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Sample records for causing fungus colletotrichum

  1. Anthracnose of lucky bamboo Dracaena sanderiana caused by the fungus Colletotrichum dracaenophilum in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Ahmed A; Elshahawy, Ibrahim E

    2016-05-01

    Dracaena sanderiana, of the family Liliaceae, is among the ornamental plants most frequently imported into Egypt. Typical anthracnose symptoms were observed on the stems of imported D. sanderiana samples. The pathogen was isolated, demonstrated to be pathogenic based on Koch's rule and identified as Colletotrichum dracaenophilum. The optimum temperature for its growth ranges from 25 to 30 °C, maintained for 8 days. Kemazed 50% wettable powder (WP) was the most effective fungicide against the pathogen, as no fungal growth was observed over 100 ppm. The biocontrol agents Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride followed by Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus caused the highest reduction in fungal growth. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first time that this pathogen was observed on D. sanderiana in Egypt.

  2. Chilli anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Po Po; Prihastuti, Haryudian; Phoulivong, Sitthisack; Taylor, Paul W J; Hyde, Kevin D

    2008-10-01

    Anthracnose disease is one of the major economic constraints to chilli production worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Accurate taxonomic information is necessary for effective disease control management. In the Colletotrichum patho-system, different Colletotrichum species can be associated with anthracnose of the same host. Little information is known concerning the interactions of the species associated with the chilli anthracnose although several Colletotrichum species have been reported as causal agents of chilli anthracnose disease worldwide. The ambiguous taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species has resulted in inaccurate identification which may cause practical problems in plant breeding and disease management. Although the management and control of anthracnose disease are still being extensively researched, commercial cultivars of Capsicum annuum that are resistant to the pathogens that cause chilli anthracnose have not yet been developed. This paper reviews the causal agents of chilli anthracnose, the disease cycle, conventional methods in identification of the pathogen and molecular approaches that have been used for the identification of Colletotrichum species. Pathogenetic variation and population structure of the causal agents of chilli anthracnose along with the current taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species are discussed. Future developments leading to the disease management strategies are suggested.

  3. Shoot Blight and Leaf Spot of Blueberry Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum

    OpenAIRE

    Shigenobu, YOSHIDA; Takao, TSUKIBOSHI; National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences; National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences

    2002-01-01

    Shoot blight and leaf spots were found on highbush blueberry trees in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, in 1999. The causal fungus was identified morphologically as Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds ex Simmonds. This is the first report of blueberry anthracnose caused by C. acutatum in Japan.

  4. Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose disease of chili in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diao, Y.-Z.; Zhang, C.; Liu, F.; Wang, W.-Z.; Liu, L.; Cai, L.; Liu, X.-L.

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a serious disease of more than 30 plant genera. Several Colletotrichum species have been reported to infect chili in different countries. Although China is the largest chiliproducing country, little is known about the species that have been infecting

  5. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Fruits of Asian Pear Tree Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Park, Yeong Seob

    2007-12-01

    Anthracnose symptoms often occurred on fruits of Asian pear trees grown in Anseong, Naju, Seonghwan and Pyeongtaek in Korea during the harvesting period from 2000 to 2005. A total of 28 isolates of Colletotrichum sp. were obtained from the anthracnose symptoms. All the isolates were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Four isolates of the fungus were tested for pathogenicity to fruits of Asian pear tree by artificial inoculation. All the isolates induced anthracnose symptoms on the fruits by wound inoculation but not by unwound inoculation. The anthracnose symptoms induced by artificial inoculation were similar to those observed in the orchard. This is the first report of anthracnose of Asian pear tree caused by Colletotrichum acutatum.

  6. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread highly destructive, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turfgrass loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass a...

  7. Chilli anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Po Po; Prihastuti, Haryudian; Phoulivong, Sitthisack; Taylor, Paul W.J.; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    Anthracnose disease is one of the major economic constraints to chilli production worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Accurate taxonomic information is necessary for effective disease control management. In the Colletotrichum patho-system, different Colletotrichum species can be associated with anthracnose of the same host. Little information is known concerning the interactions of the species associated with the chilli anthracnose although several Colletotrichum species have been reported as causal agents of chilli anthracnose disease worldwide. The ambiguous taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species has resulted in inaccurate identification which may cause practical problems in plant breeding and disease management. Although the management and control of anthracnose disease are still being extensively researched, commercial cultivars of Capsicum annuum that are resistant to the pathogens that cause chilli anthracnose have not yet been developed. This paper reviews the causal agents of chilli anthracnose, the disease cycle, conventional methods in identification of the pathogen and molecular approaches that have been used for the identification of Colletotrichum species. Pathogenetic variation and population structure of the causal agents of chilli anthracnose along with the current taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species are discussed. Future developments leading to the disease management strategies are suggested. PMID:18837103

  8. Genome sequencing and comparative genomics reveal a repertoire of putative pathogenicity genes in chilli anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum truncatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Soumya; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2017-01-01

    Colletotrichum truncatum, a major fungal phytopathogen, causes the anthracnose disease on an economically important spice crop chilli (Capsicum annuum), resulting in huge economic losses in tropical and sub-tropical countries. It follows a subcuticular intramural infection strategy on chilli with a short, asymptomatic, endophytic phase, which contrasts with the intracellular hemibiotrophic lifestyle adopted by most of the Colletotrichum species. However, little is known about the molecular determinants and the mechanism of pathogenicity in this fungus. A high quality whole genome sequence and gene annotation based on transcriptome data of an Indian isolate of C. truncatum from chilli has been obtained. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed a rich repertoire of pathogenicity genes in C. truncatum encoding secreted proteins, effectors, plant cell wall degrading enzymes, secondary metabolism associated proteins, with potential roles in the host-specific infection strategy, placing it next only to the Fusarium species. The size of genome assembly, number of predicted genes and some of the functional categories were similar to other sequenced Colletotrichum species. The comparative genomic analyses with other species and related fungi identified some unique genes and certain highly expanded gene families of CAZymes, proteases and secondary metabolism associated genes in the genome of C. truncatum. The draft genome assembly and functional annotation of potential pathogenicity genes of C. truncatum provide an important genomic resource for understanding the biology and lifestyle of this important phytopathogen and will pave the way for designing efficient disease control regimens.

  9. Neuroprotective Compound from an Endophytic Fungus, Colletotrichum sp. JS-0367.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon; Lee, Changyeol; Lee, Dahae; Kim, Soonok; Bang, Sunghee; Shin, Myoung-Sook; Lee, Jun; Kang, Ki Sung; Shim, Sang Hee

    2018-05-23

    Colletotrichum sp. JS-0367 was isolated from Morus alba (mulberry), identified, and cultured on a large scale for chemical investigation. One new anthraquinone (1) and three known anthraquinones (2-4) were isolated and identified using spectroscopic methods including 1D/2D-NMR and HRESIMS. Although the neuroprotective effects of some anthraquinones have been reported, the biological activities of the four anthraquinones isolated in this study have not been reported. Therefore, the neuroprotective effects of these compounds were determined against murine hippocampal HT22 cell death induced by glutamate. Compound 4, evariquinone, showed strong protective effects against HT22 cell death induced by glutamate by the inhibition of intracellular ROS accumulation and Ca 2+ influx triggered by glutamate. Immunoblot analysis revealed that compound 4 reduced the phosphorylation of MAPKs (JNK, ERK1/2, and p38) induced by glutamate. Furthermore, compound 4 strongly attenuated glutamate-mediated apoptotic cell death.

  10. A highly conserved metalloprotease effector enhances virulence in the maize anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Martín, José M; Pacheco-Arjona, José Ramón; Bello-Rico, Víctor; Vargas, Walter A; Monod, Michel; Díaz-Mínguez, José M; Thon, Michael R; Sukno, Serenella A

    2016-09-01

    Colletotrichum graminicola causes maize anthracnose, an agronomically important disease with a worldwide distribution. We have identified a fungalysin metalloprotease (Cgfl) with a role in virulence. Transcriptional profiling experiments and live cell imaging show that Cgfl is specifically expressed during the biotrophic stage of infection. To determine whether Cgfl has a role in virulence, we obtained null mutants lacking Cgfl and performed pathogenicity and live microscopy assays. The appressorium morphology of the null mutants is normal, but they exhibit delayed development during the infection process on maize leaves and roots, showing that Cgfl has a role in virulence. In vitro chitinase activity assays of leaves infected with wild-type and null mutant strains show that, in the absence of Cgfl, maize leaves exhibit increased chitinase activity. Phylogenetic analyses show that Cgfl is highly conserved in fungi. Similarity searches, phylogenetic analysis and transcriptional profiling show that C. graminicola encodes two LysM domain-containing homologues of Ecp6, suggesting that this fungus employs both Cgfl-mediated and LysM protein-mediated strategies to control chitin signalling. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Interaction Between An Insect Pseudotheraptus devastans dist And A Fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides penz On Setting Of Anthracnose On Cassava Cuttings

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    Makambila, C.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of an insect Pseudotheraptus devastans and of a fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on cassava anthracnose development has been studied. Disease setting is made in two stages : realization of wounds on cassava cuttings by Pseudotheraptus devastans, then invasion of those ones by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Infection also needs a high level of relative humidity (87 % and a favourable temperature. Optimal values are situated between 24 and 28°C.

  12. Spot Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Tulip Tree in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okryun; Choi, Okhee; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Kim, Jinwoo; Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk

    2012-03-01

    The tulip tree (Liriodendron chinense) has been widely cultivated in Korea as a street or garden tree for its large flowers, which have a superficial resemblance to tulips. Occurrence of anthracnose disease on the leaves of tulip trees growing on the campus of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea, has been observed. Based on mycological characteristics, pathogenicity, and internal transcribed spacer sequence, the causal fungus was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This is the first report on anthracnose disease caused by C. gloeosporioides on tulip trees in Korea.

  13. Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose disease of chili in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Y-Z; Zhang, C; Liu, F; Wang, W-Z; Liu, L; Cai, L; Liu, X-L

    2017-06-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a serious disease of more than 30 plant genera. Several Colletotrichum species have been reported to infect chili in different countries. Although China is the largest chili-producing country, little is known about the species that have been infecting chili locally. Therefore, we collected samples of diseased chili from 29 provinces of China, from which 1285 strains were isolated. The morphological characters of all strains were observed and compared, and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses (ITS, ACT , CAL , CHS-1 , GAPDH , TUB2 , and HIS3 ) were performed on selected representative strains. Fifteen Colletotrichum species were identified, with C. fioriniae , C. fructicola , C. gloeosporioides , C. scovillei , and C. truncatum being prevalent. Three new species, C. conoides , C. grossum , and C. liaoningense , were recognised and described in this paper. Colletotrichum aenigma , C. cliviae , C. endophytica , C. hymenocallidis , C. incanum , C. karstii , and C. viniferum were reported for the first time from chili. Pathogenicity of all species isolated from chili was confirmed, except for C. endophytica . The current study improves the understanding of species causing anthracnose on chili and provides useful information for the effective control of the disease in China.

  14. Correlation study of resistance components in the selection of Capsicum genotypes resistant to the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maracahipes, A C; Correa, J W S; Teodoro, P E; Araújo, K L; Barelli, M A A; Neves, L G

    2017-08-17

    Anthracnose is among the major diseases of the Capsicum culture. It is caused by different species of the genus Colletotrichum, which may result in major damages to the cultivation of this genus. Studies aiming to search for cultivars resistant to diseases are essential to reduce financial and agricultural losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the variables analyzed to select Capsicum genotypes resistant to the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with three replications, 88 treatments, four ripe fruits, and four unripe fruits per replication. Accessions of Capsicum from the Germplasm Active Bank of Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso (UNEMAT) were evaluated as for resistance to the fungus. Fruits were collected from each plot and taken to the laboratory for disinfestation. A lesion was performed in the middle region of the fruit using a sterile needle, where a spore suspension drop, adjusted to 10 6 spores/mL, was deposited. An ultrapure water drop was deposited into control fruits. The fruits were placed in humid chambers, and the evaluation was performed by measuring the diameter and the length of lesions using a caliper for 11 days. After data were obtained, analyses of variance, correlation, and path analysis were performed using the GENES software and R. According to the likelihood-ratio test, the effects of genotypes (G), fruit stage (F), and its interaction (G x F) were significant (P < 0.05). There were differences between the magnitudes of genotype correlations according to fruit stage. Different variables must be taken into account for an indirect selection in this culture in function of fruit stage since the variable AUDPC is an important criterion for selecting resistant accessions. We found through the path analysis that the variables DULRD and DULRL exerted the greatest effects on AUDPC.

  15. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Fruits of Asian Pear Tree Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Park, Yeong Seob

    2007-01-01

    Anthracnose symptoms often occurred on fruits of Asian pear trees grown in Anseong, Naju, Seonghwan and Pyeongtaek in Korea during the harvesting period from 2000 to 2005. A total of 28 isolates of Colletotrichum sp. were obtained from the anthracnose symptoms. All the isolates were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Four isolates of the fungus were tested for pathogenicity to fruits of Asian pear tree by artificial inoculation. Al...

  16. Molecular Characterization of a Trisegmented Mycovirus from the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

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    Jie Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA mycovirus, consisting of three dsRNA genome segments and possibly belonging to the family Chrysoviridae, was isolated from the filamentous phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and designated as Colletotrichum gloeosprioides chrysovirus 1 (CgCV1. The three dsRNAs of the CgCV1 genome with lengths of 3397, 2869, and 2630 bp (dsRNAs1–3 were found to contain a single open reading frame (ORF putatively encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, a capsid protein, and a protease, respectively, all of which exhibited some degree of sequence similarity to the comparable putative proteins encoded by the genus Chrysovirus. The 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions in each dsRNA segment contained similar sequences that were strictly conserved at the termini. Moreover, isometric virus-like particles (VLPs with a diameter of approximately 40 nm were extracted from fungal mycelia. Phylogenetic analysis based on the conserved dsRNA1-encoded RdRp showed that CgCV1 is a new virus belonging to the Chrysoviridae family. BLAST analysis revealed the presence of CgCV1-like sequences in the chromosomes of Medicago truncatula and Solanum tuberosum. Moreover, some sequences in the transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA library and expressed sequence tag database (ESTdb of other eudicot and monocot plants were also found to be related to CgCV1.

  17. First Report of Anthracnose on Bitter Gourd Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Korea

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    Ju-Hee Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose occurred in bitter gourd grown in Jeongup areas of Korea in 2011. Anthracnose of bitter gourd appeared as dark brown circular spots on naturally infected leaves and fruits. The symptoms of infected leaves and fruits were small brown to dark brown spots and gradually enlarged to larger cylindrical dark brown lesions. The causal fungus of anthracnose isolated from the diseased plants was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides based on the morphological and cultural characteristics and ITS rDNA sequence analysis. All isolates of C. gloeosporioides produced symptoms on the host leaves by artificial inoculation. This is the first report of anthracnose on bitter gourd caused by C. gloeosporioides in Korea.

  18. Chilli anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species§

    OpenAIRE

    Than, Po Po; Prihastuti, Haryudian; Phoulivong, Sitthisack; Taylor, Paul W.J.; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    Anthracnose disease is one of the major economic constraints to chilli production worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Accurate taxonomic information is necessary for effective disease control management. In the Colletotrichum patho-system, different Colletotrichum species can be associated with anthracnose of the same host. Little information is known concerning the interactions of the species associated with the chilli anthracnose although several Colletotrichum specie...

  19. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation for investigating pathogenicity genes of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum sansevieriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masayuki; Kuwahara, Hideto; Onoyama, Keisuke; Iwai, Hisashi

    2012-08-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AtMT) has become a common technique for DNA transformation of yeast and filamentous fungi. In this study, we first established a protocol of AtMT for the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum sansevieriae. Binary T-DNA vector containing the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene controlled by the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter and the trpC terminator was constructed with pCAMBIA0380 and used with three different strains LBA4404, GV3101, and GV2260 of A. tumefaciens. Transformants were most effectively obtained when GV2260 and C. sansevieriae Sa-1-2 were co-cultivated; there were about 320 transformants per 10(6) spores. When 1,048 transformants were inoculated on Sansevieria trifasciata, three transformants were found to have completely lost their pathogenicity and two transformants displayed reduced pathogenicity. All of the five transformants had a single copy of T-DNA in their genomes. The three pathogenicity-deficient transformants were subjected to thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction and the reaction allowed us to amplify the sequences flanking the left and/or right borders. The flanking sequences of the two transformants, M154 and M875, showed no homology to any sequences in databases, but the sequences of M678 contained motifs of alpha-1,3-glucan synthase, suggesting that the gene might contribute to the pathogenicity of C. sansevieriae. This study describes a useful method for investigating pathogenicity genes in C. sansevieriae.

  20. First report of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Tunisia

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    Ali Rhouma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ripe and overripe olive fruits (cv. Meski, Manzanilla and Picholine showing circular spots 1 to 10 mm in diameter, slightly depressed and reddish-brown in color, were collected from local markets and orchards located in the regions of Takelsa, Zarzis and Rgueb in Tunisia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated from symptomatic fruits and Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. This is the first report of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnose of olives in Tunisia.

  1. Photodynamic inactivation of conidia of the fungus Colletotrichum abscissum on Citrus sinensis plants with methylene blue under solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Júlia C; Brancini, Guilherme T P; Rodrigues, Gabriela B; Silva-Junior, Geraldo José; Bachmann, Luciano; Wainwright, Mark; Braga, Gilberto Ú L

    2017-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) is a promising light based approach to control diseases caused by plant-pathogenic fungi. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of APDT with the phenothiazinium photosensitizer methylene blue (MB) under solar radiation on the germination and viability of conidia of the pathogenic fungus Colletotricum abscissum (former Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato). Experiments were performed both on petals and leaves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) in different seasons and weather conditions. Conidial suspensions were deposited on the leaves and petals surface, treated with the PS (25 or 50μM) and exposed to solar radiation for only 30min. The effects of APDT on conidia were evaluated by counting the colony forming units recovered from leaves and petals and by direct evaluating conidial germination on the surface of these plant organs after the treatment. To better understand the mechanistic of conidial photodynamic inactivation, the effect of APDT on the permeability of the conidial plasma membrane was assessed using the fluorescent probe propidium iodide (PI) together with flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. APDT with MB and solar exposure killed C. abscissum conidia and prevented their germination on both leaves and petals of citrus. Reduction of conidial viability was up to three orders of magnitude and a complete photodynamic inactivation was achieved in some of the treatments. APDT damaged the conidial plasma membrane and increased its permeability to PI. No damage to sweet orange flowers or leaves was observed after APDT. The demonstration of the efficacy of APDT on the plant host represents a further step towards the use of the method for control phytopathogens in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical and experimental keratitis caused by the Colletotrichum state of Glomerella cingulata and Acrophialophora fusispora.

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    Shukla, P K; Khan, Z A; Lal, B; Agrawal, P K; Srivastava, O P

    1983-06-01

    Two cases of mycotic keratitis caused by the Colletotrichum state of Glomerella cingulata and Acrophialophora fusispora are reported for the first time. Both the isolates produced experimental corneal lesions in rabbit eyes but A. fusispora was more pathogenic. The experimental infection was more severe, with both the fungi, in rabbits pretreated with cortisone as compared with untreated animals. In vitro A. fusispora was most sensitive to miconazole and tolciclate followed by clotrimazole, amphotericin B and lactones while clotrimazole exerted maximum inhibitory effect on Colletotrichum followed by miconazole, lactones, amphotericin B and arnebins. Arnebins and tolciclate were inactive respectively against A. fusispora and Colletotrichum. Of the 3 drugs tested in vivo, against A. fusispora keratitis in rabbit, amphotericin B showed better results than tolciclate and miconazole.

  3. EFEITOS DA TEMPERATURA DE INCUBAÇÃO SOBRE O FUNGO colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE INCUBATION ON THE FUNGUS Colletotrichum gossypi SOUTH. Var. cephalosporioides COSTA

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    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura de incubação sobre o crescimento vegetativo, esporulação e morfologia da colônia do fungo Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides Costa, em substrato de batata + dextrose + agar, pH 5,6. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos casualizados e as temperaturas variaram de 12 a 33°C, a intervalos de 3° C. Concluiu-se que a temperatura de incubação afeta notavelmente o crescimento vegetativo, a esporulação e a morfologia da colônia do fungo. Temperaturas acima da faixa ótima provocaram modificações mais acentuadas sobre o crescimento miceliano, esporulação e aspecto morfológico, do que temperaturas baixas. Conídios produzidos em temperaturas extremas, 12 a 33°C, mostraram-se mais curtos que os dos demais tratamentos. A incubação à temperatura de 27°C é a mais recomendável para produção de inóculos em quantidade.

    In this work, the effect of temperature of incubation on the vegetative growth, sporulation and morphology of the colony of the fungus colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporioides Costa in substrate containing potato + dextrose + agar pH 5.6, was studied. The experimental design used was that of randomized blocks, with temperatures varying from 12 to 33 degrees centigrades, at intervals of 3°C. It was concluded that the temperature of incubation notably affects the vegetative growth, sporulation and morphology of the colony of this fungus. Temperatures above the optimum range caused greater changes in mycelial, sporulation an morphology of the colony than temperatures below this range. Conidia produced at l2 and 33°C were shown to be shorter than those in other treatments. The temperature of incubation recommended for inocule production was 27°C.

  4. The sugarcane defense protein SUGARWIN2 causes cell death in Colletotrichum falcatum but not in non-pathogenic fungi.

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    Flávia P Franco

    Full Text Available Plants respond to pathogens and insect attacks by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense-related proteins. Two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (BARWIN have been characterized in sugarcane, SUGARWIN1 and SUGARWIN2 (sugarcane wound-inducible proteins. Induction of SUGARWINs occurs in response to Diatraea saccharalis damage but not to pathogen infection. In addition, the protein itself does not show any effect on insect development; instead, it has antimicrobial activities toward Fusarium verticillioides, an opportunistic fungus that usually occurs after D. saccharalis borer attacks on sugarcane. In this study, we sought to evaluate the specificity of SUGARWIN2 to better understand its mechanism of action against phytopathogens and the associations between fungi and insects that affect plants. We used Colletotrichum falcatum, a fungus that causes red rot disease in sugarcane fields infested by D. saccharalis, and Ceratocystis paradoxa, which causes pineapple disease in sugarcane. We also tested whether SUGARWIN2 is able to cause cell death in Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that does not infect sugarcane, and in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is used for bioethanol production. Recombinant SUGARWIN2 altered C. falcatum morphology by increasing vacuolization, points of fractures and a leak of intracellular material, leading to germling apoptosis. In C. paradoxa, SUGARWIN2 showed increased vacuolization in hyphae but did not kill the fungi. Neither the non-pathogenic fungus A. nidulans nor the yeast S. cerevisiae was affected by recombinant SUGARWIN2, suggesting that the protein is specific to sugarcane opportunistic fungal pathogens.

  5. First report of race 2 of Colletotrichum trifolii causing anthracnose on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in Wisconsin

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    Anthracnose of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), caused by Colletotrichum trifolii, is widespread in the United States. Three physiological races have been described. Race 1 is reported to be the dominant race that is present wherever alfalfa is grown, while race 2 was reported in a limited area in the Mid...

  6. Diverse Colletotrichum species cause anthracnose of tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in China.

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    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Bin Xiao; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-10-26

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum is one of the most severe diseases that can afflict Camellia sinensis. However, research on the diversity and geographical distribution of Colletotrichum in China remain limited. In this study, 106 Colletotrichum isolates were collected from diseased leaves of Ca. sinensis cultivated in the 15 main tea production provinces in China. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis coupled with morphological identification showed that the collected isolates belonged to 11 species, including 6 known species (C. camelliae, C. cliviae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. karstii, and C. siamense), 3 new record species (C. aenigma, C. endophytica, and C. truncatum), 1 novel species (C. wuxiense), and 1 indistinguishable strain, herein described as Colletotrichum sp. Of these species, C. camelliae and C. fructicola were the dominant species causing anthracnose in Ca. sinensis. In addition, our study provided further evidence that phylogenetic analysis using a combination of ApMat and GS sequences can be used to effectively resolve the taxonomic relationships within the C. gloeosporioides species complex. Finally, pathogenicity tests suggested that C. camelliae, C. aenigma, and C. endophytica are more invasive than other species after the inoculation of the leaves of Ca. sinensis.

  7. Characterization of a Colletotrichum population causing anthracnose disease on Olive in northern Tunisia.

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    Chattaoui, M; Raya, M C; Bouri, M; Moral, J; Perez-Rodriguez, M; Trapero, A; Msallem, M; Rhouma, A

    2016-05-01

    To phenotypically, physiologically and molecularly characterize the causal agent of olive anthracnose in the northern Tunisia and to study its genetic variability and pathogenicity. A total of 43 isolates were obtained from symptomatic olives collected from four regions in northern Tunisia. A range of morphological and physiological characteristics was recorded; and a phylogenetic study, based on the sequence analysis of both internal transcribed spacers and TUB2 gene regions, was performed. Of the 43 isolates, 41 were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum s.s, and only two were affiliated to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.s. Two more representative Spanish isolates, included for comparison, were identified as Colletotrichum godetiae. Using six inter-simple-sequence-repeat markers, homogeneity between isolates from different locations and within the same species was recorded. In pathogenicity and virulence studies, C. gloeosporioides s.s was found to be less virulent, while the Spanish C. godetiae isolate was significantly more virulent than the Tunisian C. acutatum s.s. Olive anthracnose in the North of Tunisia is mainly caused by C. acutatum s.s species. This is the first study of olive anthracnose in Tunisia, which combines both phenotypic and molecular approaches. Colletotrichum acutatum s.s group was recorded for the first time in the country as the causal agent of olive anthracnose. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Identifying pathogenicity genes in the rubber tree anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides through random insertional mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhiying; Li, Guohua; Lin, Chunhua; Shi, Tao; Zhai, Ligang; Chen, Yipeng; Huang, Guixiu

    2013-07-19

    To gain more insight into the molecular mechanisms of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides pathogenesis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was used to identify mutants of C. gloeosporioides impaired in pathogenicity. An ATMT library of 4128 C. gloeosporioides transformants was generated. Transformants were screened for defects in pathogenicity with a detached copper brown leaf assay. 32 mutants showing reproducible pathogenicity defects were obtained. Southern blot analysis showed 60.4% of the transformants had single-site T-DNA integrations. 16 Genomic sequences flanking T-DNA were recovered from mutants by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and were used to isolate the tagged genes from the genome sequence of wild-type C. gloeosporioides by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool searches against the local genome database of the wild-type C. gloeosporioides. One potential pathogenicity genes encoded calcium-translocating P-type ATPase. Six potential pathogenicity genes had no known homologs in filamentous fungi and were likely to be novel fungal virulence factors. Two putative genes encoded Glycosyltransferase family 28 domain-containing protein and Mov34/MPN/PAD-1 family protein, respectively. Five potential pathogenicity genes had putative function matched with putative protein of other Colletotrichum species. Two known C. gloeosporioides pathogenicity genes were also identified, the encoding Glomerella cingulata hard-surface induced protein and C. gloeosporioides regulatory subunit of protein kinase A gene involved in cAMP-dependent PKA signal transduction pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Occurrence of anthracnose on highbush blueberry caused by colletotrichum species in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Choi, Hyo Won; Lee, Young Kee

    2009-12-01

    A total of 82 isolates of Colletotrichum species were obtained from anthracnose symptoms of highbush blueberry trees grown in the Gochang area of Korea during a disease survey in 2008. Out of the isolates, 75 were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the others as C. acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Twenty six of C. gloeosporioides isolates produced their teleomorph Glomerella cingulata in PDA culture. Three isolates of each C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum caused anthracnose symptoms on the leaves by artificial inoculation, which were similar to what was observed in the orchards. Previously in Korea, only C. gloeosporioides has been reported as causing anthracnose in blueberries. This is the first report that C. acutatum causes anthracnose in the highbush blueberry in Korea.

  10. Growth under visible light increases conidia and mucilage production and tolerance to UV-B radiation in the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Henrique D; Massola, Nelson S; Flint, Stephan D; Silva, Geraldo J; Bachmann, Luciano; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Braga, Gilberto U L

    2015-01-01

    Light conditions can influence fungal development. Some spectral wavebands can induce conidial production, whereas others can kill the conidia, reducing the population size and limiting dispersal. The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose in several crops. During the asexual stage on the host plant, Colletototrichum produces acervuli with abundant mucilage-embedded conidia. These conidia are responsible for fungal dispersal and host infection. This study examined the effect of visible light during C. acutatum growth on the production of conidia and mucilage and also on the UV tolerance of these conidia. Conidial tolerance to an environmentally realistic UV irradiance was determined both in conidia surrounded by mucilage on sporulating colonies and in conidial suspension. Exposures to visible light during fungal growth increased production of conidia and mucilage as well as conidial tolerance to UV. Colonies exposed to light produced 1.7 times more conidia than colonies grown in continuous darkness. The UV tolerances of conidia produced under light were at least two times higher than conidia produced in the dark. Conidia embedded in the mucilage on sporulating colonies were more tolerant of UV than conidia in suspension that were washed free of mucilage. Conidial tolerance to UV radiation varied among five selected isolates. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  11. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua

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    Lisa A. Beirn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread throughout the world and highly destructive to cool-season turfgrasses, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turf loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass anthracnose has been performed in the field, but knowledge of the causal organism and its basic biology is still needed. In particular, the lack of a reliable greenhouse-based inoculation protocol performed under controlled environmental conditions is an obstacle to the study of C. cereale and anthracnose disease. Our objective was to develop a consistent and reproducible inoculation protocol for the two major genetic lineages of C. cereale. By adapting previously successful field-based protocols and combining with components of existing inoculation procedures, the method we developed consistently produced C. cereale infection on two susceptible P. annua biotypes. Approximately 7 to 10 days post-inoculation, plants exhibited chlorosis and thinning consistent with anthracnose disease symptomology. Morphological inspection of inoculated plants revealed visual signs of the fungus (appressoria and acervuli, although acervuli were not always present. After stringent surface sterilization of inoculated host tissue, C. cereale was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue. Real-time PCR detection analysis based on the Apn2 marker confirmed the presence of the pathogen in host tissue, with both lineages of C. cereale detected from all inoculated plants. When a humidifier was not used, no infection developed for any biotypes or fungal isolates tested. The inoculation protocol described here marks significant progress for in planta studies of C. cereale, and will enable scientifically reproducible investigations of the biology, infectivity and lifestyle of this important grass pathogen.

  12. TWIG BLIGHT AND DEFOLIATION CAUSED BY Colletotrichum horii IN PERSIMMONS IN BRAZIL

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    LOUISE LARISSA MAY DE MIO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Persimmon anthracnose has been a great concern to Brazilian producers. This study aimed to identify and characterized the causal species from Brazilian persimmons byassessing morphological and molecular characteristics and pathogenicity tests. Five fungal isolatesobtained from diseased twigs and fruits were identified as Colletotrichum horii, based on morphologicalcharacteristics and nucleotide sequences of ITS region. Inoculation tests revealed that the fungal isolates caused necrotic spots followed by defoliation of leaves, blight of twigs and buds of potted persimmon plants.

  13. Identification of colletotrichum species causing anthracnose on tahiti lime, tree tomato and mango

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Erika P.; Hío, Juan C.; Osorio1, Jairo A.; Torres, María F.

    2009-01-01

    In Colombia, citrus, tree tomato and mango crops are likely to suffer considerable losses from anthracnose caused by several Colletotrichum species, which were identified by the present study on infected organs of the three fruit crops, sampled in different regions of the country. Identification was based on their morphological and molecular characteristics, as well as on fungicide (benomyl and copper hydroxide) sensitivity and pathogenicity tests. The latter assessed infectivity on both the ...

  14. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Hepta-Segmented dsRNA Virus From the Phytopathogenic Fungus Colletotrichum fructicola

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    Lifeng Zhai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel hepta-segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA virus was isolated and characterized from the strain FJ-4 of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum fructicola, and was named Colletotrichum fructicola chrysovirus 1 (CfCV1. The full-length cDNAs of dsRNA1–7 were 3620, 2801, 2687, 2437, 1750, 1536, and 1211 bp, respectively. The 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions of the seven dsRNAs share highly similar internal sequence and contain conserved sequence stretches, indicating that they have a common virus origin. The 5′-and 3′-UTRs of the seven dsRNAs were predicted to fold into stable stem-loop structures. CfCV1 contains spherical virions that are 35 nm in diameter consisting of seven segments. The largest dsRNA of CfCV1 encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, and the second dsRNA encodes a viral capsid protein (CP. The dsRNA5 encodes a C2H2-type zinc finger protein containing an R-rich region and a G-rich region. The smallest dsRNA is a satellite-like RNA. The functions of the other proteins encoded by dsRNA3, dsRNA4, dsRNA6 are unknown. Phylogenetic analysis, based on RdRp and CP, indicated that CfCV1 is phylogenetically related to Botryosphaeria dothidea chrysovirus 1 (BdCV1, and Penicillium janczewskii chrysovirus 2 (PjCV2, a cluster of an independent cluster II group in the family Chrysoviridae. Importantly, all the seven segments of CfCV1 were transmitted successfully to other virus-free strains with an all-or-none fashion. CfCV1 exerts minor influence on the growth of C. fructicola but can confer hypovirulence to the fungal host. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a hepta-segmented tentative chrysovirus in C. fructicola.

  15. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based detection of Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amaresh; Keizerweerd, Amber T; Que, Youxiong; Grisham, Michael P

    2015-08-01

    Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum, is a destructive disease prevalent in most sugarcane-producing countries. Disease-free sugarcane planting materials (setts) are essential as the pathogen spreads primarily through infected setts. The present study was undertaken to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of C. falcatum. C. falcatum genomic DNA was isolated from pure mycelium culture and infected tissues. Four sets of primers corresponding to a unique DNA sequence specific to C. falcatum were designed. Specificity of the LAMP test was checked with DNA of another fungal pathogen of sugarcane, Puccinia melanocephala, as well as two closely-related species, Colletotrichum fructivorum and Colletotrichum acutatum. No reaction was found with the three pathogens. When C. falcatum DNA from pure culture was used in a detection limit analysis, sensitivity of the LAMP method was observed to be ten times higher than that of conventional PCR; however, sensitivity was only 5 times higher when DNA from C. falcatum-infected tissues was used. Using the LAMP assay, C. falcatum DNA is amplified with high specificity, efficiency, and rapidity under isothermal conditions. Moreover, visual judgment of color change in <1 h without further post-amplification processing makes the LAMP method convenient, economical, and useful in diagnostic laboratories and the field.

  16. Novel Fungal Pathogenicity and Leaf Defense Strategies Are Revealed by Simultaneous Transcriptome Analysis of Colletotrichum fructicola and Strawberry Infected by This Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqing Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum fructicola, which is part of the C. gloeosporioides species complex, can cause anthracnose diseases in strawberries worldwide. However, the molecular interactions between C. fructicola and strawberry are largely unknown. A deep RNA-sequencing approach was applied to gain insights into the pathogenicity mechanisms of C. fructicola and the defense response of strawberry plants at different stages of infection. The transcriptome data showed stage-specific transcription accompanied by a step-by-step strawberry defense response and the evasion of this defense system by fungus. Fungal genes involved in plant cell wall degradation, secondary metabolism, and detoxification were up-regulated at different stage of infection. Most importantly, C. fructicola infection was accompanied by a large number of highly expressed effectors. Four new identified effectors function in the suppression of Bax-mediated programmed cell death. Strawberry utilizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity to prevent C. fructicola invasion, followed by the initiation of downstream innate immunity. The up-regulation of genes related to salicylic acid provided evidence that salicylic acid signaling may serve as the core defense signaling mechanism, while jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways were largely inhibited by C. fructicola. The necrotrophic stage displayed a significant up-regulation of genes involved in reactive oxygen species activation. Collectively, the transcriptomic data of both C. fructicola and strawberry shows that even though plants build a multilayered defense against infection, C. fructicola employs a series of escape or antagonizing mechanisms to successfully infect host cells.

  17. Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genome of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose in common beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Casley Borges; Santana, Mateus Ferreira; Pereira Vidigal, Pedro M; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2018-03-01

    Fungi of the genus Colletotrichum are economically important and are used as models in plant-pathogen interaction studies. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genomes of two Colletotrichum lindemuthianum isolates were sequenced and compared with the mitochondrial genomes of seven species of Colletotrichum. The mitochondrial genome of C. lindemuthianum is a typical circular molecule 37,446 bp (isolate 89 A 2 2-3) and 37,440 bp (isolate 83.501) in length. The difference of six nucleotides between the two genomes is the result of a deletion in the ribosomal protein S3 (rps3) gene in the 83.501 isolate. In addition, substitution of adenine for guanine within the rps3 gene in the mitochondrial genome of the 83.501 isolate was observed. Compared to the previously sequenced C. lindemuthianum mitochondrial genome, an exon no annotated in the cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene and a non-conserved open reading frame (ncORF) were observed. The size of the mitochondrial genomes of the seven species of Colletotrichum was highly variable, being attributed mainly to the ncORF, ranging from one to 10 and also from introns ranging from one to 11 and which encode a total of up to nine homing endonucleases. This paper reports for the first time by means of transcriptome that then ncORFs are transcribed in Colletotrichum spp. Phylogeny data revealed that core mitochondrial genes could be used as an alternative in phylogenetic relationship studies in Colletotrichum spp. This work contributes to the genetic and biological knowledge of Colletotrichum spp., which is of great economic and scientific importance.

  18. Identification of Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose on Tahiti lime, tree tomato and mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Erika P.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In Colombia, citrus, tree tomato and mango crops are likely to suffer considerable losses from anthracnose caused by several Colletotrichum species, which were identified by the present study on infected organs of the three fruit crops, sampled in different regions of the country. Identification was based on their morphological and molecular characteristics, as well as on fungicide (benomyl and copper hydroxide sensitivity and pathogenicity tests. The latter assessed infectivity on both the original hosting crop and the other two crops (crossed infection, by putting the fungi in contact with organs taken from the three fruit crops. Molecular identification of the Colletotrichum species was carried out through amplification of rDNA ITS regions by means of C. gloeosporioides (CgInt and C. acutatum (CaInt2 specific primer PCR combining the use of ITS4 universal primer. The results indicate that C. acutatum is the infectious agent in Tahiti lime and tree tomato, and so is C. gloeosporioides in mango. Although C. acutatum is the infectious agent in two diferent fruit species, the strains proved to be specific of their original hosts.

  19. Novel Fungal Pathogenicity and Leaf Defense Strategies Are Revealed by Simultaneous Transcriptome Analysis of Colletotrichum fructicola and Strawberry Infected by This Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Liqing Zhang; Xin Huang; Chengyong He; Chengyong He; Qing-Yu Zhang; Xiaohua Zou; Ke Duan; Ke Duan; Qinghua Gao

    2018-01-01

    Colletotrichum fructicola, which is part of the C. gloeosporioides species complex, can cause anthracnose diseases in strawberries worldwide. However, the molecular interactions between C. fructicola and strawberry are largely unknown. A deep RNA-sequencing approach was applied to gain insights into the pathogenicity mechanisms of C. fructicola and the defense response of strawberry plants at different stages of infection. The transcriptome data showed stage-specific transcription accompanied...

  20. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

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    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  1. Efeito in vitro de compostos de plantas sobre o fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz: isolado do maracujazeiro In vitro effect of plant compounds on the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz: isolated from passion fruit

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    André Costa da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Gerais, on the germination of spores and the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides fungus. The following were used in the mycelial growth inhibition test: the watery extracts of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, Cordia verbenacea, Solanum sisymbriifolium, Phyllanthus corcovadensis, Eclipta alba, and Curcuma longa obtained through the infusion process; essential oils of "alecrim de vargem" (Lamiaceae Family, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia citriodora, white guava (Psidium guajava, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus; copaíba oil resin (Copaifera langsdorffi as well as hydrolates of "alecrim de vargem", red guava (Psidium guajava, Lippia citriodora, lemongrass, white guava, Ocimum gratissimum; and cassava manipueira (Manihot esculenta. The same hydrolates and essential oils were also tested on the germination of the fungus spores. All the treatments were carried out in vitro, cultivating the fungus in PDA supplemented with 100μL of the vegetal compounds. In the germination inhibition test, all the essential oils prevented the germination of the fungus. However, the hydrolates did not have this effect. In the mycelial growth test, the essential oils of all of the plants completely inhibited the fungus growth, except the white guava oil. The watery extracts, the cassava manipueira, the oil resin and hydrolates were also not efficient in preventing the growth of the pathogen. These results indicate the fungitoxic potential of some essential oils of medicinal plants.

  2. COMPORTAMENTO DO FUNGO Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporoides Costa EM SUBSTRATO COM DIFERENTES FONTES DE NITROGÊNIO THE BEHAVIOR OF THE FUNGUS Colletotrichum gossypii South Var. cephalosporoides Costa IN SUBSTRATE CONTAINING DIFFERENT SOURCES OF NITROGEN

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    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Nesse trabalho procurou-se observar o efeito de diversas substâncias nitrogenadas sobre o crescimento miceliano, esporulação e aspectos morfológicos das colônias do fungo Colletotrichum gossypii South. var. cephalosporoides Costa em substrato sólido. Usou-se um substrato sintético como meio-básico e a este se adicionou peptona, metionina, asparagina, nitrato de sódio ou salicilato de amônia, conforme o tratamento. A testemunha não recebeu qualquer fonte de nitrogênio. Concluiu-se que a peptona foi o melhor tratamento para esporulação e crescimento miceliano, seguindo-se a asparagina que foi eficiente na indução da esporulação. O salicilato de amônia exerceu efeito inibidor do crescimento vegetativo e da esporulação do fungo. Para produção de inóculo, a curto prazo, recomenda-se o uso da peptona como fonte de nitrogênio. Foram observadas diferenças na pigmentação, bordos e densidade das colônias. A esporulação, embora abundante em substratos contendo peptona e asparagina, ocorreu em forma de verdadeiras massas localizadas de conídios na primeira, e como conídios dispersos na segunda.

    In this experiment, the effect of different nitrogenous substances on the mycelium growth, sporulation and morphological aspects of the colonies of the fungus Colletotrichum gossypii  South Var. cephalosporoides Costa planted in a solid substrate were observed. A synthetic substrate was used as a basic medium, and to this was added peptone metionine, asparagine, sodium nitrate or ammonium salicylate, according to the treatment. The control (group received no nitrogen whatsover. It was concluded that peptone was the best treatment for sporulation and mycelium growth, and that the next best was asparagine which was helpfull in inducing sporulation. Ammonium salicylate inhibited the vegetative growth

  3. Characterization and Pathogenicity of New Record of Anthracnose on Various Chili Varieties Caused by Colletotrichum scovillei in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, May Moe; Lim, GiTaek; Jang, Hyun A; Oh, Sang-Keun

    2017-09-01

    The anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species is well-known as a major plant pathogen that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper and reduces its marketability. Thirty-five isolates representing species of Colletotrichum were obtained from chili fruits showing anthracnose disease symptoms in Chungcheongnam-do and Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea. These 35 isolates were characterized according to morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence data of internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase, and β-tubulin. The combined dataset shows that all of these 35 isolates were identified as C. scovillei and morphological characteristics were directly correlated with the nucleotide sequence data. Notably, these isolates were recorded for the first time as the causes of anthracnose caused by C. scovillei on pepper in Korea. Forty cultivars were used to investigate the pathogenicity and to identify the possible source of resistance. The result reveals that all of chili cultivars used in this study are susceptible to C. scovillei .

  4. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Colletotrichum acutatum from Tomato Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Živković; Saša Stojanović; Žarko IVanović; Nenad Trkulja; Nenad Dolovac; Goran Aleksić; Jelica Balaž

    2010-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium...

  5. Etiology and Population Genetics of Colletotrichum spp. Causing Crown and Fruit Rot of Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña-Padilla, A R; Mackenzie, S J; Bowen, B W; Legard, D E

    2002-11-01

    ABSTRACT Isolates of Colletotrichum spp. from diseased strawberry fruit and crowns were evaluated to determine their genetic diversity and the etiology of the diseases. Isolates were identified to species using polymerase chain reaction primers for a ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and their pathogenicity was evaluated in bioassays. Isolates were scored for variation at 40 putative genetic loci with random amplified polymorphic DNA and microsatellite markers. Only C. acutatum was recovered from diseased fruit. Nearly all isolates from crowns were C. gloeosporioides. In crown bioassays, only isolates of C. gloeosporioides from strawberry caused collapse and death of plants. A dendrogram generated from the genetic analysis identified several primary lineages. One lineage included isolates of C. acutatum from fruit and was characterized by low diversity. Another lineage included isolates of C. gloeosporioides from crowns and was highly polymorphic. The isolates from strawberry formed distinctive clusters separate from citrus isolates. Evaluation of linkage disequilibrium among polymorphic loci in isolates of C. gloeosporioides from crowns revealed a low level of disequilibrium as would be expected in sexually recombining populations. These results suggest that epidemics of crown rot are caused by Glomerella cingulata (anamorph C. gloeosporioides) and that epidemics of fruit rot are caused by C. acutatum.

  6. The biology of Colletotrichum acutatum

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    Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum acutatum is major pathogen of fruit crops, causing economically important losses of temperate, subtropical and tropical fruits worldwide. However, few studies have been carried out on key aspects of its biology. This is mainly because traditionally isolates of C. acutatum were often wrongly identified as C. gloeosporioides. Effective separation of the two species was not possible until the introduction of molecular tools for taxonomy. The life cycle of C. acutatum comprises a sexual and an asexual stage and much remains to be resolved regarding the genetics of sexuality and the effects of the sexual stage on population structure. Colletotrichum acutatum exhibits both infection strategies described for Colletotrichum species, i.e. intracellular hemibiotrophy and subcuticular-intramural necrotrophy, and may also undergo a period of quiescence in order to overcome resistance mechanisms in immature fruit such as pre-formed toxic compounds and phytoalexins, or due to the unsuitability of unripe fruit to fulfill the nutritional and energy requirements of the pathogen. Colletotrichum acutatum may overwinter as mycelium and/or appressoria in or on different parts of the host. Conidia are water-born and spread by rain episodes so infections are usually highest during the wettest periods of the growing season. Current management strategies for this fungus comprise the exploitation of cultivar resistance, cultural, chemical, and biological control methods, and preventive strategies such as disease-forecasting models. This review focuses on the current knowledge of biological aspects of C. acutatum and related Colletotrichum species and includes a discussion of the progress towards their control.Colletotrichum acutatum es uno de los principales hongos patógenos en agricultura y responsable de importantes pérdidas económicas en frutales en áreas tanto de climas templados como subtropicales y tropicales. Sin embargo, existen pocos estudios

  7. Genetic Diversity Among Colletotrichum falcatum Isolates Causing Red Rot of Sugarcane in Subtropical Region of India

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    Ratinderbir KAUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver Genetic diversity of Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot of sugarcane was assessed based on morphological, pathological and molecular characteristics especially from sub-tropical Indian conditions. Sixteen isolates of this pathogen were collected based on the extensive survey on prominent varieties grown in the region along with some elite selections. Morphological observations (colony colour, mycelium pattern and sporulation grouped the isolates into two distinct types (C1: light type and C2: dark type. However, quantitative data on colony diameter showed five clusters for these isolates. Pathogenic characterization of these isolates on fourteen standard differentials formed six groups, ingroup 1: (CF-Pb-1 isolates Cf-157, Cf-249 and Cf-248 were the most virulent while group 6 (CF-Pb-6 isolates Cf-60 and Cf-247 were the least one. The genetic relatedness among the isolates using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis revealed sufficient molecular polymorphism, which in turn confirmed the variation in virulence of different isolates. The data categorized different isolates into two major clusters and five independent lineages. Polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.701 to 0.929. Isolate Cf-223 was found to be genetically most diverse among all the isolates. Present study inferred that morphological grouping of most of the isolates showed positive correlation with the pathogenic variability while molecular diversity did not showed such associations.

  8. bZIP transcription factor CgAP1 is essential for oxidative stress tolerance and full virulence of the poplar anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingjiao; Wang, Yonglin; Tian, Chengming

    2016-10-01

    Yeast AP1 transcription factor is a regulator of oxidative stress response. Here, we report the identification and characterization of CgAP1, an ortholog of YAP1 in poplar anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The expression of CgAP1 was highly induced by reactive oxygen species. CgAP1 deletion mutants displayed enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress compared with the wild-type strain, and their poplar leaf virulence was obviously reduced. However, the mutants exhibited no obvious defects in aerial hyphal growth, conidia production, and appressoria formation. CgAP1::eGFP fusion protein localized to the nucleus after TBH (tert-Butyl hydroperoxide) treatment, suggesting that CgAP1 functions as a redox sensor in C. gloeosporioides. In addition, CgAP1 prevented the accumulation of ROS during early stages of biotrophic growth. CgAP1 also acted as a positive regulator of several ROS-related genes (i.e., Glr1, Hyr1, and Cyt1) involved in the antioxidative response. These results highlight the key regulatory role of CgAP1 transcription factor in oxidative stress response and provide insights into the function of ROS detoxification in virulence of C. gloeosporioides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression and functional analysis of the lysine decarboxylase and copper amine oxidase genes from the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangmei; Wang, Zhangqian; Jan, Saad; Yang, Qian; Wang, Mo

    2017-06-05

    Huperzine A (HupA) isolated from Huperzia serrata is an important compound used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, HupA was reported in various endophytic fungi, with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 previously isolated from H. serrata shown to produce HupA. In this study, we performed next-generation sequencing and de novo RNA sequencing of C. gloeosporioides ES026 to elucidate the molecular functions, biological processes, and biochemical pathways of these unique sequences. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes assignments allowed annotation of lysine decarboxylase (LDC) and copper amine oxidase (CAO) for their conversion of L-lysine to 5-aminopentanal during HupA biosynthesis. Additionally, we constructed a stable, high-yielding HupA-expression system resulting from the overexpression of CgLDC and CgCAO from the HupA-producing endophytic fungus C. gloeosporioides ES026 in Escherichia coli. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed CgLDC and CgCAO expression, and quantitative determination of HupA levels was assessed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry, which revealed that elevated expression of CgLDC and CgCAO produced higher yields of HupA than those derived from C. gloeosporioides ES026. These results revealed CgLDC and CgCAO involvement in HupA biosynthesis and their key role in regulating HupA content in C. gloeosporioides ES026.

  10. First report of Colletotrichum nigrum causing anthracnose disease on tomato fruit in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose fruit rot is one of the most serious diseases affecting the production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in the United States and is typically incited by Colletotrichum coccodes, C. gloeosporioides or C. dematium (Farr and Rossman 2016). During the summer of 2013, symptoms characteris...

  11. First report of anthracnose fruit rot of blueberry caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose fruit rot is the most important disease of blueberry in New Jersey. Most fungicide applications in New Jersey and other blueberry growing regions is for the control of this disease. The causal agent of this disease has been reported to be Colletotrichum acutatum and other species in the ...

  12. Anthracnose disease of switchgrass caused by the novel fungal species Colletotrichum navitas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Jo Anne; Beirn, Lisa A; Cortese, Laura M; Bonos, Stacy A; Clarke, Bruce B

    2009-12-01

    In recent years perennial grasses such as the native tallgrass prairie plant Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) have taken on a new role in the North American landscape as a plant-based source of renewable energy. Because switchgrass is a native plant, it has been suggested that disease problems will be minimal, but little research in this area has been conducted. Recently, outbreaks of switchgrass anthracnose disease have been reported from the northeastern United States. Incidences of switchgrass anthracnose are known in North America since 1886 through herbarium specimens and disease reports, but the causal agent of this disease has never been experimentally determined or taxonomically evaluated. In the present work, we evaluate the causal agent of switchgrass anthracnose, a new species we describe as Colletotrichum navitas (navitas=Latin for energy). Multilocus molecular phylogenetics and morphological characters show C. navitas is a novel species in the falcate-spored graminicolous group of the genus Colletotrichum; it is most closely related to the corn anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola. We present a formal description and illustrations for C. navitas and provide experimental confirmation that this organism is responsible for switchgrass anthracnose disease.

  13. Screening of hypo virulence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its control effect on apple anthracnose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Na; Tan Genjia; Li Zenzhi; Liu Shufang; Hou Xiaodan; Yang Weilai

    2007-01-01

    The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a nosogenesis important fungus that causes the serious economic loss on apple, however, inducing resistance of the host may reduce the loss. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was treated by ion implantation and by alternating magnetic field to induce aberrance. It was screened through eyeballing first, and then screened through growth on apple. Two aberrance strains (C100-2-5 and C0.25-1-2 were selected. Both the strains have good protective function and good effect to control the apple disease. (authors)

  14. Pathogenicity for onion and genetic diversity of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Phyllachoraceae) from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, M X Vila; Borges, L R; de Sousa, A C B; Brasileiro, B T R V; Lima, E A L A; da Costa, A F; de Oliveira, N T

    2011-02-22

    Onion anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is one of the main diseases of onions in the State of Pernambuco. We examined the pathogenicity of 15 C. gloeosporioides strains and analyzed their genetic variability using RAPDs and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the rDNA region. Ten of the strains were obtained from substrates and hosts other than onion, including chayote (Sechium edule), guava (Psidium guajava), pomegranate (Punica granatum), water from the Capibaribe River, maracock (Passiflora sp), coconut (Cocus nucifera), surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), and marine soil; five isolates came from onions collected from four different regions of the State of Pernambuco and one region of the State of Amazonas. Pathogenicity tests were carried out using onion leaves and bulbs. All strains were capable of causing disease in leaves, causing a variable degree of lesions on the leaves; four strains caused the most severe damage. In the onion bulb tests, only three of the above strains caused lesions. Seven primers of arbitrary sequences were used in the RAPD analysis, generating polymorphic bands that allowed the separation of the strains into three distinct groups. The amplification products generated with the primers ITS1 and ITS4 also showed polymorphism when digested with three restriction enzymes, DraI, HaeIII and MspI. Only the latter two demonstrated genetic variations among the strains. These two types of molecular markers were able to differentiate the strain from the State of Amazonas from those of the State of Pernambuco. However, there was no relationship between groups of strains, based on molecular markers, and degree of pathogenicity for onion leaves and bulbs.

  15. Application of Rhizobacteria for Plant Growth Promotion Effect and Biocontrol of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum on Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Yun Seok

    2012-01-01

    In vitro and greenhouse screening of seven rhizobacterial isolates, AB05, AB10, AB11, AB12, AB14, AB15 and AB17, was conducted to investigate the plant growth promoting activities and inhibition against anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in pepper. According to identification based on 16S rDNA sequencing, the majority of the isolates are members of Bacillus and a single isolate belongs to the genus Paenibacillus. All seven bacterial isolates were capable of inhibiting C. acutatum to various degrees. The results primarily showed that antibiotic substances produced by the selected bacteria were effective and resulted in strong antifungal activity against the fungi. However, isolate AB15 was the most effective bacterial strain, with the potential to suppress more than 50% mycelial growth of C. acutatum in vitro. Moreover, antibiotics from Paenibacillus polymyxa (AB15) and volatile compounds from Bacillus subtilis (AB14) exerted efficient antagonistic activity against the pathogens in a dual culture assay. In vivo suppression activity of selected bacteria was also analyzed in a greenhouse with the reference to their prominent in vitro antagonism efficacy. Induced systemic resistance in pepper against C. acutatum was also observed under greenhouse conditions. Where, isolate AB15 was found to be the most effective bacterial strain at suppressing pepper anthracnose under greenhouse conditions. Moreover, four isolates, AB10, AB12, AB15, and AB17, were identified as the most effective growth promoting bacteria under greenhouse conditions, with AB17 inducing the greatest enhancement of pepper growth. PMID:23323049

  16. Genetic Diversity Among Colletotrichum falcatum Isolates Causing Red Rot of Sugarcane in Subtropical Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratinderbir KAUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver Genetic diversity of Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot of sugarcane was assessed based on morphological, pathological and molecular characteristics especially from sub-tropical Indian conditions. Sixteen isolates of this pathogen were collected based on the extensive survey on prominent varieties grown in the region along with some elite selections. Morphological observations (colony colour, mycelium pattern and sporulation grouped the isolates into two distinct types (C1: light type and C2: dark type. However, quantitative data on colony diameter showed five clusters for these isolates. Pathogenic characterization of these isolates on fourteen standard differentials formed six groups, ingroup 1: (CF-Pb-1 isolates Cf-157, Cf-249 and Cf-248 were the most virulent while group 6 (CF-Pb-6 isolates Cf-60 and Cf-247 were the least one. The genetic relatedness among the isolates using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis revealed sufficient molecular polymorphism, which in turn confirmed the variation in virulence of different isolates. The data categorized different isolates into two major clusters and five independent lineages. Polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.701 to 0.929. Isolate Cf-223 was found to be genetically most diverse among all the isolates. Present study inferred that morphological grouping of most of the isolates showed positive correlation with the pathogenic variability while molecular diversity did not showed such associations.

  17. Expression and functional analysis of the lysine decarboxylase and copper amine oxidase genes from the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiangmei; Wang, Zhangqian; Jan, Saad; Yang, Qian; Wang, Mo

    2017-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) isolated from Huperzia serrata is an important compound used to treat Alzheimer?s disease (AD). Recently, HupA was reported in various endophytic fungi, with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 previously isolated from H. serrata shown to produce HupA. In this study, we performed next-generation sequencing and de novo RNA sequencing of C. gloeosporioides ES026 to elucidate the molecular functions, biological processes, and biochemical pathways of these unique sequences. Ge...

  18. Biochemical Alterations In Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A leaf spot disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) was observed in farms in the 2004 cropping season in Cross River State, Nigeria. Isolation, identification and pathogenicity trials carried out on the causative agent, implicated the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Analysis carried out, revealed that apart from fat (0%), ...

  19. Mummified fruit as a source of inoculum and disease dynamics of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Trapero, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is a destructive disease of olive fruit worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of agronomical and weather factors on inoculum production using detached olive fruit and on the development of epidemics in the field. The pathogen produced very large numbers of conidia on rotted (>1.87 × 10(8) conidia/fruit) or mummified (>2.16 × 10(4) conidia/fruit) fruit under optimal conditions. On mummified fruit, conidial production was highest on mummies incubated at 20 to 25°C and 96 h of wetness. Repeated washings of mummies reduced conidial production until it was very low after five washings. When mummies were placed in the tree canopy, conidial production was not reduced after 6 months (May to October); but, when they were held on the soil or buried in the soil, conidial production comparatively decreased up to 10,000 times. Anthracnose epidemics on susceptible 'Hojiblanca' and 'Picudo' during three seasons (2005-08) were influenced by rainfall, temperature, and fruit ripening, and had three main phases: the latent period (May to October); the onset of the epidemic, which coincided with the beginning of fruit ripening (early November); and disease development, which was predicted by the Weibull model (November to March). No epidemics developed on the susceptible cultivars during the driest season (2007-08) or on the resistant 'Picual' olive during any of the three seasons. These results provide the basis for a forecasting system of olive anthracnose which could greatly improve the management of this disease.

  20. Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyrhizi syd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratma, R.

    1988-01-01

    Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyhizi syd). Eleven soybean mutant lines of orba variety derived from gamma fungus disease in the wet season 1985/86 at the experimental station of Citayam, Bogor. Based on IWGSR rating system, soybean mutant lines No 18/PsJ was moderately resistant to rust fungus disease. The other mutant lines, 14/PsJ, 15/PsJ, 20/PsJ, 102/PsJ, 106/PsJ, 111/PsJ, 118/PsJ, 119/PsJ and 220/PsJ were susceptible. (author). 4 figs.; 8 refs

  1. Functional analysis of a regulator of G-protein signaling CgRGS1 in the rubber tree anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Man-Li; Ke, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Wen-Bo; Li, Xiao-Yu

    2018-04-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the causal agent of rubber anthracnose, which is also one of the important biological factors threatening the development of natural rubber industry in the world. Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) are key negative regulators of G-proteins, which play important roles in growth, development and pathogenic processes of plant pathogens. In this study, a RGS gene CgRGS1 was functionally characterized in C. gloeosporioides. Compared to the wild type, the CgRGS1 deletion mutant had slow vegetative growth, reduced conidia with multi-end germination, low appressorium formation rate, high resistance to oxidative stress and SDS. Moreover, the mutant was sensitive to osmotic pressure and showed decreased virulence. In conclusion, CgRGS1 is involved in regulation of vegetative growth, conidiation, germination, appressorium formation, oxidative stress, osmotic pressure response and pathogenicity in C. gloeosporioides.

  2. Analysis of Antifungal Components in the Galls of Melaphis chinensis and Their Effects on Control of Anthracnose Disease of Chinese Cabbage Caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens caused various diseases which resulted in heavy yield and quality losses on plants of commercial interests such as fruits, vegetables, and flowers. In our preliminary experimental results, the methanol extracts of four species of medicinal plants Melaphis chinensis, Eugenia caryophyllata, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Rheum officinale possessed antifungal activity to causal agent of cabbage anthracnose, Colletotrichum higginsianum. Thus it was conducted to identify and quantify the chemical constituents in these herbs and to assess the antifungal effects of these compounds. Among the tested principles, the indicator compound methyl gallate from M. chinensis was the most effective one against the conidial germination. In addition, it exhibited significant effects of controlling anthracnose disease of Chinese cabbage caused by C. higginsianum PA-01 in growth chamber. These results indicate that M. chinensis may be potential for further development of plant-derived pesticides for control of anthracnose of cabbage and other cruciferous crops.

  3. Pathogen toxin-indiced electrolyte leakage and phytoalexin accumulation as indices of red-rot (Colletotrichum falcatum Went resistance in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mohanraj

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A phytotoxin produced by the sugarcane red-rot fungus Colletotrichum falcatum Went was partially purified. The phytotoxin caused increased electrolyte leakage in susceptible sugarcane varieties and higher levels of phytoalexins (3-deoxyanthocyanidins in resistant sugarcane varieties. This relationship between phytotoxin induced changes and disease reaction could possibly be used as an additional index to rapidly identify red-rot resistant varieties.

  4. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv 'Embul'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayasekara, C L; Adikaram, N K B; Wanigasekara, U W N P; Bandara, B M R

    2013-03-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar 'Embul' (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4'-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana.

  5. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Abayasekara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity and cell wall lignification. ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana.

  6. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayasekara, C. L.; Adikaram, N. K. B.; Wanigasekara, U. W. N. P.; Bandara, B. M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

  7. Structural modification of trans-cinnamic acid using Colletotrichum acutatum

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco B., Rodrigo; Gil G., Jesús H.; García P., Carlos M.; Durango R., Diego L.

    2012-01-01

    The biotransformation of trans-cinnamic acid by whole cells of the Colombian native phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum was studied. Initially, fungitoxicity of this compound against C. acutatum was evaluated; trans-cinnamic acid exhibited a moderate to weak toxicity against the microorganism and apparently a detoxification mechanism was present. Then, in order to study such mechanism and explore the capacity of this fungus to biotransform trans-cinnamic acid into value-added produ...

  8. Olive anthracnose: a yield- and oil quality-degrading disease caused by several species of Colletotrichum that differ in virulence, host preference and geographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhinhas, Pedro; Loureiro, Andreia; Oliveira, Helena

    2018-03-08

    Olive anthracnose causes fruit rot leading to its drop or mummification, resulting in yield losses and the degradation of oil quality. The disease is caused by diverse species of Colletotrichum, mostly clustering in the C. acutatum species complex. Colletotrichum nymphaeae and C. godetiae are the prevalent species in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas C. acutatum sensu stricto is the most frequent species in the Southern Hemisphere, although it is recently and quickly emerging in the Northern Hemisphere. The disease has been reported from all continents, but it attains higher incidence and severity in the west of the Mediterranean Basin, where it is endemic in traditional orchards of susceptible cultivars. The pathogens are able to survive on vegetative organs. On the fruit surface, infections remain quiescent until fruit maturity, when typical anthracnose symptoms develop. Under severe epidemics, defoliation and death of branches can also occur. Pathogen species differ in virulence, although this depends on the cultivar. The selection of resistant cultivars depends strongly on pathogen diversity and environmental conditions, posing added difficulties to breeding efforts. Chemical disease control is normally achieved with copper-based fungicides, although this may be insufficient under highly favourable disease conditions and causes concern because of the presence of fungicide residues in the oil. In areas in which the incidence is high, farmers tend to anticipate harvest, with consequences in yield and oil characteristics. Olive production systems, harvest and post-harvest processing have experienced profound changes in recent years, namely new training systems using specific cultivars, new harvest and processing techniques and new organoleptic market requests. Changes are also occurring in both the geographical distribution of pathogen populations and the taxonomic framework. In addition, stricter rules concerning pesticide use are likely to have a strong impact

  9. Life styles of Colletotrichum species and implications for plant biosecurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Dilani D. De; Crous, Pedro W.; Ades, Peter Kevin; Hyde, Kevin D.; Taylor, Paul W. J.

    Colletotrichum is a genus of major plant pathogens causing anthracnose diseases in many plant crops worldwide. The genus comprises a highly diverse group of pathogens that infect a wide range of plant hosts. The life styles of Colletotrichum species can be broadly categorised as necrotrophic,

  10. Foliar Application of Extract from an Azalomycin-Producing Streptomyces malaysiensis Strain MJM1968 Suppresses Yam Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Sasikumar; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Woh

    2016-06-28

    Yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C.g) is the most devastating disease of yam (Dioscorea sp.). In the present study, we evaluated the culture filtrate extract (CFE) of azalomycin-producing Streptomyces malaysiensis strain MJM1968 for the control of yam anthracnose. MJM1968 showed strong antagonistic activity against C.g in vitro. Furthermore, the MJM1968 CFE was tested for inhibition of spore germination in C.g, where it completely inhibited spore germination at a concentration of 50 μg/ml. To assess the in planta efficacy of the CFE and spores of MJM1968 against C.g, a detached leaf bioassay was conducted, which showed both the treatments suppressed anthracnose development on detached yam leaves. Furthermore, a greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the CFE from MJM1968 as a fungicide for the control of yam anthracnose. The CFE non-treated plants showed a disease severity of >92% after 90 days of artificial inoculation with C.g, whereas the disease severity of CFE-treated and benomyl-treated yam plants was reduced to 26% and 15%, respectively, after 90 days. Analysis of the yam tubers from the CFE-treated and non-treated groups showed that tubers from the CFE-treated plants were larger than that of non-treated plants, which produced abnormal smaller tubers typical of anthracnose. This study demonstrated the utility of the CFE from S. malaysiensis strain MJM1968 as a biofungicide for the control of yam anthracnose.

  11. Molecular Characterization of a Heterothallic Mating System in Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungus Causing White-Nose Syndrome of Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Jonathan M.; Kubatova, Alena; Novakova, Alena; Minnis, Andrew M.; Kolarik, Miroslav; Lindner, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) of bats has devastated bat populations in eastern North America since its discovery in 2006. WNS, caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has spread quickly in North America and has become one of the most severe wildlife epidemics of our time. While P. destructans is spreading rapidly in North America, nothing is known about the sexual capacity of this fungus. To gain insight into the genes involved in sexual reproduction, we characterized the mating-type ...

  12. Beginning to understand the role of sugar carriers in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum: the function of the gene mfs1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Monalessa Fábia; de Araújo Dos Santos, Carolina Maria; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares

    2013-02-01

    Fungi of the Colletotrichum genus are among the most prominent phytopathogens that cause diseases with a considerable economic impact, such as anthracnose. The hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (teleomorph Glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli) is the causal agent of the anthracnose of the common bean; and similarly to other phytopathogens, it uses multiple strategies to gain access to different carbon sources from its host. In this study, we examine mfs1, a newly identified C. lindemuthianum hexose transporter. The mfs1 gene is expressed only during the necrotrophic phase of the fungus' interaction within the plant and allows it to utilize the available sugars during this phase. The deletion of mfs1 gene resulted in differential growth of the fungus in a medium that contained glucose, mannose or fructose as the only carbon source. This study is the first to describe a hexose transporter in the hemibiotrophic pathogen C. lindemuthianum and to demonstrate the central role of this protein in capturing carbon sources during the necrotrophic development of the plant/pathogen interaction.

  13. Sexual recombination in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum occurs on a fine scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E A; Camargo, O A; Pinto, J M A

    2010-09-08

    Glomerella cingulata f. sp phaseoli is the sexual phase of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of common bean anthracnose. This fungus is of great concern, because it causes large economic losses in common bean crops. RAPD markers of five populations of G. cingulata f. sp phaseoli from two Brazilian states were analyzed to determine if this population possesses the sexual reproductive potential to generate the genetic variation that is observed in this phytopathogen. We identified 128 polymorphic bands, amplified by 28 random primers. The estimates of genetic similarity in this analysis ranged from 0.43 to 1.00, and the dendrogram generated from analysis of all genotypes displayed five principal groups, coinciding with the five populations. Genetic differentiation was observed between the populations (GST=0.6455); 69% of the overall observed genetic variation was between individual populations and 31% of the variance was within the sub-populations. We identified significant levels of linkage disequilibrium in all populations. However, the values of the disequilibrium ranged from low to moderate, indicating that this pathogen maintains a genetic structure consistent with sexual reproduction. The mean contribution of sexual reproduction was determined by comparison of the amplitudes of genetic similarity of isolates from sexual and asexual phases. These results support the hypothesis that recombination plays an important role in determining the amplitude of variability in this pathogen population and that this determination occurs on a fine scale.

  14. Identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Bungonsiri; Mungsuntisuk, Isada; Nihira, Takuya; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2011-04-01

    Colletotrichum is one of the most widespread and important genus of plant pathogenic fungi worldwide. Various species of Colletotrichum are the causative agents of anthracnose disease in plants, which is a severe problem to agricultural crops particularly in Thailand. These phytopathogens are usually controlled using chemicals; however, the use of these agents can lead to environmental pollution. Potential non-chemical control strategies for anthracnose disease include the use of bacteria capable of producing anti-fungal compounds such as actinomycetes spp., that comprise a large group of filamentous, Gram positive bacteria from soil. The aim of this study was to isolate actinomycetes capable of inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum spp, and to analyze the diversity of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soil. A total of 304 actinomycetes were isolated and tested for their inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides strains DoA d0762 and DoA c1060 and Colletotrichum capsici strain DoA c1511 which cause anthracnose disease as well as the non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain IFO 10217. Most isolates (222 out of 304, 73.0%) were active against at least one indicator fungus or yeast. Fifty four (17.8%) were active against three anthracnose fungi and 17 (5.6%) could inhibit the growth of all three fungi and S. cerevisiae used in the test. Detailed analysis on 30 selected isolates from an orchard at Chanthaburi using the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the isolates (87%) belong to the genus Streptomyces sp., while one each belongs to Saccharopolyspora (strain SB-2) and Nocardiopsis (strain CM-2) and two to Nocardia (strains BP-3 and LK-1). Strains LC-1, LC-4, JF-1, SC-1 and MG-1 exerted high inhibitory activity against all three anthracnose fungi and yeast. In addition, the organic solvent extracts prepared from these five strains inhibited conidial growth of the three indicator fungi. Preliminary analysis of crude

  15. Temperature-dependent growth of Geomyces destructans, the fungus that causes bat white-nose syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Verant

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS is an emergent disease estimated to have killed over five million North American bats. Caused by the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, WNS specifically affects bats during hibernation. We describe temperature-dependent growth performance and morphology for six independent isolates of G. destructans from North America and Europe. Thermal performance curves for all isolates displayed an intermediate peak with rapid decline in performance above the peak. Optimal temperatures for growth were between 12.5 and 15.8°C, and the upper critical temperature for growth was between 19.0 and 19.8°C. Growth rates varied across isolates, irrespective of geographic origin, and above 12°C all isolates displayed atypical morphology that may have implications for proliferation of the fungus. This study demonstrates that small variations in temperature, consistent with those inherent of bat hibernacula, affect growth performance and physiology of G. destructans, which may influence temperature-dependent progression and severity of WNS in wild bats.

  16. Temperature-dependent growth of Geomyces destructans, the fungus that causes bat white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L; Boyles, Justin G; Waldrep, William; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Blehert, David S

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emergent disease estimated to have killed over five million North American bats. Caused by the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, WNS specifically affects bats during hibernation. We describe temperature-dependent growth performance and morphology for six independent isolates of G. destructans from North America and Europe. Thermal performance curves for all isolates displayed an intermediate peak with rapid decline in performance above the peak. Optimal temperatures for growth were between 12.5 and 15.8°C, and the upper critical temperature for growth was between 19.0 and 19.8°C. Growth rates varied across isolates, irrespective of geographic origin, and above 12°C all isolates displayed atypical morphology that may have implications for proliferation of the fungus. This study demonstrates that small variations in temperature, consistent with those inherent of bat hibernacula, affect growth performance and physiology of G. destructans, which may influence temperature-dependent progression and severity of WNS in wild bats.

  17. Clarification of the Etiology of Glomerella Leaf Spot and Bitter Rot of Apple Caused by Colletotrichum spp. Based on Morphology and Genetic, Molecular, and Pathogenicity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eugenia; Sutton, Turner B; Correll, James C

    2006-09-01

    ABSTRACT Morphological characteristics and vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) of 486 isolates of Glomerella cingulata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and C. acutatum collected from apple leaves with Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) symptoms and fruit with bitter rot symptoms in the United States and Brazil were studied. From this collection, 155 isolates of G. cingulata (93 from fruit, 61 from leaves, and 1 from buds), 42 isolates of C. gloeosporioides from fruit, and 14 isolates of C. acutatum (10 from fruit and 4 from leaves) were studied using mitochondrial (mt)DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) haplotypes. A subset of 24 isolates was studied by examining the sequence of a 200-bp intron of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GDPH) nuclear gene. In addition, 98 isolates were tested for pathogenicity on leaves of cvs. Gala and Golden Delicious in the greenhouse, and 24 isolates were tested for pathogenicity on fruit of cv. Gala in growth chambers. In total, 238 and 225 isolates of G. cingulata were separated into four distinct morphological types and six VCGs, respectively. Five morphological types and six VCGs were identified among 74 and 36 isolates of C. gloeosporioides, respectively. Three morphological types and four VCGs were identified among 74 and 23 isolates of C. acutatum, respectively. Seven different mtDNA RFLP haplotypes were observed within isolates of G. cingulata, two within isolates of C. gloeosporioides, and two within isolates of C. acutatum. Phylogenetic trees, inferred based on maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods using the intron sequence, produced similar topologies. Each species was separated into distinct groups. All isolates tested were pathogenic on fruit, though only isolates with specific VCGs and haplotypes were pathogenic to leaves. Vegetative compatibility was a better tool than molecular characters for distinguishing isolates of G. cingulata pathogenic on both leaves and fruit from the ones

  18. The Colletotrichum acutatum complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is known as an important anthracnose pathogen of a wide range of host plants worldwide. Numerous studies have reported subgroups within the C. acutatum species complex. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3) of 331 strains previously

  19. Molecular characterization of a heterothallic mating system in Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungus causing white-nose syndrome of bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan M. Palmer; Alena Kubatova; Alena. Novakova; Andrew M. Minnis; Miroslav Kolarik; Daniel L. Lindner

    2014-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) of bats has devastated bat populations in eastern North America since its discovery in 2006. WNS, caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has spread quickly in North America and has become one of the most severe wildlife epidemics of our time. While P. destructans is spreading rapidly in North...

  20. Template preparation for rapid PCR in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca M. Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of DNA for PCR is time-consuming and involves many reagents. The aim of this work was to optimise a rapid and easy PCR methodology without previous DNA isolation. Different strains of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum were used. Protoplasts were generated using lytic enzymes under high incubation temperatures using different methodologies to obtain the template. A rapid (10 minute methodology was successful for smaller amplicons (<750 bp.

  1. Mikobiota pada Buah Cabai untuk Pengendalian Hayati Colletotrichum capsici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okky Setyawati Dharmaputra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum capsici is a pathogenic fungus causing anthracnose on various tropical fruits, especially chilli. Biological control agents have been used as an alternative method to control postharvest diseases. This study aims to examine the antagonistic potential of mycobiota on red chilli fruit against C. capsici. The pathogen was obtained from diseased red chilli fruits collected from three traditional markets in Municipality of Bogor, isolated on potato dextrose agar (PDA medium containing chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1. Candidates of antagonistic mycobiota were isolated from healthy chilli fruits using serial diution method, followed by pour-plate method on PDA medium containing chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1. C. capsici isolate BIO51046 showed highest pathogenicity on chilli fruit var. IPB Perbani compared to other isolates. Seven isolates of filamentous fungi and 7 yeast isolates were obtained from healthy chilli fruits. Test of antagonism using dual culture method obtained 3 filamentous fungal isolates (Plectosphaerella cucumerina, MF2 and Aspergillus flavus and 1 yeast isolate (Issatchenkia orientalis which inhibited the growth of C. capsici BIO 51046 more than 70%. Plectosphaerella cucumerina and I.orientalis did not cause any diseases on chilli fruits var. IPB Perbani. Therefore, these 2 isolates were considered as potential antagonist against C. capsici BIO51046 as the causal agent of anthracnose of chilli

  2. Control of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species in guava, mango and papaya using synergistic combinations of chitosan and Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. ex Nees) Stapf. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Oliveira, Priscila Dinah; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; Vieira, Willie Anderson Dos Santos; Câmara, Marcos Paz Saraiva; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2018-02-02

    This study assessed the efficacy of chitosan (Chi) and Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. ex Nees) Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) combinations to control the mycelial growth of five pathogenic Colletotrichum species (C. asianum, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. tropicale and C. karstii) in vitro, as well as the anthracnose development in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Paluma, mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Tommy Atkins and papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Papaya artificially inoculated with these species. Combinations of Chi (2.5, 5 or 7.5mg/mL) and CCEO (0.15, 0.3, 0.6 or 1.25μL/mL) inhibited the mycelial growth of all tested fungal species in vitro. Examined Chi-CCEO combinations showed additive or synergistic interactions to inhibit the target Colletotrichum species based on the Abbott index. Coatings formed by synergistic Chi (5mg/mL) and CCEO (0.15, 0.3 or 0.6μL/mL) combinations decreased anthracnose lesion development in guava, mango and papaya inoculated with any of the tested Colleotrichum species during storage. Overall, anthracnose lesion development inhibition in fruit coated with synergistic Chi-CCEO combinations was higher than that observed in fruit treated with synthetic fungicides. These results show that the application of coatings formed by Chi-CCEO synergistic combinations could be effective to control postharvest anthracnose development in fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Lifestyles in Colletotrichum acutatum from Strawberry and Other Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S; Horowitz, S; Sharon, A

    2001-10-01

    ABSTRACT Anthracnose is one of the major fungal diseases of strawberry occurring worldwide. In Israel, the disease is caused primarily by the species Colletotrichum acutatum. The pathogen causes black spot on fruit, root necrosis, and crown rot resulting in mortality of transplants in the field. The host range and specificity of C. acutatum from strawberry was examined on pepper, eggplant, tomato, bean, and strawberry under greenhouse conditions. The fungus was recovered from all plant species over a 3-month period but caused disease symptoms only on strawberry. Epiphytic and endophytic (colonization) fungal growth in the different plant species was confirmed by reisolation from leaf tissues and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-specific primer amplification. C. acutatum was also isolated from healthy looking, asymptomatic plants of the weed genera Vicia and Conyza. Isolates that were recovered from the weeds caused disease symptoms on strawberry and were positively identified as C. acutatum by PCR. The habitation of a large number of plant species, including weeds, by C. acutatum suggests that, although it causes disease only on strawberry and anemone in Israel, this fungus can persist on many other plant species. Therefore, plants that are not considered hosts of C. acutatum may serve as a potential inoculum source for strawberry infection and permit survival of the pathogen between seasons.

  4. Influence of host and geographic locale on the distribution of Colletotrichum cereale lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletotrichum cereale is an ascomycete inhabitant of cool-season grasses of the Pooideae subfamily. The fungus has increased in frequency over the past decade as a destructive pathogen of Poa annua and Agrostis stolonifera cultivated as turfgrass. DNA fingerprinting has revealed two distinct C. c...

  5. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris innate immune system against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As the common bean is not amenable to reverse genetics to explore functionality and its genome is not fully curated, we used putative Arabidopsis orthologs of bean expressed sequence tag (EST to perform bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation of gene expression to identify common bean genes regulated during the incompatible interaction with C. lindemuthianum. Similar to model pathosystems, Gene Ontology (GO analysis indicated that hormone biosynthesis and signaling in common beans seem to be modulated by fungus infection. For instance, cytokinin and ethylene responses were up-regulated and jasmonic acid, gibberellin, and abscisic acid responses were down-regulated, indicating that these hormones may play a central role in this pathosystem. Importantly, we have identified putative bean gene orthologs of Arabidopsis genes involved in the plant immune system. Based on experimental validation of gene expression, we propose that hypersensitive reaction as part of effector-triggered immunity may operate, at least in part, by down-regulating genes, such as FLS2-like and MKK5-like, putative orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes involved in pathogen perception and downstream signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified specific bean genes and uncovered metabolic processes and pathways that may be involved in the immune response against pathogens. Our transcriptome database is a rich resource for mining novel defense-related genes, which enabled us to

  6. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Colletotrichum acutatum from Tomato Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Živković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium forming a white to gray colonies. The cultures developed black acervuli around the center of the colony. Conidia were hyaline, aseptate, and fusiform or rarely cylindrical. Appressoria were smooth, simple, clavate to ovate, and variedfrom light to dark brown. Pathogenicity tests with representative isolates were conducted on symptomless, detached tomato fruits. All tested isolates caused anthracnose lesions on tomato fruit after 7 days of incubation. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled by reisolationfrom inoculated tomato fruits. PCR analysis (using species-specific primer pair, CaInt2/ITS4 of genomic DNA from tomato isolates resulted in an amplification product of 490 bp, specific for C. acutatum, further confirming the identity of the pathogen. Based onmorphological and molecular characteristics, the isolates from tomato fruit were determined as C. acutatum.

  7. The ability to cause infection in a pathogenic fungus uncovers a new biological feature of honey bee viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Su, Songkun; Hamilton, Michele; Yan, Limin; Chen, Yanping

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrated that honey bee viruses including Deformed wing virus (DWV), Black queen cell virus (BQCV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) could infect and replicate in the fungal pathogen Ascosphaera apis that causes honey bee chalkbrood disease, revealing a novel biological feature of honey bee viruses. The phylogenetic analysis show that viruses of fungal and honey bee origins form two clusters in the phylogenetic trees distinctly and that host range of honey bee viruses is dynamic. Further studies are warranted to investigate the impact of the viruses on the fitness of their fungal host and phenotypic effects the virus-fungus combination has on honey bee hosts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Assignment of Colletotrichum coccodes isolates into vegetative compatibility groups using infrared spectroscopy: a step towards practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, A; Shufan, E; Lapidot, I; Tsror, L; Moreh, R; Mordechai, S; Huleihel, M

    2015-05-07

    Colletotrichum coccodes (C. coccodes) is a pathogenic fungus that causes anthracnose on tomatoes and black dot disease in potatoes. It is considered as a seed tuber and soil-borne pathogen that is difficult to control. C. coccodes isolates are classified into Vegetative Compatibility Groups (VCGs). Early classification of isolates into VCGs is of great importance for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease and improving its control. Moreover, the differentiation among these isolates and the assignment of newly-discovered isolates enable control of the disease at its early stages. Distinguishing between isolates using microbiological or genetic methods is time-consuming and not readily available. Our results show that it is possible to assign the isolates into their VCGs and to classify them at the isolate level with a high success rate using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  9. Identification and Quantification of Cause and Effects in Symbiosis of Corn with Arbuscular Mycorrehiza Fungus using Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering to necessity and importance of determining mycorrhizal symbiosis level and its effects on crop agroecological characteristics as well as other related factors affecting this relationship, beside, the lack of an assured method for this purpose, the present study designed based on new perspectives and insights for determining cause and effects relations, latent variables using structural equation modeling (SEM approach. A field experiment was conducted during 2 years. A split plots arrangement based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was used. Treatments consisted four cropping systems (high, medium, and low input conventional as well as ecological system and four inoculations (mycorrhizae fungus: Glomus intraradices, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR: (Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter paspali, dual inoculation: (fungus plus bacteria, and no-inoculation (control, which were allocated to main plots and sub plots, respectively. At the first step, a confirmatory factor analyzing was conducted resulted to two distinguished factors, and then the variables which had the most loads (weight on one of these two factors were determined. At the second step, considering ecophysiological basis of crops growth and development, in order to continue analyzing, the first factor (including: leaf area index (LAI, root length colonization percent (RLCP, dry matter (DM, stem diameter (D, SPAD readings and the second factor (including: maximum photosynthesis (Amax, specific root length (SRL, canopy temperature (CT, plant height (H, soil respiration rate (SRR, variable chlorophyll fluorescence to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm, plant tissue phosphorus content (%P determined resource capture latent construct and resource utilization latent construct, respectively. Correlation coefficients, squared multiple correlation coefficients, covariance matrices, direct and indirect path coefficients were calculated

  10. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species.

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    Riccardo Baroncelli

    Full Text Available Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l. is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production.

  11. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Zapparata, Antonio; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Sukno, Serenella A.; Lane, Charles R.; Thon, Michael R.; Vannacci, Giovanni; Holub, Eric; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy

    2015-01-01

    Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry) is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l.) is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production. PMID:26086351

  12. Etil Format sebagai Perlakuan Alternatif terhadap Colletotrichum gloeosporioides pada Stroberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Syahputra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl formate (EtF is alternative fumigant to substitute methyl bromide. The objective of the current study was to obtain an effective dose and exposure time of Etf treatment against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in strawberry. In vitro test was conducted on colonies of C. gloeosporioides grew on PDA in petri dishes. The fungus was fumigated with Etf at various dose (0, 140, 190, 240, and 290 g m-3 and at various exposure time (1, 2, 3, and 4 hours, in 5 L plastic bags. On in vivo test, agar plugs of C. gloeosporioides (diameter 0,3 mm were inoculated on to wounded strawberries, and the inoculated strawberries were then fumigated with Etf at similar dose and exposure time treatments. Each test was conducted in four replicates. Fumigation with Etf at 190 g m-3 significantly reduced the growth of C. gloeosporioides on agar, but did not reduce the colonization of the pathogen on strawberries. Ethyl formate did not affect visual quality of strawberries, but damaged the calyx at 190 g m-3. Other fungi, namely Colletotrichum sp. and Botrytis sp., were found on fumigated and nonfumigated strawberries.  Key words: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, ethyl formate, strawberries 

  13. Draft genome sequence of Cercospora sojina isolate S9, a fungus causing frogeye leaf spot (FLS disease of soybean

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    Fanchang Zeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are the causal agents of many of the world's most serious plant diseases causing disastrous consequences for large-scale agricultural production. Pathogenicity genomic basis is complex in fungi as multicellular eukaryotic pathogens. The fungus Cercospora sojina is a plant pathogen that threatens global soybean supplies. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. sojina strain S9 and detect genome features and predicted genomic elements. The genome sequence of C. sojina is a valuable resource with potential in studying the fungal pathogenicity and soybean host resistance to frogeye leaf spot (FLS, which is caused by C. sojina. The C. sojina genome sequence has been deposited and available at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the project accession number AHPQ00000000.

  14. Colletotrichum species associated with chili anthracnose in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Silva, D. D.; Ades, P. K.; Crous, P. W.; Taylor, P. W J

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were determined for 45 Colletotrichum isolates causing anthracnose disease of chili in Queensland, Australia. Initial screening based on morphology, ITS and TUB2 genes resulted in a subset of 21 isolates being chosen for further taxonomic study. Isolates in the C. acutatum

  15. Sensitive response and resistance to bery disease ( Colletotrichum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seedling hypocotyls and attached green coffee berries of 11 Coffea arabica varieties and a Robusta coffee cultivar, with different levels of resistance to coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae), were examined under a microscope for differences in the development of infections caused by single-conidium isolates of ...

  16. Molecular characterization of a heterothallic mating system in Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungus causing white-nose syndrome of bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jonathan M; Kubatova, Alena; Novakova, Alena; Minnis, Andrew M; Kolarik, Miroslav; Lindner, Daniel L

    2014-07-21

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) of bats has devastated bat populations in eastern North America since its discovery in 2006. WNS, caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has spread quickly in North America and has become one of the most severe wildlife epidemics of our time. While P. destructans is spreading rapidly in North America, nothing is known about the sexual capacity of this fungus. To gain insight into the genes involved in sexual reproduction, we characterized the mating-type locus (MAT) of two Pseudogymnoascus spp. that are closely related to P. destructans and homothallic (self-fertile). As with other homothallic Ascomycota, the MAT locus of these two species encodes a conserved α-box protein (MAT1-1-1) as well as two high-mobility group (HMG) box proteins (MAT1-1-3 and MAT1-2-1). Comparisons with the MAT locus of the North American isolate of P. destructans (the ex-type isolate) revealed that this isolate of P. destructans was missing a clear homolog of the conserved HMG box protein (MAT1-2-1). These data prompted the discovery and molecular characterization of a heterothallic mating system in isolates of P. destructans from the Czech Republic. Both mating types of P. destructans were found to coexist within hibernacula, suggesting the presence of mating populations in Europe. Although populations of P. destructans in North America are thought to be clonal and of one mating type, the potential for sexual recombination indicates that continued vigilance is needed regarding introductions of additional isolates of this pathogen. Copyright © 2014 Palmer et al.

  17. Whole-genome sequence of the orchid anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum orchidophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Sukno, Serenella; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Cafà, Giovanni; Le Floch, Gaetan; Thon, Michael R

    2018-04-12

    Colletotrichum orchidophilum is a plant pathogenic fungus infecting a wide range of plant species belonging to the family Orchidaceae. Besides its economic impact, C. orchidophilum has been used in recent years in evolutionary studies as it represents the closest related species to the C. acutatum species complex. Here we present the first draft whole-genome sequence of C. orchidophilum IMI 309357, providing a resource for future research on anthracnose of Orchidaceae and other hosts.

  18. Mapping global potential risk of mango sudden decline disease caused by fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), sometimes referred to as mango wilt, is an important disease of mango caused by one of the most significant fungal species causing disease in woody plants, Ceratocystis fimbriata. This species is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Steb...

  19. Pathogenicity of isolates of Colletotrichum spp.: The causal agents of anthracnose

    OpenAIRE

    Živković, Svetlana; Dolovac, Nenad; Popović, Tatjana; Stojanović, Saša

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenic characteristics of 20 isolates of Colletotrichum spp. originating from pear, apple, sour cherry and tomato fruits, as well as reference strains of C. acutatum (CBS 294.67) and C. gloeosporioides (CBS 516.97) are presented in this paper. In the studies of host range of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. were included 17 plant species. Nine days after artificial inoculation all tested isolates were caused anthracnose lesion on fruits of apple, pear, peach, apricot, sour cherry, swee...

  20. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Redell, Jennifer A.; White, J. Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M.; Muller, Laura K.; Lindner, David L.; Verant, Michelle L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, USA, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species ofTrichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, USA. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  1. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. Nov. Causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Minnis, Andrew M; Meteyer, Carol U; Redell, Jennifer A; White, J Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M; Muller, Laura K; Lindner, Daniel L; Verant, Michelle L; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Blehert, David S

    2015-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, US, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species of Trichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, US. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  2. Transcriptomic Analysis of Avocado Hass (Persea americana Mill) in the Interaction System Fruit-Chitosan-Colletotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xoca-Orozco, Luis-Ángel; Cuellar-Torres, Esther Angélica; González-Morales, Sandra; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Porfirio; López-García, Ulises; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Chacón-López, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Avocado ( Persea americana ) is one of the most important crops in Mexico as it is the main producer, consumer, and exporter of avocado fruit in the world. However, successful avocado commercialization is often reduced by large postharvest losses due to Colletotrichum sp., the causal agent of anthracnose. Chitosan is known to have a direct antifungal effect and acts also as an elicitor capable of stimulating a defense response in plants. However, there is little information regarding the genes that are either activated or repressed in fruits treated with chitosan. The aim of this study was to identify by RNA-seq the genes differentially regulated by the action of low molecular weight chitosan in the avocado-chitosan- Colletotrichum interaction system. The samples for RNA-seq were obtained from fruits treated with chitosan, fruits inoculated with Colletotrichum and fruits both treated with chitosan and inoculated with the fungus. Non-treated and non-inoculated fruits were also analyzed. Expression profiles showed that in short times, the fruit-chitosan system presented a greater number of differentially expressed genes, compared to the fruit-pathogen system. Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes showed a large number of metabolic processes regulated by chitosan, including those preventing the spread of Colletotrichum . It was also found that there is a high correlation between the expression of genes in silico and qPCR of several genes involved in different metabolic pathways.

  3. The cell death factor, cell wall elicitor of rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) causes metabolic alterations including GABA shunt in rice cultured cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Hideo; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    An elicitor derived from the cell wall of rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) causes cell death in suspension cultured cells of rice (Oryza sativa L.). To elucidate the role of M. grisea elicitor on metabolic pathway of rice cells, we performed metabolite profiling using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE/MS). Treatment with M. grisea elicitor increased the amounts of antioxidants and free amino acids and decreased the amount of metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycl...

  4. Fungus Causing Mycotic Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja N. Nagre

    2010-01-01

    human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs to elicit mitogenic activity. The sugar specificity of the lectin and its interaction with PBMCs to exhibit mitogenic effect indicate its possible role in adhesion and infection process of Cephalosporium.

  5. Sensibilidade de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (mancha manteigosa do cafeeiro a diferentes concentrações de fungicidas Sensibility of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (coffee blister spot to different fungicide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimar Batista Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de alguns fungicidas sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente etiológico da mancha manteigosa do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., testes in vitro foram conduzidos no Laboratório de Diagnose e Controle/UFLA. Utilizou-se o método de incorporação de fungicidas ao meio de cultura MEA 2% para a avaliação da inibição do crescimento micelial e em lâmina escavada contendo água com fungicida para a germinação de conídios. Os fungicidas, tetraconazol, triadimenol, chlorotalonil e mancozeb foram testados quanto à inibição do crescimento do micelial (nas concentrações de 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500 e 1.000 mg L-1 e quanto à inibição da germinação de conídios (nas concentrações de 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 e 100 mg L-1. Os fungicidas tetraconazol e triadimenol apresentaram alta eficiência na inibição do crescimento micelial. Os fungicidas chlorotalonil e mancozeb mostraram baixa eficiência e ineficiência, respectivamente. Quanto à germinação dos conídios, os fungicidas que demonstraram maior eficiência em baixas concentrações foram o chlorotalonil e o tetraconazol.With the aim of assessing the effect of selected fungicides on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the cause of coffee blister spot, in vitro tests were carried out in the Laboratory of Diagnosis and Control/UFLA, Federal University of Lavras, Brazil. In the in vitro experiments the fungicides were incorporated into malt extract medium (MEA 2% to evaluate the effect on the fungus growth rate, and concavity slides containing water plus fungicide to assess the conidia germination. The fungicides tetraconazol, triadimenol, chlorothalonil and mancozeb were tested on the mycelial growth inhibition (in the concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500 and 1.000 mg L-1 and on the inhibition conidia germination (in the concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 e 100 mg L-1. The fungicides tetraconazol and triadimenol showed high efficiency on the

  6. Gene family expansions and contractions are associated with host range in plant pathogens of the genus Colletotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt; Zapparata, Antonio; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Vannacci, Giovanni; Le Floch, Gaétan; Harrison, Richard J; Holub, Eric; Sukno, Serenella A; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy; Thon, Michael R

    2016-08-05

    Many species belonging to the genus Colletotrichum cause anthracnose disease on a wide range of plant species. In addition to their economic impact, the genus Colletotrichum is a useful model for the study of the evolution of host specificity, speciation and reproductive behaviors. Genome projects of Colletotrichum species have already opened a new era for studying the evolution of pathogenesis in fungi. We sequenced and annotated the genomes of four strains in the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex (CAsc), a clade of broad host range pathogens within the genus. The four CAsc proteomes and secretomes along with those representing an additional 13 species (six Colletotrichum spp. and seven other Sordariomycetes) were classified into protein families using a variety of tools. Hierarchical clustering of gene family and functional domain assignments, and phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage specific losses of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and proteases encoding genes in Colletotrichum species that have narrow host range as well as duplications of these families in the CAsc. We also found a lineage specific expansion of necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like protein (NLPs) families within the CAsc. This study illustrates the plasticity of Colletotrichum genomes, and shows that major changes in host range are associated with relatively recent changes in gene content.

  7. Evaluación in vitro de la actividad inhibitoria de extractos vegetales sobre aislados de Colletotrichum spp In vitro evaluation of inhibitory activity of plant extracts on Colletotrichum spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez Cordero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad inhibitoria in vitro de extractos de hojas de Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Jatropha gossypilia, Eucalyptus sp., Melia azederach y Mascagnia concinna sobre aislados de hongo del género Colletotrichum, causante de la enfermedad antracnosis en el cultivo del ñame (Dioscorea alata, D. rotundata en el departamento de Sucre, Colombia. Para la obtención de extractos etanólicos de hojas de M. officinalis y O. vulgare, se utilizó el método de percolación y para las otras especies vegetales, el método de Soxhlet. Una vez preparados los extractos de hojas, se evaluó su actividad inhibitoria sobre seis aislados de hongo del género Colletotrichum (BVC 279a, BVC 279b, BVC 853, BVC 040, BVC 342 y BVC 507. Para la prueba inhibitoria se utilizó el método de siembra directa sobre la superficie del medio papa-dextrosa-agar. Sobre las diferentes cepas se adicionaron 250 µl de cada extracto por separado. Se utilizó un control positivo con nistatina (4 mg/ml y un testigo absoluto sin ningún tipo de tratamiento. La prueba se evaluó midiendo el crecimiento radial de cada cepa con los diferentes tratamientos a 96 y 168 h. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones, para probar diferencias significativas entre tratamientos, cepas (aislados y tiempo de inhibición. Los resultados expresados en porcentaje de inhibición, mostraron una alta actividad de los extractos obtenidos de las hojas de las plantas de M. azederach y M. concinna, sobre los hongos evaluados y su acción fue similar al control positivo.The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro inhibitory activity of extracts from leaves of Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Jatropha gossypilia, Eucalyptus sp. Melia azederach and Mascagnia concinna on isolated fungus of the genus Colletotrichum, which causes anthracnose disease in the crop of yam (Dioscorea alata, D. rotundata in the department of Sucre, Colombia. To obtain

  8. Morphological, pathogenic and genetic variability in Colletotrichum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-23

    Apr 23, 2014 ... Chilli originated in the Latin American regions of. New Mexico as a .... Black. Black. White. Greyish black. Brownish black. Cc8. Black. White ... Colletotrichum lindemuthianum as it yielded race-specific ... Conflict of Interests.

  9. Geographically structured host specificity is caused by the range expansions and host shifts of a symbiotic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Benjamin E; Pringle, Anne

    2012-04-01

    The inability to associate with local species may constrain the spread of mutualists arriving to new habitats, but the fates of introduced, microbial mutualists are largely unknown. The deadly poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides (the death cap) is native to Europe and introduced to the East and West Coasts of North America. By cataloging host associations across the two continents, we record dramatic changes in specificity among the three ranges. On the East Coast, where the fungus is restricted in its distribution, it associates almost exclusively with pines, which are rarely hosts of A. phalloides in its native range. In California, where the fungus is widespread and locally abundant, it associates almost exclusively with oaks, mirroring the host associations observed in Europe. The most common host of the death cap in California is the endemic coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), and the current distribution of A. phalloides appears constrained within the distribution of Q. agrifolia. In California, host shifts to native plants are also associated with a near doubling in the resources allocated to sexual reproduction and a prolonged fruiting period; mushrooms are twice as large as they are elsewhere and mushrooms are found throughout the year. Host and niche shifts are likely to shape the continuing range expansion of A. phalloides and other ectomycorrhizal fungi introduced across the world.

  10. Caracterização morfocultural e infecção cruzada de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides agente causal da antracnose de frutos e hortaliças em pós-colheita / Morfocultural characterization and cross infection Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causes anthracnose in fruits and vegetables post-harvested

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Pereira Bonett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecta uma grande variedade de plantas em regiões tropicais, subtropicais e temperadas ocasionando consideráveis perdas econômicas em doenças pré e pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a morfologia e a infecção cruzada de isolados de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides obtidos de frutos e hortaliças em pós-colheita. Os isolados foram obtidos de lesões de frutos com sintomas de antracnose e cultivados em meio de cultivo BDA, sendo a avaliação do crescimento micelial realizada por meio de duas leituras diárias do diâmetro das colônias pelo período de quatorze dias e a caracterização morfológica das colônias realizada no final deste período. Para a realização do experimento, utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualisado com três repetições por tratamento. Para o experimento da infecção cruzada foram realizados dois ferimentos em frutos sadios nos quais foram depositados blocos de meio de cultura com 6 mm2 contendo os isolados. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema fatorial de 8 x 8, com quatro repetições. As médias de ambos os experimentos foram analisadas por meio do teste de Scott-Knott com 5% de probabilidade. A maioria dos isolados de C. gloeosporioides possuem grande potencial de infecção cruzada, já que foram capazes de causar lesões em frutos de mamão, manga, abacate, chuchu, jiló, pimentão verde e pimenta. Os isolados de frutos de mamão e abacate apresentaram o maior índice de crescimento micelial e os isolados provenientes do chuchu apresentaram o menor. Quanto ao desenvolvimento de lesões, o mamão apresentou-se mais suscetível, com lesões maiores, enquanto que a pimenta cambuci demonstrou-se a mais resistente, apresentando as menores lesões.

  11. Fungus Causing White-Nose Syndrome in Bats Accumulates Genetic Variability in North America with No Sign of Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Jigar; Lachapelle, Josianne; Vanderwolf, Karen J; Misra, Vikram; Willis, Craig K R; Ratcliffe, John M; Ness, Rob W; Anderson, James B; Kohn, Linda M

    2017-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases of wildlife are on the rise worldwide, and the white-nose syndrome (WNS) epidemic in North American bats is a catastrophic example. The causal agent of WNS is a single clone of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans . Early evolutionary change in this clonal population has major implications for disease ecology and conservation. Accumulation of variation in the fungus through mutation, and shuffling of variation through recombination, could affect the virulence and transmissibility of the fungus and the durability of what appears to be resistance arising in some bat populations. Our genome-wide analysis shows that the clonal population of P. destructans has expanded in size from a single genotype, has begun to accumulate variation through mutation, and presents no evidence as yet of genetic exchange among individuals. IMPORTANCE Since its discovery in 2006, the emerging infectious disease known as white-nose syndrome has killed millions of bats in North America, making it one of the most devastating wildlife epidemics in recorded history. We demonstrate that there has been as yet only spontaneous mutation across the North American population of P. destructans , and we find no indication of recombination. Thus, selective forces, which might otherwise impact pathogenic virulence, have so far had essentially no genetic variation on which to act. Our study confirmed the time of origin for the first and, thus far, only introduction of P. destructans to North America. This system provides an unprecedented opportunity to follow the evolution of a host-pathogen interaction unfolding in real time.

  12. A Fungus-Inducible Pepper Carboxylesterase Exhibits Antifungal Activity by Decomposing the Outer Layer of Fungal Cell Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Park, Ae Ran; Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Park, Sangkyu; Han, Yun-Jeong; Hoang, Quyen T N; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2018-05-01

    Colletotrichum species are major fungal pathogens that cause devastating anthracnose diseases in many economically important crops. In this study, we observed the hydrolyzing activity of a fungus-inducible pepper carboxylesterase (PepEST) on cell walls of C. gloeosporioides, causing growth retardation of the fungus by blocking appressorium formation. To determine the cellular basis for the growth inhibition, we observed the localization of PepEST on the fungus and found the attachment of the protein on surfaces of conidia and germination tubes. Moreover, we examined the decomposition of cell-wall materials from the fungal surface after reaction with PepEST, which led to the identification of 1,2-dithiane-4,5-diol (DTD) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. Exogenous DTD treatment did not elicit expression of defense-related genes in the host plant but did trigger the necrosis of C. gloeosporioides. Furthermore, the DTD compound displayed protective effects on pepper fruits and plants against C. gloeosporioides and C. coccodes, respectively. In addition, DTD was also effective in preventing other diseases, such as rice blast, tomato late blight, and wheat leaf rust. Therefore, our results provide evidence that PepEST is involved in hydrolysis of the outmost layer of the fungal cell walls and that DTD has antifungal activity, suggesting an alternative strategy to control agronomically important phytopathogens.

  13. The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, B S; Johnston, P R; Damm, U

    2012-09-15

    The limit of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is defined genetically, based on a strongly supported clade within the Colletotrichum ITS gene tree. All taxa accepted within this clade are morphologically more or less typical of the broadly defined C. gloeosporioides, as it has been applied in the literature for the past 50 years. We accept 22 species plus one subspecies within the C. gloeosporioides complex. These include C. asianum, C. cordylinicola, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. horii, C. kahawae subsp. kahawae, C. musae, C. nupharicola, C. psidii, C. siamense, C. theobromicola, C. tropicale, and C. xanthorrhoeae, along with the taxa described here as new, C. aenigma, C. aeschynomenes, C. alatae, C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. clidemiae, C. kahawae subsp. ciggaro, C. salsolae, and C. ti, plus the nom. nov. C. queenslandicum (for C. gloeosporioides var. minus). All of the taxa are defined genetically on the basis of multi-gene phylogenies. Brief morphological descriptions are provided for species where no modern description is available. Many of the species are unable to be reliably distinguished using ITS, the official barcoding gene for fungi. Particularly problematic are a set of species genetically close to C. musae and another set of species genetically close to C. kahawae, referred to here as the Musae clade and the Kahawae clade, respectively. Each clade contains several species that are phylogenetically well supported in multi-gene analyses, but within the clades branch lengths are short because of the small number of phylogenetically informative characters, and in a few cases individual gene trees are incongruent. Some single genes or combinations of genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase, can be used to reliably distinguish most taxa and will need to be developed as secondary barcodes for species level identification, which is important because many of these fungi are of biosecurity

  14. Polyphenol Oxidase Induction in Lulo Fruits (Solanum quitoense Infected by Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradith Caicedo O.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase (PFO activity induction was evaluated in lulo fruits to determine the role of this enzyme in resistance responses towards the pathogen Colletotrichum acutatum which causes anthracnose disease. We studied the experimental conditions to obtain the enzyme, using lulo peel, and found that extraction with phosphates buffer 100 mM pH 7, 1% SDS y 1% PVPP showed higher activities. The adequate parameters for activity measurement was also evaluated and established as cathecol 40 mM, pH 7,0, 23 °C and 30 µL of extract. Then, we performed an in vivo assay using lulo fruits in three maturity stages, green, semimature and mature, which were inoculated with the fungus or with sterile water. Enzymatic induction of this protein was studied at nine postinoculation times, and it was found that the induction was differential according to the time, the maturity stage, and as consequence of pathogen presence. The PFO activity increased in green fruits at 48, 96 y 144 (hours postinoculation (hpi, and in mature lulos for the majority of times studied, with the most significant induction response at this stage. In semimature lulo, the induction was observed only at 72 and 144 hpi. The highest nominal value of activity was found in green fruits. Fruits responded to incision with enzyme activation. The increase in the activity of the enzyme was faster in the fruits with the minor anthracnose symptoms than the ones that were more affected. Therefore, it is possible to postulate a positive relation between PFO induction and tolerance to anthracnose symptoms.

  15. Population Genetic Analyses of the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum fructicola on Tea-Oil Trees in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Li

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. However, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. Here we analyzed 167 isolates of C. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree Camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven Chinese provinces. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted for all isolates based on DNA sequences at fragments of four genes: the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster (539 bp, calmodulin (633 bp, glutamine synthetase (711 bp, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (190 bp, yielding 3.52%, 0.63%, 8.44%, and 7.89% of single nucleotide polymorphic sites and resulting in 15, 5, 12 and 11 alleles respectively at the four gene fragments in the total sample. The combined allelic information from all four loci identified 53 multilocus genotypes with the most frequent represented by 21 isolates distributed in eight tea-oil plantations in three provinces, consistent with long-distance clonal dispersal. However, despite evidence for clonal dispersal, statistically significant genetic differentiation among geographic populations was detected. In addition, while no evidence of recombination was found within any of the four gene fragments, signatures of recombination were found among the four gene fragments in most geographic populations, consistent with sexual mating of this species in nature. Our study provides the first insights into the population genetics and epidemiology of the important plant fungal pathogen C. fructicola.

  16. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose disease in peppers from Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangling; Tang, Guiting; Zheng, Xiaojuan; Li, Ying; Sun, Xiaofang; Qi, Xiaobo; Zhou, You; Xu, Jing; Chen, Huabao; Chang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sirong; Gong, Guoshu

    2016-09-09

    The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is an important disease that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper. Eighty-eight strains representing seven species of Colletotrichum were obtained from rotten pepper fruits in Sichuan Province, China, and characterized according to morphology and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) sequence. Fifty-two strains were chosen for identification by phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus sequences, including the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the β-tubulin (TUB2), actin (ACT), calmodulin (CAL) and GAPDH genes. Based on the combined datasets, the 88 strains were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. truncatum, C. scovillei, and C. brevisporum, and one new species was detected, described as Colletotrichum sichuanensis. Notably, C. siamense and C. scovillei were recorded for the first time as the causes of anthracnose in peppers in China. In addition, with the exception of C. truncatum, this is the first report of all of the other Colletotrichum species studied in pepper from Sichuan. The fungal species were all non-host-specific, as the isolates were able to infect not only Capsicum spp. but also Pyrus pyrifolia in pathogenicity tests. These findings suggest that the fungal species associated with anthracnose in pepper may inoculate other hosts as initial inoculum.

  17. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-05-09

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.

  18. Use of Green Fluorescent Protein-Transgenic Strains to Study Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Lifestyles in Colletotrichum acutatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Sigal; Freeman, Stanley; Sharon, Amir

    2002-07-01

    ABSTRACT Colletotrichum acutatum, which causes anthracnose disease on strawberry, can also persist on several other plant species without causing disease symptoms. The genetic and molecular bases that determine pathogenic and nonpathogenic lifestyles in C. acutatum are unclear. We developed a transformation system for C. acutatum by electroporation of germinating conidia, and transgenic isolates that express the green fluorescent protein (GFP) were produced. Details of the pathogenic and nonpathogenic lifestyles of C. acutatum were determined by using GFP-transgenic isolates. Major differences between colonization-mediating processes of strawberry and of other plants were observed. On the main host, strawberry, the germinating conidia formed branched, thick hyphae, and large numbers of appressoria were produced that were essential for plant penetration. In strawberry, the fungus developed rapidly, filling the mesophyll with dense mycelium that invaded the cells and caused necrosis of the tissue. In nonpathogenic interactions on pepper, eggplant, and tomato, the conidia germinated, producing thin, straight germ tubes. Appressoria were produced but failed to germinate and penetrate leaf tissue, resulting in epiphytic growth without invasion of the plant. Penetration of the plant occurred only several days after inoculation and was restricted to the intercellular spaces of the first cell layers of infected tissue without causing any visible damage. Much of the new fungal biomass continued to develop on the surface of inoculated organs in the nonpathogenic interaction. The differences in fungal development on strawberry compared with the other plant species suggest that signal molecules, which may be present only in strawberry, trigger appressorial germination and penetration of the primary host.

  19. Genetic inferences in common bean differential cultivars to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum race 69/ Inferências genéticas em cultivares diferenciadoras de feijoeiro comum ao Colletotrichum lindemuthianum raça 69

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson R. Schuelter

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by the Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sacc. et Magn fungus, is one of the most important diseases and can result in heavy yield losses to the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Genetic inferences about resistance of cultivars: Michelite, Michigan Dark Red Kidney, Perry Marrow, Cornell 49-242, PI 207262, AB 136, G 2333 and their 21 diallel hybrids were obtained in relation to the reaction to 69 race by using Hayman’s method. The results showed that dominance effects were higher than additive effects to resistance of the related race. The order of parents in relation to dominant genes concentration obtained was: G 2333, AB 136, PI 207262, Cornell 49-242, Michigan Dark Red Kidney, Perry Marrow and Michelite. G 2333, AB 136 and PI 707262 parents are the most indicated for breeding programs to obtain anthracnose resistant cultivars.A antracnose, causada pelo fungo Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sacc cet Magn, é uma das mais importantes doenças e pode causar severas perdas ao cultivo do feijão comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Inferências genéticas sobre a resistência de sete cultivares diferenciais de feijão comum (Michelite, Michigan Dark Red Kidney, Perry Marrow, Cornell 49-242, PI 207262, AB 136, G 2333 e seus 21 híbridos dialélicos foram obtidas em relação à raça 69, por meio da metodologia de Hayman. Os resultados mostraram que os efeitos dominantes foram superiores aos aditivos para resistência à referida raça. A ordem dos parentais em relação à concentração de genes dominantes obtida foi: G 2333, AB 136, PI 207262, Cornell 49-242, Michigan Dark Red Kidney, Perry Marrow e Michelite. Os parentais G 2333, AB 136 e PI 707262 são os mais indicados para programas de melhoramento visando à obtenção de cultivares resistentes à antracnose.

  20. Screening of antagonistic activity of microorganisms against Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The antagonistic activities of five biocontrol agents: Trichoderma harzianum, Gliocladium roseum, Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces noursei and Streptomyces natalensis, were tested in vitro against Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agents of anthracnose disease in fruit crops. The microbial antagonists inhibited mycelial growth in the dual culture assay and conidial germination of Colletotrichum isolates. The two Streptomyces species exhibited the strongest antagonism against isolates of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. Microscopic examination showed that the most common mode of action was antibiosis. The results of this study identify T. harzianum, G. roseum, B. subtilis, S. natalensis and S. noursei as promising biological control agents for further testing against anthracnose disease in fruits. .

  1. Correlação entre a ocorrência de Colletotrichum spp. e outras características agronômicas em cafeeiros Correlation among the Colletotrichum spp. incidence with some coffee agronomic traits

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    Gustavo Hiroshi Sera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Têm-se observado diferentes espécies de fungos do gênero Colletotrichum atacando cafeeiros no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de correlacionar a ocorrência de Colletotrichum spp. com outras características agronômicas em cafeeiros. Foram avaliadas progênies F2 dos cruzamentos envolvendo os genótipos 'IAPAR-59' x ("Icatu" x "Catuaí" e 'IAPAR-59' x 'Mundo Novo IAC 376-4', na estação experimental do IAPAR, em Londrina, Paraná, Brasil, no espaçamento 2,5 m x 0,5 m e o plantio foi efetuado em maio de 1997. O experimento foi instalado com delineamento em blocos ao acaso, 56 tratamentos, 2 repetições e parcelas de 10 plantas. As avaliações do vigor vegetativo, precocidade de maturação dos frutos e porte da planta foram realizadas em maio de 2000. A avaliação da ocorrência de Colletotrichum spp. foi efetuada em dezembro de 2001. Essa avaliação foi feita por meio de notas subjetivas. As notas variaram de 1 a 5 para a ocorrência de Colletotrichum spp., maturação e porte da planta, sendo 1, plantas sem lesões, maturação mais tardia e plantas de menor porte respectivamente. As notas de vigor vegetativo variaram de 1 a 10, sendo 10, a planta com maior vigor. As correlações genotípicas estimadas entre a ocorrência de Colletotrichum spp. e maturação, porte e vigor vegetativo foram, respectivamente, +0,80, +0,89, -0,92. Os resultados sugerem que a ocorrência de Colletotrichum spp. aumenta em cafeeiros com maturação precoce, maior porte e menor vigor vegetativo.Different fungi species of the Colletotrichum have been reported as causing disease in coffee crop in Brazil. The aim of this research was to estimate the correlation coeficient among Colletotrichum spp. incidence with some coffee agronomic traits. F2 progenies of 'IAPAR-59' x ("Icatu" x "Catuaí" and 'IAPAR-59' x 'Mundo Novo IAC 376-4' were evaluated at IAPAR´s experimental station at Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, in experiment installed in may 1997, by

  2. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from green pepper in different culture media, temperatures, and light regimes

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    Mello Alexandre Furtado Silveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of anthracnose in green pepper involves the use of resistant varieties and/or fungicides. The selection of varieties and efficient products demands great amounts of conidia as inoculum. It is thus necessary to optimize the production of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia in the laboratory, establishing the best conditions for fungus development. The present study aimed at determining the most favorable culture media, temperature, and light conditions for the production of fungus inoculum. The fungus was isolated from green pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L. and transferred to four culture media (PDA, oat, filtered pepper extract, and autoclaved pepper extract, under different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35ºC and light conditions (24h dark, and 24h light. Colony growth was evaluated after 7 and 12 days of incubation. No differences were found between the culture media. However, the greatest number of conidia was obtained from colonies grown in oat medium at 25ºC. Temperatures of 20 and 25ºC were the most favorable for colony growth and sporulation. Higher sporulation was obtained under incubation in constant light. Cultivation of C. gloeosporioides in oat medium, at 25ºC, and constant light is recommended.

  3. Effect of the Combination Hot Water - Calcium Chloride on the In Vitro Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the Postharvest Quality of Infected Papaya

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    Lidia Elena Ayón-Reyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose of papaya fruit caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most economically important postharvest diseases. Hot water immersion (HW and calcium chloride (Ca treatments have been used to control papaya postharvest diseases; however, the effect of the combination HW-Ca on the pathogen growth and the development of the disease in infected papaya fruit has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the HW-Ca treatment on the in vitro growth of C. gloesporioides conidia and the quality of infected papaya. In vitro, the HW-Ca treated conidia showed reduced mycelial growth and germination. In vivo, the HW-Ca treatment of infected papaya delayed for 5 days the onset of the anthracnose symptoms and improved the papaya postharvest quality. The combined treatment HW-Ca was better than any of the individual treatments to inhibit the in vitro development of C. gloeosporioides and to reduce the negative effects of papaya anthracnose.

  4. Media for efficient generating nitrate- - nonutilizing (NIT) mutants of Verticillium dahliae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Fusarium oxysporum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rataj-Guranowska, M.; Pieczul, K.; Nowak, E.; Hiemstra, J.A.; Drapikowska, M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of several media amended wit potassium chlorate (1.5% and 6%) on generation of nit mutants, especially nit M mutants from Verticillium dahliae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Fusarium oxysporum were studied. For all species minimal medium with 6%

  5. Genetic transformation with the gfp gene of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from coffee with blister spot

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    Cecilia Armesto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Blister spot (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is now widespread in most coffee producing states of Brazil, becoming a limiting factor for production. The lack of data relating to the reproduction of typical symptoms (light green, oily patches leaves a gap within the pathosystem, forcing the search for new methodologies for monitoring the disease. Monitoring of genetically modified organisms has proven to be an effective tool in understanding the host x pathogen interactions. Thus, the present study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of two systems of genetic transformation in obtaining mutants using the gfp reporter gene. Using the two transformation systems (PEG and electroporation revealed the efficiency of both, confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and resistance to the antibiotic hygromycin-B, when incorporated into the culture medium. The fungus maintained its cultural and morphological characteristics when compared to wild strains. When inoculated on coffee seedlings, it was found that the pathogenicity of the processed isolates had not changed.

  6. Differential resistances to anthracnose in Capsicum baccatum as responding to two Colletotrichum pathotypes and inoculation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasuk, Pitchayapa; Chinthaisong, Jittima; Mongkolporn, Orarat

    2013-09-01

    Chili anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is one of the major diseases to chili production in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Breeding for durable anthracnose resistance requires a good understanding of the resistance mechanisms to different pathotypes and inoculation methods. This study aimed to investigate the inheritances of differential resistances as responding to two different Colletotrichum pathotypes, PCa2 and PCa3 and as by two different inoculation methods, microinjection (MI) and high pressure spray (HP). Detached ripe fruit of Capsicum baccatum 'PBC80' derived F2 and BC1s populations was assessed for anthracnose resistance. Two dominant genes were identified responsible for the differential resistance to anthracnose. One was responsible for the resistance to PCa2 and PCa3 by MI and the other was responsible for the resistance to PCa3 by HP. The two genes were linked with 16.7 cM distance.

  7. Evaluation of the antifungal activity by plant extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz Avaliação da atividade anti-fúngica de extratos vegetais contra Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz

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    Polyanna Alves Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to develop more efficient and environmental friendly methods than those available to control Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, which causes blister spot in coffee trees, a search for plants able to produce substances active against such pathogen was carried out. Thus, extracts of 48 plant species, collected at Alto Rio Grande region, in Minas Gerais, were prepared and submitted to in vitro assays with that fungus. The best results were obtained with the extracts prepared from Digitalis lanata Ehrh, Origanum manjorona L., Plantago lanceolata Hook. and Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, which inhibited C. gloeosporioides spores germination. After dilution of some active extracts with aqueous 1 % Tween 80 solution in a 1:2 or 1:3 ratio (extract:aqueous solution, their antifungal activity vanished. Some of the active extracts were also submitted to freeze drying and none of them presented any alteration in their antifungal activity. Concluding, several plants presented potential to be used in the search for new bioactive substances to control C. gloeosporioides, especially O. manjorona L., which inhibited 96 % of the fungus spores germination.Com vistas a contribuir para o desenvolvimento de métodos mais eficientes e menos agressivos ao ambiente que aqueles disponíveis para o controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, causador da mancha manteigosa em cafeeiros, buscou-se identificar espécies vegetais produtoras de substâncias ativas contra o referido patógeno. Para tanto, prepararam-se extratos de 48 espécies vegetais, coletadas na região do Alto Rio Grande, em Minas Gerais, para serem submetidos a testes in vitro com o mencionado fungo. Constatou-se que os melhores resultados foram obtidos com os extratos oriundos de Digitalis lanata Ehrh, Origanum manjorona L., Plantago lanceolata Hook. e Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni que inibiram a germinação dos esporos de C. gloeosporioides. Alguns dos extratos ativos tamb

  8. Molecular identification and characterization of Colletotrichum spp isolates from tahiti lime, tamarillo, and mango

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    Adriana Sanabria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a very limiting disease affecting production, as well as postharvest quality of numerous fruit crops in Colombia. The current management practices for this disease are partially effective due to limited information about the etiology, the inoculum sources, population structure and variation of the pathogen. A total of 293 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from symptomatic tissues collected from Tahiti lime, tamarillo and mango orchards. To determine the Colletotrichum species causing the symptoms, amplification, and PCR product analysis for intergenic regions of the ribosomal DNA were conducted. Genetic diversity of the fungal population was assessed with Random Amplified Microsatellites (RAMS. Results of this study indicated that anthracnose in Tahiti lime and tamarillo are caused by Colletotrichun acutatum whereas symptoms on mango were induced by the species Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which was also fund in few citrus samples. RAMS data analysis indicated the existence of two distinct species groups, with a low similarity index (35%. RAM profiles also showed a clear host differentiation of isolates. The C. acutatum population originated from tamarillo exhibited a narrow and homogeneous genetic base, while the C. acutatum population from Tahiti lime was more heterogeneous and genetically complex, as determined by the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA and of Ni-Li coefficient. The C. gloeosporioides population originated from mango and Tahiti lime was heterogeneous and highly diverse, with clear host differentiation according to RAM profiles. Collectively, the results from this study provide new insight into the general characteristics of Colletotrichum populations on various hosts; this type of knowledge will prove useful in designing more effective management practices.

  9. SENSIBILIDADE “IN VITRO” DE ISOLADOS DE Colletotrichum lindemuthianum A FUNGICIDAS “IN VITRO” SENSITIVITY OF ISOLATED Colletotrichum lindemuthianum TO FUNGICIDES

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    Aloísio Sartorato2 Sartorato

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se a sensibilidade "in vitro" de isolados do fungo Colletotrichum lindemuthianum aos fungicidas tiofanato metílico + clorotalonil, tiofanato metílico, fluazinam, clorotalonil, trifloxystrobin + propiconazole, piraclostrobin, difenoconazole e fentin hidróxido. Os diâmetros das colônias, sob os diferentes princípios ativos avaliados, diferiram significativamente da testemunha. Os isolados de C. lindemuthianum apresentaram alta sensibilidade aos princípios ativos difenoconazole, piraclostrobin, trifloxistrobin + propiconazole e fluazinam. A maioria dos isolados apresentou baixa sensibilidade ao tiofanato metílico, o que pode indicar a ocorrência de resistência do fungo C. lindemuthinaum a esse princípio ativo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Antracnose; resistência a fungicidas; controle químico.

    In vitro tests were carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum to the fungicides thiophanate methyl + chlorothalonil, thiophanate methyl, fluazinam, chlorothalonil, trifloxystrobin + propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole and fentin hidroxide. The fungus colony diameter of all isolates differed significantly from control in all active ingredient (a.i. used. C. lindemuthianum isolates presented higher sensitivity to the a.i. difenoconazole, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin + propiconazole and fluazinam. The majority of isolates presented low sensitivity to methyl thiophanate, which may indicate the occurrence of C. lindemuthianum resistance to this active ingredient.

    KEY-WORDS: Anthracnose; resistance to fungicides; chemical control.

  10. KEMAMPUAN BAKTERI ENDOFIT TANAMAN SEMANGKA DALAM MENEKAN PERKEMBANGAN PENYAKIT BERCAK DAUN YANG DISEBABKAN OLEH JAMUR COLLETOTRICHUM SP.

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    Eryna Elfasari Rangkuti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ability of watermelon endophytic bacteria to suppress development of leaf spot disease caused by Colletotrichum sp.  A studi on assay of endophytic bacteria to control Colletotrichum sp., causal agent of leaf spot disease on watermelon, was conducted. Colletotrichum sp. was isolated from infected leaf of leaf spot disease, while endophytic bacteria were isolated from stem, leaf, and root of watermelon healthy plant. Antagonistic assay was conducted by dual culture method. Hyphal abnormalities as a result of antagonistic assay was observed using light microscope. To determine the ability of endophytic bacterial isolates to control leaf spot disease, watermelon seeds were treated by dipping the seed in endophytic bacterial suspension. Seven endophytic bacterial isolates showed to inhibit Colletotrichum sp. to some extent. Two isolates DS 01 and BS 01 showed relatively high inhibition zone compared to others, therefore were choosen for further study. Abnormal hyphae such as broken, lysis, twisted, curled, and swollen hyphae were recorded as the result of antagonistic assay. Watermelon seed treatment revealed that dipping the seed in endophytic bacterial suspension of DS 01 and BS 01 reduced leaf spot disease to 12 and 24%, but inhibited seed growth by 12% and 44%, respectively. It seemed that all treatments showed to reduce seedling performance i.e seedling height, leaf number, and dry weight, compared to that of (- control. DS 01 however seemed to increase dry weight of watermelon plants.

  11. Epidemiology, pathology and identification of Colletotrichum including a novel species associated with avocado (Persea americana) anthracnose in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gunjan; Maymon, Marcel; Freeman, Stanley

    2017-11-20

    Anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species is a major constraint for the shelf-life and marketability of avocado fruits. To date, only C. gloeosporioides sensu lato and C. aenigma have been reported as pathogens affecting avocado in Israel. This study was conducted to identify and characterize Colletotrichum species associated with avocado anthracnose and to determine their survival on different host-structures in Israel. The pathogen survived and over-wintered mainly on fresh and dry leaves, as well as fresh twigs in the orchard. A collection of 538 Colletotrichum isolates used in this study was initially characterized based on morphology and banding patterns generated according to arbitrarily primed PCR to assess the genetic diversity of the fungal populations. Thereafter, based on multi-locus phylogenetic analyses involving combinations of ITS, act, ApMat, cal, chs1, gapdh, gs, his3, tub2 gene/markers; eight previously described species (C. aenigma, C. alienum, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides sensu stricto, C. karstii, C. nupharicola, C. siamense, C. theobromicola) and a novel species (C. perseae) were identified, as avocado anthracnose pathogens in Israel; and reconfirmed after pathogenicity assays. Colletotrichum perseae sp. nov. and teleomorph of C. aenigma are described along with comprehensive morphological descriptions and illustrations, for the first time in this study.

  12. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bat, France

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    Puechmaille, Sébastien J.; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michaël

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding. PMID:20113562

  13. Circumscription of the anthracnose pathogens Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. nigrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Cai, L.; Crous, P.W.; Damm, U.

    2013-01-01

    The anthracnose pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is usually identified as Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, while anthracnose of potato (Solanum tuberosum), peppers (Capsicum annuum), tomato (S. lycopersicum) and several other crop plants is often attributed to C. coccodes. In order to

  14. Characterisation of colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Sahak, Shamsiah; Zakaria, Maziah; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2009-12-01

    A total of 13 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from different banana cultivars (Musa spp.) with symptoms of anthracnose. Colletotrichum isolates from anthracnose of guava (Psidium guajava) and water apple (Syzygium aqueum) were also included in this study. Based on cultural and morphological characteristics, isolates from banana and guava were identified as Colletotrichum musae and from water apple as Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. Isolates of C. musae from banana and guava had similar banding patterns in a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with four random primers, and they clustered together in a UPGMA analysis. C. gloeosporiodes from water apple was clustered in a separate cluster. Based on the present study, C. musae was frequently isolated from anthracnose of different banana cultivars and the RAPD banding patterns of C. musae isolates were highly similar but showed intraspecific variations.

  15. The Colletotrichum dracaenophilum, C. magnum and C. orchidearum species complexes

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    Damm, U.; Sato, T.; Alizadeh, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2019-01-01

    Although Glomerella glycines, Colletotrichum magnum and C. orchidearum are known as causal agents of anthracnose of soybean, Cucurbitaceae and Orchidaceae, respectively, their taxonomy remains unresolved. In preliminary analyses based on ITS, strains of these species appear basal in

  16. Fungitoxic effect of concentrations of essential oils on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolated from the passion fruit

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    Ismail Teodoro Souza Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of essential oils on the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The essential oils were obtained from shoots of the plants Lippia sidoides, Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus and Psidium guayava var. pomifera. After the incorporation of oil in water-agar and PDA medium, in concentrations of 1μL/mL, 3μL/mL 5μL/mL and 10μL/mL and witness at 0μL/mL (oil/the culture medium, the inhibitions of conidia germination and mycelial growth, respectively, were evaluates. The results showed that from the concentration of 1μL/mL, essential oils of all plant species had an effect on conidia germination, with an inhibition of 100%. The species Lippia sidoides, Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia citriodora and Cymbopogon citratus inhibited the growth of the fungus mycelium by 100%. The oil of Psidium guayava var. pomifera had progressive control over the mycelium of C. gloeosporioides, in accordance with the increase in concentrations of essential oil.

  17. Developmentally regulated sesquiterpene production confers resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in ripe pepper fruits.

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    Sangkyu Park

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR and squalene synthase (SS genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS, belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA, resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits.

  18. Differential gene expression in tomato fruit and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during colonization of the RNAi-SlPH tomato line with reduced fruit acidity and higher pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Shiri; Sela, Noa; Dubey, Amit K; Kumar, Dilip; Luria, Neta; Ment, Dana; Cohen, Shahar; Schaffer, Arthur A; Prusky, Dov

    2017-08-04

    The destructive phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causes anthracnose disease in fruit. During host colonization, it secretes ammonia, which modulates environmental pH and regulates gene expression, contributing to pathogenicity. However, the effect of host pH environment on pathogen colonization has never been evaluated. Development of an isogenic tomato line with reduced expression of the gene for acidity, SlPH (Solyc10g074790.1.1), enabled this analysis. Total RNA from C. gloeosporioides colonizing wild-type (WT) and RNAi-SlPH tomato lines was sequenced and gene-expression patterns were compared. C. gloeosporioides inoculation of the RNAi-SlPH line with pH 5.96 compared to the WT line with pH 4.2 showed 30% higher colonization and reduced ammonia accumulation. Large-scale comparative transcriptome analysis of the colonized RNAi-SlPH and WT lines revealed their different mechanisms of colonization-pattern activation: whereas the WT tomato upregulated 13-LOX (lipoxygenase), jasmonic acid and glutamate biosynthesis pathways, it downregulated processes related to chlorogenic acid biosynthesis II, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amide biosynthesis; the RNAi-SlPH line upregulated UDP-D-galacturonate biosynthesis I and free phenylpropanoid acid biosynthesis, but mainly downregulated pathways related to sugar metabolism, such as the glyoxylate cycle and L-arabinose degradation II. Comparison of C. gloeosporioides gene expression during colonization of the WT and RNAi-SlPH lines showed that the fungus upregulates ammonia and nitrogen transport and the gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolic process during colonization of the WT, while on the RNAi-SlPH tomato, it mainly upregulates the nitrate metabolic process. Modulation of tomato acidity and pH had significant phenotypic effects on C. gloeosporioides development. The fungus showed increased colonization on the neutral RNAi-SlPH fruit, and limited colonization on the WT acidic fruit

  19. Crecimiento de cultivos de tejidos de Stylosanthes spp. en medio conteniendo extractos de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

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    López E. Gloria P.

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available En el invernadero, para caracterizar las reacciones a la antracnosis de diferentes accesiones de Stylosanthes spp. se usaron cultivos filtrados de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Se encontró efecto semejante con extractos del hongo en el crecimiento de callos de los genotipos CIAT 2243, CIAT 10136 y CIAT 2312, con dos cepas (a -136 de Santander de Quilichao y L -VE seca del Brasil de C. gloeosporioides. Se encontraron cambios en el peso fresco de los callos. Se detectó reacción específica de los tres genotipos al incremento de concentraciones de los extractos fungosos. Hubo diferencia significativa en el efecto de la concentración de los filtrados del hongo 32 días después de cultivadas las tres variedades. Aunque hacen falta las evaluaciones de estas plantas en campo, estos resultados muestran que existe alta correlación entre la respuesta de las plantas a inoculaciones en invernadero y el crecimiento de callos en medio conteniendo extractos del hongo. Esto sugiere que procesos a nivel celular son responsables del efecto (daño del agente causante de la antracnosis.Colletotrichum gloeosporioides filtrate cultures were used in characterizing the reactions to antracnosis in different accessions of Stylosanthes spp. under greenhouse conditions. Similar effect was found with fungus extract in callus growing of genotypes CIAT 2243, CIAT 10136 and CIAT 2312 with two known strains of C. gloeosporioides (a -136 from Santander de Quilichao and L-VE withered from Brasil. Changes in callus gross weight were found. Three genotypes specific reaction to the increment of fungi extract concentration were detected. Fungus filtrate concentration effect is different significatively between concentrations 32 days after three varieties were cultivated. Although field evaluations are left, these results show that a high correlation is there between plant response to inoculations under greenhouse conditions and callus growing on medium containing fungus

  20. Histopathology of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.

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    Sylvia Raquel Gomes Moraes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, produces brown lesions on guava fruits, causing severe losses on postharvest. In this study, the infection and colonization of guava fruits by C. gloeosporioides has been examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Fruits at the physiologically mature stage were inoculated with a 10(5 conidia/mL spore suspension. Afterward, fruits were incubated at 25 °C in a wet chamber for periods of 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 120 h to allow examination of the infection and colonization process. Conidia germination and appressoria formation occurred six hours after inoculation (h.a.i. Penetration occurred directly via penetration pegs from appressoria, which penetrated the host cuticle 48 h.a.i. Notably, the appressoria did not produce an appressorial cone surrounding the penetration pore. Infection vesicles were found in epidermal cells 96 h.a.i. The same fungal structures were found in epidermal and parenchymal cells of the host 120 h.a.i. Colonization strategy of C. gloeosporioides on guava fruit was intracellular hemibiotrophic.

  1. Physcomitrella patens Activates Defense Responses against the Pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

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    Guillermo Reboledo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss Physcomitrella patens is a suitable model plant to analyze the activation of defense mechanisms after pathogen assault. In this study, we show that Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from symptomatic citrus fruit infects P. patens and cause disease symptoms evidenced by browning and maceration of tissues. After C. gloeosporioides infection, P. patens reinforces the cell wall by the incorporation of phenolic compounds and induces the expression of a Dirigent-protein-like encoding gene that could lead to the formation of lignin-like polymers. C. gloeosporioides-inoculated protonemal cells show cytoplasmic collapse, browning of chloroplasts and modifications of the cell wall. Chloroplasts relocate in cells of infected tissues toward the initially infected C. gloeosporioides cells. P. patens also induces the expression of the defense genes PAL and CHS after fungal colonization. P. patens reporter lines harboring the auxin-inducible promoter from soybean (GmGH3 fused to β-glucuronidase revealed an auxin response in protonemal tissues, cauloids and leaves of C. gloeosporioides-infected moss tissues, indicating the activation of auxin signaling. Thus, P. patens is an interesting plant to gain insight into defense mechanisms that have evolved in primitive land plants to cope with microbial pathogens.

  2. Colletotrichum species associated with jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) anthracnose in southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoping; Gao, Hong; Qi, Jianmin; Chen, Miancai; Tao, Aifen; Xu, Jiantang; Dai, Zhigang; Su, Jianguang

    2016-04-28

    Anthracnose, caused by the Colletotrichum species of fungi, is one of the most serious diseases affecting jute in China. The disease causes chlorotic regions with black brown sunken necrotic pits on the surfaces of stems. In late stages of disease, plants undergo defoliation, dieback and blight, which make anthracnose a major threat to jute fiber production and quality in China. In this study, 7 strains of Colletotrichum fungi were isolated from diseased jute stems from Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangxi, and Henan plantations in China. Multi-locus sequence (ACT, TUB2, CAL, GS, GAPDH and ITS) analysis coupled with morphological assessment revealed that C. fructicola, C. siamense and C. corchorum-capsularis sp. nov. were associated with jute anthracnose in southeastern China. C. fructicola and C. siamense were previously not associated with jute anthracnose. C. corchorum-capsularis is a new species formally described here. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that all species can infect jute, causing anthracnose, however the virulence of the 3 species differed. This report is the first associating these three species with jute disease worldwide and is the first description of the pathogens responsible for jute anthracnose in China.

  3. Phomalactone from a phytopathogenic fungus infecting Zinnia elegans (Asteraceae) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnia elegans plants are infected by a fungus that causes necrosis with dark red spots particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South part of the United States. This fungal disease when untreated causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated...

  4. Current status of Colletotrichum capsici strains, causal agents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gil

    ASIC, 15e Colloque,. Montpellier 7 p. Dabert M (2006). DNA markers in the phylogenetic of the. Acari. Biol. Lett. 43(2):97-107. Damm U, Woudenberg JHC, Cannon PF, Crous PW (2009). Colletotrichum species with curved conidia from herbaceous hosts. Fungal Divers 39:45-87. Emechebe AM (1986). Cowpea pathology.

  5. Evaluation of sugarcane cultivars for resistance to colletotrichum falcatum went

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, F.; Qureshi, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Screening for resistance against Colletotrichum falcatum was performed In 96 test lines of sugarcane by artificially inoculation method under field conditions for two consecutive years (1998-99). Out of these 96 cultivars, 43 were graded intermediately resistant and 53 intermediately susceptible on the basis of 0-9 scale. (author)

  6. Genetic diversity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Nigeria using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fmodupe

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... The genetic variation in C. gloeosporioides is important in choosing strategies to ... conidia size and shape, and presence or absence of setae (Sutton ... E-mail: aduramigbaa@run.edu.ng. ... 8190 Afr. J. Biotechnol. ... different Colletotrichum species (Guthrice et al., 1992). ... 11 blade fitted onto a holder was.

  7. Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    1994-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species. Experimental Mycology, 18, 230-246. Twelve isolates representing four species of Colletotrichum were transformed either by enhanced protoplast, restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI), or electroporation-mediated protocols. The enhanced protoplast transformation protocol resulted in 100- and 50-fold increases in the transformation efficiencies of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. magna , respectively. REMI transformation involved the use of Hin dIII and vector DNA linearized with HindIII to increase the number of integration events and potential gene disruptions in the fungal genome. Combining the enhanced protoplast and the REMI protocols resulted in a 22-fold increase in the number of hygromycin/nystatin-resistant mutants in C. lindemuthianum . Electroporation-mediated transformation was performed on mycelial fragments and spores of four Colletotrichum species, resulting in efficiencies of up to 1000 transformants/μg DNA. The pHA1.3 vector which confers hygromycin resistance contains telomeric sequences from Fusarium oxysporum , transforms by autonomous replication and genomic integration, and was essential for elevated transformation efficiencies of 100 to 10,000 transformants/μg DNA. Modifications of pHA1.3 occurred during bacterial amplification and post fungal transformation resulting in plasmids capable of significantly elevated transformation efficiencies in C. lindemuthianum.

  8. Infection biology and defence responses in sorghum against Colletotrichum sublineolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puttalingaiah, Basavaraju; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Shetty, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the infection biology of Colletotrichum sublineolum (isolate CP2126) and defence responses in leaves of resistant (SC146), intermediately resistant (SC326) and susceptible (BTx623) sorghum genotypes. Methods and Results: Infection biology and defence responses were studied...

  9. Antifungal (in vitro activity of plant extracts for the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villacís-Aldaz Luis Alfredo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal effect of five plant extracts: nettle (Urtica dioica, chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile, frame (Artemisia vulgaris, lavender (Lavandula officinalis and chamico (Datura ferox were evaluated at laboratory level for control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum of the tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, using two methods of extraction (maceration and steam trapping, in the results obtained, statistical differences were observed in the percentage of inhibition of mycelial growth of the fungus, the treatment with lavender extract obtained by the steam trapping method presented the greatest efficiency for anthracnose control (66.23%. The other treatments tested also showed effectiveness against the anthracnose pathogen in the following order of inhibition: chamomile (52.78%, frame (21.63, chamico (24.14%, nettle (12.94, the ability of various species to inhibit certain fungal diseases, taking into account the different content of secondary metabolites that have each of the plant species, constituting new clean production alternatives that reduce the use of chemical pesticides for the control of fungal diseases.

  10. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States) Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeman, S. (Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-02-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  11. Differentiation of Colletotrichum species responsible for anthracnose of strawberry by arbitrarily primed PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A collection of 39 isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides, which cause anthracnose on strawberry, was grouped into species based on the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-PCR). All isolates used had previously been identified according to classical taxonomic morphology. Ap-PCR amplification of genomic DNA using four different primers allowed for reliable differentiation between isolates of C. acutatum, C. fragariae and two genotypes of C. gloeosporioides. Fifteen of the 18 C. acutatum isolates were very similar, although three isolates which produced a red pigment had distinctly different banding patterns. Nearly identical banding patterns were observed for all nine isolates of C. fragariae. The 12 C. gloeosporioides isolates were more diverse and two separate genotypes, Cgl-1 (six isolates) and Cgl-2 (five isolates) were distinguished by ap-PCR. An additional isolate did not conform to either the Cgl-1 or Cgl-2 genotypes. The utility of ap-PCR compared with other molecular techniques for reliable identification of Colletotrichum isolates pathogenic on strawberry is discussed.

  12. Antifungal activity against plant pathogens of metabolites from the endophytic fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Radwan, Mohamed M; Taráwneh, Amer H; Gao, Jiangtao; Wedge, David E; Rosa, Luiz H; Cutler, Horace G; Cutler, Stephen J

    2013-05-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen.) de Vries extracts led to the isolation of four compounds, including cladosporin, 1; isocladosporin, 2; 5'-hydroxyasperentin, 3; and cladosporin-8-methyl ether, 4. An additional compound, 5',6-diacetylcladosporin, 5, was synthesized by acetylation of compound 3. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for antifungal activity against plant pathogens. Phomopsis viticola was the most sensitive fungus to the tested compounds. At 30 μM, compound 1 exhibited 92.7, 90.1, 95.4, and 79.9% growth inhibition against Colletotrichum acutatum , Colletotrichum fragariae , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , and P. viticola, respectively. Compound 2 showed 50.4, 60.2, and 83.0% growth inhibition at 30 μM against Co. fragariae, Co. gloeosporioides, and P. viticola, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 were isolated for the first time from Cl. cladosporioides. Moreover, the identification of essential structural features of the cladosporin nuclei has also been evaluated. These structures provide new templates for the potential treatment and management of plant diseases.

  13. Evaluation of Bioagents and Biopesticides against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and its Integrated Management in Common Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Ahmad PADDER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Three bioagents (Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum and Gliocladium virens and five biopesticides (Achook, Neemgold, Wannis, Spictaf and Neemazal were evaluated under in vitro and in vivo conditions against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. All the three antagonistic fungi caused significant inhibition of mycelial growth, maximum being with T. viride (69.21% followed by T. harzianum (64.20%. Among the biopesticides tested at four concentrations, Wanis applied @ 1000 ?l/ml caused maximum inhibition of 82.12 per cent followed by Spictaf (52.85%. T. viride and Wanis @ 1000 ?l/ml were most effective in reducing the seed borne infection. Integration of bioagents with Bavistin showed that disease can be effectively managed with seed dressing either with Bavistin or biopesticide followed by foliar treatment with fungicide or biopesticide.

  14. Screening of Colletotrichum (Ascomycota isolates, causal agents of Soybean Anthracnose, for Laccase production Relevamiento de la producción de lacasa en aislamientos de Colletotrichum (Ascomycota, agente causal de antracnosis de la Soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Levin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum truncatum is the most common pathogen fungus associated with soybean anthracnose. Although the lignin-degrading enzyme laccase has been implicated in pathogenicity of a wide range of plant pathogenic fungi, its biological role in the Colletotrichum -soybean disease system is unknown. The extent of the infection in our country led us to examine laccase production in Argentinean Colletotrichum strains isolated from diseased soybean plants from different geographic locations. Ten strains (eight of them identified as C. truncatum , were screened for in vitro laccase production. Only six of the isolates, all of them C. truncatum , produced laccase activity when cultured on a defined medium based on pectin and asparagine as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Strain BAFC 3102 (isolated from Chaco province, yielded the highest laccase titers (44 U/L in this medium. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracellular culture fluids revealed one band with laccase activity (mol wt 67 kDa. CuSO 4 addition to media with either glucose or pectin as carbon sources increased up to 7-fold laccase production (280 U/L in the glucose medium, but the pattern of isoenzyme was not affected by culture age or medium composition. This is the first report on laccase production by C. truncatum.Colletotrichum truncatum es el hongo patógeno más comúnmente asociado con la antracnosis de soja. Aunque la enzima ligninolítica lacasa se relaciona con la patogenicidad de un amplio rango de hongos fitopatógenos, su rol biológico en la interacción Colletotrichum -soja aún se desconoce. La extensión de la infección en la Argentina , nos ha llevado a examinar la producción de lacasa en cepas aisladas de plantas enfermas de soja de diferentes regiones de nuestro país. Se evaluó la producción in vitro de lacasa en diez cepas (ocho de ellas identificadas como C. truncatum . Sólo seis, todas correspondientes a C. truncatum , produjeron

  15. AGGRESSIVENESS AND EXOENZIMES PRODUCTION OF Colletotrichum ISOLATES ON ORNAMENTAL TROPICAL PLANTS AGRESSIVIDADE E PRODUÇÃO DE EXOENZIMAS DE Colletotrichum ISOLADOS DE PLANTAS ORNAMENTAIS TROPICAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rildo Sartori Barbosa Coelho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose, generally caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, affects inflorescences quality in different species of ornamental tropical plants and it is one of the main fungal diseases to those crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the aggressiveness and exoenzimes production on solid medium of  25 Colletotrichum isolates collected from anthurium, torch ginger, and heliconia plants with necrosis symptoms. The symptomatic floral stems were harvested in different counties of the Pernambuco State, Brazil, and carried to the laboratory, where the isolation process took place. The isolates were inoculated in the floral stems bracts of the three species studied, and the aggressiveness evaluated five days after inoculation. Isolates were also plated on specific culture media to determine amylolytic, lipolytic, and proteolytic activity, and assessed seven days after inoculation. The isolates aggressiveness was variable and some of them were not pathogenic when inoculated to their origin hosts. Six isolates were pathogenic to all the analyzed ornamental species and four isolates showed host specificity. All tested isolates presented amylolytic, lipolytic, and proteolytic activity. No relation between aggressiveness and enzyme activity was observed in the isolates tested.

    KEY-WORDS: Anthurium andraeanum; Etlingera elatior; Heliconia spp.; variability.

    A antracnose, geralmente causada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, afeta a qualidade de inflorescências em diversas espécies de plantas ornamentais tropicais e destaca-se como uma das principais doenças de origem fúngica, para estas culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a agressividade e a produção de exoenzimas, em meio sólido, de 25 isolados de Colletotrichum obtidos a partir de inflorescências de

  16. Plantas daninhas hospedeiras alternativas de Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaraná no Estado do Amazonas Alternative host weeds of Colletotrichum guaranicola in guarana crops in the State Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Miléo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas reduzem a produção de sementes de guaraná e podem hospedar microrganismos patogênicos, tornando-se potenciais fontes de inóculo. Este trabalho identificou espécies de plantas daninhas colonizadas pelo fungo Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaranazeiro em quatro municípios do Estado do Amazonas. As plantas daninhas foram identificadas e a presença do fungo foi verificada por meio de isolamentos feitos a partir de fragmentos de folhas lesionadas. As espécies colonizadas por C. guaranicola foram Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata e Synedrella nodiflora, as quais podem representar uma fonte de inóculo do patógeno, além das plantas de guaraná. A diversidade de plantas daninhas, em cultivos de guaranazeiro, reforça a importância de estabelecer práticas de manejo dessas plantas, principalmente em Maués, onde ocorreu maior colonização das espécies de plantas daninhas pelo fungo.Weed infestation may reduce grain guarana crops yield and host plant pathogens becoming potential inoculum sources. This research identified weed species colonized by the fungus Colletotrichum guaranicola in the guarana crop in four counties in the state of Amazon. The weeds were identified fungi presence was observed by isolation from leaf fragments of leaves injured by the fungi. The weed species colonized by Colletotrichum guaranicola were Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata and Synedrella nodiflora,that may represent a strong potential of plant pathogen inoculum, along with the guarana plants. Weed diversity in guarana crop shows the importance of establishing management practices to control these weeds, mainly in the Maues

  17. Cell cycle and cell death are not necessary for appressorium formation and plant infection in the fungal plant pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barhoom Sima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to initiate plant infection, fungal spores must germinate and penetrate into the host plant. Many fungal species differentiate specialized infection structures called appressoria on the host surface, which are essential for successful pathogenic development. In the model plant pathogen Magnaporthe grisea completion of mitosis and autophagy cell death of the spore are necessary for appressoria-mediated plant infection; blocking of mitosis prevents appressoria formation, and prevention of autophagy cell death results in non-functional appressoria. Results We found that in the closely related plant pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, blocking of the cell cycle did not prevent spore germination and appressoria formation. The cell cycle always lagged behind the morphogenetic changes that follow spore germination, including germ tube and appressorium formation, differentiation of the penetrating hypha, and in planta formation of primary hyphae. Nuclear division was arrested following appressorium formation and was resumed in mature appressoria after plant penetration. Unlike in M. grisea, blocking of mitosis had only a marginal effect on appressoria formation; development in hydroxyurea-treated spores continued only for a limited number of cell divisions, but normal numbers of fully developed mature appressoria were formed under conditions that support appressoria formation. Similar results were also observed in other Colletotrichum species. Spores, germ tubes, and appressoria retained intact nuclei and remained viable for several days post plant infection. Conclusion We showed that in C. gloeosporioides the differentiation of infection structures including appressoria precedes mitosis and can occur without nuclear division. This phenomenon was also found to be common in other Colletotrichum species. Spore cell death did not occur during plant infection and the fungus primary infection structures remained viable

  18. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Differential Gene Expression Related to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Resistance in the Octoploid Strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is an important fruit worldwide; however, the development of the strawberry industry is limited by fungal disease. Anthracnose is caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and leads to large-scale losses in strawberry quality and production. However, the transcriptional response of strawberry to infection with C. gloeosporioides is poorly understood. In the present study, the strawberry leaf transcriptome of the ‘Yanli’ and ‘Benihoppe’ cultivars were deep sequenced via an RNA-seq analysis to study C. gloeosporioides resistance in strawberry. Among the sequences, differentially expressed genes were annotated with Gene Ontology terms and subjected to pathway enrichment analysis. Significant categories included defense, plant–pathogen interactions and flavonoid biosynthesis were identified. The comprehensive transcriptome data set provides molecular insight into C. gloeosporioides resistance genes in resistant and susceptible strawberry cultivars. Our findings can enhance breeding efforts in strawberry.

  19. Assessment of Sugarcane Germplasm ( Saccharum spp. complex Against Red Rot Pathogen Colletotrichum Falcatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went is the most important disease of sugarcane in India inflicting substantial loss to both cane industry and cane growers. To keep in view the importance of red rot disease of sugarcane, 117 accession of sugarcane germplasm including different Saccharum species and Indian and foreign commercial hybrids were tested against red rot with Cf 07, Cf 08 & Cf 09 (national pathotypes by plug method of inoculation. Out of 117, 6 were found resistant and 12 were moderately resistant against red rot and rest were moderately susceptible/susceptible/highly susceptible. Theses resistance and moderately resistant accession can be further utilize to produce resistance varieties against the most devastating pathogen of sugarcane.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles: effect on phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloesporioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Méndez, Miguel A.; San Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Ortega-Arroyo, Lesli; Cobián-Portillo, Georgina; Sánchez-Espíndola, Esther

    2011-06-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing silver nitrate solutions with glucose, in the presence of gelatin as capping agent. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The response surface methodology (RSM) was also used to determine the influence of the variables on the size of the nanoparticles. The antifungal activity of the silver nanoparticles was evaluated on the phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloesporioides, which causes anthracnose in a wide range of fruits. The UV-Vis spectra indicated the formation of silver nanoparticles preferably spherical and of relatively small size (silver nanoparticles. By means of FTIR spectroscopy it was determined that gelatin, through their amide and hydroxyl groups, interacts with nanoparticles preventing their agglomeration. The growth of C. gloesporioides in the presence of silver nanoparticles was significantly delayed in a dose dependent manner.

  1. Colletotrichum fungal pathogens and symbionts of ornamental nursery and landscape plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi in the ascomycete genus Colletotrichum are ranked by the plant pathology community as one of the ten most economically and scientifically important fungal phytopathogens. Major losses due to Colletotrichum are experienced in almost every crop worldwide, including nursery and landscape plants ...

  2. H2O2 plays an important role in the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Ygor R G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Barreto, Ana L H; Freire-Filho, Francisco R; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2015-08-01

    Plant-fungus interactions usually generate H(2)O(2) in the infected plant tissue. H(2)O(2) has a direct antimicrobial effect and is involved in the cross-linking of cell walls, signaling, induction of gene expression, hypersensitive cell death and induced systemic acquired resistance. This has raised the hypothesis that H(2)O(2) manipulation by pharmacological compounds could alter the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with the BR-3-Tracuateua cowpea genotype. The primary leaves of cowpea were excised, infiltrated with salicylic acid (SA), glucose oxidase + glucose (GO/G), catalase (CAT) or diphenyliodonium chloride (DPI), followed by spore inoculation on the adaxial leaf surface. SA or GO/G-treated plantlets showed increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The fungus used a subcuticular, intramural necrotrophic strategy, and developed secondary hyphae associated with the quick spread and rapid killing of host cells. However, CAT or DPI-treated leaves exhibited decreased H(2)O(2) concentration and lipid peroxidation and the fungus developed intracellular hemibiotrophic infection with vesicles, in addition to primary and secondary hyphal formation. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) plays an important role in the cowpea (C. gloeosporioides) pathosystem given that it affected fungal lifestyle during interaction. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Crystal Structure of MpPR-1i, a SCP/TAPS protein from Moniliophthora perniciosa, the fungus that causes Witches’ Broom Disease of Cacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, Renata M.; Luo, Zhipu; Darwiche, Rabih; Hudspeth, Elissa M.; Schneiter, Roger; Pereira, Gonçalo A.G.; Mondego, Jorge M.C.; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A. (Fribourg); (Baylor); (NCI); (IAC-- Brazil); (UNICAMP)

    2017-08-10

    The pathogenic fungi Moniliophthora perniciosa causes Witches’ Broom Disease (WBD) of cacao. The structure of MpPR-1i, a protein expressed by M. perniciosa when it infects cacao, are presented. This is the first reported de novo structure determined by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing upon soaking with selenourea. Each monomer has flexible loop regions linking the core alpha-beta-alpha sandwich topology that comprise ~50% of the structure, making it difficult to generate an accurate homology model of the protein. MpPR-1i is monomeric in solution but is packed as a high ~70% solvent content, crystallographic heptamer. The greatest conformational flexibility between monomers is found in loops exposed to the solvent channel that connect the two longest strands. MpPR-1i lacks the conserved CAP tetrad and is incapable of binding divalent cations. MpPR-1i has the ability to bind lipids, which may have roles in its infection of cacao. These lipids likely bind in the palmitate binding cavity as observed in tablysin-15, since MpPR-1i binds palmitate with comparable affinity as tablysin-15. Further studies are required to clarify the possible roles and underlying mechanisms of neutral lipid binding, as well as their effects on the pathogenesis of M. perniciosa so as to develop new interventions for WBD.

  4. Meningoencephalitis caused by a zygomycete fungus (Basidiobolus associated with septic shock in an immunocompetent patient: 1-year follow-up after treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Auxiliadora-Martins

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Zygomycosis is an infection caused by opportunistic fungi of the Zygomycetes class, specifically those from the Mucorales and Entomophthorales orders. It is an uncommon disease, mainly restricted to immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a 73-year-old male patient with a history of fever (39°C lasting for 1 day, accompanied by shivering, trembling, and intense asthenia. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with complex partial seizures, and submitted to orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation under sedation with midazolam. The electroencephalogram showed evidence of non-convulsive status epilepticus. There is no fast specific laboratory test that permits confirmation of invasive fungal disease. Unless the physician suspects this condition, the disease may progress rapidly while the patient is treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Differential diagnosis between fungal and bacterial infection is often difficult. The clinical presentation is sometimes atypical, and etiological investigation is not always successful. In the present case, the histopathological examination of the biopsy obtained from the right temporal lobe indicated the presence of irregular, round, thick-walled fungi forming papillae and elongated structures of irregular diameter, with no septa, indicative of zygomycete (Basidiobolus. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B and fluconazole was initiated after diagnosis of meningoencephalitis by zygomycete, with a successful outcome.

  5. Effect of time and temperature of storage on the activity of the etanolic extracts of Lantana camara L. and Heliotropium indicum L. on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alejandro Infante

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of time and temperature of storage of ethanolic extracts (EE of Lantana camara and Heliotropium indicum on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was investigated. The EE were stored at 8±2 and 26±2°C, during one year. Every 2 months they were diluted in potato dextrose agar (PDA at 0; 0.5; 1 y 1.5% (v/v concentrations, fungus disks were placed onto the media, mycelial growth (ICM and sporulation (IE inhibition were measured, as well as conidia germination. The EE stored at 8±2°C maintained their effectiveness on all variables during the 12 months storage, while those stored at 26±2°C started to lose their effectiveness at 6 to 8 months, ending up to 3% ICM, 4% IE and 18% conidia germination at 1.5% concentration. Results indicated that storage temperature and time are determinant for extracts effectiveness.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of the Colletotrichum acutatum ABC Transporter CaABC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyoung Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi tolerate exposure to various abiotic stresses, including cytotoxic compounds and fungicides, via their ATP-driven efflux pumps belonging to ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. To clarify the molecular basis of interaction between the fungus and various abiotic stresses including fungicides, we constructed a cDNA library from germinated conidia of Colletotrichum acutatum, a major anthracnose pathogen of pepper (Capsicum annum L.. Over 1,000 cDNA clones were sequenced, of which single clone exhibited significant nucleotide sequence homology to ABC transporter genes. We isolated three fosmid clones containing the C. acutatum ABC1 (CaABC1 gene in full-length from genomic DNA library screening. The CaABC1 gene consists of 4,059 bp transcript, predicting a 1,353-aa protein. The gene contains the typical ABC signature and Walker A and B motifs. The 5′-flanking region contains a CAAT motif, a TATA box, and a Kozak region. Phylogenetic and structural analysis suggested that the CaABC1 is a typical ABC transporter gene highly conserved in various fungal species, as well as in Chromista, Metazoans, and Viridiplantae. We also found that CaABC1 was up-regulated during conidiation and a minimal medium condition. Moreover, CaABC1 was induced in iprobenfos, kresoxim-methyl, thiophanate-methyl, and hygromycin B. These results demonstrate that CaABC1 is necessary for conidiation, abiotic stress, and various fungicide resistances. These results will provide the basis for further study on the function of ABC transporter genes in C. acutatum.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  8. Growth Simulation and Discrimination of Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop a rapid and nondestructive method to model the growth and discrimination of spoilage fungi, like Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum, based on hyperspectral imaging system (HIS. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to measure the spectral response of fungi inoculated on potato dextrose agar plates and stored at 28°C and 85% RH. The fungi were analyzed every 12 h over two days during growth, and optimal simulation models were built based on HIS parameters. The results showed that the coefficients of determination (R2 of simulation models for testing datasets were 0.7223 to 0.9914, and the sum square error (SSE and root mean square error (RMSE were in a range of 2.03-53.40×10(-4 and 0.011-0.756, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the HIS parameters and colony forming units of fungi were high from 0.887 to 0.957. In addition, fungi species was discriminated by partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA, with the classification accuracy of 97.5% for the test dataset at 36 h. The application of this method in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum inoculated in peaches, demonstrating that the HIS technique was effective for simulation of fungal infection in real food. This paper supplied a new technique and useful information for further study into modeling the growth of fungi and detecting fruit spoilage caused by fungi based on HIS.

  9. The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channel Family in Colletotrichum graminicola: A Molecular and Physiological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Mario; Weihmann, Fabian; Schliebner, Ivo; Horbach, Ralf; Deising, Holger B; Wirsel, Stefan G R; Peiter, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) is a universal second messenger in all higher organisms and centrally involved in the launch of responses to environmental stimuli. Ca2+ signals in the cytosol are initiated by the activation of Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane and/or in endomembranes. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) contains a Ca2+-permeable channel of the TRP family, TRPY1, which is localized in the vacuolar membrane and contributes to cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) elevations, for example in response to osmotic upshock. A TRPY1 homologue in the rice blast fungus is known to be important for growth and pathogenicity. To determine the role of the TRP channel family in the maize pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola, proteins homologous to TRPY1 were searched. This identified not one, but four genes in the C. graminicola genome, which had putative orthologs in other fungi, and which we named CgTRPF1 through 4. The topology of the CgTRPF proteins resembled that of TRPY1, albeit with a variable number of transmembrane (TM) domains additional to the six-TM-domain core and a diverse arrangement of putatively Ca2+-binding acidic motifs. All CgTRPF genes were expressed in axenic culture and throughout the infection of maize. Like TRPY1, all TRPF proteins of C. graminicola were localized intracellularly, albeit three of them were found not in large vacuoles, but co-localized in vesicular structures. Deletion strains for the CgTRPF genes were not altered in processes thought to involve Ca2+ release from internal stores, i.e. spore germination, the utilization of complex carbon sources, and the generation of tip-focussed [Ca2+]cyt spikes. Heterologous expression of CgTRPF1 through 4 in a tryp1Δ yeast mutant revealed that none of the channels mediated the release of Ca2+ in response to osmotic upshock. Accordingly, aequorin-based [Ca2+]cyt measurements of C. graminicola showed that in this fungus, osmotic upshock-triggered [Ca2+]cyt elevations were generated entirely by influx of Ca2

  10. The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP Channel Family in Colletotrichum graminicola: A Molecular and Physiological Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lange

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca2+ is a universal second messenger in all higher organisms and centrally involved in the launch of responses to environmental stimuli. Ca2+ signals in the cytosol are initiated by the activation of Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane and/or in endomembranes. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a Ca2+-permeable channel of the TRP family, TRPY1, which is localized in the vacuolar membrane and contributes to cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt elevations, for example in response to osmotic upshock. A TRPY1 homologue in the rice blast fungus is known to be important for growth and pathogenicity. To determine the role of the TRP channel family in the maize pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola, proteins homologous to TRPY1 were searched. This identified not one, but four genes in the C. graminicola genome, which had putative orthologs in other fungi, and which we named CgTRPF1 through 4. The topology of the CgTRPF proteins resembled that of TRPY1, albeit with a variable number of transmembrane (TM domains additional to the six-TM-domain core and a diverse arrangement of putatively Ca2+-binding acidic motifs. All CgTRPF genes were expressed in axenic culture and throughout the infection of maize. Like TRPY1, all TRPF proteins of C. graminicola were localized intracellularly, albeit three of them were found not in large vacuoles, but co-localized in vesicular structures. Deletion strains for the CgTRPF genes were not altered in processes thought to involve Ca2+ release from internal stores, i.e. spore germination, the utilization of complex carbon sources, and the generation of tip-focussed [Ca2+]cyt spikes. Heterologous expression of CgTRPF1 through 4 in a tryp1Δ yeast mutant revealed that none of the channels mediated the release of Ca2+ in response to osmotic upshock. Accordingly, aequorin-based [Ca2+]cyt measurements of C. graminicola showed that in this fungus, osmotic upshock-triggered [Ca2+]cyt elevations were generated entirely by

  11. Structural modification of trans-cinnamic acid using Colletotrichum acutatum

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Velasco B.; Jesús H. Gil G.; Carlos M. García P.; Diego L. Durango R.

    2012-01-01

    Se estudió la biotransformación de ácido trans-cinámico mediante células completas del hongo fitopatógeno nativo colombiano Colletotrichum acutatum. Inicialmente, se evaluó la fungitoxicidad de este compuesto contraC. acutatum; el ácido trans-cinámico exhibió una toxicidad moderada a débil contra el microorganismo y aparentemente se presentó un mecanismo de detoxificación. Luego, para estudiar tal mecanismo y explorar la capacidad de este hongo para biotransformar el ácido trans-cinámico en ...

  12. Mucormycosis (Mucor fungus ball) of the maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hang Sun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2014-01-01

    A fungus ball is an extramucosal fungal proliferation that completely fills one or more paranasal sinuses and usually occurs as a unilateral infection. It is mainly caused by Aspergillus spp in an immunocompetent host, but some cases of paranasal fungal balls reportedly have been caused by Mucor spp. A Mucor fungus ball is usually found in the maxillary sinus and/or the sphenoid sinus and may be black in color. Patients with mucormycosis, or a Mucor fungal ball infection, usually present with facial pain or headache. On computed tomography, there are no pathognomonic findings that are conclusive for a diagnosis of mucormycosis. In this article we report a case of mucormycosis in a 56-year-old woman and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the "Mucor fungus ball." To the best of our knowledge, 5 case reports (8 patients) have been published in which the fungus ball was thought to be caused by Mucor spp.

  13. Attenuation of PAMP-triggered immunity in maize requires down-regulation of the key β-1,6-glucan synthesis genes KRE5 and KRE6 in biotrophic hyphae of Colletotrichum graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Garcia, Ely; Deising, Holger B

    2016-08-01

    In plants, pathogen defense is initiated by recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via plasma membrane-localized pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). Fungal structural cell wall polymers such as branched β-glucans are essential for infection structure rigidity and pathogenicity, but at the same time represent PAMPs. Kre5 and Kre6 are key enzymes in β-1,6-glucan synthesis and formation of branch points of the β-glucan network. In spite of the importance of branched β-glucan for hyphal rigidity and plant-fungus interactions, neither the role of KRE5 and KRE6 in pathogenesis nor mechanisms allowing circumventing branched β-glucan-triggered immune responses are known. We functionally characterized KRE5 and KRE6 of the ascomycete Colletotrichum graminicola, a hemibiotroph that infects maize (Zea mays). After appressorial plant invasion, this fungus sequentially differentiates biotrophic and highly destructive necrotrophic hyphae. RNAi-mediated reduction of KRE5 and KRE6 transcript abundance caused appressoria to burst and swelling of necrotrophic hyphae, indicating that β-1,6-glucosidic bonds are essential in these cells. Live cell imaging employing KRE5:mCherry and KRE6:mCherry knock-in strains and probing of infection structures with a YFP-conjugated β-1,6-glucan-binding protein showed expression of these genes and exposure of β-1,6-glucan in conidia, appressoria and necrotrophic, but not in biotrophic hyphae. Overexpression of KRE5 and KRE6 in biotrophic hyphae led to activation of broad-spectrum plant defense responses, including papilla and H2 O2 formation, as well as transcriptional activation of several defense-related genes. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that down-regulation of synthesis and avoidance of exposure of branched β-1,3-β-1,6-glucan in biotrophic hyphae is required for attenuation of plant immune responses. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Overexpression of rice thaumatin-like protein (Ostlp gene in transgenic cassava results in enhanced tolerance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patroba Odeny Ojola

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is the most important staple food for more than 300 million people in Africa, and anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis is the most destructive fungal disease affecting cassava production in sub-Saharan Africa. The main objective of this study was to improve anthracnose resistance in cassava through genetic engineering. Transgenic cassava plants harbouring rice thaumatin-like protein (Ostlp gene, driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter, were generated using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC of cultivar TMS 60444. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence, integration, copy number of the transgene all the independent transgenic events. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed high expression levels of Ostlp in six transgenic lines tested. The antifungal activity of the transgene against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides pathogen was evaluated using the leaves and stem cuttings bioassay. The results demonstrated significantly delayed disease development and reduced size of necrotic lesions in leaves and stem cuttings of all transgenic lines compared to the leaves and stem cuttingss of non-transgenic control plants. Therefore, constitutive overexpression of rice thaumatin-like protein in transgenic cassava confers enhanced tolerance to the fungal pathogen C. gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis. These results can therefore serve as an initial step towards genetic engineering of farmer-preffered cassava cultivars for resistance to anthracnose disease. Keywords: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis, Thaumatin-like protein, Transgenic cassava

  15. Circumscription of the anthracnose pathogens Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. nigrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Cai, Lei; Crous, Pedro W; Damm, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    The anthracnose pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is usually identified as Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, while anthracnose of potato (Solanum tuberosum), peppers (Capsicum annuum), tomato (S. lycopersicum) and several other crop plants is often attributed to C. coccodes. In order to study the phylogenetic relationships of these important pathogens, we conducted a multigene analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH) of strains previously identified as C. lindemuthianum, C. coccodes and other related species, as well as representative species of the major Colletotrichum species complexes. Strains of C. lindemuthianum belonged to a single clade; we selected an authentic specimen as lectotype, and an appropriate specimen and culture from the CBS collection to serve as epitype. Two clades were resolved within C. coccodes s. lat. One clade included the ex-neotype strain of C. coccodes on Solanum, while an epitype was selected for C. nigrum, which represents the oldest name of the second clade, which occurs on Capsicum, Solanum, as well as several other host plants. Furthermore, we recognized C. lycopersici as a synonym of C. nigrum, and C. biologicum as a synonym of C. coccodes.

  16. Water relation, leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging of soybean leaves infected with Colletotrichum truncatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Carla Silva; Araujo, Leonardo; Alves Chaves, Joicy Aparecida; DaMatta, Fábio M; Rodrigues, Fabrício A

    2018-06-01

    Considering the potential of anthracnose to decrease soybean yield and the need to gain more information regarding its effect on soybean physiology, the present study performed an in-depth analysis of the photosynthetic performance of soybean leaflets challenged with Colletotrichum truncatum by combining chlorophyll a fluorescence images with gas-exchange measurements and photosynthetic pigment pools. There were no significant differences between non-inoculated and inoculated plants in leaf water potential, apparent hydraulic conductance, net CO 2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance to water vapor and transpiration rate. For internal CO 2 concentration, significant difference between non-inoculated and inoculated plants occurred only at 36 h after inoculation. Reductions in the values of the chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters [initial fluorescence (F 0 ), maximal fluorescence (F m ), maximal photosystem II quantum yield (F v /F m ), quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation (Y(NPQ))] and increases in effective PS II quantum yield (Y(II)), quantum yield of non-regulated energy dissipation Y(NO) and photochemical quenching coefficient (q P ) were noticed on the necrotic vein tissue in contrast to the surrounding leaf tissue. It appears that the impact of the infection by C. truncatum on the photosynthetic performance of the leaflets was minimal considering the preference of the fungus to colonize the veins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Lifestyle transitions in plant pathogenic Colletotrichum fungi deciphered by genome and transcriptome analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Connell, R.J.; Thon, M.R.; Hacquard, S.; Amyotte, S.G.; Kleemann, J.; Torres, M.F.; Damm, U.; Buiate, E.A.; Epstein, L.; Alkan, N.; Altmuller, J.; Alvarado-Balderrama, L.; Bauser, C.A.; Becker, C.; Birren, B.W.; Chen, Z.; Choi, J.; Crouch, J.A.; Duvick, J.P.; Farman, M.A.; Gan, P.; Heiman, D.; Henrissat, B.; Howard, R.J.; Kabbage, M.; Koch, C.; Kracher, B.; Kubo, Y.; Law, A.D.; Lebrun, M.-H.; Lee, Y.-H.; Miyara, I.; Moore, N.; Neumann, U.; Nordstrom, K.; Panaccione, D.G.; Panstruga, R.; Place, M.; Proctor, R.H.; Prusky, D.; Rech, G.; Reinhardt, R.; Rollins, J.A.; Rounsley, S.; Schardl, C.L.; Schwartz, D.C.; Shenoy, N.; Shirasu, K.; Sikhakolli, U.R.; Stuber, K.; Sukno, S.A.; Sweigard, J.A.; Takano, Y.; Takahara, H.; Trail, F.; Does, H.C.; Voll, L.M.; Will, I.; Young, S.; Zeng, Q.; Zhang, Jingze; Zhou, S.; Dickman, M.B.; Schulze-Lefert, P.; Verloren van Themaat, E.; Ma, L.-J.; Vaillancourt, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Colletotrichum species are fungal pathogens that devastate crop plants worldwide. Host infection involves the differentiation of specialized cell types that are associated with penetration, growth inside living host cells (biotrophy) and tissue destruction (necrotrophy). We report here genome and

  19. Role of the Colletotrichum acutatum sesquiterpene synthase CaTPS in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt; Manczak, Tom; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2016-01-01

    biosynthesis is performed by sesquiterpene synthases (TPS). Only a few TPSs have been functionally characterized from filamentous fungi and none from the genus Colletotrichum. Despite being an important fungal pathogen to agriculture, it is poorly understood at the molecular and chemical levels. The terpenoid...... characterization of TPS in Colletotrichum spp. and terpenoid profiles of Coll. acutatum, which could facilitate studies on the role of terpenoids in the ecology of Coll. acutatum....

  20. Efeito fungitóxico do óleo essencial de aroeira da praia (Schinus terebinthifolius RADDI sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Fungitoxic effect of essential oil from aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius RADDI on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.G Oliveira Junior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial do fruto de Schinus terebinthifolius sobre o crescimento micelial do fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in vitro, e no desenvolvimento da antracnose no período de pós-colheita em mamões. As diferentes concentrações de óleo foram diluídas em Tween 80 a 8%. No experimento in vitro foram preparados meios de cultura BDA nas concentrações de 0,05; 0,10; 0,25 e 0,50% do óleo essencial. O controle negativo foi realizado apenas com meio BDA e o controle solvente com meio BDA e Tween 80 a 8%. A inibição do crescimento do fungo foi diretamente proporcional à quantidade do óleo e a maior inibição encontrada foi de 79,07% na concentração de óleo de 0,50%. No experimento in vivo os frutos do mamoeiro foram inoculados com o fungo em quatro tratamentos: com biofilme; com biofilme mais 0,50% do óleo; com fungicida Prochloraz e frutos controle. Embora o tratamento com óleo tenha sido eficiente contra o fungo, não foi indicado comercialmente, pois apresentou valores elevados de perda de massa fresca, de firmeza, e também sintomas de fitotoxidade. O óleo tem propriedade antifúngica contra C. gloeosporioides in vitro e in vivo, contudo, não é recomendado para o mamão em função da fitotoxidezThis study evaluated the effect of essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruit on the mycelial growth of the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in vitro and on the anthracnose development during the postharvest period of papaya fruits. The different oil concentrations were diluted in 8% Tween 80. For the in vitro experiment, PDA culture media were prepared at the concentrations of 0.05, 0.10, 0.25 and 0.50% essential oil. Negative control was prepared with PDA medium alone, while solvent control was prepared with PDA medium and 8% Tween 80. Fungal growth inhibition was directly proportional to the oil amount and the greatest inhibition was 79.07% at 0.50% oil concentration. For the

  1. Screening of soybean germplasm for resistance against colletotrichum truncatum infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, I.; Islam, M.R.; Hamiduzzaman, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    One hundred and five soybean germplasms of exotic and national origin were evaluated for their reaction to anthracnose under field condition in Bangladesh. In the field 36 materials were found to be free from infection of C. truncatum (highly resistant) while 19, 37, 3, 5 and 5 germplasms were graded as resistant, moderately resistant, moderately susceptible, susceptible and highly susceptible, respectively. Percentage of seed-borne infection by colletotrichum truncatum varied from one germplasm to another. In total 43 germplasms were completely free from seed-borne infection, whereas up to 5% infection was recorded in 25 samples, 6-30% in 32 samples and 31-36% infection was found in five samples. (author)

  2. Dicer-like Proteins Regulate the Growth, Conidiation, and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiannan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Hevea brasiliensis is the hemibiotrophic fungi which could cause anthracnose in rubber trees. Dicer like proteins (DCL were the core enzymes for generation of small RNAs. In the present study, the knocking-out mutants of two dicer like proteins encoding genes of C. gloeosporioides were constructed; and functions of two proteins were investigated. The results showed that DCL play important roles in regulating the growth, conidiation and pathogenicity of C. gloeosporioides; and there is a functional redundancy between DCL1 and DCL2. Microscopy analysis and DAB staining revealed that loss of penetration ability into the host cells, instead of the decreased growth rate, was the main cause for the impaired pathogenicity of the ΔDcl1ΔDcl2 double mutant. Proteomics analysis suggested that DCL proteins affected the expression of functional proteins to regulating multiple biological processes of C. gloeosporioides. These data lead to a better understanding of the functions of DCL proteins in regulating the development and pathogenesis of C. gloeosporioides.

  3. Biological control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in yam by Streptomyces sp.MJM5763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, S A; Yang, S H; Cheng, J H; Meng, L; Suh, J-W

    2011-08-01

    To find a suitable biocontrol agent for yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. An actinobacterial strain, MJM5763, showing strong antifungal activity, multiple biocontrol and plant growth-promoting traits was isolated from a yam cultivation field in Yeoju, South Korea. Based on morphological and physiological characteristics and analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence, strain MJM5763 was identified as a novel strain of Streptomyces and was designated as Streptomyces sp. MJM5763. Treatment with MJM5763 and the crude culture filtrate extract (CCFE) was effective in suppressing anthracnose in detached yam leaves in vitro and reduced incidence and severity of anthracnose in yam plants under greenhouse conditions. The CCFE treatment was the most effective of all the treatments and reduced the anthracnose severity by 85-88% and the incidence by 79-81%, 90 days after inoculation with the pathogen. CCFE treatment was also effective under field conditions and showed a reduction of 86 and 75% of anthracnose severity and incidence, respectively. Streptomyces sp. strain MJM5763 was effective in biocontrolling anthracnose in yam caused by C. gloeosporioides. Streptomyces sp. MJM5763 is a potential alternative to chemical fungicides for reducing yield losses to anthracnose in yam. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Efeito de extratos de plantas medicinais no controle de Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da flor preta do morangueiro Effect of plant extract on control of Colletotrichum acutatum the causal agent of the black spot of strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Ferreira Almeida

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A flor preta do morangueiro, causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, acarreta sérios problemas à cultura. Com o objetivo de verificar a utilização de extratos vegetais no controle da doença, testes "in vitro" foram realizados com 11 extratos vegetais hidroalcoólicos produzidos de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular. Os extratos foram preparados a partir de diferentes partes da planta, de acordo com a espécie, utilizando água e álcool no processo de extração por maceração. Foi verificada a influência dos extratos no crescimento micelial, esporulação e germinaç��o de esporos de C. acutatum, e também no controle do patógeno em folhas e frutos destacados. De acordo com a metodologia utilizada, os extratos vegetais que apresentaram maior eficiência foram os de folha e ramos de Ruta graveolens, Artemisia absinthium e bulbos de Allium sativum, indicando ter essas plantas potencial fungitóxico para o controle de C. acutatum.The black spot of strawberry plants caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, causes serious problems to the culture. To control the disease and minimize the use of fungicides, in vitro assays were accomplished with 11 different plant hydroalcoholic extract from plants species used in the popular medicine. The extracts were produced from plant parts (according to the species using water and alcohol in the extraction process for infusion. The influence of the extracts was verified in the micelial growth, esporulation and germination of the pathogen, besides a test with leaves and outstanding fruits. In agreement with the methodology used in this study, the extracts that showed the highest efficiency were the ones from Ruta graveolens, Artemisia absinthium and Allium sativum, which indicate such plants as potential fungitoxics for the control of C. acutatum.

  5. Pathogenic variability of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Ecuadorian Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasm resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rodríguez-Ortega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is one of the most economically important diseases of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivation in Ecuador. The best control alternative is the use of resistant varieties. C. lindemuthianum presents great pathogenic variability, which hinders the development of varieties with a lasting resistance, therefore, the knowledge of the presence and distribution of the physiological races of the pathogen and the identification of resistance genes are key to developing varieties with broad and lasting resistance. The objective of this research was to determine the pathogenic variability of C. lindemuthianum and to evaluate the resistance of Ecuadorian bean germplasm. The research was carried out between 2013 and 2014. Seventeen isolates of C. lindemuthianum from northern central Ecuador were characterized by the inoculation of a group of twelve standard differential bean varieties. Among the analyzed samples, thirteen races were identified; five of those races had not been previously reported in the country. The differential G2333 (Co-42, Co-52 and Co-7 presented resistance to every characterized races in Ecuador. In addition, twenty - one improved varieties and elite bean lines were evaluated with sixteen of the seventeen isolates, three genotypes were identified (TB2, TB3 and INIAP 485 Urcuquí with resistance to the mentioned isolates, which can be used as sources of resistance to Anthracnose. The identified sources of resistance in this study will allow to plan the development of bean varieties with broad and durable resistance to C. lindemuthianum.

  6. Evidence that Blueberry Floral Extracts Influence Secondary Conidiation and Appressorial Formation of Colletotrichum fioriniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Timothy J; Vaiciunas, Jennifer; Constantelos, Christine; Oudemans, Peter V

    2018-05-01

    Blueberry anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae, is a pre- and postharvest disease of cultivated highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). During disease development, the pathogen undergoes several lifestyle changes during host colonization, including epiphytic, quiescent, and necrotrophic phases. It is not clear, however, what if any host signals alter the pattern of colonization during the initial epiphytic phase and infection. This research investigated the role of blueberry floral extracts (FE) on fungal development. Results show that FE significantly increased both the quantity and rate of secondary conidiation and appressorial formation in vitro, suggesting that floral components could decrease the minimum time required for infection. Activity of FE was readily detected in water collected from field samples, where secondary conidiation and appressorial formation decreased as rainwater collections were further removed from flowers. A comparison of FE from four blueberry cultivars with different levels of field susceptibility revealed that appressorial formation but not secondary conidiation significantly increased with the FE from susceptible cultivars versus resistant cultivars. Inoculum supplemented with FE produced higher levels of disease on ripe blueberry fruit as compared with inoculum with water only. Flowers from other ericaceous species were found to also induce secondary conidiation and appressorial formation of C. fioriniae. This research provides strong evidence that flowers can contribute substantially to the infection process of C. fioriniae, signifying the importance of the bloom period for developing effective disease management strategies.

  7. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  8. Partial purification of elicitors from Lentinula edodes basidiocarps protecting cucumber seedlings against Colletotrichum lagenarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Piero Robson M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes has been used in research involving the prevention and the control of human and plant diseases. In cucumber plants, treated with aqueous extracts from mushroom basidiocarps, there was a reduction in anthracnose severity caused by Colletotrichum lagenarium, and an increase in peroxidase activity in the leaves. With the aim of obtaining molecules of agronomic interest, the crude aqueous extract from L. edodes basidiocarp was fractioned with ammonium sulfate. The fraction corresponding to 40-80% of saturation (p40-80, the most effective in reducing anthracnose on cucumber cotyledons, was submitted to anion exchange chromatography (AEC. After AEC, six protein peaks were obtained and the peak V, containing 34% of the proteins present in p40-80, induced peroxidase increase in the cucumber cotyledons besides reducing anthracnose severity. Separation of peak V proteins by SDS-gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of more than one band in the gel. Thus, a partial purification of elicitors present in the L. edodes basidiocarp was achieved.

  9. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-09-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles: effect on phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloesporioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Mendez, Miguel A., E-mail: maguilarme@ipn.mx; San Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Ortega-Arroyo, Lesli [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada (Mexico); Cobian-Portillo, Georgina [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (Mexico); Sanchez-Espindola, Esther [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Prolongacion Manuel M. Carpio s/n, esq. Plan de Ayala (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing silver nitrate solutions with glucose, in the presence of gelatin as capping agent. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The response surface methodology (RSM) was also used to determine the influence of the variables on the size of the nanoparticles. The antifungal activity of the silver nanoparticles was evaluated on the phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloesporioides, which causes anthracnose in a wide range of fruits. The UV-Vis spectra indicated the formation of silver nanoparticles preferably spherical and of relatively small size (<20 nm). The above-mentioned was confirmed by TEM, observing a size distribution of 5-24 nm. According to RSM the synthesis variables influenced on the size of the silver nanoparticles. By means of FTIR spectroscopy it was determined that gelatin, through their amide and hydroxyl groups, interacts with nanoparticles preventing their agglomeration. The growth of C. gloesporioides in the presence of silver nanoparticles was significantly delayed in a dose dependent manner.

  11. Detection of Colletotrichum acutatum Latent Infections in Strawberry Petioles and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Duduk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum acutatum is the most significant agent of anthracnose strawberry fruit rot. Besides being a necrotrophic pest, it can spend a part of its life cycle as an epiphyte, in a form of latent infection. The presence of the fungi on symptomless plant tissue is considered one of the main ways of distribution of this economically harmful pathogen in the world. Investigation of latent C. acutatum infection was carried out on artificially inoculated strawberries. The initiation of fungi sporulation on symptomless petioles and leaves was carried out by exposing them to the herbicide paraquat (0.25% and low temperatures, which caused plant tissue decay in different ways. Surface sterilization with 0.5% NaOCl precedes the exposure of plant material to paraquat. The freezing procedure was carried out by exposure of plant material to the temperature of -20°C for 2h. After the freezing, one group was rinsed in Tween 20 (18 μl/l, and another group underwent surface sterilization in 0.0525% NaOCl with an addition of Tween 20 (18 μl/l. After 6 days of incubation, the appearance of acervuli and conidia was detected in 93.33 to 100% plant parts exposed to paraquat treatment and freezing procedure. In inoculated parts which were not exposed to herbicides or low temperatures, the presence of acervuli was detected in 3.33% tested petioles and 6.67% leaves.

  12. Analysis of Fungicide Sensitivity and Genetic Diversity among Colletotrichum Species in Sweet Persimmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Geun-Hye; Cho, Hyun Ji; Kim, Hye Sun; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2015-06-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C. gloeosporioides; Teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata), is the most destructive disease that affects sweet persimmon production worldwide. However, the biology, ecology, and genetic variations of C. gloeosporioides remain largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, the development of fungicide resistance and genetic diversity among an anthracnose pathogen population with different geographical origins and the exposure of this population to different cultivation strategies were investigated. A total of 150 pathogen isolates were tested in fungicide sensitivity assays. Five of the tested fungicides suppressed mycelial pathogen growth effectively. However, there were significant differences in the sensitivities exhibited by the pathogen isolates examined. Interestingly, the isolates obtained from practical management orchards versus organic cultivation orchards showed no differences in sensitivity to the same fungicide. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses were performed to detect internal transcribed spacer regions and the β-tubulin and glutamine synthetase genes of the pathogens examined. Both the glutamine synthetase and β-tubulin genes contained a complex set of polymorphisms. Based on these results, the pathogens isolated from organic cultivation orchards were found to have more diversity than the isolates obtained from the practical management orchards.

  13. Analysis of Fungicide Sensitivity and Genetic Diversity among Colletotrichum Species in Sweet Persimmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun-Hye Gang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C. gloeosporioides; Teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata, is the most destructive disease that affects sweet persimmon production worldwide. However, the biology, ecology, and genetic variations of C. gloeosporioides remain largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, the development of fungicide resistance and genetic diversity among an anthracnose pathogen population with different geographical origins and the exposure of this population to different cultivation strategies were investigated. A total of 150 pathogen isolates were tested in fungicide sensitivity assays. Five of the tested fungicides suppressed mycelial pathogen growth effectively. However, there were significant differences in the sensitivities exhibited by the pathogen isolates examined. Interestingly, the isolates obtained from practical management orchards versus organic cultivation orchards showed no differences in sensitivity to the same fungicide. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analyses were performed to detect internal transcribed spacer regions and the β-tubulin and glutamine synthetase genes of the pathogens examined. Both the glutamine synthetase and β-tubulin genes contained a complex set of polymorphisms. Based on these results, the pathogens isolated from organic cultivation orchards were found to have more diversity than the isolates obtained from the practical management orchards.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles: effect on phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloesporioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Méndez, Miguel A.; San Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Ortega-Arroyo, Lesli; Cobián-Portillo, Georgina; Sánchez-Espíndola, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing silver nitrate solutions with glucose, in the presence of gelatin as capping agent. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by means of UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The response surface methodology (RSM) was also used to determine the influence of the variables on the size of the nanoparticles. The antifungal activity of the silver nanoparticles was evaluated on the phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloesporioides, which causes anthracnose in a wide range of fruits. The UV–Vis spectra indicated the formation of silver nanoparticles preferably spherical and of relatively small size (<20 nm). The above-mentioned was confirmed by TEM, observing a size distribution of 5–24 nm. According to RSM the synthesis variables influenced on the size of the silver nanoparticles. By means of FTIR spectroscopy it was determined that gelatin, through their amide and hydroxyl groups, interacts with nanoparticles preventing their agglomeration. The growth of C. gloesporioides in the presence of silver nanoparticles was significantly delayed in a dose dependent manner.

  15. Geosmithia-Ophiostoma: a New Fungus-Fungus Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepori, Alessia L; Bettini, Priscilla P; Comparini, Cecilia; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Bonini, Anna; Frascella, Arcangela; Ghelardini, Luisa; Scala, Aniello; Vannacci, Giovanni; Santini, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    In Europe as in North America, elms are devastated by Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by the alien ascomycete Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Pathogen dispersal and transmission are ensured by local species of bark beetles, which established a novel association with the fungus. Elm bark beetles also transport the Geosmithia fungi genus that is found in scolytids' galleries colonized by O. novo-ulmi. Widespread horizontal gene transfer between O. novo-ulmi and Geosmithia was recently observed. In order to define the relation between these two fungi in the DED pathosystem, O. novo-ulmi and Geosmithia species from elm, including a GFP-tagged strain, were grown in dual culture and mycelial interactions were observed by light and fluorescence microscopy. Growth and sporulation of O. novo-ulmi in the absence or presence of Geosmithia were compared. The impact of Geosmithia on DED severity was tested in vivo by co-inoculating Geosmithia and O. novo-ulmi in elms. A close and stable relation was observed between the two fungi, which may be classified as mycoparasitism by Geosmithia on O. novo-ulmi. These results prove the existence of a new component in the complex of organisms involved in DED, which might be capable of reducing the disease impact.

  16. Whole genome sequence and genome annotation of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of anthracnose in pepper plants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joon-Hee; Chon, Jae-Kyung; Ahn, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Ik-Young; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2016-06-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is a destructive fungal pathogen which causes anthracnose in a wide range of crops. Here we report the whole genome sequence and annotation of C. acutatum strain KC05, isolated from an infected pepper in Kangwon, South Korea. Genomic DNA from the KC05 strain was used for the whole genome sequencing using a PacBio sequencer and the MiSeq system. The KC05 genome was determined to be 52,190,760 bp in size with a G + C content of 51.73% in 27 scaffolds and to contain 13,559 genes with an average length of 1516 bp. Gene prediction and annotation were performed by incorporating RNA-Seq data. The genome sequence of the KC05 was deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession number LUXP00000000.

  17. SELECTION AND in vitro REGENERATION OF SOMACLONES OF TREE TOMATO (Solanum betacea cav. Sendt) USING CULTURE FILTRATES OF Colletotrichum acutatum WITH PECTINASA ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño Torres, Carlos; Hoyos Sánchez, Rodrigo; Afanador Kafuri, Lucía

    2007-01-01

    Se utilizaron filtrados de cultivo de Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal de la antracnosis del tomate de árbol, para la selección in vitro de variantes somaclonales de ésta planta con resistencia potencial a la enfermedad. El filtrado, utilizado a varias concentraciones, demostró ser un agente de selección efectivo cuando se integró al medio de cultivo, pues causó niveles elevados de mortalidad de los explantes comparado con los tratamientos sin filtrado. Igualmente, se estudió el efecto ...

  18. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Michael G.; Kurata, Naoko P.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Helgen, Lauren E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Helgen, Kristofer M.

    2017-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen.

  19. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Michael G; Kurata, Naoko P; Foster, Jeffrey T; Helgen, Lauren E; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Fleischer, Robert C; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2017-09-01

    White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen.

  20. Structure, dynamics and domain organization of the repeat protein Cin1 from the apple scab fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesarich, C.H.; Schmitz, M.; Tremouilhac, P.; McGillivray, D.J.; Templeton, M.D.; Dingley, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is a hemi-biotrophic fungus that causes scab disease of apple. A recently-identified gene from this fungus, cin1 (cellophane-induced 1), is up-regulated over 1000-fold in planta and considerably on cellophane membranes, and encodes a cysteine-rich secreted protein of 523 residues

  1. Tratamento fungicida de sementes de soja inoculadas com Colletotrichum truncatum Fungicide treatment of soybean seeds inoculated with Colletotrichum truncatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pereira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade sanitária e o potencial fisiológico de sementes de soja são fatores determinantes para o estabelecimento de estandes adequados. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho das sementes de soja e o crescimento das plantas após inoculação das sementes com Colletotrichum truncatum e tratamento fungicida via peliculização. As sementes foram inoculadas com C. truncatum utilizando técnica de restrição hídrica e, posteriormente, tratadas com fungicidas e polímero. Os tratamentos utilizados foram carbendazin, fludioxonil+mefenoxan, thiabendazol+thiram, tiofanato metílico, caboxin+thiram e sementes não tratadas. As sementes foram tratadas com e sem polímero. Foram realizadas avaliações de germinação das sementes, teste de frio, emergência de plântulas e sanidade das sementes por meio do Blotter test. As plantas, cultivadas em vasos, foram avaliadas pelo comprimento da parte aérea, da matéria seca de raízes e da parte aérea. O tratamento das sementes de soja com fludioxonil+mefenoxan e thiabendazole+thiram é eficiente no controle de Colletotrichum truncatum e melhora o desempenho fisiológico das sementes. O desempenho das sementes de soja e o crescimento das plantas são reduzidos quando as sementes são tratadas com tiofanato metílico. A peliculização não afeta o potencial fisiológico e a qualidade sanitária das sementes de soja.The sanitary and physiological qualities of soybean seeds are determining factors for the establishment of appropriate stands. This research aimed to evaluate the soybean seed performance and plants growth after seed inoculation with Colletotrichum truncatum and fungicide treatment by film-coating. The seeds were inoculated whit C. truncatum by water restriction technique and then treated with fungicides and polymer. The used treatments were carbendazin, fludioxonil+mefenoxan, thiabendazole+thiram, thiophanate methyl, caboxin+thiram and untreated seeds. The seeds were treated with and

  2. Evaluation of antifungal metabolites activity from bacillus licheniformis OE-04 against Colletotrichum gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Hafiz Husnain; Nelly Rajaofera, M J; He, Qiguang; Anam, Usmani; Lin, Chunhua; Miao, Weiguo

    2018-04-01

    Anthracnose disease in the cotton plant caused by fungal pathogen Colletotrichum gossypii. It is supposed to be most critical diseases in the cotton crop as it causes infection and leads to complete damaging of the cotton crop by infecting the leaves, stems, and bolls in the field. The disease control is challenging due to the absence of an effective fungicide without damaging the farmer health and environment. So the series of experiments were designed to assess the antagonistic activity of biosurfactant released by strain Bacillus licheniformis OE-04 against the anthracnose causing agent in cotton and this strain was screened out from forty eight strain of rhizobacteria. We also estimated the heat stability and pH range and toxicity of biosurfactant produced by strain 0E-04. The results showed that biosurfactant has maximum antifungal activity against C. gossypii. In vitro study concluded that the biosurfactant can reduce fungal activity by inhibiting the spore germination of C. gossypii. Moreover, the biosurfactant also has wide pH and temperature range. We observed Antifungal activity of biosurfactant at 5 to 10 pH range and temperature range was also wide from room temperature to 100 °C. We also observed the toxicity of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis against zebra fish (Danio rerio). We were noticed that biosurfactant have least harmful effect with maximum concentration. The study confirmed that biosurfactant of Bacillus licheniformis have high pH and heat stability range with least harmful effects so it can be a good replacement of chemical pesticides for cotton anthracnose control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Producción in vitro de pectinasas por Colletotrichum acutatum In vitro production of pectinases by Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Patiño Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos del género Colletotrichum son reconocidos productores de sustancias fifitotóxicas de bajo peso molecular y de enzimas que juegan papeles clave en su interacción patogénica con varios cultivos. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la naturaleza de las sustancias fitotóxicas producidas por C. acutatum en los medios de cultivo líquido Czapeck-Dox, Fries y MS, que estuviesen implicados en su interacción patogénica con el tomate de árbol (Solanum betaceae. Los procedimientos y resultados de la evaluación permitieron descartar que la actividad fitotóxica observada sobre los frutos de tomate inoculados con los extractos de los medios de cultivo se debiera a metabolitos de bajo peso molecular. Por el contrario, utilizando la prueba de placa de pozos (Dingle et al., 1953 se estableció que C. acutatum produce en los medios de cultivo evaluados enzimas con actividad pectinasa, tanto liasas como hidrolasas, las cuales podrían estar implicadas en la enfermedad de la antracnosis del tomate de árbol. Los resultados demostraron además que la producción de las enzimas se ve influenciada por el pH del medio de cultivo.The fungi of gender Colletotrichum are producers of phytotoxic substances of low molecular weight and enzymes, which can to play crucial roles in their pathogenic relations with many commercial crops. This study was realized for to determine the type of the substances produced by C. acutatum in the Czapeck-Dox’s, Fries’s and MS’s culture medium, substances that have roles in the pathogenic relations with tamarillo (Solanum betaceae. The procedures and results of the evaluation allowed us to discard that phytotoxic activity on tamarillo fruits inoculated with extracts to be low molecular weight metabolites. Utilizing the cup-plate asay (Dingle et al., 1953, we to establish what in vitro, C. acutatum produced enzymes like pectinases (poligalacturonases and pectyn lyases, whose action can to be implied in the

  4. Identification of Causes of Red Leaf Spot on Red Jabon (Anthocephalus macrophyllus (Roxb. Havil Seeds in Kima Atas Permanent Nursery, Manado Forestry Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Nurul Hidayah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fulfillment the needs of Red Jabon (Anthocephalus macrophyllus (Roxb. Havil seeds on the other hand can create an unbalanced ecosystem. The availability of red Jabon seed was becoming a source of food for pests, then it causes an explosion of pests and pathogens. The disease that most often affect red Jabon seeds, both in the nursery and in the field was red leaf spot (antraknose. The initial step to control red leaf spot disease is the identification of causing. Identification method performed by observation of the symptoms in the field, followed by microscopic observation in a laboratory. Based on the identification result, it was known that the disease caused by the fungus Cercospora sp., Colletotrichum sp. and Pestalotia sp. The effect caused by those fungal pathogens was the disruption of the photosynthetic process that ultimately inhibits the growth of red Jabon seeds. The controls which have been done are arranged the watering intensity, isolated the infected seed,and applied the chemical fungicide.

  5. In Vitro antifungal activity of essential oils against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nor Hanis Aifaa; Abdullah, Siti Aisyah; Othman, Zaulia; Zainal, Zamri

    2018-04-01

    The efficacy of Citrus hystrix, Azadirachta indica and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils were evaluated for controlling the growth of mycelia and spore germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. In order to determine the best essential oil (EO) and suitable concentration of essential oil, in vitro experiment was conducted by preparing a pure culture of antrachnose on Potato Dextrose Agar containing EOs of C. hystrix, A. indica and C. citratus with different concentrations (0.2%, 0.6%, 1% and 1.4% (v/v)). The result shows that C. hystrix essential oil at a concentration of 1.4% (v/v) reduced of mycelia growth of C. gloeosporioides by 29.49%. A second experiment was conducted, but at higher concentration of each essential oils (1.8%, 2.2%, 2.6% and 2.8% (v/v)). Significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) inhibition of mycelia growth was obtained in all treatments except the control. The antifungal index values of essential oils were proportionally increased with concentration of essential oil applied in each treatment. It is concluded that essential oil from C. hystrix are efficient in inhibiting C. gloeosporioides.

  6. Antifungal activity of Cymbopogon citratus against Colletotrichum gloesporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Francisco Pérez Cordero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate in vitro the inhibitory activity of essential oils from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in yam. The research was conducted in the department of Sucre, Colombia. The essential oils of C. citratus were collected in the municipalities of Sincelejo, La Union and Sampues, in September and October 2015. The essential oil was extract from fresh leaves using the microwave-assisted hydrodistillation. Concentrations of 5000, 8000 and 10 000 ppm of each essential oil were prepared. An absolute control, a positive control (benomyl 1 g/l and a negative control was used. An inhibitory activity was obtained by using the direct seeding on surface of the potato-dextrose-agar method and it was expressed as percentage of inhibition rate. The chemical characterization of essential oils was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The highest percentages of antifungal index were observed in the lemongrass from Sincelejo at concentrations of 5000, 8000 and 10 000 ppm, after in La Union at 8000 and 10 000 ppm, and finally at Sampues at 10 000 ppm, with a value of 97.77%; the effect was similar to the positive control with benomyl 1 g/l. Citral was the main constituent of the essential oils extracted. The essential oils obtained from the three municipalities showed antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides.

  7. A first insight into the involvement of phytohormones pathways in coffee resistance and susceptibility to Colletotrichum kahawae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Diniz

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying coffee-pathogen interactions are of key importance to aid disease resistance breeding efforts. In this work the expression of genes involved in salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene (ET pathways were studied in hypocotyls of two coffee varieties challenged with the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum kahawae, the causal agent of Coffee Berry Disease. Based on a cytological analysis, key time-points of the infection process were selected and qPCR was used to evaluate the expression of phytohormones biosynthesis, reception and responsive-related genes. The resistance to C. kahawae was characterized by restricted fungal growth associated with early accumulation of phenolic compounds in the cell walls and cytoplasmic contents, and deployment of hypersensitive reaction. Similar responses were detected in the susceptible variety, but in a significantly lower percentage of infection sites and with no apparent effect on disease development. Gene expression analysis suggests a more relevant involvement of JA and ET phytohormones than SA in this pathosystem. An earlier and stronger activation of the JA pathway observed in the resistant variety, when compared with the susceptible one, seems to be responsible for the successful activation of defense responses and inhibition of fungal growth. For the ET pathway, the down or non-regulation of ET receptors in the resistant variety, together with a moderate expression of the responsive-related gene ERF1, indicates that this phytohormone may be related with other functions besides the resistance response. However, in the susceptible variety, the stronger activation of ERF1 gene at the beginning of the necrotrophic phase, suggests the involvement of ET in tissue senescence. As far as we know, this is the first attempt to unveil the role of phytohormones in coffee-C. kahawae interactions, thus contributing to deepen our understanding on the complex

  8. STAYGREEN (CsSGR) is a candidate for the anthracnose (Colletotrichum orbiculare) resistance locus cla in Gy14 cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Junsong; Tan, Junyi; Wang, Yuhui; Zheng, Xiangyang; Owens, Ken; Li, Dawei; Li, Yuhong; Weng, Yiqun

    2018-04-21

    Map-based cloning identified a candidate gene for resistance to the anthracnose fungal pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare in cucumber, which reveals a novel function for the highly conserved STAYGREEN family genes for host disease resistance in plants. Colletotrichum orbiculare is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in cucumber and other cucurbit crops. No host resistance genes against the anthracnose pathogens have been cloned in crop plants. Here, we reported fine mapping and cloning of a resistance gene to the race 1 anthracnose pathogen in cucumber inbred lines Gy14 and WI 2757. Phenotypic and QTL analysis in multiple populations revealed that a single recessive gene, cla, was underlying anthracnose resistance in both lines, but WI2757 carried an additional minor-effect QTL. Fine mapping using 150 Gy14 × 9930 recombinant inbred lines and 1043 F 2 individuals delimited the cla locus into a 32 kb region in cucumber Chromosome 5 with three predicted genes. Multiple lines of evidence suggested that the cucumber STAYGREEN (CsSGR) gene is a candidate for the anthracnose resistance locus. A single nucleotide mutation in the third exon of CsSGR resulted in the substitution of Glutamine in 9930 to Arginine in Gy14 in CsSGR protein which seems responsible for the differential anthracnose inoculation responses between Gy14 and 9930. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CsSGR was significantly upregulated upon anthracnose pathogen inoculation in the susceptible 9930, while its expression was much lower in the resistant Gy14. Investigation of allelic diversities in natural cucumber populations revealed that the resistance allele in almost all improved cultivars or breeding lines of the U.S. origin was derived from PI 197087. This work reveals an unknown function for the highly conserved STAYGREEN (SGR) family genes for host disease resistance in plants.

  9. ITS-rDNA phylogeny of Colletotrichum spp. causal agent of apple Glomerella leaf spot Filogenia por ITS-rDNA de Colletotrichum spp., agente causal da mancha foliar da Gala em macieira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diorvania Ribeiro Giaretta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several diseases have affected apple production, among them there is Glomerella leaf spot (GLS caused by Colletotrichum spp. The first report of this disease in apple was in plants nearby citrus orchards in São Paulo State, Brazil. The origin of this disease is still not clear, and studies based on the molecular phylogeny could relate the organisms evolutionarily and characterize possible mechanisms of divergent evolution. The amplification of 5.8S-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer of rDNA of 51 pathogenic Colletotrichum spp. isolates from apples, pineapple guava and citrus produced one fragment of approximately 600 bases pairs (bp for all the isolates analyzed. The amplified fragments were cleaved with restriction enzymes, and fragments from 90 to 500bp were obtained. The sequencing of this region allowed the generation of a phylogenetic tree, regardless of their hosts, and 5 isolated groups were obtained. From the "in silico" comparison, it was possible to verify a variation from 93 to 100% of similarity between the sequences studied and the Genbank data base. The causal agent of GLS is nearly related (clustered to isolates of pineapple guava and to the citrus isolates used as control.A produção de maçã vem sendo comprometida pela ocorrência de muitas doenças, entre as quais se destaca a Mancha Foliar de Glomerella (MFG, causada por Colletotrichum spp. O primeiro relato dessa doença em maçã foi registrado em plantas próximas a pomares de citrus no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. A origem da MFG ainda não está bem clara, e estudos baseados na filogenia permitirão relacionar o organismo evolutivamente, possibilitando caracterizar possíveis mecanismos divergentes de evolução. A amplificação da região 5.8S-ITS (espaçador interno transcrito do rDNA de 51 isolados de Colletotrichum patogênicos em de maçã, goiabeira serrana e citrus produziu um fragmento de aproximadamente 600 pares de bases (pb para todos os isolados analisados

  10. Ambient pH-regulated enzime secretion in endophytic and pathogenic isolates of the fungal genus Colletotrichum Secreção de enzimas mediada pelo pH do ambiente em isolados patogênicos e endofíticos do fungo Colletotrichum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Maccheroni Jr.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In fungi a genetic system ensures that enzymes are secreted mainly at ambient pH values corresponding to their optima of activity. Although a great deal of information has been obtained concerning this environmental response, there is a lack of studies involving phytopathogenic, endophytic and entomopathogenic fungi as well as different aspects of fungus-host interactions. This study compares in a plate-clearing assays, the effect of ambient pH in the secretion of amylase, cellulase, lipase, pectinase and protease by endophytic, phytopathogenic, and entomopathogenic isolates belonging to several species of Colletotrichum. All enzymes were secreted in a pH-dependent manner by all isolates. Endophytes and pathogens showed distinct patterns of protease secretion, with optima at alkaline and acid growth conditions, respectively. In liquid medium, a Pi-repressible acid phosphatase of an endophytic isolate responded to ambient pH, having a 14-fold increase in secreted specific activity at acid pH, as compared to alkaline pH. Furthermore, part of a Colletotrichum pacC homologue gene, coding for a transcriptional factor responsible for pH-regulated gene expression, was cloned. Ambient pH seems to be a general factor controlling enzyme secretion in fungus-host interactions through a conserved genetic circuit.Em fungos, um sistema de regulação gênica garante que enzimas sejam secretadas predominantemente em valores de pH do ambiente próximos aos pH ótimos de atividade correspondentes. Embora muita informação tenha sido acumulada sobre essa resposta adaptativa, não existem estudos envolvendo fungos fitopatogênicos, endofíticos e entomopatogênicos, bem como sobre outros aspectos relacionados às interações fungo-hospedeiro. No presente trabalho foi comparado, em meio sólido, o efeito do pH do ambiente na secreção das enzimas amilase, celulase, lipase, pectinase e protease por isolados endofíticos, fitopatogênico e entomopatog

  11. Chemical control of blossom blight disease of sarpagandha caused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Chemical control of blossom blight disease of sarpagandha caused by Colletotrichum capsici. R. S. Shukla, Abdul-Khaliq and M. Alam*. Department of Plant Pathology, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Council of Scientific and Industrial. Research, P. O. CIMAP, Lucknow–226 015, India.

  12. Influence of the Oil Pequi in the Growth Mycelial and Sporulation of Colletotrichum Musae and Growth Micelial Of Rhizopus sp. in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Mendes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum musae and soft rot caused by Rhizopus sp are post-harvest diseases that influenced quality of exported fruits. To control these diseases fungicides are used, but in light of these waste products in the fruit and the environment, alternative control methods such as using biofungicides have been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pequi oil on mycelia growth and sporulation of Colletotrichum musae and mycelia growth of Rhizopus sp. in vitro. The oil was added in aliquots of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 50L in the center of Petri dishes containing approximately 15mL of Potato-Dextrose-ar (PDA and distributed over the surface of the medium with Drigalskys handle. After 24 hours, a disc of 8mm diameter from mycelium of fungi was peaked to the center of the plates. As a control, were used Petri dishes containing only PDA. Five replicates were used for each aliquot. After analysis, it was concluded that the pequi oil is ineffective for controlling these pathogens because induced mycelium growth and sporulation.Key Words: Phytopathogens, alternative control, anthracnose, soft rot

  13. Infection of silkworm larvae by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The isolate E9 of Metarhizium anisopliae was used in commercial hybrids of Bombyx mori larvae to evaluate its biological effect. Symptomatological analyses showed typical signs of fungal infection. Histopathology revealed the presence of large numbers of hemocytes in the hemocoel, and on the sixth dpi the bodies of the insects appeared to be colonised by the fungus. The isolate E9 is pathogenic to larvae B. mori and; therefore, death of the insects was caused by the colonization of fungus in the epidermal and mesodermal tissues.

  14. Synergistic mixtures of chitosan and Mentha piperita L. essential oil to inhibit Colletotrichum species and anthracnose development in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; Berger, Lúcia Raquel Ramos; de Araújo, Samara Amorim; Câmara, Marcos Paz Saraiva; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of chitosan (CHI) and Mentha piperita L. essential oil (MPEO) alone or in combination to control the mycelial growth of five different Colletotrichum species, C. asianum, C. dianesei, C. fructicola, C. tropicale and C. karstii, identified as potential anthracnose-causing agents in mango (Mangifera indica L.). The efficacy of coatings of CHI and MPEO mixtures in controlling the development of anthracnose in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins was evaluated. CHI (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/mL) and MPEO (0.3, 0.6, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 μL/mL) alone effectively inhibited mycelial growth of all tested Colletotrichum strains in synthetic media. Mixtures of CHI (5 or 7.5 mg/mL) and MPEO (0.3, 0.6 or 1.25 μL/mL) strongly inhibited mycelial growth and showed additive or synergistic inhibitory effects on the tested Colletotrichum strains based on the Abbott index. The application of coatings of CHI (5 or 7.5 mg/mL) and MPEO (0.6 or 1.25 μL/mL) mixtures that presented synergistic interactions decreased anthracnose lesion severity in mango artificially contaminated with either of the tested Colletotrichum strains over 15 days of storage at 25 °C. The anthracnose lesion severity in mango coated with the mixtures of CHI and MPEO was similar or lower than those observed in mango treated with the synthetic fungicides thiophanate-methyl (10 μg a.i./mL) and difenoconazole (0.5 μg a.i./mL). The application of coatings containing low doses of CHI and MPEO may be an effective alternative for controlling the postharvest development of anthracnose in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Langner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae, which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17 reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases.

  16. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Thorsten; Białas, Aleksandra; Kamoun, Sophien

    2018-04-17

    Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae ), which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17) reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases. Copyright © 2018 Langner et al.

  17. Remodeling of Cytokinin Metabolism at Infection Sites of Colletotrichum graminicola on Maize Leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Behr, M.; Motyka, Václav; Weihmann, F.; Malbeck, Jiří; Deising, H. B.; Wirsel, S. G. R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 8 (2012), s. 1073-1082 ISSN 0894-0282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0774; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Colletotrichum graminicola * maize * cytokinin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.307, year: 2012

  18. Morphological and pathological characterisation of Colletotrichum sp. as casual agent of anthracnose in Dioscorea sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia María Pérez Castro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum dematium strains were isolated from yam plants in the Sucre depart-ment. Macro- and microscopic descriptions were made, finding that the predominant colour for the colonies was light purple. Sporulation was higher than 58,000 conidia/ml for most colonies. Growth rate lay within a range of 4 to 5mm/day. C. gloeosporioide isolate conidial morphology revealed a cylindrical spore having one rounded end whilst the other was acute shaped. Conidia length and width averaged between 7-8 micras and 3-4 micras, respectively. C. dematium colonies, however, were characterised by being grey and having radial growth. The fálcate and fusiform conidia tapered at the acute apex. They had a length and width of 16-18 micras and 3-4 micras, respectively. C. gloeosporioides colonies showed different macroscopic morphology but similar microscopic characteristics. Vegeta-tive compatibility was evaluated amongst different geographical isolates resulting in 90% compatibility. A patho-genic assay was done for evaluating isolate virulence on tolerant and susceptible cultivars. The isolates showed great variability regarding their virulence. The Colletotrichum isolate collection represents a tool for use in molecular characterisation and evaluating yam germplasm tolerance to this pathogen. Keywords: Colletotrichum, yam, anthracnose, phytopathology.

  19. Species of the Colletotrichum acutatum complex associated with anthracnose diseases of fruit in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragança, Carlos A.D.; Damm, Ulrike; Baroncelli, Riccardo; Massola Júnior, Nelson S.; Crous, Pedro W.

    Abstract Although Colletotrichum acutatum was recently investigated and shown to be a species complex comprising about 30 species, the name is still used in its broad sense for anthracnose pathogens of fruits in Brazil. In this study, a multilocus molecular analysis was carried out based on a

  20. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity assays of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent for lime anthracnose in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several distorted Mexican lime [Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm). Swingle] fruit, leaf, and twig samples with lime anthracnose symptoms were collected from three trees in residential areas of Brownsville, Texas. The causal fungal organism, Colletotrichum acutatum J. H. Simmonds was isolated from leave...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of an Isolate of Colletotrichum fructicola, a Causal Agent of Mango Anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qili; Bu, Junyan; Yu, Zhihe; Tang, Lihua; Huang, Suiping; Guo, Tangxun; Mo, Jianyou; Hsiang, Tom

    2018-02-22

    Here, we present a draft genome sequence of isolate 15060 of Colletotrichum fructicola , a causal agent of mango anthracnose. The final assembly consists of 1,048 scaffolds totaling 56,493,063 bp (G+C content, 53.38%) and 15,180 predicted genes. Copyright © 2018 Li et al.

  2. Colletotrichine A, a new sesquiterpenoid from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides GT-7, a fungal endophyte of Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Zhong-Duo; Sun, Jian-Hui; Song, Tong-Tong; Zhu, Bao-Ying; Zhao, Jun-Wen

    2018-04-01

    One new compound, Colletotrichine A (1), was produced by the fungal Colletotrichum gloeosporioides GT-7. The structure was established by 1D and 2D NMR spectra. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of 1 was also evaluated. Compound 1 showed AChE-inhibiting activity with IC 50 value of 28 μg/mL.

  3. Plantas de cobertura de solo como hospedeiras alternativas de Colletotrichum guaranicola Cover crops as intermediate hosts to Colletotrichum guaranicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Mileo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas de cobertura de solo usadas para suprimir o crescimento de plantas daninhas podem hospedar fungos fitopatogênicos. Para testar essa hipótese, elaborou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de nove espécies de plantas como possíveis hospedeiras do fungo Colletotrichum guaranicola. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Cada vaso com três plantas da mesma espécie representou uma unidade experimental. As espécies que constituíram os tratamentos foram: Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Crotalaria striata, Desmodium ovalifolium, Flemingia congesta, Mucuna aterrima, Pueraria phaseoloides e Tephrosia candida. Quarenta dias após a semeadura, as plantas foram inoculadas com suspensão de esporos de C. guaranicola na concentração de 10(5 conídios mL¹, enquanto as plantas testemunhas receberam somente água. As plantas foram mantidas em câmara úmida por 48 horas. Diariamente, foram feitas observações por 15 dias após a inoculação, para visualizar sintomas da doença. As espécies que não apresentaram sintomas de C. guaranicola foram Arachis pintoi, Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Desmodium ovalifolium, Flemingia congesta e Tephrosia candida, e as que manifestaram sintomas após a inoculação foram Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria striata, Mucuna aterrima e Pueraria phaseoloides, que podem ser fontes de inóculo do patógeno da antracnose para o guaranazeiro.Cover crops used to suppress weed growth can be intermediate hosts to phytopathogenic fungi. To test this hypothesis, nine species of cover crops were evaluated as hosts to Colletotrichum guaranicola. The experiment was arranged in a randomized design, with four replicates, and conducted under greenhouse conditions. Each vase with three plants of one species constituted one plot. The species treated were: Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium

  4. Colletotrichum orbiculare WHI2, a Yeast Stress-Response Regulator Homolog, Controls the Biotrophic Stage of Hemibiotrophic Infection Through TOR Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harata, Ken; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Kubo, Yasuyuki

    2016-06-01

    The hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum orbiculare first establishes a biotrophic infection stage in cucumber (Cucumber sativus) epidermal cells and subsequently transitions to a necrotrophic stage. Here, we found that C. orbiculare established hemibiotrophic infection via C. orbiculare WHI2, a yeast stress regulator homolog, and TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling. Plant defense responses such as callose deposition, H2O2, and antimicrobial proteins were strongly induced by the C. orbiculare whi2Δ mutant, resulting in defective pathogenesis. Expression analysis of biotrophy-specific genes evaluated by the promoter VENUS fusion gene indicated weaker VENUS signal intensity in the whi2Δ mutant, thereby suggesting that C. orbiculare WHI2 plays a key role in regulating biotrophic infection of C. orbiculare. The involvement of CoWHI2 in biotrophic infection was further explored with a DNA microarray. In the Cowhi2Δ mutant, TOR-dependent ribosomal protein-related genes were strikingly upregulated compared with the wild type. Moreover, callose deposition in the host plant after inoculation with the Cowhi2Δ mutant treated with rapamycin, which inhibits TOR activity, was reduced, and the mutant remained biotrophic in contrast to the untreated mutant. Thus, regulation of TOR by Whi2 is apparently crucial to the biotrophic stage of hemibiotrophic infection in C. orbiculare.

  5. Antifungal activity of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) against anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in postharvest mango fruit and its possible mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangbin; Lei, Huanhuan; Ma, Xiuyan; Lai, Tongfei; Song, Hongmiao; Shi, Xuequn; Li, Jiangkuo

    2017-01-16

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most important postharvest diseases in mango fruit, often causing huge economic losses. In this study, the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) against anthracnose in postharvest mango fruit and the mechanisms involved were investigated. 1-MCP induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, damaged the mitochondria and destroyed the integrity of plasma membrane of spores of C. gloeosporioides, significantly suppressing spore germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. 1-MCP also decreased the decay incidence and lesion expansion of mango fruit caused by C. gloeosporioides. For the first time this study demonstrated that 1-MCP suppressed anthracnose of postharvest mango fruit by directly inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides, thus providing a promising strategy for disease control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides em mamoeiro, utilizando extratos vegetais, indutores de resistência e fungicida = Alternative control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in papaya, using vegetable extracts, resistance inducers and fungicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cordeiro do Nascimento

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o controle de doenças do mamoeiro, utilizando extratos vegetais (alho, angico e manjericão, óleos naturais (urucum e algodão, indutores de resistência (Bion®, Ecolife® e Agro-mos® e fungicida Mancozeb/Dithane. O Experimento I consistiu-se da avaliação dos tratamentos sobre o crescimento micelial de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, in vitro; no Experimento II, efetuou-se ainoculação artificial do fungo sobre frutos sadios de mamão e avaliou-se a severidade da podridão peduncular, por meio de escala de notas e, no Experimento III, aplicaram-se os tratamentos em mudas de mamoeiro, inoculadas artificialmente com C. gloeosporioides,avaliando-se a antracnose com escala de notas. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que extratos de angico e alho proporcionaram um menor crescimento micelial, in vitro, e o Bion® manteve um eficiente controle da podridão peduncular em frutos. Nas mudas, oefeito do alho, angico e Bion® diferiram significativamente dos demais, sendo que o Bion® apresentou melhor controle da severidade da antracnose. Assim, o controle da podridão peduncular e antracnose em mamoeiro, com produtos naturais e indutores de resistência, pode ser uma opção viável na substituição de agroquímicos.This present work had as objective to evaluate the control of papaya diseases using natural extracts (Allium sativum L., Anadenanthera peregrina L. Speng, and Ocimum basilicum L., natural oils (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Bixa orellana L., resistance inducers (Bion®, Ecolife® and Agro-mos®, and a chemical fungicide (Mancozeb/Dithane. Experiment I was conducted to evaluate the inhibitory potential of the treatments on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides mycelial growth in vitro; in Experiment II, artificial inoculation of fungus was performed on healthy papaya fruits, and the severity of stem-end rot was evaluated using a disease index; and in Experiment III,treatments were applied on papaya

  7. Co-evolução entre raças fisiológicas de colletotrichum lindemuthianum e feijoeiro Co-evolution of physiological races of colletotrichum lindemuthianum and common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Fernando Chiorato

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O agente causal da antracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum em feijoeiro comum é classificado, assim como seu hospedeiro, em Andino e Mesoamericano, sendo a resposta à infecção dependente da origem genética de um e de outro. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar 220 acessos do Banco de Germoplasma de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris do Instituto Agronômico, IAC, quanto à infecção por três raças fisiológicas do patógeno (31, 65 e 89, caracterizando uma possível co-evolução entre a origem do acesso e do patógeno. No estudo, foram utilizados 120 acessos de origem mesoamericana, 57 andinos e 43 cultivares geneticamente melhoradas. Além dos dados relacionados à infecção, foram avaliados 23 descritores morfo-agronômicos com finalidade de melhor caracterizar os acessos em relação aos seus respectivos centros de origem. As análises estatísticas foram baseadas em componentes principais a fim de exibir graficamente a variabilidade em função da origem do patógeno e dos acessos. Dentre os acessos mesoamericanos, 50% foram suscetíveis às três raças, enquanto nos andinos apenas 33% foram suscetíveis. Entre as cultivares geneticamente melhoradas, 79% foram resistentes a pelo menos uma das raças, provavelmente devido a seleções para resistência ao C. lindemuthianum. Nos gráficos da análise de componentes principais, a maioria dos acessos resistentes foi agrupada na região de dispersão dos acessos andinos. Os resultados permitiram estabelecer uma associação entre a origem do feijoeiro e do patógeno da antracnose, ajudando assim no conhecimento biológico da reação dos acessos ao C. lindemuthianum e orientando a escolha de genitores para realização de cruzamentos visando à resistência a essa doença.The causal agent of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum of common bean and its host, are classified as Andean and Mesoamerican. Response to infection depends on the genetic origin of both plant

  8. Atividade do óleo de Eucalyptus citriodora e Azadirachta indica no controle de Colletotrichum acutatum em morangueiro Eucalyptus citriodora and Azadirachta indica oil activity in the control of Colletotrichum acutatum, in strawberry crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A flor-preta é uma das doenças mais importantes do morangueiro e a busca por alternativas de controle tem sido uma constante, principalmente em áreas de cultivo orgânico. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência, in vitro e in vivo, dos óleos de Eucalyptus citriodora e Azadirachta indica no controle de Colletotrichum acutatum em morangueiro. No experimento in vitro determinou-se a inibição do crescimento micelial quando o fungo foi submetido aos extratos nas concentrações de 0; 0,25; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5%. No campo, avaliou-se o controle da doença com a aplicação dos óleos nas concentrações de 0, 0,5 e 1,0%, pulverizados em intervalos de 7, 15 e 30 dias, em plantas inoculadas com suspensão de 10(6 conídios/mL. As avaliações foram realizadas semanalmente, observando-se a ocorrência e tamanho de lesões no pedúnculo e nos frutos, abortamento floral, produtividade, e ocorrência natural da doença. In vitro todos os tratamentos apresentaram redução significativa do crescimento micelial do fungo quando comparados ao controle. No campo, apenas o óleo de nim apresentou efeito significativo, reduzindo o abortamento floral e a ocorrência de frutos doentes advindos de flores inoculadas. Porém, maior ocorrência natural de doença foi observada quando a dosagem de 1,0% foi aplicada semanalmente.Anthracnose is one of the most important diseases in strawberry crop, and the search for control alternatives has been frequent, especially in organic cultivation areas. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficiency of Eucaliptus citriodora and Azadirachta indica oil on the control of Colletotrichum acutatum in strawberry. In the in vitro experiment, mycelial growth inhibition was determined when the fungus was subjected to extracts at the following concentrations: 0; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; and 1.5%. In the field, the disease control was evaluated through oil spraying at 0, 0.5 and 1.0% concentrations at intervals of

  9. Molecular identification and characterization of Colletotrichum sp. isolates from Tahiti lime, tamarillo, and mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanabria Adriana

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Anthracnose is a very limiting disease affecting production, as well as postharvest quality of numerous fruit crops in Colombia. The current management practices for this disease are partially effective due to limited information about the etiology, the inoculum sources, population structure and variation of the pathogen. A total of 293 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from symptomatic tissues collected from Tahiti lime, tamarillo and mango orchards. To determine the Colletotrichum species causing the symptoms, amplification, and PCR product analysis for intergenic regions of the ribosomal DNA were conducted. Genetic diversity of the fungal population was assessed with Random Amplified Microsatellites (RAMS. Results of this study indicated that anthracnose in Tahiti lime and tamarillo are caused by Colletotrichun acutatum whereas symptoms on

  10. Phenotypic, Molecular, and Pathological Characterization of Colletotrichum acutatum Associated with Andean Lupine and Tamarillo in the Ecuadorian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconi, C.; Visser, R.G.F.; Heusden, van A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose is a serious problem of both Andean lupine and tamarillo in Ecuador. Morphological features, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, and host specificity were used to characterize Colletotrichum isolates from lupine and tamarillo. Based on phenotypic and molecular characterization,

  11. Structural modification of trans-cinnamic acid using Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Velasco B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la biotransformación de ácido trans-cinámico mediante células completas del hongo fitopatógeno nativo colombiano Colletotrichum acutatum. Inicialmente, se evaluó la fungitoxicidad de este compuesto contraC. acutatum; el ácido trans-cinámico exhibió una toxicidad moderada a débil contra el microorganismo y aparentemente se presentó un mecanismo de detoxificación. Luego, para estudiar tal mecanismo y explorar la capacidad de este hongo para biotransformar el ácido trans-cinámico en productos con valor agregado, el microorganismo se incubó con el sustrato usando tres medios de cultivo diferentes (Czapeck-Dox, Sabouraud y PDB a condiciones ambientales. Usando el medio Czapeck-Dox, los cultivos completos de C.acutatum redujeron el ácido trans-cinámico, primero a aldehídos (transcinamaldehido y 3-fenilpropanal, luego a alcoholes (alcohol cinamílico y 3-fenil-1-propanol. Posteriormente, estos alcoholes fueron transformados a los correspondientes ésteres de acetilo. Sin embargo, algunos de estos productos estuvieron ausentes o presentes a una concentración diferente cuando se cambió el medio de cultivo. Los resultados sugieren un mecanismo de detoxificación en el cual el sistema carbonílico α,β-insaturado es afectado.Por otra parte, los productos metabólicos formados son compuestos útiles usados como fragancias y sabores. Por consiguiente, el metabolismo del ácido trans-cinámico usando C. acutatum puede proporcionar nuevos blancos metabólicos para controlar C. acutatum así como también una forma simple y eficiente para obtener sabores y perfumes, tales como el alcohol cinamílico y el 3-fenil-1-propanol, y sus ésteres de acetilo.

  12. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences...

  13. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  14. The Activity of TcCYS4 Modified by Variations in pH and Temperature Can Affect Symptoms of Witches’ Broom Disease of Cocoa, Caused by the Fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Souza, Cristiane Ferreira; Monzani, Paulo Sérgio; Garcia, Wanius; de Almeida, Alex Alan Furtado; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The phytocystatins regulate various physiological processes in plants, including responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, mainly because they act as inhibitors of cysteine proteases. In this study, we have analyzed four cystatins from Theobroma cacao L. previously identified in ESTs libraries of the interaction with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa and named TcCYS1, TcCYS2, TcCYS3 and TcCYS4. The recombinant cystatins were purified and subjected to the heat treatment, at different temperatures, and their thermostabilities were monitored using their ability to inhibit papain protease. TcCYS1 was sensitive to temperatures above 50°C, while TcCYS2, TcCYS3, and TcCYS4 were thermostable. TcCYS4 presented a decrease of inhibitory activity when it was treated at temperatures between 60 and 70°C, with the greater decrease occurring at 65°C. Analyses by native gel electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography showed that TcCYS4 forms oligomers at temperatures between 60 and 70°C, condition where reduction of inhibitory activity was observed. TcCYS4 oligomers remain stable for up to 20 days after heat treatment and are undone after treatment at 80°C. TcCYS4 presented approximately 90% of inhibitory activity at pH values between 5 and 9. This protein treated at temperatures above 45°C and pH 5 presented reduced inhibitory activity against papain, suggesting that the pH 5 enhances the formation of TcCYS4 oligomers. A variation in the titratable acidity was observed in tissues of T. cacao during the symptoms of witches’ broom disease. Our findings suggest that the oligomerization of TcCYS4, favored by variations in pH, is an endergonic process. We speculate that this process can be involved in the development of the symptoms of witches’ broom disease in cocoa. PMID:25830226

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure of Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, a fungus associated with oak mortality in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. -S. Kim; P. A. Hohenlohe; K. -H. Kim; S. -T. Seo; Ned Klopfenstein

    2016-01-01

    Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae is a fungus associated with oak wilt and deemed to cause extensive oak mortality in South Korea. Since the discovery of this fungus on a dead Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) in 2004, the mortality continued to spread southwards in South Korea. Despite continued expansion of the disease and associated significant impacts on forest...

  16. Fingerprints of a forest fungus: Swiss needle cast, carbon isotopes, carbohydrates, and growth in Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Frederick Meinzer; Brandy J. Saffell

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast is caused by a fungus native to the Pacific Northwest. Its host is Douglas-fir, an iconic evergreen tree in the region. The fungus does not kill its host, but it adversely affects the tree's growth. The fungal fruiting bodies block the stomata, small openings on the underside of the needle where carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases are...

  17. Evidence for mating between isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides with different host specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisar, C R; Spiegel, F W; TeBeest, D O; Trout, C

    1994-04-01

    Individual isolates of the ubiquitous plant pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (teleomorph Glomerella cingulata) can have very restricted host ranges. Isolates that share the same host range are considered to be genetically discrete units, and sexual compatibility has been reported to be limited to individuals that share the same host range. However, we have recently observed that some isolates of C. gloeosporioides that are specifically pathogenic to different, distantly-related hosts are sexually compatible. Ascospore progeny from one such cross were randomly isolated and outcrossing was verified by the reassortment of several RFLP markers among the progeny. In addition, the progeny were analyzed for pathogenicity to parental hosts. The implications of sexual compatibility between C. gloeosporioides isolates with different host specificities on the evolution of Colletotrichum species are discussed.

  18. Antifungal (in vitro) activity of plant extracts for the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum)

    OpenAIRE

    Villacís-Aldaz Luis Alfredo; León-Gordon Olguer; Santana-Mayorga Rita; Mangui-Tobar José; Carranza Galo; Pazmiño-Miranda Pilar

    2017-01-01

    The antifungal effect of five plant extracts: nettle (Urtica dioica), chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile), frame (Artemisia vulgaris), lavender (Lavandula officinalis) and chamico (Datura ferox) were evaluated at laboratory level for control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum) of the tree tomato (Solanum betaceum), using two methods of extraction (maceration and steam trapping), in the results obtained, statistical differences were observed in the percentage of inhibition of mycelial growth o...

  19. Etiology and pathogenicity of two different isolates of Colletotrichum spp. obtained from physic nut seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Gil Rodrigues dos; Tozze Júnior,Hugo José; Sá,Danila Alves Corrêa de; Furtado,Gleiber Quintão; Massola Júnior,Nelson Sidnei

    2013-01-01

    The species known as physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) has become important as one of main sources of feedstock for biodiesel production. The aims of this study were characterizing two different isolates of Colletotrichum spp. obtained from seeds of this species, through morphological, cultural, and molecular analyses; as well as assessing pathogenicity of both isolates on leaves and fruit of this plant species. For morphological analysis, length and width of 30 spores of each isolate, produced...

  20. SELECCIÓN Y REGENERACIÓN in vitro DE SOMACLONES DE TOMATE DE ÁRBOL (Solanum betacea cav. Sendt UTILIZANDO FILTRADOS DE CULTIVO DE Colletotrichum acutatum CON ACTIVIDAD PECTINASA SELECTION AND in vitro REGENERATION OF SOMACLONES OF TREE TOMATO (Solanum betacea cav. Sendt USING CULTURE FILTRATES OF Colletotrichum acutatum WITH PECTINASA ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Patiño Torres

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron filtrados de cultivo de Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal de la antracnosis del tomate de árbol, para la selección in vitro de variantes somaclonales de ésta planta con resistencia potencial a la enfermedad. El filtrado, utilizado a varias concentraciones, demostró ser un agente de selección efectivo cuando se integró al medio de cultivo, pues causó niveles elevados de mortalidad de los explantes comparado con los tratamientos sin filtrado. Igualmente, se estudió el efecto de la benziladenina (BA ó BAP sobre la respuesta organogénica de explantes de tejido foliar de tomate de árbol.Culture filtrates of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of the anthracnose disease in tree tomato, were used for the in vitro selection of somaclonal variants with potential resistance to this disease. Culture filtrates used at different concentrations, showed to be an effective agent of selection when they were mixed with the growth media. The findings indicated a high level of mortality for the explants growing on the ammended media as compared with these growing on non ammended one. The effect of the benziladenina (BA ó BAP on the organogenic response of leaf explants of tomato tree was also studied.

  1. Horizontal transfer of a subtilisin gene from plants into an ancestor of the plant pathogenic fungal genus Colletotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos Jaramillo, Vinicio Danilo; Vargas, Walter Alberto; Sukno, Serenella Ana; Thon, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    The genus Colletotrichum contains a large number of phytopathogenic fungi that produce enormous economic losses around the world. The effect of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has not been studied yet in these organisms. Inter-Kingdom HGT into fungal genomes has been reported in the past but knowledge about the HGT between plants and fungi is particularly limited. We describe a gene in the genome of several species of the genus Colletotrichum with a strong resemblance to subtilisins typically found in plant genomes. Subtilisins are an important group of serine proteases, widely distributed in all of the kingdoms of life. Our hypothesis is that the gene was acquired by Colletotrichum spp. through (HGT) from plants to a Colletotrichum ancestor. We provide evidence to support this hypothesis in the form of phylogenetic analyses as well as a characterization of the similarity of the subtilisin at the primary, secondary and tertiary structural levels. The remarkable level of structural conservation of Colletotrichum plant-like subtilisin (CPLS) with plant subtilisins and the differences with the rest of Colletotrichum subtilisins suggests the possibility of molecular mimicry. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that the HGT event would have occurred approximately 150-155 million years ago, after the divergence of the Colletotrichum lineage from other fungi. Gene expression analysis shows that the gene is modulated during the infection of maize by C. graminicola suggesting that it has a role in plant disease. Furthermore, the upregulation of the CPLS coincides with the downregulation of several plant genes encoding subtilisins. Based on the known roles of subtilisins in plant pathogenic fungi and the gene expression pattern that we observed, we postulate that the CPLSs have an important role in plant infection.

  2. Genetic Diversity of Colletotrichum spp. an Endophytic Fungi in a Medicinal Plant, Brazilian Pepper Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J. S.; Figueiredo, J. G.; Gomes, R. G.; Stringari, D.; Goulin, E. H.; Adamoski, D.; Kava-Cordeiro, V.; Galli-Terasawa, L. V.; Glienke, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we reported thirty-nine endophytic fungi identified as Colletotrichum spp. associated with Brazilian pepper tree or aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Anacardiaceae) in Paraná state, Brazil. These endophytes were identified by morphological and molecular methods, using PCR taxon-specific with CaInt/ITS4, CgInt/ITS4, and Col1/ITS4 primers, which amplify specific bands in C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides lato sensu, and Colletotrichum boninensis, respectively, and by DNA sequence analysis of the nrDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2). We also assayed the presence of dsRNA particles in Colletotrichum spp. isolates. Combining both morphological characters and molecular data, we identified the species C. gloeosporioides, C. boninense, and C. simmondsii. However, we found a high genetic variability intraspecific in C. gloeosporioides which suggests the existence of several other species. Bands of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were detected in three of thirty-nine isolates. Identity of these bands was confirmed by RNAse, DNAse, and S1 nuclease treatments for the isolates LGMF633, LGMF726, and LGMF729. This is the first study reporting these particles of dsRNA in C. gloeosporioides. PMID:23724319

  3. Effect of Lactoperoxidase System on the Control of Colletotrichum musae on Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Loiseau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest diseases are a major concern for plant products, leading to considerable postharvest losses. Colletotrichum musae is responsible for anthracnose and is also involved in crown rot, the two main postharvest diseases of banana. The use of antimicrobial agents such as the lactoperoxidase system (LPS represents an interesting alternative to the use of conventional fungicides for the control of postharvest diseases of banana. Conidial germination and fungal growth of three different strains of Colletotrichum musae originating from Cameroon (C 52 and C 62 and Guadeloupe (C 46.12 were monitored in the presence of LPS or Eau Activée® (an industrial derivative of LPS. In vivo studies were also conducted on bananas preinoculated with strain C 46.12 and then subjected to a soaking treatment in LPS and Eau Activée® solutions. However, this postharvest treatment did not show any significant effect of the LPS or Eau Activée®. The in vitro studies showed a difference in the behaviour of Colletotrichum musae strains subjected to LPS and Eau Activée® treatments. A highly visible inhibitory effect of LPS was observed on fungal growth of strains C 52 and C 62. Furthermore, LPS gave better results than its industrial derivative, Eau Activée®.

  4. Identification of Causes of Red Leaf Spot on Red Jabon (Anthocephalus macrophyllus (Roxb. Havil Seeds in Kima Atas Permanent Nursery, Manado Forestry Research Institute (Identifikasi Penyebab Penyakit Bercak Merah Pada Bibit Jabon Merah (Anthocephalus Macrophyllus (Roxb. Havil di Persemaian Permanen Kima Atas, Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Manado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Nurul Hidayah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fulfillment the needs of Red Jabon (Anthocephalus macrophyllus (Roxb. Havil seeds on the other hand can create an unbalanced ecosystem. The availability of red Jabon seed was becoming a source of food for pests, then it causes an explosion of pests and pathogens. The disease that most often affect red Jabon seeds, both in the nursery and in the field was red leaf spot (antraknose. The initial step to control red leaf spot disease is the identification of causing. Identification method performed by observation of the symptoms in the field, followed by microscopic observation in a laboratory. Based on the identification result, it was known that the disease caused by the fungus Cercospora sp., Colletotrichum sp. and Pestalotia sp. The effect caused by those fungal pathogens was the disruption of the photosynthetic process that ultimately inhibits the growth of red Jabon seeds. The controls which have been done are arranged the watering intensity, isolated the infected seed,and  applied the chemical fungicide.

  5. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans Peter; Seidl, Hans Peter; Blehert, David S

    2010-08-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  6. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  7. First report of Colletotrichum fructicola and C. queenslandicum causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In rambutan production, fruit rot is the main pre- and post-harvest disease of concern. In a 2008-2013 fruit disease survey, fruit rot was observed in eight orchards in Puerto Rico. Infected fruit were collected and 1 mm2 tissue sections were surface disinfested with 70% ethanol followed by 0.5% sod...

  8. Atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides = Antifungal activity of plant extracts to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercia Ikarugi Bomfim Celoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito fungitóxico de extratos vegetais sobre o crescimento micelial e a germinação de esporos de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Os extratos foram obtidos a partir de plantas secas e moídas, utilizando-se água e etanol como meio extrator. Foram utilizadas 22 espécies de plantas para a obtençãodos extratos. Os extratos foram avaliados por meio da incorporação de 20% do extrato em meio BDA, antes ou após a autoclavagem do mesmo. Determinou-se a percentagem de inibição do crescimento micelial (PIC. Utilizando-se extrato na proporção de 50% e suspensão de esporos, determinou-se a percentagem de inibição da germinação de esporos (PIG. Verificou-se que os extratos hidroetanólicos proporcionaram maior PIC de C. gloeosporioides, enquanto maior PIG foi obtido com os extratos aquosos. Extratos não autoclavados foram mais eficientes na redução do crescimento micelial de C. gloeosporioides que os extratos autoclavados. Os extratos aquoso e hidroetanólico de melão-de-são-caetano e extrato hidroetanólico de eucalipto proporcionaram maiores PIC. Os extratos aquosos deLuffa acutangula, Eucalyptus citriodora, Chenopodium ambrosioides e Bauhinia, e os extratos hidroetanólicos de Ruta graveolens, Eucalyptus citriodora, Zingiber officinale e Chenopodiumambrosioides inibiram mais de 90% da germinação de esporos.The present work aimed to evaluate the effect fungitoxic of plant extracts on the mycelial growth and on the spores germination of C. gloeosporioides. The plant extracts were obtained starting from dried ground plants, using water and ethilic alcohol as extractor. Twenty-two plant species were used to obtain the extracts. The extracts were tested by means of the incorporation of 20% (v/v in PDA medium, before or after sterilization. The percentage ofinhibition of the mycelial growth (PIM was determined. Extract in the proportion of 50% was added to a spore suspension used to

  9. EST mining identifies proteins putatively secreted by the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum truncatum

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    Vandenberg Albert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colletotrichum truncatum is a haploid, hemibiotrophic, ascomycete fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease on many economically important leguminous crops. This pathogen exploits sequential biotrophic- and necrotrophic- infection strategies to colonize the host. Transition from biotrophy to a destructive necrotrophic phase called the biotrophy-necrotrophy switch is critical in symptom development. C. truncatum likely secretes an arsenal of proteins that are implicated in maintaining a compatible interaction with its host. Some of them might be transition specific. Results A directional cDNA library was constructed from mRNA isolated from infected Lens culinaris leaflet tissues displaying the biotrophy-necrotrophy switch of C. truncatum and 5000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs with an average read of > 600 bp from the 5-prime end were generated. Nearly 39% of the ESTs were predicted to encode proteins of fungal origin and among these, 162 ESTs were predicted to contain N-terminal signal peptides (SPs in their deduced open reading frames (ORFs. The 162 sequences could be assembled into 122 tentative unigenes comprising 32 contigs and 90 singletons. Sequence analyses of unigenes revealed four potential groups: hydrolases, cell envelope associated proteins (CEAPs, candidate effectors and other proteins. Eleven candidate effector genes were identified based on features common to characterized fungal effectors, i.e. they encode small, soluble (lack of transmembrane domain, cysteine-rich proteins with a putative SP. For a selected subset of CEAPs and candidate effectors, semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that these transcripts were either expressed constitutively in both in vitro and in planta or induced during plant infection. Using potato virus X (PVX based transient expression assays, we showed that one of the candidate effectors, i. e. contig 8 that encodes a cerato-platanin (CP domain containing protein, unlike CP proteins

  10. Análisis de la infección de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Penz. & Sacc. de frutos de aguacatero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Saúl Rodríguez-López

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La patogénesis de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Penz. & Sacc. del estado de Michoacán, México se caracterizó en frutos de aguacatero (Persea americana L. cultivar 'Hass'. El hongo causó los síntomas característicos de la enfermedad denominada 'antracnosis' a partir de los diez días después de la inoculación. La tasa de infección del hongo entre tratamientos fue significativamente diferente (p<0.05 a partir del sexto día de la inoculación y el desarrollo de la enfermedad se explicó por un modelo de regresión lineal simple (Y = 1.123 + 0.1133X. No se detectó la formación de apresorios pero sí la síntesis de una capa mucilaginosa asociada con los tubos germinativos. El proceso infectivo del hongo se manifestó con la penetración de las hifas intra e inter-celularmente y con la producción de acérvulos a partir de los 12 días después de la inoculación. Los síntomas de la antracnosis se asociaron con la degradación de polifenoles, plasmólisis, necrosis y desintegración celular.

  11. Characterization and isolation of an extracellular serine protease from the tomato pathogen Colletotrichum coccodes, and it's role in pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2002-01-01

    Extracellular enzymes play an important role in the pathogenicity and virulence of phytopathogenic fungi. Several isolates of Colletotrichum coccodes causal agent of anthracnose on tomato, were screened to determine the relationship between protease activity and virulence. A direct relationship was observed between extracellular protease activity and the induction of disease symptoms of fruit and mortality in plants. Isolate Cc155 exhibited the highest protease activity after five days of growth in protease induction medium and produced an extracellular serine protease (sp78) that was 78 kDa, auto-degradative, glucose repressible, and non-glycosylated. To determine the role of sp78 in pathogenicity, a UV-induced extracellular protease deficient mutant (np155) was generated from the wildtype isolate Cc155. Np155 maintained growth rates comparable to Cc155 and produced wildtype levels of extracellular cellulase but did not produce extracellular protease. Unlike Cc155, np155 caused no disease symptoms on tomato fruit and 0% mortality on tomato seedlings. These results suggest that extracellular protease activity is required for pathogenicity and virulence of C. coccodes and that the elimination of protease activity transforms a virulent pathogen to a non-pathogenic endophyte.

  12. Production of Gentisyl Alcohol from Phoma herbarum Endophytic in Curcuma longa L. and Its Antagonistic Activity Towards Leaf Spot Pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suruchi; Kaul, Sanjana; Singh, Baljinder; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Dhar, Manoj K

    2016-11-01

    Endophytes from medicinal plants represent a potential source of bioactive compounds. During the present investigation, fungal endophytes were isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa), an important medicinal plant. A total of 207 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained from the rhizome of C. longa L. They were grouped into seven genera based on morphological and molecular data. The fungal endophytes of C. longa were evaluated for antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal organism of leaf spot of turmeric. The disease is a major cause for economic loss in turmeric cultivation. Endophytic Phoma herbarum showed significant activity against C. gloeosporioides and was therefore selected for further studies. A compound gentisyl alcohol was isolated from P. herbarum which showed effective antagonism against C. gloeosporioides. The organism could therefore be used as a biocontrol agent against C. gloeosporioides.

  13. Datasheet: Pseudogymnoascus destructans (white-nose syndrome fungus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David; Lankau, Emily W.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is a psychrophilic (cold-loving) fungus that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease of North American bats that has caused unprecedented population declines. The fungus is believed to have been introduced to North America from Europe or Asia (where it is present but does not cause significant mortality), but the full extent of its native range is unknown. The route of introduction is also unknown. In North America, hibernating bats become infected with P. destructans when body temperature decreases during winter torpor into the range permissive for growth of this fungus. Infected bats may develop visible fungal growth on the nose or wings, awaken more frequently from torpor, and experience a cascade of physiologic changes that result in weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and death. P. destructans persists in the environments of underground bat hibernation sites (hibernacula) and is believed to spread primarily by natural movements of infected bats. The first evidence of WNS in North America is from a photograph of a hibernating bat taken during winter of 2005-2006 in a hibernaculum near Albany, New York. P. destructans subsequently spread rapidly from the northeastern United States throughout much of the eastern portions of the United States and Canada, and most recently (as of May 2017) was detected in Washington State. It has killed millions of bats, threatening some species with regional extirpation and putting at risk the valuable environmental services that bats provide by eating harmful insects.

  14. Molecular genotyping of Colletotrichum species based on arbitrarily primed PCR, A + T-Rich DNA, and nuclear DNA analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Pham, M.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular genotyping of Colletotrichum species based on arbitrarily primed PCR, A + T-rich DNA, and nuclear DNA analyses. Experimental Mycology 17, 309-322. Isolates of Colletotrichum were grouped into 10 separate species based on arbitrarily primed PCR (ap-PCR), A + T-rich DNA (AT-DNA) and nuclear DNA banding patterns. In general, the grouping of Colletotrichum isolates by these molecular approaches corresponded to that done by classical taxonomic identification, however, some exceptions were observed. PCR amplification of genomic DNA using four different primers allowed for reliable differentiation between isolates of the 10 species. HaeIII digestion patterns of AT-DNA also distinguished between species of Colletotrichum by generating species-specific band patterns. In addition, hybridization of the repetitive DNA element (GcpR1) to genomic DNA identified a unique set of Pst 1-digested nuclear DNA fragments in each of the 10 species of Colletotrichum tested. Multiple isolates of C. acutatum, C. coccodes, C. fragariae, C. lindemuthianum, C. magna, C. orbiculare, C. graminicola from maize, and C. graminicola from sorghum showed 86-100% intraspecies similarity based on ap-PCR and AT-DNA analyses. Interspecies similarity determined by ap-PCR and AT-DNA analyses varied between 0 and 33%. Three distinct banding patterns were detected in isolates of C. gloeosporioides from strawberry. Similarly, three different banding patterns were observed among isolates of C. musae from diseased banana.

  15. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Mahmodi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3 verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific divergence (0.0 to 1.4% and (15.5–19.9, respectively. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis clustered Colletotrichum spp. isolates into 3 well-defined clades, representing three distinct species; C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides. The ISSR and RAPD and cluster analysis exhibited a high degree of variability among different isolates and permitted the grouping of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. into three distinct clusters. Distinct populations of Colletotrichum spp. isolates were genetically in accordance with host specificity and inconsistent with geographical origins. The large population of C. truncatum showed greater amounts of genetic diversity than smaller populations of C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides species. Results of ISSR and RAPD markers were congruent, but the effective maker ratio and the number of private alleles were greater in ISSR markers.

  16. Constitutive expression of a fungus-inducible carboxylesterase improves disease resistance in transgenic pepper plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Moonkyung; Cho, Jung Hyun; Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Kang, Ha-Young; Nguyen, Thai Son; Soh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2016-08-01

    Resistance against anthracnose fungi was enhanced in transgenic pepper plants that accumulated high levels of a carboxylesterase, PepEST in anthracnose-susceptible fruits, with a concurrent induction of antioxidant enzymes and SA-dependent PR proteins. A pepper esterase gene (PepEST) is highly expressed during the incompatible interaction between ripe fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and a hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). In this study, we found that exogenous application of recombinant PepEST protein on the surface of the unripe pepper fruits led to a potentiated state for disease resistance in the fruits, including generation of hydrogen peroxide and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes that encode mostly small proteins with antimicrobial activity. To elucidate the role of PepEST in plant defense, we further developed transgenic pepper plants overexpressing PepEST under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. Molecular analysis confirmed the establishment of three independent transgenic lines carrying single copy of transgenes. The level of PepEST protein was estimated to be approximately 0.002 % of total soluble protein in transgenic fruits. In response to the anthracnose fungus, the transgenic fruits displayed higher expression of PR genes, PR3, PR5, PR10, and PepThi, than non-transgenic control fruits did. Moreover, immunolocalization results showed concurrent localization of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and PR3 proteins, along with the PepEST protein, in the infected region of transgenic fruits. Disease rate analysis revealed significantly low occurrence of anthracnose disease in the transgenic fruits, approximately 30 % of that in non-transgenic fruits. Furthermore, the transgenic plants also exhibited resistance against C. acutatum and C. coccodes. Collectively, our results suggest that overexpression of PepEST in pepper confers enhanced resistance against the anthracnose fungi by activating the defense signaling

  17. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  18. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Restriction Enzyme-Mediated Integration Mutants as Biocontrol Agents Against Anthracnose Disease in Avocado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoby, N; Zhou, R; Kobiler, I; Dinoor, A; Prusky, D

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT Reduced-pathogenicity mutants of the avocado fruit pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate Cg-14 (teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata) were generated by insertional mutagenesis by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformation. Following seven transformations, 3,500 hygromycin-resistant isolates were subjected to a virulence assay by inoculation on mesocarp and pericarp of cv. Fuerte avocado fruits. Fourteen isolates showed a reduced degree of virulence relative compared with wild-type Cg-14. Two isolates, Cg-M-142 and Cg-M-1150, were further characterized. Cg-M-142 produced appressoria on avocado pericarp similar to Cg-14, but caused reduced symptom development on the fruit's pericarp and mesocarp. Isolate Cg-M-1150 did not produce appressoria; it caused much reduced maceration on the mesocarp and no symptoms on the pericarp. Southern blot analysis of Cg-M-142 and Cg-M-1150 showed REMI at different XbaI sites of the fungal genome. Pre-inoculation of avocado fruit with Cg-M-142 delayed symptom development by the wild-type isolate. Induced resistance was accompanied by an increase in the levels of preformed antifungal diene, from 760 to 1,200 mug/g fresh weight 9 days after inoculation, whereas pre-inoculation with Cg-M-1150 did not affect the level of antifungal diene, nor did it delay the appearance of decay symptoms. The results presented here show that reduced-pathogenicity isolates can be used for the biological control of anthracnose caused by C. gloeosporioides attack.

  19. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A

    2015-04-09

    Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  20. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp. in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A. Cloyd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp. are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  1. Iniciadores específicos para detectar las especies de Colletotrichum causantes de la antracnosis de los olivos

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, María P.; García-Figueres, F.; Trapero, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum y C. gloeosporioides son los agentes causantes de la antracnosis de los olivos en España. En este trabajo se presentan los iniciadores específicos diseñados que, junto con el iniciador general ITS4, permiten discriminar a ambas especies mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides are the causal agents of the anthracnose on olive trees from Spain. In this work, the specific primers designed to discriminate bo...

  2. Amplification of the cap20 pathogenicity gene and genetic characterization using different markers molecular in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielli Barreto Maciel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were performed to analyze the genetic characterization using RFLP-ITS and Intron (primer EI1 markers and the amplification of the cap20 pathogenicity gene by PCR in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates of different hosts plant. The genetic variability was accessed using RFLP-ITS and Intron markers and grouping by UPGMA method. Primers to cap20 gene were constructed using selected sequences of the GenBank (National Center of Biotechnology Information, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov with the Primer 3 program. The dendrograms analysis showed that the RFLP-ITS marker was more informative to separate the Colletotrichum sp, and that primer EI1 demonstrated greater genetic diversity. The amplification of the DNA of the Colletotrichum isolates to the cap20 gene with primers P1 and P2 indicated that this gene could present variations into C. gloeosporioides related with the host, and also that it was present in other Colletotrichum sp.Estudos foram realizados para analisar a caracterização genética usando marcadores de RFLP-ITS e ISSP e a amplicação do gene de patogenicidade cap20 por PCR em isolados de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides de diferentes hospedeiros. Primers para o gene cap20 foram construídos a partir de seqüências selecionadas do GenBank (National Center of Biotechnology Information, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov com o programa Primer 3. A análise dos dendrogramas revelou que o marcador RFLP-ITS foi mais informativo em separar as espécies de Colletotrichum, e que o primer EI1 evidenciou maior diversidade genética. A amplificação do DNA dos isolados de Colletotrichum para o gene cap20 com os primers P1 e P2 indicou que este gene pode apresentar variações dentro de C. gloeosporioides relacionada ao hospedeiro, e que também está presente em outras espécies de Colletotrichum.

  3. PRESENCIA DE Colletotrichum acutatum y Colletotrichum gloeosporioides EN HELECHO HOJA DE CUERO, LIMÓN CRIOLLO, PAPAYA, CARAMBOLA Y MANGO EN COSTA RICA Y FLORIDA (ESTADOS UNIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Barquero Quirós

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La antracnosis es una enfermedad causada por varias especies del género Colletotrichum en diferentes hospederos. C. acutatum y C. gloeosporioides son especies morfológicamente similares, que pueden causar síntomas similares en el mismo hospedero. Se colectaron 220 aislamientos de Colletotrichum de muestras con síntomas típicos de antracnosis en helecho hoja de cuero (Rumohra adiantiformis, limón criollo (Citrus aurantifolia, carambola (Averrhoa carambola, papaya (Carica papaya y mango (Mangifera indica en Costa Rica y Florida, Estados Unidos. Los aislamientos se caracterizaron por morfología de colonia, sensibilidad al benomil, y PCR con los iniciadores específicos para C. acutatum y C. gloeosporioides CaInt2 y Cg/fInt1, respectivamente; también se analizó la morfología de las colonias de ambas especies. De los 85 aislamientos obtenidos de mango, todos los aislamientos de Florida fueron identificados como C. acutatum, mientras que todos los aislamientos de Costa Rica fueron C. gloeosporioides. De los 60 aislamientos de carambola, 3 provenientes de Costa Rica fueron C. acutatum (primer informe y el resto fueron C. gloeosporioides. Todos los aislamientos de helecho hoja de cuero (25 aislamientos y de limón criollo (25 aislamientos se identificaron como C. acutatum. Los demás aislamientos de carambola y mango así como todos los aislamientos de papaya, se identificaron como C. gloeosporioides. No se encontró diferenciación de síntomas entre ambas especies sobre los hospederos donde se encontraron.

  4. The impact of phenotypic and molecular data on the inference of Colletotrichum diversity associated with Musa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Willie A S; Lima, Waléria G; Nascimento, Eduardo S; Michereff, Sami J; Câmara, Marcos P S; Doyle, Vinson P

    2017-01-01

    Developing a comprehensive and reliable taxonomy for the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex will require adopting data standards on the basis of an understanding of how methodological choices impact morphological evaluations and phylogenetic inference. We explored the impact of methodological choices in a morphological and molecular evaluation of Colletotrichum species associated with banana in Brazil. The choice of alignment filtering algorithm has a significant impact on topological inference and the retention of phylogenetically informative sites. Similarly, the choice of phylogenetic marker affects the delimitation of species boundaries, particularly if low phylogenetic signal is confounded with strong discordance, and inference of the species tree from multiple-gene trees. According to both phylogenetic informativeness profiling and Bayesian concordance analyses, the most informative loci are DNA lyase (APN2), intergenic spacer (IGS) between DNA lyase and the mating-type locus MAT1-2-1 (APN2/MAT-IGS), calmodulin (CAL), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glutamine synthetase (GS), β-tubulin (TUB2), and a new marker, the intergenic spacer between GAPDH and an hypothetical protein (GAP2-IGS). Cornmeal agar minimizes the variance in conidial dimensions compared with potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient-poor agar, such that species are more readily distinguishable based on phenotypic differences. We apply these insights to investigate the diversity of Colletotrichum species associated with banana anthracnose in Brazil and report C. musae, C. tropicale, C. theobromicola, and C. siamense in association with banana anthracnose. One lineage did not cluster with any previously described species and is described here as C. chrysophilum.

  5. Phylogeny and variability of Colletotrichum truncatum associated with soybean anthracnose in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogério, F; Ciampi-Guillardi, M; Barbieri, M C G; Bragança, C A D; Seixas, C D S; Almeida, A M R; Massola, N S

    2017-02-01

    Fungal diseases are among the main factors limiting high yields of soybean crop. Colletotrichum isolates from soybean plants with anthracnose symptoms were studied from different regions and time periods in Brazil using molecular, morphological and pathogenic analyses. Bayesian phylogenetic inference of GAPDH, HIS3 and ITS-5.8S rDNA sequences, the morphologies of colony and conidia, and inoculation tests on seeds and seedlings were performed. All isolates clustered only with Colletotrichum truncatum species in three well-separated clusters. Intraspecific genetic diversity revealed 27 distinct haplotypes in 51 fungal isolates; some of which were identical to C. truncatum sequences from other regions around the world, while others were related to alternative hosts. Conidia were falcate, hyaline, unicellular and aseptate, formed in acervuli, with variable dimensions. Despite being pathogenic to seedlings by both inoculation methods, variation was observed in the aggressiveness of the tested isolates, which was not correlated with genetic variation. The identification of C. truncatum in the sampled isolates was evidenced as being the only causal agent of soybean anthracnose in Brazil until 2007, with relevant genetic, morphological and pathogenic variability as well as a broad geographical origin. The wide distribution of the predominant C. truncatum haplotype indicated the existence of a highly efficient mechanism of pathogen dispersal over long distances, reinforcing the role of seeds as the primary source of disease inoculum. The characterization and distribution of Colletotrichum species in soybean-producing regions in Brazil is fundamental for understanding the disease epidemiology and for ensuring effective control strategies against anthracnose. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Óleos essenciais e vegetais no controle in vitro de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RAMOS

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais e vegetais no controle in vitro de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente causal da antracnose em pós-colheita de frutíferas. Treze óleos essenciais foram utilizados em concentrações de 0,00%, 0,40%, 0,80%, 1,70%, 3,20%, 6,25%, 12,50%, 25,00%, 50,00% e 100,00%, e uma linhagem padrão de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Foram avaliadas a concentração inibitória mínima e a concentração mínima fungicida a fim de caracterizar o potencial de cada um dos óleos essenciais avaliados. Verificou-se que os óleos utilizados apresentaram atividade fungicida em diferentes concentrações, as quais variaram de 0,80% (melaleuca, 3,20%, (eucalipto, 6,25% (limão, capim limão, cravo da índia, canela e nim, 12,5% (hortelã e citronela, 25% (copaíba, 50% (coco e gengibre e 100% (manjericão. O óleo de nim apresentou maior redução da carga microbiana em função do tempo de exposição, sendo necessários 30 minutos para anulação da contagem microbiana. O efeito antifúngico dos óleos essenciais, para controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depende da planta e da concentração empregada.

  7. The cAMP-PKA Signaling Pathway Regulates Pathogenicity, Hyphal Growth, Appressorial Formation, Conidiation, and Stress Tolerance in Colletotrichum higginsianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjun; Zhou, Man; Xiong, Zeyang; Peng, Fang; Wei, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Colletotrichum higginsianum is an economically important pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in a wide range of cruciferous crops. Understanding the mechanisms of the cruciferous plant- C. higginsianum interactions will be important in facilitating efficient control of anthracnose diseases. The cAMP-PKA signaling pathway plays important roles in diverse physiological processes of multiple pathogens. C. higginsianum contains two genes, ChPKA1 and ChPKA2 , that encode the catalytic subunits of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). To analyze the role of cAMP signaling pathway in pathogenicity and development in C. higginsianum , we characterized ChPKA1 and ChPKA2 genes, and adenylate cyclase ( ChAC ) gene. The ChPKA1 and ChAC deletion mutants were unable to cause disease and significantly reduced in hyphal growth, tolerance to cell wall inhibitors, conidiation, and appressorial formation with abnormal germ tubes, but they had an increased tolerance to elevated temperatures and exogenous H 2 O 2 . In contrast, the ChPKA2 mutant had no detectable alteration of phenotypes, suggesting that ChPKA1 contributes mainly to PKA activities in C. higginsianum . Moreover, we failed to generate Δ ChPKA1ChPKA2 double mutant, indicating that deletion of both PKA catalytic subunits is lethal in C. higginsianum and the two catalytic subunits possibly have overlapping functions. These results indicated that ChPKA1 is the major PKA catalytic subunit in cAMP-PKA signaling pathway and plays significant roles in hyphal growth, pathogenicity, appressorial formation, conidiation, and stress tolerance in C. higginsianum .

  8. The cAMP-PKA Signaling Pathway Regulates Pathogenicity, Hyphal Growth, Appressorial Formation, Conidiation, and Stress Tolerance in Colletotrichum higginsianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum higginsianum is an economically important pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in a wide range of cruciferous crops. Understanding the mechanisms of the cruciferous plant–C. higginsianum interactions will be important in facilitating efficient control of anthracnose diseases. The cAMP-PKA signaling pathway plays important roles in diverse physiological processes of multiple pathogens. C. higginsianum contains two genes, ChPKA1 and ChPKA2, that encode the catalytic subunits of cyclic AMP (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA. To analyze the role of cAMP signaling pathway in pathogenicity and development in C. higginsianum, we characterized ChPKA1 and ChPKA2 genes, and adenylate cyclase (ChAC gene. The ChPKA1 and ChAC deletion mutants were unable to cause disease and significantly reduced in hyphal growth, tolerance to cell wall inhibitors, conidiation, and appressorial formation with abnormal germ tubes, but they had an increased tolerance to elevated temperatures and exogenous H2O2. In contrast, the ChPKA2 mutant had no detectable alteration of phenotypes, suggesting that ChPKA1 contributes mainly to PKA activities in C. higginsianum. Moreover, we failed to generate ΔChPKA1ChPKA2 double mutant, indicating that deletion of both PKA catalytic subunits is lethal in C. higginsianum and the two catalytic subunits possibly have overlapping functions. These results indicated that ChPKA1 is the major PKA catalytic subunit in cAMP-PKA signaling pathway and plays significant roles in hyphal growth, pathogenicity, appressorial formation, conidiation, and stress tolerance in C. higginsianum.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the common bean anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Pablo; Alzate, Juan; Yepes, Mauricio Salazar; Marín, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is the causal agent of anthracnose in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), one of the most limiting factors for this crop in South and Central America. In this work, the mitochondrial sequence of a Colombian isolate of C. lindemuthianum obtained from a common bean plant (var. Cargamanto) with anthracnose symptoms is presented. The mtDNA codes for 13 proteins of the respiratory chain, 1 ribosomal protein, 2 homing endonucleases, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 28 tRNAs. This is the first report of a complete mtDNA genome sequence from C. lindemuthianum.

  10. Colletotrichine B, a new sesquiterpenoid from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides GT-7, a fungal endophyte of Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Zhong-Duo; Li, Xiao-Fei; Sun, Jian-Hui; Yang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Xin-Guo

    2018-02-08

    One new compound, colletotrichine B (1), was produced by the fungal Colletotrichum gloeosporioides GT-7. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Monoamine oxidase (MAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kα) inhibitory activity of 1 was also evaluated. Compound 1 showed only AChE inhibiting activity with IC 50 value of 38.0 ± 2.67 μg/mL.

  11. Fungitoxic effect of essential oil from aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius RADDI) on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Junior, L.F.G; Santos, R.B.; Reis, F.O.; Matsumoto, S.T; Bispo, W.M.S.; Machado, L.P.; Oliveira, L.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial do fruto de Schinus terebinthifolius sobre o crescimento micelial do fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in vitro, e no desenvolvimento da antracnose no período de pós-colheita em mamões. As diferentes concentrações de óleo foram diluídas em Tween 80 a 8%. No experimento in vitro foram preparados meios de cultura BDA nas concentrações de 0,05; 0,10; 0,25 e 0,50% do óleo essencial. O controle negativo foi realizado apenas com meio BDA e o...

  12. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  13. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  14. Comparação da eficiência de métodos de inoculação na avaliação da patogenicidade de isolados de colletotrichum gloeosporioides em frutos de maracujá (Passiflora Edulis Comparison of inoculation methods efficiency for evaluation of colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates pathogenicity on passion fruits (Passiflora Edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Ribamar de Sousa Rocha

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight inoculation methods were studied to evaluate the pathogenicity among six isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agent of anthracnose on passion fruits (Passiflora edulis. The isolates were selected by micelial growth and sporulation. The inoculations were made through suspension (1x10(6 conidia/ml and micelial-agar discs (4mm in diameter. After 6 days of inoculation, the diameter of necrotic area was measure on the fruit epiderm. The most efficient inoculation method was the micelial-agar disc on the fruit wounded epiderm. All isolates caused necrosis by this method, but it showed low efficiency using intact epiderm, where only one isolate was active. One isolate from stem showed greater pathogenicity than the others, and the necrosis in the area was ten times larger than the less pathogenic isolates. The results showed that more than two inoculation methods must be used for the isolate evaluation.

  15. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  16. U.S. National Fungus Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — The U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI) are the “Smithsonian for fungi” and are the repository for over one million fungal specimens worldwide - the largest such...

  17. Actinomycetes isolated from Malacca soil with Colletotrichum capsici ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jeffrey

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... agents for the anthracnose disease on chilli fruits world wide (Manandhar et ... causing agent with its ability to infect other crops and fruits such as yam and .... Isolated fungi were identified as C. capsici and C. gloeosprioides ...

  18. QTL mapping of anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) resistance in a cross between Capsicum annuum and C-chinense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Finkers, H.J.; Sanjaya, L.; Groenwold, R.

    2004-01-01

    Anthracnose fruit rot is an economically important disease that affects pepper production in Indonesia. Strong resistance to two causal pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici, was found in an accession of Capsicum chinense. The inheritance of this resistance was studied in an F2

  19. Onderzoekingen over Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sac. et Magn.) Bri. et Cav. en Gloeosporium fructigenum Berk. forma Hollandica nova forma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, H.R.A.

    1927-01-01

    From diseased pods of Phaseolus vulgaris, 4 strains were isolated of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum: Z I and Z II from Zeeland; E from Enkhuizen; W from Westland. The strains differed from the American strainsβandγ. Tests on bean varieties used by Leach suggested that Z strains were related to form

  20. Revealing the Secrets of Colletotrichum acutatum with Special Focus on Secondary Metabolism and Population Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt

    Colletotrichum acutatum is an economically important fruit rot pathogen in strawberry. At the molecular level, little is known about the infection. In my PhD study, I therefore set to comprehensively understand the interaction between C. acutatum and strawberry fruits by applying multiple omic...

  1. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  2. Fitness, Competitive Ability, and Mutation Stability of Isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum from Strawberry Resistant to QoI Fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcelini, Bruna B; Rebello, Carolina S; Wang, Nan-Yi; Peres, Natalia A

    2018-04-01

    Quinone-outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides are used to manage anthracnose of strawberry, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. However, selection for resistance to QoI fungicides was first reported in 2013 in Florida and, subsequently, in strawberry nurseries and production areas across the United States and Canada. C. acutatum resistance to QoIs is associated with the G143A point mutation in the cytochrome b gene. This mutation is known to be associated with field resistance even at high rates of QoI. In this study, we investigated the relative fitness and competitive ability of QoI-resistant and -sensitive C. acutatum isolates. A fitness comparison did not indicate any difference between resistant and sensitive isolates in aggressiveness, spore production, and mycelial growth at different temperatures. Additionally, in the absence of selection pressure, resistant and sensitive isolates were equally competitive. Cultivation of QoI-resistant and QoI-sensitive isolates for four culture cycles in vitro in the absence of azoxystrobin showed that QoI resistance was stable. The observed lack of fitness penalties and stability of the G143A mutation in QoI-resistant C. acutatum populations suggest that the interruption and further reintroduction of QoI fungicides might not be an option for strawberry nurseries and fruit production areas. Further investigation of alternative chemical and nonchemical C. acutatum control practices, in addition to the integration of multisite fungicides, is needed to reduce the occurrence and distribution of QoI-resistant populations in strawberry fields.

  3. Indução de resistência sistêmica à antracnose em feijoeiro-comum pela raça delta avirulenta de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Induction of systemic resistance to anthracnose in common bean by the avirulent delta race of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Diniz Campos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial da raça delta avirulenta do fungo Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, como protetora contra raças virulentas deste fungo e quanto à capacidade de induzir resistência sistêmica em feijoeiro-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris. Quatro cultivares de feijoeiro foram avaliadas quanto às alterações nas atividades de beta 1,3 glucanase e quitinase, em dois estádios de desenvolvimento (V2 e R6, três dias após a aplicação de suspensão de esporos de C. lindemuthianum raça delta avirulenta, em comparação com aplicações de água e ácido salicílico. As plantas foram, então, infectadas com o patótipo virulento 33/95 de C. lindemuthianum em suspensão e, depois de cinco dias, foram reavaliadas quanto à atividade das enzimas. Observaram-se acréscimos significativos nas atividades da beta 1,3 glucanase e quitinase, após inoculação do fungo indutivo, nas duas avaliações, nos dois estádios de desenvolvimento. As atividades da beta 1,3 glucanase e da quitinase variaram entre as cultivares e entre os estádios de desenvolvimento das plantas. A correlação entre o índice de severidade da doen��a e a atividade das enzimas foi altamente significativa. O uso de C. lindemuthianum raça delta avirulenta diminuiu a severidade da doença e pode ter potencial para controlar a antracnose do feijoeiro.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the potential of the avirulent delta race of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum as a protector against virulent races of this fungus and induce systemic resistance to anthracnose in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Four common bean cultivars were evaluated for changes in the activities of beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase at two common bean developmental stages, V2 and R6, three days after the infection with delta race of C. lindemuthianum, in comparison with control applications of water and salicylic acid. The plants were then infected with a spore suspension of 33

  4. Estudos histoplásticos da interação Colletotrichum gloeosporioides: cafeeiro Histopathological studies of the interaction Colletotrichum gloeosporioides: coffee tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Souza Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos estudos envolvendo a interação Colletotrichum gloeosporioides-cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., poucas são as informações a respeito do modo de penetração e colonização deste patógeno. Estudou-se por meio da microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, os eventos de pré-penetração e penetração de C. gloeosporioides em hipocótilos de cafeeiros e a colonização natural de ramos e frutos provenientes de plantas com mancha manteigosa. Realizaram-se três ensaios. No primeiro, fez-se a observação dos eventos de pré-penetração de C. gloeosporioides inoculados em hipocótilos de plântulas da cv. Acaiá Cerrado com e sem ferimentos; no segundo, observou-se a colonização de ramos enfermos em que havia murcha drástica e necrose local e, no terceiro, a colonização de frutos enfermos. A germinação dos conídios nos hipocótilos feridos ocorreu 6 horas após a inoculação, com a formação de um ou dois tubos germinativos terminais e a adesão dos conídios nas depressões dos hipocótilos. Apressórios globosos a subglobosos e de contorno regular surgiram 12 horas após a inoculação. Até 72 horas, não foi possível observar a formação de acérvulos sobre os tecidos submetidos à inoculação. Nos ramos observava-se colonização nos vasos floema e parênquima cortical. Nos frutos em diferentes estádios de maturação foi observada a colonização do tecido próximo à epiderme e colapso dos estômatos na área lesionada.In studies involving the interaction Colletotrichum gloeosporioides - coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. there is little information regarding the pre-penetration, penetration and colonization pathways of this pathogen. The objectives of this work were: 1. to study through scanning electron microscopy (SEM the pre-penetration and penetration events of C. gloeosporioides in hypocotyls of coffee plantlets; 2. to observe the colonization of Colletotrichum spp. in branches and fruits of coffee trees with blister

  5. Evaluación a nivel de laboratorio del efecto de 7 extractos vegetales para el control de Colletotrichum sp agente causal de la antracnosis en el cultivo de tomate de árbol - Evaluación a nivel de laboratorio del efecto de 7 extractos vegetales para el control de Colletotrichum sp agente causal de la antracnosis en el cultivo de tomate de árbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Andrei Chacin Zambrano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Was evaluated in the laboratory the effect of seven plant extracts of Neem leaves and fruit (Azadirachta indica leaves of lemon grass (Swinglea glutinosa, leaves of papaya (Carica papaya, Pringamosa leaves (Urtica dioica, eucalyptus leaves (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn fruits of garlic (Allium sativum L. and fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum in the control of the fungus Colletotrichum sp causal agent of anthracnose in tomato crop tree (Cyphomandra betacea. The pathogen was isolated on PDA medium from tomato fruit tree, the extracts were obtained taking into account the process by (Marin, et. Al 2007, which consists of chopping and blending plant material deposited in plastic bucket, add water ratio 2.5:1 (water: sample processed, vol.: w, subjecting to fermentation for 24 hours. The produto was filtered using sterile gauze and package them for further evaluation. The concentrations of the treatments that worked were 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the infectious agent, determining the degree of inhibition of the pathogen in Petri dishes. The best results were obtained with the application of eucalyptus leaves, since its effect was 100% at all concentrations, without neglecting the fruits of the Neem and garlic with inhibition percentages of 75 and 60% respectively, had a behavior directly proportional to the concentrations used, since the greater the amount of extract the inhibitory effect was better in this case 75% and 100%.

  6. Unravelling Colletotrichum species associated with Camellia: employing ApMat and GS loci to resolve species in the C. gloeosporioides complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Weir, B.S.; Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Wang, Y.; Liu, B.; Wang, M.; Zhang, M.; Cai, L.

    2015-01-01

    "We investigated the phylogenetic diversity of 144 Colletotrichum isolates associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic tissues of Camellia sinensis and other Camellia spp. from seven provinces in China (Fujian, Guizhou, Henan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), and seven isolates obtained from

  7. Unravelling Colletotrichum species associated with Camellia: employing ApMat and GS loci to resolve species in the C. gloeosporioides complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F; Weir, B S; Damm, U; Crous, P W; Wang, Y; Liu, B; Wang, M; Zhang, M; Cai, L

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic diversity of 144 Colletotrichum isolates associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic tissues of Camellia sinensis and other Camellia spp. from seven provinces in China (Fujian, Guizhou, Henan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), and seven isolates obtained from

  8. Bacillus species (BT42) isolated from Coffea arabica L. rhizosphere antagonizes Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium oxysporum and also exhibits multiple plant growth promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejela, Tekalign; Thakkar, Vasudev R; Thakor, Parth

    2016-11-18

    Colletotrichum and Fusarium species are among pathogenic fungi widely affecting Coffea arabica L., resulting in major yield loss. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bacteria from root rhizosphere of the same plant that is capable of antagonizing Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium oxysporum as well as promotes plant growth. A total of 42 Bacillus species were isolated, one of the isolates named BT42 showed maximum radial mycelial growth inhibition against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (78%) and Fusarium oxysporum (86%). BT42 increased germination of Coffee arabica L. seeds by 38.89%, decreased disease incidence due to infection of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides to 2.77% and due to infection of Fusarium oxysporum to 0 (p Fusarium oxysporum. The mechanism of action of inhibition of the pathogenic fungi found to be synergistic effects of secondary metabolites, lytic enzymes, and siderophores. The major inhibitory secondary metabolite identified as harmine (β-carboline alkaloids).

  9. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  10. Low prevalence of chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in amphibians of U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake R. Hossack; Michael J. Adams; Evan H. Campbell Grant; Christopher A. Pearl; James B. Bettaso; William J. Barichivich; Winsor H. Lowe; Kimberly True; Joy L. Ware; Paul Stephen Corn

    2010-01-01

    Many declines of amphibian populations have been associated with chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Despite the relatively high prevalence of chytridiomycosis in stream amphibians globally, most surveys in North America have focused primarily on wetland-associated species, which are frequently infected. To...

  11. The link between rapid enigmatic amphibian decline and the globally emerging chytrid fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötters, Stefan; Kielgast, Jos; Bielby, Jon; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Bosch, Jaime; Veith, Michael; Walker, Susan F; Fisher, Matthew C; Rödder, Dennis

    2009-09-01

    Amphibians are globally declining and approximately one-third of all species are threatened with extinction. Some of the most severe declines have occurred suddenly and for unknown reasons in apparently pristine habitats. It has been hypothesized that these "rapid enigmatic declines" are the result of a panzootic of the disease chytridiomycosis caused by globally emerging amphibian chytrid fungus. In a Species Distribution Model, we identified the potential distribution of this pathogen. Areas and species from which rapid enigmatic decline are known significantly overlap with those of highest environmental suitability to the chytrid fungus. We confirm the plausibility of a link between rapid enigmatic decline in worldwide amphibian species and epizootic chytridiomycosis.

  12. Growth and Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. alatae During Culture in Liquid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Cerón Rincón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some characteristics known as virulence factors for Colletotrichum sp. genus, like: weight of the produced mycelium, sporulation, poligalacturonase activity and pH medium were evaluated during the growth of C. gloeosporioides f. alatae in three liquid medium commonly used for fungi culture (Czapeck, Martin broth and potato broth and additionally (Czapeck with yam extract as the only source of carbon. After of 17 days of growth, maximum values were obtained for the above parameters in the last medium, compared with others growth media evaluated. The implemented medium with yam extract, supply nutritional requirements of the pathogen for the development of characteristic factors related with mechanism of infections that may play a role in the pathogenesis.

  13. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF FERULIC ACID BY THE PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI Colletotrichum acutatum AND Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Numpaque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial transformation of ferulic acid (FA offers a cleaner, more economical alternative for the natural production of flavorings and fragrances. In the present study, the biotransformation of FA using the filamentous phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum acutatum and Lasiodiplodia theobromae was researched. Initially, the toxicity of FA against both fungi was evaluated; the FA displayed a moderate toxicity (total inhibition at concentrations ≥ 2000 mg L-1 and apparently a detoxification mechanism was present. Afterwards, the microorganisms were incubated with the substrate at room conditions using a Czapek-Dox culture medium. The results demonstrated that the FA was mainly converted to 4-vinylguaiacol, reaching the highest abundance within the first 48 hours. To a lesser extent, acetovanillone, ethylguaiacol, and vanillin, among others, were produced. Interestingly, the compounds generated in the biotransformation of FA with C. acutatum and L. theobromae have been used as flavorings. Based on the identified metabolites, a possible metabolic pathway was proposed.

  14. Induction of phenolic compounds in Hypericum perforatum L. cells by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Luis F R; Ferreres, Federico; Tavares, Rui M; Dias, Alberto C P

    2006-01-01

    Changes in phenolic metabolism after elicitation with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (CG) has been studied in Hypericum perforatum L. (HP) cell suspension cultures. Soluble phenolics were analysed by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. HP cultures elicited with the CG elicitor showed a significant increase in xanthone accumulation. Xanthone accumulation increased twelve fold when the cells were primed with methyl-jasmonate (MeJ) or salicylic acid (SA), before elicitation. HP cultures exposed only to MeJ produced a set of flavonoids, the flavones which represent a substantial part (approx. 40%) of the total flavonoids accumulated in these cells. The possible importance of xanthones as a component of defence mechanism of HP against biotic stress is discussed.

  15. Pathogenic variability within race 65 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and its implications for common bean breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Chamma Davide

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide pathogenic variability among and within races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum has complicated theprocess of obtaining cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris that are resistant to anthracnose. Six isolates were inoculated into twelvedifferential cultivars and seven commercial cultivars of the common bean at concentrations in the range 102 to 106 sporesmL-1. Information concerning the vertical and horizontal resistance of hosts and the virulence of isolates was obtained fromdiallel analysis. It was clear that the set of differential cultivars recommended for the determination of races of C. lindemuthianumis inefficient in detecting differences within race 65, and it is suggested that new sources of resistance should be identified andadded to the cultivar set. There were significant differences in the virulence of isolates from race 65, with isolates CL 837 and CL844 being the most virulence. No horizontal resistance was detected in the C. lindemuthianum-common bean system.

  16. Partial resistance to fruit necrosis associated to Colletotrichum spp. among arabic coffee genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hiroshi Sera

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance to fruit necrosis associated to Colletotrichum spp. in Coffea arabica L.. Twenty-two arabic coffee genotypes were performed in a randomized block design, with three replications and ten plants per plot. They were evaluated for the variables fruit necrosis, luminosity index inside of the plant canopy and fruits per productive nodes of the plants. There was genetic variability for the resistance to fruit necrosis. Different partial resistance levels, varying from highly susceptible (score = 3.89 to moderately resistant (score = 1.77 were observed. The genotypes that presented moderate resistance were the cultivars IPR-100, IPR-103, IPR-105 and IPR-108 and the coffee selection IAPAR-00023.Diferentes espécies de fungo do gênero têm sido associadas a perdas na cafeicultura brasileira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência à necrose de frutos associada ao Colletotrichum spp. em Coffea arabica L.. Vinte e dois genótipos de café foram avaliados no delineamento em blocos ao acaso com três repetições e dez plantas por parcela. As avaliações foram realizadas no IAPAR, Londrina, em janeiro de 2004 para as variáveis necrose de frutos, índice de luminosidade dentro da copa da planta e frutos por nó produtivo. Existe variabilidade genética em cafeeiros arábicos para a resistência à necrose de frutos. Foi observado diferentes níveis de resistência parcial, variando de altamente suscetível (nota = 3,89 a moderadamente resistente (nota = 1,77. Os genótipos que apresentaram moderada resistência foram as cultivares IPR-100, IPR-103, IPR-105 e IPR-108 e a seleção de café IAPAR-00023.

  17. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaruma, Nina Duarte; Schmidt, Flávio Luís; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Delarmelina, Camila; Benato, liane Aparecida; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection), CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg), as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P ≤ 0.05) from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit. PMID:24031465

  18. Co-evolution model of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (melanconiaceae, melanconiales races that occur in some Brazilian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lilia Alzate-Marin

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., displays a high level of virulence diversity, which explains the large number of existing pathotypes. Several lines of evidence indicate that such diversity is, at least in part, due to plant and pathogen co-evolution. A co-evolution model based on the binary classification of 25 races identified in Brazil by inoculation of differential cultivars and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD data is proposed. In this model, races 8 and 64 that infected bean cultivar Cornell 49-242 (Are gene and Mexico 222 (Mexico I gene are considered to be sources of two important evolutionary routes. Inferences about undescribed races from Brazil could be made.Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn. Scrib., agente causal da antracnose do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L., possui alto nível de diversidade de virulência, o que explica o elevado número de patótipos existentes. A partir de trabalhos anteriores sobre a classificação binária de 25 raças identificadas no Brasil e sua relação com agrupamentos RAPD, foi possível construir um modelo de evolução de tais raças. As raças 8 e 64, que foram compatíveis com os cultivares Cornell 49-242 (gene Are e México 222 (gene México I, se apresentam como possíveis origens de duas importantes rotas de evolução. Inferências de raças ainda não detectadas no Brasil puderam ser feitas.

  19. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz. Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Duarte Anaruma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection, CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg, as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P < 0.05 from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit.

  20. PEMANFAATAN SUMBER DAYA GENETIK LOKAL DALAM PERAKITAN VARIETAS UNGGUL CABAI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM TAHAN TERHADAP PENYAKIT ANTRAKNOSA YANG DISEBABKAN OLEH COLLETOTRICHUM SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Syukur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of resistant varieties based on local resources is one way to solve the problem of anthracnose disease. This study aims to identify the species of anthracnose isolates (Colletotricum accutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and C. capsici from the various centers of chili production through the characterization of conidia, get the genotypes that are resistant to anthracnose disease, and get information about resistance to anthracnose disease of chili pepper lines. Research activities include morphological characterization of Colletotrichum isolates, screening of resistance the chili pepper lines to anthracnose disease, and screening of resistance the pepper genotypes of exploration results to anthracnose disease. The results showed that the isolates found in the field consist of 3 species, namely C. capsici, C. acutatum, and C. gloesporioides. Forty two isolates of 67 isolates were C. capsici, the rest were C. acutatum or C. gloesporioides. The chili pepper lines were tested, including the criteria for moderate to highly susceptible to anthracnose diseases caused by C. acutatum. IPB C15 Genotype was consistently more resistant to anthracnose caused by C. acutatum as compared to 27 other genotypes.

  1. Overexpression of a defensin enhances resistance to a fruit-specific anthracnose fungus in pepper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Hyoun Seo

    Full Text Available Functional characterization of a defensin, J1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To determine antifungal activity, J1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against C. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·mL-1. To develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose disease, J1-1 cDNA under the control of 35S promoter was introduced into pepper via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that a single copy of the transgene in selected transgenic plants was normally expressed and also stably transmitted to subsequent generations. The insertion of T-DNA was further analyzed in three independent homozygous lines using inverse PCR, and confirmed the integration of transgene in non-coding region of genomic DNA. Immunoblot results showed that the level of J1-1 proteins, which was not normally accumulated in unripe fruits, accumulated high in transgenic plants but appeared to differ among transgenic lines. Moreover, the expression of jasmonic acid-biosynthetic genes and pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines, which is co-related with the resistance of J1-1 transgenic plants to anthracnose disease. Consequently, the constitutive expression of J1-1 in transgenic pepper plants provided strong resistance to the anthracnose fungus that was associated with highly reduced lesion formation and fungal colonization. These results implied the significance of the antifungal protein, J1-1, as a useful agronomic trait to control fungal disease.

  2. Overexpression of a defensin enhances resistance to a fruit-specific anthracnose fungus in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Park, Sangkyu; Park, Soomin; Oh, Byung-Jun; Back, Kyoungwhan; Han, Oksoo; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Functional characterization of a defensin, J1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To determine antifungal activity, J1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against C. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·mL-1. To develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose disease, J1-1 cDNA under the control of 35S promoter was introduced into pepper via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that a single copy of the transgene in selected transgenic plants was normally expressed and also stably transmitted to subsequent generations. The insertion of T-DNA was further analyzed in three independent homozygous lines using inverse PCR, and confirmed the integration of transgene in non-coding region of genomic DNA. Immunoblot results showed that the level of J1-1 proteins, which was not normally accumulated in unripe fruits, accumulated high in transgenic plants but appeared to differ among transgenic lines. Moreover, the expression of jasmonic acid-biosynthetic genes and pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines, which is co-related with the resistance of J1-1 transgenic plants to anthracnose disease. Consequently, the constitutive expression of J1-1 in transgenic pepper plants provided strong resistance to the anthracnose fungus that was associated with highly reduced lesion formation and fungal colonization. These results implied the significance of the antifungal protein, J1-1, as a useful agronomic trait to control fungal disease.

  3. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds and organic extracts from Muscodor yucatanensis, a tropical endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Hernández-Bautista, Blanca E; Oropeza, Fabiola; Duarte, Georgina; González, María C; Glenn, Anthony E; Hanlin, Richard T; Anaya, Ana Luisa

    2010-10-01

    Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) in a dry, semideciduous tropical forest in the Ecological Reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico. We tested the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for allelochemical effects against other endophytic fungi, phytopathogenic fungi and fungoids, and plants. VOCs were lethal to Guignardia mangifera, Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia sp., Phytophthora capsici, and P. parasitica, but had no effect on Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., the endophytic isolate 120, or M. yucatanensis. VOCs inhibited root elongation in amaranth, tomato, and barnyard grass, particularly those produced during the first 15 days of fungal growth. VOCs were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and included compounds not previously reported from other Muscodor species and the previously reported compounds octane, 2-methyl butyl acetate, 2-pentyl furan, caryophyllene, and aromadendrene. We also evaluated organic extracts from the culture medium and mycelium of M. yucatanensis on the same endophytes, phytopathogens, and plants. In general, extracts inhibited plants more than endophytic or phytopathogens fungi. G. mangifera was the only organism that was significantly stimulated by both extracts regardless of concentration. Compounds in both organic extracts were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We discuss the possible allelopathic role that metabolites of M. yucatanensis play in its ecological interactions with its host plant and other organisms.

  4. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. We have analyzed one such system at the molecular level and found...

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Isolates of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the Causal Agent of Anthracnose in Common Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Casley Borges; Correia, Hilberty L Nunes; Menicucci, Renato Pedrozo; Vidigal, Pedro M Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2017-05-04

    Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is the causal agent of anthracnose in common beans, one of the main limiting factors of their culture. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, a draft of the complete genome sequences of two isolates belonging to 83.501 and 89 A 2 2-3 of C. lindemutuianum . Copyright © 2017 de Queiroz et al.

  6. Variabilidade genética entre isolados de Colletotrichum gossypii do algodoeiro Genetic variability among the isolates of Colletotrichum gossypii of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant R. Mehta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O algodoeiro é atacado por Colletotrichum gossypii (CG e C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides (CGC. Ambos os patógenos são transmitidos pela semente e sua distinção morfológica é extremamente difícil e inconsistente. Tentativas foram feitas no presente trabalho para verificar a variabilidade genética entre CG e CGC através de RAPD-PCR, ERIC- e REP-PCR e PCR-RFLP da região ITS rDNA. Foram utilizados 53 isolados coletados de sementes e folhas de plantas de diferentes cultivares nos estados do Paraná, São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, e Paraiba, entre 1999 e 2003. Baseado em testes de patogenicidade, vinte e um isolados foram classificados como CG e 32 como CGC. Os resultados obtidos por RAPD-PCR, utilizando-se oito primers, revelaram dois grupos distintos sendo que o primeiro foi formado por 94% dos isolados de sementes e o segundo por 95% dos isolados de folhas. Na análise de ERIC- e REP-PCR, resultados semelhantes a RAPD foram obtidos, sendo que o primeiro grupo foi formado por 93% dos isolados provenientes das sementes e o segundo por 78% dos isolados provenientes das folhas. Quando o produto de amplificação da região ITS rDNA foi digerido com oito enzimas de restrição, um perfil de bandas semelhante para todos os isolados foi obtido. Resultados de RAPD, ERIC- e REP-PCR demonstraram que existem diferenças genéticas entre os isolados provenientes das sementes e aqueles provenientes de parte aérea, e esses dois grupos foram claramente distintos. Estudos futuros devem ser realizados utilizando outras técnicas moleculares para a obtenção de marcadores capazes de distinguir entre isolados de CG e CGC.Cotton is attacked by Colletotrichum gossypii (CG and C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides (CGC. Both the pathogens are transmitted by seed and their morphological distinction is extremely difficult and inconsistent. In the present study, attempts were made to verify the genetic variability among 53 isolates of CG and CGC using

  7. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  8. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  10. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism

  11. Botrallin from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of the mycelia from the endophytic fungus. Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, associated with the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L., led to the isolation of one compound coded as P12-1 which was identified as botrallin (1,7-.

  12. Chitosan produced from Mucorales fungi using agroindustrial by-products and its efficacy to inhibit Colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Berger, Lúcia Raquel; Montenegro Stamford, Thayza Christina; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; de Miranda Pereira Pessoa, Adjane; de Lima, Marcos Antonio Barbosa; Estevez Pintado, Maria Manuela; Saraiva Câmara, Marcos Paz; de Oliveira Franco, Luciana; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated corn steep liquor (CSL) and papaya peel juice (PPJ) in mixture as substrates for the cultivation (96h, 28°C, pH 5.6, 150rpm) of Mucorales fungi for chitosan production, and determined the growth-inhibitory effect of the fungal chitosan (FuCS) obtained under optimized conditions against phytopathogenic Colletotrichum species. All Mucorales fungi tested were capable of growing in CSL-PPJ medium, showing FuCS production in the range of 5.02 (Fennelomyces heterothalicus SIS 28) - 15.63mg/g (Cunninghamella elegans SIS 41). Highest FuCS production (37.25mg/g) was achieved when C. elegans was cultivated in medium containing 9.43% CSL and 42.5% PPJ. FuCS obtained under these conditions showed a deacetylation degree of 86%, viscosity of 120cP and molecular weight of 4.08×10 4 g/mol. FuCS at 5000, 7500 and 10,000ppm inhibited the growth of all Colletotrichum species tested. FuCS also induced alterations in the morphology of C. fructicola hyphae. CSL-PPJ mixtures are suitable substrates for the cultivation of Mucorales fungi for FuCS production. Chitosan from C. elegans cultivated in CSL-PPJ medium is effective in inhibiting phytopathogenic Colletotrichum species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Leaf gas exchange and oxidative stress in sorghum plants supplied with silicon and infected by Colletotrichum sublineolum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Renata Sousa; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila; Cavatte, Paulo Cezar; Martins, Samuel Cordeiro Vitor; Moreira, Wiler Ribas; Chaves, Agnaldo Rodrigues Melo; Damatta, Fábio Murilo

    2012-09-01

    Considering the economic importance of anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum, and silicon (Si) to enhance sorghum resistance against this disease, this study aimed to investigate the effect of this element on leaf gas exchange and also the antioxidative system when infected by C. sublineolum. Plants from sorghum line CMSXS142 (BR 009 [Tx623] - Texas), growing in hydroponic culture with (+Si, 2 mM) or without (-Si) Si, were inoculated with C. sublineolum. Disease severity was assessed at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days after inoculation (dai) and data were used to calculate the area under anthracnose progress curve (AUAPC). Further, the net carbon assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance to water vapor (g(s)), internal-to-ambient CO₂ concentration ratio (C(i)/C(a)), and transpiration rate (E); the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR); the electrolyte leakage (EL), and the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined. The AUAPC was reduced by 86% for the +Si plants compared with the -Si plants. The values of A, g(s), and E were lower upon inoculation of -Si plants in contrast to inoculated +Si plants with decreases of 31 and 60% for A, 34 and 61% for g(s), and 27 and 57% for E, respectively, at 4 and 8 dai. For the noninoculated plants, there was no significant difference between the -Si and +Si treatments for the values of A, g(s), and E. The C(i)/C(a) ratio was similar between the -Si and +Si treatments, regardless of the pathogen inoculation. The activities of SOD, CAT, APX, and GR tended to be higher in the +Si plants compared with the -Si plants upon inoculation with C. sublineolum. The EL significantly increased for -Si plants compared with +Si plants. The MDA concentration significantly increased by 31 and 38% at 4 and 8 dai, respectively, for the -Si plants compared with the +Si plants. Based on these results, Si may have a

  14. Lead immobilization by geological fluorapatite and fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Fuwei; Bai, Tongshuo; Tao, Jinjin; Guo, Jieyun; Yang, Mengying; Wang, Shimei; Hu, Shuijin

    2016-12-15

    Phosphate solubilizing fungi have high ability to secrete organic acids. In this study, fungus Aspergillus niger and geological fluorapatite were applied in lead remediation in aqueous solution. Formation and morphology of the lead minerals, e.g., pyromorphite and lead oxalate, were investigated by SEM, XRD, and ATR-IR. The total quantity of organic acids reached the maximum at the sixth day, which improved the concentration of soluble P up to ∼370mg/L from ∼0.4mg/L. The organic acids, especially the oxalic acid, enhance the solubility of fluorapatite significantly. The stable fluoropyromorphite [Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F] is precipitated with the elevated solubility of fluorapatite in the acidic environment. Furthermore, A. niger grows normally with the presence of lead cations. It is shown that >99% lead cations can be removed from the solution. However, immobilization caused by the precipitation of lead oxalate cannot be ignored if the fungus A. niger was cultured in the Pb solution. This study elucidates the mechanisms of lead immobilization by FAp and A. niger, and sheds its perspective in lead remediation, especially for high Pb concentration solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Michael J; De Beer, Z Wilhelm; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Brenda D; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W

    2012-08-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms, for which the taxonomy and, in particular, a dual nomenclature system have frustrated and confused practitioners of plant pathology. The emergence of DNA sequencing has revealed cryptic taxa and revolutionized our understanding of relationships in the fungi. The impacts on plant pathology at every level are already immense and will continue to grow rapidly as new DNA sequencing technologies continue to emerge. DNA sequence comparisons, used to resolve a dual nomenclature problem for the first time only 19 years ago, have made it possible to approach a natural classification for the fungi and to abandon the confusing dual nomenclature system. The journey to a one fungus, one name taxonomic reality has been long and arduous, but its time has come. This will inevitably have a positive impact on plant pathology, plant pathologists and future students of this hugely important discipline on which the world depends for food security and plant health in general. This contemporary review highlights the problems of a dual nomenclature, especially its impact on plant pathogenic fungi, and charts the road to a one fungus, one name system that is rapidly drawing near. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Dry Heat Treatment Reduces the Occurrence of Cladosporium cucumerinum, Ascochyta citrullina, and Colletotrichum orbiculare on the Surface and Interior of Cucumber Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry heat treatment has been identified as a method for disinfecting seed-borne pathogens in vegetable seeds. This study demonstrated that three seed-borne pathogens of cucumber (Cladosporium cucumerinum that causes scabs, Ascochyta citrullina that results in gummy stem blight, and Colletotrichum orbiculare that induces anthracnose could be effectively eradicated from cucumber seeds by dry heat treatment. In vitro growth of these three pathogens was inhibited by dry heat treatment at 70 °C for 40 min. These pathogens were inactivated after exposing infected seeds to 70 °C dry heat for at least 90 min. Seed infection was significantly reduced by exposing the seeds to 70 °C dry heat for at least 40 min. Seed moisture content and germination were slightly reduced after 70 °C heat treatment for 40–120 min. Seed vigor remained at a high level after dry heat treatment at 70 °C for 90 min. In conclusion, 70 °C dry heat treatment for 90 min was determined to be the optimal method for eradication of C. cucumerinum, Didymella bryoniae, and C. orbiculare from cucumber seeds.

  17. Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joon-Hee; Shim, Hongsik; Shin, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2015-06-01

    Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near the western sea of South Korea. Five bacterial strains, LB01, LB14, HM03, HM17, and LB15, were characterized as having antifungal properties in the presence of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The three Bacillus atrophaeus strains, LB14, HM03, and HM17, produced large quantities of chitinase and protease enzymes, whereas the B. amyloliquefaciens strain LB01 produced protease and cellulase enzymes. Two important antagonistic traits, siderophore production and solubilization of insoluble phosphate, were observed in the three B. atrophaeus strains. Analyses of disease suppression revealed that LB14 was most effective for suppressing the incidence of anthracnose symptoms on pepper fruits. LB14 produced antagonistic compounds and suppressed conidial germination of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The results from the present study will provide a basis for developing a reliable alternative to fungicides for anthracnose control.

  18. Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Hee Han

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near the western sea of South Korea. Five bacterial strains, LB01, LB14, HM03, HM17, and LB15, were characterized as having antifungal properties in the presence of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The three Bacillus atrophaeus strains, LB14, HM03, and HM17, produced large quantities of chitinase and protease enzymes, whereas the B. amyloliquefaciens strain LB01 produced protease and cellulase enzymes. Two important antagonistic traits, siderophore production and solubilization of insoluble phosphate, were observed in the three B. atrophaeus strains. Analyses of disease suppression revealed that LB14 was most effective for suppressing the incidence of anthracnose symptoms on pepper fruits. LB14 produced antagonistic compounds and suppressed conidial germination of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The results from the present study will provide a basis for developing a reliable alternative to fungicides for anthracnose control.

  19. Identification of QTL for reaction to three races of Colletotrichum trifolii and further analysis of inheritance of resistance in autotetraploid lucerne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, J M; Musial, J M; Armour, D J; Phan, H T T; Ellwood, S E; Aitken, K S; Irwin, J A G

    2007-05-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum trifolii, is one of the most serious diseases of lucerne worldwide. The disease is managed through deployment of resistant cultivars, but new pathotypes present a challenge to the successful implementation of this strategy. This paper reports the genetic map locations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for reaction to races 1, 2 and 4 of C. trifolii in a single autotetraploid lucerne clone, designated W126 from the Australian cv. Trifecta. Resistance was mapped in a backcross population of 145 individuals, and reaction was assessed both by spray and injection inoculation of stems. Resistance to injection inoculation with races 1 and 4 was incompletely dominant and closely linked (phenotypic markers 2.2 cM apart); these resistances mapped to a linkage group homologous to Medicago truncatula linkage group 8. When the spray inoculation data were subjected to QTL analysis, the strongest QTL for resistance was located on linkage group 8; six QTL were identified for race 1 and four for race 4. Resistance to race 2 was incompletely recessive; four QTL were identified and these include one QTL on linkage group 4 that was also identified for race 1. Modelling of the interactions between individual QTL and marker effects allowed a total of 52-63% of the phenotypic variation to be described for each of the different races. These markers will have value in breeding lucerne, carrying multiple sources of resistance to the three known races of C. trifolii.

  20. Infection of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae reduces blood feeding and fecundity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2006-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is being considered as a biocontrol agent against adult African malaria vectors. In addition to causing significant mortality, this pathogen is known to cause reductions in feeding and fecundity in a range of insects. In the present study we

  1. Controle alternativo de Colletotrichum acutatum agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos Alternative control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of postbloom fruit drop of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina Kupper

    2009-12-01

    , verificou-se que, onde foram aplicados os ACBs 69; 76; 74 e 77, as porcentagens de pétalas sem sintomas de infecção por C. acutatum foram de 83; 92; 92 e 97%, respectivamente. Mediante avaliações a campo, verificou-se a potencialidade de B. subtilis e de biofertilizantes em controlar a doença.Postbloom Fruit Drop of Citrus (PDF, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, has caused losses to citrus producers and therefore it is economically very important. This disease is generally controlled by fungicide sprayings, which increase the production cost, and affects the environment. Thus, this work aimed at developing an alternative control method through the use of biocontrol agents, or biofertilizers. Different concentrations of biofertilizers (from two distinct sources and named Bio1 and Bio2, three strains of Bacillus subitlis (BCA-69, 72 and 77 and three isolates of Trichoderma spp. (BCA-14, 37 and 39 were tested, in vitro, alone or in combination, for the inhibitory capacity of conidia germination of C. acutatum. It was studied the production of thermo-stable metabolites by B. subtilis and their effect on the germination of C. acutatum conidia. Under in vivo conditions, 15 isolates of B. subtilis were tested for the ability to prevent C. acutatum infection on 'Tahiti' lime detached flowers and in the field, where two experiments were installed, for testing the BCA and biofertilizers in the control of the disease. It was found that the isolate BCA-72 (B. subtilis and BCA-37 (T. pseudokoningii were the most efficient in inhibiting conidia germination. BCA69 and BCA-77 were the most effective in producing anti-fungal substances, and in quantities sufficient to inhibit the germination of C. acutatum. The mixture of four strains of Bacillus (BCA: 69, 72, 77 and AP3 presented the highest percentage of inhibition (73%. Regarding the use of biofertilizers (Bio1 and Bio2, it was observed that concentrations above 10% of the product, when combined with the strains of Trichoderma spp

  2. Pathogenicity and Host Range of Pathogen Causing Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Anthracnose in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Uh Seong Jeong; Ju Hee Kim; Ki Kwon Lee; Seong Soo Cheong; Wang Hyu Lee

    2013-01-01

    The strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. coccodes, C. acutatum isolated from black raspberry werepathogenic to apple and strawberry after dropping inoculation, but showed weak pathogenicity in hot-pepperand tomato. The anthracnose pathogens of C. gloeosporioides, C. orbiculare, C. acutatum isolated from apple,hot-pepper and pumpkin showed pathogenicity in black raspberry. Moreover, the anthracnose pathogensisolated from apple caused disease symptoms in non-wounded inoculation.

  3. Efeito de óleos essenciais como alternativa no controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, em pimenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Souto de Sousa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungos do gênero Colletotrichum causam doenças conhecidas como antracnose. Métodos alternativos que sejam eficientes e menos agressivos vêm sendo amplamente testados. Dentre estes, surge o interesse pela utilização de óleos essenciais extraídos de vegetais. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de óleos essenciais de eucalipto, copaíba, andiroba, babaçu, coco, neem, semente de uva, amêndoa, hortelã e pau rosa, em diferentes concentrações sobre o fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, in vitro e em frutos de pimenta em pós colheita. O experimento in vitro foi realizado utilizando-se cinco concentrações (0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0% dos dez óleos misturados ao meio de cultura BDA. As variáveis analisadas foram a taxa de crescimento micelial e o índice de velocidade de crescimento micelial (IVCM. O ensaio em pós-colheita foi feito com imersão dos frutos de pimenta por 5 minutos, nos mesmos óleos utilizados no experimento anterior, usando-se a maior concentração. O fungo C. gloeosporioides foi inoculado, através de ferimento, logo após a imersão dos frutos. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente através de medição do diâmetro das colônias e das lesões, tomando-se duas medições em sentidos diametralmente opostos. Pode-se observar que no experimento in vitro todos os óleos, com exceção dos óleos de babaçu, semente de uva e amêndoa, tiveram excelentes resultados inibindo o crescimento do fungo. No resultado obtido em pós-colheita foi observado que apenas o óleo de babaçu não foi eficiente em reduzir o desenvolvimento da lesão de antracnose. Dados relevantes foram observados para os óleos de semente de uva e amêndoa, que não apresentaram efeito direto sobre o fungo in vitro, porém no tratamento pós-colheita apresentaram bons resultados, reduzindo a lesão causada por C. gloeosporioides, sugerindo assim que estes óleos possam ser utilizados como indutores de resistência em frutos

  4. Inheritance of resistance to races 69 and 453 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in the common bean

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    Juliana P. Poletine

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivars, AB 136 and G 2333 both resistant to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum races 69 and 453, were crossed with the cultivars Michelite and Perry Marrow (susceptible to both races, with Dark Red Kidney and Cornell 49242 (resistant to both races and F1 and F2 generations were obtained. Plants were inoculated using a spore suspension at 1.2 x 10(6 concentration. The reaction of F1 and F2 populations showed that Dark Red Kidney, Cornell 49242 and AB 136 cultivars had the dominant genes A (Co-1, Are (Co-2 and Co-6, respectively, was conferring resistance to races 69 and 453. The segregation data obtained from F2 populations indicated that G 2333 carried two dominant resistance genes Co-5 gene and another one Co-7 for 69 and 453 races. The dominant genes in G 2333 and its resistance to C. lindemuthianum race could be transferred to provide anthracnose resistance to susceptible cultivars relatively easy.Os cultivares AB 136 e G 2333 ambos resistentes às raças 69 e 453 de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum foram cruzados com os cultivares Michelite e Perry Marrow (suscetíveis à ambas as raças e com Dark Red Kidney e Cornell 49242 (resistentes à ambas as raças e, obtidas as gerações F1 e F2. As plantas foram inoculadas com uma suspensão de esporos, utilizando-se uma concentração de 1,2 x 10(6 esporos/ml de água. As reações das populações F1 e F2 evidenciaram que os cultivares Dark Red Kidney; Cornell 49242 e AB 136 possuem, respectivamente, os genes dominantes A (Co-1 Are (Co-2 e Co-6, os quais conferiram a resistência às raças 69 e 453. Os dados de segregação obtidos nas populações F2 indicaram que G 2333 carrega os genes dominantes de resistência Co-5 e Co-7. Os genes dominantes presentes em G 2333 e sua resistência às raças de C. lindemuthianum, poderão serem transferidos para cultivares suscetíveis com relativa facilidade.

  5. AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF PLANTS IN Colletotrichum gloeosporioides INHIBITION IN VITRO AND IN POSTHARVEST GUAVA

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    FERNANDO HENRIQUE ALVES DA SILVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant aqueous extracts in the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Penz. & Sacc. the causal agent of guava anthracnose in, was evaluated in vitro with 1, 2 and 3% aqueous ex- tracts of Azadirachta indica, Nerium oleander, Ocimum gratissimum, Syzygium aromaticum. The experiment was installed in a complete randomized desing in a 3x4 factorial scheme (doses x extracts. For the evaluation, it was calculated the percentage of fungal inhibition. The experiment in vivo was conducted by applying Syzy- gium aromaticum and Azadirachta indica aqueous extract at 2 and 3%, respectively, in three different storage conditions: refrigerated with and without plastic film (PVC, and at ambient conditions. The experiment was installed in a completely randomized design, in a 2x3 factorial scheme (extracts x storage conditions. We evaluated the external appearance and severity of disease, loss of weight and Brix degrees. Syzygium aromati- cum extract at 2% provided 100% of fungal mycelial growth inhibition, and Azadirachta indica extract at the highest dosage (3% inhibited 20.22%. In fruits, there was not significant statistical difference between the ef- fect of extracts on the external appearance and severity of disease, loss of weight and Brix degrees. In relation to the storage conditions, the ones with plastic film and refrigerated differed from the other conditions obtain- ing better external appearance and less severity of disease, lower loss of weight and higher Brix degrees.

  6. Producción in vitro de pectinasas por Colletotrichum acutatum

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    Patiño Torres Carlos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos del género Colletotrichum son reconocidos productores de sustancias fifitotóxicas de bajo peso molecular y de enzimas que juegan papeles clave en su interacción patogénica con varios cultivos. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la naturaleza de las sustancias fitotóxicas producidas por C. acutatum en los medios de cultivo líquido Czapeck-Dox, Fries y MS, que estuviesen implicados en su interacción patogénica con el tomate de árbol (Solanum betaceae. Los procedimientos y resultados de la evaluación permitieron descartar que la actividad fitotóxica observada sobre los frutos de tomate inoculados con los extractos de los medios de cultivo se debiera a metabolitos de bajo peso molecular. Por el contrario, utilizando la prueba de placa de pozos (Dingle et al., 1953 se estableció que C. acutatum produce en los medios de cultivo evaluados enzimas con actividad pectinasa, tanto liasas como hidrolasas, las cuales podrían estar implicadas en la enfermedad de la antracnosis del tomate de árbol. Los resultados demostraron además que la producción de las enzimas se ve influenciada por el pH del medio de cultivo.

  7. In vitro colonial inhibition of an isolate from Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds to fungicide treatments

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    Dagoberto Guillén Sánchez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of Colletotrichum acutatum antracnosis to seven fungicides. It began with an isolate preserved in the ceparium of the Phytopathology Laboratory of the High School Studies of Xalostoc, Morelos. A completely randomized design was used to evaluate the fungicides benomyl, diphenoconazole, azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, copper oxychloride, fluoxastrobin and captan, at high, medium and low doses, for a total of 22 treatments with six repetitions. Sterile distilled water was applied to the control. The treatments were applied at a rate of 5 mL per plate, which contained PDA medium and a mycelial disc (Ø 5 mm. The inoculated plates were incubated at 24 °C, in 12 hour photoperiod. The colony diameter was measured every 24 hours and the percent inhibition was calculated. A bifactorial variance analysis was performed, according to Fungicide and Dose; and the differences between treatments were detected by the LSD test with 95 % confidence. The diameter of the colony and the percentage of inhibition did not show differences for dose levels, without significant effects for the interaction of both factors, fungicides, and dose. However, all doses of the different fungicides inhibited colony growth compared to the control. The benomyl, difenoconazol and captan fungicides were able to totally reduce the growth of the C. acutatum colony; followed by copper oxychloride, azoxystrobin, fluoxastrobin and trifloxystrobin in decreasing order. Only benomyl, difenoconazol, captan and copper oxychloride achieved more than 50 % inhibition.

  8. Actividad Fitotóxica del Filtrado Crudo de Colletotrichum Gloeosporioides en Cardamomo (Elettaria Cardamomum

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    Sandra S. Arango

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most important phytopatogen fungi specie in the world, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. In Colombia it is the causal agent of antracnosis in cardamom plants. Different experiments were done in order to evaluate the phytotoxic activity of the crude filtrate on cardamom leaves and vitroplants, and also to demonstrate the presence of phytotoxic compounds which are involved in the patogenical process. It was evaluated, on cardamom leaves, the phytotoxic activity of the crude filtrate that was obtained from the culture of four C. gloeosporioides isolations. These cultures were done under different growth conditions (light day vs. darkness and agitated culture at 110r.p.m. vs. non agitated cultures and under different fermentation periods (7, 14, 21, 28 days. It was observed a major phytotoxic activity in cultures that grew up under light day conditions and with a fermentation period superior to 21 days. The filtrate phytotoxicity compounds thermostability was evaluated at different temperatures (25°C, 40°C, 100°C and 120ºC and it was found that these components kept their phytotoxic activity even after being exposed to such temperatures. It was demonstrated the existence of phytotoxic activity of the filtrate on vitroplants when two groups of 150 plants (seedling each were exposed to concentrations of it of 50% and 90% respectively; damage and mortality of these vitroplant in comparison with the control (vitroplants were shown and found.

  9. Genetic relatedness of Brazilian Colletotrichum truncatum isolates assessed by vegetative compatibility groups and RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Juliane R; Miyamoto, Cláudia T; Rosada, Lúcia J; Franco, Claudinéia C S; Kaneshima, Edilson N; Castro-Prado, Marialba A A

    2010-01-01

    The genetic variation among nine soybean-originating isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum from different Brazilian states was studied. Nitrate non-utilizing (nit) mutants were obtained with potassium chlorate and used to characterize vegetative compatibility reactions, heterokaryosis and RAPD profile. Based on pairings of nit mutants from the different isolates, five vegetative complementation groups (VCG) were identified, and barriers to the formation of heterokaryons were observed among isolates derived from the same geographic area. No complementation was observed among any of the nit mutants recovered from the isolate A, which was designed heterokaryon-self-incompatible. Based on RAPD analysis, a polymorphism was detected among the wild isolate C and their nit1 and NitM mutants. RAPD amplification, with five different primers, also showed polymorphic profiles among Brazilian C. truncatum isolates. Dendrogram analysis resulted in a similarity degree ranging between 0.331 and 0.882 among isolates and identified three RAPD groups. Despite the lack of a correlation between the RAPD analysis and the vegetative compatibility grouping, results demonstrated the potential of VCG analysis to differentiate C. truncatum isolates genotypically similar when compared by RAPD.

  10. Genetic relatedness of Brazilian Colletotrichum truncatum isolates assessed by vegetative compatibility groups and RAPD analysis

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    JULIANE R SANT’ANNA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variation among nine soybean-originating isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum from different Brazilian states was studied. Nitrate non-utilizing (nit mutants were obtained with potassium chlorate and used to characterize vegetative compatibility reactions, heterokaryosis and RAPD profile. Based on pairings of nit mutants from the different isolates, five vegetative complementation groups (VCG were identified, and barriers to the formation of heterokaryons were observed among isolates derived from the same geographic area. No complementation was observed among any of the nit mutants recovered from the isolate A, which was designed heterokaryon-self-incompatible. Based on RAPD analysis, a polymorphism was detected among the wild isolate C and their nit1 and NitM mutants. RAPD amplification, with five different primers, also showed polymorphic profiles among Brazilian C. truncatum isolates. Dendrogram analysis resulted in a similarity degree ranging between 0.331 and 0.882 among isolates and identified three RAPD groups. Despite the lack of a correlation between the RAPD analysis and the vegetative compatibility grouping, results demonstrated the potential of VCG analysis to differentiate C. truncatum isolates genotypically similar when compared by RAPD.

  11. Keragaman Morfologi, Genetika, dan Patogenisitas Colletotrichum acutatum PenyebabAntraknosa Cabai di Jawa dan Sumatera

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    Roy Ibrahim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum acutatum is known as the major causal agents of anthracnose disease of chilli pepper in Indonesia. This research was aimed to study genetic variability of C. acutatum in Java and Sumatera based on morphological and molecular characteristics and to evaluate pathogenicity of several isolates. Observation on morphological characteristics involved colour and growth of each colony as well as shape and size of conidia. Molecular identification was performed by DNA amplification using specific primer for C. acutatum, i.e. CaInt2/ITS4 followed by sequencing and nucleotide sequence analysis. Pathogenicity test for each isolate on Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens was conducted in the laboratory using detached chilli. Morphology variability was observed from 40 isolates of C. acutatum. Most of the isolates have white/beige colonies with fusiform conidia of 6.11–9.73 µm in length and 2.24­–2.73 µm in width. Pathogenicity of 3 C. acutatum isolates varies from moderate to high based on lesions size on infected chilli. Sequence analysis of 8 C. acutatum isolates indicated high homology among isolates from Java and Sumatera

  12. Producción in vitro de pectinasas por Colletotrichum acutatum

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    Carlos Patiño Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos del género Colletotrichum son reconocidos productores de sustancias fifitotóxicas de bajo peso molecular y de enzimas que juegan papeles clave en su interacción patogénica con varios cultivos. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la naturaleza de las sustancias fitotóxicas producidas por C. acutatum en los medios de cultivo líquido Czapeck-Dox, Fries y MS, que estuviesen implicados en su interacción patogénica con el tomate de árbol (Solanum betaceae. Los procedimientos y resultados de la evaluación permitieron descartar que la actividad fitotóxica observada sobre los frutos de tomate inoculados con los extractos de los medios de cultivo se debiera a metabolitos de bajo peso molecular. Por el contrario, utilizando la prueba de placa de pozos (Dingle et al., 1953 se estableció que C. acutatum produce en los medios de cultivo evaluados enzimas con actividad pectinasa, tanto liasas como hidrolasas, las cuales podrían estar implicadas en la enfermedad de la antracnosis del tomate de árbol. Los resultados demostraron además que la producción de las enzimas se ve influenciada por el pH del medio de cultivo.

  13. Postharvest control of anthracnose lesions and its causative agent, Colletotrichum musae by some oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwana, Humaira

    2018-03-31

    Anthracnose of banana is incited by Colletotrichum  musae. It is recognized as one the most destructive diseases of mature and immature banana fruits, resulting in huge economic losses all over the world. Present research deals with screening some oils both in vitro and in vivo for their antifungal activity against C.musae. Clove oil (0.1µl/ml) completely arrested the conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. musae. Fenugreek and almond oil exhibited significant inhibition of mycelial growth, 61% and 57% at a concentration of 2µl/ml. However, olive oil was least inhibitory on the test fungi. Clove oil also a showed marked reduction in anthracnose lesions on banana fruits, thereby suggesting disease control. Scanning electron microscopy revealed severely damaged mycelium and conidia. FTIR studies show the presence of important bands representing phenols, terpenes, aldehydes, and ketones. Based on our findings; clove, fenugreek and almond oil demonstrated fungicidal and fungistatic activities against anthracnose pathogen. Hence, these oils can be considered as potential alternatives to chemical treatments.

  14. Oxidation of the phytoalexin maackiain to 6,6-dihydroxy-maackiain by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soby, S; Bates, R; van Etten, H

    1997-07-01

    Phytoalexins are low molecular weight antibiotic compounds produced by plants in response to infection by microbes. These antimicrobial compounds are thought to provide resistance to microbial invasion and colonization. (-)Maackiain and its pterocarpan relatives can be oxidized at a number of sites, including at the 6 carbon. A previously unknown metabolite was produced for (-)maackiain by the broad host-range pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Glomerella cingulata). This unknown was identified by LC-MS-MS and NMR spectroscopy to be 6,6a-di-OH-maackiain (3,6,6a-trihydroxy-8,9,methylenedioxy-pterocarpan). It is produced by isolates that represent all four races and pathotypes of C. gloeosporioides isolated from the tropical forage legume Stylosanthes spp. We present evidence that the primary metabolite (-)6a-OH-maackiain is subsequently hydroxylated at carbon 6, a step resulting in a compound that is increased in polarity and decreased in toxicity relative to the parent compound and (-)6a-OH-maackiain. This further oxidation may be required for efficient excretion or carbon source scavenging.

  15. Sequence exploration reveals information bias among molecular markers used in phylogenetic reconstruction for Colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Sephra N; Hosein, Fazeeda N; Carrington, Christine Vf

    2014-01-01

    The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is among the most destructive fungal plant pathogens in the world, however, identification of isolates of quarantine importance to the intra-specific level is confounded by a number of factors that affect phylogenetic reconstruction. Information bias and quality parameters were investigated to determine whether nucleotide sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees accurately reflect the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness of individuals. Sequence exploration of GAPDH, ACT, TUB2 and ITS markers indicated that the query sequences had different patterns of nucleotide substitution but were without evidence of base substitution saturation. Regions of high entropy were much more dispersed in the ACT and GAPDH marker alignments than for the ITS and TUB2 markers. A discernible bimodal gap in the genetic distance frequency histograms was produced for the ACT and GAPDH markers which indicated successful separation of intra- and inter-specific sequences in the data set. Overall, analyses indicated clear differences in the ability of these markers to phylogenetically separate individuals to the intra-specific level which coincided with information bias.

  16. A Rare Case of Intracavitary Fungus Ball (Aspergilloma in the Old Pulmonary Tuberculosis

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    Majzoobi MM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary fungus ball is a rare complication in pre-existing pulmonary cavitary lesions, due to some chronic pulmonary diseases including tuberculosis, lung abscess and sarcoidosis. Fungus ball is mostly caused by aspergillus. In many patients, fungus ball is asymptomatic, but in a significant number of them it can develop cough and hemoptysis, which may be massive and fatal. The cornerstone of assessment is chest imaging, along with sputum culture or aspergillus antibody in patient's serum. The purpose of this report is increment in attention to this complication in patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. Case Presentation: The patient was a 23-year-old woman with chief complaint of fever, cough and hemoptysis, who was hospitalized in the Infectious Diseases Ward of Farshchian Sina hospital in March 2016. She had a history of anti-TB therapy from two years before. Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL were negative for cytology and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but cultures of both samples were positive for Aspergillus niger. Her lung contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CECT scan revealed the presence of a fungus ball inside the upper lobe cavity of right lung. After lobectomy, fungal mass was confirmed by histopathology. Conclusions: In patients with pulmonary complaints (especially hemoptysis and history of cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis, the differential diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, lung abscess, reactivation of tuberculosis and lung cancer as well as fungal infections should be considered.

  17. The relationship between an endangered North American tree and an endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J C; Yang, X; Schwartz, M; Strobel, G; Clardy, J

    1995-11-01

    The Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia) began a catastrophic decline in the late 1950s and is now the rarest tree in North America for which a full species designation has been established. The trees have common plant disease symptoms, but the reason for the decline has never been identified. T. taxifolia's imminent extinction gains special poignancy through its close relationship to the Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), which produces the potent anticancer agent, taxol. An examination of the endophytic fungal communities of wild torreyas consistently found a filamentous fungus, Pestalotiopsis microspora, associated with diseased trees and also with most symptomless trees. P. microspora can be cultured in the laboratory, and when it is introduced into greenhouse-grown torreyas, it causes disease symptoms similar to those seen in the field. The fungus can then be reisolated from these deliberately infected trees. The phytotoxins pestalopyrone, hydroxypestalopyrone and pestaloside have been isolated and characterized from axenic fungal cultures, and both pestalopyrone and hydroxypestalopyrone can be isolated from artificially infected torreyas. In addition, pestaloside has antifungal activity against other fungal endophytes of T. taxifolia. The filamentous fungus, P. microspora, has an endophytic-pathologic relationship with T. taxifolia. The fungus resides in the inner bark of symptomless trees, and physiological or environmental factors could trigger its pathological activity. P. microspora produces the phytotoxins pestalopyrone, hydroxypestalopyrone, and pestaloside which give rise to the disease. Pestaloside, which also has antifungal activity, could reduce competition from other fungal endophytes within the host.

  18. Spilocaea pyracanthae causing leaf scab on loquat in Pakistan

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    Haris Butt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Loquat is attacked by many phytopathogenic fungi. Among these Spilocaea pyracanthae is of economic importance. The fungus received no attention in Pakistan and some other parts of the world. The current study is focused on the symptomatology of this disease and the etiology of the fungus. During extensive surveys of loquat orchards in 2013 heavy infestations of this disease were observed. The leaf symptoms were observed as olive brown, opaque necrotic sub-circular spots, with light brown coloration in the center. Two or more spots coalesced in severe infections covering large leaf areas. The fungus was identified as Spilocaea pyracanthae on the basis of conidia and morphological characters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was confirmed on healthy plants under greenhouse conditions by following Koch's postulates. The fungus produced characteristic leaf scab symptoms on young leaves. This is the first report of Spilocaea pyracanthae causing leafscab of loquat in Pakistan.

  19. Caracterização morfo-fisiológica e patogenicidade de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides da pupunheira Characterization morpho-physiological and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from peach palm

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    Rudimar Mafacioli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Isolados de Colletotorichum sp. de folhas de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes com sintomas de antracnose foram comparados fenotipicamente, visando a sua caracterização e identificação. Foram analisados 17 isolados, oriundos dos Estados do Acre, Rondônia, Espírito Santo, São Paulo e Paraná. Caracterizaram-se os sintomas da doença e os isolados foram comparados em relação à forma e tamanho de conídios e apressórios, e quanto a coloração das colônias, crescimento micelial e esporulação em meio de cultura. A patogenicidade dos isolados foi confirmada em folhas de pupunheira destacadas. Todos os isolados foram identificados como Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e a fase meiospórica in vitro (Glomerella cingulata ocorreu apenas em um isolado procedente de Linhares, Espírito Santo.Isolates of Colletotrichum sp. obtained from leaves of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes showing symptoms of anthracnosis from several regions of Brazil were characterized and identified based on their phenotypic traits. A total of 17 isolates collected from the states of Acre and Rondônia, where the peach palm is originated as well as from Southern States such as Espirito Santo, São Paulo and Paraná, where peach palm has been introduced for the production of palm heart, were studied. Disease symptoms were characterized and the isolates were compared based on form and size of conidia and apressoria, color of the colony, mycelial growth and sporulation in vitro. The pathogenicity of all isolates was confirmed based on a detached leaf of peach palm assay. All isolates were characterized as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the occurrence of the meiosporic stage (Glomerella cingulata was observed only for one isolate.

  20. First report of Albizia lebbeck dieback caused by Scytalidium dimidiatum in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Ba-Omar, Taher

    2002-01-01

    Over 200 Albizia lebbeck trees at Sultan Qaboos University campus wilted and died. The symptoms were dieback of large branches due to infection by Scytalidium dimidiatum. The fungus has also infected Ficus benghalensis, F. carica, F. retusa, Thespesia populnea, Delonix regia and Peltophorum petrocarpum. This is the first report of the fungus in Oman and on A. lebbeck, T. populnea, D. regia and P. petrocarpum. The strain of this fungus has not been found to cause human disease in Oman.

  1. Antifungal activity of extracts from Brazilian Cerrado plants on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Corynespora cassiicola Atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas do Cerrado brasileiro sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Corynespora cassiicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Naruzawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the antifungal activity of leaf aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of 10 plants from the Brazilian Cerrado on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Corynespora cassiicola. Antifungal activity was measured through the incorporation of each extract in a culture media or spore suspension, at 50% concentration relative to the volume, determining respectively the mycelial growth and the spore germination. Then, the percentages of mycelial growth inhibition and spore germination inhibition were obtained based on the comparison with the control. The extracts had a variable action on the phytopathogens, from mycelial growth stimulation for Aristolochia esperanzae and Byrsonima verbascifolia extracts to complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination for Myracrodruon urundeuva and Lafoensia pacari extracts. M. urundeuva, L. pacari and Caryocar brasiliense leaf extracts had antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Corynespora cassiicola; the hydroethanolic extracts presented more antifungal activity than the aqueous extracts, and spore germination of both phytopathogens was more affected than their mycelial growth.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a atividade antifúngica de extratos aquosos e extratos hidroetanólicos de folhas de 10 plantas do Cerrado brasileiro sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Corynespora cassiicola. A determinação da atividade antifúngica foi realizada pela incorporação do extrato em meio de cultura ou na suspensão de esporos, na concentração de 50% em relação ao volume, determinando-se, respectivamente, o crescimento micelial e a germinação de esporos. Em seguida, pela comparação com a testemunha, foram obtidas as percentagens de inibição do crescimento micelial e da germinação dos esporos. Foi constatado comportamento variável dos extratos sobre os fitopatógenos, desde o estímulo no crescimento micelial para os extratos de Aristolochia

  2. Inativação fotodinâmica de conídios dos fungos Aspergillus nidulans, Colletotrichum acutatum e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides com fotossensibilizadores fenotiazínicos e cumarínicos

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Dantas de Menezes

    2012-01-01

    O tratamento fotodinâmico antifúngico (APDT) é um método promissor que combina um fotossensibilizador não tóxico (FS), oxigênio e luz visível para provocar a morte seletiva das células microbianas. O desenvolvimento do APDT depende da identificação de FS que sejam eficazes para as diferentes espécies de patógenos. No presente estudo, as suscetibilidades, in vitro, de conídios de Colletotrichum acutatum, C. gloeosporioides (ambas são espécies fitopatogênicas) e Aspergillus nidulans ao APDT com...

  3. Identificación de especies del género Colletotrichum asociadas a la antracnosis en papaya (Carica papaya L.) En Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Molina-Chaves; Luis Gómez-Alpízar; Gerardina Umaña-Rojas

    2017-01-01

    La antracnosis, causada por Colletotrichum spp., es una de la enfermedades poscosecha más importantes en papaya. En este estudio, frutas de papaya, híbrido Pococí, recolectados en plantaciones ubicadas en el cantón de Guácimo, provincia de Limón, presentaron 7 síntomas de antracnosis, luego de un período de almacenamiento. De cada síntoma se obtuvieron aislados de Colletotrichum en medio de cultivo PDA (papa-dextrosa-agar). Los aislamientos se clasificaron en 3 grupos según la similitud de lo...

  4. Complement and innate immune evasion strategies of the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shanshan; Skerka, Christine; Kurzai, Oliver; Zipfel, Peter F

    2013-12-15

    Candida albicans is a medically important fungus that can cause a wide range of diseases ranging from superficial infections to disseminated disease, which manifests primarily in immuno-compromised individuals. Despite the currently applied anti-fungal therapies, both mortality and morbidity caused by this human pathogenic fungus are still unacceptably high. Therefore new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to prevent fungal infection. In order to define new targets for combating fungal disease, there is a need to understand the immune evasion strategies of C. albicans in detail. In this review, we summarize different sophisticated immune evasion strategies that are utilized by C. albicans. The description of the molecular mechanisms used for immune evasion does on one hand help to understand the infection process, and on the other hand provides valuable information to define new strategies and diagnostic approaches to fight and interfere with Candida infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Real-Time PCR Detection of Dogwood Anthracnose Fungus in Historical Herbarium Specimens from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Masuya, Hayato; Zhang, Jian; Walsh, Emily; Zhang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species (dogwoods) are popular ornamental trees and important understory plants in natural forests of northern hemisphere. Dogwood anthracnose, one of the major diseases affecting the native North American Cornus species, such as C. florida, is caused by the fungal pathogen Discula destructiva. The origin of this fungus is not known, but it is hypothesized that it was imported to North America with its host plants from Asia. In this study, a TaqMan real-time PCR assay was used to detect D. destructiva in dried herbarium and fresh Cornus samples. Several herbarium specimens from Japan and China were detected positive for D. destructiva, some of which were collected before the first report of the dogwood anthracnose in North America. Our findings further support that D. destructiva was introduced to North America from Asia where the fungus likely does not cause severe disease.

  6. First report of Colletotrichum godetiae causing bitter rot on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Lans, van der A.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands, with a total production of 418,000 tons in 2011. Symptoms of apple bitter rot were observed on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands in July 2013 after 9 months of storage in a packing house at controlled atmosphere.

  7. Pan-European distribution of white-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans not associated with mass mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien J Puechmaille

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dramatic mass mortalities amongst hibernating bats in Northeastern America caused by "white nose-syndrome" (WNS continue to threaten populations of different bat species. The cold-loving fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent leading to extensive destruction of the skin, particularly the wing membranes. Recent investigations in Europe confirmed the presence of the fungus G. destructans without associated mass mortality in hibernating bats in six countries but its distribution remains poorly known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected data on the presence of bats with white fungal growth in 12 countries in Europe between 2003 and 2010 and conducted morphological and genetic analysis to confirm the identity of the fungus as Geomyces destructans. Our results demonstrate the presence of the fungus in eight countries spanning over 2000 km from West to East and provide compelling photographic evidence for its presence in another four countries including Romania, and Turkey. Furthermore, matching prevalence data of a hibernaculum monitored over two consecutive years with data from across Europe show that the temporal occurrence of the fungus, which first becomes visible around February, peaks in March but can still be seen in some torpid bats in May or June, is strikingly similar throughout Europe. Finally, we isolated and cultured G. destructans from a cave wall adjacent to a bat with fungal growth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: G. destructans is widely found over large areas of the European continent without associated mass mortalities in bats, suggesting that the fungus is native to Europe. The characterisation of the temporal variation in G. destructans growth on bats provides reference data for studying the spatio-temporal dynamic of the fungus. Finally, the presence of G. destructans spores on cave walls suggests that hibernacula could act as passive vectors and/or reservoirs for G. destructans and

  8. Efficacy of chemical disinfectants for the containment of the salamander chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rooij, Pascale; Pasmans, Frank; Coen, Yanaïka; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) causes European salamander declines. Proper hygiene protocols including disinfection procedures are crucial to prevent disease transmission. Here, the efficacy of chemical disinfectants in killing Bsal was evaluated. At all tested conditions, Biocidal (R), Chloramine-T (R), Dettol medical (R), Disolol (R), ethanol, F10 (R), Hibiscrub (R), potassium permanganate, Safe4 (R), sodium hypochlorite, and Virkon S (R), were ...

  9. Colletotrilactam A-D, novel lactams from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides GT-7, a fungal endophyte of Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo; Yang, Zhong-Duo; Chen, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Shuang-Yan; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Jing-Yun; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Yong-Gang; Xue, Hong-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Four novel lactams, colletotrilactam A-D (1-4), along with six known compounds (5-10) were isolated from the culture broth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides GT-7, a fungal endophyte of Uncaria rhynchophylla. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by comprehensive NMR spectroscopy. Isolates were tested for monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory activity and compound 9 showed potent MAO inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 8.93±0.34μg/mL, when the IC50 value of iproniazid as a standard was 1.80±0.5μg/mL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Increasing incidence of Geomyces destructans fungus in bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Martínková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme.

  11. Impact of climate change on potential distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11-4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species.

  12. Corneal ulcer due to a rare coelomycetes fungus Chaetomium strumarium: Case report and global review of Chaetomium keratomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mamatha; Venugopal, Ramya; Prakash, Peralam Yegneswaran; Kamath, Yogish Subraya

    2017-09-01

    We present a rare case of corneal ulcer caused by a species of a coelomycetes fungus, Chaetomium strumarium. This fungal genus is a rare causative agent of keratomycosis, with only a handful of cases reported. The clinical presentation, investigative techniques, and preliminary management of our patient are reported. The cases reported in global literature are also summarized in a tabular form in the discussion.

  13. Antifungal activity of salaceyin A against Colletotrichum orbiculare and Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C N; Lee, D; Kim, W; Hong, Y; Ahn, J S; Kim, B S

    2007-08-01

    The antifungal activities of novel salicylic acid derivatives, salaceyin A, 6-(9-methyldecyl) salicylic acid, and salaceyin B, 6-(9-methylundecyl) salicylic acid were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi. Salaceyin A showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, Colletotrichum orbiculare and Phytophthora capsici at 64 microg ml(-1) while salaceyin B was less effective. In vitro antifungal activities of the compounds were influenced by the experimental pH value of the MIC test medium wherein their antifungal activities were enhanced by increasingly acidic conditions. Salaceyin A showed potent in vivo control efficacy against Phytophthora blight in pepper plants. The disease was effectively suppressed at 500 microg ml(-1), which was comparable to the commercial fungicide, metalaxyl. Salaceyin A suppressed anthracnose development on cucumber leaves in a concentration dependent manner. The control efficacy of salaceyin A against C. orbiculare infection was similar to chlorothalonil when applied prior to pathogen inoculation. Since the salaceyins are derivatives of salicylic acid, a known important signal molecule critical to plant defenses against pathogen invasion, we investigated the possibility that exogenous application of the salaceyin A would activate a systemic acquired resistance against P. capsici infection and C. orbiculare development on pepper and cucumber plants respectively. The addition of 500 microg ml(-1) of salaceyin A to the plant root systems did not significantly decrease disease development in the hosts. We are led to conclude that the disease control efficacy of salaceyin A against the Phytophthora blight and anthracnose diseases, mainly originates from the direct interaction of the agent with the pathogens.

  14. Effects of Essential Oils from Thyme, Cinnamon and Clove on Mycelial Growth of Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Duduk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the volatile phase of thyme, cinnamon and clove essential oils onColletotrichum acutatum were investigated. Mycelial disc was placed in the center of thePetri dish (V=66 ml containing PDA. Different volumes of either non- or ethanol-dilutedessential oils were placed on the inner side of the dish cover to obtain final concentrationsof 153, 107, 76, 46, 15, 14, 12, 11, 7.6, 3.82, 1.53, 0.153 and 0.0153 μl/L of air. The dishes were sealed with Parafilm and incubated in up-side-down position. After 7 days of incubation,mycelial growth was recorded by measuring the colony diameter. If no mycelial growthwas recorded, the disc was transferred to a new PDA plate in order to evaluate whetherthe activity was either fungistatic or fungicidal. Mean growth values were obtained andthen converted to inhibition percentage of mycelial growth compared with the controltreatment. All the tested essential oils inhibited mycelial growth of C. acutatum in the dosedependent manner. Mycelial growth was totally inhibited by thyme oil in the concentrationof 76 μl/L of air. The same results were obtained by cinnamon and clove oil in the concentrationof 107 μl/L of air. Thyme and cinnamon oil had fungicidal effect in concentrationsof 107 and 153 μl/L respectively. The results obtained provide evidence on the antifungalin vitro effect of the tested essential oils as potential means for the control of C. acutatum.

  15. Partial activation of SA- and JA-defensive pathways in strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO AMIL-RUIZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5 and FaPR10 were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  16. Ethanol and methanol can improve huperzine A production from endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Mei; Wang, Zhang-Qian; Shu, Shao-Hua; Wang, Wen-Juan; Xu, Hai-Jie; Ahn, Young-Joon; Wang, Mo; Hu, Xuebo

    2013-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a plant alkaloid that is of great interest as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the current production of HupA from plants in large quantity is unsustainable because the plant resource is scarce and the content of HupA in plants is extremely low. Surprisingly, this compound was recently found to be produced by various endophytic fungi, which are much more controllable than the plants due to simpler genetics and ease of manipulation. However, it might be due to the innate properties of endophytic symbiosis, that production of this chemical in large quantity from endophytes has not yet been put into practice. Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 was previously isolated from a HupA producing plant and the fungi also proved to produce HupA. In this study, various fermentation conditions were tried to optimize the production of HupA from C. gloeosporioides ES026. Optimization of these parameters resulted in a 25.58% increase in HupA yield. Potato extracts supplemented with glucose or sucrose but not maltose facilitated HupA producing from the fungi. A final concentration of 0.5-2% ethanol stimulated the growth of fungi while methanol with the same treatment slightly inhibited the growth. However, both methanol and ethanol greatly increased the HupA production with the highest yield of HupA (51.89% increment) coming from ethanol treatment. Further analysis showed that both ethanol and methanol were strong inducers of HupA production, while ethanol was partially used as a carbon source during fermentation. It was noticed that the color of that ethanol treated mycelia gradually became dark while methanol treated ones stayed grey during fermentation. The present study sheds light on the importance of optimizing the fermentation process, which, combined with effective inducers, maximizes production of chemicals of important economic interest from endophytic fungi.

  17. Ethanol and methanol can improve huperzine A production from endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Mei Zhao

    Full Text Available Huperzine A (HupA is a plant alkaloid that is of great interest as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the current production of HupA from plants in large quantity is unsustainable because the plant resource is scarce and the content of HupA in plants is extremely low. Surprisingly, this compound was recently found to be produced by various endophytic fungi, which are much more controllable than the plants due to simpler genetics and ease of manipulation. However, it might be due to the innate properties of endophytic symbiosis, that production of this chemical in large quantity from endophytes has not yet been put into practice. Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 was previously isolated from a HupA producing plant and the fungi also proved to produce HupA. In this study, various fermentation conditions were tried to optimize the production of HupA from C. gloeosporioides ES026. Optimization of these parameters resulted in a 25.58% increase in HupA yield. Potato extracts supplemented with glucose or sucrose but not maltose facilitated HupA producing from the fungi. A final concentration of 0.5-2% ethanol stimulated the growth of fungi while methanol with the same treatment slightly inhibited the growth. However, both methanol and ethanol greatly increased the HupA production with the highest yield of HupA (51.89% increment coming from ethanol treatment. Further analysis showed that both ethanol and methanol were strong inducers of HupA production, while ethanol was partially used as a carbon source during fermentation. It was noticed that the color of that ethanol treated mycelia gradually became dark while methanol treated ones stayed grey during fermentation. The present study sheds light on the importance of optimizing the fermentation process, which, combined with effective inducers, maximizes production of chemicals of important economic interest from endophytic fungi.

  18. RESISTÊNCIA DE Colletotrichum fragariae E C. acutatum AO BENOMYL NA CULTURA DO MORANGO NO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S. TANAKA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available O fungicida benomyl, utilizado intensivamente na cultura do morango a partir do final da década de 60, tem sido ineficiente para o controle da flor preta, causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, devido ao aparecimento de formas resistentes ao fungicida, já detectadas desde 1984. Para C. fragariae, no entanto, não há registro de ocorrência de resistência no Estado de São Paulo, embora venha se observando há alguns anos que o produto não tem apresentado resultados satisfatórios para o controle da podridão do rizoma ("chocolate". Para verificar a ocorrência de resistência em C. fragariae foram testados 22 isolados, coletados em diversas regiões produtoras de morango do Estado de São Paulo, e 22 isolados de C. acutatum, para comparação. Todos os isolados de C. acutatum foram resistentes, mesmo na concentração de 1000 ppm. Dos 22 isolados de C. fragariae, 10 comportaram-se como resistentes, crescendo em todas as concentrações testadas. Os demais só se desenvolveram até 1 ppm, sendo considerados sensíveis. As porcentagens de inibição do crescimento dos isolados de C. fragariae resistentes variaram de 50,0 a 88,8 (1 ppm, 54,5 a 89,8 (10 ppm, 63,6 a 78,7 (50 ppm, 67,3 a 80,3 (100 ppm, 74,4 a 82,0 (500 ppm e 76,4 a 86,0 (1000 ppm. Inoculando-se isolados resistentes e sensíveis de C. fragariae em plantas da cultivar IAC-Campinas, observou-se que todos foram igualmente patogênicos.The intensive use of benomyl in strawberry fields since the late 60s. resulted in an ineffective control of the flower blight, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum due to the development of resistance to the fungicide by the patogen, detected in 1984. Until recently, the resistance was not demonstrated in C. fragariae although an increasing failure of benomyl to provide satisfactory control of the crown rot ("chocolate" rot has been observed, indicating the possible occurrence of resistance. To verify this evidence, 22 isolates of C. fragariae, collected at

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ANAEROBIC FUNGUS FROM LLAMA FECES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; LAHPOR, GA; KRAAK, MN; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    1992-01-01

    An anaerobic fungus was isolated from Hama faeces. Based on its morphological characteristics, polyflagellated zoospores, extensive rhizoid system and the formation of monocentric colonies, the fungus is assigned to the genus Neocallimastix. Neocallimastix sp. L2 is able to grow on several poly-,

  20. ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus ( Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  1. Microbial transformation of (-)-isolongifolol by plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Sakata, Kazuki; Ueda, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    The biotransformation of terpenoids using the plant pathogenic fungus as a biocatalyst to produce useful novel organic compounds was investigated. The biotransformation of sesquiterpen alcohol, (-)-isolongifolol (1) was investigated using plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. Compound 1 was converted to (-)-(3R)-3-hydroxy-isolongifolol and (-)-(9R)-9-hydroxy-isolongifolol by G. cingulata.

  2. Metacridamides A and B from the biocontrol fungus metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...

  3. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  4. Molecular and Phytochemical Investigation of Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis Essential Oils and Their Biological Activity against Aedes aegypti, Stephanitis pyrioides, and Colletotrichum Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-18

    Molecular and Phytochemical Investigation of Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis Essential Oils and Their Biological Activity against Aedes ...against yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and azalea lace bugs, Stephanitis pyrioides, than A. pubescentis root oil. The major compounds in the A...dahurica, Angelica pubescentis, internal transcribed spacer region, Colletotrichum species, Aedes aegypti, Stephanitis pyrioides, 1-dodecanol, 1

  5. A revision of the history of the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex in the Nordic countries based on herbarium specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Strømeng, Gunn Mari; Gjærum, Halvor B.

    2015-01-01

    infect a range of important crops. As members of the C. acutatum complex are easily confused with other Colletotrichum species, molecular methods are central for the correct identification. We performed molecular analyses on 21 herbaria specimens, displaying anthracnose symptoms, collected in Norway...

  6. Voortgezet diagnostisch onderzoek naar een betere beheersing van een aantasting door de schimmel Colletotrichum acutatum bij de bollenteelt van tulpen cv. Giuseppe Verdi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.

    2008-01-01

    Sinds 1992 kennen we een ziekte bij de teelt van tulpen in metname de cultivar Giuseppe Verdi (en de laatste tijd ook wel eens in andere tulpencultivars) waarbij de bollen worden aangetast door de schimmel Colletotrichum acutatum. Daardoor gaan de bollen na de oogst verloren of groeien er in een

  7. A revision of the history of the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex in the Nordic countries based on herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Strømeng, Gunn Mari; Gjærum, Halvor B; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt; Ørstad, Kari; Jensen, Birgit; Lund, Ole Søgaard; Stensvand, Arne

    2015-08-01

    Herbaria collections containing plants with disease symptoms are highly valuable, and they are often the only way to investigate outbreaks and epidemics from the past as the number of viable isolates in culture collections is often limited. Species belonging to the Colletotrichum acutatum complex infect a range of important crops. As members of the C. acutatum complex are easily confused with other Colletotrichum species, molecular methods are central for the correct identification. We performed molecular analyses on 21 herbaria specimens, displaying anthracnose symptoms, collected in Norway and Denmark before the first confirmed findings of C. acutatum complex members in this region. Sequencing parts of the fungal ITS regions showed that members of the species complex were present in 13 of the 21 specimens collected in different parts of Norway and Denmark between 1948 and 1991, representing seven plant hosts (three cherry species, apple, raspberry and rhododendron). This is the first time herbarium specimens have been used to study these pathogens under Nordic conditions. Differences in the ITS sequences suggest the presence of different genotypes within the complex, indicating a well-established population. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Identification of horizontally transferred genes in the genus Colletotrichum reveals a steady tempo of bacterial to fungal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Vinicio D Armijos; Sukno, Serenella A; Thon, Michael R

    2015-01-02

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the stable transmission of genetic material between organisms by means other than vertical inheritance. HGT has an important role in the evolution of prokaryotes but is relatively rare in eukaryotes. HGT has been shown to contribute to virulence in eukaryotic pathogens. We studied the importance of HGT in plant pathogenic fungi by identifying horizontally transferred genes in the genomes of three members of the genus Colletotrichum. We identified eleven HGT events from bacteria into members of the genus Colletotrichum or their ancestors. The HGT events include genes involved in amino acid, lipid and sugar metabolism as well as lytic enzymes. Additionally, the putative minimal dates of transference were calculated using a time calibrated phylogenetic tree. This analysis reveals a constant flux of genes from bacteria to fungi throughout the evolution of subphylum Pezizomycotina. Genes that are typically transferred by HGT are those that are constantly subject to gene duplication and gene loss. The functions of some of these genes suggest roles in niche adaptation and virulence. We found no evidence of a burst of HGT events coinciding with major geological events. In contrast, HGT appears to be a constant, albeit rare phenomenon in the Pezizomycotina, occurring at a steady rate during their evolution.

  9. Extracts of Caesalpinia ferrea and Trichoderma sp. on the control of Colletotrichum sp. transmission in Sideroxylon obtusifolium seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.F.R. MELO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent research reports the importance of preserving plants in Brazilian semiarid regions, in this context, the scientific literature has reported different pharmacological studies from plant extracts with an antifungal potential, coming from forest species that can contribute as a control and management strategy in the transmission of phytopathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of biotech treatments in controlling the transmission of Colletotrichum sp. in seeds of S. obtusifolium. In this study, 100 seeds were subjected to the following preventive treatments: fungicide Captan®, extract of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul., and biological control with Trichoderma spp. The biological control with Trichoderma spp. and the alternative control using C. ferrea extract provided a greater protection to seeds and seedlings of S. obtusifolium facing the transmissibility of Colletotrichum sp.The treatment based on plant extract is more efficient for this purpose only in large seeds and does not interfere on the germination percentage and speed. Therefore it is necessary to perform other studies with Trichoderma spp. and C. ferrea extract to test different doses of these products.

  10. Medical image of the week: fungus ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 69 year-old Asian woman living in Arizona with a past medical history of nephrotic syndrome on high-dose steroids had worsening pulmonary symptoms. A computed tomography (CT of the chest (Figure 1 showed a 4.7 cm thin walled cavitary lesion in the right middle lobe compatible with mycetoma. She underwent thoracotomy for mycetoma resection. Surgical pathology confirmed an epithelial-lined cavity containing dense mycelia (Figure 2. Given the patient lived in an endemic area; the cavity was thought to be likely due to coccidioidomycosis. However, the mycetoma was of unclear etiology. No spherules were noted on GMS stain and tissue culture was negative. While of unclear clinical significance which fungus colonizes a pre-existing cavity, a Coccidioides PCR was performed and no Coccidioides genes were amplified making a Coccidioides mycetoma very unlikely. Pulmonary mycetoma or “fungus ball” consists of dense fungal elements and amorphous cellular material within a pre-existing pulmonary cavity. Classically ...

  11. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Colletotrichum higginsianum Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase ChMK1: Role in Growth, Cell Wall Integrity, Colony Melanization and Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum higginsianum is an economically important pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in a wide range of cruciferous crops. To facilitate the efficient control of anthracnose disease, it will be important to understand the mechanism by which the cruciferous crops and C. higginsianum interact. A key step in understanding this interaction is characterizing the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling pathway of C. higginsianum. MAPK plays important roles in diverse physiological processes of multiple pathogens. In this study, a Fus3/Kss1-related MAPK gene, ChMK1, from C. higginsianum was analyzed. The results showed that the Fus3/Kss1-related MAPK ChMK1 plays a significant role in cell wall integrity. Targeted deletion of ChMK1 resulted in a hypersensitivity to cell wall inhibitors, reduced conidiation and albinistic colonies. Further, the deletion mutant was also unable to form melanized appressorium, a specialized infection structure that is necessary for successful infection. Therefore, the deletion mutant loses pathogenicity on A. thaliana leaves, demonstrating that ChMK1 plays an essential role in the early infection step. In addition, the ChMK1 deletion mutant showed an attenuated growth rate that is different from that of its homologue in C. lagenarium, indicating the diverse roles that Fus3/Kss1-related MAPKs plays in phytopathogenic fungi. Furthermore, the expression level of three melanin synthesis associated genes were clearly decreased in the albinistic ChMK1 mutant compared to that of the wild type strain, suggesting that ChMK1 is also required for colony melanization in C. higginsianum.

  13. Can-miRn37a mediated suppression of ethylene response factors enhances the resistance of chilli against anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum truncatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rukmini; Mohanty, Jatindra Nath; Chand, Subodh Kumar; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Pepper anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum species complex is the most destructive disease of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). miRNAs are key modulators of transcriptional and post- transcriptional expression of genes during defense responses. In the present study, we performed a comparative miRNA profiling of susceptible (Arka Lohit-AL) and resistant (Punjab Lal-PL) chilli cultivars to identify 35 differentially expressed miRNAs that could be classified as positive, negative or basal regulators of defense against C. truncatum, the most potent anthracnose pathogen. Interestingly, a novel microRNA can-miRn37a was significantly induced in PL but largely repressed in AL genotype post pathogen attack. Subsequent over-expression of can-miRn37a in AL showed enhanced resistance to anthracnose, as evidenced by decreased fungal growth and induced expression of defense-related genes. Consequently, the expression of its three target genes encoding the ethylene response factors (ERFs) was down-regulated in PL as well as in the over-expression lines of AL genotypes. The ability of these targets to be regulated by can-miRn37a was further confirmed by transient co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Additionally, the virus-induced silencing of the three targets in the susceptible AL cultivar revealed their role in fungal colonization and induction of C. truncatum pathogenicity in chilli. Taken together, our study suggests that can-miRn37a provides a potential miRNA mediated approach of engineering anthracnose resistance in chilli by repressing ERFs and preventing fungal colonization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on biological parameters and pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract The fungus Beauveria bassiana is naturally found in poultry houses and causes high rates of mortality in Alphitobius diaperinus. Laboratory and field experiments have shown the potential of this fungus as an insect control agent. However, in poultry houses, bacteria as Salmonella, can be found and have been studied alternative control methods for this pathogen. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on the fungus Beauveria bassiana (strain Unioeste 4. Conidial viability, colony-forming unit (CFU counts, vegetative growth, conidia production, insecticidal activity of the fungus and compatibility were used as parameters in the evaluation of the effect of these products on the fungus. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart., guava (Psidium guajava (L., and jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L., at concentrations of 10% as well as the commercial disinfectant, Peroxitane® 1512 AL, were evaluated at the recommended concentrations (RC, 1:200 (RC, 0.5 RC and 2 RC. There was a negative influence of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba, guava and three dilutions of Peroxitane on the viability of conidia. The CFUs and vegetative growth of the fungus were affected only by the Peroxitane (all dilutions. For conidial production, the aqueous extract of guava had a positive effect, increasing production, while the Peroxitane at the R and RC concentrations resulted in a negative influence. The mortality of A. diaperinus, caused by the fungus after exposure to these products, was 60% for the peracetic acid at 0.5 RC, and above 80% for the extracts. Thus, the results showed that all the extracts and Peroxitane at RC 0.5 are compatible with the fungus B. bassiana Unioeste 4, however only the extracts had a low impact on inoculum potential.

  15. First report of Laurel Wilt caused by Rafffaelea lauricola on sassafras in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Riggins; S.W. Fraedrich; T.C. Harrington

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is caused by the fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrin., Aghayeva & Fraedrich and is lethal to redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.), sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees), and other species in the Lauraceae (1). The fungus is carried by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichh.), which is native to Asia.

  16. Tea fungus fermentation on a substrate with iron(ii-ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential element for human metabolism and it is a constituent of both heme- containing and nonheme proteins. Its deficiency can cause serious diseases, i.e. iron-deficiency anemia, with some fatal consequences. Tea fungus beverage has high nutritional value and some pharmaceutical effects. It is widely consumed allover the world and its benefits were proved a number of times. The aim of this paper was to investigate tea fungus fermentation on a substrate containing iron(II-ions and the possibility of obtaining a beverage enriched with iron. We monitored pH, iron content and also the production of L-ascorbic acid, which is very important for iron absorption in humans.

  17. Extratos, decoctos e óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais e aromáticas na inibição de Glomerella cingulata e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides de frutos de goiaba Extracts, decoctions and essential oils of medicinal and aromatic plants in the inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Glomerella cingulata isolates from guava fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Cristina Rozwalka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A principal doença da goiaba (Psidium guajava L., após a colheita, é a antracnose, causada por Glomerella cingulata e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Estes patógenos e o resíduo de fungicidas em frutos são considerados os principais problemas para a exportaçãodesta fruta. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito fungitóxico de extratos, decoctos e óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais e aromáticas, no crescimento micelial dos patógenos, in vitro, recomendados como alternativa para o controle químico em pós-colheita. Os extratos aquosos a 10% e os decoctos (subprodutos da hidrodestilação foram adicionados em BDA, autoclavados e distribuídos em placas de Petri. Os óleos essenciais foram adicionados em três pontos eqüidistantes nas placas de Petri contendo BDA. Discos dos isolados foram repicados para o centro das placas de Petri. O efeito fungitóxico foi avaliado medindo-se o diâmetro das colônias, quando na testemunha ou em qualquer tratamento os patógenos atingiram a borda da placa. O extrato aquoso e o óleo essencial de cravo-da-Índia inibiram em 100% o crescimento de G. cingulata e C. gloeosporioides, sendo este último totalmente inibido pelo óleo essencial de capim-limão. Os decoctos de alecrim, gengibre, calêndula e laranja (Citrus sinensis apresentaram potencial de inibição sobre os isolados dos patógenos. No controle de C. gloeosporioides, destacaram-se também os decoctos de marcela, camomila e tagetes. A inibição total ou parcial do crescimento micelial de Glomerella cingulata e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, in vitro, evidenciou a existência de compostos biologicamente ativos, com efeito fungitóxico nos extratos, decoctos e óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais e aromáticas. Isto indica uma aplicação potencial destes produtos no controle alternativo da antracnose em frutos de goiabeira.The main disease of the guava (Psidium guajava L., after harvesting, is anthracnose, caused by Glomerella

  18. Root-Expressed Maize Lipoxygenase 3 Negatively Regulates Induced Systemic Resistance to Colletotrichum graminicola in Shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasie eConstantino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that disruption of a maize root-expressed 9-lipoxygenase (9-LOX gene, ZmLOX3, results in dramatic increase in resistance to diverse leaf and stalk pathogens. Despite evident economic significance of these findings, the mechanism behind this increased resistance remained elusive. In this study, we show that increased resistance of the lox3-4 mutants is due to constitutive activation of induced systemic resistance (ISR signaling. We showed that ZmLOX3 lacked expression in leaves in response to anthracnose leaf blight pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola, but was expressed constitutively in the roots, thus prompting our hypothesis: the roots of lox3-4 mutants are the source of increased resistance in leaves. Supporting this hypothesis, treatment of wild-type plants (WT with xylem sap of lox3-4 mutant induced resistance to C. graminicola to the levels comparable to those observed in lox3-4 mutant. Moreover, treating mutants with the sap collected from WT plants partially restored the susceptibility to C. graminicola. lox3-4 mutants showed primed defense responses upon infection, which included earlier and greater induction of defense-related PAL and GST genes compared to WT. In addition to the greater expression of the octadecanoid pathway genes, lox3-4 mutant responded earlier and with a greater accumulation of H2O2 in response to C. graminicola infection or treatment with alamethicin. These findings suggest that lox3-4 mutants display constitutive ISR-like signaling. In support of this idea, root colonization by Trichoderma virens strain GV29-8 induced the same level of disease resistance in WT as the treatment with the mutant sap, but had no additional resistance effect in lox3-4 mutant. While treatment with T. virens GV29 strongly and rapidly suppressed ZmLOX3 expression in hydroponically grown WT roots, T. virens Δsml mutant, which is deficient in ISR induction, was unable to suppress expression of ZmLOX3, thus

  19. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function.

  20. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

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    Zeyad Alresly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  1. Mycelium cultivation, chemical composition and antitumour activity of a Tolypocladium sp. fungus isolated from wild Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, P H; Zhang, Q X; Wu, J Y

    2006-08-01

    To examine and illustrate the morphological characteristics and growth kinetics of Cs-HK1, a Tolypocladium fungus, isolated from wild Cordyceps sinensis in solid and liquid cultures, and the major chemical constituents and antitumour effects of Cs-HK1 mycelium. The Cs-HK1 fungus was isolated from the fruiting body of a wild C. sinensis and identified as a Tolypocladium sp. fungus. It grew rapidly at 22-25 degrees C on a liquid medium containing glucose, yeast extract, peptone and major inorganic salts, with a specific growth rate of 1.1 day(-1), reaching a cell density of 23.0 g dw l(-1) in 7-9 days. Exopolysaccharides accumulated in the liquid culture to about 0.3 g l(-1) glucose equivalent. In comparison with natural C. sinensis, the fungal mycelium had similar contents of protein (11.7-microg) and carbohydrate (654.6-microg) but much higher contents of polysaccharide (244.2 mg vs 129.5 mg), adenosine (1116.8-microg vs 264.6 microg) and cordycepin (65.7 microg vs 20.8 microg) (per gram dry weight). Cyclosporin A, an antibiotic commonly produced by Tolypocladium sp., was also detected from the mycelium extract. The hot water extract of mycelium showed low cytotoxic effect on B16 melanoma cells in culture (about 25% inhibition) but significant antitumour effect in animal tests, causing 50% inhibition of B16 cell-induced tumour growth in mice. The Tolypocladium sp. fungus, Cs-HK1, can be easily cultivated by liquid fermentation. The mycelium biomass contained the major bioactive compounds of C. sinensis, and the mycelium extract had significant antitumour activity. The Cs-HK1 fungus may be a new and promising medicinal fungus and an effective and economical substitute of the wild C. sinensis for health care.

  2. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted...

  3. Determinação da variabilidade em isolados de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum por meio de marcadores morfológicos e culturais Determination of variability in isolates of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum based on morphological and cultural markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Oliveira de Souza

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (teleomorfo Glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli apresenta ampla variabilidade genética, demonstrada por suas características morfológicas. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar, por meio de marcadores morfológicos, diferentes isolados de C. lindemuthianum e identificar marcadores morfológicos com uso potencial em análises genéticas. Foram avaliados os seguintes caracteres morfológicos e culturais: cor e textura das colônias, compatibilidade vegetativa e sexual, índice de velocidade de crescimento micelial (IVCM, diâmetro colonial (DC, capacidade de esporulação (CE, dimensões e formas conidiais, dimensões dos ascósporos, formação de estruturas reprodutivas e formação de anastomoses entre hifas e conídios. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que os isolados de C. lindemuthianum possuem ampla variabilidade genética para todas as características avaliadas e que a forma do conídio pode ser usada como marcador morfológico em análises genéticas.Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (teleomorfo Glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli presents wide genetic variability, demonstrated by its morphological traits. The objective of this study was to characterize morphological markers in different isolates of C. lindemuthianum and, to identify useful morphological markers in genetic analyses. The following morphological and cultural traits were evaluated: color and texture of the colonies, vegetative and sexual compatibility, micelial growth index (MGI, colonial diameter (CD, esporulation capacity (EC, conidia dimensions and form, ascospores dimensions and formation of reproductive structures. The data showed wide genetic variability for all traits and that conidial form can be used as morphological marker in genetic analysis.

  4. Mycelial fermentation and medicinal properties of a valuable medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis Cs-HK1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jianyong

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) or Dongchongxiacao in Chinese is a rare and precious medicinal mushroom. In this work,a Tolypocladium sp. fungus named Cs-HK1 was isolated from a natural Cs fruiting body,and its ultraviolet (UV),infrared (IR) and high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) spectra all exhibited high degrees of matching to those of natural Cs,indicating the similarity of chemical composition. A crude polysac-charide (PS) fraction isolated from Cs-HK1 fungal mycelium showed significant antitumor activity,inhibiting melanoma tumor growth in mice. The PS-treated mice showed significantly higher serum interferon-γ(IFN-γ) level and higher proliferation rate of lymphocytes ex vivo than the control animals,suggestive of the immuno-modulatory activity of the PS fraction. In cell cultures,the PS fraction caused a significant and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of two cancer cell lines ,B16/neu mouse melanoma and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells,but not on normal spleen lymphocytes in vitro. Most of these bioactivities of the Cs-HK1 fungus were comparable to or even greater than those of natural Cs. The results showed that Cs-HK1 fun-gus may be a functional substitute for the natural Cs in health food and herbal medicine.

  5. A new taxol-producing fungus ( Pestalotiopsis malicola ) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new taxol-producing fungus ( Pestalotiopsis malicola ) and evidence for taxol as a transient product in the culture. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  6. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts......Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore...

  7. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus to red kidney and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fungus to red kidney and wheat plants tolerance grown in heavy metal-polluted soil. ... artificially contaminated with high oncentrations of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium. ... strategies of remediation of highly heavy metal contaminated soils.

  8. Various Stages of Pink Fungus (Upasia salmonicolor in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarwati Harsojo Tjokrosoedarmo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Pink fungus in Java is classified as Upasia salmonicolor (Basidiomycetes: Corticiaceae and its anamorph is Necator decretus. This fungus is a serious pathogen which attacks many woody plants. The pink fungus in Java exhibits five developmental stages on the surface of the host bark: I. An initial cobweb stage as thin, white, cobweb-like hyphal layer, which creeps over the surface of the bark, during which penetration of the host occurs; II. Pseudonodular stage, as conical white pustules occurring only on lenticels or cracks, and only on shady side of branches; III. Teleomorph, occurs as pink incrustation and pink pustules on shady side of branches; IV. Nodular stages, as globose white pustules occurring chiefly on intact bark, but also on the lenticels or cracks, on exposed side of branches; V. Anamorph, as small orange-red sporodochium, on exposed side of branches. Key words: pink fungus, Corticiaceae, Basidiomycetes, Necator

  9. Screening of potent anticancer drug taxol from Entophytic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muthumary

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... Isolation and detection of taxol, an anticancer drug produced from ... cancer cell line, taxol produced by the test fungus in MID culture medium was isolated for its .... then plotted on a graph. RESULTS AND ... Wavelength (nm).

  10. Evaluación in vitro de la actividad inhibitoria de extractos vegetales sobre aislados de Colletotrichum spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Sierra2 Johanna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad inhibitoria in vitro de extractos de hojas de Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare,Jatropha gossypilia, Eucalyptus sp., Melia azederach y Mascagnia concinna sobre aislados de hongo delgénero Colletotrichum, causante de la enfermedad antracnosis en el cultivo del ñame (Dioscorea alata, D.rotundata en el departamento de Sucre, Colombia. Para la obtención de extractos etanólicos de hojasde M. officinalis y O. vulgare, se utilizó el método de percolación y para las otras especies vegetales, elmétodo de Soxhlet. Una vez preparados los extractos de hojas, se evaluó su actividad inhibitoria sobreseis aislados de hongo del género Colletotrichum (BVC 279a, BVC 279b, BVC 853, BVC 040, BVC 342 yBVC 507. Para la prueba inhibitoria se utilizó el método de siembra directa sobre la superficie del mediopapa-dextrosa-agar. Sobre las diferentes cepas se adicionaron 250 μl de cada extracto por separado. Seutilizó un control positivo con nistatina (4 mg/ml y un testigo absoluto sin ningún tipo de tratamiento.La prueba se evaluó midiendo el crecimiento radial de cada cepa con los diferentes tratamientos a 96y 168 h. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones, para probardiferencias significativas entre tratamientos, cepas (aislados y tiempo de inhibición. Los resultadosexpresados en porcentaje de inhibición, mostraron una alta actividad de los extractos obtenidos de lashojas de las plantas de M. azederach y M. concinna, sobre los hongos evaluados y su acción fue similaral control positivo

  11. Evaluación in vitro de la actividad inhibitoria de extractos vegetales sobre aislados de Colletotrichum spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez Cordero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad inhibitoria in vitro de extractos de hojas de Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Jatropha gossypilia, Eucalyptus sp., Melia azederach y Mascagnia concinna sobre aislados de hongo del género Colletotrichum, causante de la enfermedad antracnosis en el cultivo del ñame (Dioscorea alata, D. rotundata en el departamento de Sucre, Colombia. Para la obtención de extractos etanólicos de hojas de M. officinalis y O. vulgare, se utilizó el método de percolación y para las otras especies vegetales, el método de Soxhlet. Una vez preparados los extractos de hojas, se evaluó su actividad inhibitoria sobre seis aislados de hongo del género Colletotrichum (BVC 279a, BVC 279b, BVC 853, BVC 040, BVC 342 y BVC 507. Para la prueba inhibitoria se utilizó el método de siembra directa sobre la superficie del medio papa-dextrosa-agar. Sobre las diferentes cepas se adicionaron 250 µl de cada extracto por separado. Se utilizó un control positivo con nistatina (4 mg/ml y un testigo absoluto sin ningún tipo de tratamiento. La prueba se evaluó midiendo el crecimiento radial de cada cepa con los diferentes tratamientos a 96 y 168 h. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones, para probar diferencias significativas entre tratamientos, cepas (aislados y tiempo de inhibición. Los resultados expresados en porcentaje de inhibición, mostraron una alta actividad de los extractos obtenidos de las hojas de las plantas de M. azederach y M. concinna, sobre los hongos evaluados y su acción fue similar al control positivo.

  12. Cytotoxic effects of Oosporein isolated from endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rmaesha eA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, oosporein, a fungal toxic secondary metabolite known to be a toxic agent causing chronic disorders in animals, was isolated from fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi of Nerium oleander L. Toxic effects of oosporein and the possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity as well as the role of oxidative stress in cytotoxicity to MDCK kidney cells and RAW 264.7 splene cells were evaluated in-vitro. Also to know the possible in-vivo toxic effects of oosporein on kidney and spleen, Balb/C mouse were treated with different concentrations of oosporein ranging from 20 uM to 200 µM. After 24 hrs of post exposure histopathological observations were made to know the effects of oosporein on target organs. Oosporein induced elevated levels of ROS generation and high levels of MDA, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, induced glutathione hydroxylase production was observed in a dose depended manner. Effects oosporein on chromosomal DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay, and increase in DNA damage were observed in both the studied cell lines by increasing the oosprin concentration. Further, oosporein treatment to studied cell lines indicated significant suppression of oxidative stress related gene (SOD1 and CAT expression, and increased levels of mRNA expression in apoptosis or oxidative stress

  13. Acrophialophora, a Poorly Known Fungus with Clinical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Guarro, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Acrophialophora fusispora is an emerging opportunistic fungus capable of causing human infections. The taxonomy of the genus is not yet resolved and, in order to facilitate identification of clinical specimens, we have studied a set of clinical and environmental Acrophialophora isolates by morphological and molecular analyses. This set included the available type strains of Acrophialophora species and similar fungi, some of which were considered by various authors to be synonyms of A. fusispora. Sequence analysis of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and a fragment of the β-tubulin (Tub) gene revealed that Acrophialophora belongs in the family Chaetomiaceae and comprises three different species, i.e., A. fusispora, Acrophialophora levis, and Acrophialophora seudatica; the latter was previously included in the genus Ampullifera. The most prevalent species among clinical isolates was A. levis (72.7%), followed by A. fusispora (27.3%), both of which were isolated mostly from respiratory specimens (72.7%), as well as subcutaneous and corneal tissue samples. In general, of the eight antifungal drugs tested, voriconazole had the greatest in vitro activity, while all other agents showed poor in vitro activity against these fungi. PMID:25716450

  14. ADR: An atypical presentation of rare dematiaceous fungus

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    J Karthika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of fungus in allergic fungal rhino sinusitis has been around 200 times in the world literature. As per the available literature, the most common agent identified so far appears to be ASPERGILLUS, though the condition is increasingly associated with Dematiaceous fungi. Here we report for the first time the presence of unusual fungus in allergic rhino sinusitis, which has not been reported so far.

  15. Scanning electron microscopy of the interaction between Cryptococcus magnus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on papaya fruit = Microscopia eletrônica de varredura da interação entre Cryptococcus magnus e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides em frutos de mamão

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capdeville, G.; Souza, M.T.; Santos, J.R.P.; Miranda, S.P.; Caetano, A.R.; Falcao, R.; Gomes, A.C.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate possible modes of action of the yeast Cryptococcus magnus in controlling anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) on post harvested papaya fruits. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the effect of the yeast on inoculations done after

  16. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  17. Potential for spread of the white-nose fungus (Pseudogymnoascus destructans) in the Americas: use of Maxent and NicheA to assure strict model transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E; Lira-Noriega, Andrés; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Townsend Peterson, A

    2014-11-01

    Emerging infectious diseases can present serious threats to wildlife, even to the point of causing extinction. Whitenose fungus (Pseudogymnoascus destructans) is causing an epizootic in bats that is expanding rapidly, both geographically and taxonomically. Little is known of the ecology and distributional potential of this intercontinental pathogen. We address this gap via ecological niche models that characterise coarse resolution niche differences between fungus populations on different continents, identifying areas potentially vulnerable to infection in South America. Here we explore a novel approach to identifying areas of potential distribution across novel geographic regions that avoids perilious extrapolation into novel environments. European and North American fungus populations show differential use of environmental space, but rather than niche differentiation, we find that changes are best attributed to climatic differences between the two continents. Suitable areas for spread of the pathogen were identified across southern South America; however caution should be taken to avoid underestimating the potential for spread of this pathogen in South America.

  18. [Biochemical basis of tolerance to osmotic stress in phytopathogenic fungus: The case of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Villarreal, Rodolfo; Garza-Romero, Tamar S; Moreno-Medina, Víctor R; Hernández-Delgado, Sanjuana; Mayek-Pérez, Netzahualcoyotl

    Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is the causative agent of charcoal rot disease which causes significant yield losses in major crops such as maize, sorghum, soybean and common beans in Mexico. This fungus is a facultative parasite which shows broad ability to adapt itself to stressed environments where water deficits and/or high temperature stresses commonly occur. These environmental conditions are common for most cultivable lands throughout Mexico. Here we describe some basic facts related to the etiology and epidemiology of the fungus as well as to the importance of responses to stressed environments, particularly to water deficits, based on morphology and growth traits, as well as on physiology, biochemistry and pathogenicity of fungus M. phaseolina. To conclude, we show some perspectives related to future research into the genus, which emphasize the increasing need to improve the knowledge based on the application of both traditional and biotechnological tools in order to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance to environmental stress which can be extrapolated to other useful organisms to man. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Malaria mosquitoes attracted by fatal fungus.

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    Justin George

    Full Text Available Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors.

  20. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Two-dimensional proteome reference maps for the human pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vödisch, Martin; Albrecht, Daniela; Lessing, Franziska; Schmidt, André D; Winkler, Robert; Guthke, Reinhard; Brakhage, Axel A; Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2009-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus has become the most important airborne fungal pathogen causing life-threatening infections in immunosuppressed patients. We established a 2-D reference map for A. fumigatus. Using MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, we identified 381 spots representing 334 proteins. Proteins involved in cellular metabolism, protein synthesis, transport processes and cell cycle were most abundant. Furthermore, we established a protocol for the isolation of mitochondria of A. fumigatus and developed a mitochondrial proteome reference map. 147 proteins represented by 234 spots were identified.

  2. Identificación de especies del género Colletotrichum asociadas a la antracnosis en papaya (Carica papaya L. En Costa Rica

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    Anthony Molina-Chaves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La antracnosis, causada por Colletotrichum spp., es una de la enfermedades poscosecha más importantes en papaya. En este estudio, frutas de papaya, híbrido Pococí, recolectados en plantaciones ubicadas en el cantón de Guácimo, provincia de Limón, presentaron 7 síntomas de antracnosis, luego de un período de almacenamiento. De cada síntoma se obtuvieron aislados de Colletotrichum en medio de cultivo PDA (papa-dextrosa-agar. Los aislamientos se clasificaron en 3 grupos según la similitud de los síntomas y la morfología de la colonia. El análisis de la secuencia de la región espaciadora interna transcrita (ITS del ADN ribosomal reveló que los aislamientos pertenecieron a 3 especies del género Colletotrichum: C. gloeosporioides sensu lato, C. magnum y C. capsici (C. truncatum. La identificación de las especies fue confirmada con imprimadores taxón específico para C. gloeosporioides e imprimadores especie-específicos para C. magnum. Las 3 especies identificadas mostraron ser patogénicas sobre frutas de papaya. Las especies C. magnum y C. capsici (C. truncatum se registran por primera vez en Costa Rica, como agentes causales de la antracnosis en papaya.

  3. Microbial inhibitors of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causal agent of white-nose syndrome in bats

    OpenAIRE

    Micalizzi, Emma W.; Mack, Jonathan N.; White, George P.; Avis, Tyler J.; Smith, Myron L.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungus that causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats, has spread across eastern North America over the past decade and decimated bat populations. The saprotrophic growth of P. destructans may help to perpetuate the white-nose syndrome epidemic, and recent model predictions suggest that sufficiently reducing the environmental growth of P. destructans could help mitigate or prevent white-nose syndrome-associated bat colony collapse. In this study, we scre...

  4. Corneal ulcer due to a rare coelomycetes fungus Chaetomium strumarium: Case report and global review of Chaetomium keratomycosis

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    Mamatha Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of corneal ulcer caused by a species of a coelomycetes fungus, Chaetomium strumarium. This fungal genus is a rare causative agent of keratomycosis, with only a handful of cases reported. The clinical presentation, investigative techniques, and preliminary management of our patient are reported. The cases reported in global literature are also summarized in a tabular form in the discussion.

  5. The effect of UV and visible light irradiation on the development of microsclerotium of the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, P.; Fischl, G.

    2002-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina is a poliphagus fungus, which is able to infect numerous host-plant (maize, sunflower, pepper) and causes large yield losses. Our in vitro experiments demonstrate, how different wavelength light irradiation influences the growth of mycelium and the formation of microsclerotium. The habit of cultures treated by blue light and UV radiation changed, the formed microsclerotia had a convenient sharpness for the data evaluation by CCD camera. The mycelium was degraded as a result of UV radiation

  6. Detection of Phakopsora pachyrhizi fungus by Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR) after soy grains treatment by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, G.B.; Aquino, S.; Guedes, R.L.; Crede, R.G.; Sabundjian, I.T.; Ruiz, M.O.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Today Brazil, as the largest soy exporter in the world, has undergone the consequences of the contamination of these crops by the Asian dust fungus, being harmed since the plantation up to the harvest, with losses in its productivity ranging 10-80%. As it is a new disease in the Americas, there are not any resistant species to this fungus attack. The grains contamination harms the exportation for countries which do not want to have their crops contaminated, affecting therefore the international commerce and agro-business relationship with those countries Brazil has trade with. The Asian dust is caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi and its dissemination is of difficult control, since occurs through the wind dispersion. The P. pachyrhizi is an Asian fungus and was recently found in South Africa, Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil. As an alternative process to minimize these losses is the process to preserve the grains by radiation, the use of the electron accelerator was indicated, since its advantage for the grains exportation industry is fundamental. Besides the possibility of being disconnected when not in use, this source does not need to be recharged, is easily available and has high dose rate, streamlining the process and reducing logistics costs. The present work aims to identify, by the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR), the P. pachyrhizi fungus presence in the irradiated soy grains, at doses 1 and 2 kGy, at the IPEN-CNEN electron Accelerator, a Dynamitron Machine (Radiation Dynamics Co. model JOB, New York, USA), with 1.5 MeV power and 2.5 mA electrical current. (author)

  7. RENDIMIENTO Y REACCIÓN A COLLETOTRICHUM LINDEMUATHIANUM EN CULTIVARES DE FRÍJOL VOLUBLE (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. YIELD AND REACTION TO COLLETOTRICHUM LINDEMUATHIANUM IN CULTIVARS OF CLIMBING BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gallego G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones de la sabana de Bogotá (Colombia, se evaluaron 32 cultivares de fríjol voluble por componentes del rendimiento y por su reacción a una mezcla de aislamientos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum procedentes de Boyacá y Cundinamarca. Los genotipos que presentaron un buen comportamiento en rendimiento y una reacción en campo a la resistencia de la enfermedad fueron: D. Moreno y 3198. Los que expresaron una reacción de resistencia a la antracnosis fueron: 3180, 3182, 3177 y G-2333. Aquellos que mostraron un buen comportamiento en componentes de rendimiento fueron: 3164, 3159, 3176 y Radical. Estos genotipos podrían usarse como posibles candidatos parentales ó sobresalientes en el programa de mejoramiento de fríjol. También se realizó análisis de dos marcadores moleculares tipo SCAR ligados a los genes Co-4 y Co-5 que confieren resistencia a C. lindemuthianum, ninguno de los materiales de evaluación a excepción del testigo resistente G-2333, amplificó los marcadores SCAR, asociados a los genes de resistencia de interés.Under Bogotá plateau (Colombia conditions, 32 cultivars of climbing bean were evaluated by components of yield and by reaction with a mixture of isolations of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum coming from Boyacá and Cundinamarca. The cultivars that presented a good behavior in yield and resistance reaction to the disease were: D. Moreno and 3198. Those that expressed a resistant reaction to the anthracnose were: 3180, 3182, 3177 and G-2333. Finally those that showed a good behavior in yield components were 3164, 3159, 3176 and Radical. These genotypes could be used as excellent candidates in the breeding program of common bean. It was also carried out a test for each cultivar, by means of two markers molecular type SCAR tried to resistance genes to anthracnose Co-4 and Co-5. Any of the evaluation materials amplified for the couple of genes, except for the resistant control G-2333.

  8. Herança de coloração de bulbos em cebola (Allium cepa L. com resistência a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Inheritace of bulb color in onion (Alllum cepa L. resitant to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I.I. Cardoso

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a herança de coloração de bulbos de cebola a partir do cruzamento de bulbos brancos com resistência a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Mal de 7 voltas segregantes da população Roxa do Barreiro com bulbos amarelos de linhagens endogâmicas obtidas das variedades Super Precoce e Pira Ouro. Para tal obtiveram-se as gerações F1 e F2 entre (Super Precoce x Barreiro "Branca" e entre (Pira Ouro x Barreiro "Branca". Nas gerações F1 obtiveram-se apenas bulbos roxos, enquanto que nas gerações F2 obtiveram-se uma segregação para bulbos roxos, brancos e amarelos numa proporção aproximada de 9:4:3, o que permitiu concluir que a herança, para estes cruzamentos, foi devida a 2 pares de genes contrastantes nas populações progenitoras, cujos genótipos, com base na literatura, são: ii cc RR (Barreiro Branca e ii CC rr (linhagens de Super Precoce e de Pira Ouro. Conclui-se, também, que é possível, a partir destes cruzamentos, obter uma variedade ou linhagem com resistência a C. gloeosporioides somente com bulbos amarelos ou com bulbos brancos com genótipo homozigoto recessivo para todos os genes, que quando cruzada com outra amarela pode-se obter uma geração F1 com bulbos amarelos e com resistência a C. gloeosporioides.The inheritance of onion bulb color was studied utilizing white bulbs resistant to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that segregated from the population 'Roxa do Barreiro' and two inbred Unes with yellow bulbs originated from 'Super Precoce" and 'Pira Ouro' cultivars. The white bulbs and the inbred Unes were crossed to obtain the F1 and F2 generations (yellow x white. Both F1 generations were of red bulbs and in the F2 generation there were segregations to red, white and yellow bulbs in a proportion of 9:4:3, respectively. It was concluded that the inheritance of bulb color in these crosses is controlled by two contrasting genes hi the parental (ii cc RR = white bulbs, ii CC rr

  9. Diversidade fenotípica e patogênica de Colletotrichum, agente causal da antracnose em mangueira, e identificação de espécie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.R.S. Serra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a diversidade fenotípica e patogênica de 40 isolados de Colletotrichum obtidos de mangueira no Nordeste do Brasil e identificar diferentes espécies desse fitopatógeno, agente causal de antracnose, através da análise da seqüência da região ITS do rDNA. Quanto à caracterização morfológica e cultural, as colônias dos isolados apresentaram diversidade em relação à cor e aspecto, sendo mais comum à cor branco-cinza, característica de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Não foram observadas variações expressivas na morfologia dos 40 isolados. Os conídios apresentaram-se, predominantemente, hialinos e unicelulares, com formato variando de bastonete para cilíndrico. Todos os isolados produziram apressórios variados em formato e quantidade e apenas 10 isolados apresentaram setas. Para efeito do crescimento micelial e taxa de crescimento foi possível classificar os isolados em sete grupos. Vinte e dois isolados exibiram taxa de crescimento >10mm/dia, considerada típica da espécie C. gloeosporioides. Os isolados foram patogênicos em folhas destacadas de mangueira, induzindo sintomas de antracnose, na forma de manchas escuras levemente deprimidas, e apresentando variações quanto à agressividade. Na identificação específica, baseada na análise da seqüência ITS do DNA ribossomal, 36 isolados amplificaram com o oligonucleotídeos CgInt, específico para C. gloeosporioides e o ITS4, Os isolados CM1, CM4, CM5 e CM10, não amplificaram produtos para nenhum dos oligonucleotídeos específicos, sendo identificados como Colletotrichum spp. Os resultados desse trabalho demonstraram que isolados de Colletotrichum, obtidos de mangueira, apresentam ampla variabilidade morfofisiológica e patogênica. E que, possivelmente, existe mais de uma espécie de Colletotrichum que causa antracnose em mangueira no Nordeste do Brasil.

  10. Termite-egg mimicry by a sclerotium-forming fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji

    2006-05-22

    Mimicry has evolved in a wide range of organisms and encompasses diverse tactics for defence, foraging, pollination and social parasitism. Here, I report an extraordinary case of egg mimicry by a fungus, whereby the fungus gains competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Brown fungal balls, called 'termite balls', are frequently found in egg piles of Reticulitermes termites. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that termite-ball fungi isolated from different hosts (Reticulitermes speratus, Reticulitermes flavipes and Reticulitermes virginicus) were all very similar, with no significant molecular differences among host species or geographical locations. I found no significant effect of termite balls on egg survivorship. The termite-ball fungus rarely kills termite eggs in natural colonies. Even a termite species (Reticulitermes okinawanus) with no natural association with the fungus tended termite balls along with its eggs when it was experimentally provided with termite balls. Dummy-egg bioassays using glass beads showed that both morphological and chemical camouflage were necessary to induce tending by termites. Termites almost exclusively tended termite balls with diameters that exactly matched their egg size. Moreover, scanning electron microscopic observations revealed sophisticated mimicry of the smooth surface texture of eggs. These results provide clear evidence that this interaction is beneficial only for the fungus, i.e. termite balls parasitically mimic termite eggs.

  11. A case of pseudoaneurysm due to fungus ball within the progressive massive fibrosis in a patient with pneumoconiosis: Computed tomography-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Geun; Ryu, Dae Shick; Park, Man Soo; Choi, Soo Jung; Kang, Chae Hoon; Shin, Dong Rock; Ahn, Jae Hong [Dept. of Radiology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We reported a case of pseudoaneurysm in the upper lobar branch of the right pulmonary artery, which was caused by a fungus ball within the progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) in a patient with pneumoconiosis. Coil embolization of the pseudoaneurysm initially stopped the bleeding. After right upper lobe lobectomy to prevent the recurrent hemoptysis, pathology confirmed pseudoaneurysm within the PMF due to aspergilloma.

  12. INFLUENCE OF METRONIDAZOLE, CO, CO2, AND METHANOGENS ON THE FERMENTATIVE METABOLISM OF THE ANAEROBIC FUNGUS NEOCALLIMASTIX SP STRAIN L2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; REES, E; KRAAK, MN; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    The effects of metronidazole, CO, methanogens, and CO, on the fermentation of glucose by the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain L2 were investigated. Both metronidazole and CO caused a shift in the fermentation products from predominantly H-2, acetate, and formate to lactate as the major

  13. Genomic insight into pathogenicity of dematiaceous fungus Corynespora cassiicola

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    Hong Keat Looi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008. The isolation of UM 591 from a patient’s contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases. The assembly size of UM 591 genome is 41.8 Mbp, and a total of 13,531 (≥99 bp genes have been predicted. UM 591 is enriched with genes that encode for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, auxiliary activity enzymes and cell wall degrading enzymes. Virulent genes comprising of CAZymes, peptidases, and hypervirulence-associated cutinases were found to be present in the fungal genome. Comparative analysis result shows that UM 591 possesses higher number of carbohydrate esterases family 10 (CE10 CAZymes compared to other species of fungi in this study, and these enzymes hydrolyses wide range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate substrates. Putative melanin, siderophore, ent-kaurene, and lycopene biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted, and these gene clusters denote that UM 591 are capable of protecting itself from the UV and chemical stresses, allowing it to adapt to different environment. Putative sterigmatocystin, HC-toxin, cercosporin, and gliotoxin biosynthesis gene cluster are predicted. This finding have highlighted the necrotrophic and invasive nature of UM 591.

  14. Colletotrichum isolates related to Anthracnose of cashew trees in Brazil: morphological and molecular description using LSU rDNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Queijeiro Lopez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six isolates of fungi obtained from anthracnose lesions of cashew and associated host plants in Brazil, were compared by their cultural, morphological and partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal DNA characters. They showed a high degree of cultural variability. The average mycelial growth rate on all tested media ranged from 10.2-13.3 mm/day between the isolates. Most of them produced perithecia (sterile and fertile and some produced setae (sterile and fertile. All the isolates produced acervuli with predominantly cylindrical conidia (12.4-17.7 µmX 4.8-6.0 µm in width with round ends, which became septate on germination, and produced unlobed or slightlylobed appressoria. Comparison of the D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU rDNA sequences with those of other defined species of Colletotrichum and Glomerella grouped 35 of the isolates with known strains of C. gloeosporioides from different hosts (> 98.9% homology. The one exception (LARS 921 was identical to G. cingulata (LARS 238 from Vigna unguiculata.Trinta e seis isolados de fungos obtidos de lesões de antracnose em cajueiros e outras plantas consorciadas no Brasil, foram comparados quanto a seus aspectos culturais, morfológicos e seqüências parciais do rDNA 28S. Os isolados apresentaram elevado grau de variabilidade cultural, com taxa de crescimento médio, em todos os meios testados, entre 10,2 e 13,3 mm/dia. A maioria deles produziu peritécios (estéreis e férteis, e alguns produziram setas (estéreis e férteis nos diferentes meios. Todos apresentaram acérvulos com predominância de conídios cilíndricos (12,4-17,7 µm X 4,8-6,0 µm, de extremidades arredondadas, formando septos durante a germinação e produzindo apressórios ligeiramente lobados ou lisos. Comparando as seqüências do domínio D2 da larga subunidade (LSU do rDNA dos isolados com aquelas já identificadas de espécies de Colletotrichum/ Glomerella, verificou-se que 35 deles correspondem a C

  15. The Physiology of Microbial Symbionts in Fungus-Farming Termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Costa, Rafael

    . The termites provide the fungus with optimal growth conditions (e.g., stable temperature and humidity), as well as with constant inoculation of growth substrate and protection against alien fungi. In reward, the fungus provides the termites with a protein-rich fungal biomass based diet. In addition...... with their symbionts are main decomposer of organic matter in Africa, and this is reflect of a metabolic complementarity to decompose plant biomass in the genome of the three organisms involved in this symbiosis. Many of the physiological aspects of this symbiosis remain obscure, and here I focus on physiology...... of microbial symbionts associated with fungus-growing termites. Firstly, by using a set of enzyme assays, plant biomass compositional analyses, and RNA sequencing we gained deeper understanding on what enzymes are produced and active at different times of the decomposition process. Our results show that enzyme...

  16. Multifarious plant growth promotion by an entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium psalliotae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, C M; Jacob, T K; Devasahayam, S; Thomas, Stephy; Geethu, C

    2018-03-01

    An entomopathogenic fungus, Lecanicillium psalliotae strain IISR-EPF-02 previously found infectious to cardamom thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi promoted plant growth in cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum. The isolate exhibited direct plant growth promoting traits by production of indole-3-acetic acid and ammonia and by solubilizing inorganic phosphate and zinc. It also showed indirect plant growth promoting traits by producing siderophores and cell wall-degrading enzymes like, α-amylases, cellulases and proteases. In pot culture experiments, application of the fungus at the root zone of cardamom seedlings significantly increased shoot and root length, shoot and root biomass, number of secondary roots and leaves and leaf chlorophyll content compared to untreated plants. This is the first report on the plant growth promoting traits of this fungus. The entomopathogenic and multifarious growth promoting traits of L. psalliotae strain IISR-EPF-02 suggest that it has great potential for exploitation in sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase Khasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  18. Noninvasive medical management of fungus ball uropathy in a premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalay, A L; Srugo, I; Blifeld, C; Komaiko, M S; Pomerance, J J

    1991-09-01

    Unilateral renal obstruction secondary to fungus balls is described in a premature infant. Noninvasive medical management, which included amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine therapy and forced diuresis, resulted in disappearance of fungus balls and resolution of the obstruction.

  19. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C.R.; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a

  20. Caracterização morfológica e fisiológica de isolados de Colletotrichum sp. causadores de antracnose em solanáceas Morphological and physiological characterization of Colletotrichum sp. isolates from solanaceous crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo J. Tozze Júnior

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A antracnose é uma doença freqüente nas hortaliças solanáceas. O agente causal é reportado como o fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Neste trabalho caracterizou-se a morfologia e a fisiologia de Colletotrichum sp. obtidos de pimenta, pimentão e jiló. A caracterização morfológica se baseou no tamanho e forma dos conídios e na forma dos apressórios de 30 isolados. A caracterização fisiológica foi baseada no crescimento em diferentes temperaturas, utilização de diferentes fontes de carbono e sensibilidade ao fungicida benomyl. Quinze isolados foram cultivados em meio BDA, nas temperaturas de 10, 15, 20, 25, 28, e 30ºC. Trinta e dois isolados foram cultivados em meio mínimo acrescido de glicose, frutose, lactose, maltose, sacarose ou amido. Além disso, 43 isolados foram cultivados em meio BDA suplementado com 0, 1, 10 e 100 mig/mL de benomyl. Os isolados de jiló apresentaram menor sensibilidade ao benomyl e predominância de conídios fusiformes, com ápices afilados e menores dimensões, características semelhantes às citadas para C. acutatum. Os isolados de pimentão e pimenta apresentaram alta sensibilidade ao benomyl e predominância de conídios cilíndricos com ápices arredondados, características citadas para C. gloeosporioides. Apressórios de formato irregular, circular e ovalado foram observados independente do hospedeiro de origem do isolado. O amido foi a fonte de carbono que proporcionou maior desenvolvimento micelial para a maioria dos isolados. A temperatura ótima de desenvolvimento, para todos os isolados, foi próxima a 25ºC, exceto para um único isolado de pimenta, com maior desenvolvimento a 28ºC. A velocidade de crescimento micelial para todos os isolados, em todas as temperaturas testadas, foi semelhante à apresentada pelo isolado padrão de C. acutatum usado no teste. Os isolados de pimentão e pimenta foram os que mostraram maior variabilidade para as características estudadas. Finalmente

  1. Genome-wide association study of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans ...

  2. The bacterial community associated with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) leaves responds to anthracnose symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, Thais Freitas; Vollu, Renata Estebanez; Marques, Joana Montezano; Salles, Joana Falcao; Seldin, Lucy

    Background The fungus Colletotrichum is a plant pathogen that causes the anthracnose disease, resulting in huge losses in various crops including the rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens). Although the bacterial community associated with plants has an important role in the establishment of

  3. Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusak, V. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav Experimentalni Mediciny)

    1982-06-01

    Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself.

  4. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  5. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2012-06-06

    In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray

  6. Biotransformation of (+)-cycloisolongifolol by plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Sakata, Kazuki

    2007-05-01

    The biotransformation of terpenoids using the plant pathogenic fungus as a biocatalyst to produce useful novel organic compounds was investigated. The biotransformation of sesquiterpen alcohol, (+)-cycloisolongifolol (1) was investigated using plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. Compound 1 gave one major metabolic product and a number of minor metabolic products. Major product was dehydration at the C-8 position to (+)-dehydrocycloisolongifolene (2). The structure of the product was determined by their spectroscopic data. Glomerella cingulata gave dehydration in the specifically and over 70% conversion.

  7. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    are consumed (cf. [ [1] and [2] ]). Fungus-growing termites are found throughout the Old World tropics, in rain forests and savannas, but are ecologically dominant in savannas [ 3 ]. Here, we reconstruct the ancestral habitat and geographical origin of fungus-growing termites. We used a statistical model...... of habitat switching [ 4 ] repeated over all phylogenetic trees sampled in a Bayesian analysis of molecular data [ 5 ]. Our reconstructions provide strong evidence that termite agriculture originated in African rain forest and that the main radiation leading to the extant genera occurred there. Because...

  8. Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusak, V.

    1982-01-01

    Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself. (H.S.)

  9. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some of the func......Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some...... will be powerful, particularly if executed in comparative analyses across the well-established congruent termite-fungus phylogenies. This will allow for testing if gut communities have evolved in parallel with their hosts, with implications for our general understanding of the evolution of gut symbiont communities...

  10. Monitoring persistence of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae under simulated field conditions with the aim of controlling adult Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolino, Aline T; Paula, Adriano R; Silva, Carlos P; Butt, Tariq M; Samuels, Richard I

    2014-04-25

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management, with recent emphasis aimed at developing adult mosquito control methods. Here we investigated the persistence of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae when tested against female A. aegypti under field conditions. Black cotton cloths impregnated with M. anisopliae conidia, formulated in vegetable oil + isoparaffin, were maintained on a covered veranda for up to 30 days. At specific times, pieces of the cloths were removed, placed in Tween 80 and the resuspended conidia were sprayed directly onto mosquitoes. The persistence of conidia impregnated on black cloths using three different carriers was evaluated in test rooms. Fifty mosquitoes were released into each room and after a 5 day period, the surviving insects were captured. Another 50 insects were then released into each room. The capacity of the fungus at reducing mosquito survival was evaluated over a total of 35 days. Conidia extracted from cloths maintained on the veranda for 2 to 18 days remained virulent, with 28 to 60% mosquito survival observed. Mosquito survival following exposure to fungus impregnated cloths showed that fungus + Tween caused similar reductions to that of fungus + vegetable oil. Mosquitoes exposed to the formulation fungus + vegetable oil had survival rates of 36% over the first 5 days of the experiment. Following the release of the second cohort of mosquitoes (6-11days), survival increased to 50%. The survival of the 12-17 day cohort (78%) was statistically equal to that of the controls (84%). Formulation of the fungus in vegetable oil + isoparaffin increased the persistence of the fungus, with the 18-23 day cohort (64% survival) still showing statistical differences to that of the controls (87% survival). The potential of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of adult A. aegypti was confirmed under field conditions. Vegetable oil + isoparaffin formulations of M. anisopliae significantly increased the

  11. Optimized integration of T-DNA in the taxol-producing fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We previously reported a taxol-producing fungus Pestalotiopsis malicola. There, we described the transformation of the fungus mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. T-DNA carrying the selection marker was transferred into the fungus and randomly integrated into the genome as shown by Southern blotting.

  12. Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael; Suen, Garret

    2009-01-01

    's fungus garden, antibiotic-producing actinobacteria that help protect the fungus garden from the parasite, and a black yeast that parasitizes the ant-actinobacteria mutualism. The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because...

  13. BIOTRANSFORMACIÓN DE LOS SUSTRATOS 2-FENILETANOL Y ACETOFENONA CON EL HONGO FITOPATÓGENO Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aristizábal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluaron las biotransformaciones realizadas por el hongo fitopatógeno Colletotrichum acutatum, sobre los sustratos 2-feniletanol 1 y acetofenona 2; los procesos se realizaron en el medio de cultivo líquido Czapeck-Dox a temperatura promedio de 24 oC, humedad relativa entre 45 % y 60 % y agitación a 150 rpm en un agitador orbital tipo shaker.  En la biotransformación a partir del sustrato 1 se obtuvieron los productos metabólicos 1-fenil-1,2-etanodiol 3, (2-metoxietilbenceno 4 y acetato de 2-feniletilo 5, y desde el sustrato 2 los compuestos 1-fenil-1,2-etanodiol 3, 1-feniletanol 6 y 2-feniletanol 1.  Los productos de la transformación microbiana se identificaron mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (CG-EM y resonancia magnética nuclear de protón y carbono (RMN 1H y 13C. Se observó una tendencia marcada del patógeno a producir hidroxilaciones sobre el sustituyente del anillo aromático; igualmente tiene la capacidad de reducir el grupo carbonilo y esterificar los grupos hidroxilo de alcoholes primarios.  Se discute una posible ruta metabólica para la transformación de los sustratos.

  14. Extracellular proteases from Streptomyces phaeopurpureus ExPro138 inhibit spore adhesion, germination and appressorium formation in Colletotrichum coccodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, S A; Yang, S H; Suh, J-W

    2013-07-01

    To study the antifungal mechanism of proteases from Streptomyces phaeopurpureus strain ExPro138 towards Colletotrichum coccodes and to evaluate its utilization as biofungicide. We screened proteolytic Streptomyces strains from the yam rhizosphere with antifungal activity. Forty proteolytic Streptomyces were isolated, among which eleven isolates showed gelatinolytic activity and antagonistic activity on C. coccodes. Of the 11 isolates, protease preparation from an isolate designated ExPro138 showed antifungal activity. 16S rDNA sequence analysis of the strain showed 99% similarity with Streptomyces phaeopurepureus (EU841588.1). Zymography analysis of the ExPro138 culture filtrate revealed that the strain produced several extracellular proteases. The protease preparation inhibited spore germination, spore adhesion to polystyrene surface and appressorium formation. Microscopic study of the interaction between ExPro138 and C. coccodes revealed that ExPro138 was mycoparasitic on C. coccodes. The protease preparation also reduced anthracnose incidence on tomato fruits compared with untreated control. This study demonstrates possibility of utilizing antifungal proteases derived from antagonistic microbes as biofungicide. Microbial proteases having the ability to inhibit spore adhesion and appressorium formation could be used to suppress infection establishment by foliar fungal pathogens at the initial stages of the infection process. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Flow cytometric purification of Colletotrichum higginsianum biotrophic hyphae from Arabidopsis leaves for stage-specific transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Hiroyuki; Dolf, Andreas; Endl, Elmar; O'Connell, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Generation of stage-specific cDNA libraries is a powerful approach to identify pathogen genes that are differentially expressed during plant infection. Biotrophic pathogens develop specialized infection structures inside living plant cells, but sampling the transcriptome of these structures is problematic due to the low ratio of fungal to plant RNA, and the lack of efficient methods to isolate them from infected plants. Here we established a method, based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), to purify the intracellular biotrophic hyphae of Colletotrichum higginsianum from homogenates of infected Arabidopsis leaves. Specific selection of viable hyphae using a fluorescent vital marker provided intact RNA for cDNA library construction. Pilot-scale sequencing showed that the library was enriched with plant-induced and pathogenicity-related fungal genes, including some encoding small, soluble secreted proteins that represent candidate fungal effectors. The high purity of the hyphae (94%) prevented contamination of the library by sequences derived from host cells or other fungal cell types. RT-PCR confirmed that genes identified in the FACS-purified hyphae were also expressed in planta. The method has wide applicability for isolating the infection structures of other plant pathogens, and will facilitate cell-specific transcriptome analysis via deep sequencing and microarray hybridization, as well as proteomic analyses.

  16. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SLOVAK ISOLATES OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS PANDORA NEOAPHIDIS (REMAUDIÈRE ET HENNEBERT HUMBER (ZYGOMYCETES, ENTOMOPHTHORALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek BARTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variability of biological characteristics within entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis was evaluated. Fifteen isolates of the fungus were obtained from 5 aphid species in Slovakia. Size of conidia, conidial germination, virulence, radial growth, and biomass production were evaluated. Conidial size varied considerably with exception of isolates originating from the same host population. Conidial germination was observed on all the surfaces tested and it was greatest at saturated humidity. Virulence, daily rate of radial growth and biomass production varied depending on isolates. Isolates obtained from the same host colonies during fungal epizootics shoved also significant differences in the characteristics, what may suggest that epizootics in aphid populations are caused by associations of strains and not by prevalence of a single virulent strain.

  17. Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides causando antracnose em frutos de pupunheira nos estados de Minas Gerais e Paraná Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnosis on peach palm fruits in Minas Gerais and Paraná States, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Vida

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes para palmito tem-se expandido para algumas regiões do Sudeste e Sul do Brasil, ocupando áreas abandonadas pela agricultura no espaço territorial de domínio da Mata Atlântica. Em plantas adultas de pupunheira, cultivadas para a produção de sementes nos estados de Minas Gerais e Paraná, verificou-se ocorrência de antracnose nos frutos, causando severa podridão. O fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides foi isolado de tecidos doentes e a sua patogenicidade aos frutos da pupunheira foi confirmada em condições controladas. Essa foi a primeira constatação da doença em frutos nos estados de Minas Gerais e Paraná.The cultivation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes for production of palm heart has increased in Southeast and Southern Brazil, in areas of domain of Atlantic Forest. Adult peach palm plants kept for seed production have suffered severe rot damages on fruits, resulting from coalescence of spots. The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated from the damaged tissues and its pathogenicity to peach palm fruits was confirmed under controlled conditions. This is the first report of this disease damaging peach palm fruits in the Minas Gerais and Parana States.

  18. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongjie Li; Daniel J. Yelle; Chang Li; Mengyi Yang; Jing Ke; Ruijuan Zhang; Yu Liu; Na Zhu; Shiyou Liang; Xiaochang Mo; John Ralph; Cameron R. Currie; Jianchu Mo

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating...

  19. Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry.

  20. The genome sequence of the model ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espagne, Eric; Lespinet, Olivier; Malagnac, Fabienne; Da Silva, Corinne; Jaillon, Olivier; Porcel, Betina M; Couloux, Arnaud; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ségurens, Béatrice; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Véronique; Grossetete, Sandrine; Khalili, Hamid; Coppin, Evelyne; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Picard, Marguerite; Contamine, Véronique; Arnaise, Sylvie; Bourdais, Anne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Gautheret, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne Gj; Henrissat, Bernard; Khoury, Riyad El; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Boivin, Antoine; Pinan-Lucarré, Bérangère; Sellem, Carole H; Debuchy, Robert; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dung-inhabiting ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is a model used to study various aspects of eukaryotic and fungal biology, such as ageing, prions and sexual development. RESULTS: We present a 10X draft sequence of P. anserina genome, linked to the sequences of a large expressed

  1. Identification of a taxol-producing endophytic fungus EFY-36

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Morphological and molecular methods were used to identify the statues of an isolate, EFY-36, a taxol- ... of the spores. The analysis of endophytic fungus. 18S ribosome RNA sequence used PCR cloning technology. DNA was extracted by the CTAB method. ... of the fungal mycelium (magnification: 400 ×).

  2. Identification and characterization of glucoamylase from the fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Thor Seneca; Johnsen, Anders; Josefsen, K.

    2006-01-01

    the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii. cDNA encoding Thermomyces lanuginosus glucoamylase was expression cloned into Pichia pastoris, producing approximately 7.4 U/ml. It was concluded that alternative mRNA splicing as it might occur in Aspergillus niger glucoamylase is not responsible for the occurrence...

  3. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  4. The role of enzymes in fungus-growing ant evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

    behaviour. Here we report the first large-scale comparative study on fungus garden enzyme profiles and show that various interesting changes can be documented. A more detailed analysis of laccase expression, an enzyme that is believed to oxidize phenols in defensive secondary plant compounds such as tannins...

  5. A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone from Fungus Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yabin; Yang, Fangfang; Zhao, Lixing; Duang, Rongting; Chen, Guangyi; Li, Xiaozhan; Li, Qiling; Qin, Shaohuan; Ding, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone, peniginsengin A (1), was isolated from the fermentation of Penicillium sp. YIM PH30003, an endophytic fungus associated with Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen. The structure was assigned based on a combination of 1 D and 2 D NMR and mass spectral data. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of compound 1 were investigated.

  6. The origin of Ceratocystis fagacearum, the oak wilt fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Thomas C. Harrington; William L. MacDonald; David N. Appel

    2008-01-01

    The oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, may be another example of a damaging, exotic species in forest ecosystems in the United States. Though C. fagacearum has received much research attention, the origin of the fungus is unknown. The pathogen may have been endemic at a low incidence until increased disturbances, changes...

  7. Rethinking crop-disease management in fungus-growing ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Ant fungus farming has become a prominent model for studying the evolution of mutualistic cooperation, with recent advances in reconstructing the evolutionary origin and elaborations of the symbiosis (1, 2), discovering additional partners and clarifying their interactions (3, 4), and analyzing

  8. An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Ng'habi, K.R.N.; Kihonda, J.; Takken, W.; Paaijmans, K.P.; Abdulla, S.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biological control of malaria mosquitoes in Africa has rarely been used in vector control programs. Recent developments in this field show that certain fungi are virulent to adult Anopheles mosquitoes. Practical delivery of an entomopathogenic fungus that infected and killed adult Anopheles gambiae,

  9. Consistent association of fungus Fusarium mangiferae Britz with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In exotic ones, maximum and minimum infections of 97.33 and 70.67% were noted in the cultivars Sensation and Pop, respectively. Light and transmission electron microscopy proved helpful in investigating the morphological matrix and ultrastructure of the propagules of fungus F. mangiferae. Key words: Mangifera indica, ...

  10. Comparative nutritional evaluation of fungus and alkali treated rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding trial was conducted with growing white albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) for 56 days to determine whether alkali (NaOH) or fungus (Mushroom) treatment of rice husk would affect rat's performance. The treated rice husk comprised 10% of the rat's diets, the rests of which were 50% maize, 20% soybeans, 19% ...

  11. A Brazilian social bee must cultivate fungus to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; Zampieri, Davila; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; Luchessi, Augusto Ducati; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-11-02

    The nests of social insects provide suitable microenvironments for many microorganisms as they offer stable environmental conditions and a rich source of food [1-4]. Microorganisms in turn may provide several benefits to their hosts, such as nutrients and protection against pathogens [1, 4-6]. Several examples of symbiosis between social insects and microorganisms have been found in ants and termites. These symbioses have driven the evolution of complex behaviors and nest structures associated with the culturing of the symbiotic microorganisms [5, 7, 8]. However, while much is known about these relationships in many species of ants and termites, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and social bees have been poorly explored [3, 4, 9, 10]. Here, we report the first case of an obligatory relationship between the Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis and a fungus of the genus Monascus (Ascomycotina). Fungal mycelia growing on the provisioned food inside the brood cell are eaten by the larva. Larvae reared in vitro on sterilized larval food supplemented with fungal mycelia had a much higher survival rate (76%) compared to larvae reared under identical conditions but without fungal mycelia (8% survival). The fungus was found to originate from the material from which the brood cells are made. Since the bees recycle and transport this material between nests, fungus would be transferred to newly built cells and also to newly founded nests. This is the first report of a fungus cultivation mutualism in a social bee. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Consistent association of fungus Fusarium mangiferae Britz with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... F. mangiferae proved to be the dominant fungus hosting majority of the malformed tissues. Among the indigenous ... tion amongst fruit crops due to its specific nature, growth pattern and ... It is affected by various animate and ...

  13. Simultaneous Chronic Invasive Fungal Infection and Tracheal Fungus Ball Mimicking Cancer in an Immunocompetent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan Çetinkaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the lung are uncommon and mainly affect people with immune deficiency. There are crucial problems in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and candidiasis are the most common opportunistic fungal infections. Aspergillus species (spp. are saprophytes molds that exist in nature as spores and rarely cause disease in immunocompetent individuals. In patients with immune deficiency or chronic lung disease, such as cavitary lung disease or bronchiectasis, Aspergillus may cause a variety of aspergillosis infections. Here we present a case of a 57-year-old patient without immunodeficiency or chronic lung disease who was diagnosed with endotracheal fungus ball and chronic fungal infection, possibly due to Aspergillus. Bronchoscopic examination showed a paralyzed right vocal cord and vegetating mass that was yellow in color, at the posterior wall of tracheal lumen. After 3 months, both the parenchymal and tracheal lesions were completely resolved.

  14. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Scorsetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T. cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T. cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC, on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween ® 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC. The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10 7 conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24°C, the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween® 20 at the lower two incubation temperatures of 4

  15. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorsetti, Ana C; Elíades, Lorena A; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2012-06-01

    Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4 degreeC, 12 degreeC and 24 degreeC), on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4 degree C, 12 degree C and 24 degree C). The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10(7) conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24 degreeC), the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween 20 at the lower two incubation

  16. Molecular and phytochemical investigation of Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis essential oils and their biological activity against Aedes aegypti, Stephanitis pyrioides, and Colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Gao, Zengping; Demirci, Betul; Techen, Natascha; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Sampson, Blair J; Werle, Chris; Bernier, Ulrich R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Baser, Kemal Husnu Can

    2014-09-03

    In this study, Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis root essential oils were investigated as pest management perspectives, and root samples were also analyzed genetically using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a DNA barcode marker. A. pubescentis root essential oil demonstrated weak antifungal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. dahurica root essential oil did not show antifungal activity. Conversely, A. dahurica root essential oil demonstrated better biting deterrent and insecticidal activity against yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and azalea lace bugs, Stephanitis pyrioides, than A. pubescentis root oil. The major compounds in the A. dahurica oil were found as α-pinene (46.3%), sabinene (9.3%), myrcene (5.5%), 1-dodecanol (5.2%), and terpinen-4-ol (4.9%). α-Pinene (37.6%), p-cymene (11.6%), limonene (8.7%), and cryptone (6.7%) were the major compounds found in the A. pubescentis oil. In mosquito bioassays, 1-dodecanol and 1-tridecanol showed antibiting deterrent activity similar to the positive control DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) at 25 nmol/cm(2) against Ae. aegypti, whereas only 1-tridecanol showed repellent activity in human-based cloth patch bioassay with minimum effective dosages (MED) of 0.086 ± 0.089 mg/cm(2) (DEET = 0.007 ± 0.003 mg/cm(2)). In larval bioassays, 1-tridecanol was more toxic with an LC50 value of 2.1 ppm than 1-dodecanol having an LC50 value of 5.2 ppm against 1-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. 1-Dodecanol and 1-tridecanol could be useful for the natural mosquito control agents.

  17. Efeito da temperatura e período de molhamento sobre o desenvolvimento de lesões de Colletotrichum musae em banana Effect of temperature and wet period on the development of Colletotrichum musae lesions in banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Rogério Leocádio Soares Pessoa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A banana é a segunda fruta mais consumida no mundo, porém do campo até o mercado consumidor algo em torno de 40 % é perdido devido entre outras causas as doenças pós-colheita e a mais significativa é a antracnose. Diante da necessidade do conhecimento de fatores ambientais que condicionam estas perdas, o trabalho objetivou avaliar métodos de inoculação (com discos de BDA e estruturas do patógeno e suspensão de conídios com e sem ferimento e a influência da temperatura (10,15,20,25 e 30 ºC e do período de molhamento (0, 12, 24 e 36 h sobre o desenvolvimento de Colletotrichum musae em banana. As frutas foram inoculadas com 17 isolados de C. musae onde todos mostraram-se patogênicos quando inoculados com ferimento independentemente do tipo de inóculo utilizado. No experimento envolvendo temperatura e período de molhamento, utilizou-se três isolados de C. musae, MAG2, SFV1 e FSA, que se comportaram como mais agressivo, intermediário e pouco agressivo, respectivamente. As temperaturas em torno de 20, 25 e 30 ºC e os períodos de molhamento testados favoreceram um maior desenvolvimento de lesões, sendo as maiores lesões observadas em temperaturas ao redor de 25 e 30 ºC, com redução à medida que ocorria uma diminuição da temperatura para todos os isolados testados. A temperatura em torno de 15 ºC proporcionou o menor desenvolvimento da doença.,The banana is the second more consumed fruit in the world, but there is a product loss of about 40% from field to consuming market due to several factors including the postharvest diseases, being the anthracnose most significative among them. Considering the necessity of studying the environmental factors that affect this losses, the objective of this work was to evaluate methods of inoculation (PDA discs with pathogen structures and suspension of conidia with and without wound and the influence of temperature (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30ºC and wet period (0, 12, 24 and 36 hours on the

  18. Avaliação de genótipos de bananeira à Colletotrichum musae em pós-colheita Evaluation of genotypes of banana to Colletotrichum musae in postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Batista Pinho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alguns hibridos tetraploides apresentam resistência à antracnose, porém são reduzidas as informações sobre os níveis de resistência desses genótipos e o comportamento dos mesmos no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a incidência e a severidade de antracnose sobre o comportamento de diferentes genótipos de bananeiras resistentes a Sigatoka-Negra em função de diferentes concentrações de conídios de Colletotrichum musae em diferentes épocas de avaliação. Os frutos colhidos no estádio de maturação fisiológica dos genótipos, Thap Maeo, Caipira, Pacovan Ken, Ambrosia, PV 42-53, PA 42-44, FHIA 01, FHIA 18 e a cultivar Prata-Anã utilizada como testemunha. Buquês contendo três frutos foram atomizados com diferentes concentrações (0; 10²; 10³; 10(4; 10(5 e 10(6 conídios/mL de C. musae. Os frutos foram incubados a 25 ºC. A incidência e severidade da antracnose foi avaliada aos 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias após a inoculação. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 9x6x4 (genótipos, concentrações de esporos e épocas de avaliação, com quatro repetições, contendo quatro buquês de três frutos. Aos doze dias de avaliação, todos os frutos de todos os genótipos estudados apresentaram incidência de C. musae quando inoculados com as diferentes concentrações de inóculo. A cultivar Thap Maeo apresentou a menor severidade (27,5% de antracnose, enquanto os genótipos Ambrosia, PV 42-53, FHIA 18 e FHIA 01 foram as mais suscetíveis à antracnose com 64%, 64%, 61,33% e 58% de severidade, respectivamente.Some tetraploides hybrids present resistance to anthracnose, however the information on the levels of resistance of these genotypes and the behavior in Brazil are reduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of injury on the behavior of different banana genotypes resistant to Black Sigatoka for different concentrations of conidia of Colletotrichum

  19. Atividade pectinolítica de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e a relação com a agressividade ao Stylosanthes spp Pectinolytic activity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its relationship with aggressiveness to Stylosanthes spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Marchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de pectinases de 40 isolados de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, obtidos de Stylosanthes spp. em diferentes regiões produtoras, foi estimada por meio de difusão enzimática em meio específico e mensuração do halo de degradação de pectina. Em todos os isolados havia atividade pectinolítica, sendo divididos em cinco grupos distintos. Na maior parte dos isolados notou-se moderada atividade de pectinases. Em geral, isolados de Camapuã-MS tiveram menor diversidade genética para a produção de enzimas pécticas. Com base na atividade pectinolítica, isolados do patógeno foram selecionados e inoculados em genótipos de S. capitata (GC1081, GC1084, GC1086 e GC1094, S. scabra (GC1496 e S. macrocephala (GC1511, visando analisar a influência das pectinases na agressividade ao hospedeiro. Inicialmente, instalou-se ensaio de agressividade com os isolados CG656, CG657, CG687, CG706 e CG707, sendo constatada agressividade diferenciada apenas quando inoculados em S. scabra. Enquanto CG657, CG706 e CG707 foram os mais agressivos, CG656 foi o menos agressivo. Outro teste de agressividade avaliou os isolados CG768, CG769, CG772, CG775, CG779 e CG781. Estes se diferenciaram quanto à agressividade ao S. capitata (GC1081 e GC1094 e S. macrocephala (GC1511. Em geral, CG768 comportou-se como pouco agressivo, enquanto que CG772, CG775 e CG781 como os mais agressivos. Para ambos, nos ensaios de agressividade, não se evidenciou aumento da severidade da antracnose com o aumento da atividade pectinolítica. Nas condições analisadas, a agressividade de C. gloeosporioides ao estilosantes não foi influenciada pelas enzimas pécticas.Pectinolytic activity of 40 isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides obtained from Stylosanthes spp.lesions, in distinct producing regions, was estimated through the enzymatic diffusion in pectin-medium free of glucose, and measured by pectin degradation. All isolates showed pectinolytic activity, and were divided in

  20. Óleos essenciais no controle pós-colheita de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides em mamão Essential oils on postharvest control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in papaya fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Carnelossi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os subprodutos de plantas medicinais têm sido estudados como uma alternativa para o controle de doenças de plantas visando amenizar e/ou reduzir o uso abusivo de agrotóxicos, principalmente em condições pós-colheita. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, in vitro e in vivo, o controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente causal da antracnose do mamão em pós-colheita, por óleos essenciais (OEs de Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Mentha arvensis e Artemisia dracunculus. Para inibição do crescimento micelial in vitro, os OEs foram incorporados ao BDA (Batata-dextrose-ágar tendo-se observado a inibição total ou parcial do crescimento micelial e da esporulação deste fitopatógeno, dependendo do óleo essencial utilizado. No ensaio in vivo utilizaram-se os OEs de C. citratus (1% e E. citriodora (1%. A inoculação com o fitopatógeno foi concomitante e 24 h após os tratamentos alternativos, que foram: óleos essenciais de C. citratus e de E. citriodora (1% e biomassa cítrica (150 mL 100 L-1 (Ecolife®. Os parâmetros avaliados foram severidade da doença, redução da massa, diâmetro, comprimento final dos frutos, pH e a concentração de sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix. Pode-se observar que, no controle da doença, os frutos tratados e imediatamente inoculados com o fitopatógenos apresentaram maior AACPD (Área Abaixo da Curva do Progresso da Doença. Porém, frutos tratados e inoculados 24 h após os tratamentos apresentaram maior controle da doença, confirmando o potencial dos óleos essenciais testados no presente trabalho.The products from medicinal plants have been studied as an alternative in the control of plant diseases in order to mitigate and / or reduce pesticide abuse mainly in postharvest. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causative agent of papaya anthracnose, in postharvest using essential oils (EOs of

  1. Chytrid fungus acts as a generalist pathogen infecting species-rich amphibian families in Brazilian rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Aguilar, Anyelet; Ruano-Fajardo, Gustavo; Lambertini, Carolina; da Silva Leite, Domingos; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Mott, Tamí

    2015-05-11

    The fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is among the main causes of declines in amphibian populations. This fungus is considered a generalist pathogen because it infects several species and spreads rapidly in the wild. To date, Bd has been detected in more than 100 anuran species in Brazil, mostly in the southern portion of the Atlantic forest. Here, we report survey data from some poorly explored regions; these data considerably extend current information on the distribution of Bd in the northern Atlantic forest region. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that Bd is a generalist pathogen in this biome. We also report the first positive record for Bd in an anuran caught in the wild in Amazonia. In total, we screened 90 individuals (from 27 species), of which 39 individuals (from 22 species) were Bd-positive. All samples collected in Bahia (2 individuals), Pernambuco (3 individuals), Pará (1 individual), and Minas Gerais (1 individual) showed positive results for Bd. We found a positive correlation between anuran richness per family and the number of infected species in the Atlantic forest, supporting previous observations that Bd lacks strong host specificity; of 38% of the anuran species in the Atlantic forest that were tested for Bd infection, 25% showed positive results. The results of our study exemplify the pandemic and widespread nature of Bd infection in amphibians.

  2. A nutrient-regulated, dual localization phospholipase A2 in the symbiotic fungus Tuber borchii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soragni, Elisabetta; Bolchi, Angelo; Balestrini, Raffaella; Gambaretto, Claudio; Percudani, Riccardo; Bonfante, Paola; Ottonello, Simone

    2001-01-01

    Important morphogenetic transitions in fungi are triggered by starvation-induced changes in the expression of structural surface proteins. Here, we report that nutrient deprivation causes a strong and reversible up-regulation of TbSP1, a surface-associated, Ca2+-dependent phospholipase from the mycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii. TbSP1 is the first phospholipase A2 to be described in fungi and identifies a novel class of phospholipid-hydrolyzing enzymes. The TbSP1 phospholipase, which is synthesized initially as a pre-protein, is processed efficiently and secreted during the mycelial phase. The mature protein, however, also localizes to the inner cell wall layer, close to the plasma membrane, in both free-living and symbiosis-engaged hyphae. It thus appears that a dual localization phospholipase A2 is involved in the adaptation of a symbiotic fungus to conditions of persistent nutritional limitation. Moreover, the fact that TbSP1-related sequences are present in Streptomyces and Neurospora, and not in wholly sequenced non-filamentous microorganisms, points to a general role for TbSP1 phospholipases A2 in the organization of multicellular filamentous structures in bacteria and fungi. PMID:11566873

  3. Fungus ball in HIV-infected patients Bola fúngica em pacientes HIV-infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Silva Guazzelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus is a phagocyte opportunistic fungus that causes aspergillosis, an unusual disease in patients with AIDS. Six cases of fungal ball in patients with AIDS are reported here. In this group, all patients had hemoptysis and tuberculosis as the underlying lung disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary fungus ball was based on the clinical and radiographic feature, combined with serological and mycological evidence of Aspergillus fumigatus.Os fungos filamentosos são oportunistas de fagócitos, motivo pelo qual aspergilose é incomum em pacientes com Aids. A apresentação clínica depende do estado imune, tamanho do inóculo fúngico e doença de base. São relatados neste trabalho seis casos de bola fúngica em pacientes com Aids. Neste grupo, todos tiveram tuberculose como doença de base e hemoptise foi o principal sintoma. O diagnóstico da bola fúngica foi através da apresentação clínica, achados radiológicos combinados com imunodifusão radial dupla, exame micológico direto e cultivo do material do trato respiratório, sendo A. fumigatus o agente isolado

  4. Reclassification of the butternut canker fungus, Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum, into the genus Ophiognomonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broders, K D; Boland, G J

    2011-01-01

    Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Sc-j), which causes a canker disease on butternut, is largely responsible for the decline of this tree in the United States and Canada. The original description of the species was based on anamorphic characters because the teleomorph is unknown. Recent phylogenetic investigations have found that Sc-j is not a member of the genus Sirococcus, and accurate taxonomic classification is required. The objective of this study is to use sequence data to determine the phylogenetic placement of Sc-j within the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales. Isolates were recovered from infected Juglans ailantifolia var. cordiformis (heartnut), Juglans cinerea (butternut), and Juglans nigra (black walnut) in Ontario and the eastern United States. The genes coding for β-tubulin, actin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha from 28 isolates of Sc-j and representatives of the major lineages within the Gnomoniaceae were evaluated. There was no difference in the sequences of the five genes among the isolates of Sc-j studied, indicating a recent introduction followed by asexual reproduction and spread via conidia. The phylogenetic analyses demonstrate this fungus does not belong to the genus Sirococcus, and provides strong support (99% MP and 100% NJ bootstrap values, and 100% Bayesian posterior probabilities) for its inclusion in the genus Ophiognomonia, thereby supporting a reclassification of the butternut canker fungus to Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Endemic infection of the amphibian chytrid fungus in a frog community post-decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W R Retallick

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous frog species worldwide. In Queensland, Australia, it has been proposed as the cause of the decline or apparent extinction of at least 14 high-elevation rainforest frog species. One of these, Taudactylus eungellensis, disappeared from rainforest streams in Eungella National Park in 1985-1986, but a few remnant populations were subsequently discovered. Here, we report the analysis of B. dendrobatidis infections in toe tips of T. eungellensis and sympatric species collected in a mark-recapture study between 1994 and 1998. This longitudinal study of the fungus in individually marked frogs sheds new light on the effect of this threatening infectious process in field, as distinct from laboratory, conditions. We found a seasonal peak of infection in the cooler months, with no evidence of interannual variation. The overall prevalence of infection was 18% in T. eungellensis and 28% in Litoria wilcoxii/jungguy, a sympatric frog that appeared not to decline in 1985-1986. No infection was found in any of the other sympatric species. Most importantly, we found no consistent evidence of lower survival in T. eungellensis that were infected at the time of first capture, compared with uninfected individuals. These results refute the hypothesis that remnant populations of T. eungellensis recovered after a B. dendrobatidis epidemic because the pathogen had disappeared. They show that populations of T. eungellensis now persist with stable, endemic infections of B. dendrobatidis.

  6. Endemic infection of the amphibian chytrid fungus in a frog community post-decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, Richard W R; McCallum, Hamish; Speare, Rick

    2004-11-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous frog species worldwide. In Queensland, Australia, it has been proposed as the cause of the decline or apparent extinction of at least 14 high-elevation rainforest frog species. One of these, Taudactylus eungellensis, disappeared from rainforest streams in Eungella National Park in 1985-1986, but a few remnant populations were subsequently discovered. Here, we report the analysis of B. dendrobatidis infections in toe tips of T. eungellensis and sympatric species collected in a mark-recapture study between 1994 and 1998. This longitudinal study of the fungus in individually marked frogs sheds new light on the effect of this threatening infectious process in field, as distinct from laboratory, conditions. We found a seasonal peak of infection in the cooler months, with no evidence of interannual variation. The overall prevalence of infection was 18% in T. eungellensis and 28% in Litoria wilcoxii/jungguy, a sympatric frog that appeared not to decline in 1985-1986. No infection was found in any of the other sympatric species. Most importantly, we found no consistent evidence of lower survival in T. eungellensis that were infected at the time of first capture, compared with uninfected individuals. These results refute the hypothesis that remnant populations of T. eungellensis recovered after a B. dendrobatidis epidemic because the pathogen had disappeared. They show that populations of T. eungellensis now persist with stable, endemic infections of B. dendrobatidis.

  7. Efecto del glucorafano aislado de floretes de brócoli sobre la germinación de esporas de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Viveros, Francisco M.; Nieto-Ángel, Daniel; Nava-Díaz, Cristian; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Ayala-Garay, Óscar J.; Aguilar-Pérez, L. Alfonso; Martínez-Damián, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    La antracnosis provocada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es la enfermedad poscosecha más importante en las áreas productoras de mango (Mangifera indica L.) en todo el mundo, y la estrategia más empleada para controlarla es el tratamiento en precosecha y poscosecha con fungicidas sintéticos. Sin embargo, su uso está cada vez más restringido debido a que en los frutos se acumulan residuos potencialmente peligrosos para los consumidores. Los glucosinolatos son productos naturales que contiene...

  8. Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tanni Maria Werneck da.

    1988-12-01

    For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 27 0 C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 30 0 C under 12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs

  9. Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Conlon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages. Next generation sequence data is available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA under accession PRJEB13655; run numbers: ERR1368522, ERR1368523, and ERR1368524. Genome assembly available from ENA under accession numbers: FKNF01000001–FKNF01000302. Gene prediction available as protein fasta, nucleotide fasta and GFF file from Mendeley Data with accession doi:10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2.

  10. Bipolaris oryzae, a novel fungal opportunist causing keratitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of mycotic keratitis caused by Bipolaris oryzae with predisposing trauma from a foreign body. The fungus was identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, translation elongation factor 1α (TEF1) gene and partial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

  11. Characterization of microsatellites in Fusicladium effusum, cause of pecan scab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan scab, caused by the plant pathogenic fungus Fusicladium effusum, is the most destructive disease of pecan. Little is known of the population genetic diversity of this pathogen. In this study, microsatellites were mined from the F. effusum genome, and flanking primers were subsequently designed...

  12. Draft genome sequence of Fusicladium effusum, cause of pecan scab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan scab, caused by the plant pathogenic fungus Fusicladium effusum, is the most destructive disease of pecan, an important specialty crop cultivated in several regions of the world. At this time, no other members of the family Venturiaceae (in which the pathogen resides) have been reported sequen...

  13. Structures of a putative ζ-class glutathione S-transferase from the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides immitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Thomas E.; Bryan, Cassie M.; Leibly, David J.; Dieterich, Shellie H.; Abendroth, Jan; Sankaran, Banumathi; Sivam, Dhileep; Staker, Bart L.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.; Stewart, Lance J.

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus C. immitis causes coccidioidomycosis, a potentially fatal disease. Here, apo and glutathione-bound crystal structures of a previously uncharacterized protein from C. immitis that appears to be a ζ-class glutathione S-transferase are presented. Coccidioides immitis is a pathogenic fungus populating the southwestern United States and is a causative agent of coccidioidomycosis, sometimes referred to as Valley Fever. Although the genome of this fungus has been sequenced, many operons are not properly annotated. Crystal structures are presented for a putative uncharacterized protein that shares sequence similarity with ζ-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in both apo and glutathione-bound forms. The apo structure reveals a nonsymmetric homodimer with each protomer comprising two subdomains: a C-terminal helical domain and an N-terminal thioredoxin-like domain that is common to all GSTs. Half-site binding is observed in the glutathione-bound form. Considerable movement of some components of the active site relative to the glutathione-free form was observed, indicating an induced-fit mechanism for cofactor binding. The sequence homology, structure and half-site occupancy imply that the protein is a ζ-class glutathione S-transferase, a maleylacetoacetate isomerase (MAAI)

  14. Detección por PCR de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum en cultivos y semillas de frijol en Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Martínez Pacheco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, agente causal de la antracnosis del frijol, es uno de los patógenos más limitantes en la producción de este cultivo. La detección y correcta identificación de este hongo resulta fundamental para el manejo de la enfermedad, siendo las pruebas moleculares alternativas rápidas y sensibles para este fin. Mediante la técnica de PCR se evaluaron cuatro juegos de cebadores (CY1/CY2, CD1/CD2, ClF4/ITS4 y ClF432/ClR533 para la detección de C. lindemuthianum a partir de tejidos foliares, de vainas y de semillas procedentes de cultivos de frijol de Antioquia, Colombia. Los resultados indicaron que el par CD1/CD2, dirigido al pseudogen de permeasa de hierro Ftr1, fue el más efectivo para detectar el hongo en tejidos y semillas de frijol, así como para identificar aislamientos en cultivos microbiológicos. Para los cebadores CY1/CY2, dirigidos a los ITS del rDNA, se recomienda un esquema de PCR-RFLPs con MseI (=Tru1I para la diferenciación con las especies C. orbiculare y C. trifolii. Estos cebadores generaron resultados consistentes cuando se utilizaron en combinación con ITS1 (ITS1/CY2 e ITS4 (CY1/ITS4. Finalmente, los cebadores ClF4/ITS4 resultaron en amplificaciones inespecíficas y ClF432/ClR533 en fragmentos de difícil resolución en electroforesis de agarosa. Este estudio servirá de apoyo para los programas de certificación de semilla y mejoramiento genético de frijol.

  15. Host range and genetic relatedness of Colletotrichum acutatum isolates from fruit crops and leatherleaf fern in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, S J; Peres, N A; Barquero, M P; Arauz, L F; Timmer, L W

    2009-05-01

    Isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum were collected from anthracnose-affected strawberry, leatherleaf fern, and Key lime; ripe-rot-affected blueberry; and postbloom fruit drop (PFD)-affected sweet orange in Florida. Additional isolates from ripe-rot-affected blueberry were collected from Georgia and North Carolina and from anthracnose-affected leatherleaf fern in Costa Rica. Pathogenicity tests on blueberry and strawberry fruit; foliage of Key lime, leatherleaf fern, and strawberry; and citrus flowers showed that isolates were highly pathogenic to their host of origin. Isolates were not pathogenic on foliage of heterologous hosts; however, several nonhomologous isolates were mildly or moderately pathogenic to citrus flowers and blueberry isolates were pathogenic to strawberry fruit. Based on sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region of the rDNA repeat, the glutaraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase intron 2 (G3PD), and the glutamine synthase intron 2 (GS), isolates from the same host were identical or very similar to each other and distinct from those isolated from other hosts. Isolates from leatherleaf fern in Florida were the only exception. Among these isolates, there were two distinct G3PD and GS sequences that occurred in three of four possible combinations. Only one of these combinations occurred in Costa Rica. Although maximum parsimony trees constructed from genomic regions individually displayed little or no homoplasy, there was a lack of concordance among genealogies that was consistent with a history of recombination. This lack of concordance was particularly evident within a clade containing PFD, Key lime, and leatherleaf fern isolates. Overall, the data indicated that it is unlikely that a pathogenic strain from one of the hosts examined would move to another of these hosts and produce an epidemic.

  16. ANTRACNOSE DO CAQUIZEIRO CAUSADA POR Colletotrichum horii: INCIDÊNCIA EM RAMOS, FOLHAS, FLORES E FRUTOS EM CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO REZENDE YOUNG BLOOD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência em várias partes da planta e o desenvolvimento da antracnose do caquizeiro causada por Colletotrichum horiinas cultivares Fuyu e Kakimel produzidas sob os sistemas orgânico e convencional, respectivamente, nas safras de 2010/2011 e 2011/2012, em Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brasil. Em cada pomar, 10 plantas foram selecionadas aleatoriamente, e 10 ramos do ano por planta, distribuídos ao redor dacopa, foram marcados para as avaliações de incidência de antracnose em ramos e folhas, a cada 15 dias. A quantificação de frutos caídos com ou sem sintomas da doença foi a cada 15 dias, durante o período de crescimento de frutos até a colheita, relacionada com a produção total. C. horii em flores foi avaliada em campo e também após incubação no laboratório. Infecção latente foi observada em frutos verdes coletados aos 90; 120 e 150 dias após a floração. Em ambas as safras, observou-se a queda de frutos com sintomas de antracnose entre os meses de janeiro e abril. C. horii é capaz de infectar flores, permanecer latente e provocar sintomas de antracnose em frutos imaturos. Frutos colhidos sadios apresentaram sintomas em pós-colheita após a incubação.

  17. Colletotrichum circinans and Colletotrichum coccodes can be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2003-12-29

    Dec 29, 2003 ... coccodes (DSM 62126, 66376, 70882, 70879, DSM. 2492, 70880) and C. circinans (67846 and ... µl 2.0 mM dNTP mixtures, 0.5 µl DMSO (2% v/v), 0.5 µl each of the primers at 10pmol concentration, 0.25 µl ... analysed by electrophoresis in 1.5% (w/v) agarose gels and ethidium bromide staining. provided ...

  18. Formulation of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensaci Oussama Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two formulations containing culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, isolated previously from stems of Euphorbia bupleuroides subsp. luteola (Kralik Maire, were experimentally tested for their aphicid activity against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. found in Algeria. It was shown that invert emulsions are more effective against aphids, than using aqueous suspensions. This was especially true for formulations containing culture filtrates. The relatively insignificant mortalities obtained by formulations containing conidial suspensions indicated a low infectious potential towards the aphids. The proteolytic activity seemed to be more important than the chitinolytic activity of the fungus against the black bean aphid A. fabae

  19. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A.

    2013-01-01

    guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit......The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated...... parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few...

  20. EVOLUTIONARY TRANSITIONS IN ENZYME ACTIVITY OF ANT FUNGUS GARDENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2010-01-01

    an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across...... the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens...... are targeted primarily towards partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of non-domesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major...

  1. The Kinome of Edible and Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W. cocos was analyzed by identifying the PKs genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PKs to orthologous groups. Of the 10 putative PKs, 11 encode atypical PKs, and 13, 10, 2, 22, and 11 could encoded PKs from the AGC, CAMK, CK, CMGC, STE and TLK Groups, respectively. The level of transcripts from PK genes associated with sclerotia formation in the mycelium and sclerotium stages were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Based on the functions of the orthologues in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a sclerotia-formation fungus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the potential roles of these W. cocos PKs were assigned. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first identification and functional discussion of the kinome in the edible and medicinal fungus W. cocos. Our study systematically suggests potential roles of W. cocos PKs and provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos sclerotial development and other economically important traits. Additionally, based on our result, genetic engineering can be employed for over expression or interference of some significant PKs genes to promote sclerotial growth and the accumulation of active compounds.

  2. Yarsagumba Fungus: Health Problems in the Himalayan Gold Rush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Pranawa; Pandit, Bidur; Phuyal, Pratibha; Zafren, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Seasonal migration of people in search of Yarsagumba fungus creates a population of collectors that faces hardship and health risks in austere high-altitude settings. In 2016, our 4-person team performed a 2-day health-needs survey of people collecting Yarsagumba fungus near the village of Yak Kharka (4020 m) in the Manang District of Nepal. There were approximately 800 people, both male and female, from age 10 to over 60, collecting Yarsagumba fungus. They had paid high prices for permits, hoping to recoup the cost and make a profit by selling specimens of Yarsagumba, but the fungus seemed scarce in 2016, resulting in a bleak economic forecast. Most collectors were living in austere conditions, walking long hours to the collection areas early in the morning and returning in the late afternoon. Most were subsisting on 1 daily meal. Health problems, including acute mountain sickness as well as respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses, were common. Yarsagumba has become harder to find in recent years, increasing hardships and risk of injury. Medical care was almost nonexistent. As abundance decreases and demand increases, there is increasing pressure on collectors to find Yarsagumba. The collectors are an economically disadvantaged population who live in austere conditions at high altitude with poor shelter and sanitation, strenuous work, and limited availability of food. Health care resources are very limited. There are significant risks of illness, injury, and death. Targeted efforts by government entities and nongovernmental organizations might be beneficial in meeting the health needs. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

    1995-01-01

    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably

  4. Antibacterial polyketides from the jellyfish-derived fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Li, Famei; Kim, Eun La; Li, Jian Lin; Hong, Jongki; Bae, Kyung Sook; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyung Sik; Jung, Jee H

    2011-08-26

    Four new polyketides (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Paecilomyces variotii, which was derived from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. The planar structures and relative configurations of these polyketides were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR experiments. The compounds showed inhibitory activity against pathogenic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 3089 and multi-drug-resistant Vibrio parahemolyticus 7001 with MIC values in the range 5-40 μg/mL.

  5. Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gmoser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production.

  6. Evolutionary transitions in enzyme activity of ant fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-07-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens are targeted primarily toward partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of nondomesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major breakdown of cell walls. The adaptive significance of the lower-attine symbiont shifts remains unclear. One of these shifts was obligate, but digestive advantages remained ambiguous, whereas the other remained facultative despite providing greater digestive efficiency.

  7. Efficacy of in-house fluorescent stain for fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. L. Surya Kirani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mycotic infections are gaining importance in the present day medicine, and definite demonstration of fungus is essential for diagnosis. Small numbers of organisms in the smear can be identified by fluorescence microscopy. Calcofluor white (CFW fluorescent stain is a textile brightener mixed with Evans blue. It is expensive and not easily available. Aims: (1 To assess the efficacy of in-house CFW fluorescent stain for fungus in relation to conventional CFW stain, histopathology, and culture. (2 To determine sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV, and positive predictive value (PPV with culture as gold standard. Settings and Design: One hundred cases of suspected dermatophytosis and 15 cases of systemic mycosis were included in the study. Subjects and Methods: The local whitener Ranipal is added with Robin blue, another brightener, and was used to stain teased fungal cultures. Skin, hair, and nails require pretreatment with potassium hydroxide (KOH. Biopsy slides require deparaffinization and pretreatment with KOH before staining. Conventional calcofluor stain, histopathology, and culture were done. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV. Results: The results are consistently comparable with conventional stain. The sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 93.3%, NPV was 100%, and PPV was 85.7%. It is also cost effective when compared to commercial stains. Conclusions: In-house stain can be used for screening of fungus in direct samples, biopsies as alternative in resource-constrained laboratories.

  8. Mechanisms of Surface Antigenic Variation in the Human Pathogenic Fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid-Siegert, Emanuel; Richard, Sophie; Luraschi, Amanda; Mühlethaler, Konrad; Pagni, Marco; Hauser, Philippe M

    2017-11-07

    Microbial pathogens commonly escape the human immune system by varying surface proteins. We investigated the mechanisms used for that purpose by Pneumocystis jirovecii This uncultivable fungus is an obligate pulmonary pathogen that in immunocompromised individuals causes pneumonia, a major life-threatening infection. Long-read PacBio sequencing was used to assemble a core of subtelomeres of a single P. jirovecii strain from a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen from a single patient. A total of 113 genes encoding surface proteins were identified, including 28 pseudogenes. These genes formed a subtelomeric gene superfamily, which included five families encoding adhesive glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoproteins and one family encoding excreted glycoproteins. Numerical analyses suggested that diversification of the glycoproteins relies on mosaic genes created by ectopic recombination and occurs only within each family. DNA motifs suggested that all genes are expressed independently, except those of the family encoding the most abundant surface glycoproteins, which are subject to mutually exclusive expression. PCR analyses showed that exchange of the expressed gene of the latter family occurs frequently, possibly favored by the location of the genes proximal to the telomere because this allows concomitant telomere exchange. Our observations suggest that (i) the P. jirovecii cell surface is made of a complex mixture of different surface proteins, with a majority of a single isoform of the most abundant glycoprotein, (ii) genetic mosaicism within each family ensures variation of the glycoproteins, and (iii) the strategy of the fungus consists of the continuous production of new subpopulations composed of cells that are antigenically different. IMPORTANCE Pneumocystis jirovecii is a fungus causing severe pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals. It is the second most frequent life-threatening invasive fungal infection. We have studied the mechanisms

  9. Effect of turning frequency on co-composting pig manure and fungus residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang-Ming, Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Composting of agricultural wastes not only can reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but also can recycle agricultural wastes and transform them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for agricultural applications. However, the composting process and final product are easily affected by the limited oxygen supply that results from insufficient aeration, especially in the center of a large-scale windrow. Hence, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the turning frequency on the composting efficiency and compost quality of used pig manure and fungus residue. Physical and chemical characteristics were measured over the course of 63 days of composting. The data indicate that higher temperatures and more rapid moisture removal generally result from a turning treatment of once every 2-4 days than in fewer, or no, turning treatments. The total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium contents increased in all windrows as the organic matter content decreased, but both the increases and decrease were greater in windrows that were turned more frequently. The reduction of the organic matter mass by 53.7-66.0% for a turning of once every 2-8 days is significantly higher than that for the static windrow (39.1%). Although there is an increase in nitrogen mass loss with an increased turning frequency, lower nitrogen mass losses (12.7-25.7%) in all treatments were noted compared with previous studies. A final compost product with less moisture, less weight, higher nutrient content (N, P, and K), and greater stability was obtained in windrows with turning frequencies of once every 2-4 days, which is recommended when composting pig manure and fungus residue. Composting of agricultural wastes not only can reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but recycling of agricultural wastes transforms them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for

  10. Paramecium species ingest and kill the cells of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frager, Shalom Z; Chrisman, Cara J; Shakked, Rachel; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-08-01

    A fundamental question in the field of medical mycology is the origin of virulence in those fungal pathogens acquired directly from the environment. In recent years, it was proposed that the virulence of certain environmental animal-pathogenic microbes, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, originated from selection pressures caused by species-specific predation. In this study, we analyzed the interaction of C. neoformans with three Paramecium spp., all of which are ciliated mobile protists. In contrast to the interaction with amoebae, some Paramecium spp. rapidly ingested C. neoformans and killed the fungus. This study establishes yet another type of protist-fungal interaction supporting the notion that animal-pathogenic fungi in the environment are under constant selection by predation.

  11. Future potential distribution of the emerging amphibian chytrid fungus under anthropogenic climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödder, Dennis; Kielgast, Jos; Lötters, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    Anthropogenic climate change poses a major threat to global biodiversity with a potential to alter biological interactions at all spatial scales. Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates and have been subject to increasing conservation attention over the past decade. A particular concern is the pandemic emergence of the parasitic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which has been identified as the cause of extremely rapid large-scale declines and species extinctions. Experimental and observational studies have demonstrated that the host-pathogen system is strongly influenced by climatic parameters and thereby potentially affected by climate change. Herein we project a species distribution model of the pathogen onto future climatic scenarios generated by the IPCC to examine their potential implications on the pandemic. Results suggest that predicted anthropogenic climate change may reduce the geographic range of B. dendrobatidis and its potential influence on amphibian biodiversity.

  12. Phytotoxic eremophilane sesquiterpenes from the coprophilous fungus Penicillium sp. G1-a14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, Paulina; Figueroa, Mario; Mata, Rachel

    2015-02-27

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of an extract from the grain-based culture of the coprophilous fungus Penicillium sp. G1-a14 led to the isolation of a new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene, 3R,6R-dihydroxy-9,7(11)-dien-8-oxoeremophilane (1), along with three known analogues, namely, isopetasol (2), sporogen AO-1 (3), and dihydrosporogen AO-1 (4). The structure of 1 was elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Assignment of absolute configuration at the stereogenic centers of 1 was achieved using ECD spectroscopy combined with time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Sporogen AO-1 (3) and dihydrosporogen AO-1 (4) caused significant inhibition of radicle growth against Amaranthus hypochondriacus (IC50 = 0.17 mM for both compounds) and Echinochloa crus-galli (IC50 = 0.17 and 0.30 mM, respectively).

  13. An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and Epichloë festucae var. lolii reduce Bipolaris sorokiniana disease incidence and improve perennial ryegrass growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Guo, Yan'e; Christensen, Michael J; Gao, Ping; Li, Yanzhong; Duan, Tingyu

    2018-02-01

    Leaf spot of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is an important disease in temperate regions of the world. We designed this experiment to test for the combined effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Claroideoglomus etunicatum and the grass endophyte fungus Epichloë festucae var. lolii on growth and disease occurrence in perennial ryegrass. The results show that C. etunicatum increased plant P uptake and total dry weight and that this beneficial effect was slightly enhanced when in association with the grass endophyte. The presence in plants of both the endophyte and B. sorokiniana decreased AM fungal colonization. Plants inoculated with B. sorokiniana showed the typical leaf spot symptoms 2 weeks after inoculation and the lowest disease incidence was with plants that were host to both C. etunicatum and E. festucae var. lolii. Plants with these two fungi had much higher activity of peroxidases (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and lower values of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The AM fungus C. etunicatum and the grass endophyte fungus E. festucae var. lolii have the potential to promote perennial ryegrass growth and resistance to B. sorokiniana leaf spot.

  14. The Control of Fungus Uromycladium tepperianum on Seedling of Sengon (Falcataria moluccana (Miq. Barneby & J.W.Grimes in a nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawati Purwaka Putri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sengon (Falcataria moluccana (Miq. Barneby & J.W.Grimes is one of timber producing species of high economic value. Recently, sengon productivity decreases due to pests and diseases, attack is caused by the fungus Uromycladium tepperianum (SACE. McAlp. The control of gall rust disease at seedling level is important, because the stadia nursery are the most vulnerable. The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of the type of control in supressing the fungus of U. tepperianum and the growth of sengon in a nursery. The research design used a completely randomized design (CRD with five treatments of gall rust disease control types i.e. control ; biological fertilizer of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR (5 g -L of water, biofungicide (5 g-L of water; chemical fungicide (2 g-L of water; and boron (300 ppm. Each treatment consisted of 20 seedlings repeated 4 times. The observed response were the number of fungal spores, diameter and height of seedlings. In addition, calculation of the effectiveness of the type of controller was counted. The results showed that after two weeks of fungal infections, the highest seedling growth was the seedling treated with fungicide (0.53 cm, while the lowest was the seedling treated with biological fungicide (0.32 cm. PGPR, fungicide biological, chemical fungicides and boron did not effective to the attack of fungus and to increase the growth of height and diameter of sengon seedling after the 4th week of the fungus infection.

  15. Genetic aspects of ash dieback caused by the pathogenic fungus Chalara fraxinea on Fraxinus excelsior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinney, Lea Vig

    and the evidence of genetic variation in susceptibility and inheritance of resistance and discusses the potential for preserving the species through management of genetic resources. Paper II confirms the invasiveness of H. pseudoalbidus in Denmark by comparing collections of the native H. albidus and H....... pseudoalbidus. Paper III estimates the inherent resistance in Danish populations of F. excelsior. A strong genetic variation in susceptibility to C. fraxinea was observed among 39 tested clones. The susceptibility was highly genetically correlated with leaf senescence suggesting that the observed resistance...... could be an effect of disease escape. The results suggest that a small fraction of the natural population may be able to resist the epidemic and proposes prospects for maintenance of the species through selection of highly resistant trees....

  16. Assessing the Threat of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in the Albertine Rift: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Tracie A.; Ayebare, Samuel; Sekisambu, Robert; Muhindo, Emmanuel; Mitamba, Guillain; Greenbaum, Eli; Menegon, Michele; Pupin, Fabio; McAloose, Denise; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa; Meirte, Danny; Lukwago, Wilbur; Behangana, Mathias; Seimon, Anton; Plumptre, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the cause of chytridiomycosis, is a pathogenic fungus that is found worldwide and is a major contributor to amphibian declines and extinctions. We report results of a comprehensive effort to assess the distribution and threat of Bd in one of the Earth’s most important biodiversity hotspots, the Albertine Rift in central Africa. In herpetological surveys conducted between 2010 and 2014, 1018 skin swabs from 17 amphibian genera in 39 sites across the Albertine Rift were tested for Bd by PCR. Overall, 19.5% of amphibians tested positive from all sites combined. Skin tissue samples from 163 amphibians were examined histologically; of these two had superficial epidermal intracorneal fungal colonization and lesions consistent with the disease chytridiomycosis. One amphibian was found dead during the surveys, and all others encountered appeared healthy. We found no evidence for Bd-induced mortality events, a finding consistent with other studies. To gain a historical perspective about Bd in the Albertine Rift, skin swabs from 232 museum-archived amphibians collected as voucher specimens from 1925–1994 were tested for Bd. Of these, one sample was positive; an Itombwe River frog (Phrynobatrachus asper) collected in 1950 in the Itombwe highlands. This finding represents the earliest record of Bd in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We modeled the distribution of Bd in the Albertine Rift using MaxEnt software, and trained our model for improved predictability. Our model predicts that Bd is currently widespread across the Albertine Rift, with moderate habitat suitability extending into the lowlands. Under climatic modeling scenarios our model predicts that optimal habitat suitability of Bd will decrease causing a major range contraction of the fungus by 2080. Our baseline data and modeling predictions are important for comparative studies, especially if significant changes in amphibian health status or climactic conditions are

  17. Removal of phenanthrene in contaminated soil by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuguang; Zeng, Defang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of phenanthrene by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms in soil. A 60-day experiment was conducted. Inoculation with earthworms and/or white-rot fungus increased alfalfa biomass and phenanthrene accumulation in alfalfa. However, inoculations of alfalfa and white-rot fungus can significantly decrease the accumulation of phenanthrene in earthworms. The removal rates for phenanthrene in soil were 33, 48, 66, 74, 85, and 93% under treatments control, only earthworms, only alfalfa, earthworms + alfalfa, alfalfa + white-rot fungus, and alfalfa + earthworms + white-rot fungus, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the combination of alfalfa, earthworms, and white-rot fungus is an effective way to remove phenanthrene in the soil. The removal is mainly via stimulating both microbial development and soil enzyme activity.

  18. Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko & Sutton - agents of pinus species decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage is caused on the introduced Pinus species and on those cultivated in artificial plantations, shelterbelts and in urban environments. In Yugoslavia S. sapinea is widely distributed both in the continental and in the Mediterranean parts. It was identified from ten pine species and six hosts from other coniferous genera. By the study in our country, the new hosts of this fungus were detected - Pinus jeffrey, P. peuce and P. heldreichii. The most endangered species in our country is Austrian pine, both in urban environments, and in plantations The symptoms of the disease are bud wilt, curling, stunting and necrosis of current year shoots and needles, dieback of top shoots, parts of crown or tree tops, branch and stem bark canker, root collar rot on the young plants in nurseries and their dying. This fungus also prevents seed germination of Pinus species and causes blue sap stain of the freshly cut wood, although sap stain was also observed on standing trees. More rarely it causes root rot and crown wilt of Pinus species. The main symptoms of infection, both of young plants and older trees, are the dieback of current year shoots S. sapinea can penetrate through buds, bark of young shoots and needles. The critical time of infection is the period from mid April to mid May. Then infection mainly penetrates through the bark of young shoots, which results in their dying. Infection through the needles occurs mainly at the time of their sudden growth or during summer

  19. Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, F.; Cuevas, R.; Rubilar, O.; Tortella, G.; Diez, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn)) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

  20. Treatment of bark beetle attacked trees with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin

    OpenAIRE

    Jakuš, Rastislav; Blaženec, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    We carried out an experiment with using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. for sanitation of active infested trees. We used 15 active infested trees from which 5 stems were treated with an insecticide, 5 were treated with solution of the tested entomopathogenic fungus and 5 were left as control. The used insecticide was pyretroid Fury 10 EW. We used a biopreparation based on the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana in form of wettable powder. The material was diluted...