WorldWideScience

Sample records for caused extensive damage

  1. Secondary damages to forests caused by industrial exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaubauer, E

    1966-01-01

    Acute and chronic damages of diverse origins modify the susceptibility of trees to certain insects and infectious diseases. Especially in connection with air pollution damages, it must be pointed out that such predisposition may occur long before any symptoms become visible or before any growth losses can be measured. In many instances, it is very difficult to evaluate these secondary damages. Very extensive regional comparisons are necessary in order to obtain evidence of damage. Increased occurrence of parasites and/or disease within the emission area must be compared with the frequency and intensity of occurrence outside of said area; this may then serve as circumstantial proof of a demonstrated secondary damage. Examples of these kinds of effects caused by parasitic fungi and insects are discussed in detail. 27 references.

  2. Hippocampal damage causes retrograde but not anterograde memory loss for context fear discrimination in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin Q; Sutherland, Robert J; McDonald, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that the hippocampus (HPC) plays and essential role in context discrimination in rodents. Studies reporting anterograde amnesia (AA) used repeated, alternating, distributed conditioning and extinction sessions to measure context fear discrimination. In addition, there is uncertainty about the extent of damage to the HPC. Here, we induced conditioned fear prior to discrimination tests and rats sustained extensive, quantified pre- or post-training HPC damage. Unlike previous work, we found that extensive HPC damage spares context discrimination, we observed no AA. There must be a non-HPC system that can acquire long-term memories that support context fear discrimination. Post-training HPC damage caused retrograde amnesia (RA) for context discrimination, even when rats are fear conditioned for multiple sessions. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the role of HPC in long-term memory. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Peroxiredoxin 1 Protects Telomeres from Oxidative Damage and Preserves Telomeric DNA for Extension by Telomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Aeby

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage of telomeres can promote cancer, cardiac failure, and muscular dystrophy. Specific mechanisms protecting telomeres from oxidative damage have not been described. We analyzed telomeric chromatin composition during the cell cycle and show that the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1 is enriched at telomeres during S phase. Deletion of the PRDX1 gene leads to damage of telomeric DNA upon oxidative stress, revealing a protective function of PRDX1 against oxidative damage at telomeres. We also show that the oxidized nucleotide 8-oxo-2′deoxyguanosine-5′-triphosphate (8oxodGTP causes premature chain termination when incorporated by telomerase and that some DNA substrates terminating in 8oxoG prevent extension by telomerase. Thus, PRDX1 safeguards telomeres from oxygen radicals to counteract telomere damage and preserve telomeric DNA for elongation by telomerase.

  4. Irreversible brain damage caused by methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Moeller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine is an addictive scene substance usage of which is increasing rapidly. While methamphetamine often causes neuropsychiatric symptoms like anxiety, psychosis and hallucinations, reports of structural ongoing cerebral alterations are rare. We here report a case of this kind of damage caused through methamphetamine use.

  5. Bone marrow scintigraphy: evaluation of damage caused by cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciambellotti, E.; Cartia, G.L.; Coda, C.

    1988-01-01

    For various reasons the well-known myelopoietic damage caused by cancer chemotherapy is not easy to quantify by means of usual diagnostic procedures. The bone marrow scan with 99m Tc-nanocolloid rapidly cleared by the phagocitic action of the RES, which has a topographic extension similar to red marrow, has been used for many years to evaluate the inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, both localized and diffuse. Such examination was thus performed in patients undergoing cytostatic therapy, either to follow-up metastatic lesions or to evaluate a tissue damage due to different drugs. The BMS is easily performed and has no side-effects. It consists of a dinamic and a static part. Moreover, it helped pointing out important diagnostic data, such as the reduction of the sacroiliac uptake index below the normal values (3.7) in 33 out of 57 cases, and an abnormal distribution of nanocolloid in the skeleton (Munz's classification, 1983) in 37 out of 69 cases, higher in more myelotoxic cytostatic, which could be detected even after a few months

  6. Extensive tissue damage of bovine ovaries after bipolar ovarian drilling compared to monopolar electrocoagulation or carbon dioxide laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Marja-Liisa; van der Valk, Paul; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Broeckaert, Mark A M; Homburg, Roy; Hompes, Peter G A

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the size of ovarian damage caused by ovarian drilling in polycystic ovary syndrome, the amount of inflicted damage was assessed for the most frequently used ovarian drilling techniques. Experimental prospective design. University clinic. Six fresh bovine ovaries per technique. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser, monopolar electrocoagulation, and bipolar electrocoagulation were used for in vitro ovarian drilling. Amount of inflicted ovarian damage per procedure. Bipolar electrocoagulation resulted in significantly more destruction per burn than the CO(2) laser and monopolar electrocoagulation (287.6 versus 24.0 and 70.0 mm(3), respectively). The damage found per lesion was multiplied by the regularly applied number of punctures per procedure in daily practice (based on the literature). Again, the bipolar electrocoagulation resulted in significantly more tissue damage than the CO(2) laser and monopolar coagulation (2,876 versus 599 and 700 mm(3), respectively). Ovarian drilling, especially bipolar electrocoagulation, causes extensive destruction of the ovary. Given the same clinical effectiveness of the various procedures, it is essential to use the lowest possible dose that works; thus, the first choice should be CO(2) laser or monopolar electrocoagulation. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to bottle caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; William C. Miller

    1973-01-01

    Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to aluminum resealable caps during distribution. A study at bottling plants and distribution warehouses showed that an average of 1 bottle out of 4,000 has cap damage. Most of the damage was attributed to handling at the warehouse and in transit. Some recommendations are given for improvement of wooden beverage cases to prevent...

  8. How Networks of Informal Trails Cause Landscape Level Damage to Vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Agustina; Marina Pickering, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    When visitors are not constrained to remain on formal trails, informal trail networks can develop and damage plant communities in protected areas. These networks can form in areas with low growing vegetation, where formal trails are limited, where there is limited regulation and where vegetation is slow to recover once disturbed. To demonstrate the extent of impacts from unregulated recreational use, we assessed damage to alpine vegetation by hikers and pack animals in the highest protected area in the southern Hemisphere: Aconcagua Park, in the Andes. Within the 237 ha area surveyed in the Horcones Valley, over 19 km of trails were found, nearly all of which (94%) were informal. This network of trails resulted in the direct loss of 11.5 ha of vegetation and extensive fragmentation of alpine meadows (21 fragments) and steppe vegetation (68 fragments). When levels of disturbance off these trails were quantified using rapid visual assessments, 81% of 102 randomly located plots showed evidence of disturbance, with the severity of disturbance greatest close to trails. As a result, vegetation in 90% of the Valley has been damaged by visitor use, nearly all of it from unregulated use. These results highlight the extent to which informal trails and trampling off-trail can cause landscape damage to areas of high conservation value, and hence the importance of better regulation of visitor use. The methodology used for off-trail impact assessment can be easily applied or adapted for other popular protected areas where trampling off-trail is also an issue.

  9. The unresolved puzzle why alanine extensions cause disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Reno; Liebold, Jens; Schwarz, Elisabeth

    2013-08-01

    The prospective increase in life expectancy will be accompanied by a rise in the number of elderly people who suffer from ill health caused by old age. Many diseases caused by aging are protein misfolding diseases. The molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders receive constant scientific interest. In addition to old age, mutations also cause congenital protein misfolding disorders. Chorea Huntington, one of the most well-known examples, is caused by triplet extensions that can lead to more than 100 glutamines in the N-terminal region of huntingtin, accompanied by huntingtin aggregation. So far, nine disease-associated triplet extensions have also been described for alanine codons. The extensions lead primarily to skeletal malformations. Eight of these proteins represent transcription factors, while the nuclear poly-adenylate binding protein 1, PABPN1, is an RNA binding protein. Additional alanines in PABPN1 lead to the disease oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). The alanine extension affects the N-terminal domain of the protein, which has been shown to lack tertiary contacts. Biochemical analyses of the N-terminal domain revealed an alanine-dependent fibril formation. However, fibril formation of full-length protein did not recapitulate the findings of the N-terminal domain. Fibril formation of intact PABPN1 was independent of the alanine segment, and the fibrils displayed biochemical properties that were completely different from those of the N-terminal domain. Although intranuclear inclusions have been shown to represent the histochemical hallmark of OPMD, their role in pathogenesis is currently unclear. Several cell culture and animal models have been generated to study the molecular processes involved in OPMD. These studies revealed a number of promising future therapeutic strategies that could one day improve the quality of life for the patients.

  10. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delort, F.; Guerrini, C.

    1969-01-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [fr

  11. Cause of Damage. Hot cracking; Schadensursache Heissrissigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wader, Therese [BENTELER Steel/Tube GmbH, Paderborn (Germany). Vorentwicklung Werkstoffe

    2016-10-15

    Under certain conditions, Nb-containing stainless steels are susceptible to hot cracking. Such conditions include low melting phases on the grain boundaries, a coarse-grained microstructure such as cast structures, microstructure orientations towards the main tensile direction and high processing temperatures. The case of damage was characterized using metallographic and microanalytical methods. In the laboratory, the critical temperature range for the formation of hot cracks could furthermore specifically be localized under mechanical stresses by means of a dilatometer aiming at clearly verifying the cause of the damage, namely ''hot cracks''.

  12. Lattice damage caused by the irradiation of diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, B; Mainwood, A; Newton, M; Davies, G

    2002-01-01

    Diamond is perceived to be radiation-hard, but the damage caused to the diamond is not well understood. The intrinsic defects (vacancies and interstitials) which are created by radiation damage are immobile at room temperature in diamond, unlike in silicon. Therefore, once the mechanisms of damage are understood for one type and energy of the particle, the dose and energy dependence of irradiation by other particles at a range of energies can be extrapolated. When a crystal is irradiated, the generation rates of vacancies and self-interstitials are generally determined by optical or electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy experiments carried out after the irradiation has stopped. However, as the irradiation proceeds some of the carbon atoms displaced from their lattice sites may relax back into the vacant site, and the damage event will not be observed in the later measurement. In this paper, the mechanisms for radiation damage by charged particles in particular electrons and photons are investigat...

  13. Reducing environmental damages caused by transportation: towards an heterodox approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marletto, Gerardo

    2006-01-01

    According to orthodox economics, monetary incentives are the best way to reduce environmental damages caused by transportation. This approach is consistent with the consideration of environmental damages as a market failure and with the use of pigouvian taxes to re-establish market equilibrium. Using heterodox economics both the theoretical and the policy approach will change radically. Indeed, market is just one of the structural components of the existing transport system; others being: institutions, technologies, values. Then, a shift in policy approaches is needed: from the orthodox efficient allocation of existing resources, to the heterodox promotion of new development patterns, needed to alter the given structural situation. Consistently with this paradigmatic shift, environmental damages caused by transportation can be reduced only by making the transition to a new transport system viable. Moreover, an heterodox approach to the reduction of environmental damages caused by transportation gives rise to a sound revision of policy tools; among these must be considered: selective industrial policies to foster the ecological reconversion of transport supply (instead of a non-discriminatory support to ecological innovations); participatory decision procedures to evaluate and select transport policies (instead of neutral technical tools - such as Cba or Eia); information campaigns based on ethical considerations (instead of economic incentives to transport demand); attribution of the status of commons to environmental resources, in order to protect them from the free riding of transport activities (instead of the attribution to them of private property rights). This essay is composed of four parts. In the first one, some data on environmental damages caused by transportation in Italy are shown. In the second one, orthodox and heterodox paradigms of public interventions in the economy are compared, with a specific attention to environmental applications. In the

  14. Extensive immune-mediated hippocampal damage in mice surviving infection with neuroadapted Sindbis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Griffin, Diane E.

    2003-01-01

    Viral infections of the central nervous system and immune responses to these infections cause a variety of neurological diseases. Infection of weanling mice with Sindbis virus causes acute nonfatal encephalomyelitis followed by clearance of infectious virus, but persistence of viral RNA. Infection with a neuroadapted strain of Sindbis virus (NSV) causes fatal encephalomyelitis, but passive transfer of immune serum after infection protects from fatal disease and infectious virus is cleared. To determine whether persistent NSV RNA is associated with neurological damage, we examined the brains of recovered mice and found progressive loss of the hippocampal gyrus, adjacent white matter, and deep cerebral cortex associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. Mice deficient in CD4 + T cells showed less tissue loss, while mice lacking CD8 + T cells showed lesions comparable to those in immunocompetent mice. Mice deficient in both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells developed severe tissue loss similar to immunocompetent mice and this was associated with extensive infiltration of macrophages. The number of CD4 + cells and macrophage/microglial cells, but not CD8 + cells, infiltrating the hippocampal gyrus was correlated with the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling positive pyramidal neurons. These results suggest that CD4 + T cells can promote progressive neuronal death and tissue injury, despite clearance of infectious virus

  15. Changes in properties of DNA caused by gamma and ultraviolet radiation. Dependence of conformational changes on the chemical nature of the damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorlickova, M; Palacek, E [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav

    1978-02-16

    Changes in the pulse-polarographic behaviour and circular dichroism spectra of DNA were investigated after gamma and ultraviolet irradiations and after degradation by DNAase I. It was found that moderate doses of radiation cause local conformational changes in the double helix which are dependent on the chemical nature of the damage. Only the accumulation of structural changes after high doses of the radiations or after extensive enzymic treatment may cause formation of single-standed regions in DNA.

  16. Status and future prospects of extensive damage mitigation guidelines in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Han; Kim, Han Chul; Kim, Tae Hyeong; Seul, Kwang Won

    2012-01-01

    Previous severe accidents such as TMI 2 and Chernobyl accidents occurred due to combinations of equipment failures and human errors. However, the Fukushima accident is the first severe accident caused by extreme natural hazards. The Fukushima accident indicated need for integration of accident management such as emergency operating procedures (EOPs), severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs), and extensive damage mitigation guidelines (EDMGs). Therefore, in order to mitigate the effect of simultaneous accidents at multiple units of a site due to extreme natural hazards such as earthquake, tsunami, flooding, the EDMGs in Korea are being evaluated in terms of its effectiveness in prevention and mitigation of a severe accident after the Fukushima accident. In the first step, the Generic EDMG will be developed by KHNP for Wolsong, Kori, Yonggwang, Ulchin, Shin Kori, Shin Wolsong sites by 2013 and then the Specific EDMG will be developed for six nuclear power plants that represent each type of reactors by 2015. The aim of this paper is to describe the EDMGs and also introduce the activities to improve effectiveness of EDMGs through efforts for reflecting lessons-learned from the Fukushima accident. Also, this paper provides the status of developing EDMGs in Korea

  17. Local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by impact of aircraft engine missiles. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Ohnuma, H.; Von Riesemann, W.A.; Bickel, D.C.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Structural damage induced by an aircraft crashing into a reinforced concrete structure includes local damage caused by the deformable engines, and global damage caused by the entire aircraft. Local damage to the target may consist of spalling of concrete from its front face together with missile penetration into it, scabbing of concrete from its rear face, and perforation of missile through it. Until now, local damage to concrete structures has been mainly evaluated by rigid missile impact tests. Past research work regarding local damage caused by impact of deformable missiles has been limited. This paper presents the results of a series of impact tests of small-, intermediate-, and full-scale engine models into reinforced concrete panels. The purpose of the tests was to determine the local damage to a reinforced concrete structure caused by the impact of a deformable aircraft engine. (orig.)

  18. VT Ice Damage Assessment from the 1998 Ice Storm

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset (ICEDAMAG98) depicts the extent and severity of tree damage caused by the 1998 ice storm, which resulted in extensive tree damage in...

  19. Extensive cortical damage in a case of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease: clinicoradiological correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergui, M.; Bradac, G.B. [Neuroradiology, Ospedale S. G. Battista, University of Torino, Via Cherasco 15, 10126, Torino (Italy); Rossi, G. [Neuropathology Department, Istituto Neurologico C. Besta, Milano (Italy); Orsi, L. [Neurology, Ospedale S. G. Battista, University of Torino, Via Cherasco 15, 10126, Torino (Italy)

    2003-05-01

    MRI demonstrated extensive cortical involvement in a patient with pathologically proven Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. The whole brain was atrophic; some of the supratentorial cortex, putamen and caudate nucleus gave high signal on T2-weighted images; the changes were more extensive on diffusion-weighted images (DWI). Comparison of the history, and the sites of atrophy and signal change suggested that the latter predominates in regions with long-lasting damage and prevalent gliosis, while high signal on DWI indicate current neuronal loss. This case widens the range of MRI findings in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, and suggests that some information about the progression of the disease can be extracted from single MRI study. (orig.)

  20. Liability for damage caused by medical X-ray treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A case of liability for damage caused by X-ray medical treatment was recently brought before the courts in Norway. Following a mistake by the physician handling the X-ray apparatus the plaintiff had received an overdose of radiation on her nose and a lengthy and expensive plastic surgery treatment had been required to repair the damage. The local court of Aalesund ruled in April 1975 that the physician concerned had committed a fault but could not be accused of gross negligence or gross fault in view of Norwegian case law on medical liability. Therefore the plaintiff obtained compensation for her medical expenses but was refused compensation for non-material damage (disfigurement and pretium doloris). (NEA) [fr

  1. Mechanical damage in cotton buds caused by the boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman causes high levels of bud abscission in cotton plants due to feeding or oviposition punctures. It has been reported that abscission is mainly due to enzymes present in the insect's saliva, but mechanical damage could also contribute to square abscission. The objective of this paper was to undertake an analysis of the morphological damages caused by the insect in cotton squares using microscopy. Anthers and ovules are the main target of boll weevil feeding. The process initiates by perforation of young sepal and petal tissues and proceeds with subsequent alimentation on stamen and ovary leading to abscission of floral structures.

  2. DNA damage caused by UV- and near UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    1986-01-01

    Much work with mutants deficient in DNA repair has been performed concerning UV-induced DNA damage under the condition where there is no artificial stimulation. In an attempt to infer the effects of solar wavelengths, the outcome of the work is discussed in terms of cellular radiation sensitivity, unscheduled DNA synthesis, and mutation induction, leading to the conclusion that some DNA damage occurs even by irradiation of the shorter wavelength light (270 - 315 nm) and is repaired by excision repair. It has been thought to date that pyrimidine dimer (PD) plays the most important role in UV-induced DNA damage, followed by (6 - 4) photoproducts. As for DNA damage induced by near UV irradiation, the yield of DNA single-strand breaks and of DNA-protein crosslinking, other than PD, is considered. The DNA-protein crosslinking has proved to be induced by irradiation at any wavelength of UV ranging from 260 to 425 nm. Near UV irradiation causes the inhibition of cell proliferation to take place. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Gallardo-Casas, Carlos Angel; Ortiz-Butrón, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    It is known that a hypothyroidism-induced hypometabolic state protects against oxidative damage caused by toxins. However, some workers demonstrated that antithyroid drug-induced hypothyroidism can cause cellular damage. Our objective was to determine if methimazole (an antithyroid drug) or hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the liver, kidney, lung, spleen and heart. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: euthyroid, false thyroidectomy, thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism, methimazole-induced hypothyroidism (60 mg/kg), and treatment with methimazole (60 mg/kg) and a T₄ injection (20 μg/kg/d sc). At the end of the treatments (4 weeks for the pharmacological groups and 8 weeks for the surgical groups), the animals were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and they were transcardially perfused with 10% formaldehyde. The spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney were removed and were processed for embedding in paraffin wax. Coronal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. At the end of treatment, animals with both the methimazole- and thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism had a significant reduction of serum concentration of thyroid hormones. Only methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the kidney, lung, liver, heart, kidney and spleen. In addition, animals treated with methimazole and T₄ showed cellular damage in the lung, spleen and renal medulla with lesser damage in the liver, renal cortex and heart. The thyroidectomy only altered the lung structure. The alterations were prevented by T₄ completely in the heart and partially in the kidney cortex. These results indicate that tissue damage found in hypothyroidism is caused by methimazole. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. ROCK MASS DAMAGED ZONE CAUSED BY BLASTING DURING TUNNEL EXCAVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Antičević

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Design of underground spaces, including tunnels, and repositories for radioactive waste include the application of the same or similar technologies. Tunnel excavation by blasting inevitably results in the damage in the rock mass around the excavation profile. The damage in the rock mass immediately next to the tunnel profile emerges as the expanding of the existing cracks and the appearance of new cracks, i.e. as the change of the physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass. Concerning the design of deep geological repositories, requirements in terms of damaged rock are the same or more rigorous than for the design of tunnel. The aforementioned research is directed towards determining the depth of damage zone caused by blasting. The depth of the damage zone is determined by measuring the changes of physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass around the tunnel excavation profile. By this research the drilling and blasting parameters were correlated with the depth and size of the damage zone (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. Foliar Nutritional Quality Explains Patchy Browsing Damage Caused by an Invasive Mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R Windley

    Full Text Available Introduced herbivores frequently inflict significant, yet patchy damage on native ecosystems through selective browsing. However, there are few instances where the underlying cause of this patchy damage has been revealed. We aimed to determine if the nutritional quality of foliage could predict the browsing preferences of an invasive mammalian herbivore, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, in a temperate forest in New Zealand. We quantified the spatial and temporal variation in four key aspects of the foliar chemistry (total nitrogen, available nitrogen, in vitro dry matter digestibility and tannin effect of 275 trees representing five native tree species. Simultaneously, we assessed the severity of browsing damage caused by possums on those trees in order to relate selective browsing to foliar nutritional quality. We found significant spatial and temporal variation in nutritional quality among individuals of each tree species examined, as well as among tree species. There was a positive relationship between the available nitrogen concentration of foliage (a measure of in vitro digestible protein and the severity of damage caused by browsing by possums. This study highlights the importance of nutritional quality, specifically, the foliar available nitrogen concentration of individual trees, in predicting the impact of an invasive mammal. Revealing the underlying cause of patchy browsing by an invasive mammal provides new insights for conservation of native forests and targeted control of invasive herbivores in forest ecosystems.

  6. In-situ metallography for damage assessment and life extension in power plants- a few case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, N.; Muralidharan, N.G.; Jayakumar, T.; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.

    1996-01-01

    In-service inspection of components in power plants is necessary for damage assessment, life prediction and extension. The useful life of some of the components like pipelines are most crucial in case they are exposed to the conditions of high temperature and pressure. Periodic inservice inspection by means of non-destructive testing to obtain information on damage assessment is carried out as a routine and mandatory procedure. During these inspections, only reduction in localised and uniform wall thickness are measured. However, the microstructural degradation due to both normal and abnormal temperatures occurring conditions are not revealed by conventional non-destructive test methods during this routine inspection. For life prediction and extension programme, the information on microstructural degradation is essential and the same can be studies in an effective manner through in-situ metallography technique. (author)

  7. 76 FR 44985 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    .... PHMSA-2011-0177] Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding AGENCY... liquid pipelines to communicate the potential for damage to pipeline facilities caused by severe flooding... pipelines in case of flooding. ADDRESSES: This document can be viewed on the Office of Pipeline Safety home...

  8. Threats to repair injury caused by judicial errors and criminal damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntean Vasilisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The grounds for the occurrence of punitive damages are related to the illicit actions of the persons with responsibilities in the courts and the criminal prosecution bodies. In order to provide protection against such unfair situations, there are a number of legal guarantees. The legislator has highlighted both the specific circle of reasons (illegal detention, unlawful criminal prosecution, unlawful sentencing, etc. necessary to ensure that the damage caused to the person can be repaired, as well as the circle of conditions for the right to reparation (the acquittal, the order for termination of the criminal proceedings or for the prosecution, etc.. The reparation of the damage caused by judicial and criminal prosecution errors arises at the time when the act whereby the person was convicted or illegally arrested, ie at the time when the rehabilitation act became irrevocable, was found to be illegal.

  9. Compensation for damage caused by abuse of procedural rights in civil litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakočević Milka V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of compensation for damage caused by the abuse of procedural rights as a measure within the oppressive apparatus for sanctioning the abuse of process in civil proceedings, which issue is, unlike others related to the idea of prohibition of abuse of rights within the system of civil procedure, the least treated in the procedural doctrine. The author deals with procedural aspects of certain essential issues that are important in the context of the matter concerned, highlighting the nature of the claim for damages caused by the abuse of process, the manner this right is realized (whether in the pending litigation or by initiating a separate civil procedure, the procedural form of the claim for compensation of damages, etc.

  10. Evaluation of environmental damage due to atmospheric pollution caused by power economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burneikis, J.; Shtreimikiene, D.

    1996-01-01

    Methods to evaluate the environmental damage due to atmospheric pollution caused by power economy are presented. The products of burning fossil fuel (CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x and ashes) make the bulk of the pollutants that are being discharged into the atmosphere. To evaluate the damage caused by these pollutants an empirical method is suggested. The direct and analytical methods are used as a basis in collecting data for the empirical evaluation. All the three methods are described and empirical formulas suggested for calculating environmental damage due to burning fossil fuel in thermal power stations. The authors prove the necessity to change the present system of environmental taxes in Lithuania, which are purely symbolic. (author). 8 refs., 9 tabs

  11. Evaluation of roadside greenbelt trees damage caused by strangler plants in Bogor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danniswari, Dibyanti; Nasrullah, Nizar

    2017-10-01

    Certain plants are called stranglers (hemiepiphyte) because they grow on host trees and slowly choking the host, which often results in the host’s death. The existence of strangler plants on roadside greenbelt trees is quite common in Bogor, but they may cause tree’s failure and threaten users’ safety. To prevent such hazard, evaluation of roadside greenbelt trees damage caused by strangler plants is important. This study was directed to analyse the vegetation of strangler plants in Bogor, to assess the damage caused by stranglers, and to compose strangled trees maintenance recommendations. This study was conducted in March to May 2014 by doing survey at five major roads in Bogor, which were Jalan Ahmad Yani, Jalan Sudirman, Jalan Pemuda, Jalan Semeru, and Jalan Juanda. The results showed that strangler species found in Bogor are Ficus benjamina, Ficus glauca, Ficus elastica, and Schefflera actinophylla. The most common species in Bogor is F. benjamina. Host trees that tend to be preferred by strangler plants are trees with large trunk, many branches, and medium to high height. The maintenance for every strangled tree is different according to the damage level, mild to severe damage could be treated by strangler root cutting to tree logging, respectively.

  12. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Meta-analysis of attitudes toward damage-causing mammalian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Ruth; Kidd, Martin; Knight, Andrew T

    2014-08-01

    Many populations of threatened mammals persist outside formally protected areas, and their survival depends on the willingness of communities to coexist with them. An understanding of the attitudes, and specifically the tolerance, of individuals and communities and the factors that determine these is therefore fundamental to designing strategies to alleviate human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify factors that affected attitudes toward 4 groups of terrestrial mammals. Elephants (65%) elicited the most positive attitudes, followed by primates (55%), ungulates (53%), and carnivores (44%). Urban residents presented the most positive attitudes (80%), followed by commercial farmers (51%) and communal farmers (26%). A tolerance to damage index showed that human tolerance of ungulates and primates was proportional to the probability of experiencing damage while elephants elicited tolerance levels higher than anticipated and carnivores elicited tolerance levels lower than anticipated. Contrary to conventional wisdom, experiencing damage was not always the dominant factor determining attitudes. Communal farmers had a lower probability of being positive toward carnivores irrespective of probability of experiencing damage, while commercial farmers and urban residents were more likely to be positive toward carnivores irrespective of damage. Urban residents were more likely to be positive toward ungulates, elephants, and primates when probability of damage was low, but not when it was high. Commercial and communal farmers had a higher probability of being positive toward ungulates, primates, and elephants irrespective of probability of experiencing damage. Taxonomic bias may therefore be important. Identifying the distinct factors explaining these attitudes and the specific contexts in which they operate, inclusive of the species causing damage, will be essential for prioritizing conservation investments. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology

  14. Damage on sliding bearings of internal combustion engines. Damage patterns, causes, prevention; Schaeden an Gleitlagern von Verbrennungsmotoren. Erscheinungsbilder, Ursachen, Vermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ederer, U.G. [Miba Gleitlager GmbH, Laakrichen (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    Bearing failures are consequences of system deficiencies which cause an inadequate function of the hydrodynamic action and, thereby, too high a friction, at least locally. The bearing overheats, what ultimately leads to its destruction and that of adjacent components. These 'consequential damages' are frequently severe. We identify, therefore, early stages of malfunction, already as 'bearing damage'. In this condition, a diagnosis and remedial measures to avoid total destruction are possible. Typical bearing conditions, possible causes and remedies are described herein. (orig.)

  15. The assessment of health damage caused by air pollution and its implication for policy making in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Daisheng; Aunan, Kristin; Seip, Hans Martin; Larssen, Steinar; Liu Jianhui; Zhang Dingsheng

    2010-01-01

    We establish the link between energy use, air pollution, and public health impacts in Taiyuan for 2000, and for 2010 and 2015 under alternative scenarios. We find that in year 2000 more than 2200 excess deaths may have been caused by particulate matter (PM) pollution. Using alternative methods for monetization of health impacts the total health damage amounts to 0.8-1.7 billion Yuan, which is 2.4-4.9% of the city's GDP in 2000. Compared to the business-as-usual scenario, scenarios assuming extensive fuel switch in low-and-medium-stack pollution sources and extension of the district heating system could prevent 200-1100 PM 10 -related premature deaths in 2010 and substantially reduce population morbidity. The actual PM pollution in 2007 was lower than modeled in these two scenarios. We also find that if air quality in urban Taiyuan were to reach the Chinese National Grade II Standard in 2015, the number of premature deaths would still be around 1330 and the economic cost about 1-2% of the city's GDP in 2015. Our results imply that there are large health benefits to be gained by setting stricter standards for the future in China, and that targeting low-and-medium-stack source effectively reduces health damage.

  16. Use of enzymes to minimize the rheological dough problems caused by high levels of damaged starch in starch-gluten systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Gabriela N; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2016-05-01

    During wheat milling, starch granules can experience mechanical damage, producing damaged starch. High levels of damaged starch modify the physicochemical properties of wheat flour, negatively affecting the dough behavior as well as the flour quality and cookie and bread making quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of α-amylase, maltogenic amylase and amyloglucosidase on dough rheology in order to propose alternatives to reduce the issues related to high levels of damaged starch. The dough with a high level of damaged starch became more viscous and resistant to deformations as well as less elastic and extensible. The soluble fraction of the doughs influenced the rheological behavior of the systems. The α-amylase and amyloglucosidase reduced the negative effects of high damaged starch contents, improving the dough rheological properties modified by damaged starch. The rheological behavior of dough with the higher damaged-starch content was related to a more open gluten network arrangement as a result of the large size of the swollen damaged starch granules. We can conclude that the dough rheological properties of systems with high damaged starch content changed positively as a result of enzyme action, particularly α-amylase and amyloglucosidase additions, allowing the use of these amylases and mixtures of them as corrective additives. Little information was reported about amyloglucosidase activity alone or combined with α-amylase. The combinations of these two enzymes are promising to minimize the negative effects caused by high levels of damaged starch on product quality. More research needs to be done on bread quality combining these two enzymes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Climatology of damage-causing hailstorms over Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, M.; Puskeiler, M.; Schmidberger, M.

    2012-04-01

    In several regions of Central Europe, such as southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and northern Italy, hailstorms often cause substantial damage to buildings, crops, or automobiles on the order of several million EUR. In the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, for example, most of the insured damage to buildings is caused by large hailstones. Due to both their local-scale extent and insufficient direct monitoring systems, hail swaths are not captured accurately and uniquely by a single observation system. Remote-sensing systems such as radars are able to detect convection signals in a basic way, but they lack the ability to discern a clear relation between measured intensity and hail on the ground. These shortcomings hamper statistical analysis on the hail probability and intensity. Hail modelling thus is a big challenge for the insurance industry. Within the project HARIS-CC (Hail Risk and Climate Change), different meteorological observations are combined (3D / 2D radar, lightning, satellite and radiosounding data) to obtain a comprehensive picture of the hail climatology over Germany. The various approaches were tested and calibrated with loss data from different insurance companies between 2005 and 2011. Best results are obtained by considering the vertical distance between the 0°C level of the atmosphere and the echo top height estimated from 3D reflectivity data from the radar network of German Weather Service (DWD). Additionally, frequency, intensity, width, and length of hail swaths are determined by applying a cell tracking algorithm to the 3D radar data (TRACE3D; Handwerker, 2002). The hailstorm tracks identified are merged with loss data using a geographical information system (GIS) to verify damage-causing hail on the ground. Evaluating the hailstorm climatology revealed that hail probability exhibits high spatial variability even over short distances. An important issue is the spatial pattern of hail occurrence that is considered to be due to

  18. Local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by impact of aircraft engine missiles. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Itoh, C.; Shirai, K.; Von Riesemann, W.A.; Bickel, D.C.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Three sets of impact tests, small-, intermediate-, and full-scale tests, have been executed to determine local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by the impact of aircraft engine missiles. The results of the test program showed that (1) the use of the similarity law is appropriate, (2) suitable empirical formulas exist for predicting the local damage caused by rigid missiles, (3) reduction factors may be used for evaluating the reduction in local damage due to the deformability of the engines, (4) the reinforcement ratio has no effect on local damage, and (5) the test results could be adequately predicted using nonlinear response analysis. (orig.)

  19. Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin ... ingredient in many over-the-counter and prescription medicines that help relieve pain and reduce fever. More than 600 over-the- ...

  20. Is eye damage caused by stereoscopic displays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Udo; Neumann, Markus D.; Kubbat, Wolfgang; Landau, Kurt

    2000-05-01

    A normal developing child will achieve emmetropia in youth and maintain it. Thereby cornea, lens and axial length of the eye grow astonishingly coordinated. In the last years research has evidenced that this coordinated growing process is a visually controlled closed loop. The mechanism has been studied particularly in animals. It was found that the growth of the axial length of the eyeball is controlled by image focus information from the retina. It was shown that maladjustment can occur by this visually-guided growth control mechanism that result in ametropia. Thereby it has been proven that e.g. short-sightedness is not only caused by heredity, but is acquired under certain visual conditions. It is shown that these conditions are similar to the conditions of viewing stereoscopic displays where the normal accommodation convergence coupling is disjoint. An evaluation is given of the potential of damaging the eyes by viewing stereoscopic displays. Concerning this, different viewing methods for stereoscopic displays are evaluated. Moreover, clues are given how the environment and display conditions shall be set and what users shall be chosen to minimize the risk of eye damages.

  1. Consumer Attitude Towards to Step-down Extension of Luxury Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hsing-Yu

    2010-01-01

    70% of revenue for luxury firms come from accessible luxury markets. In order to make luxury brands to be more accessible to wider public clients, many luxury-brand companies apply brand extension to expand to accessible luxury markets. Step-down brand extension is an approach that can minimise damages cause by brand extension, because it can keep attributes of core luxury brands, such as superior quality, design-led and strong emotional engagement. Hence it is curtail to understand the relat...

  2. Variation in damage from growing-season frosts among open-pollinated families of red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Peeler; Dean S. DeBell

    1987-01-01

    Repeated growing-season frosts during late April and early May 1985 caused extensive damage to red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) seedlings in a newly planted research trial in western Washington. About two-thirds of the seedlings were severely damaged (entire stem damaged or necrotic). Such damage varied by family, from 50 percent of seedlings in the...

  3. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS CAUSING WATER DAMAGE TO LOESS DOUBLE-ARCHED TUNNEL BASED ON TFN-AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Zheng-jun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to analysis the factors causing water damage to loess double-arched tunnel, this paper conducts field investigation on water damage to tunnels on Lishi-Jundu Expressway in Shanxi, China, confirms its development characteristics, builds an index system (covering 36 evaluation indexes for construction condition, design stage, construction stage, and operation stage for the factors causing water damage to loess double-arched tunnel, applies TFN-AHP (triangular fuzzy number-analytic hierarchy process in calculating the weight of indexes at different levels, and obtains the final sequence of weight of the factors causing water seepage to loess double-arched tunnel. It is found out that water damage to loess double-arched tunnel always develops in construction joints, expansion joints, settlement joints, and lining joints of tunnel and even around them; there is dotted water seepage, linear water seepage, and planar water seepage according to the trace and scope of water damage to tunnel lining. The result shows that water damage to loess double-arched tunnel mainly refers to linear water seepage, planar water seepage is also developed well, and partition and equipment box at the entrance and exit of tunnel are prone to water seepage; construction stage is crucial for controlling water damage to loess double-arched tunnel, atmospheric precipitation is the main water source, and the structure defect of double-arched tunnel increases the possibility of water seepage; the final sequence for weight of various factors is similar to the actual result.

  4. Annealing damage caused by implantation of group IB elements into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, A.; Svenningsen, B.; Chadderton, L.T.; Whitton, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the Rutherford backscattering method (RBS) have been used in an investigation of the annealing of radiation damage produced in silicon by 80 keV Cu + , Ag + and Au + ions up to doses of 10 15 ions/cm 2 . Whilst the damage caused by Cu + and Ag + implantation, measured by RBS, persists following annealing sequences up to temperatures of 800 0 C, Au + -implanted samples show recovery. Furthermore, RBS indicates quite clearly that, in the case of gold, atomic diffusion to the silicon surface takes place. TEM and electron diffraction both indicate that in all three implants the anomalous 'damage' remaining in RBS spectra is due to an amorphous-polycrystalline transition. In the case of Au + implants, however, there is less inhibition of the process of recovery, quite apart from the thermal history of the sample. The importance of using another technique, especially TEM, in conjunction with RBS investigations of radiation damage in the solid state is emphasized. (author)

  5. An animal experimental model for evaluating endothelial damage caused by various angiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlob, R.

    1981-01-01

    The endothelial damage caused by X-ray contrast media is tested on en face preparations of the rat aorta after silver staining. Hypertonic contrast media cause dehydration of the vessels so that solutions of silver nitrate penetrate into the media during the phase of rehydration whereby medial transverse lines are stained. These artifacts can be avoided by 3 minute rehydration of the vessels by Ringer solution prior to silver staining. In addition it is recommended to add highly diluted silver nitrate to the fixing media in order to intensify the pattern of the endothelial silver lines. Modern contrast media may cause very little endothelial damage, however, significant differences can be detected when in addition to the evaluation of larger foci damages of single endothelial cells ( brown cells with sparing of the nuclei and pseudonuclei ) are evaluated as well. No significant differences were found between the endothelial toxicity of meglumin diatrizoate and meglumin iothalamate. (orig.) [de

  6. Cell damage caused by vaginal Candida albicans isolates from women with different symptomatologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Daniella Renata; Sakita, Karina Mayumi; Akimoto-Gunther, Luciene Setsuko; Kioshima, Érika Seki; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to characterize cell damage caused by vaginal Candida albicans isolates from women with different symptomatologies. It was evaluated 12 clinical isolates of C. albicans from vaginal samples: 4 from asymptomatic women (AS), 4 from women with a single episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and 4 from women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). We evaluated the ability of C. albicans to adhere to human cervical cancer cells (SiHa), the yeast-SiHa cell interactions and cell damage. All of the clinical isolates presented a high adhesion capacity on SiHa cells. However, clinical isolates from symptomatic women (VVC and RVVC) had higher filamentation after contact (24 h) with SiHa cells and a greater capacity to cause cell damage (>80 %). Clinical isolates from symptomatic women had greater potential to invade SiHa cells, suggesting that they are more pathogenic than AS isolates.

  7. Evaluation of the damages in rocks caused by the construction of a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Escalier des Orres, P.

    1988-12-01

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (French Atomic Energy Commission) has conducted a bibliographic study of the damages in the rock caused by the construction of a repository, and several hydraulic simulations, to appreciate the influence of these damages on the safety of the repository. These studies have led to the proposal of construction techniques in accordance safety requirements and industrial feasibility [fr

  8. Chronic Broca's Aphasia Is Caused by Damage to Broca's and Wernicke's Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Fillmore, Paul; Guo, Dazhou; Rorden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Despite being perhaps the most studied form of aphasia, the critical lesion location for Broca's aphasia has long been debated, and in chronic patients, cortical damage often extends far beyond Broca's area. In a group of 70 patients, we examined brain damage associated with Broca's aphasia using voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM). We found that damage to the posterior portion of Broca's area, the pars opercularis, is associated with Broca's aphasia. However, several individuals with other aphasic patterns had considerable damage to pars opercularis, suggesting that involvement of this region is not sufficient to cause Broca's aphasia. When examining only individuals with pars opercularis damage, we found that patients with Broca's aphasia had greater damage in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG; roughly Wernicke's area) than those with other aphasia types. Using discriminant function analysis and logistic regression, based on proportional damage to the pars opercularis and Wernicke's area, to predict whether individuals had Broca's or another types of aphasia, over 95% were classified correctly. Our findings suggest that persons with Broca's aphasia have damage to both Broca's and Wernicke's areas, a conclusion that is incongruent with classical neuropsychology, which has rarely considered the effects of damage to both areas. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A methodology for the economic assessment of material damage caused by SO2 and NOx emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayerhofer, P.; Weltschev, M.; Trukenmueller, A.; Friedrich, R.

    1995-01-01

    Damage to materials causes high economic losses in Europe. A large part of this damage can be attributed to the emissions caused by the energy and the transport sector. In the paper, the procedure for the economic assessment of material damages caused by SO 2 and NO x emissions in Europe is described. Model and data requirements are outlined, and gaps and uncertainties of the quantification are discussed. Two types of results are presented. First, the marginal (additional) costs of damage to material caused by an additional power plant are assessed. The analysis covers plants with different technologies. Results for the fossil power plants are in the range of 0.0062 to 0.12 mECU/kWh. In addition, the total economic material damage due to the present air pollution was assessed. It is in the range of 2.9 to 5.3 x 10 9 ECU/year. However, the analysis has many uncertainties. Most noteworthy are the material inventories and partially the damage functions and input data. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiuqiang; Liou, Liang-Chun; Ren, Qun; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-03-03

    The yeast cell wall plays an important role in maintaining cell morphology, cell integrity and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ 0 ). Upon salt treatment, the cell wall is thickened, broken and becomes more sensitive to the cell wall-perturbing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Also, SCW11 mRNA levels are elevated in ρ 0 cells. Deletion of SCW11 significantly decreases the sensitivity of ρ 0 cells to SDS after salt treatment, while overexpression of SCW11 results in higher sensitivity. In addition, salt stress in ρ 0 cells induces high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further damages the cell wall, causing cells to become more sensitive towards the cell wall-perturbing agent.

  11. Operation time extension for power units of the first generation NPP and the liability for potential damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevich, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    The problem on the operation time extension for the six operating NPP first generation power units is discussed. However it is not advisable to improve the safety of these power units up to the acceptable level, therefore there arises the contradiction between the operation time extension of these power units and potential damage for the population. The possibility of having the increased civilian-legal responsibility for potential harm and losses in case of an accident is proposed to be considered as a compensating measure. The measures for realization of this civilian-legal responsibility are described [ru

  12. Extensive tissue damage of bovine ovaries after bipolar ovarian drilling compared to monopolar electrocoagulation or carbon dioxide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.L.; van der Valk, P.; Lambalk, C.B.; Broeckaert, M.A.M.; Homburg, R.R.; Hompes, P.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the size of ovarian damage caused by ovarian drilling in polycystic ovary syndrome, the amount of inflicted damage was assessed for the most frequently used ovarian drilling techniques. Design: Experimental prospective design. Setting: University clinic. Patient(s): Six fresh

  13. Damage Mechanism in Counter Pairs Caused by Bionic Non-smoothed Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhan-hui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Four biomimetic non-smoothed surface specimens with different shapes were prepared by laser processing. Tests were conducted on MMU-5G wear and abrasion test machine to study the influencing rule of non-smoothed surfaces on counter pairs. The results show that the mass loss of the friction pair matching with the non-smoothed units is much greater than the ones matching with the smooth specimens. The pairs matching with different non-smoothed units suffer differently. The non-smoothed surface protruding zone exerts micro cutting on counter pairs. The striation causes the greatest mass loss of the pairs than the other non-smoothed units, which almost doubles the damage of the grid ones suffering the least. The difference in pairs damage is attributed to the different mechanism of undertaking the load in the process of wear. The damage can be alleviated effectively by changing the shapes of the units without increasing or decreasing the area ratio of the non-smoothed units.

  14. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  15. Storm damage in the Black Forest caused by the winter storm "Lothar" – Part 1: Airborne damage assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmoeckel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An airborne survey of the Black Forest as affected by the winter storm "Lothar" in 1999 is performed by means of a color line scanner (CLS with a CCD sensor, whose data in a visible and a near-infrared channel provide the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI as a measure of the damage in previously intact forest areas. The camera data, height data from a digital evelation model (DEM, land use information, and soil data are georeferenced and processed in a geographic information system (GIS to derive relationship of the damage pattern to the characteristics of the local orography and soil types. The data cover an area of 4900 km2, 2767 km2 of which were forested. The 363 detected storm damage areas with a minimum detection size of 1.5 ha amount to 0.8% of the total forest area. Visual inspections at certain sites prove that none of the larger damage areas are missed, but areas smaller than 1.5 ha cause the total damage area to be up to twice our result, i.e. ≈1.6% of the forest area. More than 50% of the detected damaged areas are smaller than 5 ha and most of them have a size ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 ha. Forests on slopes with an inclination angle between 10 and 15 degrees show the highest fraction of damaged forest, doubling those on plains and below 5 degrees inclination angle. Forests on northwestern slopes are more affected than those on southwestern and western slopes, which faced the wind during highest wind speed occurrence. In contrast to other studies, this paper shows, that in steep areas, lee slopes are more damaged than the luv slopes. As expected, wet to moist soils represent an unstable location for the trees. But also medium-dry to dry locations that were considered to be relatively stable exhibited a highly damaged forest fraction. This can be attributed to mostly saturated soil from previous rain.

  16. The classification, recording, databasing and use of information about building damage caused by subsidence and landslides

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Building damage as a result of subsidence and lateral movement can be caused by numerous mechanisms including mining, dissolution of soluble rocks, shrink–swell of clays and landslides. In many instances, the distribution and severity of the damage caused can be diagnostic of the underlying geological condition and can be used as an aid to geological and geomorphological mapping. Many rigid buildings are sensitive to movement, meaning that careful surveys can delineate fine details that can b...

  17. The changes of fingernail microcirculation in the patients with hand skin radiation damage caused by β rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guoquan; Qian Jianjun; Wang Zuofa

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To observe the microcirculation changes in the patients with hand skin radiation damage caused by β rays. Methods: The XOX-1A type microcirculation microscope was used in observation of the microcirculation changes of fingernail, in 22 patients with III-IV degree hand skin radiation damage caused by β rays. Results: A series of abnormal signs were observed in all these patients and it was found that the microcirculation abnormality of the fingernail were the most clinical significant sign. Conclusion: The fingernail microcirculation changes can be used as an indicator for prognosis in the hand skin radiation damage patients

  18. Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Xu-Chu; Jin, Li-Fen; Yang, Zhang-Ping; Jiang, Cai-Xia; Chen, Qing; Ren, Xiao-Bin; Cao, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2011-04-12

    Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers. 157 electroplating workers and 93 control subjects with no history of occupational exposure to chromium were recruited in Hangzhou, China. Chromium levels in erythrocytes were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated with the alkaline comet assay by three parameters: Olive tail moment, tail length and percent of DNA in the comet tail (tail DNA%). Urinary 8-OHdG levels were measured by ELISA. Chromium concentration in erythrocytes was about two times higher in electroplating workers (median: 4.41 μg/L) than that in control subjects (1.54 μg/L, P electroplating workers. Low-level occupational chromium exposure induced DNA damage.

  19. Phototherapy causes DNA damage in peripheral mononuclear leukocytes in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Erel, Ozcan; Senturk, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to determine whether endogenous mononuclear leukocyte DNA strand is a target of phototherapy. The study included 65 term infants aged between 3-10 days that had been exposed to intensive (n = 23) or conventional (n = 23) phototherapy for at least 48 hours due to neonatal jaundice, and a control group (n = 19). DNA damage was assayed by single-cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Plasma total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status levels were also measured, and correlation between DNA damage and oxidative stress was investigated. Mean values of DNA damage scores in both the intensive and conventional phototherapy groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (p Total oxidant status levels in both the intensive and conventional phototherapy groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (p = 0.005). Mean (standard deviation) values were 18.1 (4.2), 16.9 (4.4), 13.5 (4.2) micromol H2O2 equivalent/L, respectively. Similarly, oxidative stress index levels in both the intensive and conventional phototherapy groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (p = 0.041). Plasma total antioxidant capacity and total bilirubin levels did not differ between the groups (p > 0.05). There were no significant correlations between DNA damage scores and bilirubin, total oxidant status and oxidative stress levels in either phototherapy group (p > 0.05). Both conventional phototherapy and intensive phototherapy cause endogenous mononuclear leukocyte DNA damage in jaundiced term infants.

  20. Effect of low dose pre-irradiation on DNA damage and genetic material damage caused by high dosage of cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hongsheng; Zhu Jingjuan; Shang Qingjun; Wang Zhuomin; Cui Fuxian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of low dose γ-rays pre-irradiation on the induction of DNA damage and genetic material damage in peripheral lymphocytes by high dosage of cyclophosphamide (CTX). Methods: Male Kunming strain mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, sham-irradiated group, low dose irradiated group(LDR group), cyclophosphamide chemotherapy group(CTX group) and low dose irradiation combined with chemotherapy group(LDR + CTX group). After being feeded for one week, all the mice were implanted subcutaneously with S180 cells in the left groin (control group excluded). On days 8 and 11, groups of LDR and LDR + CTX were administered with 75 mGy of whole-body irradiation, 30 h later groups CTX and LDR + CTX were injected intraperitoneally 3.0 mg cyclophosphamide. All the mice were sacrificed on day 13. DNA damage of the peripheral lymphocytes was analyzed using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Genetic material damage was analyzed using micronucleus frequency(MNF) of polychromatoerythrocytes(PCE) in bone marrow. Results: (1) Compared with control group and sham-irradiated group, the DNA damage of peripheral lymphocytes in CTX group were increased significantly (P 0.05). Conclusions: (1) High- dosage of CTX chemotherapy can cause DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes. 75 mGy y-irradiation before chemotherapy may have certain protective effect on DNA damage. (2) CTX has potent mutagenic effect, giving remarkable rise to MNF of PCE. 75 mGy γ-ray pre-irradiation has not obvious protection against genetic toxicity of high-dose CTX chemotherapy. (authors)

  1. Prediction of the extent of formation damage caused by water injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Homadhi, Emad S. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Petroleum Engineering Dept.

    2013-06-15

    As a general practice water is injected along the O/W contact to maintain reservoir pressure during production. Down hole analysis of the injected water shows that, even after surface treatment, it still can contain a considerable amount of solid particles. These particles can bridge formation pores and cause a considerable reduction in the injectivity. To ensure good injectivity over a longer term, the concentration and size of these solids should not exceed certain limits. In this article core flood tests were carried out to simulate high rate injectors. The injected brine contained solid particles in different concentrations and sizes. Particle concentration was between 5 and 20 ppm and the particle mean size was between 2 and 9 {mu}m. The results were presented as damaging ratio versus pore volume injected. Contrarily to previous studies instead of using experimental results in calibrating or evaluating certain theoretical models, the results in this study were directly fitted to produce equations which can predict the extent of damage caused by injected water by knowing the mean size and concentration of the solid particles contained in that water. (orig.)

  2. Tumor induced hepatic myeloid derived suppressor cells can cause moderate liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Tobias; Medina-Echeverz, José; Kapanadze, Tamar; Kruhlak, Michael J; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL), while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage.

  3. Do native parasitic plants cause more damage to exotic invasive hosts than native non-invasive hosts? An implication for biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Jin, Zexin; Song, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    Field studies have shown that native, parasitic plants grow vigorously on invasive plants and can cause more damage to invasive plants than native plants. However, no empirical test has been conducted and the mechanism is still unknown. We conducted a completely randomized greenhouse experiment using 3 congeneric pairs of exotic, invasive and native, non-invasive herbaceous plant species to quantify the damage caused by parasitic plants to hosts and its correlation with the hosts' growth rate and resource use efficiency. The biomass of the parasitic plants on exotic, invasive hosts was significantly higher than on congeneric native, non-invasive hosts. Parasites caused more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to congeneric, native, non-invasive hosts. The damage caused by parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the biomass of parasitic plants. The damage of parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the relative growth rate and the resource use efficiency of its host plants. It may be the mechanism by which parasitic plants grow more vigorously on invasive hosts and cause more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to native, non-invasive hosts. These results suggest a potential biological control effect of native, parasitic plants on invasive species by reducing the dominance of invasive species in the invaded community.

  4. ILLEGAL ACTS - CONDITION OF LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES CAUSED IN EXERCISING LEGAL LABOR RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania-Alina Dumitrache

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to article 253 and 254 of Labor Code, both employers and employees are responsible under the rules and principles of contractual liability for damages to the other party of legal labor relationship and we emphasize that this is not purely civil liability, but a variety of it, determined by the specific peculiarities of legal labor relations. Thus, we highlight that labor law provisions which refer to liability for damages complement, unquestionably, with the common law relating to civil liability. The paper analyzes the objective basis of legal accountability, namely the illicit act causing damages committed in fulfilling labor duties or in connection tot hem, therewith the method detailed and comparative documentation of legislation in the field and relevant doctrine.

  5. Magnesium-oxide boards cause moisture damage inside facades in new Danish buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy; Grelk, Bent

    2016-01-01

    building elements seemed to suffer from some sort of disease, which manifested itself by damages such as significant moisture, boards leaking salty water (‘tears’), corrosion of fittings and anchors and mould growth. The damages were caused by the fact that MgO-boards absorb moisture from outside air...... in periods with high outdoor humidity (90-100% RH) and form water drops on the surfaces. The drops contain a high amount of soluble chloride ions and appear on the surfaces of the boards and may often run down the boards and to adjacent structures. Metal fixtures for the MgO-and siding boards may corrode...

  6. Causes and avoidance of container damages by means of biocorrosion; Ursachen und Vermeidung von Behaelterschaeden durch Biokorrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuever, Jan [Amtliche Materialpruefungsanstalt Bremen (MPA), Bremen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The contribution under consideration deals with the causes and prevention of vessel damages due to corrosion by microorganisms (MIC, microbially induced corrosion) in the presence and absence of oxygen. In particular, the microbially induced corrosion by sulfate-reducing bacteria and the formation of sulfuric acid by microorganisms are described. Consequential damage caused by microorganisms are inactivation of filters and catalysts, degradation products from the fermentation process and deposits in the pipe system.

  7. Extensive scarring induced by chronic intrathecal tubing augmented cord tissue damage and worsened functional recovery after rat spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G

    2010-08-30

    Intrathecal infusion has been widely used to directly deliver drugs or neurotrophins to a lesion site following spinal cord injury. Evidence shows that intrathecal infusion is efficient for 7 days but is markedly reduced after 14 days, due to time dependent occlusion. In addition, extensive fibrotic scarring is commonly observed with intrathecal infusion. These anomalies need to be clearly elucidated in histology. In the present study, all adult Long-Evans rats received a 25 mm contusion injury on spinal cord T10 produced using the NYU impactor device. Immediately after injury, catheter tubing with an outer diameter of 0.38 mm was inserted through a small dural opening at L3 into the subdural space with the tubing tip positioned near the injury site. The tubing was connected to an Alzet mini pump, which was filled with saline solution and was placed subcutaneously. Injured rats without tubing served as control. Rats were behaviorally tested for 6 weeks using the BBB locomotor rating scale and histologically assessed for tissue scarring. Six weeks later, we found that the intrathecal tubing caused extensive scarring and inflammation, related to neutrophils, macrophages and plasma cells. The tubing's tip was occluded by scar tissue and inflammatory cells. The scar tissue surrounding the tubing consists of 20-70 layers of fibroblasts and densely compacted collagen fibers, seriously compressing and damaging the cord tissue. BBB scores of rats with intrathecal tubing were significantly lower than control rats (p<0.01) from 2 weeks after injury, implying serious impairment of functional recovery caused by the scarring. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Compensation of damage to the environment caused by industrial catastrophes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, H.

    1986-01-01

    Industrial accidents have caused considerable damage to the environment and the author reviews third party liability systems and insurance in the different countries concerned. He considers that indemnification of major accidents costing between 50 millions and several billions French francs requires the setting up of an elaborate system which makes provision for high amounts. The most dangerous activities in the oil and chemical sectors should be subject to special requirements regarding insurance or financial security patterned on the system for nuclear installations. (NEA) [fr

  9. Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Xiao-Bin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers. Methods 157 electroplating workers and 93 control subjects with no history of occupational exposure to chromium were recruited in Hangzhou, China. Chromium levels in erythrocytes were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated with the alkaline comet assay by three parameters: Olive tail moment, tail length and percent of DNA in the comet tail (tail DNA%. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were measured by ELISA. Results Chromium concentration in erythrocytes was about two times higher in electroplating workers (median: 4.41 μg/L than that in control subjects (1.54 μg/L, P P P P Conclusion The findings in this study indicated that there was detectable chromium exposure in electroplating workers. Low-level occupational chromium exposure induced DNA damage.

  10. Analyses of the Secondary Particle Radiation and the DNA Damage it Causes to Human Keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel E. A.; Tafrov S.; Rusek, A.; Sivertz, M. B.; Yip, K.; Thompson, K. H.

    2011-11-01

    High-energy protons, and high mass and energy ions, along with the secondary particles they produce, are the main contributors to the radiation hazard during space explorations. Skin, particularly the epidermis, consisting mainly of keratinocytes with potential for proliferation and malignant transformation, absorbs the majority of the radiation dose. Therefore, we used normal human keratinocytes to investigate and quantify the DNA damage caused by secondary radiation. Its manifestation depends on the presence of retinol in the serum-free media, and is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases. We simulated the generation of secondary radiation after the impact of protons and iron ions on an aluminum shield. We also measured the intensity and the type of the resulting secondary particles at two sample locations; our findings agreed well with our predictions. We showed that secondary particles inflict DNA damage to different extents, depending on the type of primary radiation. Low-energy protons produce fewer secondary particles and cause less DNA damage than do high-energy protons. However, both generate fewer secondary particles and inflict less DNA damage than do high mass and energy ions. The majority of cells repaired the initial damage, as denoted by the presence of 53BPI foci, within the first 24 hours after exposure, but some cells maintained the 53BP1 foci longer.

  11. Tumor induced hepatic myeloid derived suppressor cells can cause moderate liver damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Eggert

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL, while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage.

  12. Management of wildlife causing damage at Argonne National Laboratory-East, DuPage County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The DOE, after an independent review, has adopted an Environmental Assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) which evaluates use of an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management approach at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in DuPage County, Illinois (April 1995). In 1994, the USDA issued a programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that covers nationwide animal damage control activities. The EA for Management of Wildlife Causing Damage at ANL-E tiers off this programmatic EIS. The USDA wrote the EA as a result of DOE`s request to USDA to prepare and implement a comprehensive Wildlife Management Damage Plan; the USDA has authority for animal damage control under the Animal Damage Control Act of 1931, as amended, and the Rural Development, Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1988. DOE has determined, based on the analysis in the EA, that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an EIS is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  13. Static-transmission-error vibratory-excitation contributions from plastically deformed gear teeth caused by tooth bending-fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, W. D.; Reagor, C. P.

    2007-02-01

    To assess gear health and detect gear-tooth damage, the vibratory response from meshing gear-pair excitations is commonly monitored by accelerometers. In an earlier paper, strong evidence was presented suggesting that, in the case of tooth bending-fatigue damage, the principal source of detectable damage is whole-tooth plastic deformation; i.e. yielding, rather than changes in tooth stiffness caused by tooth-root cracks. Such plastic deformations are geometric deviation contributions to the "static-transmission-error" (STE) vibratory excitation caused by meshing gear pairs. The STE contributions caused by two likely occurring forms of such plastic deformations on a single tooth are derived, and displayed in the time domain as a function of involute "roll distance." Example calculations are provided for transverse contact ratios of Qt=1.4 and 1.8, for spur gears and for helical-gear axial contact ratios ranging from Qa=1.2 to Qa=3.6. Low-pass- and band-pass-filtered versions of these same STE contributions also are computed and displayed in the time domain. Several calculations, consisting of superposition of the computed STE tooth-meshing fundamental harmonic contribution and the band-pass STE contribution caused by a plastically deformed tooth, exhibit the amplitude and frequency or phase modulation character commonly observed in accelerometer-response waveforms caused by damaged teeth. General formulas are provided that enable computation of these STE vibratory-excitation contributions for any form of plastic deformation on any number of teeth for spur and helical gears with any contact ratios.

  14. Restoration of a historic church in the Rhineland brown coal mining area after damage caused by mining; Bergschadensanierung einer historischen Kirche im rheinischen Braunkohlenrevier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koether, M. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany); Weiper, H. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany); Jung, H.H. [Ingenieurgesellschaft J.-F. und P. Jung und Partner GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    From the 1960s onwards, the Catholic parish curch of St. Remigius in Bergheim, the oldest parts of which date back to the 12th century, suffered damage caused by ground subsidences induced by mining operations on a tectonic fault. As a result of the effects of damage on the building over decades and the occurrence of a slip of almost 60 mm along the fault line, the damage to this National Trust edifice was so extensive by the late 1980s that the existence of the three-nave churche was seriously endangered in view of the further ground subsidences that were to be expected. (orig./HS) [Deutsch] Die katholische Pfarrkirche St. Remigius in Bergheim, deren aelteste Bauabschnitte aus dem 12. Jahrhundert stammen, wurde seit den 60er Jahren durch bergbaulich induzierte Bodenbewegungen an einer tektonischen Stoerung geschaedigt. Aufgrund der jahrzehntelangen Schadenseinwirkungen auf das Bauwerk und eine Absatzbildung an der Stoerungslinie von insgesamt fast 60 mm fuehrten Ende der 80er Jahre an dem denkmalgeschuetzten Bauwerk zu so starken Schaeden, dass der Bestand der dreischiffigen Kirche unter Beruecksichtigung der noch zu erwartenden Bodenbewegungen gefaehrdet war. (orig./HS)

  15. Valuing the human health damage caused by the fraud of Volkswagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenkamp, Rik; Zelm, Rosalie van; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently it became known that Volkswagen Group has been cheating with emission tests for diesel engines over the last six years, resulting in on-road emissions vastly exceeding legal standards for nitrogen oxides in Europe and the United States. Here, we provide an estimate of the public health consequences caused by this fraud. From 2009 to 2015, approximately nine million fraudulent Volkswagen cars, as sold in Europe and the US, emitted a cumulative amount of 526 ktonnes of nitrogen oxides more than was legally allowed. These fraudulent emissions are associated with 45 thousand disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and a value of life lost of at least 39 billion US dollars, which is approximately 5.3 times larger than the 7.3 billion US dollars that Volkswagen Group has set aside to cover worldwide costs related to the diesel emissions scandal. - Highlights: • Health damages from Volkswagen's emission fraud are estimated in the USA and Europe. • Combined health damages in the USA and Europe are estimated at 45 thousand DALYs. • Health damages will further increase to 119 thousand DALYs if cars are not recalled. • Combined health costs in the USA and Europe are estimated at 39 billion US dollars. • Costs will further increase to 102 billion US dollars if cars are not recalled. - The diesel emission fraud committed by Volkswagen Group has led to substantial unforeseen emissions of nitrogen oxides and subsequent health damage costs in Europe and the US.

  16. Two damaging hydrogeological events in Calabria, September 2000 and November 2015. Comparative analysis of causes and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Caloiero, Tommaso; Aurora Pasqua, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Each year, especially during winter season, some episode of intense rain affects Calabria, the southernmost Italian peninsular region, triggering flash floods and mass movements that cause damage and fatalities. This work presents a comparative analysis between two events that affected the southeast sector of the region, in 2000 and 2014, respectively. The event occurred between 9th and 10th of September 2000 is known in Italy as Soverato event, after the name of the municipality where it reached the highest damage severity. In the Soverato area, more than 200 mm of rain that fell in 24 hours caused a disastrous flood that swept away a campsite at about 4 a.m., killing 13 people and hurting 45. Besides, the rain affected a larger area, causing damage in 89 (out of 409) municipalities of the region. Flooding was the most common process, which damaged housing and trading. Landslide mostly affected the road network, housing and cultivations. The most recent event affected the same regional sector between 30th October and 2nd November 2015. The daily rain recorded at some of the rain gauges of the area almost reached 400 mm. Out of the 409 municipalities of Calabria, 109 suffered damage. The most frequent types of processes were both flash floods and landslides. The most heavily damaged element was the road network: the representative picture of the event is a railway bridge destroyed by the river flow. Housing was damaged too, and 486 people were temporarily evacuated from home. The event also caused a victim killed by a flood. The event-centred study approach aims to highlight differences and similarities in both the causes and the effects of the two events that occurred at a temporal distance of 14 years. The comparative analysis focus on three main aspects: the intensity of triggering rain, the modifications of urbanised areas, and the evolution of emergency management. The comparative analysis of rain is made by comparing the return period of both daily and

  17. 78 FR 41991 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory... Gas and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems. Subject: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused...

  18. Causes and Consequences of Sensory Hair Cell Damage and Recovery in Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E; Monroe, J David

    2016-01-01

    Sensory hair cells are the mechanotransductive receptors that detect gravity, sound, and vibration in all vertebrates. Damage to these sensitive receptors often results in deficits in vestibular function and hearing. There are currently two main reasons for studying the process of hair cell loss in fishes. First, fishes, like other non-mammalian vertebrates, have the ability to regenerate hair cells that have been damaged or lost via exposure to ototoxic chemicals or acoustic overstimulation. Thus, they are used as a biomedical model to understand the process of hair cell death and regeneration and find therapeutics that treat or prevent human hearing loss. Secondly, scientists and governmental natural resource managers are concerned about the potential effects of intense anthropogenic sounds on aquatic organisms, including fishes. Dr. Arthur N. Popper and his students, postdocs and research associates have performed pioneering experiments in both of these lines of fish hearing research. This review will discuss the current knowledge regarding the causes and consequences of both lateral line and inner ear hair cell damage in teleost fishes.

  19. [Causes and management of severe acute liver damage during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda-Martinez, Alvaro; Romero, Carlos; Juarez, Guido; Hasbun, Jorge; Parra-Cordero, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    Abnormalities in liver function tests appear in 3% of pregnancies. Severe acute liver damage can be an exclusive condition of pregnancy (dependent or independent of pre-eclampsia) or a concomitant disease. HELLP syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are the most severe liver diseases associated with pregnancy. Both appear during the third trimester and have a similar clinical presentation. Acute fatty liver may be associated with hypoglycemia and HELLP syndrome is closely linked with pre-eclampsia. Among concomitant conditions, fulminant acute hepatitis caused by medications or virus is the most severe disease. Its clinical presentation may be hyper-acute with neurological involvement and severe coagulation disorders. It has a high mortality and patients should be transplanted. Fulminant hepatic failure caused by acetaminophen overdose can be managed with n-acetyl cysteine. Because of the high fetal mortality rate, the gestational age at diagnosis is crucial.

  20. Oxidative Damage Caused by Common Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria in Egg Yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Afshordi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteria in foodstuff are the most important agent of foodborne disease. Aside from their infectious effects, obligate aerobes have a respiratory metabolism with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Therefore, they can produce reactive oxygen species and free radicals in contaminated food. Malondialdehyde (MDA is a product of lipid peroxidation used as an indicator of oxidative stress. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the oxidative damage produced by two common food pathogenic bacteria in foodstuff. Materials and Methods: The egg yolks were incubated with different dilutions (105,106, and 107 of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis at 37°C for 20 hours. The level of MDA in egg yolk was measured by fast and simple enzymatic or colorimetric methods, such as the thiobarbituric acid reactive species method. Results: The high group (107 had a higher MDA level of 1.97 ± 0.11 (μg MDA/g in S. aureus and 1.65 ± 0.27 (mg MDA/L in S. enteritidis than the control (0.90 ± 0.13 mg MDA/L. Conclusions: We concluded that common food pathogenic bacteria can induce oxidative damage in foodstuff aside from other common problems. Heating or sterilization methods cannot protect foodstuff from the damage caused by the presence of pathogenic bacteria.

  1. Aerial pesticide application causes DNA damage in pilots from Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Waliszewski, S M; Amador-Muñoz, O; Meza, E; Calderón-Segura, M E; Zenteno, E; Huichapan-Martínez, J; Caba, M; Félix-Gastélum, R; Longoria-Espinoza, R

    2017-01-01

    The use of pesticides in agricultural production originates residues in the environment where they are applied. Pesticide aerial application is a frequent source of exposure to pesticides by persons dedicated to agricultural practices and those living in neighboring communities of sprayed fields. The aim of the study was to assess the genotoxic effects of pesticides in workers occupationally exposed to these chemicals during their aerial application to agricultural fields of Sinaloa, Mexico. The study involved 30 pilots of airplanes used to apply pesticides via aerial application and 30 unexposed controls. Damage was evaluated through the micronucleus assay and by other nuclear abnormalities in epithelial cells of oral mucosa. The highest frequency ratios (FR) equal to 269.5 corresponded to binucleated cells followed by 54.2, corresponding to cells with pyknotic nuclei, 45.2 of cells with chromatin condensation, 3.7 of cells with broken-egg, 3.6 of cells with micronucleus, and 2.0 of karyolytic cells. Age, worked time, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not have significant influence on nuclear abnormalities in the pilots studied. Pesticide exposure was the main factor for nuclear abnormality results and DNA damage. Marked genotoxic damage was developed even in younger pilots with 2 years of short working period, caused by their daily occupational exposure to pesticides.

  2. Brief communication: On-site data collection of damage caused by flash floods: Experiences from Braunsbach, Germany, in May/June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudan, Jonas; Rözer, Viktor; Sieg, Tobias; Vogel, Kristin; Thieken, Annegret

    2017-04-01

    At the end of May and beginning of June 2016, several municipalities in Southern Germany suffered from severe flash floods and debris flows which have been triggered by intense rainfall in Central Europe. Overall, the insured losses of these events amounted to EUR 1.2 billion in Germany. Especially the strong and unexpected flash flood on May 29th in Braunsbach (Baden Wurttemberg) - a small village counting about 1,000 residents - attracted media and policymakers due to its devastating character. The understanding of damage caused by flash floods requires ex-post collection of relevant but yet sparsely available information, linking process intensities to damage by using adequate methods of data gathering. Thus, on-site data collection was carried out after the flash flood event in Braunsbach, using open source software as helpful and efficient tool for data acquisition and evaluation. A digital survey was designed and conducted by a team of five researchers who investigated all buildings affected by water and debris flows. The collected data includes an estimation of a particular damage class, the inundation depth, and other relevant information. A post - hoc data analysis was done with R 3.3.1 and QGIS 2.14.3, performing both, a Random Forest Model (RF) and Random Generalized Linear Model (RGLM) as well as preparing a Spearman's rank correlation matrix. For visual interpretation and better overview of the study area and analysis results, a "process intensity" map was created, revealing important links of damage driving factors. We find that not only the water depth, which is often considered as only damage driving factor in riverine flood loss modelling, but also the exposition of a building to the flow direction and susceptible building parts like e.g. shop windows seem to be risk factors in flash-flood prone regions. Although no significant correlations were found, the analyses indicate that also building material (i.e. half-timbered or masonry) and structural

  3. DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.K.; Peili Chen; Hahnfeldt, P.J.; Klatky, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is given of continuous-time Markov chain models for ionizing radiation damage to the genome of mammalian cells. In such models, immediate damage induced by the radiation is regarded as a batch-Poisson arrival process of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Enzymatic modification of the immediate damage is modeled as a Markov process similar to those described by the master equation of stochastic chemical kinetics. An illustrative example is the restitution/complete-exchange model. The model postulates that, after being induced by radiation, DSBs subsequently either undergo enzymatically mediated restitution (repair) or participate pairwise in chromosome exchanges. Some of the exchanges make irremediable lesions such as dicentric chromosome aberrations. One may have rapid irradiation followed by enzymatic DSB processing or have prolonged irradiation with both DSB arrival and enzymatic DSB processing continuing throughout the irradiation period. Methods for analyzing the Markov chains include using an approximate model for expected values, the discrete-time Markov chain embedded at transitions, partial differential equations for generating functions, normal perturbation theory, singular perturbation theory with scaling, numerical computations, and certain matrix methods that combine Perron-Frobenius theory with variational estimates. Applications to experimental results on expected values, variances, and statistical distributions of DNA lesions are briefly outlined. Continuous-time Markov chains are the most systematic of those radiation damage models that treat DSB-DSB interactions within the cell nucleus as homogeneous (e.g., ignore diffusion limitations). They contain virtually all other relevant homogeneous models and semiempirical summaries as special cases, limiting cases, or approximations. However, the Markov models do not seem to be well suited for studying spatial dependence of DSB interactions. 51 refs., 5 figs

  4. Mitral valve stenosis caused by abnormal pannus extension over the prosthetic ring and leaflets after Duran ring mitral annuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Junji; Minato, Naoki; Katayama, Yuji; Sato, Hisashi

    2009-01-01

    We treated a 61-year-old woman with mitral stenosis caused by pannus formation after Duran ring annuloplasty. Pannus overgrowth on the ring with extension onto both leaflets narrowed the mitral orifice and severely restricted the mobility of the valve leaflets. Mitral valve replacement with a St. Jude Medical mechanical heart valve prosthesis was successfully performed, and the postoperative course was uneventful. Patients undergoing Duran ring annuloplasty should be followed up with the consideration of possible mitral stenosis caused by pannus extension, as the cause for pannus formation remains unclear.

  5. Reduction of aesthetical properties of organic coatings caused by mechanical damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, S.; Deflorian, F.; Scrinzi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Organic coatings are the most commonly used system for protection from corrosion. In many applications, the protective properties against corrosion are associated with several other properties, including resistance to abrasion and good aesthetic appearance. This is particularly important for the automotive and transport industry, building trade, domestic products, packaging. To evaluate the abrasion resistance of organic coatings the Taber Abraser test is frequently used. The aim of this work is to evaluate the reduction of aesthetical properties, caused by abrasion by Taber test, using different abrasive pastes. The level of damage was evaluated through gloss measurements; 20 deg. was the most sensitive angle to gloss changes, with this geometry different samples could be compared. The correlation between the changes of gloss and the damage was investigated using optical microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy. With increase of grain dimensions, the paste became more abrasive with negative effect on the aesthetical aspect of the organic coating

  6. DNA damage by carbonyl stress in human skin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Michael J.; Wondrak, Georg T.; Laurean, Daniel Cervantes; Jacobson, Myron K.; Jacobson, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are potent mediators of cellular carbonyl stress originating from endogenous chemical processes such as lipid peroxidation and glycation. Skin deterioration as observed in photoaging and diabetes has been linked to accumulative protein damage from glycation, but the effects of carbonyl stress on skin cell genomic integrity are ill defined. In this study, the genotoxic effects of acute carbonyl stress on HaCaT keratinocytes and CF3 fibroblasts were assessed. Administration of the α-dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal and methylglyoxal as physiologically relevant RCS inhibited skin cell proliferation, led to intra-cellular protein glycation as evidenced by the accumulation of N ε -(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine (CML) in histones, and caused extensive DNA strand cleavage as assessed by the comet assay. These effects were prevented by treatment with the carbonyl scavenger D-penicillamine. Both glyoxal and methylglyoxal damaged DNA in intact cells. Glyoxal caused DNA strand breaks while methylglyoxal produced extensive DNA-protein cross-linking as evidenced by pronounced nuclear condensation and total suppression of comet formation. Glycation by glyoxal and methylglyoxal resulted in histone cross-linking in vitro and induced oxygen-dependent cleavage of plasmid DNA, which was partly suppressed by the hydroxyl scavenger mannitol. We suggest that a chemical mechanism of cellular DNA damage by carbonyl stress occurs in which histone glycoxidation is followed by reactive oxygen induced DNA stand breaks. The genotoxic potential of RCS in cultured skin cells and its suppression by a carbonyl scavenger as described in this study have implications for skin damage and carcinogenesis and its prevention by agents selective for carbonyl stress

  7. DNA damage by carbonyl stress in human skin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Michael J.; Wondrak, Georg T.; Laurean, Daniel Cervantes; Jacobson, Myron K.; Jacobson, Elaine L

    2003-01-28

    Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are potent mediators of cellular carbonyl stress originating from endogenous chemical processes such as lipid peroxidation and glycation. Skin deterioration as observed in photoaging and diabetes has been linked to accumulative protein damage from glycation, but the effects of carbonyl stress on skin cell genomic integrity are ill defined. In this study, the genotoxic effects of acute carbonyl stress on HaCaT keratinocytes and CF3 fibroblasts were assessed. Administration of the {alpha}-dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal and methylglyoxal as physiologically relevant RCS inhibited skin cell proliferation, led to intra-cellular protein glycation as evidenced by the accumulation of N{sup {epsilon}}-(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine (CML) in histones, and caused extensive DNA strand cleavage as assessed by the comet assay. These effects were prevented by treatment with the carbonyl scavenger D-penicillamine. Both glyoxal and methylglyoxal damaged DNA in intact cells. Glyoxal caused DNA strand breaks while methylglyoxal produced extensive DNA-protein cross-linking as evidenced by pronounced nuclear condensation and total suppression of comet formation. Glycation by glyoxal and methylglyoxal resulted in histone cross-linking in vitro and induced oxygen-dependent cleavage of plasmid DNA, which was partly suppressed by the hydroxyl scavenger mannitol. We suggest that a chemical mechanism of cellular DNA damage by carbonyl stress occurs in which histone glycoxidation is followed by reactive oxygen induced DNA stand breaks. The genotoxic potential of RCS in cultured skin cells and its suppression by a carbonyl scavenger as described in this study have implications for skin damage and carcinogenesis and its prevention by agents selective for carbonyl stress.

  8. Petrophysical, Geochemical, and Hydrological Evidence for Extensive Fracture-Mediated Fluid and Heat Transport in the Alpine Fault's Hanging-Wall Damage Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, John; Sutherland, Rupert; Toy, Virginia G.; Doan, Mai-Linh; Célérier, Bernard; Massiot, Cécile; Coussens, Jamie; Jeppson, Tamara; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Remaud, Léa.; Upton, Phaedra; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Pezard, Philippe; Williams, Jack; Allen, Michael John; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin M.; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil; Carpenter, Brett; Chamberlain, Calum J.; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon C.; Craw, Lisa; Eccles, Jennifer D.; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Henry, Gilles; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Tim; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luis; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, André; Nishikawa, Osamu; Nitsch, Olivier; Paris, Jehanne; Prior, David J.; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha K.; Schleicher, Anja; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Fault rock assemblages reflect interaction between deformation, stress, temperature, fluid, and chemical regimes on distinct spatial and temporal scales at various positions in the crust. Here we interpret measurements made in the hanging-wall of the Alpine Fault during the second stage of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-2). We present observational evidence for extensive fracturing and high hanging-wall hydraulic conductivity (˜10-9 to 10-7 m/s, corresponding to permeability of ˜10-16 to 10-14 m2) extending several hundred meters from the fault's principal slip zone. Mud losses, gas chemistry anomalies, and petrophysical data indicate that a subset of fractures intersected by the borehole are capable of transmitting fluid volumes of several cubic meters on time scales of hours. DFDP-2 observations and other data suggest that this hydrogeologically active portion of the fault zone in the hanging-wall is several kilometers wide in the uppermost crust. This finding is consistent with numerical models of earthquake rupture and off-fault damage. We conclude that the mechanically and hydrogeologically active part of the Alpine Fault is a more dynamic and extensive feature than commonly described in models based on exhumed faults. We propose that the hydrogeologically active damage zone of the Alpine Fault and other large active faults in areas of high topographic relief can be subdivided into an inner zone in which damage is controlled principally by earthquake rupture processes and an outer zone in which damage reflects coseismic shaking, strain accumulation and release on interseismic timescales, and inherited fracturing related to exhumation.

  9. Emergency Anaesthetic Management of Extensive Thoracic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H C Chandola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High speed vehicles, drug abuse, alcohol and easy availability of handguns are the main reasons of increasing number of trauma especially thoracic trauma. Anaesthesiologist plays an important role in the management of extensive thoracic trauma. Thoracic trauma, penetrating or blunt, may cause damage to organs suspended in thorax viz. pleura, lungs, heart, great vessels, trachea and oesophagus. It may lead to pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade or life threatening haemorrhage. With aggressive care and management of these factors, majority of patients can survive and return to normal life.

  10. Consumption of Coprinus comatus polysaccharide extract causes recovery of alcoholic liver damage in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozalp, F.O.; Canbek, M.; Yamac, M.; Kanbak, G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Uyanoglu, M.; Senturk, H.; Karlkava, K.; Oglakci, A.

    2014-01-01

    Excess use of alcohol is known to be associated with liver diseases such as fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Various practices may be applied to prevent or treat the damage caused by chronic alcoholism. Coprinus comatus (O.F. Müll.) Pers. (Agaricaceae) is a macrofungus that has been

  11. Systemic 5-fluorouracil treatment causes a syndrome of delayed myelin destruction in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ruolan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer treatment with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents often is associated with delayed adverse neurological consequences. Despite their clinical importance, almost nothing is known about the basis for such effects. It is not even known whether the occurrence of delayed adverse effects requires exposure to multiple chemotherapeutic agents, the presence of both chemotherapeutic agents and the body's own response to cancer, prolonged damage to the blood-brain barrier, inflammation or other such changes. Nor are there any animal models that could enable the study of this important problem. Results We found that clinically relevant concentrations of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; a widely used chemotherapeutic agent were toxic for both central nervous system (CNS progenitor cells and non-dividing oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Short-term systemic administration of 5-FU caused both acute CNS damage and a syndrome of progressively worsening delayed damage to myelinated tracts of the CNS associated with altered transcriptional regulation in oligodendrocytes and extensive myelin pathology. Functional analysis also provided the first demonstration of delayed effects of chemotherapy on the latency of impulse conduction in the auditory system, offering the possibility of non-invasive analysis of myelin damage associated with cancer treatment. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that systemic treatment with a single chemotherapeutic agent, 5-FU, is sufficient to cause a syndrome of delayed CNS damage and provide the first animal model of delayed damage to white-matter tracts of individuals treated with systemic chemotherapy. Unlike that caused by local irradiation, the degeneration caused by 5-FU treatment did not correlate with either chronic inflammation or extensive vascular damage and appears to represent a new class of delayed degenerative damage in the CNS.

  12. Bruxism is unlikely to cause damage to the periodontium: findings from a systematic literature assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Ahlberg, J.; Mura, R.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper systematically reviews the MEDLINE and SCOPUS literature to answer the following question: Is there any evidence that bruxism may cause periodontal damage per se? Methods: Clinical studies on humans, assessing the potential relationship between bruxism and periodontal lesions

  13. [Study on sperm damage caused by trichloroethylene in male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, De-sheng; Yang, Lin-qing; Huang, Sui; Liu, Jian-jun; Xu, Xin-yun; Huang, Hai-yan; Gong, Chun-mei; Hu, Gong-hua; Liu, Qing-cheng; Yang, Xi-fei; Hong, Wen-xu; Zhou, Li; Huang, Xin-feng; Yuan, Jian-hui; Zhuang, Zhi-xiong

    2013-11-01

    To study in vitro sperm damage caused by trichloroethylene in male rats. Sperms of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were collected 4 hours after being contaminated by trichloroethylene of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L in vitro. Giemsa staining was performed to observe the morphological changes of sperms, and flow cytometer was used to detect the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. The sperm motilities in 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L trichloroethylene groups decreased significantly compared with that in control group (P trichloroethylene groups were significantly higher than that in control group (Ptrichloroethylene groups and control group (Ptrichloroethylene can reduce sperm motility and increase the aberration rate and apoptosis rate of sperms in male SD rats.

  14. Economic damage caused by a nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemans, T.; Schwarz, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    This study is directed towards the estimation of the economic damage which arises from a severe possible accident with a newly built 1000 MWE nuclear power plant in the Netherlands. A number of cases have been considered which are specified by the weather conditions during and the severity of the accident and the location of the nuclear power plant. For each accident case the economic damage has been estimated for the following impact categories: loss of the power plant, public health, evacuation and relocation of population, export of agricultural products, working and living in contaminated regions, decontamination, costs of transportation and incoming foreign tourism. The consequences for drinking water could not be quantified adequately. The total economic damage could reach 30 billion guilders. Besides the power plant itself, loss of export and decreasing incoming foreign tourism determine an important part of the total damage. 12 figs.; 52 tabs

  15. Electron beam deposition system causing little damage to organic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Minoru [Research Center for Solar Energy Chemistry, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Business Incubation Department, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 2-11 Funamachi 2-Chome, Taisho-ku, Osaka 551-0022 (Japan); Matsumura, Michio, E-mail: matsu@chem.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Research Center for Solar Energy Chemistry, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Maeda, Yasuhiro [Business Incubation Department, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 2-11 Funamachi 2-Chome, Taisho-ku, Osaka 551-0022 (Japan)

    2011-07-29

    Conditions for deposition of an aluminum (Al) layer on an organic light-emitting layer with an electron beam (EB) deposition system were optimized with respect to deposition rate and damage to organic layers. The damage to the organic layers was found to be mostly caused by X-rays emitted from a target bombarded with accelerated electrons. In order to decrease the X-ray intensity while maintaining a high deposition rate, we used an EB source which emits high-density EB at low acceleration voltage. In addition, we inserted a heat reflector and a sintered-carbon liner between the Al target and copper crucible to improve heat insulation. As a result, the voltage needed for the deposition of Al electrodes at a rate of about 8 nm/s was lowered from normal voltages of 2.0 kV or higher to as low as 1.5 kV. To reduce the number of electrons hitting the substrate, we set pole pieces near the target and an electron trap in the chamber. The devices on which Al electrodes were deposited with the EB system showed almost the same properties as those of devices on which the Al electrodes were deposited by a resistive-heating method.

  16. [Neuroprotective effect of naloxone in brain damage caused by repeated febrile seizure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ying; Qin, Jiong; Chang, Xing-zhi; Yang, Zhi-xian

    2004-04-01

    The brain damage caused by repeated febrile seizure (FS) during developing age is harmful to the intellectual development of children. So how to decrease the related damage is a very important issue. The main purpose of the present study was to find out whether the non-specific opiate antagonist naloxone at low dose has the neuroprotective effect on seizure-induced brain damage. Warm water induced rat FS model was developed in this study. Forty-seven rats were randomly divided into two groups: normal control group (n = 10) and hyperthermic seizure groups (n = 37). The latter was further divided into FS control group (n = 13) and naloxone-treated group (n = 24). The dose of naloxone is different in two naloxone-treated groups (12/each group), in one group the dose was 1 mg/kg, in the other one 2 mg/kg. Seven febrile seizures were induced in each rat of hyperthermic seizure groups with the interval of 2 days. The rats were weighed and injected intraperitoneally with naloxone once the FS occurred in naloxone-treated group, while the rats of the other groups were injected with 0.9% sodium chloride. Latency, duration and grade of FS in different groups were observed and compared. HE-staining and the electron microscopy (EM) were used to detect the morphologic and ultrastructural changes of hippocampal neurons. In naloxone-treated group, the rats' FS duration and FS grade (5.02 +/- 0.63, 2.63 +/- 0.72) were significantly lower (t = 5.508, P seizure, it could lighten the brain damage resulted from repeated FS to some extent.

  17. THE ROLE OF CYTOKINE NETWORK IN HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE CAUSED BY СHRONIC HEPATITIS C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ph. Skljar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Hepatitis C virus (HCV is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver damage in chronic viral hepatitis C is caused by both direct cytopathic viral effects, and indirect immune-mediated mechanisms. The cytokines locally produced in the liver, as well as those circulating in the blood circulation, play an important role in the control of viral replication and sufficiently contribute to hepatocellular damage. The goal of present study was to investigate the contents of some cytokines in blood serum and their local levels, being in interrelation with indices of necrotic inflammatory changes in the liver tissue. Correlations established between systemic and local contents of studied cytokines, and morphological indices indicate that, among immunological tests checked, the contents of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70, and TNFα in blood serum and supernatants of liver biopsies were of the greatest significance for determining the stage of fibrosis. Quantitative assays of abovementioned cytokines in blood serum represent, therefore, an alternative approach in order to perform noninvasive screening of liver fibrosis.

  18. Damages and methods for reparation; Hydropower structures; Skador och reparationsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Tomas

    2008-10-15

    As the focus of the Swedish Hydropower Industry shifted from the developing phase of the 20th century to the present phase of managing and maintenance of the hydropower plants and the adherent structures knowledge regarding issues concerning repair work and degradation processes of concrete has become truly important. Hydropower structures are submitted to live loads (for example caused by ice, water, snow and wind) and physical attacks such as Freeze/thaw, leaching and erosion (abrasion and cavitation). Hydropower structures are also submitted to chemical and electro chemical attacks like ASR and corrosion of the reinforcement bars. All of the mentioned processes have a negative affect on concrete structures service life. As it is today the Hydropower Industry possesses a rather high degree of knowledge concerning principal repair and strengthening techniques like shotcreting and grouting. The purpose of this report is (1) to point out the Swedish Hydropower Industry's need for extensive knowledge regarding overlays and toppings and (2) the potential advantages of overlays and toppings as repair techniques with respect to hydropower environments and the corresponding degradation processes acting on those structures. The performance of repairing a concrete structure using overlays or toppings is principally executed by the removal (totally or partially) of the damaged concrete surface, afterwards a new concrete overlay or topping is applied. The overlay must be able to withstand the live loads and the physical, chemical and electro-chemical attacks that are acting on the structure. The overlay is also required to co-operate with, and protect, the host material for a very long time. This report deals with the most common types of physical and chemical processes that are acting in Hydropower environments and the damages that they are causing concrete structures. Some of the common principal repair techniques that can be used when repairing the damaged concrete

  19. Influence of damage caused by Kr ions and neutrons on electrical properties of silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Croitoru, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Seidman, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, new measurements of physical properties of high-resistivity silicon, used in high-energy detectors, are presented. The obtained data contribute to the understanding of the causes which damage the 2electronic characteristics of the detection systems under irradiation of neutrons and ionized particles (Kr). The Hall effect coefficient (R sub H) and resistivity (rho) measurements as a function of temperature (T), for non-irradiated and irradiated by neutrons and Kr ions, were performed. The measurements of the Hall coefficient and resistivity of non-irradiated samples and irradiated at neutron fluences (PHI=9.9x10 sup 1 sup 0 n/cm sup 2 (neutrons) and PHI>=7.5x10 sup 8 Kr/cm sup 3 (ions), cannot be explained, considering the usual theoretical relations. The results, obtained in these experiments, have shown a change of mechanism of conduction due to the damaged regions, where localized levels are created, which are the main cause of the deviation of the electrical characteristics of the detectors ...

  20. Meta-Analysis of Attitudes toward Damage-Causing Mammalian Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    KANSKY, RUTH; KIDD, MARTIN; KNIGHT, ANDREW T

    2014-01-01

    Many populations of threatened mammals persist outside formally protected areas, and their survival depends on the willingness of communities to coexist with them. An understanding of the attitudes, and specifically the tolerance, of individuals and communities and the factors that determine these is therefore fundamental to designing strategies to alleviate human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify factors that affected attitudes toward 4 groups of terrestrial mammals. Elephants (65%) elicited the most positive attitudes, followed by primates (55%), ungulates (53%), and carnivores (44%). Urban residents presented the most positive attitudes (80%), followed by commercial farmers (51%) and communal farmers (26%). A tolerance to damage index showed that human tolerance of ungulates and primates was proportional to the probability of experiencing damage while elephants elicited tolerance levels higher than anticipated and carnivores elicited tolerance levels lower than anticipated. Contrary to conventional wisdom, experiencing damage was not always the dominant factor determining attitudes. Communal farmers had a lower probability of being positive toward carnivores irrespective of probability of experiencing damage, while commercial farmers and urban residents were more likely to be positive toward carnivores irrespective of damage. Urban residents were more likely to be positive toward ungulates, elephants, and primates when probability of damage was low, but not when it was high. Commercial and communal farmers had a higher probability of being positive toward ungulates, primates, and elephants irrespective of probability of experiencing damage. Taxonomic bias may therefore be important. Identifying the distinct factors explaining these attitudes and the specific contexts in which they operate, inclusive of the species causing damage, will be essential for prioritizing conservation investments. Meta-Análisis de las Posturas hacia la Mam

  1. Integrity Analysis of Damaged Steam Generator Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanic, D.

    1998-01-01

    Variety of degradation mechanisms affecting steam generator tubes makes steam generators as one of the critical components in the nuclear power plants. Depending of their nature, degradation mechanisms cause different types of damages. It requires performance of extensive integrity analysis in order to access various conditions of crack behavior under operating and accidental conditions. Development and application of advanced eddy current techniques for steam generator examination provide good characterization of found damages. Damage characteristics (shape, orientation and dimensions) may be defined and used for further evaluation of damage influence on tube integrity. In comparison with experimental and analytical methods, numerical methods are also efficient tools for integrity assessment. Application of finite element methods provides relatively simple modeling of different type of damages and simulation of various operating conditions. The stress and strain analysis may be performed for elastic and elasto-plastic state with good ability for visual presentation of results. Furthermore, the fracture mechanics parameters may be calculated. Results obtained by numerical analysis supplemented with experimental results are the base for definition of alternative plugging criteria which may significantly reduce the number of plugged tubes. (author)

  2. The inadequate liability and compensation regime for damage caused by nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyke, Jon M. Van

    2010-09-01

    The specific obligation to provide restitution and compensation when nuclear activities cause injuries has been recognized repeatedly and is now certainly part of customary international law. But problems remain regarding how to measure damages, how to implement the duty to repair the injuries, and what specific obligations exist to protect neighboring states from transboundary pollution. Although some treaties exist governing liability for harm resulting from nuclear accidents, they are not adequate to protect victims and have not been widely ratified. The failure to require nuclear operators to prepare for damage that may result from accidents constitutes a subsidy to the nuclear industry and makes it difficult to compare the real costs of nuclear energy with the costs of other energy sources. This survey of settled norms and unresolved issues demonstrates that further work is needed to develop a comprehensive and authoritative regime to govern harm from nuclear activities. Although it is clear that both the operators of nuclear facilities and the states that have jurisdiction over them would be responsible to provide restitution and compensation for such harm under a strict liability regime, the types of injuries that must be compensated and the range of damages that must be covered remain subjects of controversy. Although the underlying customary international law principles (the no-harm principle and the polluter-pays principle) are clear, the actual treaties that have been drafted are inadequate and they have not been widely ratified. Victims of damage from nuclear activities would have difficulty finding a neutral tribunal in which to bring their claims and would face procedural obstacles including caps on liabilities and inappropriately short statutes of limitations as well as difficulties regarding proof of damages. The failure to develop a proper regime that would ensure full restitution and compensation for harm resulting from nuclear facilities

  3. All-cause mortality in asymptomatic persons with extensive Agatston scores above 1000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jaideep; Blaha, Michael J; McEvoy, John W; Qadir, Sadia; Tota-Maharaj, Rajesh; Shaw, Leslee J; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Berman, Daniel S; Min, James K; Raggi, Paolo; Agatston, Arthur A; Blumenthal, Roger S; Budoff, Matthew J; Nasir, Khurram

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment in the extensive calcified plaque phenotype has been limited by small sample size. We studied all-cause mortality rates among asymptomatic patients with markedly elevated Agatston scores > 1000. We studied a clinical cohort of 44,052 asymptomatic patients referred for coronary calcium scans. Mean follow-up was 5.6 years (range, 1-13 years). All-cause mortality rates were calculated after stratifying by Agatston score (0, 1-1000, 1001-1500, 1500-2000, and >2000). A multivariable Cox regression model adjusting for self-reported traditional risk factors was created to assess the relative mortality hazard of Agatston scores 1001 to 1500, 1501 to 2000, and >2000. With the use of post-estimation modeling, we assessed for the presence of an upper threshold of risk with high Agatston scores. A total of 1593 patients (4% of total population) had Agatston score > 1000. There was a continuous graded decrease in estimated 10-year survival across increasing Agatston score, continuing when Agatston score > 1000 (Agatston score 1001-1500, 78%; Agatston score 1501-2000, 74%; Agatston score > 2000, 51%). After multivariable adjustment, Agatston scores 1001 to 1500, 1501 to 2000, and >2000 were associated with an 8.05-, 7.45-, and 13.26-fold greater mortality risk, respectively, than for Agatston score of 0. Compared with Agatston score 1001 to 1500, Agatston score 1501 to 2000 had a similar all-cause mortality risk, whereas Agatston score > 2000 had an increased relative risk (Agatston score 1501-2000: hazard ratio [HR], 1.01 [95% CI, 0.67-1.51]; Agatston score > 2000: HR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.30-2.46]). Graphical assessment of the predicted survival model suggests no upper threshold for risk associated with calcified plaque in coronary arteries. Increasing calcified plaque in coronary arteries continues to predict a graded decrease in survival among patients with extensive Agatston score > 1000 with no apparent upper threshold. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Pancreatitis caused by Clostridium perfringens infection with extensive retropneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchante, E.; Garcia, F. J.; Perez, H.; Marquez, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    We present a case of primary emphysematous pancreatitis caused by Clostridium perfringens infection (also Known as spontaneous pancreatic gas gangrene) in a 66-year-old man with diabetes and a history of recurrent pancreatitis. One notable feature is the absence of a focal distribution, which is seen on radiological studies to be accompanied by extensive retropneumoperitoneum, with dissemination of the gas toward the mesenteric root and pelvic extra peritoneal spaces. This wide diffusion is aided by the C. perfringens toxins and the pancreatic enzymes released, leading to a fulminate course, an elevated rate of early mortality among the cases reviewed. The early diagnosis of this disease is fundamental, enabling aggressive medical treatment and emergency surgery. Diabetes is a known risk factor for anaerobic infection, including C. perfringens, as in the case of emphysematous cholecystitis. A diseased pancreas or pancreatic duct facilitates the development of infections since it eliminates poorly the microorganisms that reach it from the duodenum. Gas gangrene secondary to necrosis-related super infection or pancreatic collections is uncommon, and spontaneous or primary cases are exceptionally are. (Author) 13 refs

  5. Damage to lens fiber cells causes TRPV4-dependent Src family kinase activation in the epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, M; Mandal, A; Delamere, N A

    2015-11-01

    The bulk of the lens consists of tightly packed fiber cells. Because mature lens fibers lack mitochondria and other organelles, lens homeostasis relies on a monolayer of epithelial cells at the anterior surface. The detection of various signaling pathways in lens epithelial cells suggests they respond to stimuli that influence lens function. Focusing on Src Family Kinases (SFKs) and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), we tested whether the epithelium can sense and respond to an event that occurs in fiber mass. The pig lens was subjected to localized freeze-thaw (FT) damage to fibers at posterior pole then the lens was incubated for 1-10 min in Krebs solution at 37 °C. Transient SFK activation in the epithelium was detectable at 1 min. Using a western blot approach, the ion channel TRPV4 was detected in the epithelium but was sparse or absent in fiber cells. Even though TRPV4 expression appears low at the actual site of FT damage to the fibers, SFK activation in the epithelium was suppressed in lenses subjected to FT damage then incubated with the TRPV4 antagonist HC067047 (10 μM). Na,K-ATPase activity was examined because previous studies report changes of Na,K-ATPase activity associated with SFK activation. Na,K-ATPase activity doubled in the epithelium removed from FT-damaged lenses and the response was prevented by HC067047 or the SFK inhibitor PP2 (10 μM). Similar changes were observed in response to fiber damage caused by injection of 5 μl hyperosmotic NaCl or mannitol solution beneath the surface of the posterior pole. The findings point to a TRPV4-dependent mechanism that enables the epithelial cells to detect remote damage in the fiber mass and respond within minutes by activating SFK and increasing Na,K-ATPase activity. Because TRPV4 channels are mechanosensitive, we speculate they may be stimulated by swelling of the lens structure caused by damage to the fibers. Increased Na,K-ATPase activity gives the lens greater capacity to

  6. Hydrogen fluoride damage to vegetation from peri-urban brick kilns in Asia: A growing but unrecognised problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Berg, Leon J.L. van den; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Masood, Tariq; Büker, Patrick; Emberson, Lisa; Ashmore, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The rapid urbanisation of many cities in south and south-east Asia has increased the demand for bricks, which are typically supplied from brick kilns in peri-urban areas. We report visible foliar damage to mango, apricot and plum trees in the vicinity of traditional Bull’s Trench brick kilns in Peshawar, Pakistan. Visible injury symptoms, hydrogen fluoride concentrations in air, and foliar fluoride concentrations were all greater in the vicinity of brick kilns than at more distant sites, indicating that fluoride emissions from brick kilns were the main cause of damage. Interviews with local farmers established the significant impact of this damage on their livelihoods. Since poorly regulated brick kilns are often found close to important peri-urban agricultural areas, we suggest that this may be a growing but unrecognised environmental problem in regions of Asia where emission control in brick kilns has not been improved. - Highlights: ► Demand for bricks is increasing in many parts of Asia. ► Fluoride emissions from brick kilns may pose a threat to peri-urban agriculture. ► We found extensive injury to fruit orchards close to brick kilns in Peshawar. ► Local farmers suffered large economic losses but did not identify brick kilns as a cause of this. ► The extent of crop damage from brick kilns with poor emission control in the region may not be fully recognised. - Hydrogen fluoride emissions from brick kilns may cause extensive but unrecognised damage to peri-urban crops in Asia.

  7. Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Günter; Reithofer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria Considering the increase in flash flood events causing massive damage during the last years in urban but also rural areas [1-4], the requirement for hydrodynamic calculation of flash flood prone areas and possible countermeasures has arisen to many municipalities and local governments. Besides the German based URBAS project [1], also the EU-funded FP7 research project "SWITCH-ON" [5] addresses the damage risk caused by flash floods in the sub-project "FFRM" (Flash Flood Risk Map Upper Austria) by calculating damage risk for buildings and vulnerable infrastructure like schools and hospitals caused by flash-flood driven inundation. While danger zones in riverine flooding are established as an integral part of spatial planning, flash floods caused by overland runoff from extreme rain events have been for long an underrated safety hazard not only for buildings and infrastructure, but man and animals as well. Based on the widespread 2D-model "hydro_as-2D", an extension was developed, which calculates the runoff formation from a spatially and temporally variable precipitation and determines two dimensionally the land surface area runoff and its concentration. The conception of the model is to preprocess the precipitation data and calculate the effective runoff-volume for a short time step of e.g. five minutes. This volume is applied to the nodes of the 2D-model and the calculation of the hydrodynamic model is started. At the end of each time step, the model run is stopped, the preprocessing step is repeated and the hydraulic model calculation is continued. In view of the later use for the whole of Upper Austria (12.000 km²) a model grid of 25x25 m² was established using digital elevation data. Model parameters could be estimated for the small catchment of river Ach, which was hit by an intense rain event with up to 109 mm per hour

  8. Geological structure of Osaka basin and characteristic distributions of structural damage caused by earthquake; Osaka bonchi kozo to shingai tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, K; Shiono, K; Inoue, N; Senda, S [Osaka City University, Osaka (JP. Faculty of Science); Ryoki, K [Osaka Polytechnic Collage, Osaka (Japan); Shichi, R [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-05-01

    The paper investigates relations between the damage caused by the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake and the deep underground structures. A characteristic of the earthquake damage distribution is that the damage concentrated near faults. Most of the damages were seen on the side of faults` relatively falling rather than right above the faults and of their slightly slanting to the seaside. Distribution like this seems to be closely related to underground structures. Therefore, a distribution map of the depth of basement granite in Osaka sedimentary basin was drawn, referring to the data on basement rock depth obtained from the distribution map of gravity anomaly and the result of the survey using the air gun reflection method. Moreover, cubic underground structures were determined by 3-D gravity analysis. The result was concluded as follows: when observing the M7 zone of the low land, in particular, where the damage was great from an aspect of gravity anomaly, the basement rock below the zone declined near the cliff toward the sea, which indicates a great possibility of its being a fault. There is a high possibility that the zone suffered mostly from the damage caused by focusing by refraction and total reflection of seismic wave rays. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Data fusion of multi-scale representations for structural damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian; Xu, Zili

    2018-01-01

    Despite extensive researches into structural health monitoring (SHM) in the past decades, there are few methods that can detect multiple slight damage in noisy environments. Here, we introduce a new hybrid method that utilizes multi-scale space theory and data fusion approach for multiple damage detection in beams and plates. A cascade filtering approach provides multi-scale space for noisy mode shapes and filters the fluctuations caused by measurement noise. In multi-scale space, a series of amplification and data fusion algorithms are utilized to search the damage features across all possible scales. We verify the effectiveness of the method by numerical simulation using damaged beams and plates with various types of boundary conditions. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness and noise immunity of the proposed method. The applicability is further validated via laboratory cases studies focusing on different damage scenarios. Both results demonstrate that the proposed method has a superior noise tolerant ability, as well as damage sensitivity, without knowing material properties or boundary conditions.

  10. Coupling Between Doppler Radar Signatures and Tornado Damage Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carey, Lawrence; Carcione, Brian; Smith, Matthew; Schultz, Elise V.; Schultz, Christopher; Lafontaine, Frank

    2011-01-01

    On April 27, 2011, the southeastern United States was raked with several episodes of severe weather. Numerous tornadoes caused extensive damage, and tragically, the deaths of over 300 people. In Alabama alone, there were 61 confirmed tornados, 4 of them produced EF5 damage, and several were on the ground an hour or more with continuous damage tracks exceeding 80km. The use of Doppler radars covering the region provided reflectivity and velocity signatures that allowed forecasters to monitors the severe storms from beginning to end issuing hundreds of severe weather warnings throughout the day. Meteorologists from the the NWS performed extensive surveys to assess the intensity, duration, and ground track of tornadoes reported during the event. Survey activities included site visits to the affected locations, analysis of radar and satellite data, aerial surveys, and interviews with eyewitnesses. Satellite data from NASA's MODIS and ASTER instruments played a helpful role in determining the location of tornado damage paths and in the assessment. High resolution multispectral and temporal composites helped forecasters corroborate their damage assessments, determine starting and ending points for tornado touchdowns, and helped to provide forecasters with a better big-picture view of the damage region. The imagery also helped to separate damage from the April 27th tornados from severe weather that occurred earlier that month. In a post analysis of the outbreak, tornado damage path signatures observed in the NASA satellite data have been correlated to "debris ball" signatures in the NWS Doppler radars and a special ARMOR dual-polarization radar operated by the University of Alabama Huntsville during the event. The Doppler radar data indicates a circular enhanced reflectivity signal and rotational couplet in the radial velocity likely associated with the tornado that is spatially correlated with the damage tracks in the observed satellite data. An algorithm to detect and

  11. Population Growth and Damage Caused by Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Different Cultivars and Phenological Stages of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaris, M; Lampert, S; Salvadori, J R; Lau, D; Pereira, P R V S; Smaniotto, M A

    2013-10-01

    Among the aphids associated with wheat and other winter cereals, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is currently the predominant species in the wheat growing region of southern Brazil. The damage caused by this aphid occurs by direct feeding and/or by the transmission of pathogenic viruses, such as the Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus. In order to estimate the direct damage caused by R. padi on wheat, we evaluated the population growth of this aphid during the tillering and elongation stages and its effects on grain yield components. The experiment was conducted in a screenhouse with three wheat cultivars (BRS Guabiju, BRS Timbaúva, and Embrapa 16). The effect of a period of 16 days, starting from an infestation of 40 aviruliferous aphids/plant, was evaluated and compared to non-infested plants. In both stages, the population growth of R. padi was lower on the BRS Timbaúva. Although infestation caused a reduction in the grain yield of the three cultivars, this effect was lower for BRS Timbaúva. The cultivar Embrapa 16 supported higher infestations and was more tolerant to damage than the BRS Guabiju.

  12. Agricultural and forest means to reduce damage caused by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knabe, W

    1971-01-01

    Agriculture and forestry may try to reduce damage caused by air pollution by the following means: under heavy pollution sensitive crops can be replaced by more tolerant ones through changes in land use; at lower grades of air pollution the kind of land use may be maintained by planting relatively tolerant species and strains; breeding of plant material which is more tolerant than the present average is necessary to meet future requirements; certain damage may be decreased by soil amelioration, fertilization and watering of plants; the impact of certain air pollutants can be reduced by planting shelterbelts and by silvicultural means which affect the structure of a stand; and a strict control of insect pests and plant diseases is of special value in air polluted regions. Any special case has to be handled individually. It has to be asked whether one of the means mentioned above will be successful and in what area it should be applied. Several methods for the delineation of polluted regions are listed. Agricultural and forest means to adapt to a given situation of air pollution is gaining increasing importance because of the large areas with a medium high level of pollution, even if the general prospects of success are not regarded as very high.

  13. Anterior & lateral extension of optic radiation & safety of amygdalohippocampectomy through middle temporal gyrus: a cadaveric study of 11 cerebral hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, F H; Khan, A H

    2010-01-01

    This is a cadaveric anatomical study on the localization of the optic radiation within the temporal lobe and to find whether surgical intervention to the temporal lobe, especially amygdalohippocampectomy, can damage the optic radiation or not. 11 cadaveric cerebral hemispheres were used for the study. A 2 cm long antero-posterior incision was done with a sharp knife, on middle temporal gyrus, starting 3 cm posterior to temporal pole. The incision was deepened perpendicular to surface of the gyrus to reach the temporal horn. The optic radiation was dissected under operating microscope using Klinger's fiber dissection technique and measurements were taken to define the anterior and lateral extension of optic radiation. The optic radiation in each hemispehere was inspected for any incision related damage. No damage to the optic radiation was found, caused by the 2 cm long anterior-posterior incision on middle temporal gyrus 3 cm posterior to temporal pole. Most anterior 9mm (8-10mm) of the Meyer loop was completely on the roof and there was no extension over lateral wall of the temporal horn. In next posterior 17.5mm (16-20 mm) it extended over lateral wall of temporal horn with gradual progression. The most anterior extension of optic radiation was 26mm (23-31mm) posterior to temporal pole. Amygdalohippocampectomy through a 2 cm long horizontal incision on the middle temporal gyrus, starting 3 cm posterior to the temporal pole, to enter into the temporal horn through the lower aspect of the lateral wall is unlikely to cause damage to the Meyer's loop. Any entry from the superior aspect of the temporal horn and any temporal lobectomy inclusive of the superior temporal gyrus to enter the temporal horn is likely to cause Meyer's loop injury. The findings support the fact that the more inferior the surgical trajectory to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, the lover is the risk of visual field damage.

  14. An observation of histological evidence on internal organ damages in mice caused by repeated exposures to motorcycle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardoyo, Arinto Y. P.; Juswono, Unggul P.; Noor, Johan A. E.

    2017-05-01

    Motor vehicle emissions have been identified as a source of ultrafine particles, which have significant impacts on human health. Repeated and prolonged exposure to ultrafine particles may have a significant association with organ damage. Here, we evaluated the correlation between repeated exposure to ultrafine particles and organ damage in mice. Motorcycle emissions were injected into an exposure chamber with mice for a period of 20 seconds. This treatment was conducted over 10 days. The mice were sacrificed on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th days for organ preparations. Based on the results, motorcycle emission exposure caused organ damage in mice, with different severities depending on the organ. The highest damage was found for the lung, followed by the kidney, erythrocytes, and liver.

  15. Short-term exposure to benzo[a]pyrene causes oxidative damage and affects haemolymph steroid levels in female crab Portunus trituberculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Jianmin; Pan, Luqing

    2016-01-01

    Concern has increased regarding the adverse effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on reproduction. However, limited information is available on the effects of PAHs in crustacean. In order to determine whether benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could cause reproductive toxicity on the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus, sexually mature female crabs were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of B[a]P (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 μg/L) for 10 days. B[a]P treatments resulted in high accumulation in ovary, and induced oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner on ovary of crab. Furthermore, the haemolymph estradiol (E_2) and testosterone (T) levels were significantly decreased. Histological investigation also revealed the reproductive toxicity caused by B[a]P. The results demonstrated that waterborne exposure to B[a]P caused oxidative damage and disrupted sex steroids in female crab P. trituberculatus, ultimately resulting in histological alternation. - Highlights: • Waterborne exposure to B[a]P resulted in high accumulation in crab ovary. • The haemolymph 17β-estradiol and testosterone levels were significantly decreased by B[a]P exposure. • B[a]P induced oxidative damage in crab ovary. • B[a]P exposure caused histopathological alterations in crab ovary. - B[a]P disrupted sex steroids, caused oxidative damage and histological alternation in female crab P. trituberculatus.

  16. Worldwide survey of damage from swallowing multiple magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, Alan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Radiology Department 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-02-15

    It is increasingly recognized that in children swallowed multiple magnets cause considerable damage to the gastrointestinal tract. To emphasize that complications from swallowed magnets are extensive worldwide and throughout childhood. The author surveyed radiologists and researched cases of magnet swallowing in the literature and documented age and gender, numbers of magnets, nature of the magnets, reasons for swallowing, and clinical course. A total of 128 instances of magnet swallowing were identified, one fatal. Cases from 21 countries were found. Magnet swallowing occurred throughout childhood, with most children older than 3 years of age. Numbers of swallowed magnets ranged up to 100. Twelve children were known to be autistic. Many reasons were given for swallowing magnets, and a wide range of gastrointestinal damage was encountered. Considerable delay before seeking medical assistance was frequent, as was delay before obtaining radiographs or US imaging. Damage from swallowing multiple magnets is a considerable worldwide problem. More educational and preventative measures are needed. (orig.)

  17. Worldwide survey of damage from swallowing multiple magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that in children swallowed multiple magnets cause considerable damage to the gastrointestinal tract. To emphasize that complications from swallowed magnets are extensive worldwide and throughout childhood. The author surveyed radiologists and researched cases of magnet swallowing in the literature and documented age and gender, numbers of magnets, nature of the magnets, reasons for swallowing, and clinical course. A total of 128 instances of magnet swallowing were identified, one fatal. Cases from 21 countries were found. Magnet swallowing occurred throughout childhood, with most children older than 3 years of age. Numbers of swallowed magnets ranged up to 100. Twelve children were known to be autistic. Many reasons were given for swallowing magnets, and a wide range of gastrointestinal damage was encountered. Considerable delay before seeking medical assistance was frequent, as was delay before obtaining radiographs or US imaging. Damage from swallowing multiple magnets is a considerable worldwide problem. More educational and preventative measures are needed. (orig.)

  18. Could humic acid relieve the biochemical toxicities and DNA damage caused by nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms (Eisenia foetida)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-Chao; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Wang, Mei-Zhen; Wan, Ming-Yang

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether humic acid (HA) prevented gene and biochemical toxic effects in earthworms (Eisenia foetida) exposed to nickel and deltamethrin (at 100 and 1 mg kg(-1), respectively) in soil. Cellular- and molecular-level toxic effects of nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms were evaluated by measuring damage to lipid membranes and DNA and the production of protein carbonyls over 42 days of exposure. Nickel and deltamethrin induced significant levels of oxidative stress in earthworms, increasing the production of peroxidation products (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls) and increasing the comet assay tail DNA% (determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis). DNA damage was the most sensitive of the three indices because it gave a higher sample/control ratio than did the other indices. The presence of HA alleviated (in decreasing order of effectiveness) damage to DNA, proteins, and lipid membranes caused by nickel and deltamethrin. A low HA dose (0.5-1% HA in soil) prevented a great deal of lipid membrane damage, but the highest HA dose (3% HA in soil) prevented still more DNA damage. However, the malondialdehyde concentrations in earthworms were higher at the highest HA dose than at the lower HA doses. The amounts of protein carbonyls produced at different HA doses were not significantly different. The toxic effects to earthworms caused by increased oxidizable nickel concentrations could be relieved by adding HA.

  19. Characterization of genetic miscoding lesions caused by postmortem damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hansen, Anders J; Willerslev, Eske

    2002-01-01

    The spectrum of postmortem damage in mitochondrial DNA was analyzed in a large data set of cloned sequences from ancient human specimens. The most common forms of damage observed are two complementary groups of transitions, termed "type 1" (adenine-->guanine/thymine-->cytosine) and "type 2...

  20. The Carrier's Liability for Damage Caused by Delay in International Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Bin

    2003-01-01

    Delay in the air transport occurs when passengers, baggage or cargo do not arrive at their destination at the time indicated in the contract of carriage. The causes of delay in the carriage of passengers are booking errors or double booking, delayed departure of aircraft, incorrect information regarding the time of departure, failure to land at the scheduled destination and changes in flight schedule or addition of extra landing stops. Delay in the carriage of baggage or cargo may have different causes: no reservation, lack of space, failure to load the baggage or cargo at the right place, or to deliver the covering documents at the right place. The Montreal Convention of 1999 Article 19 provides that 'The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of passengers, baggage or cargo. Nevertheless, the carder shall not be liable for damage occasioned by delay if it proves that it and its servants and agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for it or them to take such measures'. The Montreal Convention Article 22 provides liability limits of the carrier in case of delay for passengers and their baggage and for cargo. In the carriage of persons, the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to 4,150 SDR. In the carriage of baggage, the liability of the carrier is limited to 1,000 SDR for each passenger unless a special declaration as to the value of the baggage has been made. In the carriage of cargo, the liability of the carrier is limited to 17 SDR per kilogram unless a special declaration as to the value of the cargo has been made. The Montreal Convention Article 19 has shortcomings: it is silent on the duration of the liability for carriage,andit does not make any distinction between persons and good. It does not give any indication concerning the circumstances to be taken into account in cases of delay, and about the length of delay. In conclusion, it is

  1. Ex-core fuel damage event at paks causes, consequences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajsz, J.; Gado, J.

    2004-01-01

    On April 10, 2003 Paks NPP experienced a loss of decay-heat removal to 30 irradiated fuel assemblies undergoing a cleaning process in a fuel service pit near the unit 2 spent fuel pool. Following chemical cleaning of high decay-heat fuel, a delay in removing the cleaning vessel's lid left the cleaning system in such a condition that did not provide adequate cooling to the fuel. After several hours of the fuel being under-cooled, a steam bubble developed in the vessel, essentially uncovering the fuel. When the lid of the vessel was removed, the sudden introduction of cool water thermally shocked the fuel causing significant structural damage and a release of fission product gases to the reactor building. The paper will discuss the causes of the event as well as the contributing factors to it. Detailed information will be given about the planning and preparation of the recovery actions. The in-depth analyses of the consequences and lessons learned complete the lecture. (author)

  2. Characterization of non-dimer DNA lesions and cellular damages caused by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Kumi

    1989-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of carcinogenicity and cytotoxicity induced by ultraviolet (UV) light, non-dimer DNA damages produced by near UV light (wave-length: 290∼320 nm) were examined by alkaline elution using Chinese hamster V-79 cells. UV exposure produced a dose-dependent induction of DNA single strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks. However, neither of these DNA lesions were repaired within a 24 hr incubation of the cells following UV exposure. Rather the number of these lesions increased. Also, UV exposure inhibited DNA and RNA synthesis. In addition, UV induced both cytotoxicity and chromosomal aberration. Electron spin resornance (ESR) studies showed that the exposure of cells to UV light resulted in the appearance of an ESR signal at -120degC. The roles of glutathione, vitamin E and vitamin B 2 , which were celluar antioxidant, on the induction of cytotoxicity by UV exposure were also examined. Pretreatment with vitamin E reduced the cytotoxicty caused by UV, whereas neither preteatment with vitamin B 2 nor the alteration of cellular gluthaione content affected the cytotoxicity. These results suggest that non-dimer DNA damages, such as DNA single strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks play an important role in inducing UV-carcinogenicity and UV-cytotoxicity, and that the mechanisms of these damages may be associated with the generation of free radicals. (author)

  3. [Streptococcus milleri: An unusual cause of skull extensive osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquenne, C; Dernis, E; Zehrouni, A; Bizon, A; Duquenne, M

    2017-09-01

    Streptococcus milleri (Streptococcus anginosus, intermedius and constellatus) are commensal organisms, which can become pathogenic and cause infection with frequent abscess formation, local or metastatic extension. Osteomyelitis of the skull has been rarely reported in this type of infection. Skull osteomyelitis due to Streptococcus milleri is reported in a 61-year-old immunocompetent man without any medical history, occurring 10 months after a head injury without any wound or complication at initial presentation. A progressive right parieto-occipital headache with worsening and increased acute phase reactants evoked a giant cell arteritis. After few days of corticosteroid therapy (0.5 mg/kg/day), diagnosis of subcutaneous abscess associated to an extensive osteomyelitis of the skull due to Streptococcus milleri was diagnosed. The outcome was favorable after drainage of one liter of pus, irrigation, debridement and antibiotherapy by amoxicillin for 8 weeks. It is necessary to discuss the differential diagnosis of giant cell arteritis particularly when symptoms are unusual. Even a short-term corticosteroid therapy may dramatically exacerbate an undetected infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. [Prevention and control of air pollution needs to strengthen further study on health damage caused by air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T C

    2016-08-06

    Heath issues caused by air pollution such as particulate matter (PM) are much concerned and focused among air, water and soil pollutions because human breathe air for whole life span. Present comments will review physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10; Dose-response associations of PM10, PM2.5 and their components with mortality and risk of cardiopulmonary diseases, early health damages such as the decrease of lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage; And the roles of genetic variations and epigenetic changes in lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage related to PMs and their components. This comments list some limitations and perspectives about the associations of air pollution with health.

  5. NRC Information Notice No. 92-01: Cable damage caused by inadequate cable installation procedures and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    In June 1989, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) removed the cables from a conduit in the reactor protection system of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, to inspect for damage. TVA selected this conduit in response to an employee's concern that a welding arc that struck the conduit in response to an employee's concern that a welding arc that struck the conduit during construction may have damaged cables in the conduit. When the cables were removed, TVA found significant damage in the insulation of some cables. This damage was not attributed to heat generated by the alleged welding arc. The damage was principally attributed to the pulling stresses exerted during the initial installation of the cables. Some of the cables had insulation removed down to the conductors. To assess the extent of cable damage and determine the scope of its investigation, TVA removed more cables from conduits that constituted the most difficult pulls (worst case) and found varying degrees of damage that it attributed to pulling stresses. To fill a conduit at Watts Bar, personnel used pull cords to pull more cables through the conduits over the top of existing cables. This practice is called ''pull-by.'' This practice can cause damage to the existing cables from the sawing action of the pull cords and the friction of cables as they are pulled over existing cables. TVA instituted programs to assess the adequacy of cable installation at all its nuclear facilities and take appropriate corrective actions. At Watts Bar, TVA replaced cables in conduits which exceeded a calculated threshold value of side wall bearing pressure (SWBP) and performed a high-potential (hi-pot) tests on a number of other cables in conduits with SWBP below the calculated threshold value

  6. Hardness and microstructure analysis of damaged gear caused by adhesive wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Rizky Budi; Nugroho, Sri; Ismail, Rifky

    2018-03-01

    This study was a result from research on repairing project of damaged elevator gear box. The objective of this research is to analyze the failure part on elevator gearbox at flourmill factory. The equipment was damaged after one year installed and running on factory. Severe wear was occurred on high speed helical gear. These helical gear was one of main part of elevator gearbox in flour mill manufacture. Visually, plastic deformation didn't occurred and not visible on the failure helical gear shaft. Some test would be performed to check the chemical composition, microstructure and hardness of failure helical gear. The material of failure helical gear shaft was a medium carbon steel alloy. The microstructure was showed a martensitic phase formed on the surface to the center area of gear shaft. Otherwise, the depth of hardness layer slight formed on surface and lack depth of hardness layer was a main trigger of severe wear. It was not enough to resist wear due to friction caused by rolling and sliding on surface between high speed gear and low speed gear. Enhancement of hardness layer on surface and depth of hardness layer will make the component has more long life time. Furthermore, to perform next research is needed to analyze the reliability of enhanced hardness on layer and depth of hardness layer on helical gear shaft.

  7. Quantitative measurement of damage caused by 1064-nm wavelength optical trapping of Escherichia coli cells using on-chip single cell cultivation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayano, Satoru; Wakamoto, Yuichi; Yamashita, Shinobu; Yasuda, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    We quantitatively examined the possible damage to the growth and cell division ability of Escherichia coli caused by 1064-nm optical trapping. Using the synchronous behavior of two sister E. coli cells, the growth and interdivision times between those two cells, one of which was trapped by optical tweezers, the other was not irradiated, were compared using an on-chip single cell cultivation system. Cell growth stopped during the optical trapping period, even with the smallest irradiated power on the trapped cells. Moreover, the damage to the cell's growth and interdivision period was proportional to the total irradiated energy (work) on the cell, i.e., irradiation time multiplied by irradiation power. The division ability was more easily affected by a smaller energy, 0.36 J, which was 30% smaller than the energy that adversely affected growth, 0.54 J. The results indicate that the damage caused by optical trapping can be estimated from the total energy applied to cells, and furthermore, that the use of optical trapping for manipulating cells might cause damage to cell division and growth mechanisms, even at wavelengths under 1064 nm, if the total irradiation energy is excessive

  8. Leucocytes DNA damage in mice exposed to JS-118 by the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Hu, Jiye; Zhang, Yuchao; Zhao, Qianfei; Ning, Jun

    2011-09-01

    JS-118 is an extensively used insecticide in China. The present study investigated the genotoxic effect of JS-118 on whole blood at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h by using alkaline comet assay. Male Kunming mice were given 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg BW of JS-118 intraperitoneally. A statistically significant increase in all comet parameters indicating DNA damage was observed at 24 h post-treatment (p JS-118 and the period of treatment. The present study provided further information of the potential risk of the genetic damage caused by JS-118.

  9. Genotoxicity of Tri- and Hexavalent Chromium Compounds In Vivo and Their Modes of Action on DNA Damage In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhijia; Zhao, Min; Zhen, Hong; Chen, Lifeng; Shi, Ping; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Chromium occurs mostly in tri- and hexavalent states in the environment. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are extensively used in diverse industries, and trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] salts are used as micronutrients and dietary supplements. In the present work, we report that they both induce genetic mutations in yeast cells. They both also cause DNA damage in both yeast and Jurkat cells and the effect of Cr(III) is greater than that of Cr(VI). We further show that Cr(III) and Cr(VI) cause DNA damage through different mechanisms. Cr(VI) intercalates DNA and Cr(III) interferes base pair stacking. Based on our results, we conclude that Cr(III) can directly cause genotoxicity in vivo. PMID:25111056

  10. Protective effects of Curcuma longa against neurobehavioral and neurochemical damage caused by cerium chloride in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Yamina; Nciri, Riadh; Brahmi, Noura; Saidi, Saber; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh; Aldahmash, Waleed; El Feki, Abdelfatteh; Allagui, Mohamed Salah

    2018-05-07

    Cerium chloride (CeCl 3 ) is considered an environmental pollutant and a potent neurotoxic agent. Medicinal plants have many bioactive compounds that provide protection against damage caused by such pollutants. Curcuma longa is a bioactive compound-rich plant with very important antioxidant properties. To study the preventive and healing effects of Curcuma longa on cerium-damaged mouse brains, we intraperitoneally injected cerium chloride (CeCl 3 , 20 mg/kg BW) along with Curcuma longa extract, administrated by gavage (100 mg/kg BW), into mice for 60 days. We then examined mouse behavior, brain tissue damage, and brain oxidative stress parameters. Our results revealed a significant modification in the behavior of the CeCl 3 -treated mice. In addition, CeCl 3 induced a significant increment in lipid peroxidation, carbonyl protein (PCO), and advanced oxidation protein product levels, as well as a significant reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity remarkably increased in the brain of CeCl 3 -treated mice. Histopathological observations confirmed these results. Curcuma longa attenuated CeCl 3 -induced oxidative stress and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. It also decreased AChE activity in the CeCl 3 -damaged mouse brain that was confirmed by histopathology. In conclusion, this study suggests that Curcuma longa has a neuroprotective effect against CeCl 3 -induced damage in the brain.

  11. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  12. Damage detection with concentrated configurations of piezoelectric transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandowski, T; Malinowski, P; Ostachowicz, W M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper results of investigation on concentrated piezoelectric networks with different configurations are presented. They were used for elastic wave generation and acquisition. The elastic wave propagation phenomenon was used for damage localization in thin aluminium panels. This approach utilized the fact that any discontinuities existing in structural elements cause local changes of physical material properties which affect elastic wave propagation. Elastic waves were excited and received using piezoelectric transducer networks with different element arrangements. The method of transducer placement and the number of piezoelectric elements used had an influence on the accuracy of the damage localization algorithm. Obviously, the more elements there were, the more data had to be processed. After the acquisition process signal processing was conducted in order to create damage influence maps. These maps presents elastic wave energy connected with reflection from discontinuities. In order to create such a map a computer program was developed that assigns a mesh of points to the panel surface. At each point the energy of elastic wave reflection was calculated. This energy was extracted from the acquired signals. This paper summarizes an extensive experimental investigation that included three damage scenarios and twelve transducer configurations

  13. Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Dragony; Calvo, Jennifer A.; Samson, Leona D.

    2012-01-01

    Alkylating agents constitute a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including direct DNA damage reversal, base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR), respond to alkylation damage to defend against alkylation-induced cell death or mutation. However, maintaining a proper balance of activity both within and between these pathways is crucial ...

  14. Murine liver damage caused by exposure to nano-titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jie; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Due to its unique physiochemical properties, nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO_2) is widely used in all aspects of people’s daily lives, bringing it into increasing contact with humans. Thus, this material’s security issues for humans have become a heavily researched subject. Nano-TiO_2 can enter the body through the mouth, skin, respiratory tract or in other ways, after which it enters the blood circulation and is deposited in the liver, changing biochemical indicators and causing liver inflammation. Meanwhile, the light sensitivity of these nanoparticles allows them to become media-generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing an imbalance between oxidation and anti-oxidation that leads to oxidative stress and liver damage. Nano-TiO_2 can be transported into cells via phagocytosis, where the nanoparticles bind to the mitochondrial membrane, resulting in the disintegration of the membrane and the electron transport chain within the mitochondria. Thus, more ROS are produced. Nano-TiO_2 can also enter the nucleus, where it can directly embed into or indirectly affect DNA, thereby causing DNA breakage or affecting gene expression. These effects include increased mRNA and protein expression levels of inflammation-related factors and decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of IκB and IL-2, resulting in inflammation. Long-term inflammation of the liver causes HSC cell activation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition is promoted by multiple signalling pathways, resulting in liver fibrosis. In this paper, the latest progress on murine liver injury induced by environmental TiO_2 is systematically described. The toxicity of nano-TiO_2 also depends on size, exposure time, surface properties, dosage, administration route, and its surface modification. Therefore, its toxic effects in humans should be studied in greater depth. This paper also provides useful reference information regarding the safe use of nano-TiO_2 in the future. (topical review)

  15. Review of legislation on civil liability for nuclear damage; Revision de la legislacion relativa a la responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez-Moran, E.

    2011-07-01

    The entry into force of Law 12/2011 is postponed until the Protocols modifying the Paris and Brussels conventions take effect, since their content complements that of the Conventions. The most significant modifications are the extension of the suppositions of nuclear damage, the geographical scope of application and the time period for claiming personal damages, which is accompanied by higher coverage limits of up to 1,200 million euros. It also includes liability for damages caused by radioactive materials in the custody of the installation owner. (Author)

  16. Landslide Caused Damages in a Gallery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisel, R.; Mair am Tinkhof, K.; Preh, A.

    2016-06-01

    On October 5th, 2010, cracks were found in a gallery 1.8 m high and 1.4 m wide. The gallery is 100 years old, runs parallel to a valley flank and was excavated in a tectonically strongly stressed, weathered and slightly dipping sandwich of clayey shales, sandstones and marls. The cracks in the roof as well as in the invert ran parallel to the axis of the gallery. Monitoring showed that crack widths were increasing 1.5 mm per year, sidewall distances were increasing 3.5 mm per year, whereas the height of the gallery was decreasing 2.5 mm per year. After eliminating several possible causes of cracking, a landslide producing the damages had to be taken into consideration. Monitoring of the valley flank surface as well as inclinometer readings revealed that a landslide was occurring, loading the gallery lining. Most probably the landslide had been reactivated by excessive rainfall in 2009 as well as by works for the renewal of a weir in the valley bottom. As stabilization of the slope was not an option for several reasons, it was decided to replace the gallery by a new one deeper inside the slope, which will be ready for operation in 2017. Thus the old gallery has to be kept in operation till then and it was decided to reinforce the old gallery by a heavily reinforced shotcrete lining 10 cm thick. As slope displacements went on, cracks in the shotcrete lining developed with a completely different pattern: in the section where the gallery lies completely in the landslide shear zone no cracks formed until now due to heavy reinforcement, whereas in the transition sections stable ground-landslide and landslide-stable ground diagonal tension cracks in the roof due to shear by the landslide developed. Numerical models showed that cracking and spalling of the shotcrete lining would occur only after some centimetres of additional displacements of the slope, which hopefully will not occur before 2017.

  17. Implications of Extension of Station Blackout Cooping Capability on Nuclear Power Plant Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkanovski, Andrija

    2015-01-01

    The safety of the nuclear power plant depends on the availability of the continuous and reliable sources of electrical energy during all modes of operation of the plant. The station blackout corresponds to a total loss of all alternate current (AC) power as a result of complete failure of both offsite and on-site AC power sources. The electricity for the essential systems during station blackout is provided from the batteries installed in the nuclear power plant. The results of the probabilistic safety assessment show that station blackout is one of the main and frequently the dominant contributor to the core damage frequency. Results of the analysis of the implications of the strengthening of the SBO mitigation capability on safety of the NPP will be presented. The assessment is done with state-of-art deterministic and probabilistic methods and tolls with application on reference models of nuclear power plants. The safety analysis is done on reference model of the nuclear power plant. Obtained results show large decrease of the core damage frequency with strengthening of the station blackout mitigation capability. The time extension of blackout coping capability results in the delay of the core heat up for at least the extension time interval. Availability and operation of the steam driven auxiliary feedwater system maintains core integrity up to 72 h after the successful shutdown, even in the presence of the reactor coolant pumps seal leakage. The largest weighted decrease of the core damage frequency considering the costs for the modification is obtained for the modification resulting in extension of the station blackout coping capability. The importance of the common cause failures of the emergency diesel generators for the obtained decrease of the core damage frequency and overall safety of the plant is identified in the obtained results. (authors)

  18. Compensation for the damage caused by the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joirysch, A.; Supataeva, O.

    1993-01-01

    The teachings of the accident at the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl clearly showed that the existing rules of Russian legislation cannot handle the problems in respect of civil liability for nuclear damage. This paper describes how the Soviet State and Soviet law tried to cope with the question of compensation for damage to human health and property in a special legal situation, due to the lack of any particular legislation covering this area and to the fact that the USSR is a Party neither to the Vienna nor the Paris Convention. In 1991 a law of the Russian Federation 'On the social protection of citizens who suffered as a consequence of the Chernobyl disaster' established a State system of services and compensation for such damage and the procedure for financing was laid down by a ministerial letter. 4 refs

  19. The application of SEM in analyzing the damage to the petroleum reservoirs caused by drilling fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak Ismail

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to analyze the damage to the potential oil and gas reservoirs due to the invasion of drilling fluid during drilling operation. Two types of rock samples representing low and high permeability were used to stimulate the petroleum reservoirs. Sea water based drilling fluids were used in this study. Detail observations to the rock samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of both permeability restoration and SEM observation showed that severe permeability impairments were obtained for high permeability rock. These results indicate that the relative size of the barite particles and the pore size distribution and characteristics of the formation play an important role in determining the damage caused by the drilling fluids

  20. CORRELATION AMONG DAMAGES CAUSED BY YELLOW BEETLE, CLIMATOLOGICAL ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTION OF GUAVA ACCESSES GROWN IN ORGANIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA ALTAFIN GALLI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was evaluate the damage caused by the yellow beetle on 85 guava accessions and correlations of the damage with the climatological elements and the production of fruit in an orchard of guava conducted in organic system. Ten leaves by access were analyzed containing the injury of insect attack. Each leaf had its foliar area measured by leaf area meter and, after obtaining the total area, the leaf was covered with duct tape, and measure again. The averages were compared by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The 15 accessions with highest average damage had the data submitted to the correlation with the minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation and relative humidity. The production was obtained by the number of fruits/plant. The damages are negatively correlated with the mean relative humidity of 7:00h (local time in the period of 14 days prior to the assessments, and negatively affect production. The accessions Saito, L4P16, Monte Alto Comum 1 and L5P19 are promising in organic agriculture, for presenting good production and minor damage to insect attack, when compared to others.

  1. MULTIPLE DAMAGE OF THE TIBIAL POLYETHYLENE INSERT IN KNEE JOINT PROSTHESIS (CAN EXCELLENT POSTOPERATIVE OUTCOME BE THE CAUSE OF FRACTURE OF THE TIBIAL INSERT? CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in prosthesis technology and use of high-quality materials in recent years, the number of revisions related to implant failures (4.7% remains high. Several phenomena were reported in literature as reasons for dislocation and fracture of tibial insert in mobile bearing prosthesis: incorrect positioning of components, discrepancy of extension and flexion balancing or ligament weakness. However, in our cases neither of these causes were observed. The authors consider that bio-physiological and biomechanical aspects of total knee arthroplasty and knee joint prosthesis should be thoroughly studied and implemented into the clinical practice. In the described cases, multiple damage of the insert due to flexion instability and “twist-hyperflexion” in overweight patients is perceived as the reason for failures.

  2. Repair of radiation damage caused by cyclotron-produced neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, B.I.

    1979-01-01

    Hall et al. present experimental data on repair of sublethal damage in cultured mammalian cells exposed to 35 MeV neutrons and 60 Co γ rays. Hall and Kraljevic present experimental data on repair of potentially lethal damage in cultured mammalian cells exposed to 35 MeV neutrons and 210 kVp x rays. These results of Hall et al. are very difficult to explain from basic concepts in radiobiology. Contrary to Rossi, these data do not support his thesis that repair of radiation damage is dose-dependent and linear energy transfer independent. Nor do these results meet the expectations of multitarget-single hit theory which would require dose-independent repair equal to n. The observation of the same extrapolation number for neutrons and for x rays is also surprising. From the point of view of radiotherapy, the doses of interest are about 140 rad for neutrons and about 300 rad for x rays. There are no data for repair of potentially lethal damage below 800 rad for x rays and 400 rad for neutrons. The difference in survival between single and split dose is negligible up to a total of about 600 rad of x rays or of neutrons. These data of Hall et al. therefore have little significance to radiotherapists and are an enigma to radiobiologists

  3. DNA damage and genetic methylation changes caused by Cd in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoling; Liu, Zhihong; Chen, Ruijuan; Li, Xiaojun; Tai, Peidong; Gong, Zongqiang; Jia, Chunyun; Liu, Wan

    2015-09-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MASP) techniques are sensitive to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and genetic methylation, respectively. Using these 2 techniques, Arabidopsis thaliana cultured with 0 mg/L (control), 0.5 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L, and 5.0 mg/L Cd(2+) for 16 d was used to analyze the DNA damage and methylation changes as a result of cadmium (Cd). The DNA was amplified by 14 AFLP primer pairs and 13 MSAP primer combinations. In the AFLP experiment, 62 polymorphic sites were found in the patterns of 11 primer combinations and a total of 1116 fragments were obtained in these patterns. There were no polymorphic bands in the remaining 3 pairs. The proportions of polymorphic sites in the 0.5-mg/L Cd(2+) and 5.0-mg/L Cd(2+) treatments were significantly different. Seven polymorphic fragments were then separated and successfully sequenced, yielding 6 nucleobase substitutions and 1 nucleobase deletion. Similarly, in the MSAP experiment, the MSAP% and number of demethylated-type bands were unchanged after Cd treatment, but the number of methylated-type bands was increased significantly in the 5.0-mg/L Cd(2+) treatment group, a finding that may be associated with the AFLP results. The polymorphic bands were also sequenced and the functions of their homologous genes were determined. The DNA damage and methylation changes may be the primary cause of certain pathology changes as a result of Cd uptake in plants. © 2015 SETAC.

  4. Forecasting Frost Damage: Follow the Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    Frost damage takes place when the pressure exerted against pore walls exceeds the cohesive strength of water-infiltrated rock and causes cracks to extend. Elegant theoretical treatments supported by meticulous field and laboratory observations have combined to unravel the basic mechanical and thermodynamic controls in idealized systems. Frost damage is most vigorous when conditions are cold enough that the net pressure exerted against the pore walls can cause crack extension, yet warm enough to enable the flow that supplies further ice growth in the newly opened space. This insight is applied here to develop practical geomorphic process laws for the effects of frost damage at the larger scales that are relevant for describing the evolution of landscapes. To this end, a direct connection is made between the intensity of frost damage and the porosity increase that results from gradients in water flux under conditions that are cold enough for ice-rock interactions to propagate cracks. This implies that the annual temperature variation at the ground surface can be combined with considerations of heat and mass transport to derive rigorous forecasts of the potential for frost damage that are tied to the increases in water mass that accompany solidification in porous rock. As an example, the image shows the depth-integrated porosity change λ promoted by crack growth at temperatures colder than -ΔTc over an annual cycle for different choices of mean annual temperature MAT and surface amplitude A (assuming a thermal diffusivity of 1 mm2/s and a power-law relationship between permeability and undercooling with exponent α=4, such that a base value of 10-14m2 is reached at a reference undercooling of 0.1 ºC). The abrupt onset in cracking once MAT decreases below a threshold is produced by the requirement that undercooling surpass ΔTc in order to generate sufficient pressures to propagate cracks. The eventual reduction and gradual tail in λ at colder MAT is produced by

  5. Damage cost of the Dan River coal ash spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis Lemly, A.

    2015-01-01

    The recent coal ash spill on the Dan River in North Carolina, USA has caused several negative effects on the environment and the public. In this analysis, I report a monetized value for these effects after the first 6 months following the spill. The combined cost of ecological damage, recreational impacts, effects on human health and consumptive use, and esthetic value losses totals $295,485,000. Because the environmental impact and associated economic costs of riverine coal ash spills can be long-term, on the order of years or even decades, this 6-month assessment should be viewed as a short-term preview. The total cumulative damage cost from the Dan River coal ash spill could go much higher. - Highlights: • Six-month post-spill damage cost exceeded $295,000,000. • Components of cost include ecological, recreational, human health, property, and aesthetic values. • Attempts by the electric utility to “clean” the river left over 95% of coal ash behind. • Long-term impacts will likely drive the total damage cost much higher. - Damage costs of the Dan River coal ash spill are extensive and growing. The 6-month cost of that spill is valued at $295,485,000, and the long-term total cost is likely to rise substantially

  6. DANOS MECÂNICOS OCASIONADOS POR SISTEMAS DOSADORES DE SEMENTES MECHANICAL DAMAGE CAUSED BY SEED METERING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alcanfor Ximenes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados por cinco sistemas dosadores de sementes, em quatro culturas. Amostras das sementes foram coletadas antes e após passarem pelos sistemas dosadores e foram submetidas a testes de pureza, germinação e vigor. Não houve diferença entre os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados pelos sistemas dosadores empregados nas sementes de milho. Para as sementes de feijão, menores efeitos foram verificados quando da utilização dos dosadores pneumático a vácuo e copo dosador. O sistema rotor acanalado causou menores danos às sementes de arroz e os sistemas disco  horizontal perfurado e copo dosador foram os que menos danificaram as sementes de soja. O sistema dosador pneumático a vácuo ocasionou o maior índice de dano mecânico nas sementes de soja.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Semeadoras; distribuidores de sementes; rotor acanalado.

    Effects of mechanical damage caused by five seed metering systems were evaluated in four crops. Seed samples were collected before and after passing through the measuring systems and submitted to tests of purity, germination and vigor. There was no difference in the level of mechanical damage caused by the metering systems used for maize seeds. For common bean seeds, minor effects were verified when using the vacuum metering disk and the feed cup. The fluted feed system showed the best performance for rice seeds, and the horizontal perforated disk and feed cup systems exhibited the best results for soybean seeds. The vacuum metering disk system caused the highest level of mechanical damage to soybean seeds.

    KEY-WORDS: Planter machine; seed distributor; fluted feed.

  7. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  8. Fusarium infection causes genotoxic disorders and antioxidant-based damages in Orobanche spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybeke, Mehmet

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the toxic effects of Fusarium oxysporum on root parasitic weed, Orobanche spp. Comparative genetic and gene expression studies were conducted on uninfected and fungus-infected orobanches. In genetic studies, isolated total DNA was amplified by RAPD PCR. Fragment properties were analysed by GTS test. According to the results, the fragment properties of control and Fusarium infected (experimental) groups varied widely; and it has been observed that Fusarium has genotoxic effects on the DNA of orobanches. In gene expression studies, the expression levels of genes encoding enzymes or proteins were associated with ROS damage and toxic effects, therefore, gene expressions of Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), Zn-superoxide dismutase (=SOD2, mitochondrial), glutamine synthetase (GS), heat shock protein gene (HSP70), BAX, Caspase-3 and BCL2 were significantly higher in the experimental group. In the light of obtained data, it was concluded that F. oxysporum (1) caused heavy ROS damage in Orobanche (2) induced significant irrevocable genotoxic effects on the DNA of Orobanche, (3) degraded protein metabolism and synthesis, and finally (4) triggered apoptosis. The results of this study can be a ground for further research on reducing the toxic effects of Fusarium on agricultural products, so that advancements in bio-herbicide technology may provide a sustainable agricultural production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Differentiating neuromyelitis optica from other causes of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis on spinal magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekcevik, Yeliz; Mitchell, Charles H; Mealy, Maureen A; Orman, Gunes; Lee, In H; Newsome, Scott D; Thompson, Carol B; Pardo, Carlos A; Calabresi, Peter A; Levy, Michael; Izbudak, Izlem

    2016-01-01

    Background Although spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) have been described, there is limited data available that help differentiate NMO from other causes of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). Objective To investigate the spinal MRI findings of LETM that help differentiate NMO at the acute stage from multiple sclerosis (MS) and other causes of LETM. Methods We enrolled 94 patients with LETM into our study. Bright spotty lesions (BSL), the lesion distribution and location were evaluated on axial T2-weighted images. Brainstem extension, cord expansion, T1 darkness and lesion enhancement were noted. We also reviewed the brain MRI of the patients during LETM. Results Patients with NMO had a greater amount of BSL and T1 dark lesions (p < 0.001 and 0.003, respectively). The lesions in NMO patients were more likely to involve greater than one-half of the spinal cord’s cross-sectional area; to enhance and be centrally-located, or both centrally- and peripherally-located in the cord. Of the 62 available brain MRIs, 14 of the 27 whom were NMO patients had findings that may be specific to NMO. Conclusions Certain spinal cord MRI features are more commonly seen in NMO patients and so obtaining brain MRI during LETM may support diagnosis. PMID:26209588

  10. Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dragony; Calvo, Jennifer A; Samson, Leona D

    2012-01-12

    Alkylating agents constitute a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including direct DNA damage reversal, base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR), respond to alkylation damage to defend against alkylation-induced cell death or mutation. However, maintaining a proper balance of activity both within and between these pathways is crucial for a favourable response of an organism to alkylating agents. Furthermore, the response of an individual to alkylating agents can vary considerably from tissue to tissue and from person to person, pointing to genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that modulate alkylating agent toxicity.

  11. Liver Damage Associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: A Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize the characteristics and analysis of relevant factors and to give references for prevention and further study of liver damage associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (HSW, we provide a systematic review of case reports and case series about liver damage associated with HSW. Methods. An extensive search of 6 medical databases was performed up to June 2014. Case reports and case series involving liver damage associated with HSW were included. Results. This review covers a total of 450 cases in 76 articles. HSW types included raw and processed HSW decoction pieces and many Chinese patent medicines that contain HSW. Symptoms of liver damage occur mostly a month or so after taking the medicine, mainly including jaundice, fatigue, anorexia, and yellow or tawny urine. Of the 450 patients, two cases who received liver transplantation and seven who died, the remaining 441 cases recovered or had liver function improvement after discontinuing HSW products and conservative care. Conclusion. HSW causes liver toxicity and may cause liver damage in different degrees and even lead to death; most of them are much related to long-term and overdose of drugs. Liver damage associated with HSW is reversible, and, after active treatment, the majority can be cured. People should be alert to liver damage when taking HSW preparations.

  12. Probable causes of damage of heat-exchange tubes of low-pressure-exchanges of PND-3 type and repair methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Esin, S. B.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Sintsova, T. G.; Modestov, V. S.

    2017-08-01

    The structures of low-pressure heaters (LPH), which are installed at nuclear power plants with the K-1000-60/1500 type turbine plants are considered. It was revealed that only the PND-3 type low-pressure heaters have the damages of the heat exchange tubes. For a short operation life, the number of the damaged heat-exchange tubes of PND-3 is approximately 50 pcs for Kalinin NPP and 100-150 pcs for Balakovo NPP. The low-pressure heaters were manufactured at AO Ural Plant of Chemical Machine-Building "Uralkhimmash," OAO Taganrog Boiler-Making Works "Krasny Kotelshchik," and Vitkovice Machinery Group, but the damage nature of the heat-exchange tubes is identical for all PND-3. The damages occur in the place of passage of the heat exchange tubes through the first, the second, and the third partitions over the lower tube plate (the first path of the turbine condensate). Hydraulic shocks can be one of the possible causes of the damage of the heat-exchange tubes of PND-3. The analysis of the average thermal and dynamic loads of the tube systems of PND-1-PND-4 revealed that PND-3 by the thermal power are loaded 1.4-1.6 times and by the dynamic effects are loaded 1.8-2.0 times more than the remaining LPHs. Another possible cause of damage can be the cascaded drain of the separate into PND-4 and then through the drainage heat exchange into PND-3. An additional factor can be the structure of the condensate drainage unit. The advanced system of the heating steam flow and pumping scheme of the separate drain using the existing drainage pumps of PND-3 for K-1000-60/1500 turbine plants for Balakovo and Kalinin NPPs were proposed. The considered decisions make it possible to reduce the flow rate of the heating steam condensate from PND-3 into PND-4 and the speed of the heating steam in the tube space of PND-3 and eliminate the occurrence of hydraulic shocks and damages of the heat exchanger tubes.

  13. KEKB facility damage caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    As shown in photos, severe damages were observed at several facilities in Tsukuba campus, including the infrastructure, especially at the ground - weakened area. KEKB also damaged facility has been under the upgrade stage to SuperKEKB. So works for disassembling of KEKB machine and for remodeling of the equipment were undertaken. Fortunately no one was injured but the situations were quite hazardous. KEKB ring set ∼13m below the ground also experienced the severe tremors. All expansion points were injured and the cracks on the ceiling/wall/floor were created around the ring, but significant damage such as the tunnel destruction was not observed. Repairs were started, and resumed possible SuperKEKB construction though it will delay 2-3 months. (author)

  14. Delayed repair of radiation induced clustered DNA damage: Friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, Laura J.; O'Neill, Peter; Lomax, Martine E.

    2011-01-01

    A signature of ionizing radiation exposure is the induction of DNA clustered damaged sites, defined as two or more lesions within one to two helical turns of DNA by passage of a single radiation track. Clustered damage is made up of double strand breaks (DSB) with associated base lesions or abasic (AP) sites, and non-DSB clusters comprised of base lesions, AP sites and single strand breaks. This review will concentrate on the experimental findings of the processing of non-DSB clustered damaged sites. It has been shown that non-DSB clustered damaged sites compromise the base excision repair pathway leading to the lifetime extension of the lesions within the cluster, compared to isolated lesions, thus the likelihood that the lesions persist to replication and induce mutation is increased. In addition certain non-DSB clustered damaged sites are processed within the cell to form additional DSB. The use of E. coli to demonstrate that clustering of DNA lesions is the major cause of the detrimental consequences of ionizing radiation is also discussed. The delayed repair of non-DSB clustered damaged sites in humans can be seen as a 'friend', leading to cell killing in tumour cells or as a 'foe', resulting in the formation of mutations and genetic instability in normal tissue.

  15. Intensity of diffracted X-rays from biomolecules with radiation damage caused by strong X-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Takeshi; Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Moribayashi, Kengo; Fukuda, Yuji; Kono, Hidetoshi; Go, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize the coherent X-ray diffractive imaging of single biomolecules, the diffraction intensities, per effective pixel of a single biomolecule with radiation damage, caused by irradiation using a strong coherent X-ray pulse, were examined. A parameter survey was carried out for various experimental conditions, using a developed simulation program that considers the effect of electric field ionization, which was slightly reported on in previous studies. The two simple relationships among the parameters were identified as follows: (1) the diffraction intensity of a biomolecule slightly increases with the incident X-ray energy; and that (2) the diffraction intensity is approximately proportional to the target radius, when the radius is longer than 400 Å, since the upper limit of the incident intensity for damage to the biomolecules marginally changes with respect to the target radius. (author)

  16. Optimal choice: assessing the probability of additional damage to buildings caused by water level changes of larger areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnagte, J. L.; Luger, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the Northern parts of the Netherlands exploration of natural gas reservoirs causes subsidence over large areas. As a consequence, the water levels in canals and polders have to be adjusted over time in order to keep the groundwater levels at a constant depth relative to the surface level. In the middle of the subsidence area it is relatively easy to follow the settlements by a uniform lowering of the water level. This would however result in a relative lowering of the groundwater table at the edges of the subsidence area. Given the presence of soft compressible soils, this would result in induced settlements. For buildings in these areas this will increase the chance of damage. A major design challenge lies therefore in the optimisation of the use of compartments. The more compartments the higher the cost therefore the aim is to make compartments in the water management system that are as large as possible without causing inadmissible damage to buildings. In order to asses expected damage from different use of compartments three tools are needed. The first is a generally accepted method of damage determination, the second a method to determine the contribution to damage of a new influence, e.g. a groundwater table change. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a method is needed to evaluate effects not for single buildings but for larger areas. The first need is covered by established damage criteria like those of Burland & Wroth or Boscardin & Cording. Up until now the second and the third have been problematic. This paper presents a method which enables to assign a contribution to the probability of damage of various recognised mechanisms such as soil and foundation inhomogeneity, uneven loading, ground water level changes. Shallow subsidence due to peat oxidation and deep subsidence due to reservoir depletion can be combined. In order to address the third issue: evaluation of effects for larger areas, the method uses a probabilistic approach. Apart from a

  17. Survival of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors restored with different types of posts-and-core foundation restoration material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazari, Priscilla Cardoso; de Carvalho, Marco Aurélio; Del Bel Cury, Altair A; Magne, Pascal

    2018-05-01

    Which post-and-core combination will best improve the performance of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule is still unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the restoration of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule using glass-ceramic crowns bonded to various composite resin foundation restorations and 2 types of posts. Sixty decoronated endodontically treated bovine incisors without a ferrule were divided into 4 groups and restored with various post-and-core foundation restorations. NfPfB=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and bulk-fill resin foundation restoration (B); NfPfP=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and dual-polymerized composite resin core foundation restoration (P); NfPt=no-ferrule (Nf) with titanium post (Pt) and resin core foundation restoration; and NfPtB=no-ferrule (Nf) with titanium post (Pt) and bulk-fill resin core foundation restoration (B). Two additional groups from previously published data from the same authors (FPf=2mm of ferrule (F) and glass-fiber post (Pf) and composite resin core foundation restoration; and NfPf=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and composite resin core foundation restoration), which were tested concomitantly and using the same experimental arrangement, were included for comparison. All teeth were prepared to receive bonded glass-ceramic crowns luted with dual-polymerized resin cement and were subjected to accelerated fatigue testing under submerged conditions at room temperature. Cyclic isometric loading was applied to the incisal edge at an angle of 30 degrees with a frequency of 5 Hz, beginning with a load of 100 N (5000 cycles). A 100-N load increase was applied every 15000 cycles. The specimens were loaded until failure or to a maximum of 1000 N (140000 cycles). The 6 groups (4 groups from the present study and 2 groups from the previously published study) were compared using the Kaplan-Meier survival

  18. Treatment of Pusher Syndrome in a patient after extensive cerebral infarction caused by cerebral embolism - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Porzych

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pusher Syndrome is defined as a disorder of perception of body orientation in the frontal plane. It is mainly observed in patients after stroke in consequence to damage to the right or left hemisphere of the brain. Characteristic clinical symptoms in people affected by this syndrome are leaning towards the paralyzed side of the body and building massive resistance during passive correction. The consequence of such behavior are falls in the direction of the affected side. The paper presents the case of a patient who, after extensive right hemisphere cerebral hemorrhage, was admitted to the Chair and Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of the Dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No.1 in Bydgoszcz to improve. During treatment the patient was used the neurorehabilitation based on the Bobath concept.

  19. Risk-based evaluation of allowed outage time and surveillance test interval extensions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, Sonia Maria Orlando

    2008-03-01

    The main goal of this work is, through the use of Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA), to evaluate Technical Specification (TS) Allowed Outage Times (AOT) and Surveillance Test Intervals (STI) extensions for Angra 1 nuclear power plant. PSA has been incorporated as an additional tool, required as part of NPP licensing process. The risk measure used in this work is the Core Damage Frequency (CDF), obtained from the Angra 1 PSA Level 1. AOT and STI extensions are calculated for the Safety Injection System (SIS), Service water System (SAS) and Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFS) through the use of SAPHIRE code. In order to compensate for the risk increase caused by the extensions, compensatory measures as test of redundant train prior to entering maintenance and staggered test strategy are proposed. Results have shown that the proposed AOT extensions are acceptable for the SIS and SAS with the implementation of compensatory measures. The proposed AOT extension is not acceptable for the AFS. The STI extensions are acceptable for all three systems. (author)

  20. Nondestructive damage detection and evaluation technique for seismically damaged structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yukio; Unjoh, Shigeki; Kondoh, Masuo; Ohsumi, Michio

    1999-02-01

    The development of quantitative damage detection and evaluation technique, and damage detection technique for invisible damages of structures are required according to the lessons from the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. In this study, two quantitative damage sensing techniques for highway bridge structures are proposed. One method is to measure the change of vibration characteristics of the bridge structure. According to the damage detection test for damaged bridge column by shaking table test, this method can successfully detect the vibration characteristic change caused by damage progress due to increment excitations. The other method is to use self-diagnosis intelligent materials. According to the reinforced concrete beam specimen test, the second method can detect the damage by rupture of intelligent sensors, such as optical fiber or carbon fiber reinforced plastic rod.

  1. Oxidative DNA damage causes mitochondrial genomic instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudican, Nicole A; Song, Binwei; Shadel, Gerald S; Doetsch, Paul W

    2005-06-01

    Mitochondria contain their own genome, the integrity of which is required for normal cellular energy metabolism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by normal mitochondrial respiration can damage cellular macromolecules, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and have been implicated in degenerative diseases, cancer, and aging. We developed strategies to elevate mitochondrial oxidative stress by exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2) or utilizing mutants lacking mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (sod2Delta). Experiments were conducted with strains compromised in mitochondrial base excision repair (ntg1Delta) and oxidative damage resistance (pif1Delta) in order to delineate the relationship between these pathways. We observed enhanced ROS production, resulting in a direct increase in oxidative mtDNA damage and mutagenesis. Repair-deficient mutants exposed to oxidative stress conditions exhibited profound genomic instability. Elimination of Ntg1p and Pif1p resulted in a synergistic corruption of respiratory competency upon exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2). Mitochondrial genomic integrity was substantially compromised in ntg1Delta pif1Delta sod2Delta strains, since these cells exhibit a total loss of mtDNA. A stable respiration-defective strain, possessing a normal complement of mtDNA damage resistance pathways, exhibited a complete loss of mtDNA upon exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2). This loss was preventable by Sod2p overexpression. These results provide direct evidence that oxidative mtDNA damage can be a major contributor to mitochondrial genomic instability and demonstrate cooperation of Ntg1p and Pif1p to resist the introduction of lesions into the mitochondrial genome.

  2. Sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wen-Qi; Hu, Yu-Juan; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Kong, Wen; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-05-29

    With the increasing popularity of mobile phones, the potential hazards of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the auditory system remain unclear. Apart from RF-EMR, humans are also exposed to various physical and chemical factors. We established a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro model to investigate whether the possible sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (at specific absorption rates: 2, 4 W/kg) will increase. Spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) were obtained from neonatal (1- to 3-day-old) Sprague Dawley® (SD) rats. After the SGN were treated with different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/ml) of LPS, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and alkaline comet assay were used to quantify cellular activity and DNA damage, respectively. The SGN were treated with the moderate LPS concentrations before RF-EMR exposure. After 24 h intermittent exposure at an absorption rate of 2 and 4 W/kg, DNA damage was examined by alkaline comet assay, ultrastructure changes were detected by transmission electron microscopy, and expression of the autophagy markers LC3-II and Beclin1 were examined by immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was quantified by the dichlorofluorescin-diacetate assay. LPS (100 μg/ml) induced DNA damage and suppressed cellular activity (P 0.05); therefore, 40 μg/ml was used to pretreat the concentration before exposure to RF-EMR. RF-EMR could not directly induce DNA damage. However, the 4 W/kg combined with LPS (40 μg/ml) group showed mitochondria vacuoles, karyopyknosis, presence of lysosomes and autophagosome, and increasing expression of LC3-II and Beclin1. The ROS values significantly increased in the 4 W/kg exposure, 4 W/kg combined with LPS (40 μg/ml) exposure, and H2O2 groups (P spiral ganglion neurons, but it could cause the changes of cellular ultrastructure at special SAR 4

  3. Damage Models for Soft Tissues: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenguang

    Damage to soft tissues in the human body has been investigated for applications in healthcare, sports, and biomedical engineering. This paper reviews and classifies damage models for soft tissues to summarize achievements, identify new directions, and facilitate finite element analysis. The main ideas of damage modeling methods are illustrated and interpreted. A few key issues related to damage models, such as experimental data curve-fitting, computational effort, connection between damage and fractures/cracks, damage model applications, and fracture/crack extension simulation, are discussed. Several new challenges in the field are identified and outlined. This review can be useful for developing more advanced damage models and extending damage modeling methods to a variety of soft tissues.

  4. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium from Corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fujise

    Full Text Available The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium. Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C, and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  5. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) from Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Lisa; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Go; Sasaki, Kengo; Liao, Lawrence M; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium). Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae) in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C) and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C), and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  6. Bruxism is unlikely to cause damage to the periodontium: findings from a systematic literature assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Ahlberg, Jari; Mura, Rossano; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2015-04-01

    This paper systematically reviews the MEDLINE and SCOPUS literature to answer the following question: Is there any evidence that bruxism may cause periodontal damage per se? Clinical studies on humans, assessing the potential relationship between bruxism and periodontal lesions (i.e., decreased attachment level, bone loss, tooth mobility/migration, altered periodontal perception) were eligible. Methodologic shortcomings were identified by the adoption of the Critical Appraisal Skills Program quality assessment, mainly concerning the internal validity of findings according to an unspecific bruxism diagnosis. The six included articles covered a high variability of topics, without multiple papers on the same argument. Findings showed that the only effect of bruxism on periodontal structures was an increase in periodontal sensation, whereas a relationship with periodontal lesions was absent. Based on the analysis of Hill criteria, the validity of causation conclusions was limited, mainly owing to the absence of a longitudinal evaluation of the temporal relationship and dose-response effects between bruxism and periodontal lesions. Despite the scarce quantity and quality of the literature that prevents sound conclusions on the causal link between bruxism and the periodontal problems assessed in this review, it seems reasonable to suggest that bruxism cannot cause periodontal damage per se. It is also important to emphasize, however, that because of methodologic problems, particularly regarding sleep bruxism assessment, more high-quality studies (e.g., randomized controlled trials) are needed to further clarify this issue.

  7. Exploiting Scanning Behavior for Predators Can Reduce Rice Damage Caused by Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Honda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is often damaged by birds, especially sparrows, in Asia. Bird nets are sometimes used as countermeasures; however this approach is expensive and labor intensive. For this reason, farmers generally eschew bird nets, even though no alternative countermeasures are available. This study focused on exploiting the bird behavior of scanning for predators to reduce crop damage. When birds forage for seeds on the ground they often stop pecking and briefly raise their heads, apparently to scan for predators. Low visibility habitats increase scanning behavior and increased scanning behavior reduces habitat quality from the bird’s perspective; therefore, this study tested the relationship between rice damage rate and visibility at the periphery of rice fields, where tree sparrows rest after feeding. Overall, low visibility reduced damage to rice. Because visibility was mainly affected by weeds, weed management techniques contribute to crop damage management. To reduce damage, weeding can be decreased; therefore, this technique is cost- and labor-efficient.

  8. Renal deterioration caused by carcinogens as a consequence of free radical mediated tissue damage: a review of the protective action of melatonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Hicyilmaz, Hicran [Suleyman Demirel University, School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Isparta (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    This brief review summarizes some of the publications that document the preventive role of melatonin in kidney damage caused by carcinogens such as 2-nitropropane, arsenic, carbon tetrachloride, nitrilotriacetic acid and potassium bromate. Numerous chemicals generate excessive free radicals that eventually induce renal worsening. Melatonin partially or totally prevents free radical mediated tissue damages induced by many carcinogens. Protective actions of melatonin against the harmful effects of carcinogens are believed to stem from its direct free radical scavenging and indirect antioxidant activities. Dietary or pharmacologically given melatonin may attenuate the oxidative stress, thereby mitigating the subsequent renal damage. (orig.)

  9. Damage caused by Tetranychus Merganser Bondreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae on Nopal Verdura Opuntia Ficus-Indica (L. Miller during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lima-Espíndola

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spider mite Tetranychus merganser occurs in some crops in Mexico and USA. This mite could be considered a potential pest in countries like Japan. In this work we recorded the damages that T. merganser causes to the nopal verdura (prickly pear vegetable crop in one of the principal cactus crop regions of Mexico.

  10. Extension of station blackout coping capability and implications on nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkanovski, Andrija, E-mail: andrija.volkanovski@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Prošek, Andrej [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-02-15

    decrease of the core damage frequency with strengthening of the station blackout mitigation capability. The time extension of blackout coping capability results in the delay of the core heat up for at least the extension time interval. Availability and operation of the steam driven auxiliary feedwater system maintains core integrity up to 72 h after the successful shutdown, even in the presence of the reactor coolant pumps seal leakage. The largest weighted decrease of the core damage frequency considering the costs for the modification is obtained for the modification resulting in extension of the station blackout coping capability. The importance of the common cause failures of the emergency diesel generators for the obtained decrease of the core damage frequency and overall safety of the plant is identified in the obtained results. The results of the analysis support the latest recommendations and expected revisions to the corresponding regulatory requirement by the U.S. Regulatory Commission considering the station blackout mitigation capability.

  11. Extension of station blackout coping capability and implications on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkanovski, Andrija; Prošek, Andrej

    2013-01-01

    decrease of the core damage frequency with strengthening of the station blackout mitigation capability. The time extension of blackout coping capability results in the delay of the core heat up for at least the extension time interval. Availability and operation of the steam driven auxiliary feedwater system maintains core integrity up to 72 h after the successful shutdown, even in the presence of the reactor coolant pumps seal leakage. The largest weighted decrease of the core damage frequency considering the costs for the modification is obtained for the modification resulting in extension of the station blackout coping capability. The importance of the common cause failures of the emergency diesel generators for the obtained decrease of the core damage frequency and overall safety of the plant is identified in the obtained results. The results of the analysis support the latest recommendations and expected revisions to the corresponding regulatory requirement by the U.S. Regulatory Commission considering the station blackout mitigation capability

  12. Applications of a damage tolerance analysis methodology in aircraft design and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, M. R.; Owens, S. D.; Law, G. E.; Mignery, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Objectives of customer mandated aircraft structural integrity initiatives in design are to guide material selection, to incorporate fracture resistant concepts in the design, to utilize damage tolerance based allowables and planned inspection procedures necessary to enhance the safety and reliability of manned flight vehicles. However, validated fracture analysis tools for composite structures are needed to accomplish these objectives in a timely and economical manner. This paper briefly describes the development, validation, and application of a damage tolerance methodology for composite airframe structures. A closed-form analysis code, entitled SUBLAM was developed to predict the critical biaxial strain state necessary to cause sublaminate buckling-induced delamination extension in an impact damaged composite laminate. An embedded elliptical delamination separating a thin sublaminate from a thick parent laminate is modelled. Predicted failure strains were correlated against a variety of experimental data that included results from compression after impact coupon and element tests. An integrated analysis package was developed to predict damage tolerance based margin-of-safety (MS) using NASTRAN generated loads and element information. Damage tolerance aspects of new concepts are quickly and cost-effectively determined without the need for excessive testing.

  13. Phakopsora euvitis Causes Unusual Damage to Leaves and Modifies Carbohydrate Metabolism in Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Nogueira Júnior

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian grapevine rust (Phakopsora euvitis is a serious disease, which causes severe leaf necrosis and early plant defoliation. These symptoms are unusual for a strict biotrophic pathogen. This work was performed to quantify the effects of P. euvitis on photosynthesis, carbohydrates, and biomass accumulation of grapevine. The reduction in photosynthetic efficiency of the green leaf tissue surrounding the lesions was quantified using the virtual lesion concept (β parameter. Gas exchange and responses of CO2 assimilation to increasing intercellular CO2 concentration were analyzed. Histopathological analyses and quantification of starch were also performed on diseased leaves. Biomass and carbohydrate accumulation were quantified in different organs of diseased and healthy plants. Rust reduced the photosynthetic rate, and β was estimated at 5.78, indicating a large virtual lesion. Mesophyll conductance, maximum rubisco carboxylation rate, and regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate dependent on electron transport rate were reduced, causing diffusive and biochemical limitations to photosynthesis. Hypertrophy, chloroplast degeneration of mesophyll cells, and starch accumulation in cells close to lesions were observed. Root carbohydrate concentration was reduced, even at low rust severity. Asian grapevine rust dramatically reduced photosynthesis and altered the dynamics of production and accumulation of carbohydrates, unlike strict biotrophic pathogens. The reduction in carbohydrate reserves in roots would support polyetic damage on grapevine, caused by a polycyclic disease.

  14. Irradiation damage to the gonads caused by radiotherapy of benign diseases. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenstein, E.; Nuesslin, F.

    1976-01-01

    The irradiation damage to the gonads caused by the radiotherapy of parotiditis and mastitis and of cheloids was determined partially under different irradiation methods. The measurements were carried out with LiF dosimeters in the Alderson phantom with a tube tension of 250 kV for the inflammatory diseases and 55 kV for the cheloids. The gonad dose measured at the surface was within the range of hundreths of permille for the parotiditis, for the mastitis it was between tenths of permille and 2 0 / 00 depending on the therapy method. The gonad dose of the cheloid irradiations showed a clear relation to the distance between radiation source and gonads. The importance of radiation protection is emphasized. (orig.) [de

  15. Radiation Damage in Silicon Detectors Caused by Hadronic and Electromagnetic Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fretwurst, E.; Stahl, J.; Pintilie, I.

    2002-01-01

    The report contains various aspects of radiation damage in silicon detectors subjected to high intensity hadron and electromagnetic irradiation. It focuses on improvements for the foreseen LHC applications, employing oxygenation of silicon wafers during detector processing (result from CERN-RD48). An updated survey on hadron induced damage is given in the first article. Several improvements are outlined especially with respect to antiannealing problems associated with detector storage during LHC maintenance periods. Open questions are outlined in the final section, among which are a full understanding of differences found between proton and neutron induced damage, process related effects changing the radiation tolerance in addition to the oxygen content and the lack of understanding the changed detector properties on the basis of damage induced point and cluster defects. In addition to float zone silicon, so far entirely used for detector fabrication,Czochralski silicon was also studied and first promising re...

  16. Importance of secondary damage in downer cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, P J; Vizard, A L; Anderson, G A; Pyman, M F

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relative importance in downer cows of the primary cause of recumbency in comparison with secondary complications. Downer dairy cows were monitored during their recumbency under field conditions in South Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. The cause of the original recumbency of the 218 cows was determined and secondary damage, status on day 7 and final outcome were recorded. Some type of secondary damage was found in 183/218 (84%) cows, of which 173/218 (79%) had damage deemed to be clinically important. By day 7, 52 (24%) had recovered and 69 (32%) eventually recovered. Of the 149 (68%) cows that were euthanased or died, 23 (15%) were deemed to have been lost solely from the primary cause, 107 (72%) from secondary damage and 19 (13%) from a combination of both. There was no difference in recovery among the five broad groups of causes of primary recumbency. Secondary damage was very common and presented in a large variety of ways, with many cows having multiple types of secondary damage concurrently. For most cows the secondary damage was more important than the initial primary damage in determining their fate. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Population dynamics and damage caused by the leaf miner Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae), on seven potato processing varieties grown in temperate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.; Carmona, D.; Vincini, A.M.; Monterubbianesi, G.; Caldiz, D.

    2010-01-01

    The leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard is considered a key pest for potatoes in Argentina. Population dynamics and leaf damage caused by the leafminer on seven selected potato processing varieties were assessed at Balcarce during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons. Adult population dynamic was monitored using yellow sticky traps, while leaf damage (punctures and mines) was assessed using a damage index scale from low to severe. Liriomyza huidobrensis adults were present throughout the growing season and the population increased along crop development. The same was true for all varieties regarding larval damage, being low on early crop stages and severe late in the season. Varieties were grouped in two different categories according to damage scale index. Shepody, Kennebec, Frital and Innovator showed a higher damage index when compared with Santana, Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank, which exhibited a lower damage. Moreover, it could be assumed that damage was related to the foliage greenness, with light green colored varieties (Shepody, Kennebec, Frital and Innovator) being more attractive and affected by L. huidobrensis. (author)

  18. Structures of masonry walls in buildings of permanent ruin – causes of damage and methods of repairs

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Szostak

    2017-01-01

    Currently there is a lot of castles classified as objects of the permanent ruin. In according to conservation doctrine, it is needed to protect this objects and prevent further degradation. Usually one of the most destructed element in this type of object is masonry wall. In this article has been described selected types of the masonry walls of the permanent ruin, causes of their damages and repairs methods.

  19. Structures of masonry walls in buildings of permanent ruin – causes of damage and methods of repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Szostak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a lot of castles classified as objects of the permanent ruin. In according to conservation doctrine, it is needed to protect this objects and prevent further degradation. Usually one of the most destructed element in this type of object is masonry wall. In this article has been described selected types of the masonry walls of the permanent ruin, causes of their damages and repairs methods.

  20. Environmental damage caused by fossil fuels consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbir, F.; Veziroglu, T.N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the objectives of this study is to identify the negative effects of the fossil fuels use and to evaluate their economic significance. An economic value of the damage for each of the analyzed effects has been estimated in US dollars per unit energy of the fuel used ($/GJ). This external costs of fossil fuel use should be added to their existing market price, and such real costs should be compared with the real costs of other, environmentally acceptable, energy alternatives, such as hydrogen

  1. Steady State Shift Damage Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas; Markvart, Morten Kusk

    2017-01-01

    The steady state shift damage localization (S3DL) method localizes structural deterioration, manifested as either a mass or stiffness perturbation, by interrogating the damage-induced change in the steady state vibration response with damage patterns cast from a theoretical model. Damage is, thus...... the required accuracy when examining complex structures, an extensive amount of degrees of freedom (DOF) must often be utilized. Since the interrogation matrix for each damage pattern depends on the size of the system matrices constituting the FE-model, the computational time quickly becomes of first......-order importance. The present paper investigates two sub-structuring approaches, in which the idea is to employ Craig-Bampton super-elements to reduce the amount of interrogation distributions while still providing an acceptable localization resolution. The first approach operates on a strict super-element level...

  2. Damage to historic brick masonry structures. Masonry damage diagnostic system and damage atlas for evaluation of deterioration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, K. van; Binda, L.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Franke, L.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the research on brick masonry degradation supported by the D.G. XII is presented. The project is delivering the following: ► Damage Atlas of ancient brick masonry, a book with a description of the types of damage, and their possible causes, in ancient brick masonry structures; ► Masonry

  3. Oxidative stress induction by T-2 toxin causes DNA damage and triggers apoptosis via caspase pathway in human cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, Manjari; Jayaraj, R.; Bhaskar, A.S.B.; Lakshmana Rao, P.V.

    2009-01-01

    T-2 toxin is the most toxic trichothecene and both humans and animals suffer from several pathological conditions after consumption of foodstuffs contaminated with trichothecenes. We investigated the molecular mechanism of T-2 toxin induced cytotoxicity and cell death in HeLa cells. T-2 toxin at LC50 of 10 ng/ml caused time dependent increase in cytotoxicity as assessed by dye uptake, lactatedehydrogenase leakage and MTT assay. The toxin caused generation of reactive oxygen species as early as 30 min followed by significant depletion of glutathione levels and increased lipid peroxidation. The results indicate oxidative stress as underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity. Single stranded DNA damage after T-2 treatment was observed as early as 2 and 4 h by DNA diffusion assay. The cells exhibited apoptotic morphology like condensed chromatin and nuclear fragmentation after 4 h of treatment. Downstream of T-2 induced oxidative stress and DNA damage a time dependent increase in expression level of p53 protein was observed. The increase in Bax/Bcl2 ratio indicated shift in response, in favour of apoptotic process in T-2 toxin treated cells. Western blot analysis showed increase in levels of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome-c followed by activation of caspases-9, -3 and -7 leading to DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. In addition to caspase-dependent pathway, our results showed involvement of caspase-independent AIF pathway in T-2 induced apoptosis. Broad spectrum caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk could partially protect the cells from DNA damage but could not inhibit AIF induced oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation beyond 4 h. Results of the study clearly show that oxidative stress is the underlying mechanism by which T-2 toxin causes DNA damage and apoptosis.

  4. Assessing the damage caused by the oil spill from the tanker Erika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delache, X.; Erhard-Cassegrain, A.

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999, France was faced with a large-scale marine and ecological disaster following the accident involving the oil tanker Erika which split in two before sinking off the coast of Brittany (western France). This disaster had significant impacts on the coastal environment, affecting 400 km of shoreline. Very different aspects need to be considered in order to assess the damage caused, for which suitable methodologies must be used. Expenditure incurred on emergency and remedial measures to prepare for the 2000 summer season can easily be identified. The main effect of the disaster was ecological: a wide variety of habitats and species, and in particular many protected areas were affected. In addition, economic activities were seriously disrupted, especially tourism, fishing and shellfish production. However, it is harder to assess the economic losses incurred since a large number of short-term and long-term factors were affected. (author)

  5. A comparison of penetration and damage caused by different types of arrowheads on loose and tight fit clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Nichole; Savage, Anne; Noton, Nikolas; Beattie, Eilidh; Milne, Louise; Fraser, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Bows and arrows are used more for recreation, sport and hunting in the Western world and tend not to be as popular a weapon as firearms or knives. Yet there are still injuries and fatalities caused by these low-velocity weapons due to their availability to the public and that a licence is not required to own them. This study aimed to highlight the penetration capabilities of aluminium arrows into soft tissue and bones in the presence of clothing. Further from that, how the type and fit of clothing as well as arrowhead type contribute to penetration capacity. In this study ballistic gelatine blocks (non-clothed and loose fit or tight fit clothed) were shot using a 24lb weight draw recurve bow and aluminium arrows accompanied by four different arrowheads (bullet, judo, blunt and broadhead). The penetration capability of aluminium arrows was examined, and the depth of penetration was found to be dependent on the type of arrowhead used as well as by the type and fit or lack thereof of the clothing covering the block. Loose fit clothing reduced penetration with half of the samples, reducing penetration capacity by percentages between 0% and 98.33%, at a range of 10m. While the remaining half of the samples covered with tight clothing led to reductions in penetration of between 14.06% and 94.12%. The damage to the clothing and the gelatine (puncturing, cutting and tearing) was affected by the shape of the arrowhead, with the least damaged caused by the blunt arrowheads and the most by the broadhead arrows. Clothing fibres were also at times found within the projectile tract within the gelatine showing potential for subsequent infection of an individual with an arrow wound. Ribs, femur bones and spinal columns encased in some of the gelatine blocks all showed varying levels of damage, with the most and obvious damage being exhibited by the ribs and spinal column. The information gleaned from the damage to clothing, gelatine blocks and bones could potentially be useful for

  6. Examination of observed and predicted measures of creep cavitation damage accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brear, J M; Church, J M [ERA Technology Ltd., Leatherhead (United Kingdom); Eggeler, G [University of Bochum-Ruhr (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    Brittle intergranular cavitation represents a primary degradation mechanism for high temperature plant operating within the creep range. Fundamental to formulating estimates of remanent life, or consumed life fraction for such components are: the observation and quantification of the level of actual creep cavitation, typically using an A-parameter type approach, and the correlation of observed creep damage accumulation with some phenomenological model which characterizes the rate of damage evolution and, thereby, rupture lifetime. The work described here treats inhomogeneous damage accumulation - in otherwise uniform material and loading situations. Extensions to the A-parameter are considered as a practical measure of damage localization and an extension of the Kachanov-Rabotnov continuum damage mechanics model is proposed to allow theoretical treatment. (orig.) 4 refs.

  7. Examination of observed and predicted measures of creep cavitation damage accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brear, J.M.; Church, J.M. [ERA Technology Ltd., Leatherhead (United Kingdom); Eggeler, G. [University of Bochum-Ruhr (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Brittle intergranular cavitation represents a primary degradation mechanism for high temperature plant operating within the creep range. Fundamental to formulating estimates of remanent life, or consumed life fraction for such components are: the observation and quantification of the level of actual creep cavitation, typically using an A-parameter type approach, and the correlation of observed creep damage accumulation with some phenomenological model which characterizes the rate of damage evolution and, thereby, rupture lifetime. The work described here treats inhomogeneous damage accumulation - in otherwise uniform material and loading situations. Extensions to the A-parameter are considered as a practical measure of damage localization and an extension of the Kachanov-Rabotnov continuum damage mechanics model is proposed to allow theoretical treatment. (orig.) 4 refs.

  8. Delayed repair of radiation induced clustered DNA damage: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Laura J.; O’Neill, Peter; Lomax, Martine E.

    2011-01-01

    A signature of ionizing radiation exposure is the induction of DNA clustered damaged sites, defined as two or more lesions within one to two helical turns of DNA by passage of a single radiation track. Clustered damage is made up of double strand breaks (DSB) with associated base lesions or abasic (AP) sites, and non-DSB clusters comprised of base lesions, AP sites and single strand breaks. This review will concentrate on the experimental findings of the processing of non-DSB clustered damaged sites. It has been shown that non-DSB clustered damaged sites compromise the base excision repair pathway leading to the lifetime extension of the lesions within the cluster, compared to isolated lesions, thus the likelihood that the lesions persist to replication and induce mutation is increased. In addition certain non-DSB clustered damaged sites are processed within the cell to form additional DSB. The use of E. coli to demonstrate that clustering of DNA lesions is the major cause of the detrimental consequences of ionizing radiation is also discussed. The delayed repair of non-DSB clustered damaged sites in humans can be seen as a “friend”, leading to cell killing in tumour cells or as a “foe”, resulting in the formation of mutations and genetic instability in normal tissue. PMID:21130102

  9. Oxcarbazepine causes neurocyte apoptosis and developing brain damage by triggering Bax/Bcl-2 signaling pathway mediated caspase 3 activation in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Zhong, M; Cai, F-C

    2018-01-01

    Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are the main methods for treatment of neonatal seizures; however, a few AEDs may cause developing brain damage of neonate. This study aims to investigate effects of oxcarbazepine (OXC) on developing brain damage of neonatal rats. Both of neonatal and adult rats were divided into 6 groups, including Control, OXC 187.5 mg/kg, OXC 281.25 mg/kg, OXC 375 mg/kg group, LEV and PHT group. Body weight and brain weight were evaluated. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Nissl staining were used to observe neurocyte morphology and Nissl bodies, respectively. Apoptosis was examined using TUNEL assay, and caspase 8 activity was evaluated using spectrophotometer method. Cytochrome C-release was evaluated using flow cytometry. Western blot was used to examine Bax and Bcl-2 expression. OXC 375 mg/kg treatment significantly decreased brain weight compared to Control group in neonatal rats (P5 rats) (pOxcarbazepine at a concentration of 281.25 mg/kg or more causes neurocyte apoptosis and developing brain damage by triggering Bax/Bcl-2 signaling pathway mediated caspase 3 activation in neonatal rats.

  10. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions; Degats dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines sur les habitations et les equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delort, F; Guerrini, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [French] Les degats sur diverses structures, constructions, habitations, equipements mecaniques et materiels electriques provoques par des explosions nucleaires souterraines dans le granite sont decrits. On a indique pour chaque type de materiel ou de construction, les distances limites correspondant a un degre de gravite de dommage observe. Ces distances ont ete reliees a un parametre caracterisant le mouvement du milieu, permettant ainsi de generaliser les resultats obtenus dans le granite, a differents milieux. Le probleme de la prevision des degats en zone lointaine a ete aborde. (auteurs)

  11. The use of historical data for the characterisation of multiple damaging hydrogeological events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides, floods and secondary floods (hereinafter called phenomena triggered by rainfall and causing extensive damage are reviewed in this paper. Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs are defined as the occurrence of one or more simultaneous aforementioned phenomena. A method for the characterisation of DHEs based upon historic data is proposed. The method is aimed at assessing DHE-related hazard in terms of recurrence, severity, damage, and extent of the affected area. Using GIS, the DHEs historical and climatic data collection, the geomorphological and hydrogeological characterisation of the hit areas, the characterisation of induced damage, the evaluation of triggering rainfall return period and critical duration of each DHE were carried out. The approach was applied to a test site in Southern Italy (Calabria for validation purposes. A database was set up including data from 24 events which have occurred during an 80-year period. The spatial distribution of phenomena was analysed together with the return period of cumulative rainfall. The trend of the occurred phenomena was also compared with the climatic trend. Four main types of Damaging Hydrogeological Events were identified in the study area.

  12. Radiation Damage in Scintillating Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu Ren Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Crystal Calorimetry in future high energy physics experiments faces a new challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper discusses the effects of radiation damage in scintillating crystals, and concludes that the predominant radiation damage effect in crystal scintillators is the radiation induced absorption, or color center formation, not the loss of the scintillation light yield. The importance of maintaining crystal's light response uniformity and the feasibility to build a precision crystal calorimeter under radiation are elaborated. The mechanism of the radiation damage in scintillating crystals is also discussed. While the damage in alkali halides is found to be caused by the oxygen or hydroxyl contamination, it is the structure defects, such as oxygen vacancies, cause damage in oxides. Material analysis methods used to reach these conclusions are presented in details.

  13. Exposure to nano-size titanium dioxide causes oxidative damages in human mesothelial cells: The crystal form rather than size of particle contributes to cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kenji; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Morii, Akane; Noguchi, Takumi; Ogasawara, Yuki; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2017-10-14

    Exposure to nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes has been shown to cause pleural mesothelioma similar to that caused by asbestos, and has become an environmental health issue. Not only is the percutaneous absorption of nano-size titanium dioxide particles frequently considered problematic, but the possibility of absorption into the body through the pulmonary route is also a concern. Nevertheless, there are few reports of nano-size titanium dioxide particles on respiratory organ exposure and dynamics or on the mechanism of toxicity. In this study, we focused on the morphology as well as the size of titanium dioxide particles. In comparing the effects between nano-size anatase and rutile titanium dioxide on human-derived pleural mesothelial cells, the anatase form was shown to be actively absorbed into cells, producing reactive oxygen species and causing oxidative damage to DNA. In contrast, we showed for the first time that the rutile form is not easily absorbed by cells and, therefore, does not cause oxidative DNA damage and is significantly less damaging to cells. These results suggest that with respect to the toxicity of titanium dioxide particles on human-derived mesothelial cells, the crystal form rather than the particle size has a greater effect on cellular absorption. Also, it was indicated that the difference in absorption is the primary cause of the difference in the toxicity against mesothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacterial Cell Surface Damage Due to Centrifugal Compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, Brandon W.; Sharma, Prashant K.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    Centrifugal damage has been known to alter bacterial cell surface properties and interior structures, including DNA. Very few studies exist on bacterial damage caused by centrifugation because of the difficulty in relating centrifugation speed and container geometry to the damage caused. Here, we

  15. M. V. Arctic midbody damage analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-01

    The Canadian Coast Guard vessel Arctic experienced several damages in the midbody area during the 1983 season. A complete survey of these damages was undertaken and showed that one of these damages was the most extensive and occurred in an ice strengthened area having 24 mm thick shell plating. This was considered to be representative of all other midbody damages and was therefore selected to be analysed in this study. The computer program ADINA was employed in order to carry out the non-linear analysis required into the plasticity and large deformation areas of behaviour. Two finite element models were developed and run. These two models representing an intermediate frame and web frame, were considered sufficient to predict the behaviour of the structure and the associated ice loads and pressures. The objectives of this study were to understand the progression of failure for the typical ice strengthened side shell structure of the ship (this would include a prediction of the first yield and a history of the deflections in the plastic range) and, using the data so determined, predict the most likely pressures and loads which caused the damage. It was concluded that the intermediate frames represent the weakest element of the midbody side structure. It yields first at its flange-web intersection at an ice pressure of 1.13 megapascals (MPa), reaches it fully plastic capacity at 1.75 MPa, and the corresponding shell plating then becomes fully plastic at about 2.25 MPa. The damage investigated corresponds to ice pressure of about 3.65 MPa over an area of 1.85 m/sup 2/. 44 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Oviposition punctures in cucurbit fruits and their economic damage caused by the sterile female melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.; Irabu, T.; Higa, R.

    1993-01-01

    Oviposition punctures caused by sterile females of the tephritid Bactrocera cucurbitae in cucurbit fruits were examined and economic damage was evaluated in Okinawa, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Cage experiments in the field confirmed that sterile females make punctures (sterile stings) on fruits. The features of sterile stings differed depending on fruit species and were classified into 5 types

  17. UV-B component of sunlight causes measurable damage in field-grown maize (Zea mays L.): developmental and cellular heterogeneity of damage and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapleton, A.E.; Thornber, C.S.; Walbot, V.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation has diverse morphogenetic and damaging effects on plants. The end point of damage is reduced plant growth, but in the short term UV radiation damages specific cellular components. We measured cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in maize DNA from plants grown in natural solar radiation. Green maize tissues had detectable DNA damage, roots had less damage, and anthers had much more damage than green leaves. This heterogeneity in damage levels may reflect differences in dose received or in damage repair. The architecture of green tissues had no measurable effects on DNA damage levels, as leaf sheath and leaf blade were equivalent. We observed a slight increase in damage levels in plants sampled at the end of the day, but there was no accumulation of damage over the growing season. We measured photoreactivation, and found substantial levels of this light-dependent repair in both the epidermis and inner cell layers of leaves, and in all organelles that contain DNA – the nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria. We conclude that maize has efficient mechanisms for photo repair of daily UV-induced DNA damage that prevent accumulation

  18. HERITAGE HOUSE MAINTENANCE USING 3D CITY MODEL APPLICATION DOMAIN EXTENSION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Heritage house is part of the architectural heritage of Malaysia that highly valued. Many efforts by the Department of Heritage to preserve this heritage house such as monitoring the damage problems of heritage house. The damage problems of heritage house might be caused by wooden decay, roof leakage and exfoliation of wall. One of the initiatives for maintaining and documenting this heritage house is through Three-dimensional (3D of technology. 3D city models are widely used now and much used by researchers for management and analysis. CityGML is a standard tool that usually used by researchers to exchange, storing and managing virtual 3D city models either geometric and semantic information. Moreover, it also represent multi-scale of 3D model in five level of details (LoDs whereby each of level give a distinctive functions. The extension of CityGML was recently introduced and can be used for problems monitoring and the number of habitants of a house.

  19. Executive order no. 433 of 24th May 1996. Executive order on the international fund for compensation for damages caused by oil pollution, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Danish executive order on the international fund for the compensation for damages caused by oil pollution, 1992 is related to the Danish law no. 205 of March 29th 1996, and is based on the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Damage, 1992. The document includes the convention's protocol presented in French, Danish and English. (AB)

  20. Aluminium-induced excessive ROS causes cellular damage and metabolic shifts in black gram Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowra, Umakanta; Yanase, Emiko; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aluminium-induced oxidative damage caused by excessive ROS production was evaluated in black gram pulse crop. Black gram plants were treated with different aluminium (Al 3+ ) concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μM with pH 4.7) and further the effects of Al 3+ were characterised by means of root growth inhibition, histochemical assay, ROS content analysis, protein carbonylation quantification and 1 H-NMR analysis. The results showed that aluminium induces excessive ROS production which leads to cellular damage, root injury, stunt root growth and other metabolic shifts. In black gram, Al 3+ induces cellular damage at the earliest stage of stress which was characterised from histochemical analysis. From this study, it was observed that prolonged stress can activate certain aluminium detoxification defence mechanism. Probably excessive ROS triggers such defence mechanism in black gram. Al 3+ can induce excessive ROS initially in the root region then transported to other parts of the plant. As much as the Al 3+ concentration increases, the rate of cellular injury and ROS production also increases. But after 72 h of stress, plants showed a lowered ROS level and cellular damage which indicates the upregulation of defensive mechanisms. Metabolic shift analysis also showed that the black gram plant under stress has less metabolic content after 24 h of treatment, but gradually, it was increased after 72 h of treatment. It was assumed that ROS played the most important role as a signalling molecule for aluminium stress in black gram.

  1. DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells cause loss of the early embryo in mice exposed to carbon disulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bingzhen; Shen, Chunzi; Yang, Liu; Li, Chunhui; Yi, Anji; Wang, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS 2 ) may lead to spontaneous abortion and very early pregnancy loss in women exposed in the workplace, but the mechanism remains unclear. We designed an animal model in which gestating Kunming strain mice were exposed to CS 2 via i.p. on gestational day 4 (GD4). We found that the number of implanted blastocysts on GD8 was significantly reduced by each dose of 0.1 LD 50 (157.85 mg/kg), 0.2 LD 50 (315.7 mg/kg) and 0.4 LD 50 (631.4 mg/kg). In addition, both the level of DNA damage and apoptosis rates of endometrial cells on GD4.5 were increased, showed definite dose–response relationships, and inversely related to the number of implanted blastocysts. The expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bax and caspase-3 genes in the uterine tissues on GD4.5 were up-regulated, while the expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bcl-2 gene were dose-dependently down-regulated. Our results indicated that DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells were important reasons for the loss of implanted blastocysts induced by CS 2 . - Highlights: • We built an animal model of CS2 exposure during blastocyst implantation. • Endometrial cells were used in the comet assay to detect DNA damage. • CS2 exposure caused DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis. • DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis were responsible for embryo loss

  2. Descriptive study of damage caused by the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon, and its influence on date palm oases of Rjim Maatoug, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Rasmi; Lkbel, Chaieb; Habib Ben Hamouda, Med

    2008-01-01

    Oryctes agamemnon (Burmeister 1847) (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) was accidentally introduced in the southwestern oases of Tunisia (Tozeur) around 1980 and spread to the Rjim Maatoug region. In these areas O. agamemnon was specific to date palm trees causing severe damage that can result in potential danger due to collapse of the tree. This study was conducted from April 2004 to March 2006 in 4 sites in the region of Rjim Maatoug. Different levels of palm tree attack were determined, ovioposition sites were identified, and pest damage was described in detail to specify their relative importance and to indicate factors governing palm tree attack. Eggs were individually oviposited in the attacked parts. Dead parts of palm trees were the main target of O. agamemnon including the respiratory roots, tough, trunk bark, dry petiole and the periphery of the crown. The crown itself was not attacked. Feeding by larvae caused significant damage. The biggest danger occurred when heavy attacks of larvae invaded the respiratory roots at the level of the soil, and secondarily on the periphery of the crown, which can result in fungal diseases. Several cases of Deglet Nour date palm tree collapse were caused by this pest in Rjim Maatoug. Attacks on other parts of the tree were without danger for the palm tree. In the absence of pest management, application of a quarantine program combined with field cultivation techniques could help farmers significantly decrease attack of O. agamemnon on palm trees.

  3. Neutron-induced displacement damage analysis (with particular reference to zirconium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.

    1978-10-01

    Neutron irradiation produces damage in a solid, initially in the form of atomic displacements. As a first step to understanding the effects of irradiation damage in reactor structural materials, information on the initial atomic displacements is necessary. The computer program DISPKAN, based on an extension and generalization of the program RICE, written at ORNL for such calculations, has been developed and installed on the CDC system at CRNL. Using neutron scattering data from ENDF/B files, DISPKAN performs a displacement and PKO analysis on the initial damage caused by neutrons from a given spectrum. The following quantities are calculated: the displacement rate per unit neutron flux, the PKO spectrum, the displacement spectrum, the fraction of PKO's with energy above T, the fraction of displacements produced by PKO's with energy above T, the average PKO energy, the average number of displacements produced per PKO, and the total number of PKO's produced per atom of the solid per unit fluence. The input and output formats of the program are explained. Sample runs are demonstrated. Results for zirconium, exposed to five neutron spectra typically available to experimentalist, are given to illustrate the spectral dependence of the initial displacement events. (author)

  4. Damage Identification and Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of a Historic Masonry Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Giovanna Masciotta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the dynamic characterisation of a historical masonry chimney aimed at identifying the structural damage and assessing its seismic performance. The structure was severely damaged by a lightning accident and in-depth repair works were executed to re-instate its sound configuration. The case study is fully detailed, including the aspects of survey, inspection, diagnosis, and evolution of the dynamic properties of the system throughout the structural intervention. Considering the explicit dependence of the power spectral densities of measured nodal processes on their frequency content, a spectrum-driven algorithm is used to detect and locate the damage. The paper shows that the eigenparameters obtained from the decomposition of the response power spectrum matrix are sensitive to system’s changes caused by evolutionary damage scenarios, thereby resulting excellent indicators for assessing both the presence and position of structural vulnerabilities. The results are compared with the ones from other modal-based damage identification methods and the strengths/limitations of the tools currently available in literature are extensively discussed. Finally, based on the crack pattern surveyed before the repair works, the weakest links of the chimney are identified and the most meaningful collapse mechanisms are analysed to verify the seismic capacity of the structure. According to the results of the kinematic analysis, the chimney does withstand the maximum site peak ground acceleration.

  5. Damages to gladiolu corm caused by fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiwei; Wang Dan; Zhang Dongxue; Zheng Chun

    2007-01-01

    Gladiolus corms were irradiated to 100-500kGy by fast neutrons in the CFBR-II pulsed reactor, Scanning electron microscope images of the irradiated samples revealed significant radiation damages to the gladiolus corms, and the mutagenic effects were studied by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Within the dose range, radiation damage to the corm increased with the dose, with corm epidermis of the samples irradiated in vertical incidence being more serious than those irradiated in side-incidence to the same dose. Biological characters were investigated via field experiments, and the bands of protein subunit were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the fast neutrons irradiation inhibited growth of M1 generation seedling significantly. Protein expression was obviously inhibited by the irradiation. The study indicates that fast neutron induction is an effective way for gladiolus breeding. And the results may lay a foundation for studies on fast neutron mutation breeding. (authors)

  6. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks

  7. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  8. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  9. Cytomegalovirus-Induced Effector T Cells Cause Endothelial Cell Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Berg, Pablo J. E. J.; Yong, Si-La; Remmerswaal, Ester B. M.; van Lier, René A. W.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been linked to inflammatory diseases that involve vascular endothelial cell damage, but definitive proof for a direct cytopathic effect of CMV in these diseases is lacking. CMV infection is associated with a strong increase in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells

  10. Legal-Civil aspect of types of Immaterial Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Rrustem Qehaja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Causing of damage is accompanied with causing of responsibility for its compensation. Human being in the daily life is often threatened by various risks which along with the causing of bodily injuries in some cases may bring also causes of death. From the legal doctrine, in Kosovo and in the region, related to nomination of material and immaterial damage, in addition there may also be found other nominations including the property damage and non-property damage or as differently called moral damage[1], but the basic distinction in this division stands at its compensation. Subject of analysis of this work shall be focused with particular emphasis in Kosovo with some superficial comparisons to the neighbour countries. The only formula of indemnification for the immaterial damage according to insurance coverage remains the satisfaction[2] expressed in monetary value which according to LMTPI[3] and the Directive of the Council of European Parliament underwent positive amendments in viewpoint of increase of amounts of insurance.[4] In context of this work, only some types of immaterial damage shall be reviewed, including: -          Damage in form of physical distress, -          Damage in form of fear and -          Damage in form of spiritual distress because of reduction of life activities.

  11. Base excision repair of chemotherapeutically-induced alkylated DNA damage predominantly causes contractions of expanded GAA repeats associated with Friedreich's ataxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhao Lai

    Full Text Available Expansion of GAA·TTC repeats within the first intron of the frataxin gene is the cause of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA, an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder. However, no effective treatment for the disease has been developed as yet. In this study, we explored a possibility of shortening expanded GAA repeats associated with FRDA through chemotherapeutically-induced DNA base lesions and subsequent base excision repair (BER. We provide the first evidence that alkylated DNA damage induced by temozolomide, a chemotherapeutic DNA damaging agent can induce massive GAA repeat contractions/deletions, but only limited expansions in FRDA patient lymphoblasts. We showed that temozolomide-induced GAA repeat instability was mediated by BER. Further characterization of BER of an abasic site in the context of (GAA20 repeats indicates that the lesion mainly resulted in a large deletion of 8 repeats along with small expansions. This was because temozolomide-induced single-stranded breaks initially led to DNA slippage and the formation of a small GAA repeat loop in the upstream region of the damaged strand and a small TTC loop on the template strand. This allowed limited pol β DNA synthesis and the formation of a short 5'-GAA repeat flap that was cleaved by FEN1, thereby leading to small repeat expansions. At a later stage of BER, the small template loop expanded into a large template loop that resulted in the formation of a long 5'-GAA repeat flap. Pol β then performed limited DNA synthesis to bypass the loop, and FEN1 removed the long repeat flap ultimately causing a large repeat deletion. Our study indicates that chemotherapeutically-induced alkylated DNA damage can induce large contractions/deletions of expanded GAA repeats through BER in FRDA patient cells. This further suggests the potential of developing chemotherapeutic alkylating agents to shorten expanded GAA repeats for treatment of FRDA.

  12. Lysergic acid diethylamide causes photoreceptor cell damage through inducing inflammatory response and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi-Di; Xu, Ling-Li; Gong, Yan; Wu, Guo-Hai; Wang, Yu-Wen; Wu, Shan-Jun; Zhang, Zhe; Mao, Wei; Zhou, Yu-Sheng; Li, Qin-Bo; Yuan, Jian-Shu

    2018-01-19

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), a classical hallucinogen, was used as a popular and notorious substance of abuse in various parts of the world. Its abuse could result in long-lasting abnormalities in retina and little is known about the exact mechanism. This study was to investigate the effect of LSD on macrophage activation state at non-toxic concentration and its resultant toxicity to photoreceptor cells. Results showed that cytotoxicity was caused by LSD on 661 W cells after co-culturing with RAW264.7 cells. Treatment with LSD-induced RAW264.7 cells to the M1 phenotype, releasing more pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increasing the M1-related gene expression. Moreover, after co-culturing with RAW264.7 cells, significant oxidative stress in 661 W cells treated with LSD was observed, by increasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreasing the level of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Our study demonstrated that LSD caused photoreceptor cell damage by inducing inflammatory response and resultant oxidative stress, providing the scientific rationale for the toxicity of LSD to retina.

  13. Assessment of mean annual flood damage using simple hydraulic modeling and Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubennaceur, K.; Agili, H.; Chokmani, K.; Poulin, J.; Marceau, P.

    2016-12-01

    Floods are the most frequent and the most damaging natural disaster in Canada. The issue of assessing and managing the risk related to this disaster has become increasingly crucial for both local and national authorities. Brigham, a municipality located in southern Quebec Province, is one of the heavily affected regions by this disaster because of frequent overflows of the Yamaska River reaching two to three times per year. Since Irene Hurricane which struck the region in 2011, causing considerable socio-economic damage, the implementation of mitigation measures has become a major priority for this municipality. To do this, a preliminary study to evaluate the risk to which this region is exposed is essential. Conventionally, approaches only based on the characterization of the hazard (e.g. floodplains extensive, flood depth) are generally adopted to study the risk of flooding. In order to improve the knowledge of this risk, a Monte Carlo simulation approach combining information on the hazard with vulnerability-related aspects has been developed. This approach integrates three main components: (1) hydrologic modelling aiming to establish a probability-discharge function which associate each measured discharge to its probability of occurrence (2) hydraulic modeling that aims to establish the relationship between the discharge and the water stage at each building (3) damage study that aims to assess the buildings damage using damage functions. The damage is estimated according to the water depth defined as the difference between the water level and the elevation of the building's first floor. The application of the proposed approach allows estimating the annual average cost of damage caused by floods on buildings. The obtained results will be useful for authorities to support their decisions on risk management and prevention against this disaster.

  14. Hypothyroidism Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Adult Rat Hippocampus: A Mechanism Associated with Hippocampal Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Paola Torres-Manzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (TH are essential for hippocampal neuronal viability in adulthood, and their deficiency causes hypothyroidism, which is related to oxidative stress events and neuronal damage. Also, it has been hypothesized that hypothyroidism causes a glucose deprivation in the neuron. This study is aimed at evaluating the temporal participation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERE in hippocampal neurons of adult hypothyroid rats and its association with the oxidative stress events. Adult Wistar male rats were divided into euthyroid and hypothyroid groups. Thyroidectomy with parathyroid gland reimplementation caused hypothyroidism at three weeks postsurgery. Oxidative stress, redox environment, and antioxidant enzyme markers, as well as the expression of the ERE through the pathways of PERK, ATF6, and IRE1, were evaluated at the 3rd and 4th weeks postsurgery. We found a rise in ROS and nitrite production; also, catalase increased and glutathione peroxidase diminished their activities. These events promote an enhancement of the lipoperoxidation, as well as of γ-GT, myeloperoxidase, and caspase 3 activities. With respect to ERE, there were ATF6, IRE1, and GADD153 overexpressions with a reduction in mitochondrial activity and GSH2/GSSG ratio. We conclude that the endoplasmic reticulum stress might play a pivotal role in the activation of hypothyroidism-induced hippocampal cell death.

  15. Laser-Induced Damage with Femtosecond Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Kyle R. P.

    The strong electric fields of focused femtosecond laser pulses lead to non-equilibrium dynamics in materials, which, beyond a threshold intensity, causes laser-induced damage (LID). Such a strongly non-linear and non-perturbative process renders important LID observables like fluence and intensity thresholds and damage morphology (crater) extremely difficult to predict quantitatively. However, femtosecond LID carries a high degree of precision, which has been exploited in various micro/nano-machining and surface engineering applications, such as human eye surgery and super-hydrophobic surfaces. This dissertation presents an array of experimental studies which have measured the damage behavior of various materials under femtosecond irradiation. Precision experiments were performed to produce extreme spatio-temporal confinement of the femtosecond laser-solid damage interaction on monocrystalline Cu, which made possible the first successful direct-benchmarking of LID simulation with realistic damage craters. A technique was developed to produce laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) in a single pulse (typically a multi-pulse phenomenon), and was used to perform a pump-probe study which revealed asynchronous LIPSS formation on copper. Combined with 1-D calculations, this new experimental result suggests more drastic electron heating than expected. Few-cycle pulses were used to study the LID performance and morphology of commercial ultra-broadband optics, which had not been systematically studied before. With extensive surface analysis, various morphologies were observed, including LIPSS, swelling (blisters), simple craters, and even ring-shaped structures, which varied depending on the coating design, number of pulses, and air/vacuum test environment. Mechanisms leading to these morphologies are discussed, many of which are ultrafast in nature. The applied damage behavior of multi-layer dielectric mirrors was measured and compared between long pulse (150 ps

  16. Economic models of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents: some lessons for the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Michael G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative systems of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents have been proposed. In respect, the question merits attention to whether these alternative models of compensation discussed in the economic literature could be implemented when discussing the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. 55 refs., 1 tab

  17. Secondary damage in the spinal cord after motor cortex injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaupt, Nina; Silasi, Gergely; Colbourne, Frederick; Fouad, Karim

    2010-08-01

    When neurons within the motor cortex are fatally injured, their axons, many of which project into the spinal cord, undergo wallerian degeneration. Pathological processes occurring downstream of the cortical damage have not been extensively studied. We created a focal forelimb motor cortex injury in rats and found that axons from cell bodies located in the hindlimb motor cortex (spared by the cortical injury) become secondarily damaged in the spinal cord. To assess axonal degeneration in the spinal cord, we quantified silver staining in the corticospinal tract (CST) at 1 week and 4 weeks after the injury. We found a significant increase in silver deposition at the thoracic spinal cord level at 4 weeks compared to 1 week post-injury. At both time points, no degenerating neurons could be found in the hindlimb motor cortex. In a separate experiment, we showed that direct injury of neurons within the hindlimb motor cortex caused marked silver deposition in the thoracic CST at 1 week post-injury, and declined thereafter. Therefore, delayed axonal degeneration in the thoracic spinal cord after a focal forelimb motor cortex injury is indicative of secondary damage at the spinal cord level. Furthermore, immunolabeling of spinal cord sections showed that a local inflammatory response dominated by partially activated Iba-1-positive microglia is mounted in the CST, a viable mechanism to cause the observed secondary degeneration of fibers. In conclusion, we demonstrate that following motor cortex injury, wallerian degeneration of axons in the spinal cord leads to secondary damage, which is likely mediated by inflammatory processes.

  18. Interventions for skin changes caused by nerve damage in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Merete Reinar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND More than three million persons are disabled by leprosy worldwide. The main complication of sensory nerve damage is neuropathic ulceration, particularly of the feet. In this review we explored interventions that can prevent and treat secondary damage to skin and limbs. OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of self-care, dressings and footwear in preventing and healing secondary damage to the skin in persons affected by leprosy. METHODS Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register (April 2008, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2008, MEDLINE (from 2003 to April 2008, EMBASE (from 2005 to April 2008, CINAHL (1982-2006 and LILACS (1982- April 2008 as well as online registers of ongoing trials (April 2008. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials involving anyone with leprosy and damage to peripheral nerves treated with any measures designed to prevent damage with the aim of healing existing ulcers and preventing development of new ulcers. Data collection and analysis: Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS Eight trials with a total of 557 participants were included. The quality of the trials was generally poor. The interventions and outcome measures were diverse. Although three studies that compared zinc tape to more traditional dressings found some benefit, none of these showed a statistically significant effect. One trial indicated that topical ketanserin had a better effect on wound healing than clioquinol cream or zinc paste, RR was 6.00 (95% CI 1.45 to 24.75. We did not combine the results of the two studies that compared topical phenytoin to saline dressing, but both studies found statistically significant effects in favour of phenytoin for healing of ulcer (SMD -2.34; 95% CI -3.30 to -1.39; and SMD -0.79; 95% CI -1.20 to 0.39. Canvas shoes were not much better than PVC-boots, and double rocker shoes did not promote healing

  19. The law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Law aims at determining the basic system concerning indemnification for nuclear damage caused by the operation of reactors, fabrication, reprocessing and use of nuclear fuel materials as well as the transportation, storing or disposal of such materials or those contaminated by such materials (including fission products) accompanying these operations in view of protecting the sufferers and contributing to the wholesome development of atomic energy enterprises. The ''nuclear damage'' referred to in this Law is the damages caused by the action during the process of fission of nuclear fuel materials or the action of radiation or the poisonous action of said nuclear fuel materials or matters contaminated by said materials (those causing poisoning or deuteropathy in human bodies by taking in or inhaling such materials). Upon giving nuclear damage by the operation of reactors and others, the atomic energy entrepreneurs concerned are responsible for indemnifying the damage. Atomic energy entrepreneurs should not operate reactors without first taking the measures for indemnifying nuclear damages. Said measures are conclusion of nuclear damage indemnification responsibility insurance contract and nuclear damage indemnification contract or deposit, by which 6,000 million yen may be earmarked for such indemnification per factory, place of business or nuclear ship

  20. Intragastric inulin as a measure of mucosal damage caused by aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmers, L.E. Jr.; Anderson, L.A.; Fall, M.M.; Alich, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to find a method of gastric mucosal damage assessment that yields consistent results, the experiments presented here employed the measurement of the movement of inulin out of the gastric contents into the stomach wall and vascular compartment as an estimate of mucosal damage. Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were functionally nephrectomized and were administered a control or test solution containing 3H-inulin. The test solutions contained one of three doses of aspirin. Blood samples were taken at 15-min intervals over a 90-min exposure period. The stomach was removed from the animal and full-thickness tissue samples taken for measurement of 3H-inulin content. When the gastric mucosa was exposed to the test agents, there was a significantly greater accumulation of inulin in the body and antrum as well as in the plasma when compared to controls. We conclude that intragastric inulin can be employed to estimate gastric mucosal damage

  1. Helicobacter pylori Infection Causes Characteristic DNA Damage Patterns in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Koeppel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection with the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a major risk factor for gastric cancer. Since the bacterium exerts multiple genotoxic effects, we examined the circumstances of DNA damage accumulation and identified regions within the host genome with high susceptibility to H. pylori-induced damage. Infection impaired several DNA repair factors, the extent of which depends on a functional cagPAI. This leads to accumulation of a unique DNA damage pattern, preferentially in transcribed regions and proximal to telomeres, in both gastric cell lines and primary gastric epithelial cells. The observed pattern correlates with focal amplifications in adenocarcinomas of the stomach and partly overlaps with known cancer genes. We thus demonstrate an impact of a bacterial infection directed toward specific host genomic regions and describe underlying characteristics that make such regions more likely to acquire heritable changes during infection, which could contribute to cellular transformation.

  2. DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells cause loss of the early embryo in mice exposed to carbon disulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bingzhen [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Shen, Chunzi [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Zibo (China); Yang, Liu; Li, Chunhui; Yi, Anji [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Zhiping, E-mail: zhipingw@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2013-12-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) may lead to spontaneous abortion and very early pregnancy loss in women exposed in the workplace, but the mechanism remains unclear. We designed an animal model in which gestating Kunming strain mice were exposed to CS{sub 2} via i.p. on gestational day 4 (GD4). We found that the number of implanted blastocysts on GD8 was significantly reduced by each dose of 0.1 LD{sub 50} (157.85 mg/kg), 0.2 LD{sub 50} (315.7 mg/kg) and 0.4 LD{sub 50} (631.4 mg/kg). In addition, both the level of DNA damage and apoptosis rates of endometrial cells on GD4.5 were increased, showed definite dose–response relationships, and inversely related to the number of implanted blastocysts. The expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bax and caspase-3 genes in the uterine tissues on GD4.5 were up-regulated, while the expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bcl-2 gene were dose-dependently down-regulated. Our results indicated that DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells were important reasons for the loss of implanted blastocysts induced by CS{sub 2}. - Highlights: • We built an animal model of CS2 exposure during blastocyst implantation. • Endometrial cells were used in the comet assay to detect DNA damage. • CS2 exposure caused DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis. • DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis were responsible for embryo loss.

  3. Polymorphisms in metabolism and repair genes affects DNA damage caused by open-cast coal mining exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Sosa, Milton Quintana; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; León-Mejía, Grethel; Hoyos-Giraldo, Luz Stella; Brango, Hugo; Kvitko, Katia; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-09-15

    Increasing evidence suggest that occupational exposure to open-cast coal mining residues like dust particles, heavy metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause a wide range of DNA damage and genomic instability that could be associated to initial steps in cancer development and other work-related diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate if key polymorphisms in metabolism genes CYP1A1Msp1, GSTM1Null, GSTT1Null and DNA repair genes XRCC1Arg194Trp and hOGG1Ser326Cys could modify individual susceptibility to adverse coal exposure effects, considering the DNA damage (Comet assay) and micronucleus formation in lymphocytes (CBMN) and buccal mucosa cells (BMNCyt) as endpoints for genotoxicity. The study population is comprised of 200 healthy male subjects, 100 open-cast coal-mining workers from "El Cerrejón" (world's largest open-cast coal mine located in Guajira - Colombia) and 100 non-exposed referents from general population. The data revealed a significant increase of CBMN frequency in peripheral lymphocytes of occupationally exposed workers carrying the wild-type variant of GSTT1 (+) gene. Exposed subjects carrying GSTT1null polymorphism showed a lower micronucleus frequency compared with their positive counterparts (FR: 0.83; P=0.04), while BMNCyt, frequency and Comet assay parameters in lymphocytes: Damage Index (DI) and percentage of DNA in the tail (Tail % DNA) were significantly higher in exposed workers with the GSTM1Null polymorphism. Other exfoliated buccal mucosa abnormalities related to cell death (Karyorrhexis and Karyolysis) were increased in GSTT/M1Null carriers. Nuclear buds were significantly higher in workers carrying the CYP1A1Msp1 (m1/m2, m2/m2) allele. Moreover, BMNCyt frequency and Comet assay parameters were significantly lower in exposed carriers of XRCC1Arg194Trp (Arg/Trp, Trp/Trp) and hOGG1Ser326Cys (Ser/Cys, Cys/Cys), thereby providing new data to the increasing evidence about the protective role of these polymorphisms

  4. Technetium-99m DMSA preparation: Trivial issues causing severe problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    1997-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children involving renal parenchyma, upper collecting system or bladder is one of the major causes for consideration in the diagnosis and management of paediatric nuclear medicine. Acute pyelonephritis is one of the prime causes of morbidity associated with urinary tract infection in children which can lead to progressive renal damage. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is used extensively for the assessment of UTI in paediatrics. The radiopharmaceutical preparation could be influenced by several factors, most of them are trivial, but invariably have severe impact on the quality of the scintiphotographs. This communication is mainly to highlight some of the issues related to 99 mTc-DMSA preparation and the possible precautionary measures that need to be taken to obviate unwarranted problems. (author)

  5. Field data analysis of asphalt road paving damages caused by tree roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissteiner, Clemens; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2015-04-01

    Tree root damages are a frequent problem along paved cycling paths and service roads of rivers and streams. Damages occur mostly on streets with thin asphalt layers and especially in the upper part of the pavement structure. The maintainers of these roads are faced with frequent and high annual repair costs in order to guarantee traffic safety and pleasant cycling conditions. The focus of this research project is to get an insight in the processes governing the growth of the tree roots in asphalt layers and to develop test methods to avoid rood penetration into the road structure. Tree vegetation has been analysed selectively along a 300 km long cycle and service path of the Danube River in the region of Austria. Tree characteristics, topographic as well as hydrologic conditions have been analysed at 119 spots with different asphalt damage intensities. On 5 spots additional investigations on the root growth characteristics where performed. First results underline a high potential damage of pioneer trees which are growing naturally along rivers. Mostly, local occurring fast growing tree species penetrated the road layer structure. In a few cases other tree species where as well responsible for road structure damages. The age respectively the size of the trees didn't seem to influence significantly the occurrence of asphalt damages. Road structure damages were found to appear unaffected by hydrologic or topographic conditions. However, results have to be interpreted with care as the investigations represent a temporally limited view of the problem situation. The investigations of the root growth characteristics proved that tree roots penetrate the road structure mostly between the gravel sublayer and the asphalt layer as the layers it selves don't allow a penetration because of their high compaction. Furthermore roots appear to be attracted by condensed water at the underside of the asphalt layer. Further steps of the research project imply testing of different

  6. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  7. Local damage to Ultra High Performance Concrete structures caused by an impact of aircraft engine missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, Werner; Noeldgen, Markus; Strassburger, Elmar; Thoma, Klaus; Fehling, Ekkehard

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Experimental series on UHPC panels subjected to aircraft engine impact. → Improved ballistic limit of fiber reinforced UHPC in comparison to conventional R/C. → Detailed investigation of failure mechanisms of fiber reinforced UHPC panel. - Abstract: The impact of an aircraft engine missile causes high stresses, deformations and a severe local damage to conventional reinforced concrete. As a consequence the design of R/C protective structural elements results in components with rather large dimensions. Fiber reinforced Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a concrete based material which combines ultra high strength, high packing density and an improved ductility with a significantly increased energy dissipation capacity due to the addition of fiber reinforcement. With those attributes the material is potentially suitable for improved protective structural elements with a reduced need for material resources. The presented paper reports on an experimental series of scaled aircraft engine impact tests with reinforced UHPC panels. The investigations are focused on the material behavior and the damage intensity in comparison to conventional concrete. The fundamental work of is taken as reference for the evaluation of the results. The impactor model of a Phantom F4 GE-J79 engine developed and validated by Sugano et al. is used as defined in the original work. In order to achieve best comparability, the experimental configuration and method are adapted for the UHPC experiments. With 'penetration', 'scabbing' and 'perforation' all relevant damage modes defined in are investigated so that a full set of results are provided for a representative UHPC structural configuration.

  8. Interventions for skin changes caused by nerve damage in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinar, Liv Merete; Forsetlund, Louise; Bjørndal, Arild; Lockwood, Diana

    2008-07-16

    More than three million persons are disabled by leprosy worldwide. The main complication of sensory nerve damage is neuropathic ulceration, particularly of the feet. In this review we explored interventions that can prevent and treat secondary damage to skin and limbs. To assess the effects of self-care, dressings and footwear in preventing and healing secondary damage to the skin in persons affected by leprosy. We searched the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register (April 2008), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2008), MEDLINE (from 2003 to April 2008), EMBASE (from 2005 to April 2008), CINAHL (1982-2006) and LILACS (1982- April 2008 ) as well as online registers of ongoing trials (April 2008). Randomised controlled trials involving anyone with leprosy and damage to peripheral nerves treated with any measures designed to prevent damage with the aim of healing existing ulcers and preventing development of new ulcers. Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. Eight trials with a total of 557 participants were included. The quality of the trials was generally poor. The interventions and outcome measures were diverse. Although three studies that compared zinc tape to more traditional dressings found some benefit, none of these showed a statistically significant effect. One trial indicated that topical ketanserin had a better effect on wound healing than clioquinol cream or zinc paste, RR was 6.00 (95% CI 1.45 to 24.75). We did not combine the results of the two studies that compared topical phenytoin to saline dressing, but both studies found statistically significant effects in favour of phenytoin for healing of ulcer (SMD -2.34; 95% CI -3.30 to -1.39; and SMD -0.79; 95% CI -1.20 to 0.39). Canvas shoes were not much better than PVC-boots, and double rocker shoes did not promote healing much more than below-knee plasters. One study suggested that topical ketanserin is more effective than clioquinol cream

  9. Formulation of fracture gradient extension equations in the Sergipe Basin-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Moreto, Rodrigo [Halliburton, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Luduvice, Roberto; Gomes, Isaac Santana; Richard Junior, Emerson [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the challenges of drilling exploration wells is to accurately estimate fracture gradients. This may cause formation damage and lead to premature hydraulic fracturing and prevent an optimum hydraulic design during completion. To avoid this scenario, it is important to know the minimum pressure that causes fractures. This estimation may be based on density, overburden, Poisson's ratio, and minimum horizontal stress. It is now possible to monitor fracturing stimulation operations in real time, which allows real-time understanding of formation pressure response, including fracture extension behavior and screen out. It is possible to avoid risks related to unexpected high pressure applied on the formation while drilling and maintain well and equipment integrities. This may prevent non-productive time (NPT) caused by unplanned well-cleaning operations and material expenses. Real-time fracturing information is usually obtained from step-rate and/or mini-frac analyses. However, there are some scenarios where these tests and analyses may be uneconomical. This paper details an alternative solution. It uses modified Eaton's equations that are representative of the area of interest, which in the present case is the Sergipe Basin located in northeast Brazil. The modified Eaton's equations are used to estimate parameters of the minimum horizontal stress, fracture extension gradient, overburden, and Poisson's ratio. This is based on hydraulic fracturing jobs and density logs available from different locations within the Sergipe Basin. To validate the present method, the estimation results were compared with available step-rate test results for the area. (author)

  10. Liability for damage caused by shortage and failure to use necessary medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Mihajlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide for successful, safe and high quality medical services, health care institutions need to be equipped with adequate medical devices. For this reason, every medical institution is legally obliged to have relevant medical devices. In case a patient has been deprived of some medical service for the lack of necessary medical devices (which the institution has been obliged to provide, the medical institution is responsible for the damage and harm sustained by the patient. The responsibility implies non-contractual liability (in tort law or pre-contractual liability (in contract law. In both cases, the liability is based on the presumed culpability. In order to be excluded from liability, the medical institution has to prove that the patient has been deprived of medical service (or that the institution has refused to enter into a medical service provider agreement on justifiable grounds, i.e. due to the lack of necessary medical devices. On the other hand, in case the medial institutions fail to provide needed care or violate their obligation to use medical devices when necessary, it is regarded as medical negligence (professional error. In most cases, it implies the liability of medical institutions for damage, injury or harm caused to the patient by medical services provided without applying a relevant medical device, whose use has been medically indicated. The liability is even more substantial in cases where the medical device has been available but the medical institutions has not applied it in medial treatment (even though its use has been medically indicated; such conduct is qualified as gross negligence.

  11. Are endogenous sex hormones related to DNA damage in paradoxically sleep-deprived female rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Monica L; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Silva, Andressa; Araujo, Paula; Zager, Adriano; Tenorio, Neuli M; Tufik, Sergio

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate overall DNA damage induced by experimental paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in estrous-cycling and ovariectomized female rats to examine possible hormonal involvement during DNA damage. Intact rats in different phases of the estrous cycle (proestrus, estrus, and diestrus) or ovariectomized female Wistar rats were subjected to PSD by the single platform technique for 96 h or were maintained for the equivalent period as controls in home-cages. After this period, peripheral blood and tissues (brain, liver, and heart) were collected to evaluate genetic damage using the single cell gel (comet) assay. The results showed that PSD caused extensive genotoxic effects in brain cells, as evident by increased DNA migration rates in rats exposed to PSD for 96 h when compared to negative control. This was observed for all phases of the estrous cycle indistinctly. In ovariectomized rats, PSD also led to DNA damage in brain cells. No significant statistically differences were detected in peripheral blood, the liver or heart for all groups analyzed. In conclusion, our data are consistent with the notion that genetic damage in the form of DNA breakage in brain cells induced by sleep deprivation overrides the effects related to endogenous female sex hormones. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Systemic agonistic anti-CD40 treatment of tumor bearing mice modulates hepatic myeloid suppressive cells and causes immune-mediated liver damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Echeverz, José; Ma, Chi; Duffy, Austin; Eggert, Tobias; Hawk, Nga; Kleiner, David E.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Immune stimulatory monoclonal antibodies are currently evaluated as anti tumor agents. Although overall toxicity appears to be moderate, liver toxicities have been reported and are not completely understood. We studied the effect of systemic CD40 antibody treatment on myeloid cells in spleen and liver. Naïve and tumor-bearing mice were treated systemically with agonistic anti-CD40 antibody. Immune cell subsets in liver and spleen, serum transaminases and liver histologies were analyzed after antibody administration. Nox2−/−, Cd40−/− as well as bone marrow chimeric mice were used to study the mechanism by which agonistic anti-CD40 mediates its effects in vivo. Suppressor function of murine and human tumor-induced myeloid derived suppressive cells was studied upon CD40 ligation. Agonistic CD40 antibody caused liver damage within 24 hours after injection in two unrelated tumor models and mice strains. Using bone marrow chimeras we demonstrated that CD40 antibody-induced hepatitis in tumor-bearing mice was dependent on the presence of CD40-expressing hematopoietic cells. Agonistic CD40 ligation-dependent liver damage was induced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, agonistic CD40 antibody resulted in increased CD80 and CD40 positive liver CD11b+Gr-1+ immature myeloid cells. CD40 ligation on tumor-induced murine and human CD14+HLA-DRlow PBMC from cancer patients reduced their immune suppressor function. Collectively, agonistic CD40 antibody treatment activated tumor-induced, myeloid cells, caused myeloid dependent hepatotoxicity and ameliorated the suppressor function of murine and human MDSC. Collectively, our data suggests that CD40 may mature immunosuppressive myeloid cells and thereby cause liver damage in mice with an accumulation of tumor-induced hepatic MDSC. PMID:25637366

  13. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  14. Electrocautery causes more ischemic peritoneal tissue damage than ultrasonic dissection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R.P.G ten; Wilbers, J.; Goor, H. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimizing peritoneal tissue injury during abdominal surgery has the benefit of reducing postoperative inflammatory response, pain, and adhesion formation. Ultrasonic dissection seems to reduce tissue damage. This study aimed to compare electrocautery and ultrasonic dissection in terms

  15. Using satellite multispectral imagery for damage mapping armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in maize damage at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armyworm, as a destructive insect for maize, causes wide range of damage in both China and U.S. in recent years. To obtain the spatial distribution of damage area and assess the damage severity, a fast and accurate loss assessment method is of great importance for effective management. This study, t...

  16. Bactericidal catechins damage the lipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikigai, H; Nakae, T; Hara, Y; Shimamura, T

    1993-04-08

    The mode of antibacterial action of, the green tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) was investigated. Strong bactericidal EGCg caused leakage of 5,6-carboxyfluorescein from phosphatidylcholine liposomes (PC), but EC with very weak bactericidal activity caused little damage to the membrane. Phosphatidylserine and dicetyl phosphate partially protected the membrane from EGCg-mediated damage when reconstituted into the liposome membrane with PC. EGCg, but not EC, caused strong aggregation and NPN-fluorescence quenching of PC-liposomes and these actions were markedly lowered in the presence of negatively charged lipids. These results show that bactericidal catechins primarily act on and damage bacterial membranes. The observation that Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to bactericidal catechins than Gram-positive bacteria can be explained to some extent by the presence of negatively charged lipopolysaccharide.

  17. Method for assessing damage to mitochondrial DNA caused by radiation and epichlorohydrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.; Hauswirth, W.W.; Ross, W.E.; Neims, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid and reliable method for quantification of damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), especially strand breaks. The degree of damage to mtDNA is assessed by the proportion of physical forms (i.e., supercoiled versus open-circular and linear forms) upon agarose gel electrophoresis, blotting, and visualization by hybridization with [ 32 P]mtDNA probes. The use of a radiolabeled probe is a crucial step in the procedure because it provides both a means to quantify by radioautography and to obtain the mtDNA specificity required to eliminate misinterpretation due to nuclear DNA contamination. To demonstrate the utility of this technique, X-irradiation and epichlorohydrin are shown to damage both isolated mtDNA and mtDNA in whole cells in a dose-dependent fashion

  18. Mechanical properties of timber from wind damaged Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2003-01-01

    A storm may subject a tree to such bending stresses that extensive compression damage develops in the lee side. The tree may survive the wind load or it may be thrown. However, the damage is inherent and it may be of a magnitude to influence the mechanical properties of boards sawn from the stem....... The paper reports on a investigation of the relation between degree of damage and mechanical proper-ties of sawn timber from wind damaged Norway spruce. The project included about 250 bolts from wind damaged trees. The majority of bolts were cut to deliver a full-diameter plank containing the pith...

  19. Safety assessment of the potential for foreign object - caused fretting - wear damages on PWR steam generator U-tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Jhung, Myung Jo; Kim, Woong Sik; Kim, Hho Jung

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the safety assessment of the potential for fretting-wear damages on Steam Generator (SG) U-tubes caused by foreign object in operating nuclear power plants. The operating SG shell-side flow field conditions are obtained from three-dimensional SG flow calculation using the ATHOS3 code. Modal analyses are performed for the finite element modelings of U-tubes to get the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape and participation factor. The wear rate of U-tube caused by foreign object is calculated using the Archard formula and the remaining life of the tube is predicted. Also, discussed in this study are the effects of flow velocity, internal pressure, tube-to-foreign object contact angle, and vibration of the tube on the remaining life of the tube

  20. Compensation of damage caused by diverted nuclear substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprimoz, J.

    1981-10-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the insurance system for nuclear liability. As a rule, if nuclear fuel, radioactive products or waste are governed by nuclear energy law providing for strict and channelled liability, their legal holder will pay for damage arising from them anywhere within 20 years after theft or diversion and 10 years after the nuclear incident. In most countries, atomic liability insurers will implicitly grant their cover through policies underwritten by legal holders. If diverted substances have a low specific radioactivity, their legal holder remains liable according to common law and insurance policies cover this conventional liability. (NEA) [fr

  1. Causes of death of patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Larry; Saunders, Rachel; Knollmann, Friedrich D

    2012-12-01

    The causes of death for patients with lung cancer are inadequately described. To categorize the immediate and contributing causes of death for patients with lung cancer. The autopsies from 100 patients who died of lung cancer between 1990 and February 2011 were analyzed. Tumor burden was judged the immediate cause of death in 30 cases, including 26 cases of extensive metastases and 4 cases with wholly or primarily lung tumor burden (causing respiratory failure). Infection was the immediate cause of death for 20 patients, including 8 with sepsis and 12 with pneumonia. Complications of metastatic disease were the immediate causes of death in 18 cases, including 6 cases of hemopericardium from pericardial metastases, 3 from myocardial metastases, 3 from liver metastases, and 3 from brain metastases. Other immediate causes of death were pulmonary hemorrhage (12 cases), pulmonary embolism (10 cases, 2 tumor emboli), and pulmonary diffuse alveolar damage (7 cases). From a functional (pathophysiologic) perspective, respiratory failure could be regarded as the immediate cause of death (or mechanism of death) in 38 cases, usually because of a combination of lung conditions, including emphysema, airway obstruction, pneumonia, hemorrhage, embolism, resection, and lung injury in addition to the tumor. For 94 of the 100 patients, there were contributing causes of death, with an average of 2.5 contributing causes and up to 6 contributing causes of death. The numerous and complex ways lung cancer kills patients pose a challenge for efforts to extend and improve their lives.

  2. Exploring the potential of multivariate depth-damage and rainfall-damage models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ootegem, Luc; van Herck, K.; Creten, T.

    2018-01-01

    In Europe, floods are among the natural catastrophes that cause the largest economic damage. This article explores the potential of two distinct types of multivariate flood damage models: ‘depth-damage’ models and ‘rainfall-damage’ models. We use survey data of 346 Flemish households that were...... victim of pluvial floods complemented with rainfall data from both rain gauges and weather radars. In the econometrical analysis, a Tobit estimation technique is used to deal with the issue of zero damage observations. The results show that in the ‘depth-damage’ models flood depth has a significant...... impact on the damage. In the ‘rainfall-damage’ models there is a significant impact of rainfall accumulation on the damage when using the gauge rainfall data as predictor, but not when using the radar rainfall data. Finally, non-hazard indicators are found to be important for explaining pluvial flood...

  3. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing...... trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods...... example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number...

  4. Analysis Of Damage Arising From Exploitation Of The Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźny Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During exploitation, due to a variety of reasons, aircrafts are damaged or suffer from different failures. In the process of operation, using appropriate methods of diagnosis, failure, damage, and relative deregulation of individual elements or units can be detected. For this purpose, one can apply a number of indirect diagnostic methods with the use of recorded diagnostic signals or a direct diagnosis with the use of non-destructive methods. The proper identification of the technical condition allows to determine the causes of irregularities and take actions aimed at preventing their occurrence. The article presents the types of exploitation damage of a multi-purpose aircraft. In addition, the criteria for the division of damage and research methods of the causes of damage are presented. Furthermore, an analysis of the scope of activities to be performed during the research of causes of damage to the aircraft is made.

  5. Enantioselective oxidative stress and oxidative damage caused by Rac- and S-metolachlor to Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijun; Xia, YiLu; Cai, Weidan; Zhang, Yina; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Du, Shaoting

    2017-04-01

    The rational use and environmental security of chiral pesticides has gained the interest of many researchers. The enantioselective effects of Rac- and S-metolachlor on oxidative stress in Scenedesmus obliquus were determined in this study. Stronger green fluorescence was observed in response to S-metolachlor treatment than to Rac-metolachlor treatment, suggesting that more reactive oxygen species (ROS) were stimulated by S-metolachlor. ROS levels following S-metolachlor treatment were 1.92-, 8.31-, and 1.08-times higher than those observed following Rac-metolachlor treatment at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were stimulated with increasing herbicide concentrations, with S-metolachlor exhibiting a greater effect. Oxidative damage in terms of chlorophyll (Chl) content, cellular membrane permeability, and cellular ultrastructures of S. obliquus were investigated. Chla and Chlb contents in algae treated with Rac-metolachlor were 2-6-fold higher than those in algae treated with S-metolachlor at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/L. The cellular membrane permeability of algae exposed to 0.3 mg/L Rac- and S-metolachlor was 6.19- and 42.5-times that of the control. Correlation analysis implied that ROS are the major factor responsible for the oxidative damage caused by Rac- and S-metolachlor. Damage to the chloroplasts and cell membrane of S. obliquus, low production of starch granules, and an increased number of vacuoles were observed upon ultrastructural morphology analysis by transmission electron microscope. These results indicate that S-metolachlor has a greater effect on S. obliquus than Rac-metolachlor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Damage analysis. Product improvement through damage analysis; Schadensanalyse. Produktverbesserung durch Schadensanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the 37th VDI annual meeting from 19th to 20th May, 2011 in Wuerzburg (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures and posters were presented: (1) Malpractice of material processing and heat processing of large gear wheels (P. Sommer); (2) Damages by faulty heat treatment - Case studies: Glow testing at a heat exchanger and wheel breakage of a high-strength screw connection (A. Thomas); (3) Crack formation in pole end plates of high-performance generators of a pumped-storage power plant - Causes and possibilities of remedy (J. Kinder); (4) Grind burn inspection for damage prevention at wind turbine gearboxes - Use of different processes for the investigation of peripheral-zone properties of case-hardened components (T. Griggel); (5) Damage inspection in coal mines using products from the degradation process as an example - damage - inspection - solution: This is the working method of the certification body (C. Kleine-Hegermann); (6) Damages at the sealing rings - Causes of the failure at radial shaft rings (K. Marchetti); (7) Thermal analyses at faulty plastic components (O. Jacobs); (8) Application of the micro computer tomography at damages of fibre-reinforced materials (H. Dinnebier); (9) The significance of 'material defects' from the view of lay people, lawyers and engineers - 'Material defect' in the literature, set of rules and expert opinion (C. Klinger); (10) Material defects from a legal view (P. Henseler); (11) Significance of material defects from the view of an engineering insurer (C. Harden); (12) Wear analyses by means of RNT and non-destructive surface analytics (K. Poehlmann); (13) Damages by means of non-metallic inclusions using ICE 3 as an example - Significance and localisation of single non-metallic inclusions in large components (D. Bettge); (14) Cathodic corrosion protection of pipeline steels (H.-G. Schoeneich); (15) Non-destructive and destructive investigations when assessing damages of corrosion at a

  7. Beam damage of self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, P.C.; Baer, D.R.; Fryxell, G.E.; Engelhard, M.H.; Porter, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    X-ray and electron beam damage studies were performed on Br-terminated and methyl-terminated alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers. X-ray beam initiated damage was primarily limited to removal of the labile Br group and did not significantly damage the hydrocarbon chain. Some of the x-ray beam damage could be attributed to low-energy electrons emitted by the non-monochromatic source, but further damage was attributed to secondary electrons produced in the sample by x-ray exposure. Electron beams caused significant damage to the hydrocarbon chains. Maximum damage occurred with a beam energy of 600 eV and a dosage of 6x10 -3 C/cm 2

  8. Interface Control Document for the EMPACT Module that Estimates Electric Power Transmission System Response to EMP-Caused Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werley, Kenneth Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mccown, Andrew William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)ory

    2016-06-26

    The EPREP code is designed to evaluate the effects of an Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) on the electric power transmission system. The EPREP code embodies an umbrella framework that allows a user to set up analysis conditions and to examine analysis results. The code links to three major physics/engineering modules. The first module describes the EM wave in space and time. The second module evaluates the damage caused by the wave on specific electric power (EP) transmission system components. The third module evaluates the consequence of the damaged network on its (reduced) ability to provide electric power to meet demand. This third module is the focus of the present paper. The EMPACT code serves as the third module. The EMPACT name denotes EMP effects on Alternating Current Transmission systems. The EMPACT algorithms compute electric power transmission network flow solutions under severely damaged network conditions. Initial solutions are often characterized by unacceptible network conditions including line overloads and bad voltages. The EMPACT code contains algorithms to adjust optimally network parameters to eliminate network problems while minimizing outages. System adjustments include automatically adjusting control equipment (generator V control, variable transformers, and variable shunts), as well as non-automatic control of generator power settings and minimal load shedding. The goal is to evaluate the minimal loss of customer load under equilibrium (steady-state) conditions during peak demand.

  9. Indemnification of damage to the environment caused by non-nuclear industrial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, H.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental damage has reached catastrophic proportions, implying the death of hundreds of people or expenses of many hundreds of million dollars. The financial impact of this damage is however small at the level of the industrial sector concerned which could bear its costs. If States would take measures to redistribute such costs, they would avoid having to compensate victims of the gravest accidents. Special procedures were introduced for this purpose in certain industrial sectors. (NEA) [fr

  10. The law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Government can conclude the contract with atomic energy entrepreneurs promising that it would indemnify the loss caused by the payment of indemnity by the latter for the nuclear damage which cannot be covered with responsibility insurance contract and other measures for indemnifying the damages upon the occurrence of responsibility of said entrepreneurs, who promises to pay the rate for indeminty. The loss to be indemnified by the Government with said contract should be limited to the loss caused by the payment of indemnity by said entrepreneurs for the damage caused by earthquakes or volcanic activities, normal operation of reactors (to be specified by the cabinet order) or the damage which can be covered with the responsibility insurance contract so long as the fact becoming its cause is concerned and the indemnification for which was not demanded by the sufferer in 10 years elapsed since the outbreak of such fact, and the damage caused by the entry of nuclear ships in foreign territorial waters, which cannot be covered with the measures for indemnifying the damage. The sum of the rate for indemnity is specified

  11. Multi-scale approach to radiation damage induced by ion beams: complex DNA damage and effects of thermal spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdutovich, E.; Yakubovich, A.V.; Solov'yov, A.V.; Surdutovich, E.; Yakubovich, A.V.; Solov'yov, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    We present the latest advances of the multi-scale approach to radiation damage caused by irradiation of a tissue with energetic ions and report the calculations of complex DNA damage and the effects of thermal spikes on biomolecules. The multi-scale approach aims to quantify the most important physical, chemical, and biological phenomena taking place during and following irradiation with ions and provide a better means for clinically-necessary calculations with adequate accuracy. We suggest a way of quantifying the complex clustered damage, one of the most important features of the radiation damage caused by ions. This quantification allows the studying of how the clusterization of DNA lesions affects the lethality of damage. We discuss the first results of molecular dynamics simulations of ubiquitin in the environment of thermal spikes, predicted to occur in tissue for a short time after an ion's passage in the vicinity of the ions' tracks. (authors)

  12. Oxidative damage of U937 human leukemic cells caused by hydroxyl radical results in singlet oxygen formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rác

    Full Text Available The exposure of human cells to oxidative stress leads to the oxidation of biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and nuclei acids. In this study, the oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA was studied after the addition of hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reagent to cell suspension containing human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cell line U937. EPR spin-trapping data showed that the addition of hydrogen peroxide to the cell suspension formed hydroxyl radical via Fenton reaction mediated by endogenous metals. The malondialdehyde HPLC analysis showed no lipid peroxidation after the addition of hydrogen peroxide, whereas the Fenton reagent caused significant lipid peroxidation. The formation of protein carbonyls monitored by dot blot immunoassay and the DNA fragmentation measured by comet assay occurred after the addition of both hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reagent. Oxidative damage of biomolecules leads to the formation of singlet oxygen as conformed by EPR spin-trapping spectroscopy and the green fluorescence of singlet oxygen sensor green detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. It is proposed here that singlet oxygen is formed by the decomposition of high-energy intermediates such as dioxetane or tetroxide formed by oxidative damage of biomolecules.

  13. Actual implications of industrial smoke damage to forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieger, E

    1955-01-01

    General problems of smoke-induced damages, diagnosis, and control methods are reviewed. Damages caused by etching of leaves and needles are mostly of an acute and local character. Damages due to disturbed assimilation, caused primarily by sulfur dioxide, are of the greatest importance economically. Sulfur dioxide is less harmful in winter and during night hours. Acids and sulfur dioxide both turn the soil acid, and affect the edaphon. Such damages are primarily of chronic character. Different diagnostic methods such as plant, soil, and air analyses should be combined to obtain reliable results. Due to the complexity of the processes involved in smoke damages, biological tests are best in diagnosis. The sunlight test exploits the fact that branches cut from smoke-damaged trees lose their needles more readily than such from intact trees. Haertels turbidity test is based on the increased wax secretion by smoke-damaged needles. The appraisal of damages is made by evaluation of the economic losses after the limitation of the smoke-affected area. The possible control measures in forestry are the breeding of smoke-resistant species and liming, while the pollution control techniques presently available in industry are unsatisfactory, the major problems being caused by sulfur dioxide. Standardization of thresholds and maximum allowable concentrations, as well as cooperation of forestry and industries are imperative. 12 references.

  14. DAMAGE BY GAME ANIMALS IN AGRICULTURAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sporek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years the damage caused by the game animals to the agricultural crops has increased considerably. An immediate cause of this situation is an expanding population of big game, especially wild boar. This increase is primarily due to the changes in agrocenoses, dominated by large area maize cropping. The crop damage is compensated by hunting associations leasing the specific areas. The aim of this paper was to present the costs of the compensation incurred by the lease-holders of the hunting grounds. A cause - effect relationship between greater game damage and increased harvest of the game animals was demonstrated. The analysis was based on the data provided in the Statistical Yearbooks of the Central Statistical Office for 2000-2013. The study also indicated a problem of a decline in roe deer population, caused by more intense harvest resulting from farmer compensation claims.

  15. DNA damage in neurodegenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppedè, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.coppede@med.unipi.it; Migliore, Lucia, E-mail: lucia.migliore@med.unipi.it

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in the neurodegenerative process. • The mitochondrial DNA is more vulnerable to oxidative attack than the nuclear DNA. • Cytogenetic damage has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease patients. • The question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of neurodegeneration is still open. • Increasing evidence links DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena. - Abstract: Following the observation of increased oxidative DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA extracted from post-mortem brain regions of patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases, the last years of the previous century and the first decade of the present one have been largely dedicated to the search of markers of DNA damage in neuronal samples and peripheral tissues of patients in early, intermediate or late stages of neurodegeneration. Those studies allowed to demonstrate that oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in neurodegeneration, but also revealed cytogenetic damage in neurodegenerative conditions, such as for example a tendency towards chromosome 21 malsegregation in Alzheimer's disease. As it happens for many neurodegenerative risk factors the question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of the neurodegenerative process is still open, and probably both is true. The research interest in markers of oxidative stress was shifted, in recent years, towards the search of epigenetic biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders, following the accumulating evidence of a substantial contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to learning, memory processes, behavioural disorders and neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence is however linking DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena, thereby opening the way to a very attractive and timely research topic in neurodegenerative diseases. We will address those issues in the context of Alzheimer's disease

  16. DNA damage in neurodegenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migliore, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in the neurodegenerative process. • The mitochondrial DNA is more vulnerable to oxidative attack than the nuclear DNA. • Cytogenetic damage has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease patients. • The question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of neurodegeneration is still open. • Increasing evidence links DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena. - Abstract: Following the observation of increased oxidative DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA extracted from post-mortem brain regions of patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases, the last years of the previous century and the first decade of the present one have been largely dedicated to the search of markers of DNA damage in neuronal samples and peripheral tissues of patients in early, intermediate or late stages of neurodegeneration. Those studies allowed to demonstrate that oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in neurodegeneration, but also revealed cytogenetic damage in neurodegenerative conditions, such as for example a tendency towards chromosome 21 malsegregation in Alzheimer's disease. As it happens for many neurodegenerative risk factors the question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of the neurodegenerative process is still open, and probably both is true. The research interest in markers of oxidative stress was shifted, in recent years, towards the search of epigenetic biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders, following the accumulating evidence of a substantial contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to learning, memory processes, behavioural disorders and neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence is however linking DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena, thereby opening the way to a very attractive and timely research topic in neurodegenerative diseases. We will address those issues in the context of Alzheimer's disease

  17. Non-contact hematoma damage and healing assessment using reflectance photoplethysmographic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelard, Robert; Pfisterer, Kaylen J.; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Impact trauma may cause a hematoma, which is the leakage of venous blood into surrounding tissues. Large hematomas can be dangerous as they may inhibit local blood ow. Hematomas are often diagnosed visually, which may be problematic if the hematoma leaks deeper than the visible penetration depth. Furthermore, vascular wound healing is often monitored at home without the aid of a clinician. We therefore investigated the use of near infrared (NIR) re ectance photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) to assess vascular damage resulting from a hematoma, and monitor the healing process. In this case study, the participant experienced internal vascular damage in the form of a hematoma. Using a PPGI system with dual-mode temporally coded illumination for ambient-agnostic data acquisition and mounted optical elements, the tissue was illuminated with a spatially uniform irradiance pattern of 850 nm wavelength light for increased tissue penetration and high oxy-to-deoxyhemoglobin absorption ratio. Initial and follow-up PPGI data collection was performed to assess vascular damage and healing. The tissue PPGI sequences were spectrally analyzed, producing spectral maps of the tissue area. Experimental results show that spatial differences in spectral information can be observed around the damaged area. In particular, the damaged site exhibited lower pulsatility than the surrounding healthy tissue. This pulsatility was largely restored in the follow-up data, suggesting that the tissue had undergone vascular healing. These results indicate that hematomas can be assessed and monitored in a non-contact visual manner, and suggests that PPGI can be used for tissue health assessment, with potential extensions to peripheral vascular disease.

  18. Electric arc discharge damage to ion thruster grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, D. D.; Nakanishi, S.; Finke, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Arcs representative of those occurring between the grids of a mercury ion thruster were simulated. Parameters affecting an arc and the resulting damage were studied. The parameters investigated were arc energy, arc duration, and grid geometry. Arc attenuation techniques were also investigated. Potentially serious damage occurred at all energy levels representative of actual thruster operating conditions. Of the grids tested, the lowest open-area configuration sustained the least damage for given conditions. At a fixed energy level a long duration discharge caused greater damage than a short discharge. Attenuation of arc current using various impedances proved to be effective in reducing arc damage. Faults were also deliberately caused using chips of sputtered materials formed during the operation of an actual thruster. These faults were cleared with no serious grid damage resulting using the principles and methods developed in this study.

  19. Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Pollution Damage and Protection of Asian Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke was used to simulate a polluted environment and an experiment was performed to reveal how virgin and bleached hair are damaged by a polluted environment. The dry/wet combability, surface contact angle, tryptophan content, and cuticle morphology of the smoke exposed hair were evaluated, and compared to unexposed virgin hair. The results showed that pollution exposure can cause significant chemical damage to hair. In particular, virgin hair exposure to pollution can cause damage to the hair cuticles (higher wet/dry combing, protein degradation, and a more hydrophilic hair surface. The experiment also demonstrated that the styling polymer, polyimide-1 (isobutylene/dimethyl amino propyl maleimide/ethoxylated maleimide/maleic acid copolymer, can provide effective protection against such hair damage.

  1. Journal of Agricultural Extension Vol.17 (2) December, 2013 ISSN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONIKOYI

    National Agricultural Extension Research Liaison Services (NAERGLS), ... agricultural extension, the organization is meant to serve the extension, ... farm families ratio, extension agents (EAs) training, and the likely causes of the problem.

  2. Small leak damage and protection systems in steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    A small leak of water into sodium in a liquid metal heated steam generator can cause damage to adjacent tubes, a phenomenon termed wastage. Theories on this phenomenon range from corrosion from sodium water reaction products to erosion by supersonic particles. An alternative approach considers the water injection to form a simple combustion process. Using this approach many aspects of over 250 wastage experiments can be explained both analytically and physically. The U.S. has an extensive technology in the general area of acoustic surveillance. High temperature in-sodium microphones, in-vessel waveguides, and data analysis techniques have been successfully demonstrated in national development programs. This technology has been applied specifically to the development of an acoustic leak detection/location monitor for small leaks in an operating steam generator

  3. Enterococcus faecalis infection causes inflammation, intracellular oxphos-independent ROS production, and DNA damage in human gastric cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper A B Strickertsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Achlorhydria caused by e.g. atrophic gastritis allows for bacterial overgrowth, which induces chronic inflammation and damage to the mucosal cells of infected individuals driving gastric malignancies and cancer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis can colonize achlohydric stomachs and we therefore wanted to study the impact of E. faecalis infection on inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial genetic stability in gastric mucosal cells. METHODS: To separate the changes induced by bacteria from those of the inflammatory cells we established an in vitro E. faecalis infection model system using the gastric carcinoma cell line MKN74. Total ROS and superoxide was measured by fluorescence microscopy. Cellular oxygen consumption was characterized non-invasively using XF24 microplate based respirometry. Gene expression was examined by microarray, and response pathways were identified by Gene Set Analysis (GSA. Selected gene transcripts were verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Mitochondrial mutations were determined by sequencing. RESULTS: Infection of MKN74 cells with E. faecalis induced intracellular ROS production through a pathway independent of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos. Furthermore, E. faecalis infection induced mitochondrial DNA instability. Following infection, genes coding for inflammatory response proteins were transcriptionally up-regulated while DNA damage repair and cell cycle control genes were down-regulated. Cell growth slowed down when infected with viable E. faecalis and responded in a dose dependent manner to E. faecalis lysate. CONCLUSIONS: Infection by E. faecalis induced an oxphos-independent intracellular ROS response and damaged the mitochondrial genome in gastric cell culture. Finally the bacteria induced an NF-κB inflammatory response as well as impaired DNA damage response and cell cycle control gene

  4. Liability for damage caused by ground subsidence in the Netherlands. The role of the Mining Law and the Technical Committee Ground Subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggenkamp, M.M.; Verwer, Ch.P.

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the legal regulatory framework in respect of movements of the soil (i.e. subsidence and earth tremors) following the exploration and extraction of minerals in the Netherlands, and the liability for the damage they cause. This legal framework has been changed considerably since the new Mining Act came into force on January 1st, 2003. After having examined the causes of subsidence and subsequent earth tremors, and relationships with the exploration and extraction of subsoil minerals such as oil, gas, salt and coal, the article continues by presenting the legislation of this area. The authors analyse the applicable legislation before as well as after the introduction of the new Mining Act. The two judicial regimen have a similar approach: While the rules and regulations concerning earth movements are laid down in the Mining Act, the legal foundation for the liability for damage resulting from earth movements is provided by the Civil Code. The parliamentary debates on the Mining Bill specifically dealt with the issue of earth movements and the question whether either a system of absolute (vicarious) liability would apply, or a system of strict liability. One of the reasons for not having a system of absolute liability was the wish of Parliament to lay down in the Mining Act provisions for the creation of a Technical Committee on Earth Movements. It is the remit of this Committee to advise the Minister of Economic Affairs on all matters related to movements of the soil. It's duty is also to advise on the causal) relationship between mining activities and earth movements, and the amount of damages to be paid by the mining companies, at the request of individual persons. In order to avoid individuals not receiving any compensation for damages, the new Mining Act also calls for the introduction of a special Fund for Mining Damages. Individual persons would be entitled to make a claim to this fund in situations such as the mining company

  5. Three model systems measure oxidation/nitration damage caused ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    caused by peroxynitrite ... (OONO–) or its carbon dioxide derivatives cause oxidation/nitration and hence mutation to various body poly- mers e.g. .... The work described in this paper is quite brief due to ex- ... exact way to balance the dose of antioxidants in mixtures ... tralizing conditions the half-life of OONO– is less than.

  6. Occult Amebic Liver Abscess as Cause of Extensive Inferior Vena Cava and Hepatic Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Leslie; Burute, Nishigandha; Haider, Ehsan; Serrano, Pablo E; O'Shea, Timothy; Siegal, Deborah

    2017-10-01

    The most common extraintestinal complication of Entamoeba histolytica is amebic liver abscess (ALA). Hepatic vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis are rare but well-documented complications of ALA, typically attributed to mechanical compression and inflammation associated with a large abscess. We present a case of a previously healthy 43-year-old Canadian man presenting with constitutional symptoms and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. He was found to have thrombophlebitis of the IVC, accessory right hepatic vein, and bilateral iliac veins. Extensive investigations for thrombophilia were negative. Magnetic resonance imaging of the liver demonstrated a 3.2-cm focal area of parenchymal abnormality that was reported as presumptive hepatocellular carcinoma, and a 1.9-cm lesion in the caudate lobe with diffusion restriction and peripheral rim enhancement. Despite multiple biopsy attempts, a histopathological diagnosis was not achieved. Abdominal pain and fever 4 months later prompted repeat ultrasound demonstrating a 10.4- × 12.0-cm rim-enhancing fluid attenuation lesion felt to represent a liver abscess. Thick dark "chocolate brown" drainage from the lesion and positive serology for E. histolytica confirmed the diagnosis of ALA acquired from a previous trip to Cuba. The patient was started on treatment with metronidazole and paromomycin and repeat abdominal ultrasound demonstrated resolution of the abscess. This case is the first to demonstrate extensive IVC thrombosis secondary to a relatively small occult ALA and emphasizes the thrombogenic potential of ALA. Amebic infection should be considered as a rare cause of IVC thrombosis in the correct clinical context.

  7. DNA damage and autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  8. Analysis of the Causes and Recommendations on Elimination of Biological Damage of Structures During the Repair and Reconstruction of the State Biological Museum in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamskov Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of mycological research on buildings of the State Biological Museum located in Moscow. Over time, the building maintenance conditions have worsened, in particular because of construction of high-rise buildings in the immediate vicinity of the museum, as well as construction of a greenhouse above the underground passage tunnel between buildings 1 and 2. Over the years, the temperature gradients, high humidity, wear and damage of wall waterproofing and foundations have caused leaks in the underpass tunnel and the biological corrosion of stone, wood and metal structures in indoor exhibition halls. In this connection, part of the survey was to determine the types and size of biological lesions in structures, determination of the causes of biological damage, and the development of measures to eliminate the mycological problems during repair and reconstruction works in the museum.

  9. Damage caused to our forests and its control up to 1918

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozicka, J

    1963-01-01

    Air pollution was mentioned as soon as 1699 by Chr. Lehman, chronicler of Krusne hory and its injurious effects were observed since the thirties of the nineteenth century by brothers Baar on their plot situated in the neighborhood of a manufactory chimney at Kdyne near Klatovy, as well as since 1843 by the surveyor William Rowland in managing the town forest of Pribram in the surroundings of silver works at Brezove hory. The problem of damage caused to our forests by air pollution arose the interest of our foresters 1850, when at the conference of the Bohemian Forestry Union held in Decin Rowland read a paper on air pollution in the area of Pribram and in surroundings of a brick-kiln at Zdiky in the Kaplice region. After 1853, the smoke effects began to be apparent in the Jachymov region, since 1880 in the Ostrava region, since the nineties of the past century in the Sokolovo, Loket, Karlovy Vary, Usti n. L. and Nachod regions and, since the first decade of the present century in the Bilina and Kladno regions. It was found that silver fir, Norway spruce and Scotch pine were the most sensitive species to smoke, whereas European larch proved to be very resistant. Broadleaved species showed also a good growth in the smoke affected areas. Basing on this experience, our foresters tried, therefore, to reduce the injouris smoke effects by growing broadleaved species in those areas. 12 references.

  10. Study of the damage rate caused by intervertebral foramen type inside and outside and the pass of the intervertebral DRG RF puncture way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiashu; Zhang, Haitao

    2014-09-01

    This paper was to analyze and contrast the damage rate on the thoracic segment different position of the dorsal root ganglion(dorsal root ganglion, DRG) caused by different puncture path in radiofrequency ablation, thus the best RF target way for the thoracic segment of different types of DRG was confirmed. According to the difference of puncture and ablation damage way, 14 segmental spinal specimens were randomly divided into three groups, and then conducted DRG radiofrequency damage on percutaneous puncture path according to the type of DRG position.The damage effect of different puncture path by the judgment standard of the result of pathology analyzed. The experiment showed that RF damage of group A were 72.58 ± 18.88%, 54.16 ± 24.84% and 32.85 ± 28.11%; that of group B were 771.86 ± 15.15% and 72.02 ± 17.86%, 57.14 ± 18.02% and 52.47 ± 20.64%, 68.75 ± 14.63% and 71.78 ± 16.00%; and that of group C were 82.46 ± 14.10%, 81.53 ± 11.81% and 80.83 ± 13.33%. It was concluded that the singleness of DRG puncture route is one of the important reasons for the poor thoracic segments DRG radiofrequency (RF) ablation effect. While according to the type of DRG different positions with double joint puncture path can significantly improve the rate of DRG RF damage.

  11. Structural Damage in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, John F.; Beck, James L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the structural damage in Mexico City caused by the September 19, 1985 earthquake. Photographs which illustrate various features of structural behavior are included. One explanation is presented as to why buildings with fundamental periods of elastic vibration considerably below the predominant two‐second period of the ground motion were most vulnerable to damage.

  12. Unexpected damage and/or failures caused by creep below the limit temperature for creep design; Ovaentade krypskador och/eller haverier orsakade av krypmekanismer under graenstemperaturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Eklund, Anders; Taflin, Anders; Thunvik, Thomas

    2006-07-15

    Recently, several cases of cracking caused by creep have occurred in components operating at temperatures below the specified limit temperature for creep. Components operating below this limit temperature have not been designed with due regard to creep cracking and have accordingly not been subjected to inspection for creep damage. This work has surveyed the extent of these cases of creep damage by reviewing earlier failures and performed metallographic studies of damaged components and made parametric calculations of creep crack growth below the limit temperature. The following critical parameters have been determined for power plants: Creep damage below the transition temperature does not usually occur until operating times above 200.000 hours. Time to rupture differs from ordinary creep crack growth because these cracks have substantially longer incubation time of 20-30 years, with relative low creep deformation, and after that a rapid creep crack growth with only some few years to the creep rupture. Operation at 470-480 deg C, i.e. up to some 10 deg C below the transition temperature for a material like EN 13CrMo4-5, can be expected to result in severe creep damages comparable with ordinary creep failures at stressed locations. Operation at a temperature of 450-460 deg C can give rise to creep damage, however, this damage shows a more sparse occurrence. Creep damaged welds occurring below the limit temperature show cracks at the melting junction of the weld bead in opposite to ordinary creep damages. System stresses can also cause a more rapid crack growth. An international survey also shows that the variation of creep strength values between individual steel batches are just as wide as for ordinary creep. Based on this work, the following complementary recommendations can be issued: Elastic stress analysis (based on expansion calculations) can also be recommended for the identification of areas with intensified stresses. One should also perform a complete

  13. Impact of oxygen concentration on yields of DNA damages caused by ionizing radiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpán, Václav; Davídková, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 101, 012015 (2008), s. 1-4 ISSN 1742-6588. [Radiation Damage in Biomolecular Systems, RADAM'07. Dublin, 19.06.2007-22.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H031; GA ČR GA202/05/2728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiation damage to DNA * oxygen concentration * theoretical modeling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  14. Foam-on-Tile Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.

  15. 75 FR 52710 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; National Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; National Management Information... approval of an information collection associated with cooperative wildlife damage management programs...: For information on the national management information system for cooperative wildlife damage...

  16. Damage tolerant evaluation of cracked stiffened panels under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stiffened panels; stress intensity factor; fatigue and fracture; damage .... Extensive work on fracture analysis of structural components was carried out by using the ... respectively), in view of the transformation matrices related to MQL9S2 FE.

  17. Understanding the distribution of strong motions and the damage caused during the September 19th, 2017 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Leonardo Suárez, M.; Quintanar, L.

    2017-12-01

    On September 19, 2017, a normal fault earthquake of magnitude Mw 7.1 occurred 120 km from Mexico City. The quake generated large accelerations, more than 200 cm/s*s at least in two stations in Mexico City, where there was extensive damage. The damage pattern, which includes more than 40 building collapses, differs from the one induced by the 1985 Michoacan earthquake. While the observed accelerations in stations located in the Hill and Transition zones are the largest ever recorded, in the Lake zone the intensities were lower than those recorded in 1985. Even though the proximity of the epicenter could partially explain the accelerations, other factors need to be explored to understand the nuances of the ground motion. Unlike 1985, there is a substantially larger number of acceleration records in Mexico City, operated and maintained by different institutions. In this paper, we present the analysis of acceleration records and 3D numerical simulations to understand if effects such as focusing and directionality participate in the amplified motion. Finally, transfer functions between Lake and Hill zones and response and design spectral values are analyzed in regions where the building code requirements were exceeded. Acknowledgments: Records used in this research are obtained, processed and maintained by the National Autonomous University of Mexico through the Seismic Instrumentation Unit of the Institute of Engineering and the National Seismological Service of the Institute of Geophysics. The Centro de Intrumentacion y Registro Sismico A.C. (CIRES) kindly provided their records. This Project was funded in part by the Secretaria de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SECITI) of Mexico City. Project SECITI/073/2016.

  18. Absence of superoxide dismutase activity causes nuclear DNA fragmentation during the aging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muid, Khandaker Ashfaqul; Karakaya, Hüseyin Çaglar; Koc, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aging process increases ROS accumulation. • Aging process increases DNA damage levels. • Absence of SOD activity does not cause DNA damage in young cells. • Absence of SOD activity accelerate aging and increase oxidative DNA damages during the aging process. - Abstract: Superoxide dismutases (SOD) serve as an important antioxidant defense mechanism in aerobic organisms, and deletion of these genes shortens the replicative life span in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even though involvement of superoxide dismutase enzymes in ROS scavenging and the aging process has been studied extensively in different organisms, analyses of DNA damages has not been performed for replicatively old superoxide dismutase deficient cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of SOD1, SOD2 and CCS1 genes in preserving genomic integrity in replicatively old yeast cells using the single cell comet assay. We observed that extend of DNA damage was not significantly different among the young cells of wild type, sod1Δ and sod2Δ strains. However, ccs1Δ mutants showed a 60% higher amount of DNA damage in the young stage compared to that of the wild type cells. The aging process increased the DNA damage rates 3-fold in the wild type and more than 5-fold in sod1Δ, sod2Δ, and ccs1Δ mutant cells. Furthermore, ROS levels of these strains showed a similar pattern to their DNA damage contents. Thus, our results confirm that cells accumulate DNA damages during the aging process and reveal that superoxide dismutase enzymes play a substantial role in preserving the genomic integrity in this process

  19. Absence of superoxide dismutase activity causes nuclear DNA fragmentation during the aging process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muid, Khandaker Ashfaqul; Karakaya, Hüseyin Çaglar; Koc, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetkoc@iyte.edu.tr

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Aging process increases ROS accumulation. • Aging process increases DNA damage levels. • Absence of SOD activity does not cause DNA damage in young cells. • Absence of SOD activity accelerate aging and increase oxidative DNA damages during the aging process. - Abstract: Superoxide dismutases (SOD) serve as an important antioxidant defense mechanism in aerobic organisms, and deletion of these genes shortens the replicative life span in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even though involvement of superoxide dismutase enzymes in ROS scavenging and the aging process has been studied extensively in different organisms, analyses of DNA damages has not been performed for replicatively old superoxide dismutase deficient cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of SOD1, SOD2 and CCS1 genes in preserving genomic integrity in replicatively old yeast cells using the single cell comet assay. We observed that extend of DNA damage was not significantly different among the young cells of wild type, sod1Δ and sod2Δ strains. However, ccs1Δ mutants showed a 60% higher amount of DNA damage in the young stage compared to that of the wild type cells. The aging process increased the DNA damage rates 3-fold in the wild type and more than 5-fold in sod1Δ, sod2Δ, and ccs1Δ mutant cells. Furthermore, ROS levels of these strains showed a similar pattern to their DNA damage contents. Thus, our results confirm that cells accumulate DNA damages during the aging process and reveal that superoxide dismutase enzymes play a substantial role in preserving the genomic integrity in this process.

  20. Secondary radiation damage as the main cause for unexpected volume effects: A histopathologic study of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, Antonius W.T.; Faber, Hette; Cotteleer, Femmy; Vissink, Arjan; Coppes, Rob P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate with a histopathological study the mechanism of region-dependent volume effects in the partly irradiated parotid gland of the rat. Methods and Materials: Wistar rats were locally X-irradiated with collimators with conformal radiation portals for 100% volume and 50% cranial/caudal partial volumes. Single doses up to 40 Gy were applied. Parotid saliva samples were collected, and the three lobes of the parotid gland were examined individually on the macro- and micromorphologic level up to 1 year after irradiation. Results: Dose-dependent loss of gland weight was observed 1 year after total or partial X-irradiation. Weight loss of the glands correlated very well with loss of secretory function. Irradiating the cranial 50% volume (implicating a shielded lateral lobe) resulted in substantially more damage in terms of weight loss and loss of secretory function than 50% caudal irradiation (shielding the ventral and dorsal lobe). Histologic examinations of the glands 1 year after irradiation revealed that the shielded lateral lobe was severely affected, in contrast to the shielded ventral and dorsal lobes. Time studies showed that irradiation of the cranial 50% volume caused late development of secondary damage in the shielded lateral lobe, becoming manifest between 240 and 360 days after irradiation. The possible clinical significance of this finding is discussed. Conclusion: It is concluded that the observed region-dependent volume effect for late function loss in the rat parotid gland after partial irradiation is mainly caused by secondary events in the shielded lateral lobe. The most probable first step (primary radiation event) in the development of this secondary damage is radiation exposure to the hilus region (located between the ventral and dorsal lobe). By injuring major excretory ducts and supply routes for blood and nerves in this area, the facility system necessary for proper functioning of the nonexposed lateral lobe is seriously affected

  1. Charging damage in floating metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackaert, Jan; Wang, Zhichun; De Backer, E.; Coppens, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, charging induced damage (CID) to metal-insulator-metal capacitors (MIMC) is reported. The damage is caused by the build up of a voltage potential difference between the two plates of the capacitor. A simple logarithmic relation is discovered between the damage by this voltage

  2. Numerical studies for the analysis of damage caused by gas explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rischbieter, F.; Horneff, W.; Michelmann, K.; Schaepermeier, E.

    1981-08-01

    Within the framework of the establishment of an immediate safety programme for the Nuclear Process Heat Project, analyses and data available from former explosion accidents are to be reviewed for the derivation of information to be included in the safety concept for the nuclear process heat system. This system is characterised by a close linkage, both in terms of function and spatial arrangement, of the explosive process unit and the nuclear unit of the process heat system. The study in hand deals with the numerical investigation of the deflagrational damage analysis. It is arranged into two parts: (1) Analysis of selected aspects of the explosion accident at Flixborough by means of comparative assessment of various scenarios. (2) Computer-aided calculation of the characteristics of damage to window panes as one of very common structural elements of accident analyses. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Regenerative heat treatments for the extension of the creep life of the superalloy IN-738

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.A.; Flewitt, P.E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Uniaxial creep tests have been performed on the cast nickel-base superalloy IN-738 at 1023K and 1123K. Microstructural damage occurring during creep has been characterised using transmission electron microscopy of surface and extraction replicas. Considerable coarsening of the γ' precipitates occurs during creep causing a progressive loss of creep strength. Intermediate heat treatment of interrupted specimens regenerates a microstructure similar to the original, and on re-testing significant creep life extensions are observed. These heat treatments do not completely recover the creep life due to the development of grain boundary cavitation. Additional heat treatments were performed under a superimposed hydrostatic pressure of 138 MPa to remove these cavities. (orig.) [de

  4. Image analysis of epicuticular damage to foliage caused by dry deposition of the air pollutant nitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Pamela E; Parry, Sally D; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Heath, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Nitric acid vapor is produced by the same photochemical processes that produce ozone. In the laboratory, concentrated nitric acid is a strong acid and a powerful oxidant. In the environment, where the concentrations are much lower, it is an innocuous source of plant nitrogen. As an air pollutant, which mode of action does dry deposition of nitric acid follow? We investigated the effects of dry deposition of nitric acid on the foliage of four tree species native to the western United States. A novel controlled environment, fumigation system enabled a four-week exposure at concentrations consistent with ambient diurnal patterns. Scanning electron microscopy and automated image analysis revealed changes in the epicuticular wax layer during fumigation. Exposure to nitric acid resulted in a reproducible suite of damage symptoms that increased with increasing dose. Each tree species tested exhibited a unique set of damage features, including cracks, lesions, and conformation changes to epicuticular crystallite structures. Dry deposition of atmospheric nitric acid caused substantial perturbation to the epicuticular surface of all four tree species investigated, consistent with the chemical oxidation of epicuticular waxes. Automated image analysis eliminated many biases that can trouble microscopy studies. Trade names and commercial enterprises or products are mentioned solely for information. No endorsements by the U.S. Department of Agriculture are implied.

  5. Noninvasive assessment of articular cartilage surface damage using reflected polarized light microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Ruby N.; Nehmetallah, George; Raub, Christopher B.

    2017-06-01

    Articular surface damage occurs to cartilage during normal aging, osteoarthritis, and in trauma. A noninvasive assessment of cartilage microstructural alterations is useful for studies involving cartilage explants. This study evaluates polarized reflectance microscopy as a tool to assess surface damage to cartilage explants caused by mechanical scraping and enzymatic degradation. Adult bovine articular cartilage explants were scraped, incubated in collagenase, or underwent scrape and collagenase treatments. In an additional experiment, cartilage explants were subject to scrapes at graduated levels of severity. Polarized reflectance parameters were compared with India ink surface staining, features of histological sections, changes in explant wet weight and thickness, and chondrocyte viability. The polarized reflectance signal was sensitive to surface scrape damage and revealed individual scrape features consistent with India ink marks. Following surface treatments, the reflectance contrast parameter was elevated and correlated with image area fraction of India ink. After extensive scraping, polarized reflectance contrast and chondrocyte viability were lower than that from untreated explants. As part of this work, a mathematical model was developed and confirmed the trend in the reflectance signal due to changes in surface scattering and subsurface birefringence. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of polarized reflectance microscopy to sensitively assess surface microstructural alterations in articular cartilage explants.

  6. The causes of the Chernobyl event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frot, J.

    2000-11-01

    The Chernobylsk event has two components, the explosion of the RBMK type nuclear reactor number 4 and the sanitary damages that resulted. The causes of the explosion are of three kinds: conception error, management fault, exploitation personnel mistakes and political causes. For the sanitary damages there are the immediate causes and the deep causes. No emergency planning to answer to a such disaster and no iodinated tablets delivery to protect the thyroid for the direct causes. The secret culture made that the knowledge developed by the Soviet researchers was not diffused to the medical and nuclear communities of USSR. The civil authorities were not aware of it or they neglected it. (N.C.)

  7. DNA damage and polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jeremy; Poon, Randy Y C

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that polyploidization triggers chromosomal instability and contributes to tumorigenesis. DNA damage is increasingly being recognized for its roles in promoting polyploidization. Although elegant mechanisms known as the DNA damage checkpoints are responsible for halting the cell cycle after DNA damage, agents that uncouple the checkpoints can induce unscheduled entry into mitosis. Likewise, defects of the checkpoints in several disorders permit mitotic entry even in the presence of DNA damage. Forcing cells with damaged DNA into mitosis causes severe chromosome segregation defects, including lagging chromosomes, chromosomal fragments and chromosomal bridges. The presence of these lesions in the cleavage plane is believed to abort cytokinesis. It is postulated that if cytokinesis failure is coupled with defects of the p53-dependent postmitotic checkpoint pathway, cells can enter S phase and become polyploids. Progress in the past several years has unraveled some of the underlying principles of these pathways and underscored the important role of DNA damage in polyploidization. Furthermore, polyploidization per se may also be an important determinant of sensitivity to DNA damage, thereby may offer an opportunity for novel therapies.

  8. Calculation of the Incremental Conditional Core Damage Probability on the Extension of Allowed Outage Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Han, Sang Hoon

    2006-01-01

    RG 1.177 requires that the conditional risk (incremental conditional core damage probability and incremental conditional large early release probability: ICCDP and ICLERP), given that a specific component is out of service (OOS), be quantified for a permanent change of the allowed outage time (AOT) of a safety system. An AOT is the length of time that a particular component or system is permitted to be OOS while the plant is operating. The ICCDP is defined as: ICCDP = [(conditional CDF with the subject equipment OOS)- (baseline CDF with nominal expected equipment unavailabilities)] [duration of the single AOT under consideration]. Any event enabling the component OOS can initiate the time clock for the limiting condition of operation for a nuclear power plant. Thus, the largest ICCDP among the ICCDPs estimated from any occurrence of the basic events for the component fault tree should be selected for determining whether the AOT can be extended or not. If the component is under a preventive maintenance, the conditional risk can be straightforwardly calculated without changing the CCF probability. The main concern is the estimations of the CCF probability because there are the possibilities of the failures of other similar components due to the same root causes. The quantifications of the risk, given that a subject equipment is in a failed state, are performed by setting the identified event of subject equipment to TRUE. The CCF probabilities are also changed according to the identified failure cause. In the previous studies, however, the ICCDP was quantified with the consideration of the possibility of a simultaneous occurrence of two CCF events. Based on the above, we derived the formulas of the CCF probabilities for the cases where a specific component is in a failed state and we presented sample calculation results of the ICCDP for the low pressure safety injection system (LPSIS) of Ulchin Unit 3

  9. Plasma damage in floating metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackaert, Jan; Wang, Zhichun; De Backer, E.; Coppens, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, charging induced damage (CID) to metal-insulator-metal capacitors (MIMCs), is reported. CID does not necessarily lead to direct yield loss, but may also induce latent damage leading to reliability losses. The damage is caused by the build up of a voltage potential difference between

  10. Plasma Damage in Floating Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackaert, Jan; Wang, Zhichun; Backer, E.; Coppens, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, charging induced damage (CID) to metal-insulator-metal capacitors (MIMCs), is reported. CID does not necessarily lead to direct yield loss, but may also induce latent damage leading to reliability losses. The damage is caused by the build up of a voltage potential difference between

  11. GIS UTILITY FOR HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT EVALUATION CAUSED BY DAMAGES OF WATER SUPPLY NETWORK IN RURAL AREAS. APPLICATIONS IN BAIA MARE DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU ALEXANDRU MARIAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available GIS utility for hydrological impact evaluation caused by damages of water supply network in rural areas. Applications in Baia Mare Depression. Occurrence of a failure within the water supply network is an element of risk with important hydrological implications. Although at first glance you might think that a pipe diameter of only 20 cm can generate large effects, however, in case of significant damage or even burst pipe, a good part of high water flow in the pipe (approx. 25 m3/h on average in the Baia Mare associated with a long duration of failure (several hours may be in the drain area, impact on the local community. Regarding rural settlements, surface drainage allow a quantity of water retention tank underground infiltration but in many cases lack of a sewage system effectively contribute to increased negative consequences related to such damage (flooding farms, roads, crops compromise of flooding or drought in the event of damage to the hot water supply pipe and so on. This paper focuses on the role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS to assess the impact of runoff induced by damages in rural areas. The study therefore spatial aspect, through GIS, on the one hand runoff along the flow path with the start point of the network fault location and view previous hydrological conditions of the terrain, and on the other hand the impact of runoff the rural community. Study area Dumbrăviţa settlement located in Baia Mare Depression. This village is part of water supply system to the south and southeast of Baia Mare.

  12. Radiation damage related to fusion-reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimhall, J.L.

    1982-03-01

    Three reasons why the fusion irradiation environment could produce different damage microstructure will be discussed: (1) the primary damage state induced by a higher energy primary knock-on-spectra; (2) increased helium generation due to high eta, α cross sections; and (3) pulsed operation of the irradiation environment. Examples of the microstructural damage caused by each of the above will be given

  13. NOx emissions from large point sources: variability in ozone production, resulting health damages and economic costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauzerall, D.L.; Namsoug Kim

    2005-01-01

    We present a proof-of-concept analysis of the measurement of the health damage of ozone (O 3 ) produced from nitrogen oxides (NO x =NO+NO 2 ) emitted by individual large point sources in the eastern United States. We use a regional atmospheric model of the eastern United States, the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx), to quantify the variable impact that a fixed quantity of NO x emitted from individual sources can have on the downwind concentration of surface O 3 , depending on temperature and local biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. We also examine the dependence of resulting O 3 -related health damages on the size of the exposed population. The investigation is relevant to the increasingly widely used 'cap and trade' approach to NO x regulation, which presumes that shifts of emission over time and space, holding the total fixed over the course of the summer O 3 season, will have minimal effect on the environmental outcome. By contrast, we show that a shift of a unit of NO x emissions from one place or time to another could result in large changes in resulting health effects due to O 3 formation and exposure. We indicate how the type of modeling carried out here might be used to attach externality-correcting prices to emissions. Charging emitters fees that are commensurate with the damage caused by their NO x emissions would create an incentive for emitters to reduce emissions at times and in locations where they cause the largest damage. (author)

  14. MicroRNAs, the DNA damage response and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, Maikel D.; Gent, Dik C. van; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Pothof, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Many carcinogenic agents such as ultra-violet light from the sun and various natural and man-made chemicals act by damaging the DNA. To deal with these potentially detrimental effects of DNA damage, cells induce a complex DNA damage response (DDR) that includes DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, damage tolerance systems and apoptosis. This DDR is a potent barrier against carcinogenesis and defects within this response are observed in many, if not all, human tumors. DDR defects fuel the evolution of precancerous cells to malignant tumors, but can also induce sensitivity to DNA damaging agents in cancer cells, which can be therapeutically exploited by the use of DNA damaging treatment modalities. Regulation of and coordination between sub-pathways within the DDR is important for maintaining genome stability. Although regulation of the DDR has been extensively studied at the transcriptional and post-translational level, less is known about post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs, the topic of this review. More specifically, we highlight current knowledge about DNA damage responsive microRNAs and microRNAs that regulate DNA damage response genes. We end by discussing the role of DNA damage response microRNAs in cancer etiology and sensitivity to ionizing radiation and other DNA damaging therapeutic agents.

  15. SERIES: Genomic instability in cancer Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Dragony; Calvo, Jennifer A.; Samson, Leona D

    2012-01-01

    Alkylating agents comprise a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including direct DNA damage reversal, base excision repair (BER), and mismatch repair (MMR) respond to alkylation damage to defend against alkylation-induced cell death or mutation. However, maintaining a proper balance of activity both within and between these pathways is crucial fo...

  16. Metallographic examination of fire damages in electronic equipment; Metallographische Untersuchung von Brandschaeden in der Elektronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Katja; Puls, Sebastian [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Siliziumtechnologie, Itzehoe (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Defects in electronic components and defects caused by electronic components are a frequent cause of fire damage. 35 % of examined cases of fire damage are found to be caused by electrical equipment or by the handling of electricity. Fire damage caused by electronic elements and in electronic assemblies may have a multitude of causes. Minor damages occurring during the manufacture of electronic components and assemblies can lead to operational disruptions in electronic devices and to life-threatening situations. In order to reconstruct a fire damage, a complex failure analysis and comprehensive knowledge of the principle of operation of the devices is required. Metallographic target preparation serves to detect and describe faults. Some damage patterns taken from practice are presented and analyzed here.

  17. Smoke damages of forest from the biologic standpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisser, J

    1966-01-01

    Biological aspects of smoke damages are reviewed with special regard to forests. Due to the long exposures, smoke is more harmful to forests than to farm plants. Invisible physiological damages due to protoplasm lesions are counteracted by the regenerative effect of certain enzyme systems. Insoluble solid emissions reduce both light and assimilation, while soluble particles may penetrate into the plant or the soil, causing changes in the vegetation. Damage caused by soot and photochemical smog are detailed. Sulfur dioxide and hydrofluoric acid are two basic gaseous pollutants damaging forests. The importance of the damage is primarily determined by concentration and duration of exposure, with emphasis on concentration. In high concentrations, the substances are dissolved in the mesophyll cell wall fluid, causing point-like necroses. Low concentrations lead to necroses on the ends and edges of leaves and needles. The damages are also influenced by climatic factors. The transpiration and consequently the sensitivity for SO/sub 2/ are dependent of the relative humidity. Sharp increase in sensitivity can be observed from 60% to 90% relative humidity. There is no direct connection between transpiration rate and assimilation performance. High transpiration coefficients are characteristic of dry climates. There is no relation between transpiration and sensitivity, while any factor affecting the cuticular openings influences the extent of the damage. The resistance to smoke cannot be improved in forests by means of fertilizers. Different resistances of various species as well as problems of breeding smoke-resistant species are discussed.

  18. Compensation for oil pollution damage caused by oil spills from ships and the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.

    1994-01-01

    Liability and compensation for pollution damage caused by oil spills from laden tankers is governed by two international conventions: the 1969 Civil Liability Convention and the 1971 Fund Convention. The Civil Liability Convention established a system of strict liability for tanker owners and introduced compulsory liability insurance. The Fund Convention created a system of supplementary compensation administered by an intergovernmental organization, the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPC Fund), which at present has 56 member states (August 1993). The IOPC Fund pays compensation to victims of oil pollution in member states when the compensation from the ship owner and his insurer is insufficient. (author)

  19. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Meinander, O.; Haarala, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)

  20. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, J; Maekinen, E; Meinander, O; Haarala, S [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)

  1. Effects of microwave pulse-width damage on a bipolar transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhen-Yang; Chai Chang-Chun; Ren Xing-Rong; Yang Yin-Tang; Chen Bin; Zhao Ying-Bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the pulse-width effects on the damage process of a typical bipolar transistor caused by high power microwaves (HPMs) through the injection approach. The dependences of the microwave damage power, P, and the absorbed energy, E, required to cause the device failure on the pulse width τ are obtained in the nanosecond region by utilizing the curve fitting method. A comparison of the microwave pulse damage data and the existing dc pulse damage data for the same transistor is carried out. By means of a two-dimensional simulator, ISE-TCAD, the internal damage processes of the device caused by microwave voltage signals and dc pulse voltage signals are analyzed comparatively. The simulation results suggest that the temperature-rising positions of the device induced by the microwaves in the negative and positive half periods are different, while only one hot spot exists under the injection of dc pulses. The results demonstrate that the microwave damage power threshold and the absorbed energy must exceed the dc pulse power threshold and the absorbed energy, respectively. The dc pulse damage data may be useful as a lower bound for microwave pulse damage data. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  2. Vitamin E protects against the mitochondrial damage caused by cyclosporin A in LLC-PK1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriba, G. de; Perez de Hornedo, J.; Ramirez Rubio, S.; Calvino Fernandez, M.; Benito Martinez, S.; Maiques Camarero, M.; Parra Cid, T.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) has nephrotoxic effects known to involve reactive oxygen species (ROS), since antioxidants prevent the kidney damage induced by this drug. Given that mitochondria are among the main sources of intracellular ROS, the aims of our study were to examine the mitochondrial effects of CsA in the porcine renal endothelial cell line LLC-PK1 and the influence of the antioxidant Vitamin E (Vit E). Following the treatment of LLC-PK1 cells with CsA, we assessed the mitochondrial synthesis of superoxide anion, permeability transition pore opening, mitochondrial membrane potential, cardiolipin peroxidation, cytochrome c release and cellular apoptosis, using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy procedures. Similar experiments were done after Vit E preincubation of cells. CsA treatment increased superoxide anion in a dose-dependent way. CsA opened the permeability transition pores, caused Bax migration to mitochondria, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and cardiolipin content. Also CsA released cytochrome c into cytosol and provoked cellular apoptosis. Vit E pretreatment inhibited the effects that CsA induced on mitochondrial structure and function in LLC-PK1 cells and avoided apoptosis. CsA modifies mitochondrial LLC-PK1 cell physiology with loss of negative electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane and increased lipid peroxidation. These features are related to apoptosis and can explain the cellular damage that CsA induces. As Vit E inhibited these effects, our results suggest that they were mediated by an increase in ROS production by mitochondria.

  3. Phonons, defects and optical damage in crystalline acetanilide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosic, Thomas J.; Hill, Jeffrey R.; Dlott, Dana D.

    1986-04-01

    Intense picosecond pulses cause accumulated optical damage in acetanilide crystals at low temperature. Catastrophic damage to the irradiated volume occurs after an incubation period where defects accumulate. The optical damage is monitored with subanosecond time resolution. The generation of defects is studied with damage-detected picosecond spectroscopy. The accumulation of defects is studied by time-resolved coherent Raman scattering, which is used to measure optical phonon scattering from the accumulating defects.

  4. Distribution of Blue Gum Chalcid, Leptocybe invasa and it's Damage on Eucalyptus in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutitu, K.E; Otieno, B.O; Oeba, V.O; Nyeko, P.; Day, R.K

    2007-01-01

    Blue Gum chalcid is a gall-forming wasp, which causes an extensive damage to Eucalyptus. It attacks mostly seedlings and field saplings. It causes damage on it's host by forming massive typical bump-shaped galls on trees canopy, specifically on the leaf midribs, petioles and stems of new growths. The pest was first reported in Kenya and Uganda in 2002 attacking the three major commercially grown Eucalyptus species; Eucalyptus grandis, E. camaldulennsis, E. saligna in East Africa. Eucalyptus is fast growing and widely planted in both plantations and farmers' woodlots. It is important for both industrial and domestic use. It is a major source of income generation for rural poor families. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution, incidence and severity patterns of L. invasa and possible relationship to environment and biophysical factors in East Africa. Over 312 randomly selected stands were assessed for BGC incidence to it's distribution. In each identified stand 60 trees were selected from 3 randomly established plots of 20 trees each and BGC damage/incidence assessed on a 4-point scale. This was to determine the incidence and severity patterns. ANOVA using generalized linear procedures, regression analysis and correlation were done to determine the relationship between the percentage incidence of L. invasa infestation against altitude, age interval, agro-ecological zones and topography. There was widespread of pest in all the districts sampled. There was significant difference (p 0.05) on L. invasa incidence among the three species. The study recommends that. further studies on damage and L. invasa population dynamics relationship to environment and biophysical factors should be conducted

  5. Analysis of localized damage in creep rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengdong; Wu Dongdi

    1992-01-01

    Continuum Damage Mechanics studies the effect of distributed defects, whereas the failure of engineering structures is usually caused by local damage. In this paper, an analysis of localized damage in creep rupture is carried out. The material tested is a 2 1/4Cr-1Mo pressure vessel steel and the material constants necessary for damage analysis are evaluated. Notched specimens are used to reflect localized damage in creep rupture and the amount of damage is measured using DCPD method. Through FEM computation, stress components and effective stress in the region of notch root are evaluated and it is found that the von Mises effective stress can represent the damage effective stress in the analysis of localized creep damage. It is possible to develop a method for the assessment of safety of pressure vessels under creep through localized creep damage analysis. (orig.)

  6. Causes of keel bone damage and their solutions in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlander-Matauschek, A.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Sandilands, V.; Tobalske, B.W.; Toscano, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Keel bone damage (KBD) is a critical issue facing the contemporary laying hen industry due to the likely pain leading to compromised welfare and reduced productivity. Recent reports suggest that KBD, while highly variable and likely dependent on a host of factors, extends to all housing systems

  7. The responsibility of the agents responsible for environmental damage caused by oil spilling in Brazil; A responsabilidade dos agentes causadores de dano ambiental por derramamento de oleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This essay talks about the responsibility of the agents that cause damage to the environment, both civil liability, as well as criminal and administrative responsibility. It analyzes the most important brazilian juridical rules, emphasizing the National Environmental Politics Law, the Brazilian Federal Republic Constitution and the Environmental Crimes Law. Specially, due to the amount and importance of the oil and gas activities in Brazil, it talks about the environmental responsibility, in the above mentioned fields, related to damage resulting from the Oil and Gas Industry's activities. It focuses the rules that rule this subject in the brazilian juridical system, emphasizing the cases of environmental damage resulting from oil spills in Brazil and the probable juridical consequences to the agents responsible for this damage. (author)

  8. Damage development in 9%Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, M.; Maile, K.

    2003-01-01

    Modern 9-11% martensitic steels are candidate materials to be used in modern fossil fired power plants with high efficiency rates. The focus of the R and D work is put on the further development and optimisation, the determination of material characteristics but also on the identification and quantification of damage mechanisms and the damage evolution. For this purpose extensive experiments such as long creep tests on specimens under internal pressure, metallurgical examinations and theoretical investigations for determination of stress-strain state which have been conducted. The laboratory tests are completed by examination of real components. As a result an empirical description of the creep cavity density as a function of deformation and multiaxiality of stress state has been carried out which can be used in further FE-calculations determining the damage state. The results of all metallographical examinations on specimens with different heat treatments and service loads are summarised in a structure atlas and are published for further usage. Damage development, martensitic 9 % Cr steels, creep cavity density, creep tests under multiaxial load, metallographical investigations, and measurements on pipe bends. (author)

  9. Paraquat initially damages cochlear support cells leading to anoikis-like hair cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhui; Sun, Hong; Salvi, Richard; Ding, Dalian

    2018-07-01

    Paraquat (PQ), one of the most widely used herbicides, is extremely dangerous because it generates the highly toxic superoxide radical. When paraquat was applied to cochlear organotypic cultures, it not only damaged the outer hair cells (OHCs) and inner hair cells (IHCs), but also caused dislocation of the hair cell rows. We hypothesized that the dislocation arose from damage to the support cells (SCs) that anchors hair cells within the epithelium. To test this hypothesis, rat postnatal cochlear cultures were treated with PQ. Shortly after PQ treatment, the rows of OHCs separated from one another and migrated radially away from IHCs suggesting loss of cell-cell adhesion that hold the hair cells in proper alignment. Hair cells dislocation was associated with extensive loss of SCs in the organ of Corti, loss of tympanic border cells (TBCs) beneath the basilar membrane, the early appearance of superoxide staining and caspase-8 labeling in SCs below the OHCs and disintegration of E-cadherin and β-catenin in the organ of Corti. Damage to the TBCs and SCs occurred prior to loss of OHC or IHC loss suggesting a form of detachment-induced apoptosis referred to as anoikis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Extension of myocardial necrosis differently affects MIBG retention in heart failure caused by ischaemic heart disease or by dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Cecilia; Giorgetti, Assuero; Gimelli, Alessia; Kusch, Annette; Sereni, Nadia; Marzullo, Paolo; Sambuceti, Gianmario [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); L' Abbate, Antonio [Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)

    2005-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between cardiac sympathetic nervous function (CSNF) and myocardial perfusion/function in patients with heart failure (HF) due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or ischaemic heart disease (CAD). Twenty patients (10 DCM, 10 CAD, 17 males, age 69{+-}5 years) with NYHA class IIIb HF were studied. CSNF was evaluated by early/delayed {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake and regional washout (WO). Myocardial perfusion and function were evaluated by {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin gated single-photon emission tomography (G-SPECT) using a 20-segment model for 400 segments. In each segment, regional MIBG WO was computed as (count density in early images-count density in delayed images/count density in early images) x 100. DCM and CAD showed similar summed rest perfusion score (6.7{+-}5 vs 9.5{+-}5, p=NS) and mean ejection fraction values (29{+-}7% vs 30{+-}9%, p=NS). By contrast, the summed thickening score was higher in DCM than in CAD patients (26{+-}7 vs 17{+-}6, p<0.05). QGS analysis identified akinesis/dyskinesis in 129/137 (94%) severely hypoperfused segments which were considered as damaged. According to the underlying aetiology of HF, marked differences in regional MIBG WO were observed. In fact, within the CAD group, regional MIBG WO was lower in reference than in damaged segments (38{+-}21% vs 46{+-}19%, p<0.05). By contrast, in DCM patients, regional MIBG WO was faster in reference than in damaged segments (49{+-}18% vs 41{+-}30%, p<0.05). When the two groups were directly compared, regional MIBG WO from damaged areas was similar irrespective of the underlying disease, while it was faster in DCM than in CAD patients from reference segments. These data confirm the hypothesis that the presence of myocardial necrosis in HF due to CAD and the consequent loss of neuronal endings cause alterations in regional MIBG WO different from those observed in DCM. (orig.)

  11. EFFICACY OF REMAXOL AND ADEMETHIONINE IN EXPERIMENTAL LIVER DAMAGE CAUSED BY A COMBINATION OF RESERVE-SERIES ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUGS AND ALCOHOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Sukhanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatic and endothelial protective effects of remaxol and S-adenosyl-L-methionine were studied on 24 male rats with liver damage caused by reserve-series antituberculosis drugs in combination with alcohol. The test agents were found to have a unilateral hepatoprotective effect in decreasing the blood levels of triglycerides, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase with a concurrent significant reduction in the manifestations of hyaline-drop and hydropic dystrophy of hepatocytes. Remaxol and ademethionine have the same endothelial protective activity manifested as normalization of an endothelium-dependent vasodilation response and endothelial dysfunction coefficient.

  12. The study of past damaging hydrogeological events for damage susceptibility zonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Damaging Hydrogeological Events are defined as periods during which phenomena, such as landslides, floods and secondary floods, cause damage to people and the environment.

    A Damaging Hydrogeological Event which heavily damaged Calabria (Southern Italy between December 1972, and January 1973, has been used to test a procedure to be utilised in the zonation of a province according to damage susceptibility during DHEs. In particular, we analyzed the province of Catanzaro (2391 km2, an administrative district composed of 80 municipalities, with about 370 000 inhabitants.

    Damage, defined in relation to the reimbursement requests sent to the Department of Public Works, has been quantified using a procedure based on a Local Damage Index. The latter, representing classified losses, has been obtained by multiplying the value of the damaged element and the percentage of damage affecting it.

    Rainfall has been described by the Maximum Return Period of cumulative rainfall, for both short (1, 3, 5, 7, 10 consecutive days and long duration (30, 60, 90, 180 consecutive days, recorded during the event.

    Damage index and population density, presumed to represent the location of vulnerable elements, have been referred to Thiessen polygons associated to rain gauges working at the time of the event.

    The procedure allowed us to carry out a preliminary classification of the polygons composing the province according to their susceptibility to damage during DHEs. In high susceptibility polygons, severe damage occurs during rainfall characterised by low return periods; in medium susceptibility polygons maximum return period rainfall and induced damage show equal levels of exceptionality; in low susceptibility polygons, high return period rainfall induces a low level of damage.

    The east and west sectors of the province show the highest susceptibility, while polygons of the N-NE sector show the lowest

  13. Linking DMN connectivity to episodic memory capacity: What can we learn from patients with medial temporal lobe damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia McCormick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational models predict that focal damage to the Default Mode Network (DMN causes widespread decreases and increases of functional DMN connectivity. How such alterations impact functioning in a specific cognitive domain such as episodic memory remains relatively unexplored. Here, we show in patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE that focal structural damage leads indeed to specific patterns of DMN functional connectivity alterations, specifically decreased connectivity between both medial temporal lobes (MTLs and the posterior part of the DMN and increased intrahemispheric anterior–posterior connectivity. Importantly, these patterns were associated with better and worse episodic memory capacity, respectively. These distinct patterns, shown here for the first time, suggest that a close dialogue between both MTLs and the posterior components of the DMN is required to fully express the extensive repertoire of episodic memory abilities.

  14. Progress on clustered DNA damage in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Li'na; Zhang Hong; Di Cuixia; Zhang Qiuning; Wang Xiaohu

    2012-01-01

    Clustered DNA damage which caused by high LET heavy ion radiation can lead to mutation, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. Promoting apoptosis of cancer cells is always the basis of cancer treatment. Clustered DNA damage has been the hot topic in radiobiology. The detect method is diversity, but there is not a detail and complete protocol to analyze clustered DNA damage. In order to provide reference for clustered DNA damage in the radiotherapy study, the clustered DNA damage characteristics, the latest progresses on clustered DNA damage and the detecting methods are reviewed and discussed in detail in this paper. (authors)

  15. Damage localization by statistical evaluation of signal-processed mode shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Damkilde, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Due to their inherent ability to provide structural information on a local level, mode shapes and their derivatives are utilized extensively for structural damage identification. Typically, more or less advanced mathematical methods are implemented to identify damage-induced discontinuities in th...... is conducted on the basis of T2-statistics. The proposed method is demonstrated in the context of analytical work with a free-vibrating Euler-Bernoulli beam under noisy conditions.......) and subsequent application of a generalized discrete Teager-Kaiser energy operator (GDTKEO) to identify damage-induced mode shape discontinuities. In order to evaluate whether the identified discontinuities are in fact damage-induced, outlier analysis of principal components of the signal-processed mode shapes...

  16. Tissue Damage Caused by Myeloablative, but Not Non-Myeloablative, Conditioning before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Results in Dermal Macrophage Recruitment without Active T-Cell Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van Balen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionConditioning regimens preceding allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT can cause tissue damage and acceleration of the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. T-cell-depleted alloSCT with postponed donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI may reduce GVHD, because tissue injury can be restored at the time of DLI. In this study, we investigated the presence of tissue injury and inflammation in skin during the period of hematologic recovery and immune reconstitution after alloSCT.MethodsSkin biopsies were immunohistochemically stained for HLA class II, CD1a, CD11c, CD40, CD54, CD68, CD86, CD206, CD3, and CD8. HLA class II-expressing cells were characterized as activated T-cells, antigen-presenting cells (APCs, or tissue repairing macrophages. In sex-mismatched patient and donor couples, origin of cells was determined by multiplex analysis combining XY-FISH and fluorescent immunohistochemistry.ResultsNo inflammatory environment due to pretransplant conditioning was detected at the time of alloSCT, irrespective of the conditioning regimen. An increase in HLA class II-positive macrophages and CD3 T-cells was observed 12–24 weeks after myeloablative alloSCT, but these macrophages did not show signs of interaction with the co-localized T-cells. In contrast, during GVHD, an increase in HLA class II-expressing cells coinciding with T-cell interaction was observed, resulting in an overt inflammatory reaction with the presence of activated APC, activated donor T-cells, and localized upregulation of HLA class II expression on epidermal cells. In the absence of GVHD, patient derived macrophages were gradually replaced by donor-derived macrophages although patient-derived macrophages were detectable even 24 weeks after alloSCT.ConclusionConditioning regimens cause tissue damage in the skin, but this does not result in a local increase of activated APC. In contrast to the inflamed situation in GVHD, when interaction takes place between

  17. Continuum Damage Mechanics A Continuum Mechanics Approach to the Analysis of Damage and Fracture

    CERN Document Server

    Murakami, Sumio

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in engineering and technology have brought about serious and enlarged demands for reliability, safety and economy in wide range of fields such as aeronautics, nuclear engineering, civil and structural engineering, automotive and production industry.  This, in turn, has caused more interest in continuum damage mechanics and its engineering applications.   This book aims to give a concise overview of the current state of damage mechanics, and then to show the fascinating possibility of this promising branch of mechanics, and to provide researchers, engineers and graduate students with an intelligible and self-contained textbook.   The book consists of two parts and an appendix.  Part I  is concerned with the foundation of continuum damage mechanics.  Basic concepts of material damage and the mechanical representation of damage state of various kinds are described in Chapters 1 and 2.  In Chapters 3-5, irreversible thermodynamics, thermodynamic constitutive theory and its application ...

  18. Radiation damage characterization in reactor pressure vessel steels with nonlinear ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlack, K. H.; Kim, J.-Y.; Wall, J. J.; Qu, J.; Jacobs, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear generation currently accounts for roughly 20% of the US baseload power generation. Yet, many US nuclear plants are entering their first period of life extension and older plants are currently undergoing assessment of technical basis to operate beyond 60 years. This means that critical components, such as the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), will be exposed to higher levels of radiation than they were originally intended to withstand. Radiation damage in reactor pressure vessel steels causes microstructural changes such as vacancy clusters, precipitates, dislocations, and interstitial loops that leave the material in an embrittled state. The development of a nondestructive evaluation technique to characterize the effect of radiation exposure on the properties of the RPV would allow estimation of the remaining integrity of the RPV with time. Recent research has shown that nonlinear ultrasound is sensitive to radiation damage. The physical effect monitored by nonlinear ultrasonic techniques is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave, arising from the interaction of the ultrasonic wave with microstructural features such as dislocations, precipitates, and their combinations. Current findings relating the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter to increasing levels of neutron fluence for different representative RPV materials are presented

  19. Radiation damage characterization in reactor pressure vessel steels with nonlinear ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, K. H.; Kim, J.-Y.; Wall, J. J.; Qu, J.; Jacobs, L. J.

    2014-02-01

    Nuclear generation currently accounts for roughly 20% of the US baseload power generation. Yet, many US nuclear plants are entering their first period of life extension and older plants are currently undergoing assessment of technical basis to operate beyond 60 years. This means that critical components, such as the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), will be exposed to higher levels of radiation than they were originally intended to withstand. Radiation damage in reactor pressure vessel steels causes microstructural changes such as vacancy clusters, precipitates, dislocations, and interstitial loops that leave the material in an embrittled state. The development of a nondestructive evaluation technique to characterize the effect of radiation exposure on the properties of the RPV would allow estimation of the remaining integrity of the RPV with time. Recent research has shown that nonlinear ultrasound is sensitive to radiation damage. The physical effect monitored by nonlinear ultrasonic techniques is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave, arising from the interaction of the ultrasonic wave with microstructural features such as dislocations, precipitates, and their combinations. Current findings relating the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter to increasing levels of neutron fluence for different representative RPV materials are presented.

  20. Biological and chemical diagnosis of damage to crops caused by air pollution and tracing the source of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Raay, A

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals with the biological and chemical diagnosis of damage of crops caused by air pollution. Field observations were made as well as trials in fumigation chambers. The field work showed a great deal of fluoride contamination near industrial plants. A network of monitoring points was set up around the fluoride-emitting sources. The HF pollution was determined by the limed paper method, the fluoride content of plants, leaf necrosis in some plants, and an impinger and tubes filled with coated silver pellets, directed by a weather-vane. These investigations were carried out in two areas of New Zealand as well as near Delfzijl in Groningen. Fluoride was emitted by factories producing aluminum, superphosphate or sodium triphosphate.

  1. Influence of damage caused by Kr ions and neutrons on electrical properties of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, N.; Gubbini, E.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rattaggi, M.; Seidman, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, new measurements of physical properties of high-resistivity silicon, used in high-energy detectors, are presented. The obtained data contribute to the understanding of the causes which damage the 2electronic characteristics of the detection systems under irradiation of neutrons and ionized particles (Kr). The Hall effect coefficient (R H ) and resistivity (ρ) measurements as a function of temperature (T), for non-irradiated and irradiated by neutrons and Kr ions, were performed. The measurements of the Hall coefficient and resistivity of non-irradiated samples and irradiated at neutron fluences (PHI≤9.9x10 10 n/cm 2 ) and Kr (PHI≤7.5x10 8 Kr/cm 2 ), have shown that the obtained characteristics, R H (T) and ρ(T), are of the same shape as those known for a silicon single crystal. A slight difference of the slope of ln ρ∼ln T, for neutron- and a large difference for Kr ion irradiation as compared with that of non-irradiated samples, was observed. On increasing the irradiation to PHI larger than the value indicated above, for neutrons and Kr ions, important changes in the physical properties were observed. The resistivity increases with increasing PHI, up to a value of the same order with intrinsic silicon (ρ∼10 5 Ω cm), for both neutron and Kr ion irradiation. The values of R H increase with increasing PHI up to a fluence, for which a change of sign, from negative to positive, occurs. The variation of values of R H and ρ as a function of PHI, for neutrons and Kr ions, is similar, but the characteristics R H (PHI) and ρ(PHI), are displaced. Therefore, larger values of PHI are needed in order to obtain the same values of ρ as those for Kr ion irradiation. The dependence on T of electrical parameters of samples, irradiated at PHI≥9.9x10 10 n/cm 2 (neutrons) and PHI≥7.5x10 8 Kr/cm 3 (ions), cannot be explained, considering the usual theoretical relations. The results, obtained in these experiments, have shown a change of mechanism of

  2. Uncertainty in urban flood damage assessment due to urban drainage modelling and depth-damage curve estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, G; La Loggia, G; Notaro, V

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increased occurrence of flooding events in urban areas, many procedures for flood damage quantification have been defined in recent decades. The lack of large databases in most cases is overcome by combining the output of urban drainage models and damage curves linking flooding to expected damage. The application of advanced hydraulic models as diagnostic, design and decision-making support tools has become a standard practice in hydraulic research and application. Flooding damage functions are usually evaluated by a priori estimation of potential damage (based on the value of exposed goods) or by interpolating real damage data (recorded during historical flooding events). Hydraulic models have undergone continuous advancements, pushed forward by increasing computer capacity. The details of the flooding propagation process on the surface and the details of the interconnections between underground and surface drainage systems have been studied extensively in recent years, resulting in progressively more reliable models. The same level of was advancement has not been reached with regard to damage curves, for which improvements are highly connected to data availability; this remains the main bottleneck in the expected flooding damage estimation. Such functions are usually affected by significant uncertainty intrinsically related to the collected data and to the simplified structure of the adopted functional relationships. The present paper aimed to evaluate this uncertainty by comparing the intrinsic uncertainty connected to the construction of the damage-depth function to the hydraulic model uncertainty. In this way, the paper sought to evaluate the role of hydraulic model detail level in the wider context of flood damage estimation. This paper demonstrated that the use of detailed hydraulic models might not be justified because of the higher computational cost and the significant uncertainty in damage estimation curves. This uncertainty occurs mainly

  3. TMI-2 core damage: a summary of present knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.E.; Mason, R.E.; Meininger, R.D.; Franz, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive fuel damage (oxidation and fragmentation) has occurred and the top approx. 1.5 m of the center portion of the TMI-2 core has relocated. The fuel fragmentation extends outward to slightly beyond one-half the core radius in the direction examined by the CCTV camera. While the radial extent of core fragmentation in other directions was not directly observed, control and spider drop data and in-core instrument data suggest that the core void is roughly symmetrical, although there are a few indications of severe fuel damage extending to the core periphery. The core material fragmented into a broad range of particle sizes, extending down to a few microns. APSR movement data, the observation of damaged fuel assemblies hanging unsupported from the bottom of the reactor upper plenum structure, and the observation of once-molten stainless steel immediately above the active core indicate high temperatures (up to at least 1720 K) extended to the very top of the core. The relative lack of damage to the underside of the plenum structure implies a sharp temperature demarcation at the core/plenum interface. Filter debris and leadscrew deposit analyses indicate extensive high temperature core materials interaction, melting of the Ag-In-Cd control material, and transport of particulate control material to the plenum and out of the vessel

  4. Individual vs. overarching protection for minimizing the expected damage caused by an attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell; Dai, Yuanshun

    2013-01-01

    The article considers a system consisting of identical elements which can be protected and attacked individually and collectively. The system is aimed at supplying a demand. If, following the attack, the cumulative performance of the elements becomes less than the demand the damage proportional to the unsupplied demand is inflicted. Additional damage is associated with the destruction of the equipment. To destroy any system element the attacker always must penetrate/destroy the collective (overarching) protection. Both the attacker and the defender have limited resources and can distribute them freely between the two types of attack and protection. The attacker chooses the resource distribution and the number of attacked elements to maximize the expected damage associated with equipment losses and unsupplied demand. The defender chooses the resource distribution and the number of protected elements to minimize the system destruction probability. The bi-contest minmax game is formulated and its solutions are presented and analyzed. The influence of the game parameters on the optimal defense and attack strategies is discussed

  5. Experience with fuel damage caused by abnormal conditions in handling and transporting operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to determine the expected condition of spent USA light-water reactor (LWR) fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or, if fuel is declared a waste, at disposal facilities. Initial findings were described in an earlier PNL paper at PATRAM '80 and in a report. Updated findings are described in this paper, which includes an evaluation of information obtained from the literature and a compilation of cases of known or suspected damage to fuel as a result of handling and/or transporting operations. To date, PNL has evaluated 123 actual cases (98 USA and 25 non-USA). Irradiated fuel was involved in all but 10 of the cases. From this study, it is calculated that the frequency of unusual occurrences involving fuel damage from handling and transporting operations has been low. The damage that did occur was generally minor. The current base of experience with fuel handling and transporting operations indicates that nearly all of these unusual occurrences had only a minor or negligible effect on spent fuel storage facility operations

  6. The complexity of DNA damage: relevance to biological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes both singly and multiply damaged sites in DNA when the range of radical migration is limited by the presence of hydroxyl radical scavengers (e.g. within cells). Multiply damaged sites are considered to be more biologically relevant because of the challenges they present to cellular repair mechanisms. These sites occur in the form of DNA double-strand breaks (dsb) but also as other multiple damages that can be converted to dsb during attempted repair. The presence of a dsb can lead to loss of base sequence information and/or can permit the two ends of a break to separate and rejoin with the wrong partner. (Multiply damaged sites may also be the biologically relevant type of damage caused by other agents, such as UVA, B and/or C light, and some antitumour antibiotics). The quantitative data available from radiation studies of DNA are shown to support the proposed mechanisms for the production of complex damage in cellular DNA, i.e. via scavengable and non-scavengable mechanisms. The yields of complex damages can in turn be used to support the conclusion that cellular mutations are a consequence of the presence of these damages within a gene. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of melioration area damage on the river Danube caused by the hydroelectric power plant 'Djerdap 1' backwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic, P; Andjelic, L; Urosevic, U; Polomcic, D

    2014-01-01

    Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) 'Djerdap 1' formed a backwater effect on the Danube and its tributaries, which had an inevitable influence on groundwater level, causing it to rise and thus creating additional threats to all melioration areas on more than 300 km of the Danube riversides, as well as on the riversides of its tributaries: the Sava (100 km) and the Tisa (60 km). In this paper, the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on some characteristic melioration areas (34 in all) has been analyzed. In most of these areas intensive agricultural activity has always been present. An assessment of agricultural production damage was carried out by complex hydrodynamic calculations (60 calculation profiles) for different backwater regimes, with the aim to precisely quantify the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on groundwater piezometric levels. Combining them with complex agroeconomic analyses, the aim is to quantify agricultural production damage and to consider the perspective of melioration area users. This method, which combines two different, but compatible, aspects of the melioration area threat assessment (hydrodynamic and agroeconomic), may present a quality base for further agricultural production threat assessment on all melioration areas on the Danube riversides, with the final aim to consider the economic effects and the importance of its further protection.

  8. Neutron induced radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    1977-01-01

    We derive a general expression for the number of displaced atoms of type j caused by a primary knock-on of type i. The Kinchin-Pease model is used, but considerably generalised to allow for realistic atomic potentials. Two cases are considered in detail: the single particle problem causing a cascade and the neutron initiated problem which leads to multiple subcascades. Numerical results have been obtained for a variety of scattering laws. An important conclusion is that neutron initiated damage is much more severe than atom-initiated damage and leads to the number of displaced atoms being a factor of (A+1) 2 /4A larger than the single primary knock-on theory predicts. A is the ratio of the atomic mass to the neutron mass. The importance of this result to the theory of neutron sputtering is explained. (orig.) [de

  9. Post-failure metallurgical investigation of KNK steam generator tube damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, H; Herberg, G

    1975-07-01

    In September 1973 the sodium-cooled reactor KNK was shut down due to a steam generator tube damage. Failure location and results of the metallurgical examination of the damage are described. The cause of the damage is discussed. (author)

  10. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  11. Radiation Damage and Dimensional Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Barbary, A.A.; Lebda, H.I.; Kamel, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The dimensional changes have been modeled in order to be accommodated in the reactor design. This study has major implications for the interpretation of damage in carbon based nuclear fission and fusion plant materials. Radiation damage of graphite leads to self-interstitials and vacancies defects. The aggregation of these defects causes dimensional changes. Vacancies aggregate into lines and disks which heal and contract the basal planes. Interstitials aggregate into interlayer disks which expand the dimension

  12. SERIES: Genomic instability in cancer Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dragony; Calvo, Jennifer A.; Samson, Leona D

    2013-01-01

    Alkylating agents comprise a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including direct DNA damage reversal, base excision repair (BER), and mismatch repair (MMR) respond to alkylation damage to defend against alkylation-induced cell death or mutation. However, maintaining a proper balance of activity both within and between these pathways is crucial for an organism's favorable response to alkylating agents. Furthermore, an individual's response to alkylating agents can vary considerably from tissue to tissue and from person to person, pointing to genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that modulate alkylating agent toxicity. PMID:22237395

  13. Modification of Concrete Damaged Plasticity model. Part II: Formulation and numerical tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska Inez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A refined model for elastoplastic damaged material is formulated based on the plastic potential introduced in Part I [1]. Considered model is an extension of Concrete Damaged Plasticity material implemented in Abaqus [2]. In the paper the stiffness tensor for elastoplastic damaged behaviour is derived. In order to validate the model, computations for the uniaxial tests are performed. Response of the model for various cases of parameter’s choice is shown and compared to the response of the CDP model.

  14. Contribution to the microchemistry of smoke damage by fluoride. The migration of fluorides in plant tissue. 2. The visible damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckendorfer, P

    1953-01-01

    In continuation of former investigations, a theory of damage caused by fluorine compounds on green plants was developed. It is possible to differentiate between acute and chronic damages by use of microanalytical estimation of total fluorine and inorganic and organic fluorine compounds in the plants.

  15. SUM06 Index for Damage to Flora from Ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In addition to health effects in humans, Ozone exposure also causes damage to plants. One index used in calculating the potential damage to plants from Ozone...

  16. Thermal annealing of natural, radiation-damaged pyrochlore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zietlow, Peter; Beirau, Tobias; Mihailova, Boriana; Groat, Lee A.; Chudy, Thomas; Shelyug, Anna; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Ewing, Rodney C.; Schlüter, Jochen; Škoda, Radek; Bismayer, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Abstract

    Radiation damage in minerals is caused by the α-decay of incorporated radionuclides, such as U and Th and their decay products. The effect of thermal annealing (400–1000 K) on radiation-damaged pyrochlores has been investigated by Raman scattering, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and combined differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry (DSC/TG). The analysis of three natural radiation-damaged pyrochlore samples from Miass/Russia [6.4 wt% Th, 23.1·10

  17. Analysis of the causes and recommendations on elimination of biological damage of structures during the repair and reconstruction of the State Biological Museum in Moscow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamskov Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of mycological research on buildings of the State Biological Museum located in Moscow. The problems have been considered as for a complex of buildings of the State Biological Museum built in the late nineteenth century which, to the present time, has been operated almost in its original form. Over time, the building maintenance conditions have worsened, in particular because of construction of high-rise buildings in the immediate vicinity of the museum, as well as construction of a greenhouse above the underground passage tunnel between buildings 1 and 2. Over the years, the temperature gradients, high humidity, wear and damage of wall waterproofing and foundations have caused leaks in the underpass tunnel and the biological corrosion of stone, wood and metal structures in indoor exhibition halls. In this connection, part of the survey was to determine the types and size of biological lesions in structures, determination of the causes of biological damage, and the development of measures to eliminate the mycological problems during repair and reconstruction works in the museum.

  18. Radioprotective Effect of Alk(enyl Thiosulfates Derived from Allium Vegetables against DNA Damage Caused by X-Ray Irradiation in Cultured Cells: Antiradiation Potential of Onions and Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sook Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate a radioprotective effect of sodium n-propyl thiosulfate (NPTS and sodium 2-propenyl thiosulfate (2PTS derived from onions and garlic, respectively, rat hepatoma H4IIE cells and mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells were preincubated with each of these compounds for 48 hours at 37°C before receiving 10 Gy of X-ray irradiation. Cell damage caused by the irradiation was quantified as comet tail moment, which represents the degree of DNA damage. X-ray-induced DNA damage was significantly decreased in both H4IIE and L5178Y cells by micromolar concentrations of NPTS and 2PTS compared with the control without the compounds. The protective effect was more potent with 2PTS than NPTS. Onions and garlic have antiradiation potential.

  19. Flood damage curves for consistent global risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moel, Hans; Huizinga, Jan; Szewczyk, Wojtek

    2016-04-01

    Assessing potential damage of flood events is an important component in flood risk management. Determining direct flood damage is commonly done using depth-damage curves, which denote the flood damage that would occur at specific water depths per asset or land-use class. Many countries around the world have developed flood damage models using such curves which are based on analysis of past flood events and/or on expert judgement. However, such damage curves are not available for all regions, which hampers damage assessments in those regions. Moreover, due to different methodologies employed for various damage models in different countries, damage assessments cannot be directly compared with each other, obstructing also supra-national flood damage assessments. To address these problems, a globally consistent dataset of depth-damage curves has been developed. This dataset contains damage curves depicting percent of damage as a function of water depth as well as maximum damage values for a variety of assets and land use classes (i.e. residential, commercial, agriculture). Based on an extensive literature survey concave damage curves have been developed for each continent, while differentiation in flood damage between countries is established by determining maximum damage values at the country scale. These maximum damage values are based on construction cost surveys from multinational construction companies, which provide a coherent set of detailed building cost data across dozens of countries. A consistent set of maximum flood damage values for all countries was computed using statistical regressions with socio-economic World Development Indicators from the World Bank. Further, based on insights from the literature survey, guidance is also given on how the damage curves and maximum damage values can be adjusted for specific local circumstances, such as urban vs. rural locations, use of specific building material, etc. This dataset can be used for consistent supra

  20. Fast neutron damage in germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.

    1979-10-01

    The effects of fast neutron radiation damage on the performance of both Ge(Li) and Ge(HP) detectors have been studied during the past decade and will be summarized. A review of the interaction processes leading to the defect structures causing trapping will be made. The neutron energy dependence of observable damage effects will be considered in terms of interaction and defect production cross sections

  1. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  2. Enterococcus faecalis Infection Causes Inflammation, Intracellular Oxphos-Independent ROS Production, and DNA Damage in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A. B; Desler, Claus; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Achlorhydria caused by e.g. atrophic gastritis allows for bacterial overgrowth, which induces chronic inflammation and damage to the mucosal cells of infected individuals driving gastric malignancies and cancer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) can colonize achlohydric stomachs and we...... therefore wanted to study the impact of E. faecalis infection on inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial genetic stability in gastric mucosal cells. Methods To separate the changes induced by bacteria from those of the inflammatory cells...... we established an in vitro E. faecalis infection model system using the gastric carcinoma cell line MKN74. Total ROS and superoxide was measured by fluorescence microscopy. Cellular oxygen consumption was characterized non-invasively using XF24 microplate based respirometry. Gene expression...

  3. Focused ion beam damage to MOS integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Campbell, Ann N.; Hembree, Charles E.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Jessing, Jeffrey R.; Soden, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    Commercial focused ion beam (FIB) systems are commonly used to image integrated circuits (ICS) after device processing, especially in failure analysis applications. FIB systems are also often employed to repair faults in metal lines for otherwise functioning ICS, and are being evaluated for applications in film deposition and nanofabrication. A problem that is often seen in FIB imaging and repair is that ICS can be damaged during the exposure process. This can result in degraded response or out-right circuit failure. Because FIB processes typically require the surface of an IC to be exposed to an intense beam of 30--50 keV Ga + ions, both charging and secondary radiation damage are potential concerns. In previous studies, both types of effects have been suggested as possible causes of device degradation, depending on the type of device examined and/or the bias conditions. Understanding the causes of this damage is important for ICS that are imaged or repaired by a FIB between manufacture and operation, since the performance and reliability of a given IC is otherwise at risk in subsequent system application. In this summary, the authors discuss the relative roles of radiation damage and charging effects during FIB imaging. Data from exposures of packaged parts under controlled bias indicate the possibility for secondary radiation damage during FIB exposure. On the other hand, FIB exposure of unbiased wafers (a more common application) typically results in damage caused by high-voltage stress or electrostatic discharge. Implications for FIB exposure and subsequent IC use are discussed

  4. Genetic damage caused by methyl-parathion in mouse spermatozoa is related to oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina-Guzman, B.; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Rojas-Garcia, A.E.; Uriostegui-Acosta, M.; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2006-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) pesticides are considered genotoxic mainly to somatic cells, but results are not conclusive. Few studies have reported OP alterations on sperm chromatin and DNA, and oxidative stress has been related to their toxicity. Sperm cells are very sensitive to oxidative damage which has been associated with reproductive dysfunctions. We evaluated the effects of methyl-parathion (Me-Pa; a widely used OP) on sperm DNA, exploring the sensitive stage(s) of spermatogenesis and the relationship with oxidative stress. Male mice (10-12-weeks old) were administered Me-Pa (3-20 mg/kg bw/i.p.) and euthanized at 7- or 28-days post-treatment. Mature spermatozoa were obtained and evaluated for chromatin structure through SCSA (Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay; DNA Fragmentation Index parameters: Mean DFI and DFI%) and chromomycin-A 3 (CMA 3 )-staining, for DNA damage through in situ-nick translation (NT-positive) and for oxidative stress through lipid peroxidation (LPO; malondialdehyde production). At 7-days post-treatment (mature spermatozoa when Me-Pa exposure), dose-dependent alterations in chromatin structure (Mean DFI and CMA 3 -staining) were observed, as well as increased DNA damage, from 2-5-fold in DFI% and NT-positive cells. Chromatin alterations and DNA damage were also observed at 28-days post-treatment (cells at meiosis at the time of exposure); suggesting that the damage induced in spermatocytes was not repaired. Positive correlations were observed between LPO and sperm DNA-related parameters. These data suggest that oxidative stress is related to Me-Pa alterations on sperm DNA integrity and cells at meiosis (28-days post-treatment) and epididymal maturation (7-days post-treatment) are Me-Pa targets. These findings suggest a potential risk of Me-Pa to the offspring after transmission

  5. Transliterating transmission of genome damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovinska, L.; Sanova, S.; Misurova, E.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the influence of gamma radiation (3 Gy) on slowly proliferating liver tissue of male rats and their progeny considering to induction and duration of latent damage. The irradiation caused latent cytogenetic damage in the liver in irradiated males of the F 0 generation manifesting itself during induced proliferation of hepatocytes (after partial hepatectomy) by reduced proliferating activity, a higher frequency of chromosomal aberrations and higher proportion of cells with apoptotic DNA fragments. In the progeny of irradiated males (F 1 and F 2 generation), the latent genome damage manifested itself during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy by similar, but less pronounced changes compared with irradiated males of the parental generation. This finding indicates the transfer of the part of radiation-induced genome damage from parents to their progeny. Irradiation of F 1 and F 2 progeny of irradiated males (their total radiation load was 3+3 Gy, 3+0+3 Gy respectively) caused less changes as irradiation of progeny of non-irradiated control males (their total radiation load was 0+3 Gy, 0+0+3 Gy respectively). (authors)

  6. Arachnoid Pit and Extensive Sinus Pnematization as the Cause of Spontaneous Lateral Intrasphenoidal Encephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AlMontasheri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral sphenoid encephalocele, especially within the lateral aspect of the sphenoid sinus, when the sphenoid sinus has pneumatized extensively into the pterygoid recess, are considered exceedingly rare. We report a rare case of lateral intrasphenoidal encephalocele with spontaneous cerebral spinal fluid (CSF rhinorrhea. Computed tomography demonstrated bilateral arachnoid pit, extensive sphenoid sinus pneumatization, and a defect in the superior wall of the left lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated anteromedial temporal lobe herniating through the bony defect.

  7. [Nursing Experience With a Patient With Gastrostomy Leakage Resulting in Moisture-Associated Skin Damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Yu; Hsu, Hsiao-Hui; Lyu, Ji-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Leakage is a common complication of gastrostomy. Exposure of the skin surrounding the gastrostomy tube to moisture or chemical irritants may cause moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) and seriously affect the patient's quality of life. This case study describes a nursing experience with gastrostomy leakage that resulted in MASD. An assessment conducted from July 29, 2015 to August 20, 2015 revealed that heavy gastronomy leakage had caused extensive skin erosion, ulceration, hyperplasia, and superficial infection. Simultaneously, the patient was required to conduct complex stoma care, which resulted in physical and psychological exhaustion. Changes in traditional tube and wound care were discussed on multiple occasions with an interdisciplinary healthcare team. Based on the evidence-based literature, we provide gastrostomy and MASD management strategies. Through team collaboration, we prevented gastric contents from contacting the patient's skin directly, improved patient comfort, controlled effluent and skin infections, maintained fluid and electrolyte balances, and acce-lerated the healing of the damaged skin. We recommend that healthcare professionals caring for patients with gastrostomy leakage be provided with early skin protection programs to learn the standard methods for identifying and correcting leakage factors, containing effluent, and adequately stabilizing the gastrostomy tube in order to reduce the impact on the patient's quality of life. In addition, patient education on tube and skin care should be provided to prevent the reoccurrence of complications.

  8. Experience with leaf analysis in smoke damage tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garber, K

    1960-01-01

    The role of chemical analysis in examining plant material for damage caused by smoke is discussed. Most difficult is the diagnosis of SO/sub 2/ damage, even in case of leaf discoloration, because this symptom is not specific. An increased content of sulfur in leaves can be an indication of damage by SO/sub 2/ but this proof is not reliable, since plants can manifest elevated sulfur levels through intake from the soil. A quantitative micromethod for the detection of SO/sub 2/ in fresh leaves has been developed by G. Bredemann and H. Radeloff. Hydrochloric acid and chlorine can also be detected by a micromethod (AgNO/sub 3/) but there is no proof of damage because the natural chloride content in plants fluctuates widely. The same holds for NO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 3/. Ammonia can be detected microchemically with great reliability; fluorine can also be detected microchemically and positive tests usually indicate reliably the cause of damage, but the fluorine test is not always reliable. A microchemical test also exists for asphalt and tar vapors. Thus, if the circumstances of the damage and local conditions are known, microchemical leaf analysis is useful as an auxiliary method in attributing damage to a specific agent. But leaf analysis by itself does not constitute conclusive proof. 12 references.

  9. Relation among different parameters of damaged starch content, falling number and mechanical damage level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živančev Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents examination of damaged starch content expressed by different parameters, which were obtained by iodometric method presented by the Chopin Company using their SD matic instrument on wheat flour samples. Two wheat samples were similar by protein level (14.6 and 14.2% on dry basis matter and different by Falling number values (409 and 121 s. Wheat flours were gained by single-stage and two-stage extraction in laboratory milling system. Eight independent measurements of every wheat flour sample were statistically analyzed by method of variance. It was found that Chopin iodometric method shows that damaged starch content expressed by different parameters is related to Falling number value and damage caused by the pressure and shear forces generated during roller milling.

  10. A damage-tolerant glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Marios D; Launey, Maximilien E; Garrett, Glenn; Schramm, Joseph P; Hofmann, Douglas C; Johnson, William L; Ritchie, Robert O

    2011-02-01

    Owing to a lack of microstructure, glassy materials are inherently strong but brittle, and often demonstrate extreme sensitivity to flaws. Accordingly, their macroscopic failure is often not initiated by plastic yielding, and almost always terminated by brittle fracture. Unlike conventional brittle glasses, metallic glasses are generally capable of limited plastic yielding by shear-band sliding in the presence of a flaw, and thus exhibit toughness-strength relationships that lie between those of brittle ceramics and marginally tough metals. Here, a bulk glassy palladium alloy is introduced, demonstrating an unusual capacity for shielding an opening crack accommodated by an extensive shear-band sliding process, which promotes a fracture toughness comparable to those of the toughest materials known. This result demonstrates that the combination of toughness and strength (that is, damage tolerance) accessible to amorphous materials extends beyond the benchmark ranges established by the toughest and strongest materials known, thereby pushing the envelope of damage tolerance accessible to a structural metal.

  11. Structural damage in masonry : Developing diagnostic decision support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vent, I.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the diagnosis of structural damage in traditional masonry: cracks, deformations and tilts. Establishing the cause of this type of damage can be difficult. This research project has aimed to improve and facilitate the diagnostic process by offering support in the initial phase

  12. Spectroellipsometric detection of silicon substrate damage caused by radiofrequency sputtering of niobium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Tivadar; Serényi, Miklós; Szilágyi, Edit; Zolnai, Zsolt; Czigány, Zsolt; Khánh, Nguyen Quoc; Petrik, Péter; Fried, Miklós

    2017-11-01

    Substrate surface damage induced by deposition of metal atoms by radiofrequency (rf) sputtering or ion beam sputtering onto single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface has been characterized earlier by electrical measurements. The question arises whether it is possible to characterize surface damage using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). In our experiments niobium oxide layers were deposited by rf sputtering on c-Si substrates in gas mixture of oxygen and argon. Multiple angle of incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were performed, a four-layer optical model (surface roughness layer, niobium oxide layer, native silicon oxide layer and ion implantation-amorphized silicon [i-a-Si] layer on a c-Si substrate) was created in order to evaluate the spectra. The evaluations yielded thicknesses of several nm for the i-a-Si layer. Better agreement could be achieved between the measured and the generated spectra by inserting a mixed layer (with components of c-Si and i-a-Si applying the effective medium approximation) between the silicon oxide layer and the c-Si substrate. High depth resolution Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements were performed to investigate the interface disorder between the deposited niobium oxide layer and the c-Si substrate. Atomic resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy investigation was applied to visualize the details of the damaged subsurface region of the substrate.

  13. Meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Diagnosis with diffusion-weighted MRI leading to treatment with corticosteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorens, Philippe G.; Demey, Hendrik E.; Parizel, Paul M.; Smets, Katrien; Jadoul, Kris; Verbeek, M.M.; Wevers, R.A.; Cras, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of bacterial meningitis but only rarely causes other infections such as brain abscess, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis or meningoencephalitis. We report on three adult patients with meningoencephalitis caused by S. pneumoniae. In all three, CT and MRI revealed widespread brain lesions, suggesting extensive parenchymal injury. Diffusion-weighted MRI showed lesions with restricted diffusion, reflecting local areas of ischaemia with cytotoxic oedema secondary to an immunologically mediated necrotising vasculitis and thrombosis. High levels of markers of neuronal, glial and myelin damage were found in the cerebrospinal fluid. According to the literature, brain parenchyma lesions in adults with pneumococcal meningoencephalitis are often associated with death or severe neurological deficit. Our patients were treated with pulse doses of glucocorticoids: this resulted in dramatic clinical improvement and an excellent final neurological recovery. (orig.)

  14. Meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Diagnosis with diffusion-weighted MRI leading to treatment with corticosteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorens, Philippe G.; Demey, Hendrik E. [University Hospital of Antwerp, UZA, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Edegem (Belgium); Parizel, Paul M. [University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Smets, Katrien [University of Antwerp, Department of Neurology, Edegem (Belgium); General Hospital AZ Middelares, Department of Neurology, Sint-Niklaas (Belgium); Jadoul, Kris [General Hospital AZ Middelares, Department of Neurology, Sint-Niklaas (Belgium); Verbeek, M.M.; Wevers, R.A. [University Hospital of Nijmegen, Laboratory of Paediatrics and Neurology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Cras, Patrick [University of Antwerp, Department of Neurology, Edegem (Belgium)

    2005-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of bacterial meningitis but only rarely causes other infections such as brain abscess, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis or meningoencephalitis. We report on three adult patients with meningoencephalitis caused by S. pneumoniae. In all three, CT and MRI revealed widespread brain lesions, suggesting extensive parenchymal injury. Diffusion-weighted MRI showed lesions with restricted diffusion, reflecting local areas of ischaemia with cytotoxic oedema secondary to an immunologically mediated necrotising vasculitis and thrombosis. High levels of markers of neuronal, glial and myelin damage were found in the cerebrospinal fluid. According to the literature, brain parenchyma lesions in adults with pneumococcal meningoencephalitis are often associated with death or severe neurological deficit. Our patients were treated with pulse doses of glucocorticoids: this resulted in dramatic clinical improvement and an excellent final neurological recovery. (orig.)

  15. A review on radiation damage of erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junling; Wang Weidong; Qin Guangyong

    2007-01-01

    Biomembrane has very important biological function. Its damage will seriously disturb the directivity, the orderly nature and coordination of cell metabolism, and finally causes the cell death. This paper reviewed the effects of radiation damage on erythrocyte membrane in membrane composition, membrane function and oxidation resistance system. (authors)

  16. Civil Liability for Environmental Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ciochină

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.

  17. Understanding transportation-caused rangeland damage in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshkamat, S S; Tsendbazar, N E; Zuidgeest, M H P; Shiirev-Adiya, S; van der Veen, A; van Maarseveen, M F A M

    2013-01-15

    Mongolia, a vast and sparsely populated semi-arid country, has very little formal road infrastructure. Since the 1990s, private ownership and usage of vehicles has been increasing, which has created a web of dirt track corridors due to the communal land tenure and unobstructed terrain, with some of these corridors reaching over 4 km in width. This practice aids wind- and water-aided erosion and desertification, causing enormous negative environmental effects. Little is being done to counter the phenomenon, mainly because the logic of the driving behaviour that causes this dirt road widening is not fully understood. The research in this article postulates that this driving behaviour has rational foundations and is linked to various geographical factors (natural and man-made geographical features). We analysed 11,000 km of arterial routes in the country using spatial statistics and determined that geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis offers a good explanation for whether, and by how much, the selected geographical factors affect the creation of corridor widths and how their effect varies across the landscape. We determined that corridor widths are correlated to factors such as proximity to river crossings, traffic intensity, and vegetation abundance. Knowing these factors can help local planners and engineers design counter-measures that could help to control and reduce the widths of these corridors, until paved roads can replace the dirt track corridors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of residual defects caused by extension ion implantation in FinFETs on parasitic resistance and its fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Takashi; Liu, Yongxun; Mori, Takahiro; Morita, Yukinori; Otsuka, Shintaro; O'uchi, Shin-ichi; Fuketa, Hiroshi; Migita, Shinji; Masahara, Meishoku

    2017-06-01

    The influence of extension doping on parasitic resistance and its variability has been investigated for FinFETs. Electrical characterization of FinFETs and crystallinity evaluation of the doped fin structure are carried out for different fin thicknesses and different donor species for ion implantation, i.e., As and P. Reducing the fin thickness and the use of donor species with a larger mass cause serious degradation in the variability and median value of the parasitic resistance. Crystallinity evaluation by transmission electron microscope reveals that significant crystal defects remain after dopant activation annealing for the cases of smaller fin thickness and the implanted dopant with a larger mass. The unrecovered defects cause serious degradation in the parasitic resistance and its variability. In 1998, he joined the Electrotechnical Laboratory, which is former organization of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). He has been working on development of front-end process technology, variability issues of the FinFETs and technologies for suppressing the variability. He is now a group leader of the AIST and leads the research on the silicon-based CMOS devices. He is a member of the IEEE Electron Devices Society, and the Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  19. Tributyltin exposure causes brain damage in Sebastiscus marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Zuo, Zhenghong; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yixin; Wang, Chonggang

    2008-09-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous marine environmental contaminant characterized primarily by its reproductive toxicity. However, the neurotoxic effect of TBT has not been extensively described, especially in fishes which have a high number of species in the marine environment. This study was conducted to investigate the neurotoxic effects of TBT at environmental levels (1, 10, and 100ngl(-1)) on female Sebastiscus marmoratus. The results showed that TBT exposure induced apoptosis in brain cells of three regions including the pallial areas of the telencephalon, the granular layer of the optic tectum, and the cerebellum. In addition, the increase of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide levels, and the decrease of Na+/K+-ATPase activity were found in the brain. The results strongly indicated neurotoxicity of TBT to fishes. According to the regions in which apoptosis was found in the brain, TBT exposure might influence the schooling, sensory and motorial functions of fishes.

  20. The enigma of multiple sclerosis: inflammation and neurodegeneration cause heterogeneous dysfunction and damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor

    2003-01-01

    progression correlate with axonal damage, and that brain atrophy resulting from axonal loss is a feature of early multiple sclerosis, and is not restricted to the secondary progressive forms of the disease. Inflammatory mediators (CD8 T cells and antibodies) are implicated in axonal damage, and treatment...... cells for oligodendrocytes. SUMMARY: Oligodendrocyte precursors are abundant in multiple sclerosis lesions, but fail to remyelinate. Oligodendrocyte growth and regeneration are probably compromised by the action of growth inhibitory signals and lack of growth stimuli. Inflammatory cells and mediators......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis has an autoimmune inflammatory component, which has dominated the description of multiple sclerosis. A degenerative component to multiple sclerosis was always apparent, but was underappreciated until recently. Recent work has brought...

  1. INHIBITION OF FRIED MEAT-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE: A DIETARY INTERVENTION STUDY IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary exposures have been implicated as risk factors in colorectal cancer. Such agents may act by causing DNA damage or may be protective against DNA damage. The effects of dietary exposures in causing or preventing damage have not been assessed directly in colon tissues. In th...

  2. [Scanning electron microscopy of heat-damaged bone tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsanyl, L

    1977-02-01

    Parts of diaphyses of bones were exposed to high temperature of 200-1300 degrees C. Damage to the bone tissue caused by the heat was investigated. The scanning electron microscopic picture seems to be characteristic of the temperature applied. When the bones heated to the high temperature of 700 degrees C characteristic changes appear on the periostal surface, higher temperatura on the other hand causes damage to the compact bone tissue and can be observed on the fracture-surface. Author stresses the importance of this technique in the legal medicine and anthropology.

  3. Investigation of damage in KDP using scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, B.; Runkel, M.; Yan, M.; Staggs, M.; Zaitseva, N.; Kozlowski, M.; De Yoreo, J.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in producing high damage threshold KH 2 PO 4 (KDP) and (D x H 1-x ) 2 PO 4 (DKDP)(also called KD*P) for frequency conversion and optical switching applications is driven by the requirements of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Presently only the best crystals meet the NIF system requirements at the third harmonic (351 nm) and only after a laser conditioning process. Neither the mechanism for damage in bulk KDP nor the mechanism for conditioning is understood. As part of a development effort to increase the damage thresholds of KDP and DKDP, we have been developing techniques to pinpoint the locations where damage will initiate in the bulk material. After we find these locations we will use other measurement techniques to determine how these locations differ from the other surrounding material and why they cause damage. This will allow crystal growers to focus their efforts to improve damage thresholds. Historically damage thresholds have increased it is believed as a consequence of increased purity of the growth solution and through the use of constant filtration during the growth process. As a result we believe that damage is caused by defects in the crystals and have conducted a series of experiments using light scatter to locate these defects and to determine when and where damage occurs. In this paper we present results which show a low correlation between light scatter from bulk defects in KDP and the initiation sites for damage. We have also studied the effects of thermal conditioning on light scatter, strain induced birefringence and damage threshold. We have seen evidence that regions of high strain also exhibit lower damage threshold than the surrounding lower strain material. When thermally conditioned, these crystals show a decrease in some of the strong linear scattering features and a decrease in the strain birefringence while the damage threshold in these regions increased to that of the surrounding bulk material

  4. Autophagy sequesters damaged lysosomes to control lysosomal biogenesis and kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Ikuko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Omori, Hiroko; Kimura, Tomonori; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Hamasaki, Maho; Noda, Takeshi; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Yoshimori, Tamotsu

    2013-08-28

    Diverse causes, including pathogenic invasion or the uptake of mineral crystals such as silica and monosodium urate (MSU), threaten cells with lysosomal rupture, which can lead to oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis or necrosis. Here, we demonstrate that lysosomes are selectively sequestered by autophagy, when damaged by MSU, silica, or the lysosomotropic reagent L-Leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLOMe). Autophagic machinery is recruited only on damaged lysosomes, which are then engulfed by autophagosomes. In an autophagy-dependent manner, low pH and degradation capacity of damaged lysosomes are recovered. Under conditions of lysosomal damage, loss of autophagy causes inhibition of lysosomal biogenesis in vitro and deterioration of acute kidney injury in vivo. Thus, we propose that sequestration of damaged lysosomes by autophagy is indispensable for cellular and tissue homeostasis.

  5. Chapter 6: Fire damage of wood structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Kukay; R.H. White; F. Woeste

    2012-01-01

    Depending on the severity, fire damage can compromise the structural integrity of wood structures such as buildings or residences. Fire damage of wood structures can incorporate several models that address (1) the type, cause, and spread of the fire, (2) the thermal gradients and fire-resistance ratings, and (3) the residual load capacity (Figure 6.1). If there is a...

  6. Genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Falaq Naz

    2012-06-29

    Jun 29, 2012 ... Genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes of oral ... catechol estrogens and quinines, via redox reactions causes oxidative damage to .... volume was prepared for each donor. About, 0.8 ml of cell sus .... duce the adverse effects of OCs, such as the reduction in the estrogen content.

  7. Genetic damage following nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.

    1984-01-01

    Genetic damage may be caused by ionizing radiation from the exploding bomb itself, or from radioactive nuclides released or formed in the explosion. Long-wave radiation in the heat flash and physical force do not contribute. Thus only a small fraction of the energy of the explosion - fission or fusion- can cause genetic damage. Neutron irradiation is generally found to be 5-20 times more efficient than gamma irradiation for the same absorbed dose. Fetuses and children are generally more radiosensitive than adults. Exposure of gonads during the proliferative stage of gonad growth may conceivably lead to a ''fluctuation test'' effect, so that a gonad may contain a sector of cells carrying identical mutations. A corresponding development may take place if the gonad stem cell population has been severely depleted by an acute exposure and recovers

  8. Visualisation of γH2AX Foci Caused by Heavy Ion Particle Traversal; Distinction between Core Track versus Non-Track Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nakako Izumi; Brunton, Holly; Watanabe, Ritsuko; Shrikhande, Amruta; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Fujimori, Akira; Murakami, Takeshi; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Jeggo, Penny; Shibata, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Heavy particle irradiation produces complex DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which can arise from primary ionisation events within the particle trajectory. Additionally, secondary electrons, termed delta-electrons, which have a range of distributions can create low linear energy transfer (LET) damage within but also distant from the track. DNA damage by delta-electrons distant from the track has not previously been carefully characterised. Using imaging with deconvolution, we show that at 8 hours after exposure to Fe (∼200 keV/µm) ions, γH2AX foci forming at DSBs within the particle track are large and encompass multiple smaller and closely localised foci, which we designate as clustered γH2AX foci. These foci are repaired with slow kinetics by DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) in G1 phase with the magnitude of complexity diminishing with time. These clustered foci (containing 10 or more individual foci) represent a signature of DSBs caused by high LET heavy particle radiation. We also identified simple γH2AX foci distant from the track, which resemble those arising after X-ray exposure, which we attribute to low LET delta-electron induced DSBs. They are rapidly repaired by NHEJ. Clustered γH2AX foci induced by heavy particle radiation cause prolonged checkpoint arrest compared to simple γH2AX foci following X-irradiation. However, mitotic entry was observed when ∼10 clustered foci remain. Thus, cells can progress into mitosis with multiple clusters of DSBs following the traversal of a heavy particle. PMID:23967070

  9. A service life extension (SLEP) approach to operating aging aircraft beyond their original design lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Alan Carter

    With today's uncertain funding climate (including sequestration and continuing budget resolutions), decision makers face severe budgetary challenges to maintain dominance through all aspects of the Department of Defense (DoD). To meet war-fighting capabilities, the DoD continues to extend aircraft programs beyond their design service lives by up to ten years, and occasionally much more. The budget requires a new approach to traditional extension strategies (i.e., reuse, reset, and reclamation) for structural hardware. While extending service life without careful controls can present a safety concern, future operations planning does not consider how much risk is present when operating within sound structural principles. Traditional structural hardware extension methods drive increased costs. Decision makers often overlook the inherent damage tolerance and fatigue capability of structural components and rely on simple time- and flight-based cycle accumulation when determining aircraft retirement lives. This study demonstrates that decision makers should consider risk in addition to the current extension strategies. Through an evaluation of eight military aircraft programs and the application and simulation of F-18 turbine engine usage data, this dissertation shows that insight into actual aircraft mission data, consideration of fatigue capability, and service extension length are key factors to consider. Aircraft structural components, as well as many critical safety components and system designs, have a predefined level of conservatism and inherent damage tolerance. The methods applied in this study would apply to extensions of other critical structures such as bridges. Understanding how much damage tolerance is built into the design compared to the original design usage requirements presents the opportunity to manage systems based on risk. The study presents the sensitivity of these factors and recommends avenues for further research.

  10. Structural and electrical characterization of HBr/O2 plasma damage to Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Masanaga; Nakakubo, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Asahiko; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi; Minami, Masaki; Uesawa, Fumikatsu; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Silicon substrate damage caused by HBr/O 2 plasma exposure was investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The damage caused by H 2 , Ar, and O 2 plasma exposure was also compared to clarify the ion-species dependence. Although the damage basically consists of a surface oxidized layer and underlying dislocated Si, the damage structure strongly depends on the incident ion species, ion energy, and oxidation during air and plasma exposure. In the case of HBr/O 2 plasma exposure, hydrogen generated the deep damaged layer (∼10 nm), whereas ion-enhanced diffusion of oxygen, supplied simultaneously by the plasma, caused the thick surface oxidation. In-line monitoring of damage thicknesses by SE, developed with an optimized optical model, showed that the SE can be used to precisely monitor damage thicknesses in mass production. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a damaged layer were studied before and after diluted-HF (DHF) treatment. Results showed that a positive charge is generated at the surface oxide-dislocated Si interface and/or in the bulk oxide after plasma exposure. After DHF treatment, most of the positive charges were removed, while the thickness of the ''Si recess'' was increased by removing the thick surface oxidized layer. As both the Si recess and remaining dislocated Si, including positive charges, cause the degradation of electrical performance, precise monitoring of the surface structure and understanding its effect on device performance is indispensable for creating advanced devices.

  11. Extent of moisture and mould damage in structures of public buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri J. Annila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study concentrated on the extent of moisture and mould damage in different structures in 25 public buildings in Finland. Users of all the buildings had health symptoms suspected to be the result of moisture and mould damage, which is why moisture performance assessments had been performed. The assessment reports on each building were available as research material. The reports indicated that the examined buildings suffered from multiple moisture and mould problems in several different structures. On average, however, a relatively small proportion of the total number of structures had suffered damage. On the basis of the research material, damage was most extensive in walls in soil contact (16.3% and base floor structures (12.5%. The lowest damage rates were found in partition walls (2.4%, external walls (2.6% and intermediate floors (2.5%. The results of the study underline the importance of thorough moisture performance assessments to ensure that all point-sized moisture and mould damage is detected.

  12. Mechanisms of Sensorineural Cell Damage, Death and Survival in the Cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Frederic Ryan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of acquired hearing loss, including presbycusis, is caused by irreversible damage to the sensorineural tissues of the cochlea. This article reviews the intracellular mechanisms that contribute to sensorineural damage in the cochlea, as well as the survival signaling pathways that can provide endogenous protection and tissue rescue. These data have primarily been generated in hearing loss not directly related to age. However, there is evidence that similar mechanisms operate in presbycusis. Moreover, accumulation of damage from other causes can contribute to age-related hearing loss. Potential therapeutic interventions to balance opposing but interconnected cell damage and survival pathways, such as antioxidants, anti-apoptotics, and pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibitors, are also discussed.

  13. Detection of damaged areas caused by the oil extraction in a steppe region using winter landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjachina, Ksenya; Hu, Zhiyong; Chibilyev, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Oil production in a steppe region disturbs the landscape and damages the steppe ecosystem. The objective of this research was to detect areas damaged by oil production in an oil field within the Russian Volga-Ural steppe region using winter Landsat imagery. We developed a practicable and effective approach using winter snow season multispectral Landsat satellite imagery. To this end, we applied seven algorithms of spectral or texture-based transformation: K-means, maximum likelihood estimation, topsoil grain size index, soil brightness, normalized differential snow index, tasselled cap, and co-occurrence measures. The co-occurrence texture measure variance shows the optimal result of identifying damaged areas. The unique feature of our method is that it can differentiate damaged areas from the bare soil of cropland within a cold steppe region where the area damaged by oil production is mixed with bare (fallow) croplands that have a polygonal shape similar to well pads. Such similarities can lead to confusion in object-based classification. Using the co-occurrence measures, we found that from 1988 to 2015, damaged area is nearly three times as big in the peak period of the oil field development (2001 and 2009) as in 1988. Landscape fragmentation also peaked in 2001 and 2009. Our approach for this project is useful and cost effective regular monitoring of damages from oil production for both the Volga-Ural steppe region and other cold steppe regions.

  14. Damage Tolerance of Pre-Stressed Composite Panels Under Impact Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alastair F.; Toso-Pentecôte, Nathalie; Schueler, Dominik

    2014-02-01

    An experimental test campaign studied the structural integrity of carbon fibre/epoxy panels preloaded in tension or compression then subjected to gas gun impact tests causing significant damage. The test programme used representative composite aircraft fuselage panels composed of aerospace carbon fibre toughened epoxy prepreg laminates. Preload levels in tension were representative of design limit loads for fuselage panels of this size, and maximum compression preloads were in the post-buckle region. Two main impact scenarios were considered: notch damage from a 12 mm steel cube projectile, at velocities in the range 93-136 m/s; blunt impact damage from 25 mm diameter glass balls, at velocities 64-86 m/s. The combined influence of preload and impact damage on panel residual strengths was measured and results analysed in the context of damage tolerance requirements for composite aircraft panels. The tests showed structural integrity well above design limit loads for composite panels preloaded in tension and compression with visible notch impact damage from hard body impact tests. However, blunt impact tests on buckled compression loaded panels caused large delamination damage regions which lowered plate bending stiffness and reduced significantly compression strengths in buckling.

  15. Celastrol ameliorates liver metabolic damage caused by a high-fat diet through Sirt1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    . Conclusions: Celastrol ameliorates NAFLD by decreasing lipid synthesis and improving the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory status. And Sirt1 has an important role in Celastrol-ameliorating liver metabolic damage caused by HFD. Keywords: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Celastrol, Sirt1, Lipid metabolism, Chronic inflammation, Oxidative stress

  16. Nur77 forms novel nuclear structures upon DNA damage that cause transcriptional arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leseleuc, Louis de; Denis, Francois

    2006-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 has been implicated in both growth and apoptosis, and its function and activity can be modulated by cellular redistribution. Green fluorescent protein-tagged Nur77 was used to evaluate the role of Nur77 intracellular redistribution in response to genotoxic stress. Selected DNA damaging agents and transcription inhibition lead to rapid redistribution of Nur77 into nuclear structures distinct from conventional nuclear bodies. These nuclear bodies formed transiently were tightly bound to the nuclear matrix and conditions that lead to their appearance were associated with Nur77 transcriptional inhibition. The formation of Nur77 nuclear bodies might be involved in programmed cell death modulation upon exposure to DNA damaging agents that inhibit transcription by sequestrating this proapoptotic factor in dense nuclear structures

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of damage caused by Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea on larvae of the Dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schaper

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease, whose main biological vector is Aedes aegypti. This mosquito colonizes tropical areas where the disease is endemic. The most obvious action against dengue is attacking its vector. Biological control appears to be an alternative approach, using natural enemies of the mosquitoes, such as predatory copepods. Thus, the morphological study of the damage caused by copepods is important to understand its predatory capacity. Twenty-five A. aegypti larvae were exposed to the copepod Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides and the damage caused by the copepods was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The larvae showed damage mainly at the anal segment, the siphon and the abdomen; only three attacks to the head were observed. The size of the siphon might be of importance in determining whether or not a copepod will attack a mosquito larva. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 843-846. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.El dengue es una enfermedad viral transmitida por mosquitos, cuyo principal vector es Aedes aegypti. Este mosquito coloniza muchas áreas tropicales donde la enfermedad es endémica. La acción más obvia contra el dengue es el ataque a su vector. El control biológico parece una buena alternativa, empleando enemigos naturales de los mosquitos, como los copépodos. Por lo tanto, es importante el estudio morfológico del daño causado por los copépodos para comprender su capacidad depredadora. Veinticinco larvas de A. aegypti fueron expuestas a la actividad depredadora del copépodo Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides. Mediante microscopia electrónica de rastreo se evaluó el daño causado por los copépodos. Éstos atacaron principalmente el segmento anal, el sifón y el abdomen de las larvas; sólo vimos tres ataques a la cabeza. El tamaño del sifón podría ser de importancia para predecir si los copépodos pudiesen atacar larvas de determinado mosquito.

  18. Blood-induced joint damage: novel targets for therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meegeren, M.E.R.

    2012-01-01

    -induced joint damage can occur due to a trauma but also during surgery when blood leaks into the joint cavity. Besides that, it is one of the major causes of morbidity amongst haemophilia patients. The aims of this thesis were to further unravel the pathogenesis of blood-induced joint damage and to

  19. Limiting salt crystallization damage in lime mortar by using crystallization modifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Shahidzadeh, N.; Lubelli, B.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    2014-01-01

    Salt crystallization is a recurrent cause of damage in porous building materials. Lime-based mortars, which were widely used in construction of ancient masonry, are especially prone to salt damage, due to their low mechanical strength. Existing solutions to tackle salt damage in mortars have been

  20. Structural Damage Localization by Outlier Analysis of Signal-processed Mode Shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to global modal parameters such as eigenfrequencies, mode shapes inherently provide structural information on a local level. Therefore, this particular modal parameter and its derivatives are utilized extensively for damage identification. Typically, more or less advanced mathematical...

  1. Root Cause Investigation of the Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Deneen; Enriquez, Carlos; McCann, David; McFatter, Justin

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high current draw. Later inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the case hardened steel race ring on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A far-reaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken, comprising metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The investigation found that the race ring damage had been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors.

  2. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yuanqin [Cancer Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Yao, Hua [Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Luo, Jia [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY (United States); Gao, Ning [Department of Pharmacognos, College of Pharmacy, 3rd Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries.

  3. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yuanqin; Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin; Yao, Hua; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J.; Luo, Jia; Gao, Ning; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries

  4. Pneumonia caused by extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii among hospitalized patients: genetic relationships, risk factors and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu Jun; Pan, Chu Zhi; Fang, Chang Quan; Zhao, Zhu Xiang; Chen, Hui Ling; Guo, Peng Hao; Zhao, Zi Wen

    2017-05-30

    The clonal spread of multiple drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging problem in China. We analysed the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumanni isolates at three teaching hospitals and investigated the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes of hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) infection in Guangzhou, China. Fifty-two A. baumannii isolates were collected. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to assess the genetic relationships among the isolates. The bla OXA-51-like gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. The resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. A retrospective case-control study was performed to determine factors associated with XDRAB pneumonia. Most of the 52 A. baumannii isolates (N = 37, 71.2%) were collected from intensive care units (ICUs). The respiratory system was the most common bodily site from which A. baumannii was recovered (N = 45, 86.5%). Disc diffusion classified the isolates into 17 multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 35 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. MLST grouped the A. baumannii isolates into 5 existing sequence types (STs) and 7 new STs. ST195 and ST208 accounted for 69.2% (36/52) of the isolates. The clonal relationship analysis showed that ST195 and ST208 belonged to clonal complex (CC) 92. According to the sequence-based typing (SBT) of the bla OXA-51-like gene, 51 A. baumannii isolates carried OXA-66 and the rest carried OXA-199. There were no significant differences with respect to the resistance phenotype between the CC92 and non-CC92 strains (P = 0.767). The multivariate analysis showed that the APACHE II score, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiac disease were independent risk factors for XDRAB pneumonia (P < 0.05). The mortality rate of XDRAB pneumonia was high (up to 42.8%), but pneumonia caused by XDRAB was not associated with in

  5. Kinetics of BaSO4 crystal growth and effect in formation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wat, R.M.S.; Sorbie, K.S.; Todd, A.C.; Chen, P.; Jiang, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the North Sea, due to the extensive use of water injection for oil displacement and pressure maintenance, many reservoirs experience the problem of scale deposition when injection water starts to breakthrough. In most cases the scaled-up wells are caused by the formation of sulphate scales of Barium and Strontium. Due to their relative hardness and low solubility, there are limited processes available for their removal and the preventative measure such as the squeeze inhibitor treatment has to be taken. It is therefore important to have a proper understanding of the kinetics of scale formation and its detrimental effect on formation damage under both inhibited and uninhibited environment. In this paper, the authors present results of BaSO 4 formation kinetics in both beaker tests and in highly reproducible sandpacks which simulates the flow in porous medium

  6. A Fatal Waterborne Outbreak of Pesticide Poisoning Caused by Damaged Pipelines, Sindhikela, Bolangir, Orissa, India, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, M.; Hutin, Y.J.; Ramachandran, V.; Murhekar, M.; Panda, M.; Hutin, Y.J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. We investigated a cluster of pesticide poisoning in Orissa. Methods. We searched the village for cases of vomiting and sweating on 2 February 2008. We described the outbreak by time, place, and person. We compared cases with controls. Results. We identified 65 cases (two deaths; attack rate: 12 per 1000; case fatality: 3%). The epidemic curve suggested a point source outbreak, and cases clustered close to a roadside eatery. Consumption of water from a specific source (odds ratio [OR]: 35, confidence interval [CI]: 13 93) and eating in the eatery (OR: 2.3, CI: 1.14.7) was associated with illness. On 31 January 2008, villagers had used pesticides to kill street dogs and had discarded leftovers in the drains. Damaged pipelines located beneath and supplying water may have aspirated the pesticide during the nocturnal negative pressure phase and rinsed it off the next morning in the water supply. Conclusions. Inappropriate use of pesticides contaminated the water supply and caused this outbreak. Education programs and regulations need to be combined to ensure a safer use of pesticides in India.

  7. Causes and consequences of the sinkhole at El Trébol of Quito, Ecuador - implications for economic damage and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulkeridis, Theofilos; Rodríguez, Fabián; Arias Jiménez, Nelson; Simón Baile, Débora; Salazar Martínez, Rodolfo; Addison, Aaron; Carreón Freyre, Dora; Mato, Fernando; Díaz Perez, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    The so-called El Trébol is a critical road interchange in Quito connecting the north and south regions of the city. In addition, it connects Quito with the highly populated Los Chillos Valley, one of the most traveled zones in the Ecuadorian capital. El Trébol was constructed in the late 1960s in order to resolve the traffic jams of the capital city and for that purpose the Machángara River was rerouted through an underground concrete box tunnel. In March 2008, the tunnel contained a high amount of discarded furniture that had been impacting the top portion of the tunnel, compromising the structural integrity. On 31 March 2008 after a heavy rainfall a sinkhole of great proportions formed in the Trébol traffic hub. In the first few minutes, the sinkhole reached an initial diameter of 30 m. The collapse continued to grow in the following days until the final dimensions of 120 m in diameter and some 40 m of depth, revealing the Machángara River at the base of the sinkhole.A state of emergency was declared. The cause of the sinkhole was a result of the lack of monitoring of the older subterranean infrastructure where trash had accumulated and damaged the concrete tunnel that channelized the Machángara River until it was worn away for a length of some 20 m, leaving behind the sinkhole and the fear of recurrence in populated areas.With the intent to understand the causes and consequences of this sinkhole event, rainfall data are shown together with hydrogeological characteristics and a view back to the recent history of sinkhole lineation or arrangement of the city of Quito. The economic impact is also emphasized, where the direct costs of the damage and the reconstruction are presented and compared to indirect costs associated with this socio-natural disaster. These analyses suggest that the costs of indirect financial damage, like time loss or delay, and subsequent higher expenses for different types of vehicles, are equivalent to many times the costs of the

  8. Mechanical injuries, burns and combination damage caused by reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koslowski, L.

    1981-01-01

    In cases of combination damage the initial treatment of wounds is the same as with injuries without accompanying radiation exposure. In the beginning the general principles of surgical treatment apply. In case of a mass accident, the examination of the injured to decide on the necessary kind of treatment has priority. A common problem to all the decisions is that the extent of a radiation exposure that may have been sustained cannot be established at once. Whether the radiation exposure has been so heavy as to require the modification of the surgical measures can be seen only from the blood count, the bone marrow biopsy, the reticulocyte count or from a chromosome analysis. (DG) [de

  9. Damage identification on spatial Timoshenko arches by means of genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A.; D'Urso, D.; Cannizzaro, F.; Pluchino, A.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper a procedure for the dynamic identification of damage in spatial Timoshenko arches is presented. The proposed approach is based on the calculation of an arbitrary number of exact eigen-properties of a damaged spatial arch by means of the Wittrick and Williams algorithm. The proposed damage model considers a reduction of the volume in a part of the arch, and is therefore suitable, differently than what is commonly proposed in the main part of the dedicated literature, not only for concentrated cracks but also for diffused damaged zones which may involve a loss of mass. Different damage scenarios can be taken into account with variable location, intensity and extension of the damage as well as number of damaged segments. An optimization procedure, aiming at identifying which damage configuration minimizes the difference between its eigen-properties and a set of measured modal quantities for the structure, is implemented making use of genetic algorithms. In this context, an initial random population of chromosomes, representing different damage distributions along the arch, is forced to evolve towards the fittest solution. Several applications with different, single or multiple, damaged zones and boundary conditions confirm the validity and the applicability of the proposed procedure even in presence of instrumental errors on the measured data.

  10. Damage detection of simply supported reinforced concrete beam by S transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Xi, Jiaxin; Zhang, Xuebing; Liu, Zhenzhou

    2017-08-01

    Signal processing is the key component of vibration-based structural damage detection. The S transform is variable window of short time Fourier transform (STFT) or an extension of wavelet transform (WT). The goal of using S transform is to extract subtle changes in the vibration signals in order to detect and quantify the damage in the structure. This paper presents the concentrated load is applied to the simply supported reinforced concrete beam and adopting the stepwise loading method, the vibration signals of each loading and unloading state is obtained by using the hammer impact. Then the vibration data of the reinforced concrete beam pre-damage and post-damage is analysed by S transform. Experimental result shows the potential ability of S transform in identifying peak energy changes and multiple reflections with different loading force state.

  11. Biomechanical evaluation of potential damage to hernia repair materials due to fixation with helical titanium tacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdsirisopon, Sopon; Frisella, Margaret M; Matthews, Brent D; Deeken, Corey R

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the strength and extensibility of hernia repair materials are negatively influenced by the application of helical titanium tacks. This study evaluated 14 meshes including bare polypropylene, macroporous polytetrafluoroethylene, absorbable barrier, partially absorbable mesh, and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene materials. Each mesh provided 15 specimens, which were prepared in 7.5 × 7.5-cm squares. Of these, 5 "undamaged" specimens were subjected to ball-burst testing to determine their biomechanical properties before application of helical titanium tacks (ProTack). To 10 "damaged" specimens 7 tacks were applied 1 cm apart in a 3.5-cm-diameter circle using a tacking force of 25 to 28 N. The tacks were removed from five of the specimens before ball-burst testing and left intact in the remaining five specimens. The application of tacks had no effect on the tensile strength of Dualmesh, ProLite Ultra, Infinit, Ultrapro, C-QUR Lite (6 in.). Most of the meshes did not exhibit significantly different tensile strengths between removal of tacks and tacks left intact. Exceptions included C-QUR, Prolene, Ultrapro, and Bard Soft Mesh, which were weaker with removal of tacks than with tacks left intact during the test. Damage due to the application of helical titanium tacks also caused increased strain at a stress of 16 N/cm for all the meshes except C-QUR Lite (>6 in.) and Physiomesh. Many of the meshes evaluated in this study exhibited damage in the form of reduced tensile strength and increased extensibility after the application of tacks compared with the corresponding "undamaged" meshes. Meshes with smaller interstices and larger filaments were influenced negatively by the application of helical titanium tacks, whereas mesh designs with larger interstices and smaller filaments tended to maintain their baseline mechanical properties.

  12. Damage assessment in Braunsbach 2016: data collection and analysis for an improved understanding of damaging processes during flash floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudan, Jonas; Rözer, Viktor; Sieg, Tobias; Vogel, Kristin; Thieken, Annegret H.

    2017-12-01

    Flash floods are caused by intense rainfall events and represent an insufficiently understood phenomenon in Germany. As a result of higher precipitation intensities, flash floods might occur more frequently in future. In combination with changing land use patterns and urbanisation, damage mitigation, insurance and risk management in flash-flood-prone regions are becoming increasingly important. However, a better understanding of damage caused by flash floods requires ex post collection of relevant but yet sparsely available information for research. At the end of May 2016, very high and concentrated rainfall intensities led to severe flash floods in several southern German municipalities. The small town of Braunsbach stood as a prime example of the devastating potential of such events. Eight to ten days after the flash flood event, damage assessment and data collection were conducted in Braunsbach by investigating all affected buildings and their surroundings. To record and store the data on site, the open-source software bundle KoBoCollect was used as an efficient and easy way to gather information. Since the damage driving factors of flash floods are expected to differ from those of riverine flooding, a post-hoc data analysis was performed, aiming to identify the influence of flood processes and building attributes on damage grades, which reflect the extent of structural damage. Data analyses include the application of random forest, a random general linear model and multinomial logistic regression as well as the construction of a local impact map to reveal influences on the damage grades. Further, a Spearman's Rho correlation matrix was calculated. The results reveal that the damage driving factors of flash floods differ from those of riverine floods to a certain extent. The exposition of a building in flow direction shows an especially strong correlation with the damage grade and has a high predictive power within the constructed damage models. Additionally

  13. Low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells may rather control than cause DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Altman, K.I.

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced metabolic changes that induce mechanisms of DNA damage mitigation, which do not operate at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. This paper aims at demonstrating tissue effects as an expression of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive, in relation to the energy deposited in cell mass, by use of microdosimetric concepts

  14. Low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells may rather control than cause DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinendegen, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.; Bond, V.P. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Sondhaus, C.A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Control Office; Altman, K.I. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics

    1998-12-31

    This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced metabolic changes that induce mechanisms of DNA damage mitigation, which do not operate at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. This paper aims at demonstrating tissue effects as an expression of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive, in relation to the energy deposited in cell mass, by use of microdosimetric concepts.

  15. Quantifying the Influence of Lightning Strike Pressure Loading on Composite Specimen Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, P.; Abdelal, G.; Murphy, A.

    2018-04-01

    Experimental work has shown that a component of lightning strike damage is caused by a mechanical loading. As the profile of the pressure loading is unknown a number of authors propose different pressure loads, varying in form, application area and magnitude. The objective of this paper is to investigate the potential contribution of pressure loading to composite specimen damage. This is achieved through a simulation study using an established modelling approach for composite damage prediction. The study examines the proposed shockwave loads from the literature. The simulation results are compared with measured test specimen damage examining the form and scale of damage. The results for the first time quantify the significance of pressure loading, demonstrating that although a pressure load can cause damage consistent with that measured experimentally, it has a negligible contribution to the overall scale of damage. Moreover the requirements for a pressure to create the damage behaviours typically witnessed in testing requires that the pressure load be within a very precise window of magnitude and loading area.

  16. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  17. Landslides in the northern Colorado Front Range caused by rainfall, September 11-13, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, Jonathan W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; Baum, Rex L.; Jones, Eric S.; Harp, Edwin L.; Staley, Dennis M.; Barnhart, William D.

    2014-01-01

    During the second week of September 2013, nearly continuous rainfall caused widespread landslides and flooding in the northern Colorado Front Range. The combination of landslides and flooding was responsible for eight fatalities and caused extensive damage to buildings, highways, and infrastructure. Three fatalities were attributed to a fast moving type of landslide called debris flow. One fatality occurred in Jamestown, and two occurred in the community of Pinebrook Hills immediately west of the City of Boulder. All major canyon roads in the northern Front Range were periodically closed between September 11 and 13, 2013. Some canyon closures were caused by undercutting of roads by landslides and flooding, and some were caused by debris flows and rock slides that deposited material on road surfaces. Most of the canyon roads, with the exceptions of U.S. Highway 6 (Clear Creek Canyon), State Highway 46/Jefferson Co. Rd. 70 (Golden Gate Canyon), and Sunshine Canyon in Boulder County, remained closed at the end of September 2013. A review of historical records in Colorado indicates that this type of event, with widespread landslides and flooding occurring over a very large region, in such a short period of time, is rare.

  18. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number......-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their deliberate relocation. Thus, despite higher hydrological severity damage due to the 2013 flood was significantly lower than in 2002. In our...

  19. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein causes a delay in repair of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Wook; Nickel, Kwangok P.; Torres, Alexandra D.; Lee, Denis; Lambert, Paul F.; Kimple, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Patients with human papillomavirus related (HPV+) head and neck cancers (HNCs) demonstrate improved clinical outcomes compared to traditional HPV negative (HPV−) HNC patients. We have recently shown that HPV+ HNC cells are more sensitive to radiation than HPV− HNC cells. However, roles of HPV oncogenes in regulating the response of DNA damage repair remain unknown. Material and methods: Using immortalized normal oral epithelial cell lines, HPV+ HNC derived cell lines, and HPV16 E7-transgenic mice we assessed the repair of DNA damage using γ-H2AX foci, single and split dose clonogenic survival assays, and immunoblot. The ability of E7 to modulate expression of proteins associated with DNA repair pathways was assessed by immunoblot. Results: HPV16 E7 increased retention of γ-H2AX nuclear foci and significantly decreased sublethal DNA damage repair. While phospho-ATM, phospho-ATR, Ku70, and Ku80 expressions were not altered by E7, Rad51 was induced by E7. Correspondingly, HPV+ HNC cell lines showed retention of Rad51 after γ-radiation. Conclusions: Our findings provide further understanding as to how HPV16 E7 manipulates cellular DNA damage responses that may underlie its oncogenic potential and influence the altered sensitivity to radiation seen in HPV+ HNC as compared to HPV− HNC

  20. Microdosimetric constraints on specific adaptation mechanisms to reduce DNA damage caused by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.; Heusser, P.; Vijayalaxmi

    1990-01-01

    The protective effect of pre-exposure of lymphocytes to ionising radiation indicates the presence of 'adaptive repair' in mammalian cells. Microdosimetric considerations, however, raise some doubts on the advantage of such a cellular mechanism for specifically reducing the radiation damage caused by environmental exposures. Contrary to most chemicals which endanger the integrity of the mammalian genome, the local dose and dose rate from ionising radiation at the cellular level remain quite high, even at lowest exposures. A single electron or alpha particle passing through a cell nucleus already yields nuclear doses of up to about 3 mGy and 400 mGy, respectively. Macroscopic doses below these nuclear doses from a single event will only reduce the fraction of cell nuclei encountering the passage of a particle but not the dose or dose rate in the affected volume. At environmental doses in the range of 1 to 5 mGy per annum, the time between two consecutive hits in a specific cell nucleus is in the range of months to years. Very low concentrations of bleomycin, a drug with high affinity to DNA, also triggers an adaptive response. This points to a more general stress response mechanism which may benefit the cell even at environmental levels of radioactivity, e.g. by protecting the integrity of DNA from attacks by chemicals, by endogenous radicals, by acids from anoxia, etc. (author)

  1. Mechanisms involved in reproductive damage caused by gossypol in rats and protective effects of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia T Santana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gossypol is a chemical present in the seeds of cotton plants (Gossypium sp. that reduces fertility in farm animals. Vitamin E is an antioxidant and may help to protect cells and tissues against the deleterious effects of free radicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of reproductive toxicity of gossypol in rats and the protective effects of vitamin E. Forty Wistar rats were used, divided into four experimental groups (n = 10: DMSO/ saline + corn oil; DMSO/saline + vitamin E; gossypol + corn oil; and gossypol + vitamin E. RESULTS: Fertility was significantly reduced in male rats treated with gossypol in that a significant decrease in epididy-mal sperm count was observed (P 0.05. The levels of reduced glutathione and pyridine nucleotides in testis homogen-ate were significantly reduced by gossypol (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively and this reduction was accompanied by increased levels of oxidized glutathione (P < 0.05. Vitamin E showed a preventive effect on the changes in the levels of these substances. Gossypol significantly increased the levels of malondialdehyde (P < 0.01, a lipid peroxida-tion indicator, whereas treatment with vitamin E inhibited the action of the gossypol. Vitamin E prevented a decrease in mitochondrial ATP induced by gossypol (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the reproductive dysfunction caused by gossypol may be related to oxidative stress and mitochondrial bioenergetic damage and that treatment with vitamin E can prevent the infertility caused by the toxin.

  2. Pump Damage in the Hanshin Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Osada

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There was a severe earthquake in the southern area ofHyogo prefecture in Japan on January 17, 1995. In this paper the damage to pump facilities caused by the earthquake, based on field investigation results in the Hanshin (Osaka–Kobe area is reported. In particular a lot of damage was reported in the pumping facilities for sewage or drainage of storm sewage. This paper also presents recommendations for aseismic design of pump facilities based on the results of the survey.

  3. 7 CFR 51.2657 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the edible or marketing quality of the fruit. The following specific defects shall be considered as serious damage: (a) Decay; (b) Insect larvae or holes caused by them; (c) Skin breaks which are not well...

  4. DNA damage protection and 5-lipoxygenase inhibiting activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA damage caused by free radical is associated with mutation-based health impairment. The protective effect on DNA damage mediated by hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite radical, and the inhibiting activity on 5-lipoxygenase of areca inflorescence extracts were studied in vitro. The results show that the boiling water ...

  5. Damage and fatigue in cross-linked rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Alexei

    Damage and fatigue of elastomers have not been fundamentally understood because of the complex nature of these materials. All currently existing models are completely phenomenological. Therefore two problems have been investigated in this research to address those fundamental issues. The first problem was creating an innovative concept with a mathematical modeling, which would be able to describe the damage using molecular characteristics of elastomers. The second problem is developing new approaches to study fatigue, and especially impact fatigue of elastomers. The following results have been obtained in this research. A theoretical model of damage has been developed which involves the basic molecular characteristics of cross-linked elastomers and takes into account the effects of viscoelasticity and stress-induced crystallization. This model was found very reliable and successful in description of numerous quasi-static simple extension experiments for monotonous and repeating loadings. It also roughly predicts in molecular terms the failure of elastomers with various degrees of cross-linking. Quasi-impact fatigue tests with different geometry of an indenter have also been performed. Some microscopic features of rubber damage have been investigated using optical microscopy and SEM. In particular, the accumulation of a completely de-vulcanized, liquid-like substance was observed under intense, multi-cycle impacts. All the findings discovered in quasi-impact experiments are consistent with the damage model predictions.

  6. Polymyxin B causes DNA damage in HK-2 cells and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, B; Zhang, T; Azad, M A K; Wang, J; Nowell, C J; Kalitsis, P; Velkov, T; Hudson, D F; Li, J

    2018-03-20

    Increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria presents an imminent risk to global health. Polymyxins are 'last-resort' antibiotics against Gram-negative 'superbugs'; however, nephrotoxicity remains a key impediment in their clinical use. Molecular mechanisms underlying this nephrotoxicity remain poorly defined. Here, we examined the pathways which led to polymyxin B induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Human proximal tubular cells were treated with polymyxin B (12.5-100 μM) for up to 24 h and showed a significant increase in micronuclei frequency, as well as abnormal mitotic events (over 40% in treated cells, p < 0.05). Time-course studies were performed using a mouse nephrotoxicity model (cumulative 72 mg/kg). Kidneys were collected over 48 h and investigated for histopathology and DNA damage. Notable increases in γH2AX foci (indicative of double-stranded breaks) were observed in both cell culture (up to ~ 44% cells with 5+ foci at 24 h, p < 0.05) and mice treated with polymyxin B (up to ~ 25%, p < 0.05). Consistent with these results, in vitro assays showed high binding affinity of polymyxin B to DNA. Together, our results indicate that polymyxin B nephrotoxicity is associated with DNA damage, leading to chromosome missegregation and genome instability. This novel mechanistic information may lead to new strategies to overcome the nephrotoxicity of this important last-line class of antibiotics.

  7. Preterm newborns show slower repair of oxidative damage and paternal smoking associated DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Loock, Kim; Ciardelli, Roberta; Decordier, Ilse; Plas, Gina; Haumont, Dominique; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2012-09-01

    Newborns have to cope with hypoxia during delivery and a sudden increase in oxygen at birth. Oxygen will partly be released as reactive oxygen species having the potential to cause damage to DNA and proteins. In utero, increase of most (non)-enzymatic antioxidants occurs during last weeks of gestation, making preterm neonates probably more sensitive to oxidative stress. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that oxidative stress might be the common etiological factor for certain neonatal diseases in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to assess background DNA damage; in vitro H(2)O(2) induced oxidative DNA damage and repair capacity (residual DNA damage) in peripheral blood mononucleated cells from 25 preterm newborns and their mothers. In addition, demographic data were taken into account and repair capacity of preterm was compared with full-term newborns. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that preterm infants from smoking fathers have higher background DNA damage levels than those from non-smoking fathers, emphasizing the risk of paternal smoking behaviour for the progeny. Significantly higher residual DNA damage found after 15-min repair in preterm children compared to their mothers and higher residual DNA damage after 2 h compared to full-term newborns suggest a slower DNA repair capacity in preterm children. In comparison with preterm infants born by caesarean delivery, preterm infants born by vaginal delivery do repair more slowly the in vitro induced oxidative DNA damage. Final impact of passive smoking and of the slower DNA repair activity of preterm infants need to be confirmed in a larger study population combining transgenerational genetic and/or epigenetic effects, antioxidant levels, genotypes, repair enzyme efficiency/levels and infant morbidity.

  8. Impact damage in aircraft composite sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordasky, Matthew D.

    An experimental study was conducted to develop an improved understanding of the damage caused by runway debris and environmental threats on aircraft structures. The velocities of impacts for stationary aircraft and aircraft under landing and takeoff speeds was investigated. The impact damage by concrete, asphalt, aluminum, hail and rubber sphere projectiles was explored in detail. Additionally, a kinetic energy and momentum experimental study was performed to look at the nature of the impacts in more detail. A method for recording the contact force history of the impact by an instrumented projectile was developed and tested. The sandwich composite investigated was an IM7-8552 unidirectional prepreg adhered to a NOMEXRTM core with an FM300K film adhesive. Impact experiments were conducted with a gas gun built in-house specifically for delivering projectiles to a sandwich composite target in this specic velocity regime (10--140 m/s). The effect on the impact damage by the projectile was investigated by ultrasonic C-scan, high speed camera and scanning electron and optical microscopy. Ultrasonic C-scans revealed the full extent of damage caused by each projectile, while the high speed camera enabled precise projectile velocity measurements that were used for striking velocity, kinetic energy and momentum analyses. Scanning electron and optical images revealed specific features of the panel failure and manufacturing artifacts within the lamina and honeycomb core. The damage of the panels by different projectiles was found to have a similar damage area for equivalent energy levels, except for rubber which had a damage area that increased greatly with striking velocity. Further investigation was taken by kinetic energy and momentum based comparisons of 19 mm diameter stainless steel sphere projectiles in order to examine the dominating damage mechanisms. The sandwich targets were struck by acrylic, aluminum, alumina, stainless steel and tungsten carbide spheres of the

  9. 48 CFR 252.247-7016 - Contractor liability for loss or damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Contractor's negligence, indemnification shall be at a rate not to exceed sixty cents per pound per article. (ii) Negligent damage. When loss or damage is caused by the negligence of the Contractor...

  10. Radiation damage in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, V.

    1978-01-01

    A number of experiments are described with the purpose to obtain a better insight in the chemical nature and the biological significance of radiation-induced damage in DNA, with some emphasis on the significance of alkali-labile sites. It is shown that not only reactions of OH radicals but also of H radicals introduce breaks and other inactivating damage in single-standed phiX174 DNA. It is found that phosphate buffer is very suitable for the study of the reactions of H radicals with DNA, as the H 2 PO 4 - ions convert the hydrated electrons into H radicals. The hydrated electron, which does react with DNA, does not cause a detectable inactivation. (Auth.)

  11. Graphite limiter and armour damage in Doublet III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKelvey, T.; Taylor, T.; Trester, P.

    1983-01-01

    Graphite coated with TiC has been used extensively in Doublet III for limiters and neutral beam armour. Performance of these components has been superior to that of the metal components previously used. Damage to the coated graphite has occurred and can be classified into three categories: (1) gross failure of the graphite due to thermal stresses induced by the combination of high applied energy fluxes and mechanical restraint, (2) surface failure of the graphite due to runaway electron impingement, and (3) loss of TiC coating due to arcing, sputtering, vaporization and spalling, primarily during plasma disruptions and other abnormal plasma conditions. Design improvements are being continually implemented to minimize this damage and its consequences. (author)

  12. Calculation of Core Damage Frequency for the Change of the Common Cause Failure Parameters According to the Testing Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil You; Jin, Young Ho; Kim, Tae Woon

    2011-01-01

    Common cause failure (CCF) probabilities are differently estimated according to testing strategies. There are two representative testing schemes; staggered testing and non-staggered testing schemes. For the cases where trains or channels of standby safety systems consisting of more than two redundant components are tested in a staggered manner, the standby safety components within a train can be tested simultaneously or consecutively. In this case, mixed testing scheme, staggered and non-staggered testing schemes, are used for testing the components. Kang et al. derived the formulas for the estimations of the CCF probabilities of the components under the mixed testing scheme. This paper presents the sensitivity study results on the core damage frequency (CDF) of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) for the changes of the CCF parameters according to the testing strategies

  13. Mitigation of Debris Flow Damage--­ A Case Study of Debris Flow Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Jen, C. H.

    Typhoon Toraji caused more than 30 casualties in Central Taiwan on the 31st July 2001. It was the biggest Typhoon since the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999 with huge amounts of rainfall. Because of the influence of the earthquake, loose debris falls and flows became major hazards in Central Taiwan. Analysis of rainfall data and sites of slope failure show that damage from these natural hazards were enhanced as a result of the Chi-Chi earthquake. Three main types of hazard occurred in Central Taiwan: land- slides, debris flows and gully erosion. Landslides occurred mainly along hill slopes and banks of channels. Many dams and houses were destroyed by flooding. Debris flows occurred during typhoon periods and re-activated ancient debris depositions. Many new gullies were therefore developed from deposits loosened and shaken by the earthquake. This paper demonstrates the geological/geomorphological background of the hazard area, and reviews methods of damage mitigation in central Taiwan. A good example is Hsi-Tou, which had experienced no gully erosion for more than 40 years. The area experienced much gully erosion as a result of the combined effects of earth- quake and typhoon. Although Typhoon Toraji produced only 30% of the rainfall of Typhoon Herb of 1996, it caused more damage in the Hsi-Tou area. The mitigation of debris flow hazards in Hsi-tou area is discussed in this paper.

  14. Protecting Against Damage from Refraction of High Power Microwaves in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohr John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several new protective systems are being installed on the DIII D tokamak to increase the safety margins for plasma operations with injected ECH power at densities approaching cutoff. Inadvertent overdense operation has previously resulted in reflection of an rf beam back into a launcher causing extensive arcing and melt damage on one waveguide line. Damage to microwave diagnostics, which are located on the same side of the tokamak as the ECH launchers, also has occurred. Developing a reliable microwave based interlock to protect the many vulnerable systems in DIII-D has proved to be difficult. Therefore, multiple protective steps have been taken to reduce the risk of damage in the future. Among these is a density interlock generated by the plasma control system, with setpoint determined by the ECH operators based on rf beam trajectories and plasma parameters. Also installed are enhanced video monitoring of the launchers, and an ambient light monitor on each of the waveguide systems, along with a Langmuir probe at the mouth of each launcher. Versatile rf monitors, measuring forward and reflected power in addition to the mode content of the rf beams, have been installed as the last miter bends in each waveguide line. As these systems are characterized, they are being incorporated in the interlock chains, which enable the ECH injection permits. The diagnostics most susceptible to damage from the ECH waves have also been fitted with a variety of protective devices including stripline filters, thin resonant notch filters tuned to the 110 GHz injected microwave frequency, blazed grating filters and shutters. Calculations of rf beam trajectories in the plasmas are performed using the TORAY ray tracing code with input from kinetic profile diagnostics. Using these calculations, strike points for refracted beams on the vacuum vessel are calculated, which allows evaluation of the risk of damage to sensitive diagnostics and hardware.

  15. DNA damage by ethylbenzenehydroperoxide formed from carcinogenic ethylbenzene by sunlight irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Chitose; Uchida, Takafumi; Midorikawa, Kaoru; Murata, Mariko; Hiraku, Yusuke; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Ueda, Koji; Kojima, Nakao; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2003-01-01

    Ethylbenzene, widely used in human life, is a non-mutagenic carcinogen. Sunlight-irradiated ethylbenzene caused DNA damage in the presence of Cu 2+ , but unirradiated ethylbenzene did not. A Cu + -specific chelator bathocuproine inhibited DNA damage and catalase showed a little inhibitory effect. The scopoletin assay revealed that peroxides and H 2 O 2 were formed in ethylbenzene exposed to sunlight. These results suggest that Cu + and alkoxyl radical mainly participate in DNA damage, and H 2 O 2 partially does. When catalase was added, DNA damage at thymine and cytosine was inhibited. Ethylbenzenehydroperoxide, identified by GC/MS analysis, induced the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 ' -deoxyguanosine and caused DNA damage at consecutive guanines, as observed with cumenehydroperoxide. Equimolar concentrations of H 2 O 2 and acetophenone were produced by the sunlight-irradiation of 1-phenylethanol, a further degraded product of ethylbenzene. These results indicate a novel pathway that oxidative DNA damage induced by the peroxide and H 2 O 2 derived from sunlight-irradiated ethylbenzene may lead to expression of the carcinogenicity

  16. Assessment of thermal fatigue damage caused by local fluid temperature fluctuation (part I: characteristics of constraint and stress caused by thermal striation and stratification)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The source of the membrane constraint due to local temperature fluctuation was shown. • Thermal fatigue that occurred at a mixing tee and branched elbow was analyzed. • Cracking occurrence was reasonably explained by the constraint and stress conditions. - Abstract: This study was aimed at identifying the constraint conditions under local temperature fluctuation by thermal striping at a mixing tee and by thermal stratification at an elbow pipe branched from the main pipe. Numerical and analytical approaches were made to derive the thermal stress and its fluctuation. It was shown that an inhomogeneous temperature distribution in a straight pipe caused thermal stress due to a membrane constraint even if an external membrane constraint did not act on the pipe. Although the membrane constraint increased the mean stress at the mixing tee, it did not contribute to fluctuation of the thermal stress. On the other hand, the membrane constraint played an important role in the fatigue damage accumulation near the stratification layer of the branched elbow. Based on the constraint and stress conditions analyzed, the characteristics of the cracking observed in actual nuclear power plants were reasonably explained. Namely, at the mixing tee, where thermal crazing has been found, the lack of contribution of the membrane constraint to stress fluctuation caused a stress gradient in the thickness direction and arrested crack growth. On the other hand, at the branched elbow, where axial through-wall cracks have been found, the relatively large hoop stress fluctuation was brought about by movement of the stratified layer together with the membrane constraint even under a relatively low frequency of stress fluctuation

  17. The role of zinc supplementation in the inhibition of tissue damage caused by exposure to electromagnetic field in rat lung and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R; Salbacak, A; Celik, I; Sivrikaya, A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of zinc supplementation on the oxidant damage in lung and liver tissues in rats exposed to a 50-Hz frequency magnetic field for 5 minutes every other day over a period of 6 months. The study included 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into the three groups in equal numbers: Group 1, the control group (G1); Group 2, the group exposed to an electromagnetic field (G2); and Group 3, the group, which was exposed to an EMF and supplemented with zinc (G3). At the end of the 6-month procedures, the animals were decapitated to collect lung and liver tissue samples, in which MDA was analyzed using the "TBARS method (nmol/g/protein)", GSH by the "biuret method (mg/g/protein)" and zinc levels by atomic emission (µg/dl). MDA levels in lung and liver tissues in G2 were higher than those in G1 and G3, and the levels in G3 were higher than those in G1 (pelectromagnetic field caused cellular damage in lung and liver tissues and zinc supplementation inhibited the inflicted cellular damage. Another important result of this study that needs emphasis was that exposure to an electromagnetic field led to a significant decrease in zinc levels in lung and liver tissues (Tab. 3, Ref. 23).

  18. Environmental impact of the landslides caused by the 12 May 2008, Wenchuan, China earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Lynn; Sun, Ping; Edited by Margottini, Claudio; Canuti, Paolo; Sassa, Kyoji

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude 7.9 (Mw) Wenchuan, China, earthquake of May 12, 2008 caused at least 88,000 deaths of which one third are estimated to be due to the more than 56,000 earthquake-induced landslides. The affected area is mountainous, featuring densely-vegetated, steep slopes through which narrowly confined rivers and streams flow. Numerous types of landslides occurred in the area, including rock avalanches, rock falls, translational and rotational slides, lateral spreads and debris flows. Some landslides mobilized hundreds of million cubic meters of material, often resulting in the damming of rivers and streams, impacting river ecosystems and morphology. Through an extensive search of both Chinese- and English-language publications we provide a summary of pertinent research on environmental effects, emphasizing key findings. Environmental effects caused by landslides include the alteration of agriculture, changes to natural ecosystems, changes in river morphology due to landslide dams and other effects such as sedimentation and flooding. Damage by landslides to the giant panda reserve infrastructure and habitat, was severe, threatening the survival of one of the world’s rarest species. The Panda reserves are of national significance to China, and to the vital tourism economy of the region. One of the major impacts to both the natural and built environment is the complete relocation of some human populations and infrastructure to new areas, resulting in the abandonment of towns and other areas that were damaged by the earthquake and landslides. The landslide effects have affected the biodiversity of the affected area, and it has been hypothesized that strict forest preservation measures taken in the years preceding the earthquake resulted in a reduction of the environmental damage to the area.

  19. The nucleosome: orchestrating DNA damage signaling and repair within chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Poonam; Miller, Kyle M

    2016-10-01

    DNA damage occurs within the chromatin environment, which ultimately participates in regulating DNA damage response (DDR) pathways and repair of the lesion. DNA damage activates a cascade of signaling events that extensively modulates chromatin structure and organization to coordinate DDR factor recruitment to the break and repair, whilst also promoting the maintenance of normal chromatin functions within the damaged region. For example, DDR pathways must avoid conflicts between other DNA-based processes that function within the context of chromatin, including transcription and replication. The molecular mechanisms governing the recognition, target specificity, and recruitment of DDR factors and enzymes to the fundamental repeating unit of chromatin, i.e., the nucleosome, are poorly understood. Here we present our current view of how chromatin recognition by DDR factors is achieved at the level of the nucleosome. Emerging evidence suggests that the nucleosome surface, including the nucleosome acidic patch, promotes the binding and activity of several DNA damage factors on chromatin. Thus, in addition to interactions with damaged DNA and histone modifications, nucleosome recognition by DDR factors plays a key role in orchestrating the requisite chromatin response to maintain both genome and epigenome integrity.

  20. Physical models implemented in the Geant4-DNA extension of the Geant-4 toolkit for calculating initial radiation damage at the molecular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagrasa, C.; Francis, Z.; Incerti, S.

    2011-01-01

    The ROSIRIS project aims to study the radiobiology of integrated systems for medical treatment optimisation using ionising radiations and evaluate the associated risk. In the framework of this project, one research focus is the interpretation of the initial radio-induced damage in DNA created by ionising radiation (and detected by γH2AX foci analysis) from the track structure of the incident particles. In order to calculate the track structure of ionising particles at a nano-metric level, the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit was used. Geant4 (Object Oriented Programming Architecture in C++) offers a common platform, available free to all users and relatively easy to use. Nevertheless, the current low-energy threshold for electromagnetic processes in GEANT4 is set to 1 keV (250 eV using the Livermore processes), which is an unsuitable value for nano-metric applications. To lower this energy threshold, the necessary interaction processes and models were identified, and the corresponding available cross sections collected from the literature. They are mostly based on the plane-wave Born approximation (first Born approximation, or FBA) for inelastic interactions and on semi-empirical models for energies where the FBA fails (at low energies). In this paper, the extensions that have been introduced into the 9.3 release of the Geant4 toolkit are described, the so-called Geant4-DNA extension, including a set of processes and models adapted in this study and permitting the simulation of electron (8 eV -1 MeV), proton (100 eV-100 MeV) and alpha particle (1 keV-10 MeV) interactions in liquid water. (authors)

  1. Assessment of corrosion and fatigue damage to light water reactor metal containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, U.P.; Shah, V.N.; Smith, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a generic procedure for estimating aging damage, evaluating structural integrity, and identifying mitigation activities for safe operation of boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark I metal containments and ice-condenser type pressurized water reactor (PWR) cylindrical metal containments. The mechanisms of concern that can cause aging damage to these two types of containments are corrosion and fatigue. Assessment of fatigue damage to bellows is also described. Assessment of corrosion and fatigue damage described in this paper include: containment design features that are relevant to aging assessment, several corrosion and fatigue mechanisms, inspection of corrosion and fatigue damage, and mitigation of damage caused by these mechanisms. In addition, synergistic interaction between corrosion and fatigue is considered. Possible actions for mitigating aging include enhanced inspection methods, maintenance activities based on operating experience, and supplementary surveillance programs. Field experience related to aging of metal containments is reviewed. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are presented

  2. DNA damage and repair in human skin in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, B.M.; Gange, R.W.; Freeman, S.E.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Understanding the molecular and cellular origins of sunlight-induced skin cancers in man requires knowledge of the damages inflicted on human skin during sunlight exposure, as well as the ability of cells in skin to repair or circumvent such damage. Although repair has been studied extensively in procaryotic and eucaryotic cells - including human cells in culture - there are important differences between repair by human skin cells in culture and human skin in situ: quantitative differences in rates of repair, as well as qualitative differences, including the presence or absence of repair mechanisms. Quantitation of DNA damage and repair in human skin required the development of new approaches for measuring damage at low levels in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA. The method allows for analysis of multiple samples and the resulting data should be related to behavior of the DNA molecules by analytic expressions. Furthermore, it should be possible to assay a variety of lesions using the same methodology. The development of new analysis methods, new technology, and new biochemical probes for the study of DNA damage and repair are described. 28 refs., 4 figs

  3. DNA damage and repair in human skin in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, B.M.; Gange, R.W.; Freeman, S.E.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Understanding the molecular and cellular origins of sunlight-induced skin cancers in man requires knowledge of the damages inflicted on human skin during sunlight exposure, as well as the ability of cells in skin to repair or circumvent such damage. Although repair has been studied extensively in procaryotic and eucaryotic cells - including human cells in culture - there are important differences between repair by human skin cells in culture and human skin in situ: quantitative differences in rates of repair, as well as qualitative differences, including the presence or absence of repair mechanisms. Quantitation of DNA damage and repair in human skin required the development of new approaches for measuring damage at low levels in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA. The method allows for analysis of multiple samples and the resulting data should be related to behavior of the DNA molecules by analytic expressions. Furthermore, it should be possible to assay a variety of lesions using the same methodology. The development of new analysis methods, new technology, and new biochemical probes for the study of DNA damage and repair are described. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Benefits of invasion prevention: Effect of time lags, spread rates, and damage persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca S. Epanchin-Niell; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying economic damages caused by invasive species is crucial for cost-benefit analyses of biosecurity measures. Most studies focus on short-term damage estimates, but evaluating exclusion or prevention measures requires estimates of total anticipated damages from the time of establishment onward. The magnitude of such damages critically depends on the timing of...

  5. DNA Damage and Repair in Plants under Ultraviolet and Ionizing Radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Gill, Ritu; Jha, Manoranjan; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Being sessile, plants are continuously exposed to DNA-damaging agents present in the environment such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiations (IR). Sunlight acts as an energy source for photosynthetic plants; hence, avoidance of UV radiations (namely, UV-A, 315–400 nm; UV-B, 280–315 nm; and UV-C, important target for UV-B induced damage. On the other hand, IR causes water radiolysis, which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and causes radiogenic damage to important cellular components. However, to maintain genomic integrity under UV/IR exposure, plants make use of several DNA repair mechanisms. In the light of recent breakthrough, the current minireview (a) introduces UV/IR and overviews UV/IR-mediated DNA damage products and (b) critically discusses the biochemistry and genetics of major pathways responsible for the repair of UV/IR-accrued DNA damage. The outcome of the discussion may be helpful in devising future research in the current context. PMID:25729769

  6. Compaction of an inceptisol caused by forest extraction with Skidder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Pezzoni Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The compaction due to machinery traffic causes damage to the soil that can interfere with the development of the root system of plants, resulting in decreased crop yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Inceptisol compaction caused by Skidder traffic in extraction of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in secondary extension logging in tire tracks and stems, varying the frequency of tractor traffic. The tire tracks and stems were in the same line of traffic passage earlier, each located in their respective tracks. The study area was located in the municipality of Capão Bonito-SP, in cultivation of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and samples were obtained from an area without traffic (control and applications with 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Skidder passes in two layers, 0.00 to 0.05 and 0.10 - 0.15 m depth. The results showed that there was additional compaction by each passage of the Skidder, being higher in the layer of 0.00 to 0.05 m depth. Soil compaction was more pronounced under lower water content in the soil, being contrary to the expected.

  7. Protection against oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and preliminary photosafety assessment of Punica granatum seed oil nanoemulsions entrapping polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarin, Thaisa; Mitjans, Montserrat; Lemos-Senna, Elenara; Vinardell, Maria Pilar

    2015-12-25

    The main purpose of the present study is to evaluate the ability of nanoemulsion entrapping pomegranate peel polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) prepared from pomegranate seed oil and medium chain triglyceride to protect human erythrocyte membrane from oxidative damage and to assess preliminary in vitro photosafety. In order to evaluate the phototoxic effect of nanoemulsions, human red blood cells (RBCs) are used as a biological model and the rate of haemolysis and photohaemolysis (5 J cm(-2) UVA) is assessed in vitro. The level of protection against oxidative damage caused by the peroxyl radical generator AAPH in human RBCs as well as its effects on bilayer membrane characteristics such as fluidity, protein profile and RBCs morphology are determined. EAF-loaded nanoemulsions do not promote haemolysis or photohaemolysis. Anisotropy measurements show that nanoemulsions significantly retrain the increase in membrane fluidity caused by AAPH. SDS-PAGE analysis reveals that AAPH induced degradation of membrane proteins, but that nanoemulsions reduce the extension of degradation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations corroborate the interaction between AAPH, nanoemulsions and the RBC membrane bilayer. Our work demonstrates that Punica granatum nanoemulsions are photosafe and protect RBCs against oxidative damage and possible disturbance of the lipid bilayer of biomembranes. Moreover it suggests that these nanoemulsions could be promising new topical products to reduce the effects of sunlight on skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Information from Rendezvous Missions for Best-Case Appraisals of Impact Damage to Planet Earth Caused by Natural Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, James O.; Chodas, Paul W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Mathias, Donovan L.; Burkhard, Craig D.

    2017-01-01

    The Asteroid Threat Assessment Project (ATAP), a part of NASAs Planetary Defense Coordination Office (PDCO) has the responsibility to appraise the range of surface damage by potential asteroid impacts on land or water. If a threat is realized, the project will provide appraisals to officials empowered to make decisions about potential mitigation actions. This paper describes a scenario for assessment of surface damage when characterization of an asteroid had been accomplished by a rendezvous mission that would be conducted by the international planetary defense community. It is shown that the combination of data from ground and in-situ measurements on an asteroid provides knowledge that can be used to pin-point its impact location and predict the level of devastation it would cause. The hypothetical asteroid 2017 PDC with a size range of 160 to 290 m in diameter to be discussed at the PDC 2017 is used as an example. In order of importance for appraising potential damage, information required is: (1) where will the surface impact occur? (2) what is the mass, shape and size of the asteroid and what is its entry state (speed and entry angle) at the 100 km atmospheric pierce point? And (3) is the asteroid a monolith or a rubble pile? If it is a rubble pile, what is its structure and heterogeneity from the surface and throughout its interior? Item (1) is of first order importance to determine levels of devastation (loss of life and infrastructure damage) because it varies strongly on the impact location. Items (2) and (3) are used as inputs for ATAPs simulations to define the level of surface hazards: winds, overpressure, thermal exposure; all created by the deposition of energy during the objects atmospheric flight, andor cratering. Topics presented in this paper include: (i) the devastation predicted by 2017 PDCs impact on land based on initial observations using ATAPs risk assessment capability, (ii) how information corresponding to items (1) to (3) could be obtained

  9. Elbow arthroscopy: valgus extension overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Conway, John E

    2011-01-01

    Valgus torque combined with deceleration produces high compression and shear forces acting on the posteromedial olecranon and the posteromedial trochlea. This valgus extension overload process may cause posteromedial trochlea chondromalacia, chondral flap formation, osteochondrosis, subchondral erosion, a subchondral insufficiency fracture, and marginal exostosis formation. Olecranon pathologies include proximal stress reaction, a posteromedial tip stress fracture, a transverse proximal process stress fracture, exostosis formation, exostosis fragmentation, and intra-articular loose bodies. Symptoms include posteromedial elbow pain during the deceleration phase of the throwing motion. The extension impingement test reproduces posterior or posteromedial pain similar to that experienced while throwing. Special radiographic techniques and CT scans can show loose bodies and osteophyte fragmentation. Surgical treatment is indicated when symptoms persist despite nonsurgical management. Based on clinical and basic science research, all patients with valgus extension overload should be comprehensively evaluated for medial ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency. Surgical treatment is limited to the resection of osteophytes only; normal olecranon should not be resected.

  10. Does vitamin E prevent tubal damage caused by smoking? A light microscopy and animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Muzeyyen; Ustunyurt, Emin; Kosus, Aydin; Kosus, Nermin; Turhan, Nilgun; Hızlı, Deniz; Sarac, Gulce Naz; Erdogan, Deniz

    2014-04-01

    To assess the histomorphological effects of smoking on the cilia of fallopian tubes in mice and the effect of vitamin E on the negative effects of smoke. Eighteen 12-14 week-old Swiss albino type female mice were randomly divided into three groups, each consisting of six mice: Group A: control group; Group B: mice exposed to cigarette smoke; Group C: mice exposed to cigarette smoke together with vitamin E. Groups B and C were exposed to cigarette smoke for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, tubal excision was performed in all animals. Histopathologic examination of excised tubal tissue was conducted under light microscopy. The number of cilia was significantly lower in Group B. Although not statistically significant, the median number of cilia in Group C was measured to be higher than in Group B but lower than in Group A. Based on the results, it can be concluded that smoking decreases tubal cilia numbers. Supplementation by vitamin E may treat or at least help to slow down the decrease in number of cilia caused by smoking; therefore it could be used therapeutically in the treatment of smoking-related tubal damage. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Finding peace from Hiroshima. One oncologist's fight to rectify the damage caused by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoufalos, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The article informs about one oncologist's fight to rectify the damage caused by radiation. In a small town just outside Osaka, Japan, Ritsuko Komaki was born, quite literally, into the atomic age. She was just an infant in 1945 when the first atomic bomb ever detonated on a human population devastated her family's ancestral home of Hiroshima. One of her friends, Sasaki was diagnosed with leukemia, and was later hospitalized with bone marrow suppression. Her grandmother had been exposed to the same chemical radiation that Sasaki had, yet never contracted leukemia despite presenting with all the other side effects of exposure. Komaki wa wondering why her grandmother never had any leukemia, but Sadako did? She never had any cancer, but she had all the symptoms of exposure, e.g. hair loss, diarrhea and bone marrow problems. During medical school, Komaki volunteered her summers at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, the institute the United States built in Japan to examine the victims of atomic exposure. Anyone diagnosed as anemic underwent a bone marrow exam, and Komaki learned a great deal about chromosomal abnormalities by performing blood tests alongside visiting researchers from Yale University and other American hospitals. The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki had fostered a national paranoia about radiation and radioactivity. In Japan, they hate radiation, and for so many years, they did not want to hear about radiation therapy. Patients had an illogical fear of it that delayed offering it as treatment there. In Japan, the majority of cancer treatment culminated in surgery. Radiation oncology was not a recognized specialization; oncologists were grouped in with diagnostic radiation techs. Yet today, Ritsuko Komaki, MD, is the chief operating officer of one of the most sophisticated radiation oncology treatment facilities in the United States: the 120 million US Dollar M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. And ironically, the technical equipment that forms

  12. Effects of weak magnetic fields on post-implantation damage in superconducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khait, Y.L.

    1996-01-01

    Experimentally verifiable effects of weak permanent magnetic fields (PMF's) acting during ion implantation in high-T c superconducting (HTSC) materials at T∼300 K on post-implantation damage (PID) and material parameters are considered. The presence of PMF's of H∼10 3 Oe during ion implantation can enlarge substantially the PID in HTSC materials implanted with ions of moderate energies (e.g. 200-400 keV) and dosage (10 11- 10 12 cm -3 ) at room temperature. The PMF-induced increase in the radiation damage causes the corresponding enhancement in the material resistivity R and reduction in the critical current j cir (measured after the cooling of the HTSC material down to T (L) c after the ion implantation). This is an extension of the PMF effects found experimentally (and explained theoretically) in semiconductors in our previous work. The experimentally verifiable PMF effects on the defect (atomic) migration and radiation damage is a generic consequence of the kinetic electron-related theory of atomic rate processes in solids. The theory links the PMF effects with electron transitions occurring in the nanometer vicinity of atoms overcoming energy barriers which affect exponentially rates of atomic (defect) diffusion. The magnetic field can enhance the number of downward electron transitions that accompany atomic (defect) jumps over energy barriers and synchronize with the jumps. This enhances exponentially the rates of defect migration out of thermal spikes that prevents the defects from fast recombination, and thus, the PMF increases the PID and changes correspondingly R and j cir . (orig.)

  13. Mechanisms of Retinal Damage after Ocular Alkali Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Eleftherios I; Zhou, Chengxin; Lei, Fengyang; Scott, Nathan; Kapoulea, Vassiliki; Robert, Marie-Claude; Vavvas, Demetrios; Dana, Reza; Chodosh, James; Dohlman, Claes H

    2017-06-01

    Alkali burns to the eye constitute a leading cause of worldwide blindness. In recent case series, corneal transplantation revealed unexpected damage to the retina and optic nerve in chemically burned eyes. We investigated the physical, biochemical, and immunological components of retinal injury after alkali burn and explored a novel neuroprotective regimen suitable for prompt administration in emergency departments. Thus, in vivo pH, oxygen, and oxidation reduction measurements were performed in the anterior and posterior segment of mouse and rabbit eyes using implantable microsensors. Tissue inflammation was assessed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. The experiments confirmed that the retinal damage is not mediated by direct effect of the alkali, which is effectively buffered by the anterior segment. Rather, pH, oxygen, and oxidation reduction changes were restricted to the cornea and the anterior chamber, where they caused profound uveal inflammation and release of proinflammatory cytokines. The latter rapidly diffuse to the posterior segment, triggering retinal damage. Tumor necrosis factor-α was identified as a key proinflammatory mediator of retinal ganglion cell death. Blockade, by either monoclonal antibody or tumor necrosis factor receptor gene knockout, reduced inflammation and retinal ganglion cell loss. Intraocular pressure elevation was not observed in experimental alkali burns. These findings illuminate the mechanism by which alkali burns cause retinal damage and may have importance in designing therapies for retinal protection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemo-mechanics of salt damage in stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Robert J; Caruso, Francesco; Sanchez, Asel Maria Aguilar; Scherer, George W

    2014-09-11

    Many porous materials are damaged by pressure exerted by salt crystals growing in their pores. This is a serious issue in conservation science, geomorphology, geotechnical engineering and concrete materials science. In all cases, a central question is whether crystallization pressure will cause damage. Here we present an experiment in which the crystallization pressure and the pore saturation are varied in a controlled way. We demonstrate that a strain energy failure criterion can be used to predict when damage will occur. The experiment considered is the most widely used means to study the susceptibility to salt crystallization, so quantification of this test has far-reaching implications.

  15. Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Ileocolic and Colocolic Intussusception in an Adult Patient with Cecal Lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Casiraghi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intussusception is a rare clinical entity in adults (<1% of intestinal obstructions. Colonic intussusception is even rarer, particularly when caused by lipomas. Case Presentation. A 47-year-old woman presented to our emergency department complaining of abdominal pain with vomiting and diarrhoea. X-ray and CT showed bowel obstruction due to ileocolonic and colocolonic intussusception; a giant colonic lipoma (9 × 4 × 4 cm was recognizable immediately distally to the splenic flexure of the colon. The patient underwent emergency laparotomy and right hemicolectomy. Assessment of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of giant colonic polypoid lesion near to the ileocecal valve, causing a 12 cm long intussusception with moderate ischemic damage. Conclusion. Colonic obstruction due to intussusception caused by lipomas is a very rare condition that needs urgent treatment. CT is the radiologic modality of choice for diagnosis (sensitivity 80%, specificity near 100%; since the majority of colonic intussusceptions are caused by primary adenocarcinoma, if the etiology is uncertain, the lesion must be interpreted as malignant and extensive resection is recommended. At present, surgery is the treatment of choice and determines an excellent outcome.

  16. Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Ileocolic and Colocolic Intussusception in an Adult Patient with Cecal Lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Tiziana; Masetto, Alessandro; Beltramo, Massimo; Girlando, Mauro; Di Bella, Camillo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction . Intussusception is a rare clinical entity in adults (<1% of intestinal obstructions). Colonic intussusception is even rarer, particularly when caused by lipomas. Case Presentation . A 47-year-old woman presented to our emergency department complaining of abdominal pain with vomiting and diarrhoea. X-ray and CT showed bowel obstruction due to ileocolonic and colocolonic intussusception; a giant colonic lipoma (9 × 4 × 4 cm) was recognizable immediately distally to the splenic flexure of the colon. The patient underwent emergency laparotomy and right hemicolectomy. Assessment of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of giant colonic polypoid lesion near to the ileocecal valve, causing a 12 cm long intussusception with moderate ischemic damage. Conclusion . Colonic obstruction due to intussusception caused by lipomas is a very rare condition that needs urgent treatment. CT is the radiologic modality of choice for diagnosis (sensitivity 80%, specificity near 100%); since the majority of colonic intussusceptions are caused by primary adenocarcinoma, if the etiology is uncertain, the lesion must be interpreted as malignant and extensive resection is recommended. At present, surgery is the treatment of choice and determines an excellent outcome.

  17. The Effect of a Simulated Basketball Game on Players’ Sprint and Jump Performance, Temperature and Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliauga Vytautas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive data regarding the demands of playing basketball, the relative importance of factors that cause fatigue and muscle potentiation has been explored only tentatively and remains unclear. The aim of this experimental field study was to assess changes in leg muscle power and relate these changes to body temperature modifications and indices of exercise-induced muscle damage in response to a simulated basketball game. College-level male basketball players (n=10 were divided into two teams to play a simulated basketball game. Ten-meter sprint and vertical counter-movement jump tests, core body temperature and creatine-kinase activity were measured within 48 h after the game. The participants’ body temperatures increased after a warm-up (1.9%, p200%, p30%, p<0.05 after the game, indicating damage to the players’ muscles. The basketball players’ sprint and jump performance appear to be at least in part associated with body temperature changes, which might contribute to counteract fatigue during the larger part of a basketball game.

  18. Study on DNA damages induced by UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Hong Van; Dinh Ba Tuan; Tran Tuan Anh; Nguyen Thuy Ngan; Ta Bich Thuan; Vo Thi Thuong Lan; Tran Minh Quynh; Nguyen Thi Thom

    2015-01-01

    DNA damages in Escherichia coli (E. coli) exposed to UV radiation have been investigated. After 30 min of exposure to UV radiation of 5 mJ/cm"2, the growth of E. coli in LB broth medium was about only 10% in compared with non-irradiated one. This results suggested that the UV radiation caused the damages for E. coli genome resulted in reduction in its growth and survival, and those lesions can be somewhat recovered. For both solutions of plasmid DNAs and E. coli cells containing plasmid DNA, this dose also caused the breakage on single and double strands of DNA, shifted the morphology of DNA plasmid from supercoiled to circular and linear forms. The formation of pyrimidine dimers upon UV radiation significantly reduced when the DNA was irradiated in the presence of Ganoderma lucidum extract. Thus, studies on UV-induced DNA damage at molecular level are very essential to determine the UV radiation doses corresponding to the DNA damages, especially for creation and selection of useful radiation-induced mutants, as well as elucidation the protective effects of the specific compounds against UV light. (author)

  19. BDNF Regains Function in Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation Deficits Caused by Diencephalic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Lindsey C.; Savage, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD), commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, leads to diencephalic damage, hippocampal dysfunction, and spatial learning and memory deficits. We show a decrease in the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at CA3-CA1 synapses, independent of sex, following diencephalic damage…

  20. An experimental study on tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of water soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Yong Il

    1989-01-01

    The water soluble contrast media cause tissue necrosis infrequently by extravasation during intravenous injection in various radiological examinations. However, it has not been well documented that what kind and what concentration of contrast media can cause tissue necrosis. And also, the mechanism of tissue necrosis by extravasated contrast media has not been well known. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of various water soluble contrast media to investigate the characteristics of the contrast media acting on the tissue damage, and to provide the basic data for the clinical application. Meglumine ioxithalamate,sodium and meglumine ioxithalamate, iopromide, iopamidol, ioxaglate,meglumine diatrizoate and sodium diatrizoate of various iodine content and osmolality were injected into subcutaneous tissue of the dorsum of 970 feet of 485 rats. The tissue reaction of injection sites were grossly examined with period from 1 day to 8 weeks after the injection. Representative gross changes were correlated with histologic findings. The results were as follows; 1. The basic tissue damage by extravasated contrast media was acute and chronic inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue with subsequent progress into the hemorrhagic and necrotizing lesion. 2. Lager volume of contrast media caused more severe tissue damage. 3. Contrast media of higher osmolality caused more severe tissue damage. 4. At same osmolality, contrast media of higher iodine content caused more severe tissue damage

  1. Eplerenone for early cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: results of a two-year open-label extension trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha V. Raman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiomyopathy is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. We recently showed in a 12-month double-blind randomized controlled trial that adding eplerenone to background medical therapy was cardioprotective in this population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of longer-term eplerenone therapy in boys with DMD. Results Eleven subjects (phase 1 baseline median [range] age: 13 [7 – 25] years from the original 12-month trial at a single participating center were enrolled. Importantly, those who entered the extension study who had been on eplerenone previously were significantly older than those who had originally been on placebo (median age 10.5 vs. 18.0 years, p = 0.045. During an additional 24-month open-label extension study, all boys received eplerenone 25 mg orally once daily to treat preclinical DMD cardiomyopathy, defined as evident myocardial damage by late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE with preserved ejection fraction (EF. The threshold for potassium level, the primary safety measure, was not exceeded in any non-hemolyzed blood sample. Over 24 months, left ventricular (LV systolic strain, a more sensitive marker whose more negative values indicate greater contractility significantly improved (median change -4.4%, IQR -5.8 to -0.9% in younger subjects whereas older subjects’ strain remained stable without significant worsening or improvement (median change 0.2%, IQR -1.1 to 4.3%. EF and extent of myocardial damage by LGE remained stable in both groups over 2 years. Conclusions Eplerenone offers effective and safe cardioprotection for boys with DMD, particularly when started at a younger age. Eplerenone is a useful clinical therapeutic option, particularly if treatment is initiated earlier in life when cardiac damage is minimal. Trial registration http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01521546

  2. Alkylation damage by lipid electrophiles targets functional protein systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Simona G; Ullery, Jody C; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A; Beavers, William N; Porter, Ned A; Marnett, Lawrence J; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C

    2014-03-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions.

  3. Alkylation Damage by Lipid Electrophiles Targets Functional Protein Systems*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Simona G.; Ullery, Jody C.; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A.; Beavers, William N.; Porter, Ned A.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions. PMID:24429493

  4. Ubiquitin Accumulation on Disease Associated Protein Aggregates Is Correlated with Nuclear Ubiquitin Depletion, Histone De-Ubiquitination and Impaired DNA Damage Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Ben Yehuda

    Full Text Available Deposition of ubiquitin conjugates on inclusion bodies composed of protein aggregates is a definitive cytopathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. We show that accumulation of ubiquitin on polyQ IB, associated with Huntington's disease, is correlated with extensive depletion of nuclear ubiquitin and histone de-ubiquitination. Histone ubiquitination plays major roles in chromatin regulation and DNA repair. Accordingly, we observe that cells expressing IB fail to respond to radiomimetic DNA damage, to induce gamma-H2AX phosphorylation and to recruit 53BP1 to damaged foci. Interestingly ubiquitin depletion, histone de-ubiquitination and impaired DNA damage response are not restricted to PolyQ aggregates and are associated with artificial aggregating luciferase mutants. The longevity of brain neurons depends on their capacity to respond to and repair extensive ongoing DNA damage. Impaired DNA damage response, even modest one, could thus lead to premature neuron aging and mortality.

  5. Radiation damage prediction system using damage function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Mori, Seiji

    1979-01-01

    The irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was investigated. This irradiation damage analysis system consists of the following three processes, the unfolding of a damage function, the calculation of the neutron flux spectrum of the object of damage analysis and the estimation of irradiation effect of the object of damage analysis. The damage function is calculated by applying the SAND-2 code. The ANISN and DOT3, 5 codes are used to calculate neutron flux. The neutron radiation and the allowable time of reactor operation can be estimated based on these calculations of the damage function and neutron flux. The flow diagram of the process of analyzing irradiation damage by a damage function and the flow diagram of SAND-2 code are presented, and the analytical code for estimating damage, which is determined with a damage function and a neutron spectrum, is explained. The application of the irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was carried out to the core support structure of a fast breeder reactor for the damage estimation and the uncertainty evaluation. The fundamental analytical conditions and the analytical model for this work are presented, then the irradiation data for SUS304, the initial estimated values of a damage function, the error analysis for a damage function and the analytical results are explained concerning the computation of a damage function for 10% total elongation. Concerning the damage estimation of FBR core support structure, the standard and lower limiting values of damage, the permissible neutron flux and the allowable years of reactor operation are presented and were evaluated. (Nakai, Y.)

  6. Structural and electrical characterization of HBr/O{sub 2} plasma damage to Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukasawa, Masanaga; Nakakubo, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Asahiko; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi; Minami, Masaki; Uesawa, Fumikatsu; Tatsumi, Tetsuya [Semiconductor Technology Development Division, Semiconductor Business Group, Professional, Device and Solutions Group, Sony Corporation, 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan); Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Semiconductor Technology Development Division, Semiconductor Business Group, Professional, Device and Solutions Group, Sony Corporation, 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Silicon substrate damage caused by HBr/O{sub 2} plasma exposure was investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The damage caused by H{sub 2}, Ar, and O{sub 2} plasma exposure was also compared to clarify the ion-species dependence. Although the damage basically consists of a surface oxidized layer and underlying dislocated Si, the damage structure strongly depends on the incident ion species, ion energy, and oxidation during air and plasma exposure. In the case of HBr/O{sub 2} plasma exposure, hydrogen generated the deep damaged layer ({approx}10 nm), whereas ion-enhanced diffusion of oxygen, supplied simultaneously by the plasma, caused the thick surface oxidation. In-line monitoring of damage thicknesses by SE, developed with an optimized optical model, showed that the SE can be used to precisely monitor damage thicknesses in mass production. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a damaged layer were studied before and after diluted-HF (DHF) treatment. Results showed that a positive charge is generated at the surface oxide-dislocated Si interface and/or in the bulk oxide after plasma exposure. After DHF treatment, most of the positive charges were removed, while the thickness of the ''Si recess'' was increased by removing the thick surface oxidized layer. As both the Si recess and remaining dislocated Si, including positive charges, cause the degradation of electrical performance, precise monitoring of the surface structure and understanding its effect on device performance is indispensable for creating advanced devices.

  7. Liver damage caused by hepatitis C viral infection and ethyl alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Velimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV is a complex disease, most commonly chronicle (80-85%. The aim of this research was to determinate the level of the liver damage in the patients cansed by HCV in conjunction with consuming ethyl alcohol. Methods. The research included 15 patients with chronic HCV infection supported by the misuse of ethyl alcohol, as well. The diagnosis of C infection hepatitis was proved using the ELISA test and PCR method. Results. The results of the study showed the liver damage by both HCV infection and ethyl alcohol, which was verified by the presence of biochemical changes and patohystological processing of the patients (liver biopsy and prosection. Patohystological changes were at the level of liver cirrhosis and carcinoma (2 patients. There was a signficant difference between the two subgroups (p < 0.001 regarding the examined values γ-GT, PLT and PTV. The basic therapeutic procedure was to introduce this category of patients into alcohol abstinence, and, in a few patients, to apply the antivirus therapy, as well. Conclusion. Based on the number of the examined patients (n = 15, we could conclude that a prolonged ethyl alcohol misuse with the presence of HCV infection was in a correlation with the liver disease progression.

  8. Electron damage and defects in organic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howitt, D.G.

    1976-06-01

    The nature of the defects discernable from and the radiation damage that is induced by high resolution electron microscopy is reported. The structural aspects of the radiation damage process can be correlated to the expected radiochemical decomposition of these materials and these effects identified. The types of local defect formed by radiation damage are often clearly distinguishable, in high resolution images, from those inherent in the microstructure. Techniques used in this type of electron microscopy and the limitations imposed by radiation damage are described as are the relevant radiochemical characteristics of these processes. In copper pthalocyanine, microstructural features distinct from those induced by radiation damage were identified which are consistent with those predicted and described by other workers in similar materials. The high resolution studies indicate that some of the microstructures observed are caused by structural rearrangements that can account, to some extent, for additional crystallographic forms that have been identified in this material and the photochemical behaviour of related structures

  9. Geospatial relationships of tree species damage caused by Hurricane Katrina in south Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Garrigues; Zhaofei Fan; David L. Evans; Scott D. Roberts; William H. Cooke III

    2012-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina generated substantial impacts on the forests and biological resources of the affected area in Mississippi. This study seeks to use classification tree analysis (CTA) to determine which variables are significant in predicting hurricane damage (shear or windthrow) in the Southeast Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory District. Logistic regressions...

  10. Atomic and Molecular Data Needs for Radiation Damage Modeling: Multiscale Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Surdutovich, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the multiscale approach towards understanding of the processes responsible for the radiation damage caused by energetic ions. This knowledge is very important, because it can be utilized in the ion-beam cancer therapy, which is one of the most advanced modern techniques to cure certain type of cancer. The central element of the multiscale approach is the theoretical evaluation and quantification of the DNA damage within cell environment. To achieve this goal one needs a significant amount of data on various atomic and molecular processes involved into the cascade of events starting with the ion entering and propagation in the biological medium and resulting in the DNA damage. The discussion of the follow up biological processes are beyond the scope of this brief overview. We consider different paths of the DNA damage and focus on the the illustration of the thermo-mechanical effects caused by the propagation of ions through the biological environment and in particular on the possibility of the creation of the shock waves in the vicinity of the ion tracks. We demonstrate that at the initial stages after ion's passage the shock wave is so strong that it can contribute to the DNA damage due to large pressure gradients developed at the distances of a few nanometers from the ionic tracks. This novel mechanism of the DNA damage provides an important contribution to the cumulative biodamage caused by low-energy secondary electrons, holes and free radicals.

  11. Simulating storm surge inundation and damage potential within complex port facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Robert; French, Jon; Fujiyama, Taku; Achutan, Kamalasudhan

    2017-04-01

    Storm surge inundation of port facilities can cause damage to critical elements of infrastructure, significantly disrupt port operations and cause downstream impacts on vital supply chains. A tidal surge in December 2013 in the North Sea partly flooded the Port of Immingham, which handles the largest volume of bulk cargo in the UK including major flows of coal and biomass for power generation. This flooding caused damage to port and rail transport infrastructure and disrupted operations for several weeks. This research aims to improve resilience to storm surges using hydrodynamic modelling coupled to an agent-based model of port operations. Using the December 2013 event to validate flood extent, depth and duration, we ran a high resolution hydrodynamic simulation using the open source Telemac 2D finite element code. The underlying Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was derived from Environment Agency LiDAR data, with ground truthing of the flood defences along the port frontage. Major infrastructure and buildings are explicitly resolved with varying degrees of permeability. Telemac2D simulations are run in parallel and take only minutes on a single 16 cpu compute node. Inundation characteristics predicted using Telemac 2D differ from a simple Geographical Information System 'bath-tub' analysis of the DEM based upon horizontal application of the maximum water level across the port topography. The hydrodynamic simulation predicts less extensive flooding and more closely matches observed flood extent. It also provides more precise depth and duration curves. Detailed spatial flood depth and duration maps were generated for a range of tide and surge scenarios coupled to mean sea-level rise projections. These inundation scenarios can then be integrated with critical asset databases and an agent-based model of port operation (MARS) that is capable of simulating storm surge disruption along wider supply chains. Port operators are able to act on information from a particular

  12. TRANSBOUNDARY DAMAGE IN THE LIGHT OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria HANCIU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Some activities that are useful for economic and social development of a State even if are not prohibited by national or international law can cause transboundary damages to other countries. This kind of transboundary damages have given rise to theories of State responsibility and a worldwide demand for increased environmental protection. "Under the principles of international law...no State has the right to use or permit the use of its territory in such a manner as to cause [environmental] injury ... in or to the territory of another or the properties of persons therein, when the case is of serious consequence and the injury is established by clear and convincing evidence." (Stockholm Principle 21 The paper analyses the impact of transboundary damage in the light of international environmental law and the increasing concern among States for environmental protection.

  13. Traumatic knee extension deficit (the locked knee)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmark, I C; Neergaard, K; Krogsgaard, M R

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the validity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy in knees with acute, traumatic extension deficit (the "locked knee"), and evaluated whether arthroscopy of knees with no mechanical pathology could be avoided by MRI evaluation. The study consisted...... of 50 patients who had an acute, traumatic extension deficit of the knee. All patients were submitted to MRI prior to arthroscopy. Following MRI and surgery, standardized forms were filled out, attempting to objectify the findings. The orthopaedic surgeon was not aware of the MRI result prior to surgery....... Evaluating MRI, all grade-3 meniscal lesions were considered able to cause a mechanical block as well as acute partial or total anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-ruptures. ACL-ruptures with an old appearance were not considered able to cause locking. Assuming that arthroscopy was the gold standard...

  14. Radiation damage in natural and synthetic halite. Progress report January 1992 - February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Celma, A.

    1993-12-01

    This report complements the information presented in the report of December 1992 regarding the research performed at the ECN on radiation damage in salt. It consists of two parts. The first part regards the amount of stored energy which can be developed by gamma-irradiation on different types of halite and considers both the effect of low dose rates in developing radiation damage, and the possible saturation level of radiation damage in natural halite. The second part presents a model to simulate radiation damage development which incorporates some extensions in the Jain-Lidiard model. Due to malfunction of the Small Angle Neutron Scattering installation, neither the previously reported results nor the newly obtained can be trusted and therefore are not reported here. These results regard the shape, size and size distribution of radiation damage defects. (orig.)

  15. Cable Damage Detection System and Algorithms Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G A; Robbins, C L; Wade, K A; Souza, P R

    2009-03-24

    This report describes the hardware system and the set of algorithms we have developed for detecting damage in cables for the Advanced Development and Process Technologies (ADAPT) Program. This program is part of the W80 Life Extension Program (LEP). The system could be generalized for application to other systems in the future. Critical cables can undergo various types of damage (e.g. short circuits, open circuits, punctures, compression) that manifest as changes in the dielectric/impedance properties of the cables. For our specific problem, only one end of the cable is accessible, and no exemplars of actual damage are available. This work addresses the detection of dielectric/impedance anomalies in transient time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements on the cables. The approach is to interrogate the cable using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques, in which a known pulse is inserted into the cable, and reflections from the cable are measured. The key operating principle is that any important cable damage will manifest itself as an electrical impedance discontinuity that can be measured in the TDR response signal. Machine learning classification algorithms are effectively eliminated from consideration, because only a small number of cables is available for testing; so a sufficient sample size is not attainable. Nonetheless, a key requirement is to achieve very high probability of detection and very low probability of false alarm. The approach is to compare TDR signals from possibly damaged cables to signals or an empirical model derived from reference cables that are known to be undamaged. This requires that the TDR signals are reasonably repeatable from test to test on the same cable, and from cable to cable. Empirical studies show that the repeatability issue is the 'long pole in the tent' for damage detection, because it is has been difficult to achieve reasonable repeatability. This one factor dominated the project. The two-step model

  16. Extensive bilateral corneal edema 6 weeks after cataract surgery: Keratopathy due to Asclepias physocarpa: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kazuki; Hatta, Shiro; Terasaka, Yuki; Inoue, Yoshitsugu

    2017-01-18

    Surgeons may be unaware of the ability of plant toxins to cause corneal damage. Therefore, corneal damage following intraocular surgery due to plant toxins may be misdiagnosed as postoperative infection. A 74-year-old man presented with hyperemia and reduced visual acuity in both eyes 6 weeks after uneventful cataract surgery. We observed extensive hyperemia and corneal stromal edema with Descemet's folds in both eyes. After obtaining a detailed patient history, we diagnosed plant toxin-induced corneal edema due to Asclepias physocarpa, which can induce corneal edema by inhibiting the Na + /K + ATPase activity of the corneal endothelium. Antimicrobial and steroid eye drops and an oral steroid were prescribed accordingly. Symptons began to improve on day 3 and had almost completely resolved by day 6. At 1 month, the patient had fully recovered without any sequelae. The correct diagnosis was possible in the present case as symptoms were bilateral and the patient was able to report his potential exposure to plant toxins. However, if the symptoms had been unilateral and the patient had been unaware of these toxins, he may have undergone unnecessary surgical interventions to treat non-existent postoperative endophthalmitis.

  17. Hurricane Harvey Building Damage Assessment Using UAV Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, J.; Jung, J.; Chang, A.; Choi, I.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey which was extremely destructive major hurricane struck southern Texas, U.S.A on August 25, causing catastrophic flooding and storm damages. We visited Rockport suffered severe building destruction and conducted UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) surveying for building damage assessment. UAV provides very high resolution images compared with traditional remote sensing data. In addition, prompt and cost-effective damage assessment can be performed regardless of several limitations in other remote sensing platforms such as revisit interval of satellite platforms, complicated flight plan in aerial surveying, and cloud amounts. In this study, UAV flight and GPS surveying were conducted two weeks after hurricane damage to generate an orthomosaic image and a DEM (Digital Elevation Model). 3D region growing scheme has been proposed to quantitatively estimate building damages considering building debris' elevation change and spectral difference. The result showed that the proposed method can be used for high definition building damage assessment in a time- and cost-effective way.

  18. Pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation alleviates damage to the flag leaf caused by post-anthesis heat stress in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Jian, Dong

    2011-01-01

    and enhanced cell membrane peroxidation, as exemplified by increased O2-• production rate and reduction in activities of antioxiditave enzymes. However, under post-anthesis heat stress, plants with pre-anthesis hightemperature acclimation (HH)showedmuchhigher photosynthetic rates than those without pre...... all up-regulated under HH, whereas a gene encoding a major chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (Cab) was up-regulated by post-anthesis heat stress at 10 DAA, but was down-regulated at 13 DAA. The changes in the expression levels of the HH plants were more pronounced than those for the CH. Collectively......, the results indicated that pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation could effectively alleviate the photosynthetic and oxidative damage caused by post-anthesis heat stress in wheat flag leaves, which was partially attributable to modifications in the expression of the photosythesis-responsive and antioxidant...

  19. Field survey and damage assessment of the Mineral, Virginia, earthquake of August 23, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Helen R.; Turkle, Katharine

    2013-01-01

    The town of Mineral, Virginia (Va.), underwent an M=5.8 earthquake on August 23, 2011. A U.S. Geological Survey team was sent to visually inspect and document the damage in the cities of Richmond, Charlottesville, Louisa, and Mineral, Va. Our inspection concluded that the Modified Mercalli Intensity rating of moderate (V) to very strong (VII) is consistent with the expected and observed damage at these locations. Louisa County, Va., sustained the most extensive damage. We photographed fallen chimneys, collapsed walls, and cracked foundations. From visual inspection of the above-listed locations, this report catalogs the range and extent of damage from the August 23, 2011, earthquake for future reference and analysis.

  20. Chalcone-imidazolone conjugates induce apoptosis through DNA damage pathway by affecting telomeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Ahmed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world and more than one million women are diagnosed leading to 410,000 deaths every year. In our previous studies new chalcone-imidazolone conjugates were prepared and evaluated for their anticancer activity in a panel of 53 human tumor cell lines and the lead compounds identified were 6 and 8. This prompted us to investigate the mechanism of apoptotic event. Results Involvement of pro-apoptotic protein (Bax, active caspase-9 and cleavage of retinoblastoma protein was studied. Interestingly, the compounds caused upregulation of p21, check point proteins (Chk1, Chk2 and as well as their phosphorylated forms which are known to regulate the DNA damage pathway. Increased p53BP1 foci by immunolocalisation studies and TRF1 suggested the possible involvement of telomere and associated proteins in the apoptotic event. The telomeric protein such as TRF2 which is an important target for anticancer therapy against human breast cancer was extensively studied along with proteins involved in proper functioning of telomeres. Conclusions The apoptotic proteins such as Bax, active caspase-9 and cleaved RB are up-regulated in the compound treated cells revealing the apoptotic nature of the compounds. Down regulation of TRF2 and upregulation of the TRF1 as well as telomerase assay indicated the decrease in telomeric length revealing telomeric dysfunction and thereby controlling the rapid rate of cell proliferation. In summary, chalcone-imidazolone conjugates displayed significant DNA damage activity particularly at telomeres and caused both apoptosis and senescence-like growth arrest which suggested that these compounds have potential activity against breast carcinoma.

  1. Abdominal penetrating trauma and organ damage and its prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Abri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abdominal penetrating trauma is still a serious problem in the world, due to its high prevalence in young people that impose a heavy economic burden on our country, we decided to evaluate the epidemiologic and demographic status and patient’s prognosis. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study; all patients with abdominal penetrating trauma referred to the emergency department of Imam Reza Hospital between March 2012 and March 2014 were enrolled to study. Age, sex, injured organs, mechanism of trauma and the prognosis was documented in the checklist. Data was analyzed by SPSS 15.0, and descriptive analysis was run. Results: In this study, 137 patients were enrolled; 103 patients (75.20% did not have visceral damage. In visceral injury, the spleen was most commonly injured abdominal organs (8.03%. the damage to small intestine seen in 8 patients (5.84%, kidney and liver damage seen in 6 patients (4.38% and 5 patients, respectively, and finally diaphragm and colon injury was seen in 2 patients (1.46%. Conclusion: According to a recent study, abdominal penetrating trauma mostly occurred in men. The most common cause of abdominal penetrating trauma was related to knife damage; spleen was commonly damaged organ caused by knives and other sharp objects.

  2. Could mesenchymal stem cell therapy help in the treatment of muscle damage caused by Bothrops alternatus venom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita da Costa Telles

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in the treatment of myonecrosis induced by Bothrops alternatus venom in rats. Seventy-five male adult Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups. G1 and G2 were injected in the gastrocnemius muscle with 120μg of B. alternatus venom, while G3 received 200μL of PBS only. Three days after the venom injection, 12 rats from G1 were treated with 5.0 x 106 MSC in PBS, whereas G2 and G3 rats received PBS. Every three days, blood and muscle samples of five animals from each group were taken for serum biochemical and pathological analyses. Histological examinations showed more intense muscle lesions following MSC treatment, characterized by disorganization and loss of muscle fibers, with focal necrosis and inflammatory infiltration by mononuclear cells. In conclusion, the use of MSC for the treatment of local damage caused by inoculation of B. alternatus venom impaired muscle regeneration and interfered in the healing process.

  3. Neuronal Rat Brain Damage Caused by Endogenous and Exogenous Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aydın

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperthermia may induce pathologic alterations within body systems and organs including brain. In this study, neuronal effects of endogenous and exogenous hyperthermia (41°C were studied in rats. METHODS: The endogenous hyperthermia (41°C was induced by lipopolysaccharide and the exogenous by an (electric heater. Possible neuronal damage was evaluated by examining healthy, apoptotic and necrotic cells, and heat shock proteins (HSP 27, HSP 70 in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hypothalamus RESULTS: At cellular level, when all neuronal tissues are taken into account; (i a significant increase in the necrotic cells was observed in the both groups (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The neural tissue of brain can show different degree of response to hyperthermia. But we can conclude that endogenous hyperthermia is more harmful to central nervous system than exogenous hyperthermia

  4. Dropped fuel damage prediction techniques and the DROPFU code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, K.J.; Beardsmore, D.W.; Money, G.

    1995-01-01

    During refuelling, and fuel handling, at UK Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) stations it is recognised that the accidental dropping of fuel is a possibility. This can result in dropping individual fuel elements, a complete fuel stringer, or a whole assembly. The techniques for assessing potential damage have been developed over a number of years. This paper describes how damage prediction techniques have subsequently evolved to meet changing needs. These have been due to later fuel designs and the need to consider drops in facilities outside the reactor. The paper begins by briefly describing AGR fuel and possible dropped fuel scenarios. This is followed by a brief summary of the damage mechanisms and the assessment procedure as it was first developed. The paper then describes the additional test work carried out, followed by the detailed numerical modelling. Finally, the paper describes the extensions to the practical assessment methods. (author)

  5. Mild hyperthermia can induce adaptation to cytogenetic damage caused by subsequent X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Lu.; Jiang, Jie.

    1995-01-01

    Many low-level environmental agents are able to induce an increased resistance to subsequent mutagenic effects induced by ionizing radiation. In this paper, an induced cytogenetic adaptation to radiation in human lymphocytes was studied with mild hyperthermia as the adaptive treatment and compared with that induced by low-dose radiation. We found that this adaptation could be induced not only in PHA-stimulated human lymphocytes (at 14, 38 and 42 h after addition of PHA), but also in unstimulated G 0 -phase cells (before addition of PHA) by mild hyperthermia (41 degrees C for 1 h) as well as 50 mGy X rays. When the two adaptive treatments were combined, no additive effects on the magnitude of the adaptation induced were observed, suggesting that low-dose radiation and hyperthermia may share one mechanism of induction of adaptation to cytogenetic damage. Some mechanisms which may be involved in the induction of adaptation to cytogenetic damage by low-dose radiation are discussed and compared with the effects of mild hyperthermia in inducing thermotolerance and radioresistance. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, D.D.; Lombardo, N.J.; Hensley, W.K.; Fitzsimmons, D.E.; Panisko, F.E.; Hartwell, J.K.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes and presents data from a severe fuel damage test that was conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), Ontario, Canada. The test, designated FLHT-5, was the fourth in a series of full-length high-temperature (FLHT) tests on light-water reactor fuel. The tests were designed and performed by staff from the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. The test operation and test results are described in this report. The fuel bundle in the FLHT-5 experiment included 10 unirradiated full-length pressurized-water reactor (PWR) rods, 1 irradiated PWR rod and 1 dummy gamma thermometer. The fuel rods were subjected to a very low coolant flow while operating at low fission power. This caused coolant boilaway, rod dryout and overheating to temperatures above 2600 K, severe fuel rod damage, hydrogen generation, and fission product release. The test assembly and its effluent path were extensively instrumented to record temperatures, pressures, flow rates, hydrogen evolution, and fission product release during the boilaway/heatup transient. Post-test gamma scanning of the upper plenum indicated significant iodine and cesium release and deposition. Both stack gas activity and on-line gamma spectrometer data indicated significant (∼50%) release of noble fission gases. Post-test visual examination of one side of the fuel bundle revealed no massive relocation and flow blockage; however, rundown of molten cladding was evident

  7. Risk evaluations of aging phenomena: The linear aging reliability model and its extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Wolford, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A model for component failure rates due to aging mechanisms is developed from basic phenomenological considerations. In the treatment, the occurrences of deterioration are modeled as following a Poisson process. The severity of damage is allowed to have any distribution, however the damage is assumed to accumulate independently. Finally, the failure rate is modeled as being proportional to the accumulated damage. Using this treatment, the linear aging failure rate model is obtained. The applicability of the linear aging model to various mechanisms is discussed. Extensions of the model to cover nonlinear and dependent aging phenomena are also described. The implementability of the linear aging model is demonstrated by applying it to the aging data collected in the U.S. NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. (orig./HP)

  8. Estimating the Direct Economic Damage of the Earthquake in Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Eduardo; Powell, Andrew; Becerra, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses simple regression techniques to make an initial assessment of the monetary damages caused by the January 12, 2010 earthquake that struck Haiti. Damages are estimated for a disaster with both 200,000 and 250,000 total dead and missing (i.e., the range of mortality that the earthquake is estimated to have caused) using Haiti’s economic and demographic data. The base estimate is US$8.1bn for a death toll of 250,000, but for several reasons this may be a lower- bound estimate. An ...

  9. Identification Of Damages Of Tribological Associations In Crankshaft And Piston Systems Of Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engines Used As Main Propulsion In Sea-Going Vessels And Proposal Of Probabilistic Description Of Loads As Causes Of These Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girtler Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses damages of essential tribological associations in crankshaft and piston systems of large power two-stroke engines used as main engines, which take place during transport tasks performed by those ships. Difficulties are named which make preventing those damages impossible, despite the fact that the technical state of engines of this type is identified with the aid of complex diagnostic systems making use of advanced computer technology. It is demonstrated that one of causes of the damages is the lack of research activities oriented on recognising random properties of the loads leading to those damages. A proposal is made for the loads acting at a given time t on tribological associations in crankshaft and piston systems of internal combustion engines used as main engines to be considered as random variables Qt. At the same time the loads examined within a given time interval tr ≤ t ≤ tz would be considered stochastic processes {Q(t: t ≥ 0}. Essential properties of the loads of the abovementioned tribological associations are named and explained by formulating hypotheses which need empirical verification. Interval estimation is proposed for estimating the expected value E(Qt of the load Qt acting at time t. A relation is indicated between the mechanical load and the thermal load acting on tribological associations in the ship main engine crankshaft and piston system. A suggestion is formulated that a stochastic form of the relation between these types of load is to be searched for, rather than statistic relation, and a proposal is made to measure the intensity (strength of the stochastic relation using the Czuprow’s convergence coefficient.

  10. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonveiller, E.; Sever, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described

  11. MRI Overestimates Excitotoxic Amygdala Lesion Damage in Rhesus Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Basile

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selective, fiber-sparing excitotoxic lesions are a state-of-the-art tool for determining the causal contributions of different brain areas to behavior. For nonhuman primates especially, it is advantageous to keep subjects with high-quality lesions alive and contributing to science for many years. However, this requires the ability to estimate lesion extent accurately. Previous research has shown that in vivo T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI accurately estimates damage following selective ibotenic acid lesions of the hippocampus. Here, we show that the same does not apply to lesions of the amygdala. Across 19 hemispheres from 13 rhesus monkeys, MRI assessment consistently overestimated amygdala damage as assessed by microscopic examination of Nissl-stained histological material. Two outliers suggested a linear relation for lower damage levels, and values of unintended amygdala damage from a previous study fell directly on that regression line, demonstrating that T2 hypersignal accurately predicts damage levels below 50%. For unintended damage, MRI estimates correlated with histological assessment for entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex and hippocampus, though MRI significantly overestimated the extent of that damage in all structures. Nevertheless, ibotenic acid injections routinely produced extensive intentional amygdala damage with minimal unintended damage to surrounding structures, validating the general success of the technique. The field will benefit from more research into in vivo lesion assessment techniques, and additional evaluation of the accuracy of MRI assessment in different brain areas. For now, in vivo MRI assessment of ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala can be used to confirm successful injections, but MRI estimates of lesion extent should be interpreted with caution.

  12. Acetylation dynamics of human nuclear proteins during the ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Martin; Andersen, J.S.; Lasen, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Genotoxic insults, such as ionizing radiation (IR), cause DNA damage that evokes a multifaceted cellular DNA damage response (DDR). DNA damage signaling events that control protein activity, subcellular localization, DNA binding, protein-protein interactions, etc. rely heavily on time...

  13. Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses. I. Experimental. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.C.; Herman, S.; Perry, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    The authors report extensive laser-induced damage threshold measurements on pure and multilayer dielectrics at 1053 and 526 mm for pulse durations, τ, ranging from 140 fs to 1 ns. Qualitative differences in the morphology of damage and a departure from the diffusion-dominated τ 1/2 scaling indicate that damage results from plasma formation and ablation for τ≤10 ps and from conventional melting and boiling for τ>50 ps. A theoretical model based on electron production via multiphoton ionization, Joule heating, and collisional (avalanche) ionization is in good agreement with both the pulsewidth and wavelength scaling of experimental results

  14. Targeting pathogen metabolism without collateral damage to the host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanstra, J.R.; Gerding, A.; Dolga, A.M.; Sorgdrager, F.J.H.; Buist-Homan, M.; du Toit, F.; Faber, K.N.; Holzhütter, H.-G.; Szöör, B.; Matthews, K.R.; Snoep, J.L.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Bakker, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of drugs that can inactivate disease-causing cells (e.g. cancer cells or parasites) without causing collateral damage to healthy or to host cells is complicated by the fact that many proteins are very similar between organisms. Nevertheless, due to subtle, quantitative differences

  15. Analysis of Ricefield Land Damage in Denpasar City, Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyarto, R.; Wiyanti; Dibia, I. N.

    2018-02-01

    Soil as a natural resource, living area, environmental media, and factors of production including biomass production that supports human life and other living beings must be preserved, on the other hand, uncontrolled biomass production activities can cause soil damage, ultimately can threaten the survival of humans and other living things. Therefore, in order to control soil damage, first must inventories the soil condition data and its damage which then visualised in soil damage potential and soil damage status. The activities of the study are the preparation of a map of the initial soil conditions and the delineation of potentially land degradation distribution. Mapping results are used as work maps for verification on the field to take soil samples and create soil damage status. In general, Denpasar City have soil damage potential at very low, low until medium rate. Soil damage status in Denpasar City generally is low damage of bulk volume, total porosity, soil permeability and electrolyte conductivity which beyond limitation thresholds.

  16. Plasmid DNA damage caused by stibine and trimethylstibine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrewes, Paul; Kitchin, Kirk T.; Wallace, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Antimony is classified as 'possibly carcinogenic to humans' and there is also sufficient evidence for antimony carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Stibine is a volatile inorganic antimony compound to which humans can be exposed in occupational settings (e.g., lead-acid battery charging). Because it is highly toxic, stibine is considered a significant health risk; however, its genotoxicity has received little attention. For the work reported here, stibine was generated by sodium borohydride reduction of potassium antimony tartrate. Trimethylstibine is a volatile organometallic antimony compound found commonly in landfill and sewage fermentation gases at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 100 μg/m 3 . Trimethylstibine is generally considered to pose little environmental or health risk. In the work reported here, trimethylstibine was generated by reduction of trimethylantimony dichloride using either sodium borohydride or the thiol compounds, dithioerythritol (DTE), L-cysteine, and glutathione. Here we report the evaluation of the in vitro genotoxicities of five antimony compounds--potassium antimony tartrate, stibine, potassium hexahydroxyantimonate, trimethylantimony dichloride, and trimethylstibine--using a plasmid DNA-nicking assay. Of these five antimony compounds, only stibine and trimethylstibine were genotoxic (significant nicking to pBR 322 plasmid DNA). We found stibine and trimethylstibine to be about equipotent with trimethylarsine using this plasmid DNA-nicking assay. Reaction of trimethylantimony dichloride with either glutathione or L-cysteine to produce DNA-damaging trimethylstibine was observed with a trimethylantimony dichloride concentration as low as 50 μM and L-cysteine or glutathione concentrations as low as 500 and 200 μM, respectively, for a 24 h incubation

  17. Subsidence over AML and its causes - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, S.S.; Lin, P.M.; Hsiung, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Subsidence over abandoned mined lands can be attributed to several causes. For purposes of compensation and liability and developing remedial measures, it is essential to identify the real causes. The detailed procedures for a subsidence investigation and the keys to identify and determine the causes and severity of the damages are illustrated and discussed through a case study in this paper. A subsidence check list has been developed for investigation purposes. The case discussed in this paper is a mining-related subsidence. The associated subsidence index was 60%. The damage to the dwelling was due to tension. The major damage was developed within two days. A crackmeter was installed on the exterior wall to monitor the house movement. An inclinometer casing and a Sondex casing were installed in a borehole to monitor the ground movement. The results of the geotechnical instrumentation are presented to illustrate the procedures developed for investigating the subsidence cases over the abandoned mine lands

  18. Formulation and process strategies to minimize coat damage for compaction of coated pellets in a rotary tablet press: A mechanistic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2016-02-29

    Compaction of multiple-unit pellet system (MUPS) tablets has been extensively studied in the past few decades but with marginal success. This study aims to investigate the formulation and process strategies for minimizing pellet coat damage caused by compaction and elucidate the mechanism of damage sustained during the preparation of MUPS tablets in a rotary tablet press. Blends containing ethylcellulose-coated pellets and cushioning agent (spray dried aggregates of micronized lactose and mannitol), were compacted into MUPS tablets in a rotary tablet press. The effects of compaction pressure and dwell time on the physicomechanical properties of resultant MUPS tablets and extent of pellet coat damage were systematically examined. The coated pellets from various locations at the axial and radial peripheral surfaces and core of the MUPS tablets were excavated and assessed for their coat damage individually. Interestingly, for a MUPS tablet formulation which consolidates by plastic deformation, the tablet mechanical strength could be enhanced without exacerbating pellet coat damage by extending the dwell time in the compaction cycle during rotary tableting. However, the increase in compaction pressure led to faster drug release rate. The location of the coated pellets in the MUPS tablet also contributed to the extent of their coat damage, possibly due to uneven force distribution within the compact. To ensure viability of pellet coat integrity, the formation of a continuous percolating network of cushioning agent is critical and the applied compaction pressure should be less than the pellet crushing strength. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Boring crustaceans damage polystyrene floats under docks polluting marine waters with microplastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Timothy M

    2012-09-01

    Boring isopods damage expanded polystyrene floats under docks and, in the process, expel copious numbers of microplastic particles. This paper describes the impacts of boring isopods in aquaculture facilities and docks, quantifies and discusses the implications of these microplastics, and tests if an alternate foam type prevents boring. Floats from aquaculture facilities and docks were heavily damaged by thousands of isopods and their burrows. Multiple sites in Asia, Australia, Panama, and the USA exhibited evidence of isopod damage. One isopod creates thousands of microplastic particles when excavating a burrow; colonies can expel millions of particles. Microplastics similar in size to these particles may facilitate the spread of non-native species or be ingested by organisms causing physical or toxicological harm. Extruded polystyrene inhibited boring, suggesting this foam may prevent damage in the field. These results reveal boring isopods cause widespread damage to docks and are a novel source of microplastic pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation damage in barium fluoride detector materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levey, P.W.; Kierstead, J.A.; Woody, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To develop radiation hard detectors, particularly for high energy physics studies, radiation damage is being studied in BaF 2 , both undoped and doped with La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd and Tm. Some dopants reduce radiation damage. In La doped BaF 2 they reduce the unwanted long lifetime luminescence which interferes with the short-lived fluorescence used to detect particles. Radiation induced coloring is being studied with facilities for making optical measurements before, during and after irradiation with 60 C0 gamma rays. Doses of 10 6 rad, or less, create only ionization induced charge transfer effects since lattice atom displacement damage is negligible at these doses. All crystals studied exhibit color center formation, between approximately 200 and 800 nm, during irradiation and color center decay after irradiation. Thus only measurements made during irradiation show the total absorption present in a radiation field. Both undoped and La doped BaF 2 develop damage at minimum detectable levels in the UV---which is important for particle detectors. For particle detector applications these studies must be extended to high dose irradiations with particles energetic enough to cause lattice atom displacement damage. In principle, the reduction in damage provided by dopants could apply to other applications requiring radiation damage resistant materials

  1. Onboard monitoring of fatigue damage rates in the hull girder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2011-01-01

    Most new advanced ships have extensive data collection systems to be used for continuous monitoring of engine and hull performance, for voyage performance evaluation etc. Such systems could be expanded to include also procedures for stress monitoring and for decision support, where the most...... critical wave-induced ship extreme responses and fatigue damage accumulation can be estimated for hypothetical changes in ship course and speed in the automatically estimated wave environment.The aim of this paper is to outline a calculation procedure for fatigue damage rate prediction in hull girders...... taking into account whipping stresses. It is conceptually shown how such a method, which integrates onboard estimation of sea states, can be used to deduce decision support with respect to the accumulated fatigue damage in the hull girder.The paper firstly presents a set of measured full-scale wave...

  2. Civil Cases Proof Peculiarities of Road Traffic Accidents Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov D. N.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The author reveals proof peculiarities in civil cases of reparation of damages harmed by road traffic accident, in relation to the determination of a respondent (debtor. In the article are analyzed the appropriate norms of the RF Civil code regulating the rules and conditions of civil liability for damage caused by using a transport facility as a source of danger

  3. [Factors causing damage and destruction of beta-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anděl, Michal; Němcová, Vlasta; Pavlíková, Nela; Urbanová, Jana; Cecháková, Marie; Havlová, Andrea; Straková, Radka; Večeřová, Livia; Mandys, Václav; Kovář, Jan; Heneberg, Petr; Trnka, Jan; Polák, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Insulin secretion in patients with manifested diabetes mellitus tends to disappear months to decades after the diagnosis, which is a clear sign of a gradual loss of pancreatic islet beta-cells. In our sample of 30 type 2 diabetic patients, whose disease manifested between 30 and 45 years of age, about a half have retained or even increased insulin secretion 30 years later, while the other half exhibit a much diminished or lost insulin secretion. Factors that can damage or destroy beta-cells can be divided into the following groups: Metabolic factors: hyperglycemia and glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species; Pharmacological factors: antimicrobial medication pentamidine, SSRI antidepressants; Factors related to impaired insulin secretion: MODY type diabetes; Environmental toxic factors: rat poison Vacor, streptozotocin, polychlorinated and polybrominated hydrocarbons; Disorders of the exocrine pancreas: tumor infiltration, fibrous infiltration, chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis; Infections, inflammation, autoimmunity, viral factors: Coxsackie viruses, H1N1 influenza, enteroviruses. We are currently working on finding other factors leading to beta-cell damage, studying their effect on apoptosis and necrosis and looking for possible protective factors to prevent this damage. We our increasing knowledge about the mechanisms of beta-cell damage and destruction we come ever closer to suggest measures for their prevention. In this review we offer a brief and simplified summary of some of the findings related to this area.Key words: pancreatic islet beta-cells of Langerhans - factors damaging or destroying beta-cells - insulin secretion.

  4. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  5. Crowdsourcing earthquake damage assessment using remote sensing imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gill

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of recent work on using crowdsourced analysis of remote sensing imagery, particularly high-resolution aerial imagery, to provide rapid, reliable assessments of damage caused by earthquakes and potentially other disasters. The initial effort examined online imagery taken after the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. A more recent response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake led to the formation of an international consortium: the Global Earth Observation Catastrophe Assessment Network (GEO-CAN. The success of GEO-CAN in contributing to the official damage assessments made by the Government of Haiti, the United Nations, and the World Bank led to further development of a web-based interface. A current initiative in Christchurch, New Zealand, is underway where remote sensing experts are analyzing satellite imagery, geotechnical engineers are marking liquefaction areas, and structural engineers are identifying building damage. The current site includes online training to improve the accuracy of the assessments and make it possible for even novice users to contribute to the crowdsourced solution. The paper discusses lessons learned from these initiatives and presents a way forward for using crowdsourced remote sensing as a tool for rapid assessment of damage caused by natural disasters around the world.

  6. Cantilever steel post damaged by wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An analysis for the cause of fracture failure of a cantilever steel sign post damaged by wind has been carried out. An unusual cause of failure has been identified, which is the subject of this paper. Microscopy and microanalysis of the fracture surface showed that the failure was due to pre-existing cracks, from the fabrication of the post. This conclusion was reached after detecting and analysing a galvanised layer on the fracture surfaces.

  7. 77 FR 71774 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; National Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; National Management Information... approval of an information collection associated with cooperative wildlife damage management programs... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the national management information system for cooperative...

  8. The DNA damage response in mammalian oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eCarroll

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is one of the most common insults that challenge all cells. To cope, an elaborate molecular and cellular response has evolved to sense, respond to and correct the damage. This allows the maintenance of DNA fidelity essential for normal cell viability and the prevention of genomic instability that can lead to tumour formation. In the context of oocytes, the impact of DNA damage is not one of tumour formation but of the maintenance of fertility. Mammalian oocytes are particularly vulnerable to DNA damage because physiologically they may lie dormant in the ovary for many years (>40 in humans until they receive the stimulus to grow and acquire the competence to become fertilized. The implication of this is that in some organisms, such as humans, oocytes face the danger of cumulative genetic damage for decades. Thus, the ability to detect and repair DNA damage is essential to maintain the supply of oocytes necessary for reproduction. Therefore, failure to confront DNA damage in oocytes could cause serious anomalies in the embryo that may be propagated in the form of mutations to the next generation allowing the appearance of hereditary disease. Despite the potential impact of DNA damage on reproductive capacity and genetic fidelity of embryos, the mechanisms available to the oocyte for monitoring and repairing such insults have remained largely unexplored until recently. Here, we review the different aspects of the response to DNA damage in mammalian oocytes. Specifically, we address the oocyte DNA damage response from embryonic life to adulthood and throughout oocyte development.

  9. Fractures in high-strength bolts due to hydrogen induced stress corrosion. Causes and corrective actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoche, Holger; Oechsner, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Delayed brittle fractures of high-strength bolts of the strength class 10.9 are presented, taking the example of three damage cases. The respective damage mechanisms could be attributed to hydrogen induced stress corrosion which was caused, in turn, by hydrogen absorption during operation. The examples were chosen with a particular focus on the material condition's susceptibility which explains the cause for the occurrence of the damage mechanism. However, in only one of the three cases the susceptibility was evident and could be explained by violations of normative specifications and an unfavorable material choice. Whereas in the two other examples, only slight or no deviations from the standards and/or regulations could be found. The influencing parameters that caused the damage, those that further promoted the damage, as well as possible corrective actions are discussed taking into account the three exemplary damage cases.

  10. DNA Damage Response and Immune Defence: Links and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Schumacher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage plays a causal role in numerous human pathologies including cancer, premature aging and chronic inflammatory conditions. In response to genotoxic insults, the DNA damage response (DDR orchestrates DNA damage checkpoint activation and facilitates the removal of DNA lesions. The DDR can also arouse the immune system by for example inducing the expression of antimicrobial peptides as well as ligands for receptors found on immune cells. The activation of immune signalling is triggered by different components of the DDR including DNA damage sensors, transducer kinases, and effectors. In this review, we describe recent advances on the understanding of the role of DDR in activating immune signalling. We highlight evidence gained into (i which molecular and cellular pathways of DDR activate immune signalling, (ii how DNA damage drives chronic inflammation, and (iii how chronic inflammation causes DNA damage and pathology in humans.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of treatment-related central nervous system damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, R.J.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    Neurologic and neuropsychologic treatment related sequelae are increasingly encountered in children with cancer, but conventional means of neurologic investigation are insensitive to the presence and extent of damage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown brain damage not demonstrable by other means of investigation. For this reason, 11 children with cancer and with nontumor-related neurologic dysfunction were studied on a 1.5 Tesla MRI unit. All had concurrent computed tomography (CT). MRI abnormalities were seen in all (100%) patients. In 10 of 11 patients, abnormalities were of greater extent on MRI than on CT. White matter changes were frequently seen on MRI without corresponding CT abnormality. Those patients with the most severe forms of neurologic compromise had the most extensive changes on MRI. Focal neurologic findings correlated well with regions of focal signal change. Milder forms of neurologic compromise occurred in patients with definite, but less extensive, periventricular and/or subcortical change on MRI. MRI is more sensitive than CT in demonstrating treatment-related neurologic damage in children with cancer, and the type of change seen on MRI seems to correlate well with the type and severity of neurologic dysfunction present

  12. Root canal treatment of a periradicular lesion caused by unintentional root damage after orthodontic miniscrew placement: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, K; Bayram, M; Taşdemir, T

    2011-12-01

    To present the successful endodontic management of a maxillary lateral incisor tooth with a periradicular lesion caused by unintentional root damage after orthodontic miniscrew placement. A 22-year-old female was diagnosed with a skeletal Class II, Division 2 malocclusion with Class II molar and canine relationships on both sides. The treatment plan included distalization of the maxillary first molars bilaterally followed by full fixed appliance therapy. For the maxillary molar distalization, an appliance in conjunction with a miniscrew anchorage system was designed. Two months later, the patient came to the clinic with complaints of pain in the maxillary right lateral incisor region. On intraoral examination, intraoral sinus tracts were detected in the maxillary right buccal sulcus and palate. A large radiolucent lesion with a well-defined margin around the root of the maxillary right lateral incisor was seen. Root canal treatment was performed on the maxillary right lateral incisor tooth. The root canal was filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer, using a lateral compaction technique. The final restoration of the tooth was completed using composite, and the tooth was reviewed after 10 months. The tooth was asymptomatic and radiographically showed repair of the lesion. Healing was achieved without any need for further endodontic or surgical intervention. Key learning points • This case illustrates the need to take care with miniscrews when performing orthodontic treatment, especially when the miniscrews are in close proximity to root apices. • The periradicular lesion as a result of miniscrew damage was successfully treated with root canal treatment. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  13. Radiation damage studies of nuclear structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, P.

    2012-01-01

    Maximum utilization of fuel in nuclear reactors is one of the important aspects for operating them economically. The main hindrance to achieve this higher burnups of nuclear fuel for the nuclear reactors is the possibility of the failure of the metallic core components during their operation. Thus, the study of the cause of the possibility of failure of these metallic structural materials of nuclear reactors during full power operation due to radiation damage, suffered inside the reactor core, is an important field of studies bearing the basic to industrial scientific views.The variation of the microstructure of the metallic core components of the nuclear reactors due to radiation damage causes enormous variation in the structure and mechanical properties. A firm understanding of this variation of the mechanical properties with the variation of microstructure will serve as a guide for creating new, more radiation-tolerant materials. In our centre we have irradiated structural materials of Indian nuclear reactors by charged particles from accelerator to generate radiation damage and studied the some aspects of the variation of microstructure by X-ray diffraction studies. Results achieved in this regards, will be presented. (author)

  14. Assessing the damage caused by the oil spill from the tanker Erika; Erika: elements d'evaluation des dommages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delache, X.; Erhard-Cassegrain, A

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999, France was faced with a large-scale marine and ecological disaster following the accident involving the oil tanker Erika which split in two before sinking off the coast of Brittany (western France). This disaster had significant impacts on the coastal environment, affecting 400 km of shoreline. Very different aspects need to be considered in order to assess the damage caused, for which suitable methodologies must be used. Expenditure incurred on emergency and remedial measures to prepare for the 2000 summer season can easily be identified. The main effect of the disaster was ecological: a wide variety of habitats and species, and in particular many protected areas were affected. In addition, economic activities were seriously disrupted, especially tourism, fishing and shellfish production. However, it is harder to assess the economic losses incurred since a large number of short-term and long-term factors were affected. (author)

  15. Metabolite Damage and Metabolite Damage Control in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Andrew D. [Horticultural Sciences Department and; Henry, Christopher S. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, email:; Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637; Fiehn, Oliver [Genome Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616, email:; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie [Microbiology and Cell Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, email: ,

    2016-04-29

    It is increasingly clear that (a) many metabolites undergo spontaneous or enzyme-catalyzed side reactions in vivo, (b) the damaged metabolites formed by these reactions can be harmful, and (c) organisms have biochemical systems that limit the buildup of damaged metabolites. These damage-control systems either return a damaged molecule to its pristine state (metabolite repair) or convert harmful molecules to harmless ones (damage preemption). Because all organisms share a core set of metabolites that suffer the same chemical and enzymatic damage reactions, certain damage-control systems are widely conserved across the kingdoms of life. Relatively few damage reactions and damage-control systems are well known. Uncovering new damage reactions and identifying the corresponding damaged metabolites, damage-control genes, and enzymes demands a coordinated mix of chemistry, metabolomics, cheminformatics, biochemistry, and comparative genomics. This review illustrates the above points using examples from plants, which are at least as prone to metabolite damage as other organisms.

  16. Collision Risk and Damage after Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Hansen, Peter Friis; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a new and complete procedure for calculation of ship-ship collision rates on specific routes and the hull