas se hicieron en base fresca y se colocaron en tanques plásticos de 120 L. La compactación se realizó en capas de 20 cm, mediante el apisonamiento con los pies, y se adicionó melaza a razón del 4 % del peso del material verde. Los ensilajes fueron almacenados durante 40 días. Antes y después de la conservación, se determinó: la materia seca (MS, la proteína cruda (PC, la fibra neutro detergente (FND, la fibra ácido detergente (FAD, la hemicelulosa y las cenizas. Con el aumento del porcentaje de morera se incrementaron de manera significativa los contenidos de MS, PC y cenizas (p < 0,05. La FND, la FAD y la hemicelulosa tendieron a aumentar después de la conservación. Los valores de pH de las mezclas 100:0 (3,81, 75:25 (3,91 y 50:50 (3,89 tuvieron diferencias significativas (p < 0,01 respecto a 75:25 (4,05 y 0:100 (4,08. La valoración organoléptica mostró un proceso de conservación adecuado en todas las mezclas. Se concluye que la inclusión de 50 % de morera constituye una alternativa viable para mejorar la calidad nutricional del ensilaje de sorgo.

  9. Avaliação toxicológica pré-clínica do chá das folhas de Morus nigra L. (Moraceae Pre-clinical toxicological evaluation of tea from the leaves of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae

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    A.C.B. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi realizar um ensaio toxicológico pré-clínico para analisar a toxicidade do chá das folhas de Morus nigra L. (Moraceae. A toxicidade subcrônica do chá (CF-Mn foi avaliada durante 30 dias por via oral em ratos. Ao grupo controle foi administrado água, para comparação. Durante o período experimental foi avaliada a presença de sinais de toxicidade, variação do peso corporal, e o consumo de líquido e alimento. Ao final do experimento o sangue dos animais foi retirado para análise de parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos. Não foram observados mortalidade e sinais de toxicidade indicando baixa toxicidade da planta. Não houve alterações nos parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos. Nas condições do estudo, o CF-Mn pode ser considerado de baixa toxicidade, pois não produziu efeitos tóxicos nos animais tratados.The aim of this study was to carry out a pre-clinical toxicological assay to analyze the toxicity of tea from the leaves of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae. The subchronic toxicity of this tea (CF-Mn was orally evaluated during 30 days in rats. The control group was given water for comparison. During the experimental period, signs of toxicity, body weight variation, and water and food consumption were assessed. At the end of the experiment, the blood of animals was removed for analysis of hematological and biochemical parameters. No mortality and no toxicity signs were observed, indicating low toxicity of the plant. There was no alteration in the hematological and biochemical parameters. Under the study conditions, CF-Mn can be considered of low toxicity since it did not produce toxic effects in treated animals.

  10. Efecto del tipo de explante y la concentración de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético en la formación de callos en Morus alba L. Effect of explant type and concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on callus formation in Morus alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Espinosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del tipo de explante y la concentración de 2,4-D en la formación de callos, en Morus alba L. Como fuentes de explantes se utilizaron limbos foliares, tallos y pecíolos, obtenidos a partir de estacas que brotaron en condiciones de laboratorio. El medio de cultivo basal estuvo constituido por las sales y vitaminas MS (1962, con diferentes concentraciones de 2,4-D (0; 0,5; 1,0 y 2,0 mg.L-1. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado. La formación de callos en todos los tipos de explantes se inició en los primeros 15 días posteriores al establecimiento in vitro. La callogénesis solo ocurrió en los medios de cultivo con 2,4-D. La zona de formación del callo, su color y textura dependieron del tipo de explante utilizado. El aumento de la concentración de 2,4-D en el medio de cultivo incrementó el tamaño de los callos, con los mejores resultados en las concentraciones de 1,0 y 2,0 mg.L-1The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of explant type and concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on callus formation, in Morus alba L. As explant sources leaf blades, stems and petioles were used , obtained from cuttings which produced growths under laboratory conditions. The basal culture medium was constituted by MS salts and vitamins (1962, with different concentrations of 2,4-D (0; 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 mg.L-1. A completely randomized experimental design was used. Callus formation in all explant types started in the first 15 days after the in vitro establishment. Callogenesis only occurred in the culture media with 2,4-D. The callus formation zone, callus color and texture depended on the explant type used. The increase of 2,4-D concentration in the culture medium increased callus size, with the best results in the concentrations 1,0 and 2,0 mg.L-1.

  11. Research Progress on Antioxidant Activity of Wood Vinegar and Extract from Morus alba Leaves%木醋液与桑叶提取物的抗氧化活性进展∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪蒙; 王海英; 施月园; 燕云飞; 刘一迪

    2016-01-01

    Determination of antibacterial activity and antioxidant activity of wood vinegar are theoretical basis for development and utilization of high value added wood vinegar products. Antioxidant activity of wood vinegar is different from that of raw materials, preparation conditions and refining methods. Flavonoid compounds and polysaccharide compounds from Morus alba leaves have strong hypoglycemic activity and antioxidant activity, respectively. Wood vinegar and Morus alba leaves extract compounding is expected to preparing synergistic antioxidant activity compound preparation, in order to get strong antioxidant activity of compound wood vinegar products.%木醋液的抑菌活性、抗氧化活性等测定为木醋液高附加值产品的开发利用提供理论基础。木醋液的抗氧化活性,因原料种类、制备条件、精制方法等而异。桑叶黄酮类化合物、多糖类化合物等均具有较强的降血糖活性和抗氧化活性。木醋液与桑叶提取物的复配,有望制备增效抗氧化活性复方制剂,以期得到抗氧化活性较强的复方木醋液产品。

  12. FORMULASI, KANDUNGAN GIZI, DAN DAYA TERIMA KUE-KUE TRADISIONAL MAKASSAR BERBASIS TEPUNG PUPAE–MULBERRY (PURY SEBAGAI MAKANAN BERGIZI MASA DEPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Meliyanti Kusharto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aims of this research was to formulate and improve the nutrient content and define of makassar traditional snack which was enriched with Pupae-mulberry (Pury powder. Experimental study was conducted and proximate analysis was used to determine nutrient content of the product and acceptance test was used by hedonic test of 25-32 semi-trained panelists. This research produced three kinds of traditional snacks, namely Rampari sponge cake, Deppatori Pury, and Pury sticks. Based on organoleptic test product Deppatori was selected to develop further by mixing basic substances consist of rice flour, glutinous rice flour, brown sugar, sesame and water with pupae-mulberry (pury powder. The formulas were F1 (pury powder 5%, F2 (pury powder 10%, and F3 (pury powder 15%. The study showed that by hedonic scale, the panel preferred F2 because the addition more than 10% of Pury powder will make texture harder. Hedonic quality scale indicated that F2 had characteristics yellowish brown color, taste and flavor close to neutral. Nutrient content of Deppatori Pury 10% (per 100 g was water 7.92 g, ash 1.19 g, protein 5.80 g, fat 25.99 g, carbohydrates 67.02 g, energy 484 kcal, calcium 74.14 mg, iron 1.96 mg, phosporus 97.23 mg, respectively and result of microbiology test was 390 cfu/g. Protein contribution of Deppatori-Pury 10% per 100 g serving size to RDA of elderly was 9.4-10.4%. Therefore, two serving size is recommended for Deppatori-Pury as future food to reach 20% RDA protein.Keywords: acceptability, deppatori, makassar’s snack, pury powderABSTRAKTujuan penelitian adalah melakukan formulasi dan meningkatkan kandungan zat gizi serta daya terima kue-kue tradisional Makassar yang diperkaya tepung pupae-mulberry (Pury. Penelitian ini merupakan studi eksperimental yang melakukan analisis kandungan zat gizi secara proksimat dan uji penerimaan panelis (organoleptik menggunakan uji hedonik oleh 25-32 orang panelis semi terlatih. Pembuatan kue

  13. Synergistic Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Artichoke, Fig, Mulberry Herbal Mixture on HepG2 Cells and their Metabolic Profiling Using NMR Coupled with Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Fadia S; Labib, Rola M; Eldahshan, Omayma A; Singab, Abdel Nasser B

    2017-09-12

    The edible plants have long been reported to possess a lot of biological activities. Herein, the hepatoprotective and the antioxidant activity of the aqueous infusion of the edible parts of Cynara cardunculus, Ficus carica and Morus nigra and their herbal mixture (CFM) was investigated in vitro using CCl4 induced damage in HepG2 cells. The highest amelioration was observed via the consumption of CFM at 1 mg/ml showing 47.00, 37.09% decline in AST (Aspartate Transaminase) and ALT (Alanine Transaminase) and 77.32 and 101.02% increase in GSH (Reduced Glutathione) and SOD (Superoxide dismutase) comparable to CCl4 treated cells. Metabolic profiling of their aqueous infusions was done using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic experiments coupled with chemometrics particularly HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analysis). The structural closeness of the various metabolites existing in black berry and the mixture as reflected in the PCA score plot and HCA processed from the (1) H NMR spectral data could eventually explained the close values in their biological behavior. For fig and artichoke the existence of different phenolic metabolites that act synergistically could greatly interpret their potent biological behavior. Thus, it can be concluded that a herbal mixture composed of black berry, artichoke and fig could afford an excellent natural candidate to combat oxidative stress and counteract hepatic toxins owing to its phenolic compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigating the Process Conditions of Mulberry Silk Degumming with Papain%蚕丝木瓜蛋白酶脱胶工艺条件探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓一民; 张高军; 敬凌霄; 温少美; 王平

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether the degumming conditions had effect on mulberry silk degumming with papain. It used single-factor experiment to pick up the proper enzyme quality-concentration, temperature, time, pH value range, and then obtained optimized degumming conditions by orthogonal experiment. The results indicated that papain can effectively remove sericin. The results of the single-factor experiments showed the degumming loss rates and silk degumming strength loss rate are increasing with the enzyme concentration increase, pH value and temperature enhance and degumming time extension. The orthogonal experiment confirmed that the enzyme concentration is the main factor impacting on the degumming loss rate, the time of degumming is the major factor of affecting the force loses. Considered degumming loss rate and breaking strength loss rate, two better craft conditions of mulberry silk degumming are: one is papain quality concentration: 3 g/L, pH:6, temperature:85℃, time:60 min; the other is papain quality concentration:3 g/L, pH:8, temperature:65 ℃, time:90 min.%研究脱胶条件对蚕丝木瓜蛋白酶脱胶效果的影响.由单因子实验选出合适的酶质量浓度、温度、时间、pH值范围,用正交实验优化脱胶条件.结果表明.木瓜蛋白酶能有效地脱除丝胶:脱胶率和丝的强力损失率,随着酶质量浓度增加、pH值及温度的升高和脱胶时间的延长而上升;正交实验证实酶质量浓度是影响脱胶率的丰要因子,酶脱胶时间是强力损失的主要影响因素;综合考虑脱胶率和强力损失率,确定生丝木瓜蛋白酶脱胶的2个较好工艺条件为:一是酶质量浓度3 g/L、pH6、温度85℃、时间60 min;二是酶质量浓度3 g/L、pH8、温度65℃、时间90 min.

  15. Multiplicación de propágulos infectivos HMA en una plantación de morera (Morus alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Pentón

    Full Text Available Se realizó un ensayo de campo en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes «Indio Hatuey», sobre un suelo Ferralítico Rojo de buen drenaje superficial e interno, con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de la fertilización mineral y el intercalamiento de Canavalia ensiformis (canavalia inoculada con HMA, en la multiplicación de propágulos infectivos en una plantación de morera (Morus alba L.. El marco de siembra de la morera fue de 1,0 x 0,50 m (20 000 plantas/ha. El área de la plantación fue de 384 m2, con 40 plantas en las parcelas. El forraje se cosechó con un intervalo de 90 días, a una altura de 30 cm. Los esquemas evaluados fueron: testigo (sin fertilización y sin intercalamiento de canavalia, SFSCHMA; incorporación de HMA a través del intercalamiento de canavalia, sin fertilización mineral (SFCHMA; fertilización mineral (F e incorporación de HMA a través del intercalamiento de canavalia, con fertilización mineral (FCHMA. La canavalia se sembró inoculada con HMA a 0,5 m de la morera, en los primeros 15 días de crecimiento de esta a partir del corte, al inicio de cada época. El diseño fue de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial y tres repeticiones. Se evidenció un contenido bajo de propágulos infectivos nativos en la rizosfera de la plantación de morera (190-295 esporas/50 g. El efecto de FCHMA fue altamente significativo en la multiplicación de propágulos infectivos durante la época lluviosa y en los primeros 45 días de la poco lluviosa (370 y 469 esporas/50 g, respectivamente, mientras que propició aumentos de la materia orgánica y el K del suelo. Se concluye que la combinación de la fertilización mineral con la incorporación de HMA a través del intercalamiento de canavalia constituye una vía eficaz para multiplicar los propágulos infectivos HMA hasta niveles intermedios

  16. SUCO INTEGRAL DE AMORA (MORUS NIGRA L. OBTIDO ATRAVÉS DE PRENSAGEM E DESPOLPAMENTO: RENDIMENTO E CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Magda PIMENTA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A amora (Morus nigra L. é uma fruta com grande potencial de aproveitamento tecnológico, podendo ser usada para fabricação de xaropes, sorvetes, doces, iogurtes, bebidas, geleias, etc. Da amoreira, apenas a folha tem sido explorada comercialmente para alimentação do bicho-da-seda. Essa planta é cultivada em diversos ambientes agrícolas, entre eles, pequenas propriedades rurais e assentamentos. Por desconhecimento dos produtores, perde-se grande parte de sua produção. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento de extração e as características físico-químicas do suco integral de amoras maduras, verdes e mistura de ambas utilizando prensa hidráulica e despolpadora vertical. A análise estatística dos resultados foi feita através do cálculo da média e do desvio padrão. Foram colhidos cerca de 173kg de amora, sendo 49,31% de maduras e 50,68% de verdes. A prensa hidráulica proporcionou maior rendimento de extração de suco integral (80,50 a 81,6% em relação à despolpadora (71,43 a 77,50%. O suco integral obtido nos dois equipamentos apresentou valores de sólidos solúveis de 7,45 a 12,11°Brix, acidez titulável de 0,45 a 1,23g.100mL-1, Ratio de 6,03 a 26,84, pH de 3,69 a 4,35, açúcares redutores totais de 4,05 a 9,96g.100mL-1, açúcares redutores de 3,95 a 9,15g.100mL-1, sacarose de 0,00 a 0,04g.100mL-1 e turbidez de 221,25 a >4000NTU. Os sucos integrais obtidos em ambos os equipamentos apresentaram características físico-químicas similares exceto para turbidez. Concluiu-se que a prensa foi o melhor equipamento de extração, devido ao maior rendimento e qualidade do suco integral em termos de turbidez.

  17. Existing Fish and Wildlife Resources Related to the Southern New Jersey Water Resources Study, Burlington, Camden and Gloucester Counties, New Jersey. Phase I Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    York. 1632 pp. 194. APPENDIX TABLE A-I Trees Reported to Occ~ur Within the Study Area Common Name Scientific Name Ash, black Fraxinus nigra Marsh. Ash...Birch, river Betula nigra L. Box-elder Acer neguico L. Butternut Juglans cinerea L. Cedar, Atlan~tic white- Chamaecvparis thvoides (L.,) B.S.P...L. Maple, Norway Acer platanoides L. Maple, silver Acer saccharinum L. Maple, sugar Acer saccharum Marsh. Mulberry, red Morus rubra L. Mulberry, white

  18. 四倍体果桑新品种嘉陵30号桑椹中的氨基酸组成及其含量分析%Amino Acid Composition of Mulberry Fruit from a New Tetraploid Mulberry Variety Jialing 30

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峻池; 徐立; 伍春; 余茂德; 黄先智

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain high quality mulberry species for fruit use. In this study, through amino acid automatic analyzer, we investigated and compared the composition of major nutrient amino acids in mulberry fruit from Jialing 30, a newly bred tetraploid mulberry variety, and its diploid parental mulberry variety Zhongsang 5801. The results demonstrated that, 12 different kinds of amino acids including the 6 essential amino acids for human were contained in both Jialing 30 and Zhongsang 5801. Compared with Zhongsang 5801, Jialing 30 had higher content of all kinds of amino acids except cysteine and methionine, among which the contents of amino acids with flavor enhancement effect, amino acids with medicinal functions, and branched-chain amino acids involved in metabolism of skeletal muscle were increased by approximately 8, 1.6 and 0.5 folds than those of Zhongsang 5801, respectively. The contents of serine, cysteine and methionine in Jialing 30 were higher than those in the control variety Hongguo 1, and those of glycine, isoleucine and phenylalanine were about the same with Hongguo 1. However, the contents of total amino acids, amino acids with flavor enhancement effect, amino acids with medicinal functions,and branched-chain amino acids in Jialing 30 were lower that those of Hongguo 1. The above results indicated that the new tetraploid mulberry variety Jialing 30 for fruit use had rich content of various amino acids for future development of value-added products, and chromosome doubling could elevate the content of active amino acids in mulberry to some extent.%为了给生产上提供高品质的果桑品种资源,以二倍体果桑品种红果1号为对照,利用氨基酸自动分析仪,对新育成的四倍体果桑品种嘉陵30号及其亲本二倍体果桑品种中桑5801桑椹中的主要营养成分氨基酸进行检测与比较.嘉陵30号和中桑5801的桑椹中均含有包括6种人体必需氨基酸在内的12种氨基酸,除半胱氨

  19. 山东省泰安市28个桑园的土壤肥力数值化综合评价%Comprehensive Evaluation of Soil Nutrient Scalarization of 28 Mulberry Fields in Taian City of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 黄露; 王彦文; 高绘菊; 王利; 牟志美

    2012-01-01

    In order to accurately evaluate soil fertility status of different mulberry fields, soil nutrient contents of 28 mulberry fields in Daiyue District of Taian City, Shandong Province, were determined by chemical analysis methods including colorimetry and atomic absorption spectrometry, and 15 indexes of soil fertility property of the 28 mulberry fields were analyzed by factor analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis by employing the model of comprehensive index evaluation in fuzzy mathematics. Based on these analyses, the soil fertility status of different mulberry fields was comprehensively assessed and graded. The results demonstrated that pH values of soil in 28 surveyed mulberry fields were suitable, and the contents of organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium elements were low in most mulberry fields, while lack of other nutrient elements was found in a few mulberry fields. The minimum data set (MDS) contained 8 indexes, namely total nitrogen, pH value, alkalized nitrogen, available iron, available phosphorus, available potassium, organic matter and total phosphorus. The index weight was percentage of variance of each common factor. It was thus calculated that the average integrated soil fertility index of 28 surveyed mulberry fields was 0. 25 with a variation range of 0. 18 to 0. 34. The soil fertility was divided into four grades, namely the highest, higher, medium and low levels, and mulberry field of each grade accounted for 21. 4%, 25. 0%, 39. 3% and 14.3%, respectively. With the help of above comprehensive scalarization and analyses, comprehensive evaluation of soil fertility could be improved both quantitatively and scientifically, and the influence of subjective factors could be reduced in the evaluation process. In the future, the abundance and deficiency standards and the threshold values of membership function should be standardized according to the demand of mulberry growth, so as to form a more comprehensive, objective

  20. Anti-HSV Activity of Kuwanon X from Mulberry Leaves with Genes Expression Inhibitory and HSV-1 Induced NF-κB Deactivated Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Shen, Wenwei; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Li, Manmei; Wang, Yifei; Zou, Yuxiao; Li, Yaolan; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Six stilbene derivatives isolated from Mulberry leaves including Kuwanon X, Mulberrofuran C, Mulberrofuran G, Moracin C, Moracin M 3'-O-b-glucopyranoside and Moracin M were found to have antiviral effects against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) at different potencies except for Mulberrofuran G. Kuwanon X exhibited the greatest activity against HSV-1 15577 and clinical strains and HSV-2 strain 333 with IC50 values of 2.2, 1.5 and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively. Further study revealed that Kuwanon X did not inactivate cell-free HSV-1 particles, but inhibited cellular adsorption and penetration of HSV-1 viral particles. Following viral penetration, Kuwanon X reduced the expression of HSV-1 IE and L genes, and decreased the synthesis of HSV-1 DNA. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that Kuwanon X inhibited the HSV-1-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation through blocking the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB. These results suggest that Kuwanon X exerts anti-HSV activity through multiple modes and could be a potential candidate for the therapy of HSV infection.

  1. Mulberry fruit prevents LPS-induced NF-κB/pERK/MAPK signals in macrophages and suppresses acute colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengjiang; Wu, Zhiqin; Huang, Lian; Qiu, Huiling; Wang, Liyan; Li, Li; Yao, Lijun; Kang, Kang; Qu, Junle; Wu, Yonghou; Luo, Jun; Liu, Johnson J; Yang, Yi; Yang, Wancai; Gou, Deming

    2015-11-30

    Here, we investigated the impact of mulberry fruit (MBF) extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the therapeutic efficacy of MBF diet in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis and MUC2(-/-) mice with colorectal cancer. In vitro, LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly inhibited by MBF extracts via suppressing the expression of proinflammatory molecules, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-β) and IL-6. Particularly, a dose-dependent inhibition on LPS-induced inflammatory responses was observed following treatment with MBF dichloromethane extract (MBF-DE), in which linoleic acid and ethyl linolenate were identified as two active compounds. Moreover, we elucidated that MBF-DE attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory responses by blocking activation of both NF-κB/p65 and pERK/MAPK pathways. In vivo, DSS-induced acute colitis was significantly ameliorated in MBF-fed mice as gauged by weight loss, colon morphology and histological damage. In addition, MBF-fed MUC2(-/-) mice displayed significant decrease in intestinal tumor and inflammation incidence compared to control diet-fed group. Overall, our results demonstrated that MBF suppressed the development of intestinal inflammation and tumorgenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and supports the potential of MBF as a therapeutic functional food for testing in human clinical trials.

  2. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of six flavonoids in rat plasma: application to a pharmacokinetic study of total flavonoids from mulberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Feng, Ying; Ouyang, Hui-Zi; Yu, Bin; Chang, Yan-Xu; Pan, Gui-Xiang; Dong, Gai-Ying; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiu-Mei

    2013-10-01

    A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the determination of rutin, isoquercitrin, astragalin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in rat plasma using naringin as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were pretreated and extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a C18 column with a 10 min gradient elution using acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1). A tandem mass spectrometric detection was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) via an electrospray ionization (ESI) source and operating in the negative ionization mode. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of each analyte was lower than 1 ng mL(-1). Intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 11.9%. The relative errors of accuracy were in the range of -9.2% to 6.1%. The mean recoveries of flavonoids and IS were higher than 53.8%. The proposed method was further applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of all analytes after a single oral administration of total flavonoids from mulberry leaves to rats.

  3. Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Mariko Aymoto Hassimotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4 mg/100 g/animal were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30 min before and 1 h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P<0.05. In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1 h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30 min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P<0.05. Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements.

  4. Radio protective effect of black mulberry extract on radiation-induced damage in bone marrow cells and liver in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemnezhad Targhi, Reza; Homayoun, Mansour; Mansouri, Somaieh; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation by producing free radicals induces tissue oxidative stress and has clastogenic and cytotoxic effects. The radio protective effect of black mulberry extract (BME) has been investigated on liver tissue and bone marrow cells in the rat. Intraperitoneal (ip) administration of 200 mg/kg BME three days before and three days after 3 Gy and 6 Gy gamma irradiation significantly reduced the frequencies of micro nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and micro nucleated norm chromatic erythrocyte (MnNCEs) and increased PCE/PCE+NCE ratio in rat bone marrow compared to the non-treated irradiated groups. Moreover, this concentration of BME extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as enhanced the total thiol content and catalase activity in rat's liver compared to the non-treated irradiated groups. It seems that BME extract with antioxidant activity reduced the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by gamma irradiation in bone marrow cells and liver in the rat.

  5. Producción de leche de una asociación de Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba y Pennisetum purpureum CT-115 bajo condiciones de riego Milk production from an association of Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Pennisetum purpureum CT-115 with irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Lamela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En la vaquería "El Rancho"de la Empresa de Cítricos "Victoria de Girón" del municipio Jagüey Grande, en la provincia de Matanzas, Cuba, se realizó un estudio con el objetivo de determinar la producción de leche en una asociación de la gramínea Pennisetum purpureum CT-115 con los árboles forrajeros Leucaena leucocephala y Morus alba, en condiciones de riego. Se emplearon vacas de mediano potencial (Holstein x Cebú del grupo de alta producción, las cuales tuvieron acceso al sistema hasta los 150 días de lactancia. Se utilizó un modelo multiplicativo para analizar la producción de leche con efecto en la curva de lactancia; se analizaron las variables: bimestre de producción, época y número de lactancias, y se midió la disponibilidad de materia seca. La oferta de materia seca en el área de la asociación fue superior a 30 kg de MS/animal/rotación como promedio durante el período de evaluación, y hubo diferencias entre las épocas del año. Los mayores resultados se encontraron en el bimestre julio-agosto y los menores en enero-febrero y marzo-abril, con diferencias significativas (PIn the dairy unit "El Rancho" of the Citrus Fruit Firm "Victoria de Girón" of the Jagüey Grande municipality, in Matanzas province, Cuba, a study was conducted in order to determine milk production in an association of the grass Pennisetum purpureum CT-115 with the forage trees Leucaena leucocephala and Morus alba, with irrigation. Moderate-potential cows (Holstein x Zebu from the high-production group, which had access to the system until 150 days of lactation, were used. A multiplicative model was used to analyze the milk production with lactation curve effect; the following variables were analyzed: production two-month period, season and number of lactations; and dry matter availability was measured. The dry matter offer in the area of association was higher than 30 kg DM/animal/rotation as average during the evaluation period, and there were

  6. A Comparative Study of Flavonols Content in Mulberry Purple Wine by Different Pretreatment%不同前处理发酵的桑椹紫酒中黄酮醇物质的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岳珍; 侯钰; 陈欣悦; 陈有君

    2012-01-01

    采用反相高效液相色谱检测不同前处理发酵的桑椹紫酒中黄酮醇的含量,并与葡萄酒中黄酮醇的含量进行对比。结果表明,不同前处理桑椹紫酒中各类黄酮醇的含量除山萘酚,其余均差异极显著。桑椹紫酒中可以检测出10种黄酮醇。其中,槲皮素、杨梅素与葡萄酒中的含量相当,其余8种黄酮醇:山萘酚、异鼠李素、高良姜素、芦丁、非瑟酮、桑色素、鼠李素、芹菜素含量均比葡萄酒中的含量要高,且均在0.54 mg/L以上。%The content of flavonols in mulberry purple wine by different pretreatment was measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography detection,and then compared with flavonol content in grape wine.The results showed that there was evident difference in flavonol content in various types except kaempferol in mulberry wine by different pretreatment.There were ten kinds of flavonols detected in mulberry purple wine.Among them,the content of quercetin was equivalent to the content of myricetin,and the content of the other 8 kinds of flavonols including kaempferol,isorhamnetin,galangin,rutin,fisetin,morin,fhamnetin,and apigenin(their content was above 0.54 mg/L)was higher than that in grape wine.

  7. Development and Prospects of A Kind of Health Beverage Based on Mulberry Leaves%一种桑叶保健饮料的研制及发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万顺; 马雪侠; 刘晓林; 李波

    2014-01-01

    Compound with mulberry leaves,bamboo leaves and plaster as raw materials,we developed a ba-sic prescription anti-inflammatory removed heat of fire soup by orthogonal experiments. After many experi-ments we determined the extract of mulberry and bamboo by absorption spectrometer and method the absor-bance value,we confirmed the optimum time,temperature and material water ratio for the mulberry and bamboo leaves. Finally we confirmed the perfect additive quality of accessory protein sugar and citric acid by orthogonal experiment and analysis of variance. So far a kind of clear liquor,green color juice with ef-fect on anti-inflammatory heat-clearing was developed,and won the national patent,and achieved a certain economic benefits.%采用桑叶、竹叶、石膏为原料,通过正交试验方法,初步研制出一种消炎祛火汤的基本配方。采用吸光光度计测定桑、竹混提液吸光度度值的方法,经过多次试验,确定了桑、竹混合液浸提的最佳时间、温度与料水比例,最后采用正交试验、方差分析法、感观评分法确定了辅料蛋白糖和柠檬酸的添加量。至此,一种透明清亮、色泽碧绿、具有抗菌消炎、清热解毒的功效的饮料研制成功,并获国家专利,取得了一定的经济效益。

  8. 桑叶正己烷提取物的活性组分分析%Analysis of Active Components of Hexane Extractives of Morus alba Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志明; 王海英; 张爽

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析桑叶正己烷提取物的活性组分,探究桑叶中的活性化合物.[方法]桑叶正己烷提取物进行抑菌试验并通过气相色谱-质谱分析抑菌活性最强的桑叶正己烷提取物的挥发性组分.[结果]抑菌试验结果表明6、7、8月桑叶正己烷提取物对金黄色葡萄球菌均有抑制作用,对大肠杆菌均无抑制作用;且6月桑叶正己烷提取物对金黄色葡萄球菌抑制作用最强(抑菌圈直径为10.95 mm).6月桑叶正己烷提取物气相色谱-质谱分析结果表明其主要挥发性组分为十四烷(16.76%),十二烷(13.20%),邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(10.26%),癸烷(9.10%),十六烷(8.71%),亚麻醇(7.25%),十八烷(5.88%),二十烷(3.26%),邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(2.59%).[结论]亚麻醇是具有抑菌潜力的化合物.%[Objective]The aim was to explore the active compound of Morus alba leaves with the analysis of active components of hexane extractives of M.alba leaves.[Method]Antibacterial assays of hexane extractives of M.alba leaves were done and the volatile components of hexane extractives of M.alba leaves with the strongest antibacterial activity were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectromretry(GC-MS).[Result]The results of inhibitory effect of hexane extractives of M.alba leaves on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli showed that hexane extractives of M.alba leaves collected in June, July and August had antibacterial activity against S.aureus and had no antibacterial effect against E.coli Furthermore, hexane extractives of M.alba leaves collected in June had the strongest antibacterial activity against S.aureus (inhibition diameter 10.95 mm).The hexane extractives of M.alba leaves collected in June was analyzed by GC-MS, the main volatile components were tetradecane ( 16.76% ), dodecane ( 13.20% ), diisobutyl phthalate ( 10.26% ), decane ( 9.10% ), hexadecane ( 8.71% ), linolenyl alcohol (7.25%), octadecane (5.88%), eicosane (3.26%), dibutyl

  9. 利用除草剂草甘膦防治桑椹菌核病的初步试验%A Primary Experiment on the Control of Mulberry Fruit Sclerotiniosis Using Herbicide Glyphosate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕蕊花; 赵爱春; 金筱耘; 杜英武; 吴文铂; 王茜龄; 余茂德

    2011-01-01

    Mulberry fruit sclerotiniosis is a kind of fungous disease. The pathogenic fungus survives for a long time as sclerotium in soil. Therefore, our present study investigated the inhibitory effect of herbicide glyphosate to pathogenic fungus so as to control mulberry fruit sclerotiniosis. Different dilutions of 95% glyphosate as well as 70% thiophanate-methyl as control agent were prepared respectively and sprinkled on top soil of diseased mulberry garden which had fruiting bodies and apothecia of three species of pathogenic fungi namely Ciboria shiraiana (P. Hennings) Wketz, Ciboria carunculoides Wkete. Et Wolf and Mitrula shiraianum (P. Hennings) Ito et Imai. It was found that, at 1 d after applying 500 times diluted solution of 95% glyphosate and 620 times diluted solution of 70% thiophanate-methyl, the fruiting bodies and apothecia of Ciboria shiraiana (P. Hennings) Wketz and Ciboria carunculoides Wketz. Et Wolf began to wither and dry obviously, and the apothecia rolled up. Their perishing effect to fruiting bodies and apothecia of Mitrula shiraianum (P. Hennings) Ito et Imai was more obvious. At 4 d after applying the agents, the apothecia of all three mulberry fruit sclerotiniosis pathogenic fungi rotted and lost vitality completely. Furthermore, the as-cospores of three mulberry fruit sclerotiniosis pathogenic fungi were shaking-cultured in liquid medium containing glypho-sate or thiophanate-methyl to detect the inhibitory effect of the agents on germination of pathogenic fungal ascospores. The results showed that 375, 500 and 625 times diluted solutions of 95% glyphosate had good inhibitory effect on the germination of ascospores of all three pathogenic fungi. Their EC50 values were all lower than those of the control (70% thiophanate-methyl). The test results primarily demonstrate that 95% glyphosate had good perishing effect on fruiting bodies and apothecia of three mulberry fruit sclerotiniosis pathogenic fungi and could effectively inhibit the germination

  10. Establishment of a Mathematical Model for Mulberry Balanced Fertilization in Hilly Areas of Sichuan Province%四川省丘陵地区桑树平衡施肥的数学模型建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 夏庆友; 帅小蓉; 张建华; 殷浩; 佟万红; 罗春燕; 黄盖群; 林超文; 危玲

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase mulberry leaf yield and production efficiency in hilly areas of Sichuan Province through scientific fertilization,"3414",a quadratic regression design for modern fertilization,was employed to simulate the regression relationship between mulberry leaf yield and major fertilizer elements including nitrogen(N),phosphor(P) and potassium(K) among which mulberry leaf yield was the objective function and N,P and K were the regulatory factors to fertilization level.As a result,7 types of ternary,binary and monadic quadratic fertilizer effect functions of N,P and K fertilizer elements were established.The weight of fertilizer factors in the optimal mulberry leaf yield obtained by various types of functions was in decreasing order of KPKPNPKNKNNP,and the weight of fertilizer factors in the ratio of leaf yield to input was in decreasing order of K〉PK〉NPK〉P〉NK〉NP〉N.To be specific,the ternary quadratic fertilizer effect function(Y=20 313+0.25X1+43.48 X2+34.47X3-0.01X1^2-0.14X2^2-0.06X3^2+0.05X1X2+0.02X1X3-0.07X2X3,in which X1,X2 and X3 indicate the fertilizer factors N,P and K,respectively) was a model containing all factors,thereby being a recommended fertilization program for mulberry field.Single factor effect analysis indicated that K fertilizer had the highest influence on mulberry leaf yield and ratio of leaf yield to input.Therefore,among all the simulation functions,the monadic quadratic fertilizer effect function of K fertilizer factor(Y=25 002.27+44.728X3-0.084X32) leads to the optimal leaf yield and maximum ratio of leaf yield to input.By using the optimal fertilization program with 600 kg/hm2 N,210 kg/hm2 P2O5 and 254.33 kg/hm2 K2O,the optimal economic leaf yield obtained is 30 945.00 kg/hm2,the cost of fertilizer input is 4 403.65 yuan/hm2,and the ratio of leaf yield to input is as high as 17.57.After verification by production practices,the recommended fertilization indicators in the optimal mulberry fertilization program can

  11. A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6 g/d for 24 weeks. Oral 75 g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (P=0.037. The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 (P=0.014 and ICAM-1 (P=0.048 were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (P=0.003. These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D.

  12. 以修剪桑树枝条作食用菌原料试验研究%Study on Taking Pruning Mulberry Branches as Raw Material for Edible Mushrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国书; 冉隆俊; 刘晓会; 何朝荣

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the conventional wood was replaced by mulberry branch as raw material for edible mushrooms. The results showed that, compared to the conventional wood, using mulberry branch to produce black fungus and mushroom, the yield per bag were increased by 7.14% and 11.9%, respectively, and the net income per bag were 0.99, 2.74 Yuan, which were significantly enhanced by 4.2% and 47.8% respectively.%以修剪桑枝代替常规木材作食用菌原料,试验结果表明,用桑枝培育黑木耳、香菇,单个菌袋出菇量分别比用常规木材高7.14%、11.9%,单个菌袋纯收入0.99、2.74元,比用常规木材增收4.2%、47.8%,经济效益十分显著。

  13. Research on the Determination and Extraction of Total Flavones from Mulberry Leaves%桑叶黄酮含量测定及提取工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴恢; 孙波; 李祖发; 徐有海

    2011-01-01

    The methods of extracting total flavones from mulberry leaves, such as alcohol extraction, microwave extraction, supcrcritical CO2 extraction and adsorption by coarse pored resin were described. And the methods of total flavones determination in mulberry leaves, including spectrophotometry, fluorospectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) and microemulsion thin layer chromatography, were summarized and compared.%本文对从桑叶提取黄酮类化合物的各种方法,如醇提法、微波法、超临界CO2萃取和大孔树脂吸附法等进行系统的叙述;同时对桑叶中黄酮类化合物的分析方法,包括分光光度法与荧光光度法、高效液相色谱法(HPLC)、高效毛细管电泳法(HPCE)和微乳薄膜层析法进行概述和比较。

  14. Rapid separation of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside from crude mulberry extract using high-performance countercurrent chromatography and establishment of a volumetric scale-up process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Jung; Choi, Janggyoo; Lee, Chang Uk; Yoon, Shin Hee; Bae, Soo Kyung; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Jinwoong; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2015-06-01

    This study describes the rapid separation of mulberry anthocyanins; namely, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside, using high-performance countercurrent chromatography, and the establishment of a volumetric scale-up process from semi-preparative to preparative-scale. To optimize the separation parameters, biphasic solvent systems composed of tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/0.01% trifluoroacetic acid, flow rate, sample amount and rotational speed were evaluated for the semi-preparative-scale high-performance countercurrent chromatography. The optimized semi-preparative-scale high-performance countercurrent chromatography parameters (tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/0.01% trifluoroacetic acid, 1:3:1:5, v/v; flow rate, 4.0 mL/min; sample amount, 200-1000 mg; rotational speed, 1600 rpm) were transferred directly to a preparative-scale (tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/0.01% trifluoroacetic acid, 1:3:1:5, v/v; flow rate, 28 mL/min; sample amount, 5.0-10.0 g; rotational speed, 1400 rpm) to achieve separation results identical to cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. The separation of mulberry anthocyanins using semi-preparative high-performance countercurrent chromatography and its volumetric scale-up to preparative-scale was addressed for the first time in this report. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Induced Expression of Cytochrome P450 CYP305 B1V1 Gene in Different Tissues of Wild Mulberry Silkworm (Bombyx mandarina)%野桑蚕不同组织细胞色素P450 CYP305B1V1基因的诱导表达特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路爱成; 卫正国; 李兵; 沈卫德

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate effects of various inducers on the expression of cytochrome P450 CYP305 B1V1 Gene in different tissues of wild mulberry silkworm. [Method] Referring to the mRNA sequence of CYP305 B1V1 Gene published in GenBank for wild mulberry silkworm, one pair of primers was designed, and the expression of cytochrome P450 CYP305 B1V1 Gene in different tissues of wild mulberry silkworm treated by NaF, rutin, cypermethrin and ecdysone was also analyzed by the semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, homology comparison and phylogenetic analysis for amino acid sequences of this gene were studied. [Result] Rutin, cypermethrin and NaF had effects on the expression of P450 CYP305 B1V1 Gene in different tissues of wild mulberry silkworm, while ecdysone had no significant effect. Homology comparison for amino acids indicated that the amino acid sequence of this gene was the most similar to that of CYP305 B1 gene in Bombyx mori with 100% amino acid identity, and highly similar to those of Tribolium casmneum CYP305A1, Apis mellifera CYP305A1, Drosophila melanogaster CYP305A1, Anopheles gambiae CYP305A2 and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus CYP2L1. [Conclusion] CYP305 B1V1 Gene of wild mulberry silkworm is likely to mainly take part in the metabolism of exogenous compounds, which is of great significance for revealing the function of cytochrome P450 and the metabolic mechanism of different drugs.

  16. 桑叶不同极性溶剂提取物的总多酚含量与抑菌活性%Total Polyphenol Content and Antibacterial Activity of Mulberry Leaf Extracts from Different Polarity Solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈维治; 邹宇晓; 刘凡; 施英; 廖森泰

    2013-01-01

    Active substances were extracted from mulberry leaf powder using different polarity solvents. As a result, mulberry leaf ethyl acetate extract, butyl alcohol extract and water extract were obtained. The antibacterial effect of mulberry leaf extracts from different polarity solvents was evaluated with the agar punch diffusion method. The results showed that mulberry leaf extracts from different polarity solvents had certain inhibitory effect on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria for test. The antibacterial effect of ethyl acetate extract was significantly better than that of other extracts. Its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to Escherichia co/i was 6. 3 mg/mL, and its MIC to all Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella sp. was 12. 5 mg/mL. The total polyphenol content of ethyl acetate extract was (11. 91 ± 0. 67) mg/g, also significantly higher than that of other extracts, indicating that the antibacterial activity and the total polyphenol content of mulberry leaf extracts from different polarity solvents have a significant dose response relationship (P<0. 05).%用不同极性溶剂萃取桑叶粉中的活性物质,分别获得乙酸乙酯提取物、正丁醇提取物和水提取物.采用琼脂打孔扩散法评价桑叶各极性溶剂提取物的抑菌效果,结果表明桑叶不同极性溶剂提取物对供试革兰阳性菌和革兰阴性菌均有一定的抑制作用,其中乙酸乙酯提取物的抑菌活性显著高于其它溶剂提取物,对大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli的最低抑菌浓度为6.3mg/mL,对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphyloccocus aureus)、枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、沙门氏菌(Salmonella sp.)的最低抑菌浓度均为12.5 mg/mL.测定乙酸乙酯提取物中的总多酚质量比为(11.91±0.67)mg/g,显著高于其它溶剂提取物,表明桑叶不同极性溶剂提取物的抑菌活性与其总多酚的含量成显著剂量效应关系(P<0.05).

  17. 桑枝栽培长根菇的试验研究%Cultivation Experiments of the Edible Mushroom Oudemansiella radicata Using Sawdust Based Substrate Made of Mulberry Branch Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方少钦; 沈维治; 高云超; 廖森泰; 肖更生; 邹宇晓; 施英; 刘凡; 刘军; 穆利霞

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully utilize mulberry twigs resources in silk production and expand sources of raw materials in edible fungus production, the mushroom cultivation experiments for Oudemansiella radicata with different methods and proportions of mulberry branch powder was studied. The mulberry twigs powder proportion was from 75%-80%in the formula of mushroom growth medium, the mycelia growth rate was faster than other media, it might reach the 1.96-2.63 mm/date. Oudemansiella radicata yield determination showed that, beginning from June of 2011 for the first yield fluctuation to September for the end, every 2 to 3 days harvests one time in the period. The fruit body growth and development was faster in the summer than other seasons, and higher yield and biological efficiency could reach 75%-84.4%, fruiting body was higher, thicker in pileus and larger and thicker for its caps. Economic analysis showed that 100 kg raw material could be obtain net economic income more than ¥300 , and as to expand the planting scale showed better economic benefits. The experimental results showed that the mulberry branches as a kind of raw materials for mushroom production was a best way of comprehensive utilization in mulberry and mushroom production, it saved the cost of production and increased benefits, especially production of Oudemansiella radicata in the summer and had broad application prospects.%为了充分利用蚕桑生产中废弃的桑枝资源以及扩展食用菌产业的原材料来源,笔者进行了利用桑枝栽培长根菇的试验,结果表明,长根菇在桑木屑比例为70%~97%范围内的菌丝生长较好,培养基配方中桑枝比例为75%~80%左右,生长速度较快,可达1.96~2.63 mm/d。产量测定表明,从2011年6月开始出菇,至9月结束,期间每隔2~3天既出产1潮次,表现出子实体生长发育较快,主要的生长季节在夏季,并且产量较高,生物学效率高,可达75%~84.4%,子实体高大挺拔

  18. Chemical Prevention and Control of Mulberry Fruit Sclerotiniosis and Analysis of Pesticide Residues%桑椹菌核病化学防控与农药残留分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕蕊花; 肖伟; 吉洁; 王茜龄; 蒲龙; 赵爱春; 鲁成; 余茂德

    2014-01-01

    为探寻桑椹菌核病化学防控药剂并分析其桑椹中农药的残留量,以桑椹肥大性菌核病病原菌为材料,用市售农药对该菌的初始传染源---子囊孢子进行了抑菌实验,实验结果显示:甲基硫菌灵和腐霉利对子囊孢子抑制效果最好,其 EC50分别为0.0155 mg/mL 和0.0153 mg/mL .经大田防治实验,结果表明,在适时交替喷洒甲基硫菌灵和腐霉利,对桑椹菌核病的防治效果高达97.96%±0.2%,而对照区发病率高达40.93%±0.2%.对化学防控实验区成熟桑椹,分别采用 HPLC 和 GC 对其农药残留进行分析,甲基硫菌灵的残留量超过国际标准限量,而腐霉利的残留量则在国际标准限量之内.其研究结果对改进桑椹菌核病的防控具有重要参考意义.%In order to provide useful information for the improvement of mulberry fruit sclerotiniosis pre-vention and control with chemical agents in mulberry gardens ,a few pesticides were tested and the resi-dues in mulberry fruit were determined .In an inhibition test ,several commercially available pesticides were used to treat the ascospores of hypertrophy sorosis sclerotenisis - the initial source of infection of the disease ,and the results showed that thiophanate-methyl and procymidone had the best inhibitory effect on their grow th ,their EC50 value being 0.015 5 mg /mL and 0.015 3 mg/mL ,respectively .In a field control experiment ,timely alternate spay of thiophanate-methy and procymidone gave a control effect on mulberry fruit sclerotiniosis of up to 97.96% ,while a high incidence of 40.93% was recorded in the control plot . HPLC and GC were used for the analysis of the pesticide residues in the ripe mulberry fruit .Thiophanate-methyl residues exceeded the national standard limit ,and procymidone residues were within the limits of national standards .

  19. Jackson Mills and Mine Falls Dams, Nashua, New Hampshire. Reconnaissance Report, Hydroelectric Feasibility. Volume 1, Jackson Mills Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    triacanthos Honey Locust Acer saccharinum Silver maple Pinus nigra Austrian pire Crataegus spp. Hawthorns osa spp.’ Wild roses Ulmus americana American elm...nightshade Acer platano ides Norway map’e Comus stoloniera Red-Osier Dogwood Morus mibra Red mulberry Lonicera tatarica Tartarian Honeysuckle Prunus sp

  20. The Trinity River Greenway: A Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-06-01

    or Dwarf Sumac (Acer negundo) (Juglans nigra ) (Rhus copallina) Wooly Pipevine Red Cedar Smooth Sumac (Aris