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Sample records for causada por burkholderia

  1. Ptose palpebral causada por Paquidermoperiostose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Regina de Pinho Tavares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A paquidermoperiostose é uma síndrome caracterizada por acometimento cutâneo e ósseo, e em alguns casos ocorre comprometimento palpebral leve. É uma síndrome rara, idiopática ou hereditária, com provável herança autossômica dominante de penetrância variável. Descreve-se o caso de um paciente com ptose grave por paquidermoperiostose elucidando sua fisiopatologia e conduta cirúrgica aplicada.

  2. Síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud causada por esporotricose

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro,Alexandre Sampaio de Abreu; Bisol,Tiago; Menezes,Marcela Sant'Ana

    2010-01-01

    A síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud é uma doença ocular rara causada por diferentes agentes etiológicos, entre eles bactérias, vírus e fungos. É caracterizada por uma conjuntivite granulomatosa, acompanhada de linfadenopatia pré-auricular adjacente e pode trazer sequelas caso não seja prontamente tratada. Neste artigo é relatado o caso de uma jovem técnica de enfermagem e estudante de medicina veterinária apresentando a síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud causada pelo fungo Sporothrix schen...

  3. Queratitis causada por Paecilomyces lilacinus. Reporte de un caso

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    Alejandro del Castillo Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusiones: La queratitis micótica es una infección corneal muy seria, de evolución tórpida, que puede causar ceguera. Comúnmente se desarrolla en pacientes después de un trauma o en aquellos con una superficie corneal comprometida. Voriconazol se ha referido como un fármaco útil para el tratamiento de úlceras corneales causadas por Paecilomyces lilacinus con muy buena penetración a estroma, acuoso y vítreo por vía oral y tópica. Un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos fueron esenciales en este caso de queratitis micótica para su resolución.

  4. Manejo prehospitalario de las lesiones causadas por el calor

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ruano, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Una de las mayores causas de morbilidad y mortalidad de personas cada verano en nuestro país y en todo el mundo son las enfermedades producidas por el calor, en especial el golpe de calor. Estas enfermedades son ocasionadas por exposiciones prolongadas al sol o a altas temperaturas que junto a otras causas como un consumo disminuido de líquidos, abuso de alcohol, utilización de demasiada ropa o ejercicio físico intenso pueden conducirnos a la muerte. Los primeros signos y síntomas de las e...

  5. Mastite micótica em ruminantes causada por leveduras

    OpenAIRE

    Spanamberg,Andréia; Sanches,Edna Maria Cavallini; Santurio,Janio Morais; Ferreiro,Laerte

    2009-01-01

    A ocorrência de casos esporádicos de mastite causados por microrganismos de origem ambiental pode ser considerada como emergente e as leveduras, os fungos leveduriformes e os filamentosos são alguns dos principais agentes envolvidos. Em relação à mastite micótica, as leveduras são freqüentemente causas de infecções da glândula mamária em animais produtores de leite. A maior parte dos casos ocorre sob a forma de surtos localizados e/ou após tratamento com antimicrobianos. Os principais gêneros...

  6. Severe gangrene by cold agglutinemia Gangrena grave causada por crioaglutinina

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    Perla Vicari

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The cold agglutinin syndrome is a haemolytic disorder usually manifested by acrocyanosis and Raynaud's phenomenon. Gangrene is an uncommon complication, usually associated with infections or B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases. We present a case of fulminant gangrene of fingers, toes, and nose in a 77-year-old woman with atypical pneumonia and acute renal failure. The diagnosis of haemolytic anaemia with cold agglutinin syndrome was done and the treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids was effective. However, amputation of all the toes on both feet could not be avoided. Clinical aspects of cold agglutinemia, transient or chronic, are briefly discussed. We conclude that, in the presence of cold agglutinin syndrome, the treatment should be promptly initiated in order to avoid complications such as extensive gangrene.Doença da aglutinina a frio é uma patologia caracterizada pela produção de anticorpos contra antígenos específicos da membrana eritrocitária, geralmente de classe IgM, que aglutinam hemácias em temperaturas abaixo de 32º C. Relatamos um caso de gangrena e insuficiência renal em uma mulher de 77 anos com pneumonia atípica. Anemia hemolítica secundária a crioaglutininas foi observada. O tratamento com antibióticos e corticóides foi eficaz com regressão do quadro, porém foi necessária a amputação de todos os dedos do pé (falanges bilateralmente, preservando o restante dos pés (tarsos e metatarsos. Anemia hemolítica secundária a crioaglutininas manifesta-se freqüentemente por acrocianose e fenômeno de Raynaud. Gangrena é uma complicação incomum dessa doença, principalmente quando secundária a etiologia infecciosa, sendo observada apenas em pacientes com altos títulos persistentes. Está correlacionada freqüentemente com causa infecciosa (Mycoplasma spp, vírus Epstein-Barr, citomegalovírus, vírus Influenza A, adenovírus, Legionella spp, linfoproliferativas B e idiopáticas. Suspeita clínica de

  7. Estado de la moniliasis del cacao causada por Moniliophthora roreri en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Correa Álvarez; Sergio Castro Martínez; Jairo Coy

    2014-01-01

    La Moniliasis es una enfermedad fúngica que ataca el cultivo de cacao, causada por el basidiomycete Mo-niliophthora roreri. Está presente en la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos y se adapta a diversidad de ambientes. En Colombia la enfermedad es devastadora y las estrategias de control tradicional han generado resultados colaterales como el fortalecimiento de la resistencia genética de cepas del hongo en algunas regiones. En esta revisión, se recopilan los aspectos biológicos y agronó...

  8. DOENÇAS CAUSADAS POR VÍRUS NA CULTURA DE FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O feijoeiro é atacado, além de fungos, nematóides e bactérias, por vírus que podem causar danos e perdas numa lavoura. As doenças causadas por vírus têm exercido um papel relevante na baixa produtividade do feijoeiro no Brasil e outros países Latino-Americanos. Os métodos de controle para as viroses de plantas cultivadas são, em geral, muito restritos. Pela falta desta informação e pela importância da cultura do feijão, se traz esta revisão, onde são relatadas as doenças virais mais importantes desta cultura dentro do Brasil e fora dele, explicando detalhadamente sua sintomatologia, etiologia e seu controle. As doenças viróticas mais importantes no feijoeiro no Brasil são o bean common mosaic virus (BCMV, bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV, bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV, cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV e southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV. Esta revisão traz o mais importante em relação às doenças primordiais causadas por vírus de plantas na cultura de feijão.

  9. Tratamento laparoscópico de periapendicite causada por dispositivo intra-uterino

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    Coelho Júlio Cezar Uili

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Dispositivo intra-uterino pode perfurar o útero e causar várias complicações. OBJETIVO: Descrever um caso de tratamento laparoscópico de periapendicite causada por dispositivo intra-uterino. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Jovem do sexo feminino apresentou dor em fossa ilíaca direita de 4 dias de duração. No exame físico, apresentava dor abdominal localizada em fossa ilíaca direita, com discreta renitência de parede e dor à percussão e descompressão brusca na região. A ultra-sonografia evidenciou dispositivo intra-uterino fora do útero, na fossa ilíaca direita. RESULTADOS: À laparoscopia, observou-se massa inflamatória que consistia do dispositivo intra-uterino totalmente bloqueado pelo mesoapêndice e apêndice. Apendicectomia e retirada do dispositivo foram realizadas. CONCLUSÃO: A laparoscopia permite o tratamento adequado da periapendicite causada por dispositivo intra-uterino, inclusive com avaliação adequada de toda a região pélvica para excluir lesões associadas.

  10. Síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud causada por esporotricose Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome caused by Sporotrichosis

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    Alexandre Sampaio de Abreu Ribeiro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud é uma doença ocular rara causada por diferentes agentes etiológicos, entre eles bactérias, vírus e fungos. É caracterizada por uma conjuntivite granulomatosa, acompanhada de linfadenopatia pré-auricular adjacente e pode trazer sequelas caso não seja prontamente tratada. Neste artigo é relatado o caso de uma jovem técnica de enfermagem e estudante de medicina veterinária apresentando a síndrome oculoglandular de Parinaud causada pelo fungo Sporothrix schenkii após contaminação com gatos infectados. Sua apresentação clínica e evolução desfavorável até o correto diagnóstico etiológico e instituição do tratamento específico, ressaltam a importância da investigação laboratorial em casos de evolução atípica da doença.Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome is a rare eye disease caused by different pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. It is characterized by a granulomatous conjunctivitis with adjacent preauricular lympha-denopathy and can cause sequelae if not promptly treated. We report a case of a young nurse assistant and veterinary student showing Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenkii after contamination with infected cats. Its clinical presentation and negative outcome until the correct ethiological diagnosis, in addition to specific treatment, emphasize the importance of laboratory investigations in cases of atypical development of the disease.

  11. Estado de la moniliasis del cacao causada por Moniliophthora roreri en Colombia

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    Javier Correa Álvarez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis es una enfermedad fúngica que ataca el cultivo de cacao, causada por el basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri. Está presente en la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos y se adapta a diversidad de ambientes. En Colombia la enfermedad es devastadora y las estrategias de control tradicional han generado resultados colaterales como el fortalecimiento de la resistencia genética de cepas del hongo en algunas regiones. En esta revisión, se recopilan los aspectos biológicos y agronómicos más relevantes del hongo, entre ellos, origen y distribución, ciclo de vida, formas de control y trabajos de investigación realizados con el fin de entender la genética y evolución de este patógeno. Finalmente, se propone incrementar el número de estudios en investigación básica, con miras a entender cómo ha sido la evolución de su genoma en hábitats que favorecen la variación genética. Con este conocimiento se podría avanzar en programas biotecnológicos de control y prevención de la enfermedad.

  12. A FERRUGEM ASIÁTICA DA SOJA CAUSADA POR Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow e Sydow

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    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Os Estados Unidos são o principal produtor mundial de soja, seguido pelo Brasil. A cultura da soja é afetada por 47 doenças já relatadas, entre elas a ferrugem asiática causada pelo fungo biotrófico Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow e Sydow. Esta doença pode atingir até 100% de dano e causa perdas no Brasil estimadas em 737,453,718 dólares ao ano. Em função de sua importância, faz-se oportuno uma revisão bibliográfica sobre esta doença, que abordará a sua ocorrência a nível mundial, a sintomatologia, os hospedeiros, a taxonomia e a etiologia do agente causal, efeitos dos fatores climáticos sobre a doença, ciclo biológico do patógeno, progresso e análise temporal, redução na área foliar e nos componentes de rendimento da cultura da soja e as estratégias de manejo integrado da enfermidade. Foi objetivo desta revisão recopilar as informações mais relevantes sobre a ferrugem asiática de modo o mais explicativo e entendível possível para o leitor.

  13. PUDRICIÓN BASAL CAUSADA POR Phytophthora capsici EN PLANTAS DE CHILE TRATADAS CON VERMICOMPOST

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    Lidieth Uribe-Lor\\u00EDo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pudrición basal causada por Phytophthora capcisi en plantas de chile tratadas con vermicompost. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar a nivel de invernadero el efecto de vermicompost sobre la incidencia y severidad de Phytophthora capcisi en plantas de chile (Capsicum annuum. Esta investigación se realizó entre febrero y marzo del 2012 en el Centro de Investigaciones Agronómicas, Sabanilla, San José, Costa Rica. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones y ocho plantas por unidad experimental en un arreglo factorial con los factores de dosis (0, 25% y 50% v/v vermicompost:suelo e inoculación (0 y 500 zoosporas por gramo de suelo. Se trasplantaron plántulas de 35 días, que fueron inoculadas dos semanas después del trasplante. La aplicación de vermicompost provocó un aumento significativo del peso fresco foliar y del peso seco foliar y radical; a mayor dosis, mayor fue el incremento. Las plantas de todos los tratamientos que incluyeron inoculación con P. capsici presentaron síntomas de la enfermedad en la raíz. Los valores de incidencia y severidad fueron mayores para el tratamiento con 50% de abono. En este tratamiento se presentaron síntomas de marchitez. La ausencia de diferencias en las variables de peso fresco y seco entre los tratamientos inoculados y sin inocular, a los que se adicionó abono al 25%, sugiere que esta dosis podría compensar el daño causado por el patógeno. Se observó una menor concentración de nutrimentos en los tejidos de las plantas inoculadas lo que indica que el daño causado a la raíz pudo haber afectado la adquisición de nutrimentos.

  14. Perdas causadas por Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae em mudas de Coffea arabica L.

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    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Coccus viridis (Green danifica plantas jovens e adultas de Coffea arabica Linnaeu. No entanto, nada se sabe sobre a magnitude dos danos causados por esta praga. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as relações entre o ataque de C. viridis e as perdas causadas por este inseto a C. arabica. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram utilizadas sementes da linhagem IAC 15 da variedade “Catuaí vermelho” de café (C. arabica. Para a confecção dos tratamentos esta praga foi criada em casa de vegetação separada do experimento. Os tratamentos foram: plantas infestadas e não infestadas por adultos e ninfas da cochonilha verde. As plantas foram nutridas com solução nutritiva. Durante 110 dias foram avaliados: números de adultos e de ninfas de primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, área foliar, diâmetro do caule, altura das plantas em todas repetições. No final do experimento avaliou-se o peso das raízes, caule, folhas e total. Os pesos das raízes, matéria seca total, área foliar e diâmetro do caule de plantas não atacadas por C. viridis superaram em 1,31; 1,41; 1,50 e 8,93 vezes, respectivamente o peso de plantas atacadas. As variáveis selecionadas foram: diâmetro do caule (cm, área foliar (cm², peso de raízes (g, ninfas, adultos e total das cochonilhas. Concluindo que a planta de C. arabica é afetada de forma diferente entre seus órgãos e que a ninfa de terceiro ínstar e adultos são as fases que mais causam danos a C. arabica.Losses Caused by Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae on Seedlings of Coffea arabica L.Abstract. Coccus viridis (Green cause losses on seedling and old plants of Coffea arabica (Green. However, nothing is known about of the damages caused by this pest. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relations between atack of C. viridis and the losses caused by this insect. on C. arabica. This work was conduced in greenhouse at

  15. El Virus (VIH) y la Enfermedad Causada por esta Infección (Sida) VIH-SIDA y Cerebro.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Toro G.; Carlos Eduardo Pérez D.; Edgar Alberto Parra S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN La enfermedad ocasionada por VIH/SIDA es una epidemia de contextos y matices bastante polifacéticos, atroces, únicos en la historia de la humanidad. Esta entidad se describe como una enfermedad de transmisión sexual, sin embargo las características son de una enfermedad de transmisión social; debemos tener en cuenta que cerca de 50 millones de individuos en el mundo la padecen y de ellos aproximadamente la mitad son mujeres. La enfermedad causada...

  16. Salmonella causada por reptiles y anfibios en guarderías (Salmonella Infections Caused by Reptiles and Amphibians in Childcare Centers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-07

    Traducción al español de la entrevista con el Dr. Neil Vora, funcionario del EIS de los CDC, sobre su artículo acerca de las infecciones por Salmonella causadas por reptiles y anfibios en guarderías.  Created: 2/7/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/26/2013.

  17. Miasis orbital severa causada por Cochliomyia hominivorax en la región andina de Ecuador

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    Juan Dominguez Enríquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una indígena kichwa de 91 años con miasis orbital destructiva que compromete globo ocular derecho con destrucción de tejido óseo orbital, nasal, etmoidal y del seno frontal, confirmado por tomografía axial computarizada y con reconstrucción ósea tridimensional. Infectada en una zona templada a 2,418 m de altitud en la provincia andina de Imbabura, Ecuador. La paciente se presentó en el Hospital de Cotacachi con una tumoración cavitaria en el globo ocular derecho acompañada de secreción maloliente, supurativa, observando y extrayéndose más de 100 larvas de moscas desde su interior. Estas fueron identificadas como Cochliomyia hominivorax, por la disposición de sus espiráculos respiratorios.

  18. Surdez súbita causada por hemorragia intralabiríntica Sudden hearing loss caused by labyrinthine hemorrhage

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    Raquel Salomone

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A surdez súbita sensorioneural é uma perda auditiva súbita ou rapidamente progressiva. Na maioria dos casos a etiologia não é descoberta. Uma das causas possíveis de surdez súbita é a hemorragia intralabiríntica que, antes do surgimento da ressonância magnética, não era corretamente diagnosticada. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar um caso de surdez súbita causada por hemorragia intralabiríntica e realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre este assunto.Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is relatively frequent. In most cases, the etiology is not discovered. One of the possible causes for sudden deafness is inner labyrinth bleeding, which was difficult to diagnose before the advent of magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of sudden hearing loss caused by a labyrinthine hemorrhage, and to present a review of the literature on this topic.

  19. Seca de ponteiros de Eucalyptus spp. causada por Erwinia psidii no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Arriel, Daniele Aparecida Alvarenga

    2012-01-01

    A partir de 2009 vem sendo observada uma nova doença em eucalipto de etiologia bacteriana desconhecida, caracterizada por seca de ponteiros, murcha, lesões em ramos, pecíolo e nervura central, acompanhado de exsudação bacteriana macroscópica e microscópica. Até o presente a enfermidade já foi constatada em plantios clonais de híbridos de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, E. grandis e em plantios seminais de E. dunnii nos estados de São Paulo e Rio Grande do Sul. Devido à importância econômic...

  20. Pancreatite intersticial crônica em bovino causada por Eurytrema coelomaticum

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo,Pedro de Souza; Mendes,Mariana; Pappen,Felipe Geraldo; Soares,Mauro Pereira; Muller,Gertrud; Farias,Nara Amélia da Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Descrevem-se os achados clínicos e patológicos atribuídos à infecção maciça por trematódeos pancreáticos do gênero Eurytrema (Loos, 1907) em uma novilha da raça Jersey, procedente do município de Seara, região oeste do estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. O animal de dois anos de idade apresentava desenvolvimento insuficiente, emagrecimento crônico, caquexia, decúbito prolongado e anemia, sendo submetido à eutanásia in extremis. Na necropsia observou-se aumento de volume do pâncreas, que estava ...

  1. ANTRACNOSE DO CAQUIZEIRO CAUSADA POR Colletotrichum horii: INCIDÊNCIA EM RAMOS, FOLHAS, FLORES E FRUTOS EM CAMPO

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    RENATO REZENDE YOUNG BLOOD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência em várias partes da planta e o desenvolvimento da antracnose do caquizeiro causada por Colletotrichum horiinas cultivares Fuyu e Kakimel produzidas sob os sistemas orgânico e convencional, respectivamente, nas safras de 2010/2011 e 2011/2012, em Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brasil. Em cada pomar, 10 plantas foram selecionadas aleatoriamente, e 10 ramos do ano por planta, distribuídos ao redor dacopa, foram marcados para as avaliações de incidência de antracnose em ramos e folhas, a cada 15 dias. A quantificação de frutos caídos com ou sem sintomas da doença foi a cada 15 dias, durante o período de crescimento de frutos até a colheita, relacionada com a produção total. C. horii em flores foi avaliada em campo e também após incubação no laboratório. Infecção latente foi observada em frutos verdes coletados aos 90; 120 e 150 dias após a floração. Em ambas as safras, observou-se a queda de frutos com sintomas de antracnose entre os meses de janeiro e abril. C. horii é capaz de infectar flores, permanecer latente e provocar sintomas de antracnose em frutos imaturos. Frutos colhidos sadios apresentaram sintomas em pós-colheita após a incubação.

  2. Pancreatite intersticial crônica em bovino causada por Eurytrema coelomaticum

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    Pedro de Souza Quevedo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os achados clínicos e patológicos atribuídos à infecção maciça por trematódeos pancreáticos do gênero Eurytrema (Loos, 1907 em uma novilha da raça Jersey, procedente do município de Seara, região oeste do estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. O animal de dois anos de idade apresentava desenvolvimento insuficiente, emagrecimento crônico, caquexia, decúbito prolongado e anemia, sendo submetido à eutanásia in extremis. Na necropsia observou-se aumento de volume do pâncreas, que estava esbranquiçado, crepitante, com a superfície de corte irregular, onde foram visualizados inúmeros trematódeos emergindo ativamente do órgão. Histologicamente havia pancreatite intersticial crônica. O parasito foi identificado como Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet, 1882. Trata-se do primeiro registro de euritrematose clínica em bovino no estado de Santa Catarina.

  3. Factores de riesgo asociados a candidemias causadas por múltiples especies Risk factors associated with multiple-species candidemia

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    A. Benetucci

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Los episodios de candidemia han aumentado en la última década. Sin embargo, la publicación de casos de candidemias causadas por múltiples especies (CME es infrecuente. De un total de 155 candidemias diagnosticadas entre 1998 y 2004 en el Hospital de Clínicas de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, se identificaron 7 casos de CME (6 adultos y 1 neonato, cuyos datos clínicos y evolutivos se compararon con 21 casos de candidemias producidas por una única especie de Candida (CUE en pacientes de similar edad e igual sexo. No se hallaron mayores diferencias clínicas o evolutivas entre los pacientes con CME y CUE; sin embargo, la mediana del tiempo de internación y del tiempo promedio de permanencia de los catéteres venosos centrales con anterioridad a la candidemia (39 y 32 días para los pacientes con CME vs. 18 y 12 días para aquellos con CUE, respectivamente resultaron ser factores predisponentes relevantes. La duración de la candidemia fue más prolongada en los pacientes con CME que en los afectados por CUE (5 días vs. 1 día. En conclusión, aunque los episodios de CME son menos frecuentes que los causados por una única especie de Candida, factores de riesgo potencialmente controlables como el tiempo de internación y el tiempo de utilización de catéteres venosos centrales tienen mayor importancia en el desarrollo de CME.The incidence of fungemia has increased over the past decade. Multiple-species candidemia (MSC has been infrequently reported. From 1998 to 2004, of 155 patients with diagnosis of candidemia at the Hospital de Clínicas (University of Buenos Aires, seven cases of MSC were identified (6 adults and 1 newborn and compared with 21 cases of similar age and sex with monomicrobial candidemia. There were no differences in clinical data and outcome, except for the mediana duration of hospital stay (39 days for patients with MSC vs. 18 days for patients with monomicrobial candidemia, the mean time of central venous catheter

  4. Desenvolvimento de um modelo animal para avaliação da eficiência de vacinas contra gangrena gasosa causada por Clostridium perfringens tipo A

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Azael Zambrano Uribe

    2013-01-01

    As mionecroses causadas por infecções do Clostridium perfringens tipo A são caracterizadas por curso rápido e letalidade alta, desconhecendo-se o impacto que tem tanto na pecuária nacional como mundial. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho estabelecer um modelo de indução experimental da gangrena gasosa por meio da inoculação de bactérias vegetativas do Clostridium perfringens tipo A. Assim como também, avaliar a eficácia de três vacinas experimentais (Toxóide, Bacterina, Bacterina + Toxóide)...

  5. Oftalmomiíase externa causada por Dermatobia hominis Dermatobia hominis provoking external ophthalmomyiasis

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    Abelardo de Souza Couto Junior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Relato de caso de oftalmomiíase externa em uma paciente de 82 anos, diabética e hipertensa, residente na zona rural, que inicialmente apresentava um quadro sugestivo de celulite pré-septal e hordéolo, com dor, edema, eritema e nodulação localizada na pálpebra superior e bulbo ocular normal. Foi então tratada com antibiótico e corticóide local, que levou a redução do processo inflamatório, possibilitando a realização de adequado exame físico, com a eversão da pálpebra superior, sendo estabelecido o diagnóstico de oftalmomiíase externa. Após tentativa frustrada de retirada ambulatorial da larva, foi indicado o procedimento cirúrgico por uma incisão vertical no tarso, a qual possibilitou a remoção de larva de 6mm de comprimento, com características da espécie Dermatobia hominis. Diante do exposto, é importante destacar, os vários diagnósticos diferenciais de oftalmomiíase, a particularidade de cada agente, as formas possíveis de tratamento, os fatores de risco e aspectos profiláticos.A 82 years old women reported an external opthalmomyiasis. She was a diabetic and with high blood pressure carrier, living in rural area. Initially a she had pain with swelling, erythema and nodulation located on the upper eyelid and normal eye and a pre-septal cellulitis was suspected and antibiotic and local steroid were introduced, which led to a reduction of inflammatory process and to perform an appropriate physical examination with the eversion of the upper eyelid, which established the diagnosis of an external opthalmomyiasis. After the unsuccessful attempt to outpatient withdrawal of the worm, was appointed the surgical procedure by a vertical incision in the tarsus, which allowed the removal of a larva 6 mm long, with characteristics of the species Dermatobia hominis. Considering the foregoing, it is important to emphasize, the various differencial diagnostics of opthalmomyiasis, the particularity of each agent, possible forms

  6. Mastite micótica em ruminantes causada por leveduras Mycotic mastitis in ruminants caused by yeasts

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    Andréia Spanamberg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de casos esporádicos de mastite causados por microrganismos de origem ambiental pode ser considerada como emergente e as leveduras, os fungos leveduriformes e os filamentosos são alguns dos principais agentes envolvidos. Em relação à mastite micótica, as leveduras são freqüentemente causas de infecções da glândula mamária em animais produtores de leite. A maior parte dos casos ocorre sob a forma de surtos localizados e/ou após tratamento com antimicrobianos. Os principais gêneros envolvidos são Candida e Cryptococcus, além de outros como Geotrichum, Pichia e Trichosporon. O objetivo do trabalho é revisar os aspectos gerais sobre a mastite micótica causada por leveduras e fungos leveduriformes, tais como etiologia, causas predisponentes, patogenicidade, diagnóstico, tratamento e profilaxia por meio de uma abordagem cronológica dos primeiros relatos, mas com enfoque principal nos resultados descritos recentemente na literatura veterinária nacional e internacional. O controle da mastite micótica é fundamentado em métodos preventivos, como adequado manejo da ordenha, correta higienização dos equipamentos e das instalações, com a finalidade de reduzir o número de animais acometidos, além de garantir a qualidade e a inocuidade dos produtos lácteos.The veterinary literature registers sporadic cases of infections caused by environmental microorganisms in which the main agents involved are yeasts, yeasts-like and filamentous fungi. In relation to dairy animals, the yeasts are more frequently incriminated as the aetiological agents of mycotic mastitis. Most cases occur under the form of localized outbreaks and / or after treatment with antimicrobial agents. The main genera involved in mastitis are Candida and Cryptococcus, besides others such as Geotrichum, Pichia and Trichosporon. The purpose of this review is to point out the main aspects of mastitis caused by yeasts and yeast-like fungi, such as etiology

  7. Indicadores de riesgo de morbilidad prevenible causada por medicamentos Risk indicators of preventable morbidity related to drug utilization

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    Ana Dago Martínez

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Seleccionar y estudiar la aceptabilidad, en términos de relevancia y pertinencia, de ciertas situaciones clínicas que puedan usarse como indicadores de riesgo de morbilidad prevenible causada por medicamentos y que sean utilizables en las farmacias comunitarias. Método: Método Delphi, en 2 rondas, con un panel de 14 expertos médicos y farmacéuticos que valoraron la relevancia y pertinencia de 68 tipos de situaciones clínicas como indicadores de morbilidad potencial relacionada con medicamentos, detectable por el profesional en su medio, con evidencia científica de resultado adverso previsible, frecuentes en el medio ambulatorio y con causa y resultado controlables. Resultados: Se consideraron utilizables y pertinentes 43 de los 68 indicadores estudiados, que se referían a 3 ámbitos: tipo de medicamento (medicamentos de estrecho margen terapéutico, con dosis individualizada y con reacciones adversas frecuentes y graves, problema de salud (problemas crónicos, especialmente asma, enfermedad cardíaca, tiroidea, prostática y dolor y tipo de paciente (ancianos y/o polimedicados. Los farmacéuticos sobrevaloraron sistemáticamente ciertos indicadores en relación con los médicos, aunque las diferencias no fueron significativas. Conclusiones: Se identificaron 43 indicadores de morbilidad potencial relacionada con los medicamentos e identificables por los profesionales en su entorno.Objective: To select clinical situations that can be used as risk indicators of preventable morbidity caused by drugs at the community pharmacies, and to study their acceptability, in terms of pertinence and relevance. Methods: We used the Delphi technique, in 2 rounds, by a panel of 14 medical doctors and pharmacists experts, to study the relevance of 68 types of clinical situations as risk indicators of preventable morbidity related to drug utilization used by health professionals in community pharmacies, with scientific evidence of foreseeable

  8. Gravedad de la gastroenteritis causada por vibrio parahaemolyticus del grupo pandémico en el Perú

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    Ana I. Gil

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar las características epidemiológicas y clínicas de la gastroenteritis causada por Vibrio parahaemolyticus del grupo pandémico en el Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se examinó las historias clínicas y registros de laboratorio de cien casos de gastroenteritis en los cuales se aisló V. parahaemolyticus del grupo pandémico y no pandémico. Se recolectó información epidemiológica y clínica y se realizó el análisis estadístico de los datos para evaluar si la gravedad de la enfermedad se asoció con la presencia de las cepas del grupo pandémico. Resultados. Se logró colectar información epidemiológica en 85% de los casos e información clínica sólo en 37% de los casos, principalmente de los hospitalizados. Los casos del grupo pandémico tuvieron una mayor probabilidad de tener deposiciones líquidas (96,3% frente a 62,5%, p<0,05, presentar deshidratación moderada o grave (100% frente a 60%, p<0,05 y requerir atención hospitalaria (98% frente a 42,9%, p<0,0001. Fue más probable aislar una cepa pandémica en personas de 30 o más años de edad (63% frente a 39,5%, p<0,05. Conclusiones. El Vibrio parahaemolyticus del grupo pandémico causa enfermedad gastrointestinal de mayor gravedad que las cepas no pandémicas, con mayor probabilidad de requerir atención hospitalaria. Basados en este reporte, se recomienda incluir la identificación de V. parahaemolyticus en el diagnóstico etiológico de agentes causantes de gastroenteritis grave en el sistema de salud del Perú.

  9. Jejunal perforation caused by abdominal angiostrongyliasis Perfuração jejunal causada por angiostrongilíase abdominal

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    Jaques WAISBERG

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in an adult patient presenting acute abdominal pain caused by jejunal perforation. The case was unusual, as this affliction habitually involves the terminal ileum, appendix, cecum or ascending colon. The disease is caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, whose definitive hosts are forest rodents while snails and slugs are its intermediate hosts. Infection in humans is accidental and occurs via the ingestion of snail or slug mucoid secretions found on vegetables, or by direct contact with the mucus. Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is clinically characterized by prolonged fever, anorexia, abdominal pain in the right-lower quadrant, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Although usually of a benign nature, its course may evolve to more complicated forms such as intestinal obstruction or perforation likely to require a surgical approach. Currently, no efficient medication for the treatment of abdominal angiostrongyliasis is known to be available. In this study, the authors provide a review on the subject, considering its etiopathogeny, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment.Os autores descrevem caso de angiostrongilíase abdominal em doente adulto que se manifestou como abdômen agudo devido à perfuração de alça jejunal, evento raro, uma vez que esta afecção geralmente envolve o íleo terminal, apêndice, ceco ou cólon ascendente. A doença é causada pelo nematódeo Angiostrongylus costaricensis cujos hospedeiros definitivos são roedores silvestres e os hospedeiros intermediários são caracóis e caramujos. A infecção em humanos é acidental e ocorre pela ingestão de secreção mucóide destes invertebrados presentes em vegetais ou por contato direto com o muco. A angiostrongilíase abdominal é clinicamente caracterizada pela presença de febre prolongada, anorexia, dor no quadrante inferior direito do abdômen e eosinofilia periférica. Embora a doença seja de

  10. Costo económico de la discapacidad causada por lesiones de tránsito en México durante 2012

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    Patricia G. Sánchez-Vallejo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar el costo económico de la discapacidad permanente causada por lesiones de tránsito en México durante 2012, desde las perspectivas del Sistema de Salud y de la Sociedad, se realizó un estudio de costos que utiliza metodología bottom-up, considerando costos directos médicos (hospitalización, consultas ambulatorias y de rehabilitación y prótesis, y costos indirectos (pérdida de productividad del lesionado y cuidador con una aproximación de capital humano. La discapacidad causada por lesiones de tránsito tiene un alto costo para el sistema de salud y la sociedad mexicana. Desde la perspectiva del sistema de salud, el costo en pesos mexicanos de la discapacidad permanente fue de US$269.529.480,72, equivalente a US$1.496,33 por persona. Desde la perspectiva de la sociedad, se estimaron US$3.445,45 durante el primer año. En promedio, se estimó un costo total de US$4.941,77 por persona, resultando en un total de US$1.119.761.632,53 en 2012. Los resultados de este estudio evidencian la necesidad de diseñar e implementar políticas más enérgicas y eficientes para el control de las lesiones de tránsito en México

  11. Seca de ponteiros causada por Erwinia psidii: diversidade genética do patógeno e resistência em Eucalyptus spp.

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    Hermenegildo, Pollyane da Silva

    2015-01-01

    A seca dos ponteiros causada por Erwinia psidii é um dos fatores limitantes para a produção de goiaba no Brasil. Recentemente, essa bactéria foi relatada como o agente causal da seca de ponteiros e murcha de Eucalyptus spp. no Brasil, Uruguai e Argentina. Como se trata de uma enfermidade recentemente descoberta, há ainda poucos estudos sobre o patossistema E. psidii - eucalipto, especialmente quanto à variabilidade genética do patógeno e resistência de Eucalyptus à doença. Assim, neste trabal...

  12. Diseño y estandarización de una prueba de PCR para el diagnóstico de la Bartonelosis causada por Bartonella bacilliformis

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    Carlos Padilla R

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Diseñar una prueba de PCR para el diagnóstico de la Bartonelosis causada por Bartonella bacilliformis. Materiales y métodos: Se usó la secuencia del locus de invasión ialB para diseñar los oligonucleótidos ialBF y ialBR, además del ADN geonómico purificado de una cepa referencial de B. bacilliformis para estandarizar las condiciones de la prueba. Finalmente, la prueba fue preliminarmente evaluada con 12 cepas de B. bacilliormis aisladas en 3 áreas endémicas y 10 muestras de sangre total de pacientes con Bartonelosis confirmada. Resultados: La prueba detectó el ADN de aislamientos de B. bacilliformis de 3 áreas bartonelósicas endémicas del Perú: Ancash, Cuzco y Lima; mientras que no detectó el ADN de B. hensenlae, ni de B. vinsonii, ni de otras bacterias y parásitos. Además, esta prueba fue positiva para 10 muestras sanguíneas de pacientes con bartonelosis confirmada y negativa para 5 muestras de pacientes con malaria por P. falciparum. Conclusión: Esta prueba de PCR podría ser útil para el diagnóstico de la bartonelosis causada por B. bacilliformis.

  13. LEVANTAMENTO DE PATOLOGIAS CAUSADAS POR UMIDADE EM UMA EDIFICAÇÃO NA CIDADE DE PALMAS-TO

    OpenAIRE

    Da Paz, Lidiane Andrade Fonseca; Costa, Láylla Cristhine de A.; de Paula, Matheus Oliveira; de Almeida, Wagner Junio Duarte; Fernandes, Fernando A. da S.

    2016-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar manifestações patológicas causadas pela umidade em uma edificação na cidade de Palmas - TO, que é um dos maiores problemas enfrentados durante a vida útil da edificação, e tendo em vista que as patologias são prejudiciais à edificação, foram apontadas algumas possibilidades para a diminuição das mesmas. Realizou-se pesquisa bibliográfica e registro de imagens feitas in loco, onde ocorrem as patologias. Após a pesquisa foi possível levantar os locais de...

  14. Mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii: relato de um caso Clinical bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: a case study

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    Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Um caso de mastite clínica causada por Prototheca zopfii em uma vaca de um rebanho leiteiro localizado na Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais foi estudado. O animal apresentou sinais clínicos nos quartos mamárias anteriores e queda acentuada na produção de leite. Após o diagnóstico inicial, o animal foi observado durante onze meses, do início da manifestação da doença até 12 dias após o parto. Exames microbiológicos do leite foram realizadas aos 7, 30, 39, 49, 65, 326 e 331 dias após o isolamento inicial, sendo os dois últimos exames realizados 7 e 12 dias após o parto. As amostras de P. zopfii isoladas apresentaram resistência in vitro a: ampicilina, canamicina, cefatoridina, enrofloxacina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, neomicina, oxacilina, penicilina, sulfonamidas e trimetoprim x sulfametoxazol. Foi avaliada a susceptibilidade in vitro das amostras de P. zopfii a um produto natural constituído de extrato de sementes de frutas cítricas, obtido comercialmente. A menor concentração que inibiu totalmente a alga foi 1:500. Recomendou-se um tratamento com a diluição a 1:200 do extrato em solução fisiológica estéril contendo timerosal a 1:30.000 como conservante, em doses diárias de 20ml, por via intramamária. O tratamento foi realizado inicialmente durante sete dias. Após este período houve redução, mas não a completa eliminação dos organismos do leite. Foi, então, recomendado mais um período de 15 dias de tratamento, de modo semelhante ao primeiro. Trinta e nove dias após o diagnóstico inicial não foi mais isolado P. zopfii do leite dos quartos afetados e a produção retornou a níveis semelhantes de antes da infecção. Amostras de leite naturalmente infectadas foram congelados a -20°C. Células viáveis de P. zopfii foram recuperadas de amostras mantidas até 38 dias nestas condições.A clinical case of mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii in a cow from a dairy herd located in the region of Zona da

  15. Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico

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    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, causada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica e lisa (Regina e Elisa, infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique, sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano.

  16. Síndrome hemolítico-urêmica causada por gencitabina em uma paciente jovem com colangiocarcinoma

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    John Fredy Nieto-Ríos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A gencitabina é um fármaco utilizado no tratamento de vários tipos de neoplasias malignas. Há poucas descrições de associação entre a droga e a síndrome hemolítico-urêmica (SHU, apesar de os pacientes em questão terem ido a óbito em pelo menos 50% dos casos. O presente artigo relata o caso de uma paciente com 25 anos de idade em remissão diagnosticada com colangiocarcinoma que apresentou anemia hemolítica microangiopática acompanhada de insuficiência renal aguda anúrica após cinco ciclos de quimioterapia com gencitabina; as manifestações eram condizentes com SHU causada pelos efeitos colaterais do medicamento. A administração de gencitabina foi interrompida, e a paciente foi tratada com hemodiálise, transfusões de sangue, trocas de plasma, corticosteroides, doxiciclina e rituximabe. Foi atingido um desfecho favorável; mais especificamente, a hemólise foi controlada e a função renal foi plenamente restabelecida.

  17. Degradación de Fenantreno por bacterias del género Burkholderia y Rhizobium aisladas de nódulos de mimosas

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    Arnoldo Wong-Villarreal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar y evaluar la capacidad de degradación de microorganismos aislados de nódulos de mimosas, que puedan ser utilizados en procesos de biorremediación de suelos contaminados con fenantreno . Método . Se realizó el aislamiento de 122 cepas bacterianas de nódulos de mimosas; fueron crecidas en el medio de cultivo Maconkey para descartar enterobacterias. L as cepas bacterianas que dieron resultado negativo a esta prueba, fueron inoculadas en el medio de cultivo que contenía como úni ca fuente de carbono fenantreno; tres aislados tuvieron la capacidad de crecer en este medio. Las tres cepas fueron identificadas por secuencia del gen 1 6s ribosomal, se evaluó su capacidad de crecimiento en presencia de fenantreno mediante curvas de crecimiento microbiano; la capacidad para degradar fenantreno de las tres cepas fue cuantificada por cromatografía de gases acoplado a masas. Resultados . La s secuencias obtenidas del gen 16s ribosomal tienen relación genética con las especies de Burkholderia phenoliruptrix , Burkholderia phymatum y Rhizobium paknamense. El crecimiento microbiano de las tres cepas, suministradas con fenantreno, tuvieron un comp ortamiento similar al control , el cual contenía succinato como fuente de carbono. La cepa de Burkholderia sp. BB26 degradó 78.5 % , Burkholderia sp. BB24 68.5 % y Rhizobium sp. BY8 99%. Discusión . Los resultados de degradación de fenantreno por las cepas de Burkholderia sp. BB26 , Burkholderia sp. BB24 y Rhizobium sp. BY8 sugieren que las tres cepas tienen p otencial para utilizarse en procesos de biorremediación de suelos contaminados con fenantreno.

  18. Caracterização das injúrias causadas por Frankliniella occidentalis no morangueiro Injury characterization of Frankliniella occidentalis in strawberry

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    Aline Nondillo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Frankliniella occidentalis tem sido relatada como uma das principais pragas associadas à cultura do morangueiro. No entanto, os sintomas do ataque do inseto não estão caracterizados e, geralmente, atribui-se ao ataque do inseto a presença de frutos deformados. As injúrias causadas por F. occidentalis foram caracterizadas na cultura do morangueiro infestando-se com adultos botões florais e frutos. Para cada órgão (flores e frutos e fase de desenvolvimento, foram utilizados 20 insetos, os quais foram mantidos em gaiolas por cinco dias. Também foi avaliado um tratamento em que foram colocados 20 insetos a cada cinco dias, durante todo o ciclo da cultura. Nas flores, foram constatadas injúrias causadas pela alimentação de F. occidentalis nos estames e no receptáculo floral. Em frutos verdes e maduros, foi observado bronzeamento na base dos frutos, sob o cálice, e ao redor dos aquênios. No tratamento no qual os insetos estiveram presentes durante todo o desenvolvimento dos frutos, foram registrados somente 17,6% destes com mais de 40% da superfície com bronzeamento. Não foi encontrada associação entre a infestação por tripes e a deformação de frutos. A alimentação de F. occidentalis na cultura do morangueiro causa injúrias nos estames e no receptáculo floral e bronzeamento na superfície dos frutos verdes e maduros, sem provocar deformações.Frankliniella occidentalis has been reported as one of the major pests associated with strawberry. However, the symptoms of insect attack are not characterized and their presence are related to deformed fruits. The injury caused by F. occidentalis in strawberries was studied by infesting flowers, unripe and ripe fruits with 20 adult for five days and during all the ripening period inoculating 20 adults each five days. In flowers, it was observed that F. occidentalis feeding caused damage in the stamens and floral receptacle. In the unripe and ripe fruits it was observed russeting on

  19. Conidiobolomicose causada por Conidiobolus lamprauges em ovinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Conidiobolomycosis caused by Conidiobolus lamprauges in sheep in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Fernando Henrique Furlan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de conidiobolomicose em ovinos no Estado de Santa Catarina. O surto ocorreu entre os meses de dezembro e março de 2006, no município de Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, região litorânea do Estado. A propriedade possuía 75 ovinos da raça Santa Inês e seis desses animais adoeceram. Clinicamente os animais doentes apresentavam dificuldade respiratória, corrimento nasal seroso a mucossanguinolento e, por vezes exolftalmia. Na necropsia verificou-se uma massa amarelada na região etmoidal e adjacências que, às vezes, atingia os linfonodos regionais, cérebro, globo ocular e pleura. Microscopicamente a massa caracterizava-se por infiltrado inflamatório granulomatoso com áreas necróticas associadas a hifas largas pouco ramificadas. Através de exame molecular detectou-se DNA de Conidiobolus lamprauges. Os aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos, macroscópicos, microscópicos e moleculares caracterizam a conidiobolomicose causada por Conidiobolus lamprauges em ovinos.An outbreak of conidiobolomycosis affecting sheep in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil is reported. The disease occurred in six Santa Inês breed sheep from a flock of 75 during the rainy season. Common clinical signs were noisy respiration and dyspnea, serous to mucosanguineous nasal discharge and exophthalmus. At necropsy there was a dense yellow mass in the nasopharyngeal area affecting the ethmoidal region, turbinate bones and occasionally limph nodes, central nervous system and pleura. Histopathologycally there was multifocal granulomas whith an eosinophilic necrotic reaction containing ribbon type hyphae similar to zygomycetous fungi. At molecular examination Conidiobolus lamprauges DNA was detected. The clinical, epidemiological, macroscopical, microscopical and molecular aspects characterize conidiobolomycosis caused by Conidiobolus lamprauges in sheep.

  20. El estado de las lesiones causadas por el tránsito en México: evidencias para fortalecer la estrategia mexicana de seguridad vial

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    Ricardo Pérez-Núñez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la revisión de información secundaria oficial, publicaciones científicas y el análisis de la ENSANut-2012, este trabajo busca proveer una visión integral de la magnitud actual de las lesiones causadas por el tránsito (LCT en México y analizar críticamente la respuesta social organizada. Las altas tasas de choques, lesiones, muertes y discapacidad atribuidas a este problema de salud pública, representan un elevado costo para la sociedad mexicana, en especial para los hogares. Se discute cómo la respuesta mexicana se ha enfocado a los automovilistas, dejando fuera a usuarios vulnerables de la vía pública y se ha privilegiado la implementación de estrategias poco efectivas. A pesar de que se dispone de legislación para los principales factores de riesgo, se ha descuidado su correcta aplicación. La estrategia mexicana podría fortalecerse implementando estrategias de movilidad seguras, equitativas, saludables y sostenibles para los diferentes actores de la vía pública. A pesar de los avances que se han dado en términos de prevención de LCT, existen aún retos y oportunidades para el país.

  1. Pérdidas humanas y económicas causadas por el vulcanismo en Costa Rica entre 1953 y 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Irene; Alvarado, Guillermo E.

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta por primera vez una aproximación integrada de los efectos de las erupciones volcánicas durante el siglo XX en Costa Rica. El detalle de los daños en (puentes, casas, ferrocarril, fábricas), las pérdidas económicas (agricultura, ganadería, suministro de agua potable), interrupción de las actividades, pérdidas de vidas humanas y las inversiones (donaciones, medidas paliativas), se presenta en los correspondientes cuadros, los que se centran en los desastres y efectos económicos, sin...

  2. Histoplasmose em região de palato duro simulando lesão causada por Leishmania

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    São Thiago Paulo de Tarso

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de histoplasmose em indivíduo com suspeita clínica de leishmaniose mucosa. A infecção por Leishmania foi descartada, pela negatividade do teste de Montenegro e ausência do parasita. O diagnóstico de histoplasmose foi confirmado pelo encontro do fungo na lesão e o seu isolamento em Ágar-Sabouraud. O tratamento do paciente com anfotericina B resultou na remissão da lesão.

  3. Compactação do solo causada por tratores florestais na colheita de Pinus taeda L. na região sudoeste do Paraná

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    Denise Andréia Szymczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A compactação vem-se tornando um dos principais impactos causados ao solo pelas atividades de colheita florestal mecanizada. O peso e movimentação das máquinas no momento do corte e extração da madeira, aliados à condição de umidade do solo imprópria para tal, são as principais causas da degradação estrutural do solo, verificada, principalmente, por alterações em suas propriedades físicas. Nesse sentido, este trabalho visou identificar a compactação causada ao solo devido às operações de colheita florestal de Pinus taeda L. realizada em três diferentes níveis de umidade do terreno. O estudo foi realizado em área de uma empresa florestal localizada no Paraná sobre Latossolo Vermelho. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela interação de três fatores, sendo eles: umidade (colheita em dia chuva, três e sete dias após a chuva, operações de colheita (com passagem de máquinas, sem passagem/eventual queda de árvores e estaleiro, e a ocasião de coleta (antes e depois da colheita. A biomassa residual da colheita florestal foi essencial para minimizar a compactação do solo causada pelo tráfego das máquinas que foi próxima da máxima. A gradação de umidade representada pela colheita em diferentes números de dias após uma chuva não influenciou, de maneira diferenciada, a compactação do solo. Entretanto, as operações de colheita impactaram o solo até a profundidade de 10 cm, causando a compactação nas linhas de tráfego das máquinas, enquanto as demais operações não provocaram alterações na densidade, macroporosidade e resistência à penetração.

  4. Proptose causada por adenoma pituitário gigante: relato de caso Proptosis caused by giant pituitary adenoma: case report

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    Andréa Pereira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso raro de proptose unilateral associada à paralisia oculomotora e cegueira causados por adenoma pituitário gigante. MÉTODOS: A paciente foi submetida a exame clínico e oftalmológico completo, campimetria, exame de imagem por ressonância magnética e estudo histopatológico do tumor após intervenção cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: Paciente de 21 anos apresentou perda visual progressiva bilateral associada à proptose e limitação da motilidade ocular do olho esquerdo. A campimetria revelou hemianopsia temporal completa no olho direito e havia ausência de percepção luminosa no olho esquerdo. O exame de imagem por ressonância magnética mostrou extenso tumor infiltrando o terceiro ventrículo, seio cavernoso e ápice da órbita à esquerda. O estudo histopatológico revelou se tratar de adenoma hipofisário produtor de hormônio de crescimento e prolactina sem sinais de malignidade. CONCLUSÃO: Este caso é de interesse não apenas pelo fato do envolvimento orbitário pelos adenomas ser extremamente raro, mas também para salientar a importância de diagnóstico precoce uma vez que apesar da histologia benigna, os adenomas invasivos nem sempre seguem curso clínico favorável.PURPOSE: To describe the unusual occurrence of unilateral proptosis associated with oculomotor palsy and blindness, caused by a giant pituitary adenoma. METHODS: The patient was submitted to clinical and ophthalmologic examination, visual field, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological study after surgical intervention for the removal of the tumor. RESULTS: A 21-years-old woman had progressive bilateral visual loss, associated with proptosis and limitation of ocular motility of the left eye. Visual field examination revealed a complete temporal hemianopsia in the right eye and no light perception in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large tumor infiltrating the III ventricule, cavernous sinus and orbital apex. The

  5. Cura espontânea da leishmaniose causada por Leishmania Viannia Braziliensis em lesões cutâneas

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    Jackson Maurício Lopes Costa

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam que durante 14 anos de trabalho clínico em campo, realizado nas comunidades de Três Braços e Corte de Pedra, Bahia, acompanharam 1.416 pacientes portadores de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana, cuja espécie envolvida na transmissão, é predominantemente a Leishmania Viannia brasilienses. A terapêutica utilizada rotineiramente nos casos é o antimoniato-N-metilglucamina (Glucantime. Contudo, 16 pacientes do sexo masculino recusaram-se a utilizar a medicação e 6 do sexo feminino encontravam-se em período gestacional, portanto não utilizaram o medicamento. Estes pacientes foram acompanhados por um período entre 4 a 12 anos, a partir do diagnóstico. Observou-se que em 9 pacientes (40,9% desta casuística, o tempo de cicatrizaçâo após o aparecimento da lesão, pode ser calculado em 6 meses de evolução. Quando se eleva a observação para 12 meses, temos que 19 pacientes (86,3% cicatrizaram suas lesões neste período. Em 3 casos (13,6% as lesões permaneceram ativas por mais de 12 meses. Conclui-se que os determinantes da cicatrizaçâo natural das lesões produzidas por Leishmania Viannia Braziliensis permanecem desconhecidos, dificultando para nós entendermos e compararmos aos efeitos das drogas utilizadas no tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar.In field clinics in the comunities of Três Braços and Corte de Pedra, Bahia, we have attended 1.416 patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis in fourteen years, the predomi nant species in transmission is Leishmania Viannia brasiliensis (LVB. Because of the danger of metastasis with this infection treatment was routinely recomended with Glucantime. However sixteen patients refused injection therapy and six women were pregnant when seen and not treated. All patients were followed up in our clinic. All these patients closed their skin ulcers although one subsequently relapsed. Patients were followed up for variable periods (four to twelve years, after the diagnosis. In

  6. Avaliação da resistência do eucalipto à murcha-bacteriana causada por Ralstonia solanacearum

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    Reginaldo Gonçalves Mafia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O plantio de clones de eucalipto resistentes constitui a principal estratégia para o controle de doenças no campo. Assim, este trabalho objetivou testar métodos de inoculação de Ralstonia solanacearum visando selecionar eucalipto resistente à murcha-bacteriana. Os métodos de inoculação foram selecionados em função da facilidade operacional e testados na avaliação de quatro clones (híbridos E. urophylla x E. grandis: i aplicação de 5 mL de inóculo (10(8 ufc/mL na região do coleto de mudas; ii aplicação de 5 mL de inóculo (10(8 ufc/mL na região do coleto de mudas após o ferimento do sistema radicular; iii corte de 1/3 basal do sistema radicular e imersão das raízes por 1 min em suspensão de inóculo na mesma concentração; e iv condução de mudas transplantadas em infectário, constituído de canaletões com areia infestada quinzenalmente (taxa de 0,25 L/m³ com suspensão bacteriana (10(8 ufc/mL e submetidas a coletas de brotações, de forma similar ao que é feito em minijardins comerciais. A condução das mudas em infectário apresentou maiores incidências de doença (exsudação de pus bacteriano, variando de 81 a 100%. O segundo experimento objetivou avaliar a resistência de diferentes espécies de eucalipto, empregando-se o método de transplantio das mudas para o infectário. A avaliação da infecção pela presença de exsudação bacteriana apresentou resultados mais consistentes para comparação dos genótipos. A intensidade da murcha-bacteriana foi afetada pelas condições da planta e do ambiente. Todas as espécies exibiram sintomas da doença, porém E. tereticornis e E. grandis apresentaram, respectivamente, o menor (33,3% e o maior (91,7% percentual de genótipos infectados (suscetíveis. Os resultados deste trabalho são importantes ferramentas (método de inoculação e fontes (espécies de eucalipto de resistência para o controle da murcha-bacteriana do eucalipto.

  7. Fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii Risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii

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    Aline Artioli Machado Yamamura

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii. Foram analisadas 13 propriedades leiteiras dos Estados do Paraná e de São Paulo, segundo os seguintes critérios de seleção: confirmação prévia de casos de mastite por Prototheca spp., triagem pela pesquisa de Prototheca spp. em tanques de expansão e latões e rebanhos com contagem de células somáticas acima de 5x105cel mL-1. As amostras coletadas consistiram de: leite, água, solo, fezes e swab de teteiras. Prototheca spp. foi isolada de amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica em uma propriedade e de amostras de leite e do ambiente em quatro propriedades, nas quais foi isolada em amostras de: água de bebedouro, abastecimento, esgoto, empoçada no piso de estábulo e sala de ordenha, solo de piquete e pasto, teteiras, fezes de bezerros e suínos. Do total de 383 vacas examinadas, Prototheca spp. foi isolada em 20 (5,2% vacas, sendo caracterizada como P. zopfii em 18. Os fatores de risco associados à mastite causada por P. zopfii foram: criação das vacas a pasto, alimentação dos animais com pasto e silagem, realização de ordenha mecânica em estábulo, permanência das vacas após ordenha em piquete sem alimento, criação de suínos próxima às instalações dos bovinos, existência de cães, gatos e roedores, falta de higienização dos tetos com água, pré-imersão dos tetos em aplicador com retorno e sem a troca do anti-séptico, alimentação dos bezerros com leite de vacas com mastite clínica e serem as vacas da raça holandesa.This research had as objective the study of risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii. Thirteen dairy herds in Paraná and São Paulo states were analyzed and selected according to the following criteria: previous confirmation of Prototheca spp. mastitis cases, screening of Prototheca spp. in bulk tanks and

  8. Mancha de mirotécio em algodoeiro causada por Myrothecium roridum Myrothecium leaf spot of cotton caused by Myrothecium roridum

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    Maurício Conrado Meyer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A mancha de mirotécio causada por Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr. foi observada em lavouras de algodão no sul do Maranhão, causando reduções de produtividade de até 60%. Os sintomas da doença são lesões necróticas, circulares, com estruturas salientes, os esporodóquios, de distribuição irregular. Foram observadas lesões nos pecíolos, brácteas, folhas e maçãs de algodoeiro cv. Deltapine Acala 90, Fibermax 966 e Sure Grow 821. O isolamento do fungo foi realizado em meio de cultura batata-dextrose-ágar (BDA. O teste de patogenicidade foi realizado em maçãs sadias, destacadas de algodoeiro cv. Fibermax 966, no estádio vegetativo R6, previamente desinfestadas. Foram testados 13 isolados de M. roridum, oito provenientes de algodão e cinco de soja. Avaliações das estruturas fúngicas foram realizadas com auxílio de microscópio óptico equipado com um micrômetro ocular. Os isolados causaram infecções em maçãs de algodão e destacou-se como mais agressivo o MA-75, proveniente de algodão, apresentando diâmetro médio de lesão de 1,3cm, aos sete DAI e 2,7cm aos 14 DAI. Todos os isolados formaram esporodóquios dispostos concenticamente em meio BDA. Os conídios são unicelulares, hialinos a oliváceos, abundantemente produzidos em massa verde-oliva a preta. Os conídios de isolados provenientes de algodão mediram, em média, 5,1µm x 1,5µm, e os obtidos de soja, 5,8µm x 1,5µm. Estes resultados relatam a ocorrência da mancha de mirotécio, causada por M. roridum, em lavouras comerciais de algodão no Brasil.Myrothecium leaf spot caused by Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr. was observed on cotton fields in Maranhão State, Brazil, causing yield reduction of up to 60%. Disease symptoms are lesions with concentric necrotic rings, with salient structures (sporodochia irregularly distributed. Symptoms were observed on petioles, bracts, leaves and bolls of cotton cultivars Deltapine Acala 90, Fibermax 966 and Sure Grow 821

  9. ALTERAÇÕES MICROMETEOROLÓGICAS CAUSADAS POR TÚNEIS BAIXOS DE TELA PLÁSTICA PRETA CULTIVADOS COM ALFACE

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    Galileo Adeli Buriot

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Foram determinadas alterações micrometeorológicas causadas por tela plástica preta com 18, 30 e 50% de atenuação da radiação solar incidente, durante os meses de verão, em Santa Maria, RS. O experimento foi conduzido no Campo Experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, onde foram cultivados quatro canteiros com alface, três deles cobertos com túneis de tela plástica. O estudo foi realizado em 3 períodos: de 30/11/90 a 17/01/91, de 06/02/91 a 25/03/91 e de 10/12/91 a 01/03/92. Mediu-se a radiação solar global, radiação solar na faixa de comprimento de onda do infravermelho e a luminosidade, temperatura diurna do solo, temperatura mínima e diurna do ar e umidade do solo e do ar. Os resultados mostraram que a temperatura do solo e do ar e a perda de água do solo são menores sob os túneis do que no exterior. As diferenças cresceram com o aumento da atenuação e a temperatura mínima do ar e a umidade relativa do ar são semelhantes no interior e exterior dos túneis e entre os túneis com diferentes percentagens de atenuação.

  10. Maize bush stunt and corn stunt: Diseases of corn caused by molicutes/ Enfezamentos vermelho e pálido: Doenças em milho causadas por molicutes

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    Nelson Sidnei Massola Júnior

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize Bushy Stunt and Corn Stunt are diseases of corn caused respectively by a phytoplasma (maize bushy stunt phytoplasma and by Spiroplasma kunkelii. Both agents are restricted to the floem vessels of diseased plants. The leafhopper Dalbulus maidis is the vector of the diseases. The diseases are very harmfull to corn crops and can cause severe losses. Their importance increased very much in the last years mainly due to the continuous crops, which allow the perpetuation of corn, pathogens and vector over the year. Diseased plants show shortening, redening or yellowing and excessive proliferation of ears, among others symptoms. However, symptoms are variable according to the causal agent, environmental conditions and corn genotype. Correct diagnosis of the diseases has been reached with ELISA (“enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay” and PCR (“polymerase chain reaction”. The use of resistant genotypes of corn is the main strategy of control of the diseases.Os enfezamentos vermelho e pálido são doenças do milho causadas, respectivamente, por um fitoplasma (“maize bushy stunt phytoplasma” e pelo Spiroplasma kunkelii, organismos restritos ao floema das plantas infectadas. Ambas são transmitidas pela cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis. São doenças bastante destrutivas, podendo causar sérios prejuízos aos agricultores. A importância dessas doenças aumentou muito nos últimos anos, devido principalmente aos cultivos “safrinha”, que perpetuam o milho, os patógenos e o vetor no campo durante o ano todo. As plantas doentes exibem redução de crescimento, avermelhamento ou amarelecimento, proliferação excessiva de espigas pequenas e improdutivas, além de outros sintomas. No entanto, esses sintomas dependem do agente causal, condições climáticas e genótipo do milho. A diagnose correta tem sido feita por testes de ELISA (“enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay” e por PCR (“polymerase chain reaction”, devido à complexidade da

  11. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  12. Utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5 na imunização de vacas leiteiras contra mastites causadas por E. coli

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    Lívio R. Molina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a utilização da vacina Escherichia coli J5, na imunização de vacas leiteiras, para prevenção e controle da mastite causada por E. coli através da análise da prevalência das infecções intramamárias (IMM no pós-parto, ocorrência e intensidade dos casos clínicos de mastite nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação, influência na contagem de células somáticas (CCS e produção de leite. O grupo experimental foi composto de 187 animais, divididos em 2 grupos, vacas vacinadas e não vacinadas. As imunizações ocorreram 60 dias antes do parto, 30 dias antes do parto e na primeira semana pós-parto. No dia da secagem e sete dias após o parto foram coletadas amostras para diagnóstico microbiológico dos patógenos causadores de mastite. A ocorrência de casos clínicos foi verificada pelo teste da caneca durante as ordenhas sendo registrados os dados relacionados à intensidade. Amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, a partir do décimo dia de lactação, para avaliação da CCS. A produção de leite foi registrada mensalmente nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação. Verificou-se no grupo vacinado, redução na prevalência de E. coli no pós-parto, na ocorrência de casos clínicos por E.coli nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação bem como na intensidade destes casos clínicos. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas significativas na CCS, entretanto vacas vacinadas apresentaram maior produção de leite, comparadas às vacas não vacinadas. A vacinação com E. coli J5 foi eficaz em reduzir a prevalência de infecções intramamárias (IMM ao parto, ocorrência e intensidade dos casos clínicos e aumento na produção de leite nos primeiros 100 dias de lactação.

  13. Método FAMACHA para detectar anemia clínica causada por Haemonchus contortus em cordeiros lactentes e ovelhas em lactação

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    Maria Angela M. Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O controle das endoparasitoses gastrintestinais em pequenos ruminantes tem sido tradicionalmente realizado por meio do uso indiscriminado dos anti-helmínticos, porém essa prática tem resultado em grande pressão de seleção de parasitas resistentes. Métodos seletivos (ex: FAMACHA/FMC e contagem de ovos nas fezes/OPG e que apresentem boa sensibilidade para identificar os animais que necessitam receber o tratamento químico são importantes alternativas aos métodos tradicionais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar a sensibilidade e a especificidade do método FMC, usado para detectar anemia causada por Haemonchus contortus em ovinos da raça Suffolk, em duas categorias de alta suscetibilidade; cordeiros lactentes e ovelhas durante a fase de lactação. A conjuntiva ocular de 42 cordeiros lactentes e 35 ovelhas em lactação foi avaliada usando o método FMC, em intervalos de 14 dias, durante cinco meses. O hematócrito (Ht foi utilizado como padrão-ouro para avaliação clínica de anemia dos animais. Para o cálculo de sensibilidade e especificidade, diferentes critérios foram utilizados: animais classificados como 4 e 5 ou 3, 4 e 5 e anêmicos pelo Ht (teste positivo; animais classificados como 1, 2 e 3 ou 1 e 2 e não anêmicos pelo Ht (teste negativo. Três valores de corte para Ht (≤22%, ≤19% ou ≤15% foram utilizados para confirmar a anemia. Entre os gêneros observados nas coproculturas, H. contortus (61,5% e Ostertagiasp (21,3% foram os mais prevalentes. Em ambas as categorias, a inclusão do FMC 3 como teste positivo, elevou a sensibilidade mas reduziu a especificidade do método. Quando o FMC 3 foi considerado anêmico, o percentual de falsos negativos foi próximo a zero, no entanto, houve aumento no número de tratamentos aplicados em animais não anêmicos (falso positivo. Durante as avaliações, a maior parte dos cordeiros (73% e das ovelhas (53% permaneceu nas categorias de FMC 1 e 2. Apenas 5% dos

  14. Paraplegia aguda por compressão da medula espinhal torácica causada por tofo gotoso Acute paraplegia resulting from spinal cord compression by tophaceous gout

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    Eduardo Massato Hasegawa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O acometimento axial pela gota é um evento raro, e o envolvimento da coluna torácica foi descrito em apenas 17 casos na literatura. Apresentamos um caso de paciente do sexo masculino de 48 anos com história de gota, sob tratamento irregular com alopurinol e colchicina, que desenvolveu paraplegia aguda decorrente de compressão medular por tofo gotoso. Realizou-se o diagnóstico por meio de ressonância magnética e anatomia patológica. Foi tratado com antiinflamatórios e descompressão cirúrgica com melhora importante, porém parcial. Apesar de o acometimento medular pelo tofo ser um evento raro, deve ser considerado nos casos de síndrome de compressão medular em pacientes com antecedente de gotaAxial gout is a rare condition and the involvement of the thoracic spine has been described only 17 times in the literature. This paper presents the case of a 48 year-old male patient with a history of gout, under irregular treatment with allopurinol and colchicines, who developed acute paraplegia resulting from spinal cord compression by tophaceous gout. The diagnosis was made using magnetic resonance imaging and anatomic pathology. The patient was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical decompression and showed important, albeit partial, improvement. Thus, although tophi rarely affect the spinal cord, they should be considered as a possibility in cases of spinal cord compression syndrome in patients with a history of gout

  15. Facoemulsificación e implante de lente intraocular en cataratas causadas por uveitis Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in patients with cataract caused by uveitis

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    Dayamí Pérez Gómez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar los resultados de la facoemulsificación y el implante de lente intraocular en cataratas causadas por uveítis. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 37 ojos con 6 meses de inactividad inflamatoria, agudeza visual menor de 0,6 y edad media de 47 años. Se excluyeron otras enfermedades que disminuyeran la visión. En el preoperatorio se prescribió antiinflamatorios. Se realizó la facoemulsificación con implante de lente intarocular (PMMA, óptica 6 mm; durante el seguimiento desde 24 h/6 meses se indicó antiinflamatorios esteroideos, no esteroideos e inmunosupresores hasta 6 semanas. RESULTADOS: Se observaron numerosas alteraciones del segmento anterior secundarias a las uveítis padecidas (posquirúrgicas, inespecíficas, ciclítis heterocrómica de Fuchs, postraumáticas, síndrome de Reiter, por toxoplasmosis y otras coroiditis infecciosas y por artritis reumatoide juvenil. No hubo recurrencia posquirúrgica de la uveítis en 9 ojos (24,3 %. Las complicaciones estuvieron relacionadas con la uveítis, la cirugía, la actividad inflamatoria, y la reacción del epitelio capsular. La opacidad capsular posterior apareció en 11 pacientes (29,7 % asociada a edad joven. La evolución individual se consideró satisfactoria en 30 (81,1 % pacientes con mejoría de la visión hasta 0,8-1,0 en 28 (75,6 % y 0,5-0,6 en 2 (5,4 %. CONCLUSIONES: La facoemulsificación con implante de lente intarocular es de gran utilidad en las cataratas posuveítis al condicionar poca agresión quirúrgica, ser controlable la inflamación y proporcionar buenos resultados visuales además del reordenamiento anatomofisiológico del segmento anterior.OBJECTIVE: To assess the results of phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in cataracts caused by uveitis. METHODS: Thirty seven eyes with no inflammation for 6 months, visual acuity below 0.6 and average age of 47 years were studied. Other diseases affecting the vision were excluded. The preoperative

  16. La escultura en madera pol??cromada: Degradaciones causadas por la inadecuada ejecuci??n de la t??cnica, defectos e incompatibilidad de materiales

    OpenAIRE

    Berm??dez S??nchez, Carmen

    2001-01-01

    Estudio de las degradaciones causadas en la escultura en madera policromada debidas a defectos de materiales, mala ejecuci??n t??cnica e incompatibilidad de materiales. Estudio pormenorizado dependiendo del soporte, los estratos pol??cromos y el estrato superficial o barniz final. En el apartado del soporte se analizan las principales maderas utilizadas; anatomia, estructura y composici??n de la madera; propiedades y defectos; t??cnicas y materiales del soporte; elecci??n del soporte; aplicac...

  17. Frecuencia de infecciones respiratorias inferiores causadas por el virus sincitial respiratorio, en niños menores de dos años, hospitalizados en el servicio de pediatría del Hospital Vicente Corral Moscoso, Cuenca, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Célleri Gomescoello, Alba Milena; Jerez Cárdenas, Doris Patricia; Ortíz Hinojosa, María Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    Con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia de infecciones respiratorias agudas bajas (IRABs) causadas por el virus sincitial respiratorio (VSR), en niños menores de dos años, hospitalizados en el servicio de pediatría del hospital Vicente Corral Moscoso. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo, realizado en 163 niños/as menores de 2 años de edad, con infección respiratoria aguda baja. Se estudió al universo, es decir al total de la población seleccionada durante el período de 6 meses. Se e...

  18. Perdas econômicas pela condenação em matadouro frigorífico de fígados de bovino por fibrose causada por ingestão de Braquiaria spp

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    Tatiane C. Faccin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A ingestão crônica de braquiária induz lesões hepáticas em bovinos caracterizadas por fibrose, atrofia do lobo esquerdo, hipertrofia compensatória do lobo direito e proliferação de ductos biliares. Tipicamente, essas lesões são associadas com agregados de macrófagos espumosos no parênquima hepático. Nesse trabalho foram estudados fígados com essas lesões num abatedouro frigorífico do Brasil Central e as perdas econômicas causadas pela condenação de tais fígados afetados foram estimadas. Durante o período estudado, 488.476 bovinos foram abatidos nesse matadouro frigorífico, dos quais 5.295 fígados foram condenados devido à fibrose, e 192 com lesão hepática foram estudados. Cálculos econômicos permitiram inferir que essas condenações representaram uma perda de R$ 108.817,60. Conclui-se que a condenação de fígados em razão de fibrose induzida pela ingestão de braquiária causa uma perda significativa para a indústria de carne e produtos bovinos devido à condenação de 23,6 toneladas de fígado em um ano em apenas um frigorífico, com perdas estimadas acima de R$ 100.000,00.

  19. Estudio retrospectivo de la prevalencia de Fasciola hepática y análisis de pérdidas causadas por decomisos de hígados a nivel de centro de faenamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Buestán Sarmiento, Priscila Estefanía

    2017-01-01

    Este estudio determinó la prevalencia de Distomatosis hepática en bovinos y porcinos causada por el parásito trematodo Fasciola hepática, y estableció las pérdidas económicas ocasionadas por decomisos de hígados post faenamiento; mediante un análisis económico de pérdidas y un estudio retrospectivo de los años 2015 y 2016 a través de la información de los Registros Mensuales de Inspección Veterinaria que maneja el Centro de faenamiento. This study determined the prevalence of hepatic disto...

  20. Eficácia do moxalactam no tratamento de meningites purulentas causadas por Haemophilus infuenzae e Neisseria meningitidis Efficacy of moxalactam in the treatment of purulent meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis

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    Hagamenon R. da Silva

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a eficácia do moxalactam no tratamento de meningites em crianças, causadas por H. influenzae (27 casos e N.meningitidis (6 casos. Dos 33 doentes tratados na dose de 100mg/Kg de peso (dose de ataque e 50mg de 12/12 horas por via venosa, 32 curaram-se. A tolerância ao produto foi muito boa, havendo alterações transitórias de transaminases e fosfatase alcalina; em um caso, houve hematoma posapendectomia, provavelmente relacionado ao uso deste antibiotico. Os níveis séricos e liquóricos do produto foram elevados; as concentrações no liquor excederam de muito a concentração bactericida mínima dos germes infectantes. O moxalactam se mostrou seguro e eficaz como terapia primária da meningite causada por H. influenzae e N.meningitidis em crianças.The clinical efficacy and safety of Moxalactam in purulent bacterial meningitis in children caused by H. influenzae (27 patients and N. meningitidis (6 patients was tested in a randon uncontrolled study. Clinical response was considered excelent, with cure of 32 of 33 patients. High levels of Moxalactam were achieved in the blood and cerebro-spinal fluid, with concentrations largely exceeding the minimum bacterial concentration (MIC for the infecting organisms. Tolerance was considered good, with only transient increases of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase in some patients; also, one patient developed a wound hematoma possibly related to Moxalactam therapy.

  1. Interação das lesões causadas pela sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis na capacidade de infestação dos frutos por lagartas de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

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    Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto e Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Em monitoramentos de pragas realizados na cultura da macieira foram observadas maiores infestações da mariposa oriental (Grapholita molesta em frutos provenientes de pomares com maior incidência de lesões causadas pela sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis. Para validar esta observação, conduziu-se um experimento em laboratório com o objetivo de verificar a influência de lesões da sarna da macieira em frutos, na capacidade de infestação por G. molesta. Foram utilizados frutos (n=200 de macieira da variedade Gala com sintomas da sarna (n=100 e frutos sadios (n=100. Uma lagarta recém-eclodida foi inoculada em cada fruto e a avaliação foi realizada 10 dias após a infestação, determinando-se o número de lagartas que conseguiram penetrar nos frutos. Houve diferença significativa na capacidade de penetração das lagartas associado a presença de lesões da sarna (87% quando comparado com frutos sadios (61%. Conclui-se que frutos de maçã da cv. Gala atacados por Venturia inaequalis são mais infestados por lagartas de primeiro ínstar de Grapholita molesta.

  2. Caracterización de la resistencia a la antracnosis causada por Glomerella cingulata y productividad de cinco genotipos de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth.

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    Juan Manuel López-Vásquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En la vereda Betania, municipio de Guática, Risaralda (Colombia a 2160 m.s.n.m., se evaluaron cinco materiales promisorios de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth. por su resistencia a la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides y por su alta productividad, los cuales fueron previamente seleccionados por el grupo de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Biotecnología de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Diez meses después del establecimiento las plantas fueron inoculadas con diferentes cepas del hongo a una concentración de 1.2 x 10(6 conidios/ml de agua. Las variables evaluadas fueron incidencia (presencia o ausencia de lesiones en tallo, severidad (según escala de 1 a 9 y rendimiento (kg/planta. Los genotipos se clasificaron en tres grupos según su resistencia al patógeno y por su rendimiento: el primero, lo conformaron UTP-8 y UTP-7, los cuales produjeron 21 y 17.6 t/ha, respectivamente; el segundo grupo estuvo formado por el genotipo UTP-1 el cual produjo 14.3 t/ha, y el tercero por UTP-2 y UTP-4 con 9.8 y 7.9 t/ha, respectivamente.

  3. Alteraciones en la racionalidad económica causadas por el subsidio “familias en acción” en San Juan de Pasto, Colombia

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    Vanessa Katherine Bolaños Guerrero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se estudian algunas alteraciones generadas por el Programa “Familias en Acción” en la racionalidad económica de beneficiarios de este subsidio en la ciudad de San Juan de Pasto, Nariño, Colombia. Se parte de los postulados de la Economía del Comportamiento y de la metodología propuesta por la Economía Experimental. Mediante una plataforma de simulación, en el marco de un diseño cuasi-experimental, se analiza el comportamiento de los sujetos frente al consumo de bienes suntuarios, decisiones de ahorro e inversión y la búsqueda de un trabajo remunerado. Los hallazgos señalan que la recepción del subsidio otorgado por el programa no genera alteraciones significativas en las decisiones de ahorro, inversión y búsqueda de un empleo remunerado de los beneficiarios, sin embargo, se presenta un aumento en el consumo de bienes suntuarios, esta variación es mayor en la población que ha recibido el subsidio durante un período prolongado de tiempo, por lo cual podría afirmarse que un programa de transferencias condicionadas que se perpetúa durante mucho tiempo, genera hábitos de comportamiento en los beneficiarios contrarios a los esperados por la política.

  4. Análisis de las fallas en transformadores causadas por la operación del pararrayos ante sobretensiones externas

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    Francisco Román Campos

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los problemas más graves que afronta el Sector Eléctrico Colombiano, es el alto índice de fallas de transformadores de distribución, que para el caso de la reglón central del país, servida por la Empresa de Energía Eléctrica de Bogotá -EEB-, significó cerca de 983 millones de pesos en el año 1987. De los análisis de fallas realizadas por la EEB, se desprende que un alto porcentaje de las mismas pueden deberse a Descargas Eléctricas Atmosféricas. El presente articulo tiene por objeto analizar este tipo de fallas y explicar mediante el concepto de los llamados "Lazos Inductivos" -que tienen su aplicación en los estudios de protección contra rayos directos en pararrayos tipo Franklin-; lo que unido a la alta resistividad del terreno, los drásticos cambios de Impedancia en el sitio de Instalación del pararrayos, las variaciones rápidas de la corriente asociadas a los rayos negativos y las tensiones Inducidas por descargas Indirectas, producen sobretensiones hasta ahora no consideradas y de magnitudes insospechadas en los transformadores de distribución. Como conclusión a este trabajo se plantea un cambio en la filosofía de Instalación de los transformadores de distribución, lo que respaldado por un estudio profundo de los modelos propuestos, puede conducir a una modificación de las normas nacionales de instalación del conjunto transformador-pararrayos, con la consecuente reducción de los costos por quema de los mismos, en cifras anuales que pueden ser del orden de 5 millones de dólares en todo el territorio colombiano.

  5. OCCURRENCE OF LEAF SPOTS CAUSED BY FUNGI AND A BACTERIUM ON COTTON CULTIVARS OCORRÊNCIA DE MANCHAS FOLIARES CAUSADAS POR FUNGOS E BACTÉRIA EM CULTIVARES DE ALGODOEIRO

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    Miguel Ferreira Soria

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The cotton leaf spot diseases caused by fungi and bacteria are a growing problem, leading to an increasing use of fungicides. During the 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 growing seasons, field experiments were carried out in a randomized block design, with five replications, aiming to evaluate the behavior of the cotton cultivars Ita-90, CD-401, CD-402, CD-403, CD-404, Fibermax 986, DeltaOpal, and Facual, as related to leaf spot diseases caused by Stemphylium spp., Alternaria spp., Ramularia areola, and the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum. The cotton cultivars Ita-90 and Facual were the less susceptible to the Stemphylium/Alternaria complex and R. areola. However, Ita-90 was more susceptible to X. axonopodis pv. Malvacearum. The cultivars with the least incidence of X. axonopodis were CD-403, Fibermax 986, and DeltaOpal. The cotton cultivar Facual presented the lowest yield, while the remaining cultivars showed similar yields.

    KEY-WORDS: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Malvacearum; Stemphylium spp; Alternaria spp; Ramularia areola.

    As manchas foliares causadas por fungos e bactérias no algodoeiro são um problema cada vez mais grave, levando à utilização, cada vez maior, de fungicidas para controlá-las. Nas safras de 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, foram realizados experimentos m campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco epetições, objetivando avaliar o comportamento das

  6. Fitotoxicidade causada por herbicidas na fase inicial de desenvolvimento da cultura do sorgo Phytotoxicity caused by herbicides to sorghum crop at early stages of development

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    P.C. Magalhães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de herbicidas em pós-emergência inicial ou tardia em jato dirigido à cultura de sorgo cresceu muito com o aumento da área plantada da cultura. No entanto, estes herbicidas podem causar injúrias às plantas de sorgo, quando não são totalmente seletivos. Como esses herbicidas são basicamente bloqueadores de processos metabólicos, surge a dúvida sobre quais serão os efeitos dessas injúrias na produção final de grãos de sorgo. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da toxicidade à cultura causada pela aplicação de herbicidas na fase inicial e em pós-emergência tardia em jato dirigido e o seu efeito na produção de grãos. Este estudo foi conduzido durante os anos agrícolas 1994/95 e 1995/96, utilizando-se o híbrido BR 700, no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação da combinação dos seguintes herbicidas em diferentes doses: cyanazine + simazine com e sem óleo mineral, aplicados nos estádios de crescimentos de 4 e 6 folhas, e paraquat + espalhante adesivo e ametryn + óleo mineral , aplicados em jato dirigido no estádio de 12 folhas. Foram incluídas também testemunhas com e sem capina, além da retirada mecânica das folhas do 1º, 2º e 3º pares de folhas. Foram avaliados área foliar, peso da matéria seca da parte aérea, teor de clorofila nas folhas, altura da planta, diâmetro do colmo, estande, peso de 1.000 grãos, peso de panículas e produção de grãos. A aplicação de cyanazine + simazine + óleo mineral, no estádio de 4 folhas, reduziu drasticamente o estande das plantas de sorgo, nos dois períodos avaliados. O desenvolvimento das plantas, medido pela área foliar e pelo diâmetro do caule, foi pouco afetado, sendo os piores desempenhos verificados na testemunha sem capina e com a aplicação da mistura cyanazine + simazine. A redução no estande afetou diretamente a produção de pan

  7. Desigualdades sociais nas limitações causadas por doenças crônicas e deficiências no Brasil: Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde – 2013

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    Patricia de Moraes Mello Boccolini

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a associação entre desigualdades sociais e autorrelato de limitações para a realização de atividades diárias, causadas por doenças crônicas ou deficiências. Inquérito nacional (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 2013 que avaliou amostra de brasileiros com 18+ anos. O desfecho foi o indivíduo relatar ter suas atividades habituais limitadas moderadamente ou intensamente ou muito intensamente (Limit devido a uma ou mais doenças crônicas, ou ainda por deficiência mental, física, auditiva ou motora. A exposição principal foi a classe econômica, classificada em cinco categorias, indo de A (mais rica até E (mais pobre. Foi estimado um modelo de regressão logística ajustado por classe econômica e variáveis de confundimento, considerando o desenho complexo da amostra e alfa = 5%. 15,5% dos indivíduos relataram ter Limit. Comparando as classes sociais, 19,5%, 21,9%, 16,1%, 11,1%, e 7,7% indivíduos pertencentes à classe E, D, C, B e A relataram o desfecho. O modelo ajustado evidenciou maior chance dos indivíduos da classe D+E, e D, relatarem Limit do que indivíduos da classe A+B (referência. Políticas públicas de assistência à saúde e assistência social para pessoas com deficiências devem focar nas classes sociais E e D.

  8. Anemia hemolítica causada por Indigofera suffruticosa (Leg. Papilionoideae em bovinos Hemolytic anemia caused by Indigofera suffruticosa (Leg. Papilionoideae in cattle

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    José Diomedes Barbosa Neto

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available As partes aéreas de Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. (família Leg. Papilionoideae, planta incriminada pelos criadores de diversas áreas do Nordeste por doença caracterizada por hemoglobinúria em bovinos, foram administradas por via oral a seis bovinos, em doses diárias repetidas de 10 a 40 g/kg, Todos os animais experimentais apresentaram hemoglobinúria, porém passageira, apesar continuidade da administração da planta. Dois desses bovinos não apresentaram manifestações adicionais, um terceiro animal evidenciou manifestações leves, e os três outros, sintomas adicionais de intensidade moderada: apatia, mucosas visíveis de coloração esbranquiçada, pêlos arrepiados, anorexia, diminuição da freqüência e intensidade dos movimentos ruminais, taquicardia, pulso venoso positivo e dispnéia. Antes da crise hemolítica a urina apresentava coloração verde azulada. Nenhum animal experimental morreu, porém um foi sacrificado durante a fase hemoglobinúrica. À necropsia observaram-se anemia, bexiga contendo urina cor de vinho tinto, rins aumentados de volume com coloração marrom-escura, fígado, na superfície e ao corte, de coloração azulada com lobulação perceptível. As principais alterações histológicas foram verificadas no fígado, sob forma de necrose coagulativa e tumefação e/ou microvacuolização citoplasmática dos hepatócitos, e no rim representadas por acentuada nefrose, associada a grande quantidade de filtrado e/ou hemoglobina nos espaços de Bowman dentro de túbulos e do citoplasma das células epiteliais.The aereal parts of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. (family Leg. Papilionoideae were force-fed fresh to 6 bovines in daily doses of 10 to 40 g/kg. Cattle breeders of various parts of the Northeast of Brazil accuse this plant as the cause of a non-fatal disease characterized by hemoglobinuria. The disease occurs only in years when the plant proliferates well invading the native pastures. All experimental

  9. Evaluación de la mutagenicidad causada por metales pesados presentes en agua del río Cauca en la ciudad de Cali, Colombia

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    Aura H. Vivas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la mutagenicidad del agua del río Cauca debida a la presencia de metales pesados en la zona urbana de la Ciudad de Santiago de Cali, a partir de muestras tomadas en la temporada seca y lluviosa en el año 2013. Los metales se extrajeron pasando el agua por la resina Amberlite XAD-16. Las concentraciones de los metales pesados se midieron por absorción atómica y la mutagenicidad se evaluó por medio del test de Ames, con las cepas TA98 y TA100 de Salmonella typhimurium con y sin activador enzimático S9. Los resultados mostraron índices de mutagenicidad (IM positivos (IM > 2,0 para muestras colectadas en temporada lluviosa en tres de los cinco puntos evaluados: puente El Hormiguero (IM = 3,6, desembocadura del Canal Colector Sur (IM = 2,9 y desembocadura del río Cali (IM = 2,7, todos con la cepa TA98 sin S9. Estos sitios presentaron a su vez las mayores concentraciones totales de metales pesados en sus extractos. El análisis de la variación espacio-temporal del índice mutagénico se realizó haciendo un análisis de varianza multifactorial del IM. Los resultados encontrados indican que la época de muestreo contribuye significativamente a la variabilidad del IM, mientras que los puntos de muestreo no.

  10. Cerebral ischemia caused by Streptococcus bovis aortic endocarditis: case report Isquemia cerebral causada por endocardite aórtica pelo Streptococcus bovis: relato de caso

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    Leopoldo Santos-Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemic processes associated with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis are rare; only 2 cases having been reported. Here we report a case of a 50-year-old man with S. bovis endocarditis who presented signs of frontal, parietal and occipital lobe cerebral ischemia. This is the first case reported in which the presence of hemianopsia preceded the endocarditis diagnosis. Initially, the clinical manifestations suggested a systemic vasculitis. Later, vegetating lesions were identified in the aortic valve and S. bovis grew in blood cultures. Antibiotic use and aortic valve replacement eliminated the infection and ceased thromboembolic events. A videocolonoscopy examination revealed no mucosal lesions as a portal of entry in this case, although such lesions have been encountered in up to 70% of reported cases of S. bovis endocarditis.A associação de isquemia cerebral e endocardite por Streptococcus bovis é um evento raro, tendo sido publicados apenas 2 casos anteriormente. Nós relatamos o caso de um homem de 50 anos com endocardite por S. bovis que apresentou sinais isquêmicos nos lobos frontal, parietal e occipital. Este é o primeiro caso em que a hemianopsia precedeu o diagnóstico de endocardite. Inicialmente, o quadro foi confundido com vasculite. Posteriormente, foi confirmada a presença de vegetações na válvula aórtica e a hemocultura identificou S. bovis. Os eventos tromboembólicos foram controlados com o uso de antibióticos e a troca da válvula aórtica. Estudo videocolonoscópico não identificou nenhuma lesão, apesar de lesões colônicas serem descritas em até 70% dos casos de indivíduos com endocardite por S. bovis.

  11. Restrições causadas pela incontinência urinária à vida da mulher Restricciones ocasionadas por la incontinencia urinaria en la vida de la mujer Urinary incontinence restrictions in women's life

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    Maria Helena Baena de Moraes Lopes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as restrições causadas pela incontinência urinária (IU à vida da mulher, considerando-se o tipo de incontinência, e verificar como manejam este problema. Trata-se de uma análise secundária de dados obtidos em estudo anterior, coletados por meio de entrevista com perguntas abertas e fechadas. A amostra foi composta por 164 mulheres com queixa de IU, internadas em clínicas de ginecologia e urologia de dois hospitais-escola da cidade de Campinas, SP. Apresentavam idade entre 25 e 85 anos e 104 (64% referiram uma ou mais restrições. Citaram alterações nas atividades sexuais (40,9%, sociais (33,5%, domésticas (18,9% e ocupacionais (15,2%. A incontinência urinária mista e a de urgência forem as que mais afetavam a vida das mulheres. A estratégia mais utilizada para minimizar a IU foi o uso de forro e/ou absorvente higiênico. Concluiu-se que a IU tem implicações negativas no cotidiano dessas mulheres.En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo identificar las restricciones causadas por la incontinencia urinaria (IU en la vida de la mujer, considerándose el tipo de incontinencia, y verificar cómo manejan este problema. Se trata de un análisis secundario de datos obtenidos en un estudio anterior, recolectados por medio de entrevista con preguntas abiertas y cerradas. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 164 mujeres con queja de IU, internadas en clínicas de ginecología y urología de dos hospitales docentes de la ciudad de Campinas, SP. Las mujeres tenían entre 25 y 85 años de edad, habiendo relatado 104 (64% de ellas una o más restricciones. Citaron alteraciones en las actividades sexuales (40,9%, sociales (33,5%, domésticas (18,9% y ocupacionales (15,2%. La incontinencia urinaria mixta y la de urgencia fueron las que más afectaban la vida de las mujeres. La estrategia más utilizada para minimizar la IU fue el uso de paños y/o toallas higiénicas. Se concluyó que la IU tiene implicancias

  12. Aspectos epidemiológicos de pacientes com lesões ungueais e cutâneas causadas por Scytalidium spp Epidemiological aspects of patients with ungual and cutaneous lesions caused by Scytalidium spp

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    Ana Paula Martins Xavier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As dermatomicoses causadas por fungos filamentosos não dermatófitos são infecções raras, exceto as onicomicoses, cuja prevalência vem crescendo nos últimos anos. Dentre esses agentes etiológicos destacam-se o Scytalidium dimidiatum e o S. hyalinum, fungos emergentes responsáveis por micoses em unhas e pele. OBJETIVO: Investigar as características epidemiológicas das onicomicoses e micoses de outras localizações causadas pelos fungos do gênero Scytalidium, utilizando-se como parâmetros sexo, idade e localizações das lesões. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 81 amostras com cultura positiva para o gênero em estudo, oriundas de 74 pacientes encaminhados ao Laboratório de Investigação em Dermatologia (ID situado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (RJ, no período de 1997 a 2006. As amostras foram submetidas a confirmação diagnóstica por exame direto e cultura. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de onicomicoses por Scytalidium spp. foi de 0,87%, entre as idades de 41 e 60 anos (48,64%. Em relação à localização das lesões, os pés foram mais acometidos (91,36%, com predomínio do hálux esquerdo. No exame direto, as estruturas mais encontradas foram hifas hialinas; na cultura, a espécie S. dimidiatum foi a mais frequente. CONCLUSÃO: As onicomicoses por Scytalidium spp. são raras e o S. dimidiatum foi a espécie mais isolada neste laboratório no período em estudo.BACKGROUND: Dermatomycoses caused by non-dermatophyte filamentous fungi are rare infections, except for onychomycosis, whose prevalence has increased over the past few years. Among these etiologic agents, we highlight Scytalidium dimidiatum and S. hyalinum, emergent fungi that cause mycoses that affect the nails and skin. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of onychomycosis and other mycoses caused by the fungi Scytalidium spp, using sex, age and site of infection as parameters. METHODS: Eighty-one samples were evaluated showing positive culture for Scytalidium

  13. Reaction of peach tree genotypes to bacterial leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. prunis Reação de genótipos de pessegueiro a mancha foliar causada por Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni

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    José Gilberto Sousa Medeiros

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial leaf spot (BLS, caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, is one of the most important diseases in Brazilian peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] orchards and all over the world. The main objective of this study was to evaluate for BLS sensitivity of peach genotypes. Evaluations of thirty genotypes were carried out during the onset of the disease, for incidence, severity and defoliation, in field conditions. Pearson's correlations between the percentage of defoliation and leaf severity rating were performed. Genotypes 'Conserva 985', 'Conserva 871', 'Conserva 1129', and 'Tropic Snow', as resistance sources, and 'Conserva 1153', 'Bonão', 'Conserva 1125', and 'Atenas', as susceptible to BLS, were submitted to detached-leaf bioassay and greenhouse evaluation. The peach genotypes showed different reactions to the BLS, and none was immune to the pathogen. 'Conserva 985' and 'Conserva 1129' confirmed resistance responsiveness while 'Conserva 1153', 'Conserva 1125' and 'Atenas' were found susceptible for the detached-leaf bioassay.A bacteriose foliar causada por Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni é uma das mais importantes doenças do pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] no Brasil e no mundo. Avaliou-se a sensibilidade de genótipos de pessegueiro a X. arboricola pv. pruni. Trinta genótipos foram avaliados em campo, quanto à incidência, severidade e desfolha causada pela bactéria. Calculou-se a correlação entre desfolha e severidade da doença. A partir dos resultados obtidos em campo, foram selecionados quatro genótipos resistentes ('Conserva 985', 'Conserva 871', 'Conserva 1129' e 'Tropic Snow' e quatro suscetíveis ('Conserva 1153', 'Bonão', 'Conserva 1125' e 'Atenas' para serem novamente avaliados pelo bioensáio com folhas destacadas e em casa de vegetação. Os genótipos diferiram quanto a reação ao patógeno, não sendo observada imunidade. Confirmou-se a resistência para 'Conserva 985' e 'Conserva 1129' e a

  14. El Blindaje Discursivo de las Muertes Causadas por el Amianto em Brasil: Criminología Crítica y Daño Social

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    Marília de Nardin Budó

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La limitación del sistema de control penal a la persecución de los crímenes callejeros exige una definición autónoma del objeto de la Criminología, alcanzando los daños sociales. El objetivo del trabajo es identificar el tratamiento del caso del amianto en Brasil y en el mundo, en lo que afecta al conflicto discursivo que oculta las incontables muertes que causa. Analiza, a través del método dialéctico, la apropiación del discurso médico por el Legislativo y por el Judiciario. Del contrapunto de las interpretaciones percibe-se la tentativa de un blindaje, que ultrapasa la ciencia para la conservación de los intereses del capital.

  15. Thermolysed and active yeast to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin Formas termolisada e viva de leveduras na redução de toxicidade causada por aflatoxinas

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    Antonio Sampaio Baptista

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are hepatotoxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on a number of agricultural commodities. This research was carried out to evaluate the ability of thermolysed and active Saccharomyces cerevisiae to attenuate liver damage caused by aflatoxin. Diets were prepared containing 0 aflatoxin; 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin; 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin plus 1% of dehydrated active yeast, and 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin plus 1% of thermolysed yeast. A bioassay with Wistar rats was conducted for 28 days, and body organs were weighted and analyses of the liver tissue of the animals were performed. The relative weight of heart, kidneys and liver from animals submitted to the different treatments did not show any difference, and liver tissue of animals feeding on the aflatoxin-free diet was adopted as a toxicity-free pattern. Hepatic tissue of animals feeding on diets containing 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin or the diet supplemented with 1% thermolysed yeast showed clear signs of toxicity and damage. Hepatic tissue of animals feeding on the diet containing 1% of dehydrated active yeast showed less toxicity signs and damage than those receiving the diet containing 400 mug kg-1 aflatoxin. Active, dehydrated yeast had the ability to reduce toxic effects caused by aflatoxin, but thermolysed yeast was not able to alleviate the effects of aflatoxin toxicity.As aflatoxinas são metabólitos hepatotóxicos produzidos por algumas linhagens de Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus e, eventualmente, por A. nomius sobre grande número de produtos agrícolas. Esta pesquisa foi conduzida para avaliar a capacidade de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nas formas termolisada e desidratada viva, em reduzir os danos causados por aflatoxinas. Para tal, foi preparada uma dieta básica e desta se obtiveram quatro formulações: uma como controle; as demais contaminadas com aflatoxinas na concentração de 400 mig kg-1, sendo duas com posterior adição de 1% de leveduras, uma

  16. Obstrução das vias aéreas com risco para a vida, causada por edema de via aérea superior e inchaço cervical significativo depois do trabalho de parto/parto

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    Junko Ushiroda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available EXPERIÊNCIA E OBJETIVOS: Em geral, alterações nas vias aéreas ocorrem em grávidas normais; no entanto, essas alterações podem gerar situações críticas em populações específicas. OBJETIVOS: Esse artigo apresenta o caso de uma paciente que entrou em choque por causa de sangramento atônico em seguida a parto vaginal de natimorto. RELATO DE CASO: Mulher com 32 anos com sangramento atônico em seguida a parto vaginal de natimorto foi transferida para nosso hospital. A paciente manifestou choque e seu estado respiratório estava em progressiva deterioração. Ficou evidenciada obstrução das vias aéreas causada por inchaço cervical e edema faringolaríngeo. Tentamos intubação traqueal utilizando laringoscopia direta e indireta. No entanto, não foi possível inserir qualquer dos dispositivos de laringoscopia tentados. Depois de várias tentativas com TrachlightTM, finalmente obtivemos sucesso com a intubação. Depois da histerectomia, a paciente foi internada na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI, onde ficou em tratamento durante cinco dias. Ao receber alta da UTI, tinha escore de Mallampati I-II. Durante sua estadia na UTI, seu peso diminuiu de 60 kg para 51 kg. CONCLUSÕES: É provável que episódios simultâneos de trabalho de parto/parto e de ressuscitação com fluidos pioraram suficientemente o edema de via aérea e o inchaço cervical a ponto de causar obstrução aguda das vias aéreas e dificuldade na laringoscopia.

  17. Tratamento das ulcerações traumáticas bucais causadas por aparelhos ortodônticos Treatment of the mouth traumatic ulcers caused by orthodontic appliances

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    Antonio Adilson Soares de Lima

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As lesões de aspecto ulcerado na mucosa bucal são um achado comum na clínica odontológica e geralmente são ocasionados por trauma mecânico devido a próteses mal adaptadas, aparelhos ortodônticos e dentes com coroas ou restaurações fraturadas. Contudo, os indivíduos nos quais a lesão persiste por mais de três semanas deverão ser submetidos à biopsia ou outros exames para excluir algumas lesões de caráter neoplásico ou outras condições, tais como as infecções crônicas e as doenças de caráter imunológico. Durante o tratamento ortodôntico, a dor e o desconforto da mucosa bucal podem acontecer como resultado do traumatismo mecânico dos aparelhos, ocasionado pela fricção aumentada entre o tecido da mucosa e a superfície dos braquetes. Atualmente, o ortodontista possui poucos recursos para prevenir ou aliviar esta irritação na mucosa. O objetivo deste artigo é orientar o ortodontista para o manejo mais adequado destas lesões visando o seu diagnóstico correto, o alívio dos sintomas que estas costumam provocar e o tratamento mais adequado para cada tipo de caso.Mouth ulcers are one of the most commom complaints in the dental clinic. They are, in general, caused for mechanic traumatism induced by non-fitted dentures, orthodontic appliances and fracturated crowns and fillings. Nevertheless, those lesions that have persisted for more than three weeks should be submitted to biopsy or other exams to exclude neoplasic, infectious or immunologic lesions. During the orthodontic treatment, pain and soreness of the oral mucosa can occur as the result of mechanic traumatism caused by increased friction between soft tissues and brackets. Nowadays, the professional owns few resources to prevention or relieve this irritation on the oral mucosa. The aim of this article is to guide the orthodontist to realize the correct diagnoses of the mouth ulcers, the relieve the symptoms and the exact treatment for each type of case.

  18. Efecto del acibenzolar-s-metil sobre el desarrollo de la virosis causada por potyvirus en tomate de árbol

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    Mejía A. Diana Marcela

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El principal limitante del cultivo de tomate de árbol en Colombia es el ataque de virus, el cual reduce la producción y calidad de la fruta. En condiciones de invernadero se evaluó el efecto del inductor de resistencia Acibenzolar-S-metil- ASM (Boost® sobre la incidencia y severidad de la virosis en plantas inoculadas con extracto de hojas naturalmente infectadas con virus, mediante aplicación foliar de 0,08% de producto comercial por planta cada 20 días. La incidencia de la virosis se redujo en 50% cuando el inductor se aplicó antes de la inoculación con el virus, seguido de dos aplicaciones adicionales de ASM, comparado con 100% de incidencia en las plantas inoculadas solo con el extracto de plantas infectadas con el virus, tendencia encontrada también en la curva de desarrollo de la enfermedad. Se observó un retraso de 7 días en la aparición de síntomas cuando se aplicó el inductor antes de la inoculación así como se observó una reducción significativa en el grado de severidad de la enfermedad. El potyvirus fue detectado mediante la prueba ELISA; sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas en su concentración entre los diferentes tratamientos.

  19. Colitis eosinofílica en niños causada por alergia a la proteína de leche de vaca

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    Johan Sebastián Lopera Valle

    Full Text Available La proteína de leche de vaca es considerada el principal alergeno alimentario en los lactantes. La colitis eosinofílica por alergia a esta proteína es de carácter benigno, se presenta también en niños con lactancia materna exclusiva, y una cantidad importante de pacientes no son diagnosticados o permanecen sin ser reportados. La falta de búsqueda y sospecha de esta condición contribuye a una gran morbilidad y consumo de recursos de salud en el grupo de edad afectado. A continuación se realiza el reporte de dos casos y revisión de la literatura, se da a conocer la presentación de esta entidad en nuestro medio, y se insiste en la necesidad constante de considerar su diagnóstico, lo cual permitirá realizar una mayor búsqueda activa e impactar a largo plazo su subdiagnóstico.

  20. Anemia hemolítica causada por Ditaxis desertorum (Euphorbiaceae em bovinos Hemolytic anemia caused by Ditaxis desertorum (Euphorbiaceae in cattle

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    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Ditaxis desertorum Pax et K. Hoffm., planta herbácea da família Euphorbiaceae, causou experimentalmente em bovinos um quadro caracterizado por hemoglobinúria em virtude de sua ação hemolítica, quando administrada por via oral em doses diárias de 1,0 a 2,5 g/kg (planta fresca, a partir do 4° ao 8° dia do experimento. Após um período de 3 a 5 dias em que os animais tiveram hemoglobinúria e anemia acentuadas, apesar de continuarem a receber a planta (durante um total de 12 a 14 dias, em três dos quatro animais esses sintomas desapareceram. Verificou-se nesses casos uma rápida recuperação dos valores hemáticos logo que cessou a hemoglobinúria. O quarto bovino, que recebeu 2,5 g/kg/dia durante 5 dias, morreu no 8° dia, tendo apresentado durante os últimos 4 dias de vida hemoglobinúria e anemia acentuadas. À necropsia e nos exames histopatológicos deste animal foram verificadas nefrose hemoglobinúrica e distrofia hepática com necrose centrolobular do parênquima. Dose de 7,7 g/kg única ou quantidades de 2,5 e 3 g/kg/dia administradas durante 2 dias seguidos, causaram em três outros bovinos quadro clínico de cólica, com morte em questão de horas, verificando-se à necropsia acentuado edema da parede do rúmen e do retículo. Pelos históricos obtidos somente ocorre, sob condições naturais, a intoxicação caracterizada pelo quadro da anemia hemolítica, indicando que possivelmente a ingestão de D. desertorum em quantidades necessárias para causar o quadro com lesões dos proventrículos ser, apesar de sua boa palatabilidade, autolimitada pelo efeito cáustico da planta.Ditaxis desertorum Pax et K. Hoffm., a herbaceous plant of the Euphorbiaceae family, caused hemoglobinuria due to its hemolytic properties, when force-fed fresh to bovines in daily doses of 1.0 to 2.5 g/kg; the hemoglobinuria appeared from the 4th to 8th day of the experiment. After a period of 3 to 5 days of severe hemoglobinuria and anemia, these

  1. Espondilodiscite cervical espontânea causada por Salmonella typhi em paciente imunocompetente Immunocompetent patient with spontaneous cervical spondylodiscitis caused by Salmonella typhi

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    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso de espondilodiscite cervical espontânea por Salmonella typhi. Trata-se de um paciente de 52 anos, hígido previamente, que procurou o serviço de neurocirurgia com queixa de dor na coluna cervical e região escapular. A investigação radiológica com cintilografia óssea e ressonância magnética sugeriram processo inflamatório dos corpos vertebrais de C5-C6 e do disco vertebral interposto. Houve crescimento da Salmonella typhi na hemocultura e no material obtido pela biópsia com agulha de C5 e aumento dos títulos séricos para Salmonella typhi. O tratamento instituído foi imobilização externa com halo-colete e antibioticoterapia com ciprofloxacina. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos dessa entidade de incidência incomun, principalmente pelo fato de acometer paciente imunocompetente e se localizar na região cervical da coluna vertebral.We report a case of spontaneous cervical spondylodiscitis caused by Salmonella typhi. A 52-year-old man presented in the neurosurgical service with complaints of pain in the cervical and scapular region. Cervical inflammatory disease was suggested by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis of Salmonella typhi spondylodiscitis was established by blood culture and culture of needle biopsy specimen taken from the C5 vertebra. The agglutinin titers for Salmonella were elevated. Intravenous ciprofloxacin therapy and external immobilization with a halo vest were instituted. A review of literature was performed evaluating the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this unusual pathology.

  2. Mortality of the outbreak defoliator Ormiscodes amphimone (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae caused by natural enemies in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina Mortalidad del defoliador epidémico Ormiscodes amphimone (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae causada por enemigos naturales en el noroeste de la Patagonia Argentina

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    JUAN PARITSIS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of the defoliator moth Ormiscodes amphimone are occurring more frequently in numerous Nothofagus forests of Patagonia. However, little is known about the life history of this species including its natural enemies as mortality agents. In this work we quantified mortality by parasitoids and generalist predators at the egg, larval and pupal life stages of O. amphimone in a Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. & Endl. Krasser forest in northwestern Patagonia. Parasitism of eggs was relatively low (ca. 11 %, and we did not record significant larval predation by insectivorous birds. However, we recorded elevated mortality caused by larval parasitoids (ca. 50 % in third instar larvae and pupal predators (ca. 75 %, which suggests that these natural enemies could play a significant role in regulating O. amphimone populations. Our research is an initial step towards understanding the influence of natural enemies on O. amphimone population dynamics.Las irrupciones poblacionales de la polilla defoliadora Ormiscodes amphimone están ocurriendo de manera más frecuente en numerosos bosques de Nothofagus de la Patagonia. Sin embargo, se sabe poco de la historia natural de esta especie y, particularmente, de sus enemigos naturales. En este estudio se cuantificó la depredación de huevos, larvas y pupas de O. amphimone por parasitoides y otros depredadores en un bosque de Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. & Endl. Krasser en el noroeste de la Patagonia. Se encontró que el parasitismo de huevos fue relativamente bajo (ca. 11 % y no se registró depredación significativa de larvas por aves insectívoras. No obstante, registramos niveles elevados de mortalidad causada por parasitoides de larvas (ca. 50 % en larvas en tercer instar y por depredadores de pupas (ca. 75 %, lo que parece indicar que estos enemigos naturales desempeñan un papel significativo en la regulación de poblaciones de O. amphimone. Este estudio representa un paso inicial hacia el entendimiento de la

  3. AVALIAÇÃO DE PERDAS CAUSADAS POR Oebalus spp. (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE EM ARROZ DE TERRAS ALTAS EVALUATION OF UPLAND RICE LOSSES CAUSED BY Oebalus spp. (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE

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    Daniela Rézio e Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para determinar o efeito dos percevejos Oebalus poecilus e O. ypsilongriseus sobre o rendimento e a qualidade dos grãos de arroz de terras altas, panículas de cinco cultivares foram infestadas, isoladamente, pelos seguintes níveis populacionais: zero (tratamento testemunha, dois insetos adultos da primeira espécie, dois insetos adultos da segunda espécie e um inseto adulto de cada espécie. A comparação das cultivares pelas porcentagens de perda de massa por espigueta e de espiguetas vazias não apresentou efeitos diferenciados entre tratamentos, nem interação "tratamentos x cultivares" significativa. A avaliação da atividade alimentar, pela presença de bainhas de estilete, mostrou que o percevejo O. ypsilongriseus foi mais ativo que O. poecilus. Esses afetaram de modo diferente o vigor das cultivares, entretanto, não influenciaram o teor de amilose. Os percevejos também reduziram o rendimento total de arroz beneficiado e aumentaram o número de grãos inteiros manchados, apesar de não terem alterado o número total de grãos inteiros.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Inseto; percevejo das panículas; bainha de estilete.

    To determine the effect of Oebalus poecilus and O. ypsilongriseus on grain yield and quality of five upland rice cultivars, isolated panicles were subjected to four levels of infestation (number of adult insects: zero (control treatment, two O. poecilus, two O. ypsilongriseus and one O. poecilus plus one O. ypsilongriseus. Neither the treatments nor the interaction of the treatments with cultivars had significant effects on percentages of weight loss and empty spikelets. Insect activity, evaluated by the presence of feeding sheaths in the spikelets, demonstrated that O. ypsilongriseus was more active than O. poecilus. Plant vigor was also affected differently

  4. EFECTO DE CUATRO RIZOBACTERIAS PROMOTORAS DE CRECIMIENTO SOBRE LA PUDRICIÓN BASAL CAUSADA POR Phytophthora capsici EN PLANTAS DE CHILE DULCE (Capsicum annuum

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    Carlos Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de mohos en el pedúnculo de la piña de Costa Rica, es uno de los proble- mas poscosecha más importantes que conlleva al rechazo de la fruta en el mercado destino. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar las poblaciones de los hongos causantes de mohos en el pedúnculo de la piña, en diferentes fases de procesamiento poscosecha, mediante muestreos mensuales durante un año de producción en 2 zonas. Además, se realizó la identificación mor- fológica y molecular de los hongos más frecuen- tes. Se cuantificó, in vitro, el número de unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC en el agua de des- infección, la cera, el aire de las cámaras de alma- cenamiento y en el pedúnculo y la cáscara de la fruta, sin procesar (SP y procesada (P con los tratamientos comerciales de las fincas. Además, se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de moho en el pedúnculo. Hubo variaciones en las poblaciones de hongos en todas las fases de procesamiento y en la fruta, con valores más altos en la cera que en el agua de desinfección. En el pedúnculo de fruta SP se obtuvo poblaciones más altas que en fruta P, lo cual coincidió con mayores porcentajes de moho al finalizar el almacenamiento. En las cámaras de enfriamiento también se recuperó esporas de hongos, que podrían ser una fuente de inóculo para el desarrollo de moho. Los prin- cipales hongos identificados fueron Penicillium purpureogenum , P. diversum y Penicillium sp., los cuales presentaron alta esporulación in vitro y crecimiento en el pedúnculo. Además en dife- rentes puntos del proceso como el encerado y el enfriamiento, en los que se capturaron esporas, la fruta podría ser contaminada, por lo que se considera importante la adecuada limpieza de las cámaras de enfriamiento, así como evitar que la cera acumule poblaciones importantes de microorganismos.

  5. Risca do tomateiro em São Paulo, causada por estirpe do vírus Y Tomato streak induced by a strain of the potato virus y in São Paulo

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    A. S. Costa

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma forma de risca do tomateiro, causada por um único vírus que pertence ao complexo do vírus Y da batatinha, foi registrada em diversas zonas do Estado de São Paulo onde é cultivada essa planta. A risca do tomateiro é considerada moléstia diferente daquela descrita de Piedade e também causada por uma estirpe do mesmo complexo. Foram notadas diferenças em sintomatologia, círculo de hospedeiras e nas propriedades do vírus in vitro. A risca do tomateiro em São Paulo é semelhante a uma moléstia que foi descrita em tomatais do sul da Flórida. 0 vírus da risca causa murcha das folhas inferiores de plantas de fumo de diversas variedades. Esse sintoma já tinha sido descrito em plantas de fumo infetadas com o vírus das faixas das nervuras em Kentucky. Foi notada certa correlação entre surtos severos da risca do tomateiro e a presença de plantações velhas de pimentão nas vizinhanças dos tomatais. As plantações de batata não são consideradas como fontes de vírus, pois a maioria das variedades comerciais não é suscetível à estirpe causadora da risca. A risca do tomateiro é fàcilmente transmitida mecanicamente e há indicações de que uma certa disseminação da moléstia pode resultar das operações culturais manuais como a desbrota, amarração etc. Os afídios Aphis rumicis, Myzus persicae, Macro-siphum solanifotii e Pentatrichopus fragaefolii mostraram-se capazes de transmitir a risca. Medidas de contrôle visando eliminar as fontes de vírus e controlar os vectores são discutidas.A type of tomato streak due to a single virus, considered to be a strain of the potato virus Y complex, has been recorded from several tomato growing areas in the state of São Paulo. Tomato streak is considered different from a disease described from Piedade and also caused by a strain of potato virus Y. Differences were noted in symptomatology, host range, and virus properties. Tomato streak in São Paulo resembles closely a disease

  6. Método de seleção e identificação de fontes de resistência à murcha do eucalipto causada por Ceratocystis fimbriata

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    Reginaldo Gonçalves Mafia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um método de seleção e identificar fontes de resistência à murcha do eucalipto causada por Ceratocystis fimbriata. A inoculação de 5 ml de inóculo (2,5 x 10(4 esporos/ml do patógeno em um ferimento no coleto de mudas com 60 dias de idade foi o método mais eficiente na reprodução dos sintomas da doença. Para este método, a severidade da doença e a mortalidade de plantas em função do tempo após a inoculação foram avaliadas. Um período de 30 dias após a inoculação foi suficiente para reproduzir os sintomas da doença. O protocolo de inoculação desenvolvido apresentou alto rendimento (400 plantas/ h e menor consumo de espaço, quando comparado com outros métodos, principalmente pelo fato de possibilitar a inoculação de mudas jovens de eucalipto, entre 60 e 90 dias. Na segunda etapa do trabalho, a resistência interespecífica do eucalipto a C. fimbriata foi avaliada usando as espécies Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. dunnii, E. grandis, E. pellita, E. saligna, E. tereticornis e E. urophylla. Houve segregação da resistência para todas as espécies e de acordo com o local de origem da população. Para E. urophylla, por exemplo, ocorreram as maiores variações entre o número de indivíduos resistentes e suscetíveis à doença. Essas variações podem estar ligadas com a procedência das sementes e com as características do programa de melhoramento genético.

  7. Queratopatía cristalina: diagnóstico clínico y microbiológico de una infección corneal infrecuente causada por el grupo Streptococcus mitis

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    Gustavo J Galperín

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente informe es describir un caso de queratopatía cristalina causada por microorganismos pertenecientes al grupo Streptococcus mitis en una paciente que concurrió a la consulta oftalmológica por molestias en su ojo derecho. Al examen oftalmológico presentó un punto de sutura interrumpida de nylon 10-0 sin tensión y con secreciones mucosas adheridas. El punto flojo fue retirado bajo normas de asepsia. Se indicó colirio de moxifloxacina al 0,5 %; el ojo tuvo una evolución adecuada, con una correcta epitelización. Sin embargo, luego de 15 días desarrolló un infiltrado blanquecino arboriforme. Se tomó una muestra en el quirófano, enhebrando el trayecto intraestromal de la sutura retirada con sutura de vicryl 7-0. Se indicaron colirios de vancomicina con 50 mg/ml. El infiltrado se mantuvo estable durante 45 días, luego se incrementó el tamaño y se produjo necrosis tisular con peligro de perforación corneal. Se realizó un recubrimiento conjuntival bipediculado. La paciente evolucionó favorablemente y luego de la retracción espontánea del recubrimiento, se observó leucoma cicatrizal y neovasos corneales.Crystalline keratopathy: an infrequent corneal infection produced by the Streptococcus mitis group. The objective of this report is to describe a case of crystalline keratopathy caused by the Streptococcus mitis group corresponding to a patient who attended hospital for discomfort in his right eye. The ophthalmological examination showed an interrupted stitch of 10-0 nylon suture without tension and with attached mucus secretions. The loose suture was removed under aseptic conditions. Moxifloxacin 0.5 % eye drops were topically indicated. The treated eye successfully epithelialized and evolved favorably. However, after 15 days, a white tree-shaped infiltrate developed. A corneal sample was taken in the operating room, threading the intrastromal path of the removed stitch with a 7-0 vicryl suture. Vancomycin 50

  8. Avaliação lectino-histoquímica de fígado e rim de ovinos com fotossensibilização causada por Brachiaria decumbens

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    Samay Z.R. Costa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Embora sejam as forrageiras mais importantes para a pecuária de corte (bovinocultura de corte no Brasil, em certas épocas ou condições, Brachiaria spp. podem ser tóxicas e causar surtos de fotossensibilização hepatógena que determinam significativas perdas econômicas. Animais que se alimentam em pastos de Brachiaria spp. comumente apresentam macrófagos espumosos isolados ou agrupados, além de cristais no interior de ductos biliares. Saponinas esteroidais têm sido identificadas nestes cristais e são responsabilizadas por lesar o fígado levando ao acúmulo de filoeritrina. Por vezes, imagens negativas desses cristais podem estar presentes no citoplasma de macrófagos espumosos. A patogênese de formação e o tipo de material armazenado nas células espumosas ainda são desconhecidos. A técnica de lectino-histoquímica visa auxiliar na detecção desses macrófagos e, consequentemente, no diagnóstico, além de identificar quais os resíduos de açúcares específicos que estão presentes no citoplasma das células espumosas. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar quais lectinas são mais indicadas na detecção de saponinas esteroidais no fígado e rim de ovinos com fotossensibilização causada por Brachiaria decumbens. Fragmentos de fígado e rim de quinze ovinos, de ambos os sexos e idade variável, oriundos de Conceição do Mato Dentro, Minas Gerais, e um ovino mantido em pastagem livre de Brachiaria spp. foram avaliados pela técnica de lectino-histoquímica. Quatorze lectinas foram utilizadas (Con-A, DBA, SBA, PNA, SJA, RCA-I, UEA-I, WGA, SWGA, GSL, PSA, PHA-L, PHA-E e LCA. Verificou-se que, no fígado de ovinos com fotossensibilização provocada pela ingestão de Brachiaria decumbens, a lectina PNA apresentou especificidade e acentuada reatividade aos macrófagos espumosos, bem como especificidade e leve reatividade aos hepatócitos; a lectina WGA teve especificidade e moderada reatividade aos macr

  9. Burkholderia gladioli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Kumar Yadav, Sunil; Swain, Durga M; Jha, Gopaljee

    2017-12-31

    Fungal pathogens are responsible for approximately two third of the infectious plant diseases. Historically they have been associated with several devastating famines, causing death and disabilities in humans. Mostly fungal diseases are being controlled by using fungicides which otherwise have adverse side effects on the health of consumers as well as environment. Due to extensive usages, pathogens have evolved resistance against most of the commonly used fungicides and rendered them ineffective. Controlling fungal disease in a sustainable and eco-friendly fashion remains a challenge. The antifungal biocontrol agents are being considered as potent, alternative and ecofriendly approach to manage fungal diseases. In our recent work, we have identified a rice associated bacterium; Burkholderia gladioli strain NGJ1 which demonstrates broad spectrum fungal eating (mycophagous) property. We determined that the bacterium utilizes its type III secretion system (Injectisome) machinery to deploy a prophage tail-like protein (Bg_9562) into fungal cells to devour them. The purified Bg_9562 protein from over-expressing recombinant E. coli strain demonstrates broad spectrum antifungal activity. Overall our study opens up a new opportunity to exploit prophage tail-like protein as potent antifungal compound to control plant as well as animal fungal diseases.

  10. Desarrollo de una metodología para el estudio de las inundaciones causadas por encharcamiento de agua de lluvia en zonas urbanas relativamente planas. Area de estudio: Montería (Colombia

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    Padilla Agamez, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology for the analysis of the relationship between rainfall and flooding caused by ponding of rainfall water in urban area of Monteria (Colombia is developed. Rainfall water excesses over the soil were estimated from field measurements of the soil infiltration capacity for different soil units of the studied zone. The results obtained are presented in form of statistical correlations for calculating water rainfall excesses over the soils and maps of susceptibility and vulnerability for floods. The maps were used for a brief socioeconomic discussion of the effects of flood events in the selected zone.En el presente trabajo se desarrolla una metodología para el análisis de la relación existente entre las precipitaciones y las inundaciones causadas por encharcamiento de agua de lluvia en la zona urbana de Montería (Colombia. Se realizaron mediciones en campo de la capacidad de infiltración de agua para diferentes unidades de suelos de la zona de estudio, con el fin de estimar los excesos de agua de lluvia sobre el suelo. Los resultados obtenidos se presentan en forma de correlaciones estadísticas para el cálculo de los excesos de agua de lluvia y mapas de susceptibilidad y vulnerabilidad a las inundaciones, mediante los cuales se hace una breve discusión socioeconómica de los efectos de esta clase de inundaciones en la zona de estudio. [fr] Dans le présent travail est analysé la relation existant entre les précipitations et des inondations par accumulation d eau pluie sur le sol dans la zone urbaine de Montería (Colombie. Avec la réalisation de mesures en champ de la capacité d’infiltration pour différents unities de sol de la zone d’étude, on a estimé les excès d’eau pluie sur le sol. Les résultats obtenus sont présentés sous la forme de corrélations statistiques pour le calcul des excès d’eau pluie et de cartes de susceptibilité et vulnérabilité aux inondations. Les cartes ont été employ

  11. Estudo comparativo entre antlmoniato de meglumina, isotianato de pentamidina e sulfato de aminosidine, no tratamento de lesões cutâneas primárias causadas por Leishmania (viannia braziliensis

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    Dalmo Correia

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comparar a eficácia, a tolerabilidade e a toxicidade do antimoniato de meglumina, do sulfato de aminosidine e do isotianato depentamidine no tratamento de lesões cutâneas primárias causadas por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis foi realizado um estudo de campo, aberto, randomizado, na área endêmica de Cone de Pedra-Bahia. De outubro de 1992 a janeiro de 1993, foram tratados 46 pacientes, distribuídos em três grupos dois de 15 e um de 16 pacientes. Todos os pacientes realizaram exames clínico, parasitológico, histopatológico e imunológico, como critério diagnóstico. Todos os pacientes foram tratados pela via intramuscular. O Grupo 1 recebeu pentamidina na dose de 4mg/k.g/dia, em dias alternados, no total de 8 aplicações; o Grupo 2 aminosidine na dose de 20mg/k.g/dia, por 20 dias; o Grupo 3, meglumina na dose de 10mg/kg/dia, por 20 dias. Definiu-se como falha terapêutica a permanência de lesões ulceradas, após quatro meses de tratamento. Ocorreram cinco casos de falha terapêutica assim distribuídos: dois casos no Grupo 1, um caso no Grupo 2 e dois no Grupo 3, ao final do primeiro ano de seguimento. Na avaliação após 3 anos foram revistos 15 pacientes, 5 em cada Grupo; exceto um do Grupo 3, todos continuaram curados. Não houve diferença estatística entre os resultados dos três esquemas utilizados.With the aim of comparing the therapeutic efficacy, tolerability and toxicity of meglumine antimoniate, aminosidine sulphate andpentamidine isethionate, a field study was conducted on randomized treatment of patients with primary cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, in Cone de Pedra, BA, from October 1992 up to January 1993- Forty six patients were treated and distributed into three groups, two with 15 and one with 16 subjects. All patients were submitted to clinical examination, histopatological and immunological investigations, as diagnostic criterium. All patients were

  12. Seca dos ponteiros da goiabeira causada por Erwinia psidii: níveis de incidência e aspectos epidemiológicos Guava bacterial blight due to Erwinia psidii: incidence levels and epidemiological aspects

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    Abi Soares Anjos Marques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Um dos fatores limitantes ao cultivo da goiabeira no Brasil é a 'seca dos ponteiros', causada por Erwinia psidii, presente nas regiões Sudeste e Centro-Oeste, onde se concentram grandes áreas produtoras. Considerando a pequena disponibilidade de informações sobre a epidemiologia e níveis de incidência dessa bacteriose, este estudo teve como objetivos: confirmar a distribuição e verificar a dispersão da seca dos ponteiros da goiabeira no Distrito Federal; investigar o efeito da temperatura sobre a multiplicação in vitro de E. psidii; desenvolver um teste de patogenicidade prático e eficiente e avaliar a sobrevivência in vitro da bactéria em diferentes substratos. A doença foi identificada em 56% das propriedades produtoras avaliadas no DF, com 81,9% de correlação entre a presença de sintomas e o diagnóstico laboratorial. A melhor faixa de temperatura para multiplicação de E. psidii foi de 24 a 33 ºC, e a bactéria permaneceu viável por até 120 dias em suspensão em água. A inoculação da bactéria em folhas ou hastes destacadas levou ao aparecimento de sintomas a partir do sétimo dia e mostrou-se eficiente como um teste rápido para se avaliar a patogenicidade de isolados.A major disease that affects guava is 'bacterial blight', caused by Erwinia psidii, which has been reported in Southeastern and Central Regions of Brazil where the major producing areas are located. Considering the lack of information on epidemiology and incidence levels of this disease, the objectives of this study were to confirm the presence and to verify the spread of the disease in Distrito Federal (DF; to determine optimal temperature for in vitro multiplication of E. psidii; to develop a simple and effective method for pathogenicity testing and to evaluate in vitro bacterial survival on different substrates. The disease was detected in 56% of producing orchards evaluated in DF, with a correlation of 81, 9% between presence of symptoms and

  13. Cerebral aspergillosis due to Aspergillus fumigatus in AIDS patient: first culture - proven case reported in Brazil Aspergilosis cerebral causada por Aspergillus fumigatus en paciente con SIDA: primer reporte de caso demostrado por cultivo en Brasil

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    José E. Vidal

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare cause of brain expansive lesion in AIDS patients. We report the first culture-proven case of brain abscess due to Aspergillus fumigatus in a Brazilian AIDS patient. The patient, a 26 year-old male with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and history of pulmonary tuberculosis and cerebral toxoplasmosis, had fever, cough, dyspnea, and two episodes of seizures. The brain computerized tomography (CT showed a bi-parietal and parasagittal hypodense lesion with peripheral enhancement, and significant mass effect. There was started anti-Toxoplasma treatment. Three weeks later, the patient presented mental confusion, and a new brain CT evidenced increase in the lesion. He underwent brain biopsy, draining 10 mL of purulent material. The direct mycological examination revealed septated and hyaline hyphae. There was started amphotericin B deoxycholate. The culture of the material demonstrated presence of the Aspergillus fumigatus. The following two months, the patient was submitted to three surgeries, with insertion of drainage catheter and administration of amphotericin B intralesional. Three months after hospital admission, his neurological condition suffered discrete changes. However, he died due to intrahospital pneumonia. Brain abscess caused by Aspergillus fumigatus must be considered in the differential diagnosis of the brain expansive lesions in AIDS patients in Brazil.La aspergilosis cerebral es una causa rara de lesión expansiva cerebral en pacientes con SIDA. Presentamos el primer reporte de un absceso cerebral causado por Aspergillus fumigatus en un paciente brasileño con SIDA. El paciente, de 26 años de edad, presentaba antecedentes de infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH, tuberculosis pulmonar y toxoplasmosis cerebral. Manifestó fiebre, tos, disnea y dos episódios de convulsiones. La tomografía computadorizada (TC demostró una lesión hipodensa parasagital y bi-parietal con

  14. INFECTIOUS KERATOCONJUNTIVITIS OUTBREAK IN OVINES DUE TO Moraxella spp IN STATE OF GOIÁS, BRAZIL SURTO DE CERATOCONJUNTIVITE INFECCIOSA EM OVINOS CAUSADA POR Moraxella spp. NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS, BRASIL

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    Nilo Sérgio Troncoso Chaves

    2008-04-01

    ','serif'">Moraxella spp foi feito por meio de cultura nos Laboratórios de Microbiologia do Centro de Pesquisa de Alimentos da Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Goiás (APA/EV-UFG e do Departamento de Medicina Veterinária da Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Goiás (DMV/EV-UFG. O controle do foco na propriedade envolveu os protocolos: 1. higiênico, com o isolamento em ambiente de pouca luminosidade, repouso e alimentação adequada;  2. medicamentoso, mediante o uso de solução fisiológica 0,9% para a lavagem dos olhos, pomada oftálmica de cloridrato de oxitetraciclina para uso local e cloridrato de oxitetraciclina LA injetável, tanto para os animais doentes como para o restante do rebanho;  3. profilático, por meio de vacina comercial contra a ceratoconjuntive infeciosa e combate às moscas. A recuperação da maioria dos animais minimizou as perdas econômicas e evitou a disseminação da enfermidade na propriedade e para outras fazendas. No Brasil, existem poucos estudos a respeito de surtos de CCI em ovinos, o que motivou a realização deste trabalho, diante da escassez de informações sobre essa doença ocular, causada pela Moraxella spp, em ovinos, no estado de Goiás, Brasil

  15. Cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses infections in heart and bone marrow transplant recipients Infecções causadas por citomegalovírus e outros vírus do grupo herpes em transplantados cardíacos e de medula óssea

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    Adriana Weinberg

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available From January 1988 to January 1989 all the heart transplant and bone marrow recipients at the Instituto do Coração of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School were studied for the incidence and morbidity associated with herpesviruses infections after transplantation. Five bone marrow and 5 heart transplant recipients were followed for a mean of 4.2 months post-transplantation. All the patients were seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV before admission and 80% experienced one or more recurrences during the observation period. Of the 12 episodes of CMV infection, that were identified in this study, 83% were accompanied by clinical or laboratory abnormalities. However, there was only one case of severe disease. The overall incidence of infection for herpes simplex (HSV was 50%. Although most of HSV reactivations were oral or genital, one case of HSV hepatitis occurred. One of the 6 episodes of HSV infections that were treated with acyclovir showed an unsatisfactory response and was successfully managed with ganciclovir. All the individuals had anti-varicella zoster virus antibodies, but none of them developed infection. The study emphasizes the importance of active diagnostic surveillance of herpesvirus infections in transplant patients. Both CMV and HSV reactivations showed high incidence and important morbidity and thus, deserve prophylactic therapy.De janeiro de 1988 a janeiro de 1989 todos os pacientes submetidos a transplante de coração ou de medula óssea no Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo foram estudados quanto à incidência e morbidade das infecções pós-transplante causadas por vírus do grupo herpes. Cinco recipientes de medula óssea e 5 transplantados cardíacos foram observados por um período médio de 4.2 meses após o transplante. Todos os pacientes tinham sorologia positiva para citomegalovírus (CMV antes do transplante

  16. Comparação entre a Técnica de Captura do Híbrido e a Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase na Detecção de Infecções Causadas por Papilomavírus Humanos no Colo do Útero

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Nahoum Carestiato

    2005-01-01

    As infecções causadas pelos Papilomavírus humanos (HPV) são as Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis mais freqüentes em todo mundo. Cerca de 30% destas infecções são persistentes, fato associado ao aumento significativo do risco de neoplasia cervical. Assim, o acompanhamento das infecções persistentes, associadas aos HPV de alto risco, funcionaria como medida preventiva contra o câncer. Por esta razão, entra em discussão qual a melhor técnica de detecção da infecção e rastreamento das paci...

  17. Ocorrência de nova doença do algodoeiro irrigado, no Brasil, causada por Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Occurrence of a new disease of irrigated cotton, in Brazil, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

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    Maria José D´avila Charchar

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Em 1996, uma nova doença causada pelo fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary foi observada em algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivar Deltapine, irrigado sob pivô central, em Paracatu, MG. Os sintomas apresentados foram murcha e podridão da haste, do pecíolo da folha e da maçã, além de serem observados no interior do capulho micélio branco e escleródios escuros do patógeno. O teste de patogenicidade foi efetuado em algodoeiro, nas cultivares Deltapine e IAC 22, e em feijoeiro e quiabeiro, aos 14 dias de idade. As plantas foram incubadas em alta umidade durante 48 horas, a 25ºC. Três dias após a inoculação, verificaram-se sintomas severos de murcha e necrose dos tecidos, de onde o patógeno foi reisolado, completando-se, assim, os postulados de Koch. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência natural de S. sclerotiorum em algodoeiro no Brasil.In 1996, a new disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary was observed on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Deltapine cultivar irrigated under central pivot at Paracatu, MG, in the Savana region of Central Brazil. The symptoms were wilt, necrosis and rot. White mycelium and black sclerotia developed inside the boll. The pathogenicity test was done with two-week old cotton seedling cultivars Deltapine and IAC 22 and bean and okra seedlings. The plants were incubated at high humidity for 48 hours at 25ºC. Three days after inoculation, severe symptoms of wilt and necrosis were observed. S. sclerotiorum was reisolated from the damaged plant tissues, and Koch´s postulates were completed. This is the first report of S. sclerotiorum natural occurrence on cotton in Brazil.

  18. Feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis no controle da podridão radicular do meloeiro causada por associação de patógenos

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    Maria Alice Formiga Porto

    Full Text Available RESUMO A ocorrência de doenças radiculares representa uma das principais causas de perda de rendimento na cultura do melão, com destaque para patógenos causadores das podridões de raízes e colos, como os fungos Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina e Rhizoctonia solani, observados no meloeiro tanto de forma isolada quanto associada. A utilização de material vegetal e restos de culturas, além de melhorar as propriedades físicas do solo e favorecer a atividade microbiana neste ambiente, pode interferir negativamente sobre a população de patógenos. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da utilização do Feijão-de-porco [Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC] no manejo da podridão radicular do meloeiro (Cucumis melo L. causada pelos patógenos F. solani, M. phaseolina e R. solani, quando sozinhos ou associados. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial 8 x 4, sendo 8 tipos de fungos/associações e 4 formas de manejo, com 4 repetições. As características avaliadas foram: incidência de podridão radicular das plantas de melão no final do ciclo, prevalência dos patógenos e a massa da matéria seca do meloeiro. O feijão-de-porco em cobertura proporciona menor incidência de podridão radicular no meloeiro quando Fusarium solani está sozinho. Macrophomina phaseolina é o fungo que prevalece na maioria das associações nas quais está presente. Aumento na massa da matéria seca do meloeiro foi observado quando aplicado o mulch (filme de polietileno preto nos tratamentos com associação de F. solani + R. solani e no solo não infestado.

  19. Reduction of incidence and severity of Septoria lycopersici leaf spot of tomato with bacteria and yeasts Redução da incidência e severidade da mancha foliar do tomateiro causada por Septoria lycopersici com bacteria e leveduras

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    Luiz Eduardo Bassay Blum

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, is an important disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum which is mainly controlled by fungicide sprays. One of the alternatives to reduce fungicide applications is the use of leaf antagonists such as yeast and bacterium. This study was conducted from 1994 through 1995 in Auburn, AL, USA. The pathogen and one antagonist were isolated from field plants. In greenhouse, six yeast and one bacterial isolates were tested, in a set of seven experiments. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with four to eight treatments and six replications. The antagonists (1-3 × 10(8 colony forming units ml-1 were inoculated 48h before the inoculation of the pathogen (1-2 × 10(5 conidia ml-1, under conditions of intermittent misting. The yeast isolate Y236 (Cryptococcus laurentii and the bacterial isolate BTL (Pseudomonas putida significantly (P A mancha foliar causada pelo fungo Septoria lycopersici é uma doença no tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, controlada basicamente pela aplicação de fungicidas. Uma das alternativas ao controle químico dessa enfermidade é a utilização de bactérias e leveduras antagonistas. Este estudo foi conduzido de 1994 a 1995 em Auburn, Alabama, EUA. O patógeno e um dos antagonistas foram isolados do filoplano de plantas de tomateiro infectadas pela doença em questão. Sete antagonistas (um isolado de bacteria e seis de leveduras foram testados em uma série de sete experimentos conduzidos em casa de vegetação. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em um delineamento completamente casualizado com quatro a oito tratamentos e seis repetições. Em todos os experimentos, os antagonistas (1-3 × 10(8 unidades formadoras de colonia ml-1 foram inoculados 48h antes da inoculação com o patógeno (1-2 × 10(5 conidios ml-1, sob condições de nebulosidade intermitente. Entre os antagonistas testados, destacaram-se o isolado de levedura Y236 (Cryptococcus

  20. Growth promotion of pineapple 'vitória' by humic acids and burkholderia spp. during acclimatization Promoção do crescimento do abacaxizeiro 'vitória' por ácidos húmicos e Burkholderia spp. durante a aclimatização

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    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2010-10-01

    aceleração do crescimento das mudas de abacaxizeiro é um pré-requisito para a produção de maior quantidade de material propagativo vigoroso e enraizado. A combinação de ácidos húmicos e bactérias endofíticas pode ser uma tecnologia útil para reduzir o período crítico de aclimatização. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho inicial do abacaxizeiro 'Vitória' propagado por cultura de tecidos em resposta à aplicação de ácidos húmicos isolados de vermicomposto e bactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas (Burkholderia spp. durante a aclimatização em casa de vegetação. Os ácidos húmicos foram aplicados nas axilas das folhas basais, enquanto as raízes foram imersas no meio bacteriano. Foram observados incrementos no crescimento da parte aérea com a aplicação de ácidos húmicos (14 % e bactérias (102 % quando comparado ao controle, com efeito mais pronunciado no tratamento combinado (147 %. Da mesma forma, o crescimento das raízes aumentou 50 % com ácidos húmicos, 81 % com bactérias e 105 % com o tratamento combinado. A inoculação conjunta aumentou significativamente o acúmulo de N (115 %, P (112 % e K (69 % nas folhas do abacaxizeiro. O crescimento do abacaxizeiro foi influenciado pela inoculação com Burkholderia spp. reforçada pela associação com ácidos húmicos, que resultou em maior massa da parte aérea e raiz e maior conteúdo de nutrientes (N, 132 %; P, 131 %; K, 80 % quando comparado com mudas não inoculadas. A consistência da resposta da planta hospedeira para bacterização na presença de substâncias húmicas aponta para uma ferramenta biotecnológica promissora para melhorar o crescimento e a adaptação de mudas de abacaxizeiro ao ambiente ex vitro.

  1. Abscesso hepático e êmbolos sépticos pulmonares: uma rara associação causada por E.Coli doi: 10.20513/2447-6595.2016v56n1p75-78

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    Lara Silva Aguiar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A Embolia Séptica Pulmonar (ESP é uma condição mórbida rara caracterizada pela presença de múltiplos abscessos na periferia do parênquima pulmonar, em adição ao isolamento de bactérias no sangue ou em locais de infecção. Relatamos o caso de um homem de 52 anos com história de colecistite litiásica crônica, admitido com quadro de êmbolos sépticos pulmonares por Escherichia coli secundários a abscesso hepático causado por fístula enterobiliar. Em virtude da raridade dessa associação na literatura, descreveremos esse caso com o objetivo de promover seu reconhecimento precoce, já que o tratamento adequado com antibioticoterapia proporciona um melhor prognóstico aos pacientes.

  2. Caracterización de la respuesta morfológica de variedades susceptibles y resistentes de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz a la bacteriosis vascular causada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis

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    Tamara Sandino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis es una de las principales limitaciones del cultivo de yuca. En esta investigación, mediante microscopía óptica, se realizó un análisis comparativo de los cambios morfológicos e histoquímicos en tallos de una variedad de yuca susceptible (TMS60444 y una resistente (CM6438-14, 7 y 14 días después de ser inoculadas con la cepa patogénica CIO151. Se pudo detectar que la variedad resistente genera barreras de calosa en las paredes celulares del parénquima cortical y del floema, manteniendo funcional este tejido. En tanto que los tejidos vasculares de la variedad susceptible colapsan, el floema por obstrucción total con tapones de calosa y por formación de compuestos fenólicos, y el xilema por formación de tílides y/o acumulación de compuestos fenólicos, sin poder frenar el avance sistémico de la enfermedad.

  3. Incidência de viroses e enfezamentos e estimativa de perdas causadas por molicutes em milho no Paraná Occurrence of viruses and stunting diseases and estimative of yield losses by mollicutes in corn in Paraná State, Brazil

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    Elizabeth de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência de viroses e enfezamentos e estimar as perdas causadas por enfezamentos na cultura do milho safrinha. Os diagnósticos baseados em sintomas foram confirmados por PCR ou RTPCR. Em todas as lavouras, foram identificadas plantas com sintomas de enfezamentos, em incidência de 6,2% a 49,9% (média de 20,7%. Na identificação de insetos vetores desses patógenos, a cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis foi detectada em 20 lavouras das 24 amostradas, constituindo 66,6% do total de espécimens de cigarrinhas coletadas. A perda potencial causada pelos enfezamentos no período foi estimada em cerca de 16,5 milhões de dólares. A ocorrência de plantas com sintomas de "Maize rayado fino virus" e "Maize dwarf mosaic virus" foi baixa e o diagnóstico confirmado por RTPCR. A análise de 441 amostras suspeitas de infecção por "Mal de Río Cuarto virus", por DASELISA, mostrou ausência desse vírus. Resultados de PCR indicaram a presença de um possível fitoplasma distinto de "Maize bushy stunt phytoplasma" em duas plantas apresentando nanismo acentuado, folhas estreitas, enrijecidas, com deformações, e grãos na inflorescência, havendo necessidade de mais estudos para a confirmação da identidade desse possível novo fitoplasma.The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurence and yield losses by corn stunting diseases and maize viruses in "safrinha" season. Disease diagnostics based on plant symptoms were confirmed by PCR or RTPCR assays. Insect samples were collected in 24 fields for identification of vectors of the pathogens. Corn stunting diseases symptoms were observed in all crops evaluated, with incidence levels ranging from 6.2% to 49.9% (average 20.7% and the presence of the leafhopper Dalbulus maidis, was detected in 20 of the 24 areas evaluated. This insect species was prevalent, representing 66,6% of total leafhoppers specimens collected. The potential yield losses caused by mollicutes was

  4. IMPORTANCIA DE LOS MECANISMOS DE DEGRADACIÓN DE PROTEÍNAS EN LA NEURODEGENERACIÓN CAUSADA POR EL ABUSO DE ALCOHOL: PAPEL DE LOS RECEPTORES TLR4

    OpenAIRE

    PLA RODRÍGUEZ, ANTONI

    2014-01-01

    El alcohol es un compuesto neurotóxico y su abuso puede causar daño cerebral y neurodegeneración. Sin embargo, los procesos neuropatológicos que producen estos efectos no se conocen con exactitud. Nuestro grupo demostró por primera vez que el etanol induce gliosis, neuroinflamación, daño cerebral y neurodegeneración mediante la activación del sistema inmune innato en cerebro a través de los receptores TLR4 de las células gliales. Además, evidencias recientes apuntan a que el alcohol altera lo...

  5. Lesões de pele causadas por Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae em um feto suíno abortado Skin lesions caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in an aborted swine-fetus

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    Caroline Argenta Pescador

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A infecção por Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae tem distribuição mundial e se caracteriza por lesões de pele, endocardite vegetativa, artrite e problemas reprodutivos tais como aborto, nascimento de animais mortos e diminuição do tamanho da leitegada. Áreas circulares bem delimitadas e esbranquiçadas localizadas na pele ao redor dos olhos, face, escápula e trem posterior foram as principais alterações macroscópicas observadas em um feto suíno da raça Large White. Microscopicamente, essas lesões apresentavam perivasculite mononuclear multifocal moderada associada com bastonetes Gram-positivos. Os cultivos aeróbios de amostras de fígado, pulmão, conteúdo estomacal e pele revelaram crescimento de Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection has a worldwide distribution and may be characterized by skin lesions, vegetative endocarditis, arthritis and reproductive problems such as abortion, increased stillbirths and smaller litter size. This report associates an aborted swine fetus with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection. The main gross lesions observed in an aborted swine fetus (Large White were well circumscribed whitish areas in the skin of the periocular region, face, neck, scapula, and hindquarter. Microscopicaly, these lesions were characterized by mild mononuclear perivasculitis associated with gram-positive rods. Aerobic cultivation from samples of lungs, liver, stomach content and skin revealed pure cultures of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

  6. Changes caused by hidrocephalus, induced by kaolin, in the corpus callosum of adult dogs Alterações causadas pela hidrocefalia, induzida por caulim, no corpo caloso de cães adultos

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    Edvaldo José Rodrigues Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the ventricular enlargement and myelination of the corpus callosum in adult dogs after four and eight weeks of kaolin-induction of hydrocephalus. METHODS: 36 dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1 - without hydrocephalus, 2 - kaolin-induction of hydrocephalus until the fourth week, and 3 - kaolin-induction of hydrocephalus until the eighth week. Ventricular ratios and volumes were calculated using magnetic resonance images, and myelination of the corpus callosum were histologically evaluated using solocromo-cianin stain. RESULTS: Radiological hydrocephalus was observed in 93.75% and overall mortality was 38.4%. Ventricular volumes and ratios were higher in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1 and similar when measures in the fourth and eighth weeks were compared in the group 3. Indices of luminescence in the knee and in the splenium of the corpus callosum were higher in group 2 than in group 1 indicating that there was loss of myelin in group 2, and similar in groups 1 and 3, showing a tendency to remyelination after 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: The corpus callosum of dogs with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus responds with demyelination of the knee and splenium by the fourth week with a tendency to remyelination by the eighth week.OBJETIVO: Analisar a dilatação ventricular e a mielinização do corpo caloso em cães adultos após quatro e oito semanas da indução de hidrocefalia por caulin. MÉTODOS: 36 cães foram aleatoriamente divididos em 3 grupos: 1- sem hidrocefalia, 2- quatro semanas de hidrocefalia induzida por caulin, 3- oito semanas de hidrocefalia induzida por caulin. As razões e volumes ventriculares foram calculados utilizando imagens de ressonância magnética, e, a mielinização do corpo caloso por estudo histológico (coloração com solocromo- cianina. RESULTADOS: Hidrocefalia foi observada radiologicamente em 93,75% e a mortalidade global foi de 38,4%. Os volumes e as razões ventriculares foram maiores nos

  7. Meningoencefalite em bovinos causada por herpesvírus bovino-5 no Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo Meningoencephalitis in cattle caused by bovine herpesvirus-5 in Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo

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    Sandro César Salvador

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinze focos de meningoencefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5 (BHV-5 foram diagnosticados entre agosto de 1993 e dezembro de 1996, sendo 14 provenientes do estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e um do estado de São Paulo. A doença ocorreu em diversos municípios e em diferentes épocas do ano. Foram afetados bovinos de 6 a 60 meses de idade, com uma morbidade de 0,05% a 5% e letalidade próxima a 100%. Os sinais clínicos foram exclusivamente nervosos e o curso da enfermidade variou de 1 a 15 dias. As principais lesões histológicas detectadas foram meningite e encefalite difusa com malacia do córtex cerebral e presença de corpúsculos de inclusão intranucleares em astrócitos e neurônios. O vírus foi isolado do cérebro de 11 de um total de 12 animais, e sua identidade confirmada por imunoperoxidase, utilizando-se anticorpos monoclonais específicos. Os surtos de encefalite por BHV-5 representam 5% dos diagnósticos realizados em bovinos pelo Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul. Os resultados deste trabalho evidenciam a importância da doença no Mato Grosso do Sul e indicam a necessidade de incluir a encefalite por BHV-5 no diagnóstico diferencial de outras doenças do sistema nervoso de bovinos frequentes no Estado.Fifteen outbreaks of bovine herpesvirus-type 5 (BHV-5 infection were diagnosed from August 1993 to December 1996. Fourteen outbreaks occurred in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and one in the State of São Paulo. Cattle 6 to 60 months old were affected. Morbidity reached 0.05% to 5% and case fatality rate was nearly 100%. The disease occurred in different municipalities and at different times of the year. Clinical signs were exclusively nervous, and the clinical course varied from 1 to 15 days. The main histologic lesions were meningitis, diffuse encephalitis and necrosis of the cerebral cortex with intranuclear inclusion bodies in astrocytes and neurons. BHV-5 was isolated from 11 out of 12 brains of

  8. Chocolate das bagas e clorose foliar: anomalia da videira causada por deficiência de boro Internal browning ("chocolate" and leaf chlorosis of the 'pink Niagara' grafe, a boron deficiency anomaly

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    Hugo Kuniyuki

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A anomalia do cultivar de videira Niagara Rosada, caracterizada por sintomas de clorose nas folhas, chocolate das bagas e cachos malformados, não é de natureza virótica, de acordo com resultados de testes de transmissão e de perpetuação. Essa anomalia, presente em áreas definidas de alguns vinhedos de Indaiatuba e Jundiaí (SP, está associada à deficiência nutricional de boro. O teor médio de boro em amostras de plantas afetadas de 'Niagara Rosada' (18 ppm no limbo e 7 ppm nos frutos foi menor do que nas de plantas normais (24 ppm no limbo e 10 ppm nos frutos das mesmas plantaçoes; um material coletado de um vinhedo bastante afetado mostrou 13 e 1 ppm respectivamente no limbo e nos frutos de plantas deficientes contra 20 e 6 ppm nos de plantas sem sintomas. Amostras de três vinhedos vizinhos sem essa anomalia apresentaram um teor médio de 35 ppm no limbo. As do porta-enxerto 'Traviú' com clorose e sem clorose mostraram 16 ppm e 43 ppm de boro respectivamente. A aplicação de bórax, nas doses de 5, 10 e 20g por planta, 1ogo após a poda de inverno, ou pulverização de ácido bórico nas concentraçoes de 0,3% e 0,6% sobre a folhagem, durante o início do florescimento e durante a fase de uva chumbinho, permitiram controlar a anomalia nas condições de campo. Foi notada resposta favorável por um ciclo vegetativo, pelo menos, indicando controle por efeito residual de uma aplicação.The 'pink Niagara' grape (V. labrusca L. x V. vinifera L. anomaly characterized by leaf chlorosis and "chocolate" (internal browning of the young fruit, at first thought to be a virus disease, has been found to be a result of boron deficiency. The anomaly was first recorded in 1974. It occurs in patches in vineyards of Indaiatuba and Jundiaí, two grape-growing counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Affected plants show yellowing between the primary and secondary veins of the upper leaves and malformed clusters, with normal-sized berries and

  9. Human pseudomyiasis caused by Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae in Goiás Pseudomiíase humana causada por Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae em Goiás

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    Marco Tulio A. Garcia-Zapata

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to register the first proven cases of human pseudomyiasis due to Eristalis tenax in Goiás State, Brazil, underscoring their clinical manifestations and direct relationship with hygiene. The taxonomic identification of the instars was done according to the descriptions and keys presented by James (1947, Hartley (1961 and Guimarães & Papavero (1999. Two cases were observed. In both cases there was no evidence of apparent mental disturbance. The clinical picture of these cases was self limited. The water supply, sewer system, socioeconomic level and habits of the suspect species of the flies are criteria that should be investigated.O presente trabalho visa registrar os primeiros casos evidenciados de pseudomiíases humanos por Eristalis tenax no estado de Goiás, Brasil, destacando suas manifestações clínicas e suas relações diretas com os hábitos higiênicos. A identificação taxonômica das larvas foi realizada com base nas descrições e chaves apresentadas por James (1947, Hartley (1961 e Guimarães & Papavero (1999. Observaram-se dois casos. Em ambos não havia evidência de pertubações mentais claras. O quadro clínico de ambos os casos era mesmo limitado. O abastecimento de água, o nível sócio-econômico e o hábito das espécies das moscas são critérios que devem ser considerados na investigação.

  10. Reações adversas causadas por fármacos que atuam no sistema nervoso: análise de registros de um centro de farmacovigilância do Brasil Adverse reaction caused by drugs acting in nervous system: records analysis of a farmacovigilance center in Brazil

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    Marta Maria de França Fonteles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A morbimortalidade por uso de medicamentos é um grande problema de saúde. As reações adversas a medicamentos podem resultar em óbito, aumento de internações hospitalares e dos custos com a saúde. OBJETIVOS: Descrever e analisar as notificações de suspeitas de reações adversas causadas por medicamentos que atuam no sistema nervoso (RAM-SN, registradas no Centro de Farmacovigilância do Ceará, de janeiro de 1997 a março de 2008. MÉTODOS: As RAM-SN foram classificadas segundo os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Uma relação de causalidade entre o fármaco administrado e a reação adversa identificada foi realizada, bem como a análise da reação quanto à gravidade. RESULTADOS: Foram registradas 176 notificações de RAM-SN. A maioria (n = 145; 82,4% ocorreu no ambiente hospitalar. O principal notificador foi o farmacêutico. As RAM-SN foram classificadas como: possíveis (n = 110, prováveis (n = 37 e definidas (n = 17. Quanto à gravidade, foram consideradas: leves (n = 21, moderadas (n = 127, graves (n = 15 e fatais (n = 1. O caso fatal foi notificado por médico e envolveu medicamentos anestésicos. Geralmente, as reações adversas observadas foram causadas predominantemente por analgésicos, anestésicos e antiepilépticos. DISCUSSÃO: Os dados demonstram o valor potencial de se ter acesso a sistemas de farmacovigilância local para registrar possíveis riscos com o uso de fármacos.BACKGROUND: The morbi-mortality by the use of medicines is a major health problem. The drug adverse reactions may result in death, increased hospitalizations and healthcare costs. OBJECTIVES: Describe and analyze reports of suspected adverse reactions caused by drugs that act on the nervous system (SN-ADR, registered in the database of the Pharmacovigilance Centre of Ceará, from January 1997 to March 2008. METHODS: All the NS-ADRs were classified according to criteria of the World Health Organization. The causality

  11. PROTOCOLO EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE LESIONES CAUSADAS POR ONDAS EXPANSIVAS: IMPACTO SOBRE EL DIAGNÓSTICO TARDÍO Y UNA MEJOR OPORTUNIDAD DE MANEJO EN UN HOSPITAL ACADÉMICO NIVEL III – IV DE ATENCIÓN

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    Juan Sanjuán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción: Las lesiones producidas por ondas expansivas comprometen diferentes áreas anatómicas por su mecanismo de lesión y se traducen en traumatismos severos. En Colombia, las principales causas de estas lesiones las constituyen situaciones de guerra y ataques terroristas puesto que el país se ha visto inmerso en la violencia durante varios años.

    Material y Métodos: Debido a la severidad y el compromiso de áreas resultantes de ese tipo de eventos, se diseñó e implemento un protocolo de atención que se propuso realizar lo siguiente: 1 Aplicar la evaluación primaria y secundaria del paciente, según los lineamientos del Soporte Vital Avanzado en Trauma del Colegio Americano de Cirujanos. 2 Hacer la evaluación sistemática por áreas anatómicas por parte del departamento quirúrgico, orientándola hacia el examen de las lesiones descritas con mayor frecuencia. 3 Llevar a cabo posteriormente una valoración de las lesiones específicas de acuerdo con las especialidades relacionadas. Para identificar las lesiones más frecuentes, se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de los casos registrados en el Hospital Universitario de Neiva, centro de referencia para el suroccidente de Colombia.

    Resultados: Durante ese periodo, se atendieron 35 pacientes cuyas áreas anatómicas comprometidas más frecuentes fueron las extremidades inferiores (con un registro del 60% de los casos, el abdomen (54,3% y el tórax (42,9%. La mortalidad general del grupo fue de 9,1%. Después de la implementación, se demostró una mejoría en la oportunidad de evaluación por cirugía general y se identificaron 6 pacientes con diagnósticos tardíos, previos a la implementación del protocolo.

    Conclusión: Este estudio determinó que la implementación de una revisión secuencial y un protocolo sistemático permiten mejorar la tasa de diagnósticos tardíos optimizando la

  12. Epidemiology of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacter bacteremia in a brazilian hospital Epidemiologia de bacteremia causadas por Enterobacter produtores de β-lactamases de espectro estendido em um hospital brasileiro

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    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Enterobacter can be included in the group of extended spectrum β-lactamases (EBSL-producing bacteria, though few studies exist evaluating risk factors associated with this microorganism. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with ESBL-producing-Enterobacter and mortality METHODS: A retrospective cohort study with 58 bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing-Enterobacter (28 cases and non-ESBL (30 cases RESULTS: Risk factors associated with ESBL-Enterobacter were trauma, length of hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit, urinary catheter and elective surgery (pINTRODUÇÃO: Enterobacter pode ser incluído no grupo de bactérias produtoras de β-lactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL, mas existem poucos estudos avaliando fatores de risco para ESBL. Nós realizamos uma coorte retrospective para determiner fatores de risco associados com Enterobacter produtores de ESBL MÉTODOS: Uma coorte retrospectiva com 58 bacteremias por Enterobacter ESBL (28 casos e não-ESBL (30 casos RESULTADOS: Fatores de risco para ESBL-Enterobacter foram trauma, tempo de internação, admissão em UTI, sonda vesical e cirurgia eletiva (p<0.05. A mortalidade foi similar entre ESBL e não-ESBL CONCLUSÕES: Enterobacter produtor de ESBL é prevalente e a curva de mortalidade foi semelhante com o grupo não-ESBL.

  13. Evidencia in vitro de la utilidad de cloranfenicol y rifampicina para el tratamiento de infecciones sistémicas y meningitis causadas por Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados deniños menores de 5 años en Colombia.

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    Mariluz Hernández

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina es un patógeno común en infecciones pediátricas, lo cual plantea dificultades en el tratamiento. La rifampicina y el cloranfenicol se han recomendado como antibióticos útiles y como alternativas en estos casos, pues son menos costosos y más accesibles a las comunidades de recursos limitados. Su uso, sin embargo, puede estar limitado por los niveles de resistencia encontrados en diferentes poblaciones. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM y la concentración bactericida mínima (CBM a la rifampicina y al cloranfenicol en aislamientos de S. pneumoniae pertenecientes a un grupo recolectado entre 1994 a 1996 de niños menores de 5 años con infección sistémica y meningitis. Se estudiaron 107 aislamientos, 60 de ellos resistentes a penicilina y 47 sensibles, 53 de los cuales fueron aislamientos de LCR. La CIM y la CBM se realizaron de acuerdo con las recomendaciones de la NCCLS; se utilizó S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 como control. Se consideraron como sensibles al cloranfenicol los aislamientos con CIM=4 ?g/ml y resistentes, con CIM=8 ?g/ml; sensibles a rifampicina con CIM=1 ?g/ml y resistentes con CIM=4 ?g/ml. La CBM se determinó con la menor concentración del antibiótico que inhibió el crecimiento del 99,9% del inóculo. Se encontró resistencia al cloranfenicol en 20,5% de los 107 aislamientos estudiados. En el grupo resistente a la penicilina, 28% fue resistente al cloranfenicol y 11% en el grupo sensible a la penicilina. La CBM para el cloranfenicol fue >4 ?g/ml en 28% de los aislamientos sensibles a la penicilina y en 60% de los resistentes. No se encontraron aislamientos resistentes a la rifampicina; sin embargo, 2 aislamientos mostraron CBM>1 ?g/ml y una CBM=16 ?g/ml. Los aislamientos de LCR presentaron la CIM y la CBM más altas que el grupo total de aislamientos. Los datos sugieren que en Colombia el cloranfenicol no

  14. Insuficiência respiratória aguda causada por pneumonia em organização secundária à terapia antineoplásica para linfoma não Hodgkin

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    Adriell Ramalho Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Doenças difusas do parênquima pulmonar pertencem a um grupo de doenças de evolução geralmente subaguda ou crônica, mas que podem determinar insuficiência respiratória aguda. Paciente masculino, 37 anos, em terapia para linfoma não Hodgkin, admitido com tosse seca, febre, dispneia e insuficiência respiratória aguda hipoxêmica. Iniciadas ventilação mecânica e antibioticoterapia, porém houve evolução desfavorável. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax mostrava opacidades pulmonares em "vidro fosco" bilaterais. Devido ao paciente ter feito uso de três drogas relacionadas à pneumonia em organização (ciclofosfamida, doxorrubicina e rituximabe e quadros clínico e radiológico serem sugestivos, iniciou-se pulsoterapia com metilprednisolona com boa resposta. Pneumonia em organização pode ser idiopática ou associada a colagenoses, drogas e neoplasias, e geralmente responde bem a corticoterapia. O diagnóstico é anatomopatológico, mas condições clínicas do paciente não permitiam a realização de biópsia pulmonar. Pneumonia em organização deve ser diagnóstico diferencial em pacientes com aparente pneumonia de evolução desfavorável ao tratamento antimicrobiano.

  15. Tratamento endovascular da síndrome da aorta média causada por arterite de Takayasu: relato de caso Endovascular treatment of the middle aortic syndrome due to Takayasu’s arteritis: case report

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    Felipe Nasser

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Síndrome da aorta média (SAM é uma condição clínica caracterizada por estenose segmentar ou difusa da aorta, hipertensão arterial e claudicação de membros inferiores. A principal causa da SAM é a arterite de Takayasu. A estenose segmentar pode estar localizada na aorta suprarrenal, renal ou infrarrenal e com alta propensão de lesões estenóticas concomitantes das artérias renais e viscerais. A gravidade da hipertensão arterial é a principal indicação para o tratmento. A técnica endovascular para o tratamento da síndrome da aorta média tem bons resultados e é a menos invasiva. No presente artigo, é descrito o tratamento com sucesso de uma estenose da aorta toracoabdominal com recanalização da artéria mesentérica superior através de angioplastia em uma mulher de 34 anos portadora de arterite de Takayasu e hipertensão arterial grave.Middle aortic syndrome (MAS is a clinical condition characterized by segmental or diffuse narrowing of the aorta, hypertension, and lower limb claudication. The main cause of MAS is Takayasu’s arteritis. Segmental aortic stenosis may be located at the suprarenal, renal or infrarenal aorta with high tendency to concomitant stenosis in both the renal and visceral arteries. Severity of hypertension is the primary indication for intervention. Endovascular therapy is a minimally invasive treatment for MAS and may provide good results. In the present report, we describe a successful endovascular treatment of stenosis of the thoracoabdominal aorta with recanalization of the superior mesenteric artery using angioplasty in a 34-year-old woman with Takaysu’s arteritis and severe hypertension.

  16. Impact of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination program on HIB meningitis in Brazil Impacto do programa de vacinação contra meningites causadas por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b no Brasil

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    Sybelle de Souza Castro Miranzi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the impact of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB in Brazil on the morbidity, mortality, and case fatality of HIB meningitis, using the Ministry of Health database and population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE. Impact was evaluated through a time series analysis (1983-2002, using regression forecasting (RF by dividing the time series into two periods: (a historical (1983-1998 and (b validation (1999-2002. Impact of the vaccination was positive, although more significant for incidence and mortality than for case fatality rates.A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da vacinação contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (HIB no Brasil sobre a morbi-mortalidade e a letalidade das meningites por HIB, a partir de base de dados fornecida pelo Ministério da Saúde e as estimativas populacionais provenientes do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE. Para a avaliação do impacto utilizou-se análise de tendência temporal (1983-2002, aplicando-se a técnica RF (regression forecasting, dividindo-se a série em dois períodos: (a período histórico (1983-1998 e (b período de estimação (1999-2002. O impacto da vacinação foi positivo, embora tenha se revelado mais expressivo sobre a morbi-mortalidade que sobre a letalidade.

  17. La marchitez tardía del maíz (Zea mays L. causada por Cephalosporium maydis en la Península Ibérica, y otros hongos asociados

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    Carmen Maria Ortiz-Bustos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de hongos de suelo asociadas a Cephalosporium maydis como agente causal de la marchitez tardía del maíz en la Península Ibérica se identificaron muestreando 19 campos con síntomas de marchitez en las principales zonas de cultivo entre 2011 y 2012. En el 47% de los campos no se identificó C. maydis, pero sí Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. equiseti, F. proliferatum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani y Trichoderma harzianum infectando las plantas de maíz. En los campos restantes, junto a C. maydis se identificaron otros hongos de suelo en porcentajes apreciables: F. verticillioides (19%, F. proliferatum (19%, F.equiseti (9%, F. oxysporum (9% y Pythium oligandrum (9%. El crecimiento vascular de C. maydis y de otras especies fúngicas en plantas de maíz se confirmó analizando plantas con marchitez procedentes de tres campos diferentes. Tanto C. maydis como F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. proliferatum y T. harzianum se aislaron de la inserción entre la raíz y tallo y a 10 cm de altura en el tallo de las plantas. El efecto de la infección por C. maydis sobre la producción de las plantas de maíz se cuantificó en macetas y condiciones seminaturales en el 2011. En plantas inoculadas se obtuvo una reducción del peso de las mazorcas del 54%, además de pesos de raíz y de parte aérea (tallo y hojas significativamente menores en comparación con el control no inoculado, lo que sugiere el gran impacto económico que puede tener la marchitez tardía en condiciones naturales. Asimismo este trabajo pone de manifiesto el grado de complejidad de la etiología de la marchitez tardía, que debería ser estudiado mediante la confirmación de la patogenicidad de los hongos de suelo identificados en maíz, con el fin de determinar el papel que puede jugar cada una de estas especies en el desarrollo de la enfermedad y/o severidad de los síntomas.

  18. Complicações decorrentes da terapia intravenosa em pacientes cirúrgicos Complicaciones causadas por la terapia intravenosa en pacientes quirúrgicos Complications due to intravenous therapy in surgical patients

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    Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A enfermagem desempenha papel primordial na prevenção e redução das complicações relacionadas ao acesso venoso. O estudo teve como objetivo o levantamento das complicações decorrentes da terapia intravenosa. Os dados de maior expressividade obtidos foram: 77,3% das punções foram realizadas pelo auxiliar de enfermagem; 68% não usaram luvas durante o procedimento; 60% das punções tiveram cuidado de enfermagem insatisfatório; 47% dos dispositivos permaneceram "in situ" de 24 a 72 horas; dentre as complicações, 20% relacionaram-se com infiltração, 5,4% infiltração e hematoma e 5,3% obstrução. Os dados sugerem a necessidade de um aprimoramento da equipe de enfermagem relacionado a terapia intravenosa.Enfermería desempeña un papel primordial en la prevención y reducción de complicaciones relacionadas con el acceso venoso. El estudio tiene como objetivo la identificación de complicaciones ocurridas en la terapia intravenosa. Los datos más relevantes que fueron obtenidos son: 77,3% de las punciones fueron realizadas por auxiliares de enfermería; 68% no usaron guantes durante el procedimiento; 60% de las punciones tuvieron cuidado de enfermería insatisfactorio; 20% relacionados con infiltraciones; 5,4% con infiltraciones y hematomas y, 5,3% con obstrucciones. Los datos sugieren la necesidad de capacitar al equipo de enfermería con respecto a la terapia intravenosa.Nursing plays an important role in prevention and reduction of complications related to venous access. This study had the purpose to find complications derived from intravenous therapy. Major data were: 77.3% of the venous accesses were performed by auxiliary nursing; 68% of the procedures were performed without gloves; 60% of the accesses were not satisfactorily performed by nurses; 47% of the cannulae were "in situ" between 24 and 72 hours; among the complications, 20% were related to infiltration, 5.4% to infiltration and hematoma and 5.3% to obstruction. Data

  19. Relación entre Incidencia y Severidad de la Roya Asiática de la Soya Causada por Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow & Sydow Relationship Between Incidence and Severity of Asian Soybean Rust Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow & Sydow

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    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se relaciona la incidencia con la severidad de la roya asiática de la soya, donde los valores generados por las ecuaciones pueden ser usados en cualquier estudio de este patosistema, proporcionando una herramienta para evaluar la incidencia como también la severidad. Se generaron gradientes de la enfermedad mediante el uso de fungicidas y momentos de aplicación, de manera preventiva y curativa. El experimento de campo con el cultivar Nidera 5909 RG, fue distribuido en bloques completos al azar. La intensidad de la roya asiática fue medida en los estratos inferior, medio y superior de la planta, a través de diferentes conteos de incidencia (porcentaje y severidad (lesiones cm-2, urédias cm-2 y porcentaje en folíolos. Las regresiones realizadas, presentaron una correlación significativa entre incidencia y severidad a 1% de probabilidad. Con los datos obtenidos, el evaluador puede escoger el método de cuantificación mas razonable o confiable a su criterio para otros trabajos de investigación o aplicar un determinado control de la enfermedad, utilizando las ecuaciones lineales generadas, facilitando el trabajo de cuantificar la roya asiática, bien se busque medir la incidencia (% o el número de lesiones cm-2, urédias cm-2 o severidad (%.Incidence is related to severity of the Asian soybean rust, where values generated by the equations can be used in any study of this pathosystem, providing a tool to evaluate incidence as well severity. Gradients of the disease were generated by means of the use of fungicides and moments of application, in a preventive and curative way. The field experiment with the cultivar Nidera RG 5909, was distributed in a randomized complete block. The intensity of Asian rust layers was measured in the lower, middle and top of the plant, through various counts of incidence (percentage and severity (lesions cm-2, uredinia cm-2 and percentage in leaflets. The regressions showed a significant correlation between

  20. Efeitos da esplenectomia na peritonite causada por lesão traumática do cólon: estudo em ratos Effects of splenectomy on peritonitis produced by a colonic injury: study in rats

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    Luís Sérgio Nassif

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito da esplenectomia na infecção intra-abdominal com bactérias da flora enteral, liberadas para a cavidade abdominal através de uma lesão induzida no cólon de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 64 animais, sendo 20 do Grupo A1 (normais sem sutura da lesão, 22 do Grupo A2 (normais com sutura da lesão e 22 do Grupo B (esplenectomizados e com sutura da lesão. Os animais foram submetidos à laparotomia mediana e a indução da peritonite intra-operatória foi obtida através de lesão do cólon previamente distendido pela introdução de uma sonda naso-gástrica via retal e injeção de 2 ml de soro fisiológico. Foram realizados exames bacteriológicos de lavado abdominal obtido por swab esterelizado e exame microscópico de segmento suturado do cólon de amostras obtidas dos grupos A2 e B com 48hs, 96hs e 12 dias de pós-operatório. Todos os animais foram submetidos a necropsia por ocasião do óbito ou no 12º. dia de pós-operatório quando os sobreviventes foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: Agentes bacterianos semelhantes foram encontrados nos três grupos: E.coli (100%; Enterococcus faecalis (97%; P. mirabilis (90%; Klebsiela pneumoniae (70%; Citobacter freundi (70% e Enterobacter aglomerans (63%. O exame microscópico revelou menor reação inflamatória no grupo esplenectomizado. A causa da morte na maioria foi peritonite nas primeiras 96hs. Houve alto índice de significância de mortalidade entre os animais do Grupo B (80% em relação ao Grupo A2 (sem mortalidade e em relação ao Grupo A1 (35%. CONCLUSÃO: Houve alto índice de significância de mortalidade em vigência de peritonite nos animais esplenectomizados em relação aos animais que não foram esplenectomizados.BACKGROUND: Study the effects of splenectomy on the intra-abdominal infection by bowel flora, consequent to a colonic injury in Wistar rats. METHODS: We used 64 animals, 20 for Group A1 (normal with colon lesion left open, 22 for Group

  1. Estudos histomorfométrico e histológico das lesões ósseas causadas por flúor em aves Histomorphometric and histological evaluations of the bone lesions caused by fluoride in chickens

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    Margarida Buss Raffi

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluoreto de sódio foi administrado na água de 2 grupos de 25 aves, fêmeas, da raça Shaver. O grupo A recebeu flúor do 1 ao 120 dia de idade e o grupo B do 61 ao 120 dia de idade. Cada grupo foi dividido em 5 níveis de tratamento: 0, 25, 50, 200 e 400 ppm de flúor, com 5 animais por tratamento. Todos os animais foram sacrificados aos 120 dias de idade. Para o estudo histomorfométrico foram coletados o fêmur e a tíbia esquerdos, e para o estudo histológico foram coletados fêmur e tíbia direitos. No estudo histomorfométrico do osso compacto observou-se um discreto aumento da porosidade cortical, que não foi estatisticamente significativo. A espessura do osso cortical aumentou nos animais tratados com flúor (pSodium fluoride was administered in the water to 2 groups of 25 Shaver female poultry. Group A received fluoride from 1 to 120 days of age and group B from 61 to 120 days. Each group was divided into 5 treatments, with 5 chickens each, which received 0, 25, 50, 200, and 400 ppm of fluoride in the water, respectively. All animals were killed at 120 days of age. For histomorphometric studies the left femur and tibia were used, and for histologic studies the right femur and tibia. In the cortical bone, cortical porosity was slightly increased by fluoride, but the differences with the control group were not significant. Cortical thickness increased in the animals treated with fluoride (p<0,05, r2 = 0,59 . In the trabecular bone, of group A, trabecular thickness (TT (p<0,05, r2 = 0,63 and trabecular bone volume (TBV (p<0,05, r2 = 0,72 increased in treatments receiving 25-200 ppm, and decreased in the 400 ppm treatment, as it was demonstrated by quadratic regression analysis. In group B there was a positive linear correlation on TT (p<0,05, r2 = 0,98 and TBV (p<0,05, r2 = 0,77 with fluoride ingestion.The osteoid surface was also positively correlated with the amount of fluoride ingested by the animals (p<0,001, r2 = 0,80. These

  2. Resultados de una encuesta sobre tratamiento de la cifosis torácica causada por enfermedad de Scheuermann Resultados de uma pesquisa sobre o tratamento da cifose torácica de Scheuermann Results of a survey on the treatment of thoracic Scheuermann´s kyphosis

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    Claudio Silveri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer que parámetros se deben considerar para encarar el tratamiento de la cifosis torácica causada por la enfermedad de Scheuermann. MÉTODO: Se realizó una recolección de informaciones consistente en aplicar un cuestionario a 25 informantes calificados, colegas de diferentes países de Íbero/Latinoamérica miembros de SILACO (Sociedad Íbero/Latinoamericana de Columna y se analizaron los resultados de las mismas. RESULTADOS: Como tratamiento ortopédico, la mayoría se inclinó por el uso del corsé de Milwaukee, indicado en pacientes prepúberes y pospúberes con curvas mayores de 60º y en curvas de menos de 60º si tienen dolor. El tiempo de uso: 22 hrs por día, su mantenimiento hasta llegar a Risser 4 o 5. Se observó una tasa de abandono de 48% al plan terapéutico. En lo referente a tratamiento quirúrgico, las indicaciones surgen: por localización de la deformidad, el valor angular, dolor, edad y estética. La extensión del área a fusionar fue determinada con los espinogramas y radiografías dinámicas. Se eligió la vía posterior como vía de abordaje con barras y tornillos, y en algunos casos la combinación con ganchos. Se evaluaron los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico (de acuerdo a la opinión del médico, que fueron catalogados como buenos en un 64%. CONCLUSIONES: Se realizó una encuesta de opinión sobre el tratamiento de la cifosis torácica causada por enfermedad de Scheuermann .y se analizaron 25 formularios de respuestas de calificados cirujanos de columna, de diferentes países de Ibero/Latinoamérica miembros de SILACO. La encuesta ha permitido establecer normas de conducta terapéuticas (ortopédicas y quirúrgicas para el tratamiento de esta afección.OBJETIVO: Obter os parâmetros a serem considerados para realizar o tratamento da cifose torácica de Scheuermann. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram obtidos por meio de um questionário que foi respondido por 25 membros da SILACO (Sociedad Ibero

  3. Surto de mastite bovina causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes

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    R.G. Motta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon outbreak of mastitis caused by Arcanobacterium pyogenes in 26 cows is reported. The epidemiological findings, clinical signs, microbiological exams, somatic cell count, in vitro susceptibility profile of strains, efficacy of intramammary treatment and control measures were discussed. Florfenicol (96.2%, cefoperazona (92.3%, cefaloxin (84.6% and ceftiofur (84.6% were the most effective antimicrobials, and neomicin (27.0% and enrofloxacin (17.4% the least effective antimicrobials.

  4. Mastite com septicemia em caninos causada por Staphylococcus intermedius

    OpenAIRE

    Borowsky, Luciane; Driemeier, David; Rozza, Daniela; Cardoso, Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema

    2003-01-01

    Os casos de mastite em caninos ocorrem mais comumente no período pós-parto ou como complicação de casos de pseudociese. Os microrganismos mais isolados nestes casos têm sido enterobactérias, estreptococos e estafilococos. Neste relato, são descritos três casos de cães com mastite aguda que evoluíram para óbito. Os animais apresentavam vômitos, abatimento, dificuldade respiratória e hálito urêmico. Na necropsia havia mastite gangrenosa e abscessos mamários nas mamas abdominais caudais e inguin...

  5. Alteraciones dentales y periodontales causadas por el stripping en ortodoncia.

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio Merchán, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Desde hace más de setenta años el desgaste interproximal o stripping forma parte de las opciones de las que disponemos en los tratamientos de ortodoncia. Inicialmente fue un procedimiento indicado solo para pacientes adultos principalmente para el tratamiento de las discrepancias dentarias y la prevención de las recidivas mediante la estabilización de los puntos de contacto. Además comenzó a emplearse como alternativa en los casos dudosos de extracción, la eliminación de triángulos n...

  6. Hiperamonemia neonatal causada por defectos del ciclo de la urea.

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    Yolanda Cifuentes C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Los defectos del ciclo de la úrea se deben a deficiencias de diferentes enzimas; las manifestaciones clínicas son similares y están relacionadas con la hiperamonemia. Se presentan las historias clínicas de tres neonatos a término, sin evidencia de alteración al nacimiento. Se les detectó hiperamonemia y se sospechó enfermedad metabólica. La cromatografía de aminoácidos sugirió defectos del ciclo de la úrea. El manejo incluyó dieta con restricción de proteínas, administración de benzoato de sodio, exsanguinotransfusión y diálisis peritoneal pese a lo cual fallecieron. Se revisan las causas de hiperamonemia en el neonato y se propone una secuencia para su diagnóstico.

  7. Burkholderia in gladiool lastige bacterie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, B.J.; Aanholt, van J.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    In de bollen- en bloementeelt van gladiolen komt de laatste jaren de bacterieziekte Burkholderia gladiola voor die onder vochtige warme omstandigheden veel uitval veroorzaken. PPO onderzocht een aantal maatregelen om de ziekte in kralen, pitten en knollen te bestrijden

  8. The frequency of nasal injury in newborns due to the use of continuous positive airway pressure with prongs La frecuencia de lesión nasal en neonatos causada por la presión positiva continua en las vías aéreas con prongs Frequência de lesão nasal em neonatos por uso de pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas com pronga

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    Renata Medeiros do Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP with prongs is the ventilatory support most used in newborns. Nasal injuries are complications that may arise due to the prolonged use of this device. This study aimed to determine the frequency of nasal injuries in newborns through the use of continuous positive airway pressure with prongs. A convenience sample composed of hospitalized newborns using prongs for more than two days was used. Data were collected through a structured form. Lesions were observed in all newborns, which were classified as: mild (79.6%, moderate (19.7% and severe (0.7%. The conclusion is that the use of prongs for more than two days represents a risk factor for the lesions to develop.La presión positiva continua en las vías aéreas con prongs es la asistencia ventiladora más utilizada en neonatología. Las lesiones nasales son complicaciones que pueden surgir debido al uso prolongado de ese dispositivo. Este estudio tuvo por objetivo determinar la frecuencia de las lesiones nasales en neonatos causadas debido al uso de presión positiva continua en las vías aéreas utilizando un prong. El muestreo fue por conveniencia, constituido de recién nacidos internados y usando prongs, y se excluyeron aquellos que utilizaban el dispositivo por un período inferior a dos días. Los datos fueron recolectas a través de un formulario estructurado. Se observaron lesiones en todos los recién nacidos, clasificadas en: ligera (79,6%, moderada (19,7% y severa (0,7%. Se concluyó que el tiempo de permanencia de las prongs, por más de dos días, es un factor de riesgo para la evolución de las etapas de las lesiones nasales.A pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas com pronga é a assistência ventilatória mais utilizada em neonatologia. Lesões nasais são complicações que podem surgir pelo uso prolongado desse dispositivo. Este estudo objetivou determinar a frequência de lesões nasais em neonatos por uso de pressão positiva

  9. Nucleotídeos na dieta de frangos de corte e seus efeitos sobre taxa de turnover da mucosa intestinal antes e após lesões causadas por coccidiose Nucleotides in broilers challenged diet and its effects on intestinal mucosa turnover rate before and after injuries caused by coccidiose

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    Vanessa Cristina Pelícia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da dieta suplementada com nucleotídeos sobre taxa de turnover da mucosa intestinal de frangos antes e após lesões causadas por coccidiose por meio de análise isotópica, utilizando a variação do carbono-13 em plantas C3 e C4. Foram utilizados 264 pintos submetidos a dois tratamentos: dieta controle e dieta suplementada com 0,07% nucleotídeos. Os pintos possuíam sinais isotópicos em seus tecidos semelhantes ao de ditas C4. Após o alojamento, para avaliar taxa de turnover da mucosa, as aves receberam dietas predominantemente C3. Com 16 dias de idade, 50% das aves de cada tratamento foram inoculadas com oocistos de Eimeria acervulina e, a partir de 21 dias, para avaliar a taxa de turnover após desafio, as aves passaram a receber dieta predominantemente C4. Amostras de mucosa foram analisadas isotopicamente por espectrometria de massa. Na fase inicial, a suplementação com nucleotídeos propiciou aceleração na troca do carbono na mucosa, com meia-vida de 1,06 e 1,01 dias para dieta controle e com nucleotídeos, respectivamente, acelerando o crescimento intestinal. Na fase de 21 a 42 dias de idade, para os grupos não desafiados com coccidiose, as meias-vidas do carbono foram 1,81 e 1,80 dias para dieta controle e com nucleotídeos, respectivamente, não havendo influência dos tratamentos. Porém, nos grupos desafiados, as meias-vidas foram 1,01 dias no grupo controle e 0,75 dias no que recebeu dieta com nucleotídeos, indicando maior turnover da mucosa nesse último grupo. A adição de nucleotídeos promove aceleração no processo de renovação da mucosa intestinal e na regeneração após danos causados por coccidiose.The objective was to evaluate the effect of nucleotides supplementation diet on the intestinal mucosa turnover rate of broilers before and after injury caused by coccidiosis, through isotopic analysis, using the carbon-13 variation in C³ and C4 plants. It was used 264

  10. Burkholderia species associated with legumes of Chiapas, Mexico, exhibit stress tolerance and growth in aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León-Martínez, José A; Yañez-Ocampo, Gustavo; Wong-Villarreal, Arnoldo

    Leguminous plants have received special interest for the diversity of β-proteobacteria in their nodules and are promising candidates for biotechnological applications. In this study, 15 bacterial strains were isolated from the nodules of the following legumes: Indigofera thibaudiana, Mimosa diplotricha, Mimosa albida, Mimosa pigra, and Mimosa pudica, collected in 9 areas of Chiapas, Mexico. The strains were grouped into four profiles of genomic fingerprints through BOX-PCR and identified based on their morphology, API 20NE biochemical tests, sequencing of the 16S rRNA, nifH and nodC genes as bacteria of the Burkholderia genus, genetically related to Burkholderia phenoliruptrix, Burkholderia phymatum, Burkholderia sabiae, and Burkholderia tuberum. The Burkholderia strains were grown under stress conditions with 4% NaCl, 45°C, and benzene presence at 0.1% as the sole carbon source. This is the first report on the isolation of these nodulating species of the Burkholderia genus in legumes in Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of topical 0.5% povidone-iodine compared to 5% natamycin in fungal keratitis caused by Fusarium solani in a rabbit model: a pilot study Efeito tópico de iodo-povidona 0,5% comparado com natamicina 5% em ceratites fúngicas causadas por Fusarium solani em um modelo animal de coelhos: estudo piloto

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    Lauro Augusto de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    tratados por 3 dias e sacrificados em seguida. As córneas foram removidas cirurgicamente, maceradas e incubadas em meio BHI. Semeou-se culturas em placas de ágar Sabouraud, diariamente, durante 7 dias, e contou-se o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC. Os coelhos foram avaliados clinicamente durante o período de tratamento. RESULTADOS: Os grupos iodo-povidona e natamicina demonstraram melhor eficácia do que o grupo controle considerando-se o número de coelhos nos quais não houve crescimento de colônias. Entretanto, não houve diferença estatística significante entre os 3 grupos quando se analizou o número de UFC (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou considerações metodológicas importantes na utilização de modelos animais para o teste de agentes antifúngicos. Usando a metodologia de contar UFC e com este tamanho amostral, administração tópica de iodo-povidona 0,5% não demonstrou benefício do tratamento de ceratite fúngica experimental causada por Fusarium solani quando comparado com a administração tópica de natamicina 5%.

  12. Efeito de indutores bióticos e abióticos na atividade de quitinase e peroxidase e no controle da ferrugem causada por Puccinia psidii em eucalipto Effect of biotic and abiotic inducers on the activities of chitinase and peroxidase and rust control caused by Puccinia psidii on Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pires Boava

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o efeito de indutores de resistência bióticos e abióticos nas atividades de quitinase e peroxidase e na redução da severidade da ferrugem do eucalipto causada por Puccinia psidii. Para isso, mudas de dois clones de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla denominados VR e C0, com sessenta dias de idade, mantidas em casa de vegetação, receberam tratamentos com Bion® (Acibenzolar-S-metil-ASM, Agro-Mos®, Dipel®, Ecolife40®, Crop-set® e uma preparação obtida a partir de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 5 dias antes da inoculação com o patógeno. Uma suspensão de uredósporos de P. psidii, coletados a partir de plantas naturalmente infectadas, foi calibrada para 5 x 10(4 uredósporos/ mL. A inoculação foi realizada na face abaxial das folhas e a avaliação se deu 15 dias após, estimando-se a severidade da doença por meio de escala de notas. Os tratamentos ASM, preparado de S. cerevisiae e Ecolife® apresentaram os melhores resultados de controle da doença e os demais tratamentos não se mostraram eficazes para o controle. O aumento de atividade das enzimas quitinase e peroxidase foi observado em ambos os clones, previamente tratados com os indutores(ASM e S. cerevisiae, 48 horas após a inoculação com o fungo.This study was aimed at verifying the effect of biotic and abiotic resistance inducers on the activities of chitinase and peroxidase as well as on the reduction of rust caused by Puccinia psidii in eucalyptus. Thus, seedlings of two 60-day eucalyptus clones were kept in a greenhouse and treated with Bion® (Acibenzolar-S-methyl, ASM, Agro-Mos®, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Dipel®, Ecolife 40®, and Crop-set®, at 5 days before the pathogen inoculation. A suspension of P. psidii uredospores, collected from naturally infected plants, was adjusted to 5 x 10(4 uredospores/mL. Inoculation was carried out onto the dorsal leaf surface and 15 days later the disease severity was assessed according to a grading scale. ASM

  13. Inefficacy of albendazole sulphoxide and ivermectin for the treatment of bovine parasitic otitis caused by rhabditiform nematodes Ineficácia do sulfóxido de albendazole e da ivermectina no tratamento da otite parasitária bovina causada por nematóides rhabditiformes

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    Guilherme G. Verocai

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of orally administered albendazole sulphoxide and pour-on ivermectin for the treatment of bovine parasitic otitis caused by rhabditiform nematodes. Eighteen Gyr cows presenting clinical otitis were divided in three groups with six animals each. The first one did not receive any treatment (control group. The second one was treated with 0.5% pour-on ivermectin, 500µg/kg of body weight, and the third group was treated with oral 6% albendazole sulphoxide, at 6.0mg/kg. Both ear canals of each animal were reexamined on days 7 and 21 post treatment. The animals in the control group remained infected throughout the days of observation. Ivermectin treatment did not show effectiveness on days 7 or 21 post treatment. The albendazole sulphoxide treatment had an efficacy of 16.7 and 25% on days 7 and 21, respectively. Further studies are required to assess an effective treatment for this parasitic disease, especially via alternative administration routes, because of its significant impact on Bos taurus indicus cattle breeding in Tropical and Subtropical Regions.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do sulfóxido de albendazol administrado oralmente e da ivermectina "pour-on" no tratamento da otite parasitária bovina causada por nematóides rhabditiformes. Dezoito vacas Gir apresentando otite clínica foram divididas em três grupos de seis animais cada. O primeiro não recebeu tratamento (grupo controle. O segundo foi tratado com ivermectina "pour-on" a 0,05% na dose de 500µg/kg de peso vivo. O terceiro grupo foi tratado com sulfóxido de albendazol oral a 6% na dose 6,0mg/kg. Os condutos auditivos de todos os animais foram reexaminados nos dias 7 e 21 pós-tratamento. Os animais do grupo controle permaneceram infectados nos dias de observação. O tratamento com ivermectina não demonstrou eficácia alguma para os dias 7 e 21 pós-tratamento. O tratamento com sulfóxido de albendazol obteve

  14. Proteinograma sérico em muares naturalmente infectados pela Burkholderia mallei

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    Rinaldo Aparecido Mota

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A Burkholderia mallei é a bactéria causadora do mormo, doença de alta morbidade e letalidade para os eqüídeos, e também uma zoonose. Recentemente diagnosticada nos estados de Pernambuco e Alagoas, vem dizimando populações de eqüídeos na Região da Zona da Mata destes estados, causando grandes prejuízos à atividade canavieira que utiliza tais animais como tração. Objetivou-se com este trabalho investigar as alterações protéicas causadas pelo mormo. Foram estudados 90 muares adultos, de diferentes raças, destinados ao trabalho, provenientes da região canavieira, Zona da Mata, do Estado de Pernambuco. Estes foram divididos em três grupos: G1: composto por trinta animais sorologicamente negativos para o mormo; G2: composto por trinta animais sorologicamente positivos e sem sintomatologia clínica aparente e G3: composto por trinta animais sorologicamente positivos e com sintomatologia clínica aparente. Os resultados obtidos, referentes à média dos parâmetros estudados para G1, G2 e G3 foram respectivamente: proteína sérica total 7,33; 7,73 e 7,46g/dl; albumina 2,57; 2,43 e 1,81g/dl; globulinas 4,37; 4,86 e 5,64g/dl; relação albumina/globulinas 0,55; 0,47 e 0,34g/dl; alfa-globulina 1.06; 1.33 e 1,33g/dl; beta-globulina 1,10; 1,21 e 1,80g/dl e gama-globulina 2,21; 2,32 e 2,51g/dl. Conclui-se que as variações para os parâmetros estudados foram significativas, o aumento das globulinas caracteriza um estímulo antigênico nos animais positivos, bem como uma inversão na relação albumina/globulinas para os animais com clínica aparente em relação aos demais animais. Estes achados poderão ser considerados no diagnóstico, prognóstico e em pesquisas futuras que visem estudar formas de imunização contra esta importante enfermidade.

  15. "Efecto de un plástico fotoselectivo y de una pantalla climática en la enfermedad causada por el hongo Botrytis cinerea Pers. y en el negreamiento de los pétalos en un cultivo de rosas (Rosahybrida"

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    Rodríguez Ramírez Aníbal

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to compare the postharvest
    performance of the disease caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers., as well as the Petal Blackening in roses grown in greenhouses cover with plastic of different transmittance to the ultraviolet light. Furthermore, the effect of a climatic screen over the two problems was evaluated. The trial was
    done in the "Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales" located in Chía, Cundinamarca, under greenhouses with the same features as the ones used in commercial rose cultivation, with the varieties "Eterna" and "Madame Delbard" and its clones 13 and 15. The effect of the plastic over the disease made a clear difference, showing a lower development of the diseas e in the greenhouse covered with photoselective plastic, as compared with the commercially used plastic. A lower effect of this cover was
    found related to the Petal Blackening, where the results were rather similar between the two plastic types. The climatic screen did not show difference over any of the two problems, under these conditions. The effect of the varieties was not very clear related to the disease, but it in fact was in relation
    to the Petal Blackening, in which the variety "Madame
    Delbard" showed a better performance than its clones 13 and 15. No effect was shown in the interactions between the factors.
    El objetivo de la presente investigación fue comparar el comportamiento en postcosecha de la enfermedad causada por el hongo Botrytis cinerea Pers., así como el "negreamiento de los pétalos" en rosas cultivadas bajo invernaderos cubiertos con plásticos de diferente filtración de la luz ultravioleta. Adicionalmente, se evaluó el efecto de una
    pantalla climática sobre los dos problemas. El ensayo se realizó en el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales, localizado en el municipio de Chía, Cundinamarca, en un invernadero con las mismas características de

  16. Avaliação de Passifloraceas, fungicidas e Trichoderma para o manejo da Podridão-do-colo do maracujazeiro, causada por Nectria haematococca Evaluation of Passifloraceas, fungicides and Trichoderma for passion fruit collar rot handling, caused by Nectria haematococca

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    Ivan Herman Fischer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A baixa produtividade do maracujazeiro-amarelo é devida, muitas vezes, a problemas fitossanitários, sendo a Podridão-do-colo, causada por Nectria haematococca, um dos principais problemas na maioria dos Estados produtores do Brasil. O controle desta doença é basicamente preventivo, evitando a introdução do agente patogênico na área. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos: a avaliar o comportamento do maracujazeiro-amarelo 'Afruvec', 'IAC 275' e 'Maguary', do tipo pé-franco, e 'Afruvec' enxertado em cinco espécies de Passiflora (P. alata, P. maliformis, P. morifolia, P. mucronata e P. suberosa, em pomar com histórico de Podridão-do-colo; e b avaliar a eficiência de produtos químicos (oxicloreto de cobre, procloraz e tiabendazol e biológicos (Trichoderma harzianum e Trichoderma sp. no controle da Podridão-do-colo em maracujazeiro-amarelo 'Afruvec', sob condições de campo. As espécies P. maliformis, P. suberosa e P. alata, empregadas como porta-enxerto, apresentaram maior resistência à Podridão-do-colo do maracujazeiro em relação às plantas não enxertadas. Os produtos químicos e biológicos, aplicados em intervalos mensais ou quinzenais no colo da planta (500 mL de calda, não foram eficientes no controle da doença.The low productivity of yellow passion fruit is due often to the phytosanitary problems, being the Collar rot caused by Nectria haematococca, one of the main problems in the majority of the producing States of Brazil. The disease control is basically preventive, avoiding the introduction of the pathogen in the area. So, the present work aimed at: a evaluating the behavior of ungrafted yellow passion fruit cultivars 'Afruvec', 'IAC 275' and 'Maguary' and 'Afruvec' passion fruit grafted on five Passiflora species (Passiflora alata, P. maliformis, P. morifolia, P. mucronata and P. suberosa in orchard where the disease is frequent; and b evaluating the efficiency of chemical (copper oxychloride

  17. Reação de híbridos, linhagens e progênies de pimentão à requeima causada por Phytophthora capsici e ao mosaico amarelo causado por Pepper yellow mosaic vírus (PepYMV Reaction of hybrids, lines and progenies of sweet pepper the blight caused by Phytophthora capsici and to Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV

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    Ildon Rodrigues do Nascimento

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A requeima do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. causada por Phytophthora capsici e o mosaico amarelo causado por PepYMV são prioridades nos programas de melhoramento de pimentão em andamento no Brasil. Foram avaliados três híbridos comerciais (Magali R, Atenas F1 e Fortuna Super F1, cinco linhagens, 20 híbridos experimentais e duas progênies F2:4 do programa de melhoramento da Universidade Federal de Lavras/HortiAgro Sementes quanto à reação a P. capsici e a PepYMV. Os experimentos foram montados independentemente em blocos casualizados, com quatro e duas repetições, respectivamente. Cada parcela foi constituída de oito plantas instaladas em bandejas de 128 células, que foram mantidas em estufa com cobertura plástica e laterais teladas. As avaliações foram feitas do 4º ao 14º e do 15º ao 40º dias após a inoculação (DAI para P. capsici e PepYMV, respectivamente. A inoculação com P. capsici foi feita pormeio da distribuição de 5 mL de suspensão com 10(4 zoósporos/mL no solo ao redor do colo de cada planta. A inoculação mecânica de PepYMV foi feita a partir de macerados de folhas de Nicotiana tabacum cv. TNN, previamente infectadas. Os híbridos Magali R e Fortuna Super, foram suscetíveis a P. capsici, enquanto que o acesso Criollo de Morellos 334, a linhagem PIM-013 e as progênies PIX-03 pl#03-2 e PIX-030 pl#06-3 (ambas originadas do cruzamento com Criollo de Morellos, foram resistentes. Reação de resistência a P. capsici foi também observada para os híbridos experimentais que tiveram PIM-013 como uma das linhagens parentais. Criollo de Morellos 334, as progênies PIX-03 pl#03-2 e PIX-030 pl#06-3, o híbrido comercial Magali R e outros 6 híbridos experimentais que tinham como um dos genitores a linhagem MYR-29 forma ressitentes ao PepYMV. As progênies PIX-03 pl#03-2 e PIX-030 pl#06-3 são fontes promissoras de resistência a ambos os patógenos para serem desenvolvidas e exploradas em programas de melhoramento

  18. Terapia de resgate com amiodarona em crianças com grave disfunção ventricular esquerda causada por veneno de escorpião Terapia de rescate con amiodarona en niños con severa disfunción ventricular izquierda ocasionada por veneno de escorpión Antiadrenergic rescue therapy with amiodarone in children with severe left ventricular dysfunction secondary to scorpion envenomation

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    Justo J. Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As crianças picadas por escorpião, pressintam ativação maciça do sistema nervoso simpática com vários graus de disfunção sistólica ventricular esquerda. OBJETIVO: Testar um protocolo de resgate em crianças com grave disfunção ventricular esquerda causada por picada de escorpião. Métodos: Quatro crianças após serem picadas por escorpião foram submetidas a: Encubação endotraqueal e suporte respiratório, eletrocardiograma, radiografia de tórax, ecocardiograma e determinação sérica da norepinefrina e troponina I. As análises foram repetidas após 12, 24 e 48 horas. As seguintes medicações intravenosas foram administradas: dobutamina 4-6 μg/kg/min; amiodarona 3 mg/kg durante duas horas, com dose de manutenção de 5 mg/kg/dia; e furosemida 0,5 mg/kg. Amiodarona, dobutamina e furosemida foram administradas durante as primeiras 48 horas. Bloqueadores beta-adrenérgicos e inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina foram administrados até 48 após a internação, uma vez que o estado clínico havia melhorado e a fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda encontrava-se acima de 0,35%. RESULTADOS: Na admissão, a dosagem da norepinefrina foi 1.727,50± 794,96 pg/ml, a de troponina I 24,53 ± 14,09 ng/ml e a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo foi 0,20 ± 0,056. Após 12 horas, os níveis séricos de norepinefrina e de troponina I diminuíram para a metade dos valores iniciais e a fração de ejeção aumentou para 0,32 ± 0,059. Durante as 24 e 48 horas subseqüentes, a fração de ejeção elevou-se para 0,46 ± 0,045 (pFUNDAMENTO: Los niños con picaduras de escorpión sufren activación masiva del sistema nervioso simpático con varios grados de disfunción sistólica ventricular izquierda. OBJETIVO: Probar un protocolo de rescate en niños con disfunción ventricular severa izquierda ocasionada por picadura de escorpión. MÉTODOS: Cuatro niños tras un escorpión picarlas se sometieron a: incubaci

  19. Burkholderia glumae EN EL CULTIVO DE ARROZ EN COSTA RICA

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    Andrea Quesada-Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  20. Human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in Santiago del Estero, Argentina: identification of parasites by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzymes Leishmaniose cutânea humana causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis na Província de Santiago del Estero, Argentina: identificação dos parasitas por anticorpos monoclonais e isoenzimas

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    C.A. Cuba Cuba

    1996-12-01

    pacientes humanos com lesões cutâneas de leishmaniose na Província de Santiago del Estero, no Norte da Argentina. Os procedimentos de diagnóstico foram: biópsias de lesões para utilização em esfregaços e inoculação em hamster; aspiração (com agulha de úlceras, para cultura "in vitro". As técnicas imunodiagnósticas empregadas foram a IFAT-IgG e o teste intradérmico de Montenegro. Oito cepas de parasitas foram isoladas, sendo estas obtidas de pacientes com lesões ativas. Todas as cepas foram inicialmente caracterizadas biologicamente por seu comportamento na infecção experimental do hamster, mensuração dos amastigotas e promastigotas e crescimento "in vitro". As mesmas oito cepas foram logo identificadas e caracterizadas a nível de espécie, devido a sua reatividade frente a um painel de anticorpos monoclonais subgênero e espécie-específicos. Isso foi realizado utilizando o teste de Imunofluorescência Indireta (IFAT/MAbs e de um procedimento de Dot-ELISA. Nós concluímos a partir da análise de serodema dos isolados argentinos que: MHOM/AR/92/SE-1; SE-2; SE-4; SE-8; SE-8-I; SE-30; SE-34 e SE-36 são Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Entretanto, três dos isolados de Leishmania (SE-1; SE-2 e SE-30 não foram reconhecidos quando testados com um anticorpo monoclonal de reconhecida alta espécie-especificidade (clone B-18, marcador consagrado de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, revelando a existência de dois tipos de serodemas entre as cepas estudadas. Cinco dos oito extratos solúveis de Leishmania foram submetidos à eletroforese em gel de amido de camada fina e subseqüentemente examinadas a fim de constatar a atividade das enzimas MPI, MDH, 6PGD, NH, NH-D, SOD, GPI e ES. Fundamentados nos estudos dos corridos eletroforéticos obtidos nos ensaios isoenzimáticos chegamos à conclusão que as cepas MHOM/AR/92 SE-1; SE-2; SE-4; SE-8 e SE-8-I são Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. É necessário analisar mais enzimas antes de enquadrá-los nos

  1. Comparison of the pain severity, drug leakage and ecchymosis rates caused by the application on tramadol intramuscular injection in Z-track and Air-lock techniques Comparación de la severidad del dolor y las tasas de escape de líquido y equimosis causadas por la aplicación intramuscular de tramadol usando las técnicas de cámara de aire y Z-track Comparação da severidade da dor e as taxas de fuga de líquidas equimoses causadas pela aplicação intramuscular de tramadol usando as técnicas de câmaras de ar e Z-track

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    Shahla Najafidolatabad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the pain severity caused by the application of the Z-track and Air-lock intramuscular injections. Methodology. Unblinded clinical trial, where 90 female subjects aged between 18 and 60 years old were randomly assigned to two groups; the first group received the tramadol intramuscular injection using the Z-track technique (ZT and the second group received it through the air- lock method (AL. A 10 centimeter linear visual scale was used to evaluate the injection pain. The scale length was considered as the pain severity. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 13. Groups' age, Body Mass index (BMI, and pain intensity were compared using unpaired student's t test. Results. The study showed that the pain severity of patients in the AL method group was lower than in the ZT technique group (pObjetivo. Comparar la severidad del dolor y las tasas de escape de líquido y equimosis causadas por la aplicación de las inyecciones intramusculares usando la técnica Z-track (ZT y la técnica de la cámara de aire (CA. Metodología. Este es un ensayo clínico no ciego donde un grupo de 90 mujeres entre los 18 y 60 años fueron aleatoriamente asignadas a dos grupos; El primer grupo recibió la inyección por medio de la técnica ZT y el segundo por medio de la técnica de CA. Se uso una escala visual lineal de 10 centímetros para medir la intensidad del dolor causado por la inyección. La longitud de la escala fue considerada como la severidad del dolor. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el programa SPSS versión 13. La edad, el índice de Masa Corporal (IMC, y la intensidad del dolor de los grupos fueron comparados usando el test de la t para muestras independientes. Resultados. El estudio mostró que la severidad del dolor y las tasas de escape de líquido y equimosis en las pacientes evaluadas usando el método CA era menor que el dolor causado por la técnica ZT (p Objetivo. Comparar a severidade da dor e as taxas de escape de

  2. Literature Review of DNA-Based Subspecies Analysis of Bacillus Anthracis Burkholderia Pseudomallel Burkholderia Mallei, and Yersinia Pestis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, Steven

    1999-01-01

    ...; Bacillus anthracis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia mallei, and Yersinia pestis. Considerable research has been accomplished for the identification of polymorphisms from the strains B. anthracis and B. pseudomallei. The B...

  3. Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica.

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    Andrea Quesada-González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  4. Burkholderia gladioli sepsis in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Arzu; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Karagol, Belma Saygili; Hakan, Nilay; Okumus, Nurullah; Gol, Nese; Tanir, Gonul

    2012-10-01

    Burkholderia gladioli is a rare cause of bacteremia and sepsis in the absence of such predisposing factors as chronic granulomatous disease, cystic fibrosis, and immunosuppression. Little is known about B. gladioli infection in newborns. The aim of this study was to present the features of B. gladioli infection in newborns. Clinicopathological characteristics, patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility, predisposing factors, and outcomes of B. gladioli bloodstream infection were retrospectively analyzed in newborns treated between 2008 and 2011. During the 3-year study period, B. gladioli was isolated from the blood cultures of 14 patients (3.7 per 1,000 admissions). In all, 5 (35.7 %) of the 14 cases had a positive blood culture at the time of initial admission. Primary diagnoses in the neonates were severe major congenital anomalies, congenital leukemia, prematurity with respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, and parapneumonic pleural effusion. In total, 10 (71.4 %) of the patients underwent ≥2 invasive procedures. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 21.4 %, whereas the mortality rate due to B. gladioli infection was 7 %. B. gladioli might be a causative microorganism of both early neonatal and nosocomial sepsis in newborns. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on B. gladioli infection in newborns. Invasive procedures and severe major congenital anomalies may be predisposing factors for B. gladioli bloodstream infection in neonates. Although it appears to have low pathogenic potential and an insidious clinical course in newborns, resistance to antibiotics may be a potential problem. Mortality was primarily associated with underlying diseases.

  5. Protocolo en el tratamiento de lesiones causadas por ondas expansivas: impacto sobre el diagnóstico tardío y una mejor oportunidad de manejo en un hospital académico nivel III – IV de atención

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    Juan Sanjuán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones producidas por ondas expansivas comprometen diferentes áreas anatómicas por su mecanismo de lesión y se traducen en traumatismos severos. En Colombia, las principales causas de estas lesiones las constituyen situaciones de guerra y ataques terroristas puesto que el país se ha visto inmerso en la violencia durante varios años. Material y Métodos: Debido a la severidad y el compromiso de áreas resultantes de ese tipo de eventos, se diseñó e implemento un protocolo de atención que se propuso realizar lo siguiente: 1 Aplicar la evaluación primaria y secundaria del paciente, según los lineamientos del Soporte Vital Avanzado en Trauma del Colegio Americano de Cirujanos. 2 Hacer la evaluación sistemática por áreas anatómicas por parte del departamento quirúrgico, orientándola hacia el examen de las lesiones descritas con mayor frecuencia. 3 Llevar a cabo posteriormente una valoración de las lesiones específicas de acuerdo con las especialidades relacionadas. Para identificar las lesiones más frecuentes, se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de los casos registrados en el Hospital Universitario de Neiva, centro de referencia para el suroccidente de Colombia. Resultados: Durante ese periodo, se atendieron 35 pacientes cuyas áreas anatómicas comprometidas más frecuentes fueron las extremidades inferiores (con un registro del 60% de los casos, el abdomen (54,3% y el tórax (42,9%. La mortalidad general del grupo fue de 9,1%. Después de la implementación, se demostró una mejoría en la oportunidad de evaluación por cirugía general y se identificaron 6 pacientes con diagnósticos tardíos, previos a la implementación del protocolo. Conclusión: Este estudio determinó que la implementación de una revisión secuencial y un protocolo sistemático permiten mejorar la tasa de diagnósticos tardíos optimizando la evaluación diagnostica y el abordaje terapéutico.

  6. Aspectos microbiológicos de Burkholderia cepacia complex en pacientes con fibrosis quística

    OpenAIRE

    Mirambell Viñas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    La fibrosis quística (FQ) es la enfermedad hereditaria autosómica recesiva más frecuente entre la población caucásica. La principal causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en estos pacientes es por afectación pulmonar; mayoritariamente se producen infecciones respiratorias por Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia y algunas especies del complejo Burkholderia cepacia (Bcc). Cerca del 5% de los pacientes con FQ, se encuentran colonizados o ...

  7. Innate Immune Response to Burkholderia mallei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-16

    vaccination and therapeutic approaches are necessary for complete protection against B. mallei. Keywords: Innate Immune response, Burkholderia mallei...immune signaling, cellular immunity, vaccine . TR-17-034 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED...Currently, no licensed vaccines are available for either disease, and medical therapeutic options are limited. Both B. pseudomallei and B. mallei

  8. Burkholderia pseudomallei Antibodies in Children, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheaktra, Ngoun; Putchhat, Hor; Sin, Lina; Sen, Bun; Kumar, Varun; Langla, Sayan; Peacock, Sharon J.; Day, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei were detected in 16% of children in Siem Reap, Cambodia. This organism was isolated from 30% of rice paddies in the surrounding vicinity. Despite the lack of reported indigenous cases, melioidosis is likely to occur in Cambodia. PMID:18258125

  9. Diagnosis of neonatal group B Streptococcus sepsis by nested-PCR of residual urine samples Diagnóstico de sepse neonatal causada pelo estreptococo do grupo B por meio de dupla amplificação de amostras residuais de urina

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    Bruno Nicolino Cezarino

    2008-03-01

    four patients. Moreover, PCR has enabled us to use residue volumes of urine samples collected by non invasive, non sterile methods, what is technically adequate as GBS is not part of the normal urine flora, thus avoiding invasive procedures such as suprapubic bladder punction or transurethral catheterization. At the same time, the use of urine instead of blood samples could help preventing newborns blood spoliation.O estreptococo do grupo B (GBS constitui a causa mais freqüente de sepse neonatal precoce. O teste de referência continua sendo o isolamento em cultura, apesar de apresentar problemas de sensibilidade. O objetivo do presente estudo foi validar uma técnica de dupla amplificação e determinar a possibilidade do uso de amostras residuais de urina colhidas por método não invasivo, não estéril, para a confirmação da sepse por GBS em recém-nascidos. As amostras foram amplificadas com primers do principal gene de superfície do GBS. A insuficiência de volume de material biológico para a realização de exames para suporte de vida, além de outros necessários à identificação do agente etiológico de infecções é muito freqüente em recém-nascidos. Mesmo assim, decidimos definir critérios bastante rigorosos para a inclusão de pacientes na casuística: os recém-nascidos deveriam apresentar sinais e sintomas compatíveis com infecção pelo GBS; deveriam ter tido ao menos uma amostra enviada para cultura, podendo ser sangue, urina ou líquor; disponibilidade de volumes residuais dessas amostras, ou de outras colhidas no dia da hospitalização, antes da introdução da antibioticoterapia, de forma a possibilitar a análise por PCR, e evolução favorável com a antibioticoterapia empírica. Em apenas um dos quatro recém-nascidos a infecção foi confirmada por cultura, enquanto nos outros três casos a infecção foi considerada presuntiva (pacientes preencheram os critérios de inclusão, mas o GBS não foi isolado. De um total de 12 amostras

  10. Immunohistochemical changes in kidney glomerular and tubular proteins caused by rattlesnake (Crotalus vegrandis venom Cambios inmunohistoquímicos en proteínas de túbulo y glomérulo renal causadas por el veneno de la serpiente de cascabel (Crotalus vegrandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Girón

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal damage is an important cause of death in patients who have survived the early effects of severe crotalid envenomation. Extracellular matrix of renal tissue is altered by Crotalus toxin activities. The aim of this study was to describe how cytoskeletal proteins and basal membrane components undergo substantial alterations under the action of Crotalus vegrandis crude venom and its hemorrhagic fraction (Uracoina-1 in mice. To detect the proteins in question, the immunoperoxidase method with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies was used. Cell types within renal lesions were characterized by phenotypic identification, by means of immunohistologic analysis of marker proteins using different primary antibodies against mesangial cells, endothelial cells, cytoskeletal proteins (intermediate filament, extracellular matrix and basal membranes. Samples for morphological study by standard procedures (biotin-streptavidin-peroxidase technique using light microscopy were processed. Positive and negative controls for each antigen tested in the staining assay were included. After crude venom and hemorrhagic fraction inoculation of mice, the disappearance of cytoskeletal vimentin and desmin and collagen proteins in the kidney was observed. In extracellular matrix and basal membranes, collagen type IV from envenomed animals tends to disappear from 24 h to 120 h after venom injection.El daño renal es una causa importante de muerte en pacientes que sobreviven a los efectos iniciales de los severos envenenamientos crotálicos. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido el describir como las proteínas del citoesqueleto y los componentes de membrana basal muestran alteraciones importantes en su manifestación, bajo la acción del veneno crudo de Crotalus vegrandis y una fracción hemorrágica (Uracoina-1 del mismo veneno ya que, la matriz extracelular del tejido renal es alterada por la actividad de estas toxinas. Para detectar las proteínas en cuestión se utiliz

  11. The histopathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico Histopatologia de la leishmaniasis cutánea causada por Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana en la península de Yucatán, México

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    Fernando J. Andrade-Narvaez

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL known as "chiclero's ulcer" in southeast Mexico, was described by SEIDELIN in 1912. Since then the sylvatic region of the Yucatan peninsula has been documented as an endemic focus of LCL. This study of 73 biopsies from parasitological confirmed lesions of LCL cases of Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana infection was undertaken: 1 to examine host response at tissue level; and 2 to relate manifestations of this response to some characteristics of clinical presentation. Based on Magalhães' classification we found that the most common pattern in our LCL cases caused by L. (L. mexicana was predominantly characterized by the presence of unorganized granuloma without necrosis, (43.8%. Another important finding to be highlighted is the fact that in 50/73 (68.5% parasite identification was positive. There was direct relation between the size of the lesion and time of evolution (r s = 0.3079, p = 0.03, and inverse correlation between size of the lesion and abundance of amastigotes (r s = -0.2467, p = 0.03. In view of the complexity of clinical and histopathological findings, cell-mediated immune response of the disease related to clinical and histopathological features, as so genetic background should be studied.La Leishmaniosis Cutánea Localizada (LCL mejor conocida como "úlcera del chiclero" en el sureste de México fue descrita por SEIDELIN en 1912. Desde entonces la región selvática de la península de Yucatán ha sido identificada como un área endémica de LCL. En el presente estudio se analizaron 73 biopsias de lesiones de casos de LCL causados por Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana con el fin de: 1 examinar la respuesta a nivel tisular; y 2 relacionar las manifestaciones de esta respuesta con ciertas características de la presentación clínica. Con base en la clasificación histopatológica de Magalhães el patrón histopatológico más frecuente se caracterizó por la presencia de granuloma desorganizado y

  12. Fotossensibilização primária em eqüídeos e ruminantes no semi-árido causada por Froelichia humboldtiana (Amaranthaceae Primary photosensitization in equidae and ruminants in the Brazilian semi-arid caused by Froelichia humboldtiana (Amaranthaceae

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    Luciano A. Pimentel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fotossensibilização é freqüente em eqüinos no semi-árido da região Nordeste, mas jumentos, mulas, ovinos e bovinos são, também, afetados. A dermatite afeta, principalmente, áreas de pele despigmentadas e os animais se recuperam após serem retirados das pastagens. Para comprovar a etiologia da enfermidade Froelichia humboldtiana (Roem. et Schult. Seub., coletada no campo foi administrada no mesmo dia da colheita ou após ser mantida em refrigerador por 1-4 dias, por períodos de 30 ou mais dias, ad libitum como único alimento, a 2 jumentos e um ovino branco e, como único alimento volumoso, a um eqüino branco. Esses animais não manifestaram sinais clínicos e as atividades séricas de gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT, aspartato-aminotransferase (AST e alanino-aminotransferase (ALT ficaram dentro dos valores normais. Em outro experimento, um ovino foi colocado a pastar diariamente, durante o dia, preso por uma corda em uma área que tinha exclusivamente F. humboldtiana, por um período de 26 dias. Lesões características de fotossensibilização foram observadas 4-5 dias após o início do experimento. Após cessar o consumo da planta, no 26º dia, o ovino recuperou-se totalmente em 30 dias. Em outro experimento, 4 ovinos foram também colocados, presos por cordas, na mesma área. Outros 4 permaneceram como controles em uma pastagem vizinha, mas sem F. humboldtiana. Lesões de pele, características de fotossensibilização foram observadas após 11-25 dias de consumo de F. humboldtiana. As atividades séricas de AST e GGT, e os níveis de bilirrubina sérica permaneceram dentro dos valores normais. No final do período de permanência em pastagens de F. humboldtiana, 2 ovinos foram abatidos e 2 foram retirados da pastagem. Os que foram abatidos não apresentaram lesões macroscópicas nem histológicas do fígado; os outros dois se recuperaram das lesões da pele 17 e 20 dias após o fim do pastejo. Uma égua e seu potro foram

  13. Identificação de enfermidades agudas causadas por animais e plantas em ambientes rurais e litorâneos: auxílio à prática dermatológica Identification of acute diseases caused by animals and plants in wild environments: contribution to dermatologic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Nos últimos anos, existe um aumento progressivo do contato de moradores urbanos com ambientes selvagens devido a atividades de lazer. Com isso, algumas dermatites pouco conhecidas podem ser observadas nas clínicas privadas e ambulatórios dermatológicos, especialmente nos inícios de semana e finais de férias. OBJETIVOS: Obter e fornecer informações para dermatologistas sobre o problema. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: O autor observou, em adultos e crianças, dermatites agudas associadas a plantas ou animais em Ubatuba, cidade litorânea de São Paulo, por dois meses (junho/julho de 2006 e na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, também por dois meses (junho/julho de 2007. RESULTADOS: Foram observados 25 pacientes na área rural e 43 na área litorânea nas condições estabelecidas. Em áreas rurais, foram mais observadas fitofotodermatites e picadas de insetos, enquanto em áreas litorâneas traumas por ouriços-do-mar e fitofotodermatites predominaram; entretanto, em ambas as áreas ocorreram outros acidentes de difícil identificação na prática diária. CONCLUSÕES: Devemos estar atentos ao fato de o paciente procurar o dermatologista somente após as fases agudas dos acidentes. Informações sobre as enfermidades mais comuns e suas características podem ser muito úteis para a prática nos consultórios. O autor sugere uma tabela algorítmica para auxílio diagnóstico.BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been increasing contact between human beings that live in urban regions and the wild environment due to a series of activities. As a result, some poorly known dermatitis may present in private and dermatological clinics, especially early in the week and at the end of vacation periods. OBJECTIVES: To obtain and provide information for dermatologists on the problem. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The author observed adult and pediatric patients with acute dermatitis associated with plants or animals in Ubatuba, coastal city of Sao Paulo

  14. Efeito de fungicidas cúpricos, aplicados isoladamente ou em combinação com mancozeb, na expressão de sintomas de fitotoxicidade e controle da ferrugem causada por Puccinia psidii em goiabeira Effect of copper fungicides, sprayed alone or in combination with mancozeb, in expression of phytotoxicity symptoms and rust control caused by Puccinia psidii in guava

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    Antonio de Goes

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em pomares de goiabeira 'Paluma', nos municípios de Monte Alto e Vista Alegre do Alto-SP. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se o efeito de formulações de fungicidas cúpricos, aplicados isoladamente e em mistura com mancozeb, quanto ao efeito fitotóxico em botões florais e em frutos de goiabeira, em três estádios de desenvolvimento. No segundo experimento, foram avaliados os mesmos fungicidas usados no primeiro experimento, sendo, porém, acrescido do tratamento constituído por tebuconazole, cujo alvo foi sua eficiência no controle da ferrugem. No primeiro experimento, verificou-se que nenhum dos fungicidas testados causou abortamento de flores ou outros tipos de sintomas de fitotoxicidade em frutos de tamanho inferior a 15 mm de diâmetro. Contrariamente, estes fungicidas, quando aplicados isoladamente, em frutos entre 25 a 35 mm de diâmetro, causaram sintomas severos de fitotoxicidade. Em frutos de tamanho superior a 40 mm de diâmetro, estes fungicidas causaram sintomas de fitotoxicidade de níveis leves a moderados. A combinação de fungicidas cúpricos com mancozeb causou sintomas de fitotoxicidade em níveis leves, enquanto com mancozeb isoladamente não foram verificados sintomas de fitotoxicidade. No segundo experimento, verificou-se que os fungicidas cúpricos, aplicados isoladamente, foram eficientes no controle da ferrugem da goiabeira, apresentando eficiência comparável ao tratamento-padrão representado por tebuconazole. Esta eficiência foi também observada mediante o emprego da combinação mancozeb e óxido cuproso ou hidróxido de cobre.Two experiments were carried out in guava orchards cv. 'Paluma' at Monte Alto and Vista Alegre do Alto/SP. In Experiment 1 it was used copper fungicides applied alone and in combination with mancozeb to evaluate the effect of phytotoxicity on floral buds and guava fruits in three developmental stages. In Experiment 2 it was used the same fungicides

  15. Alterações histopatológicas em fígado de dourado Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Characidae causadas por Neocucullanus neocucullanus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira 1828 (Nematoda “Dourado”, Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Characidae liver histopatologic alterations caused by Neocucullanus neocucullanus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira 1828 (Nematoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antenor Aguiar Santos

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram capturados 293 exemplares de Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1840, (Osteichthyes, Characidae no rio Mogi-Guaçu, Cachoeira de Emas, de agosto de 1996 a dezembro de 1997. Amostras de fígado de 45 exemplares que apresentaram parasitos, Neocucullanus neocullanus Travassos, Artigas e Pereira, 1928 (prevalência de 15,35%, foram fixadas em Bouin e processadas para inclusão em parafina. Cortes de 5 µm foram corados por HE, Tricrômico de Mallory e submetidos ao PAS contracorados com Hematoxilina. Macroscopicamente nos fígados que se apresentavam parasitados, havia infecção nas regiões centrais e periféricas, algumas vezes com perfuração do estroma do órgão, permitindo visão do cisto externamente. Microscopicamente e circunscrito à região da instalação do parasito, encontrou-se desorganização intensa do tecido, com células típicas de processo inflamatório ativo e de uma discreta deposição de fibrina ao redor do foco inflamatório. Justaposto ao parasito há a cápsula delgada constituída por fibroblastos e fibras colágenas. A presença de leucócitos e o encapsulamento do parasito demonstram um processo inflamatório agudo.From August 1996 to December 1997, 293 specimens of Salminus maxillosus were captured in the Mogi-Guaçu river, at Cachoeira de Emas, municipality of Pirassununga, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The livers of 45 fishes were parasitized by Neocucullanus neocucullanus Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 (15.35% prevalence. Liver samples were fixed in Bouin and processed for paraffin inclusion. 5µm-sections were stained with ME, Mallory trichromic and submitted to Hematoxilin-contrasted PAS. Macroscopically, the parasitized livers had central and peripheral infection, sometimes perforating the stroma, allowing the cyst to be seen externally. Microscopically, and only surrounding the parasite, intense tissue disorganization, with typical active inflammatory process cells, and discrete fibrin deposition

  16. Dinâmica temporal e espacial da begomovirose causada por Tomato yellow vein streak virus em tomateiro na região de Campinas-SP Spatio-temporal pattern of a begomovirus disease caused by Tomato yellow vein streak virus in tomato in Campinas region, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Gabriela Salveti Della Vecchia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar os padrões temporal e espacial do Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV em tomatais cultivados em condições de campo, no município de Sumaré, e de estufa plástica, na região de Elias Fausto, Estado de São Paulo. No ensaio de campo, plantado com a variedade Alambra, foram avaliadas 4.032 plantas, distribuídas em oito blocos. Em oito estufas plásticas, com plantios escalonados da variedade Ikram, foram avaliadas 6.016 plantas. As avaliações foram feitas com base nos sintomas característicos induzidos por esse vírus. A confirmação da identidade do vírus foi feita por meio da análise da seqüência de nucleotídeos de parte do DNA-A viral (genes AV1 e AC3. No ensaio em condições de campo, a incidência da doença evoluiu lentamente, desde um mínimo de 0,002 (proporção de plantas sintomáticas até um máximo de 0,0497. Mesmo assim, foi possível constatar um efeito de borda, pois a incidência média de plantas doentes nos blocos situados nos bordos da área foi 2,1 vezes maior do que naqueles internos. O progresso da incidência da doença foi linear, o que indica que novas infecções foram devidas principalmente a um influxo constante de vetores virulíferos de fora para dentro da área avaliada. Nos plantios em estufas plásticas, os níveis finais de doença foram fortemente dependentes da época de plantio, com médias variando de 4,8% a 69,3%. A distribuição espacial de plantas sintomáticas nesses plantios foi fortemente agregada. Essa agregação provavelmente não se deve a infecções secundárias dentro das estufas plásticas, mas sim à concentração de plantas sintomáticas nos bordos das estufas, conseqüência da migração de vetores virulíferos a partir de áreas externas à estufa. Com base nesses resultados, sugere-se a eliminação de fontes de inóculo representadas por plantios mais velhos de tomateiro e por hospedeiras do vírus na vegetação espont

  17. Síndrome do ápice orbitário causada por herpes zóster oftálmico: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and orbital apex syndrome: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Hokazono

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OHerpes Zoster Oftálmico (HZO decorre da infecção pelo vírus da varicela-zoster que permanece latente no gânglio de Gasser até que seja reativado e comprometa a divisão oftálmica do nervo trigêmeo. HZO freqüentemente causa manifestações oftalmológicas como lesões vesiculares palpebrais, ceratoconjuntivite, esclerite, uveíte, paralisia oculomotora, miosite orbitária e neurite óptica. Raramente o acometimento do ápice da órbita pode ser a manifestação inicial desta grave afecção. Este trabalho relata um caso de síndrome do ápice orbitário associado à meningite, causado por HZO e que foi tratado com corticosteróide e aciclovir sistêmicos.Herpes Zoster ophthalmicus (HZO is caused by a varicella-zoster virus infection which remains latent in the ganglion of Gasser until it is reactivated and compromise the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. HZO commonly causes neuro-ophthalmic complications such as vesicular lesions in the eyelids, keratoconjunctivitis, sclertis, uveitis, ocular palsy, orbital miositis and optic neuritis. HZO rarely presents as an orbital apex syndrome. This paper describes a patient with of orbital apex syndrome associate and meningitis caused by HZO which was treated with systemic steroids and acyclovir.

  18. Omeprazole and misoprostol for preventing gastric mucosa effects caused by indomethacin and celecoxib in rats Omeprazol e misoprostol na prevenção de lesões de mucosa gástrica causadas por indometacina e celecoxib em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Elias Cavallini

    2006-06-01

    ástrica com omeprazol e misoprostol. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consistiu 150 ratos machos da raça Wistar, com peso médio de 200g, divididos em quatro grupos, a saber: grupo A, subdividido em grupos A1 e A2 - pré-tratamento com omeprazol (20 mg/rato durante sete dias, e no oitavo dia receberam o AINEs, sendo A1 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib (1mg/rato e A2 (20 ratos receberam indometacina (12,5mg/rato. O grupo B, subdividido em grupo B1 e B2 - pré-tratamento com misoprostol (20ìg/rato durante sete dias e no oitavo dia receberam AINEs, sendo B1 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib (1mg/rato e B2 (20 ratos receberam indometacina (12,5mg/rato. O grupo C não recebeu citoproteção durante sete dias e no oitavo dia recebeu AINEs, sendo C1 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib (1mg/rato , C2 (20ratos receberam indometacina (12,5mg/rato, C3 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib e grupo D - grupo controle, no qual dez ratos foram observados recebendo ração e água ad libitum. A seguir, no 9º dia (de todos os grupos, os estômagos eram removidos e avaliados macro e microscopicamente para a identificação das lesões gástricas. RESULTADOS: Na análise macroscópica, os grupos A2, B2 e C2 apresentaram número de lesões por cm²/animal significativamente elevados, sendo respectivamente 18,55 lesões por cm²/animal, 16,25 lesões por cm²/animal e 13,55 lesões por cm²/animal. Na análise microscópica, a porcentagem da mucosa com lesão mostrou diferença significativa entre os grupos A1, B1, C1 quando comparados com os grupos A2, B2 e C2 (p<0,0001. Os resultados da média da extensão/lesão e da média da profundidade das lesões não mostraram diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os grupos A2, B2 e C2. A média do edema mostrou diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos A2 e D; B2 e C2 e entre C2 e D (p<0,05. CONCLUSÕES: A indometacina na concentração empregada provoca número significativo de lesões macro e microscópicas na mucosa gástrica de ratos quando comparadas ao

  19. Cross-Species Comparison of the Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, and Burkholderia mallei Quorum-Sensing Regulons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczyk, Charlotte D.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Jacobs, Michael A.; Armour, Christopher D.; Radey, Matthew C.; Bunt, Richard; Hayden, Hillary S.; Bydalek, Ryland

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, and Burkholderia mallei (the Bptm group) are close relatives with very different lifestyles: B. pseudomallei is an opportunistic pathogen, B. thailandensis is a nonpathogenic saprophyte, and B. mallei is a host-restricted pathogen. The acyl-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing (QS) systems of these three species show a high level of conservation. We used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to define the quorum-sensing regulon in each species, and we performed a cross-species analysis of the QS-controlled orthologs. Our analysis revealed a core set of QS-regulated genes in all three species, as well as QS-controlled factors shared by only two species or unique to a given species. This global survey of the QS regulons of B. pseudomallei, B. thailandensis, and B. mallei serves as a platform for predicting which QS-controlled processes might be important in different bacterial niches and contribute to the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. PMID:25182491

  20. Alterações do epitélio branquial e das lamelas de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus causadas por mudanças do ambiente aquático em tanques de cultivo intensivo The influence of the aquatic environment in tanks sequetially interconnected with PVC pipes on the gill epithelium and lamellas of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Anderson Brunetti Reis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar o comportamento do epitélio branquial de tilápias, cultivadas em tanques posicionados em diferentes altitudes e interconectados por tubos de PVC. Filamentos branquiais de quatro espécimes de quatro tanques (T1, T2, T3 e T4 interconectados seqüencialmente foram submetidos à rotina histológica, para obtenção de cortes de 5µm de espessura, os quais foram corados com Hematoxilina-Eosina, ou submetidos à técnica histoquímica para glicoconjugados: PAS + solução de diástase ou Alcian Blue pH 2,5 ou Alcian Blue pH 1,0. Considerando as regiões basal, intermediária e apical dos filamentos, mensurou-se a área lamelar e contou-se o número de células mucosas em cada uma dessas regiões, o que correspondia a 0,56 mm². Verificou-se que a concentração de oxigênio, pH e a temperatura se reduziam progressivamente com a passagem da água de um tanque para outro. Em função disso, constatou-se um aumento abrupto do número de células mucosas e da área lamelar no T2, e uma redução progressiva destas medidas nos tanques que recebiam água do T2. Além disso, observou-se nos animais do T2, T3 e T4, descolamento do epitélio branquial, hiperplasia celular no espaço interlamelar e telangectasias. Conclui-se que o ambiente aquático de tanques interconectados seqüencialmente por tubos de PVC se altera ao passar de um tanque para o outro, e que estas flutuações físico-químicas se refletem no comportamento do epitélio branquial através de variações da área lamelar e do número de células mucosas.The behavior of the gill epithelium of tilapias cultured in tanks at different altitudes and interconnected with PVC pipes was analyzed. Gill filaments of four specimens from four tanks (T1, T2, T3 e T4 sequentially interconnected were submitted to histological routine to obtain 5-mm-thick cuts that were stained with HE or submitted to histochemistry reactions PAS + diastase solution or Alcian Blue pH 2.5 or Alcian Blue

  1. Impacto de la resistencia a la meticilina sobre la mortalidad y vigilancia de la sensibilidad a la vancomicina en bacteriemias causadas por Staphylococcus aureus Impact of methicillin resistance on mortality and surveillance of vancomycin susceptibility in bacteremias caused by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Traverso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los principales patógenos nosocomiales y produce una alta morbimortalidad en numerosos hospitales del mundo. Además, la incidencia de bacteriemias por este microorganismo ha aumentado significativamente en las últimas décadas. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron identificar los factores de riesgo que favorecen la aparición de resistencia a la meticilina en aislamientos de S. aureus y los factores que afectan la mortalidad por bacteriemias asociadas a este patógeno, así como evaluar la sensibilidad a la vancomicina de las cepas resistentes a la meticilina. Se estudiaron 39 aislamientos de S. aureus provenientes de hemocultivos de pacientes internados con bacteriemia en la Nueva Clínica Chacabuco de Tandil (Pcia. de Buenos Aires, Argentina en el período 01/2006-12/2008. La mortalidad global fue del 51,3% y estuvo significativamente asociada con la resistencia a la meticilina (OR: 4,20; IC95%: 1,08-16,32; p: 0,05; aunque dicho factor no fue un predictor independiente de mortalidad. La cirugía previa (OR: 17,23; IC95%: 1,80-164,60 y la estancia previa en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (OR: 21,12; IC95%: 2,33-191,30 fueron predictores independientes de la resistencia a la meticilina y la asistencia respiratoria mecánica (OR: 15,99; IC: 3,24-78,86 fue un predictor independiente de la mortalidad. No se detectaron cepas con sensibilidad disminuida a la vancomicina. Todos los aislamientos estudiados fueron sensibles in vitro a la vancomicina, con una CIM50 y una CIM90 de 0,5 μg/ml.Staphylococcus aureus is a major nosocomial pathogen that causes severe morbidity and mortality in many hospitals worldwide. Besides, the incidence of S. aureus bacteremia has significantly increased over the past decades. The aims of this study were to detect the risk factors for methicillin resistance and mortality and to evaluate vancomycin susceptibility in methicillin-resistant isolates. Thus, 39 S. aureus isolates from

  2. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

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    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    por ácaros Brevipalpus (VTB. Brevipalpus phoenicis coletados de C. x speciosum sintomático e transferidos para plantas sadias de C. x speciosum reproduziram as lesões. O ácaro também transmitiu o patógeno para C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi e Tetragonia expansa, as quais exibiram manchas cloróticas e/ou necróticas. O vírus também foi transmitido mecanicamente para Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus e T. expansa, além de C. x speciosum. Plantas de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa mantidas a 28 - 30ºC desenvolveram infecção sistêmica. Em todos os tecidos sintomáticos das plantas-teste inoculadas, examinados ao microscópio eletrônico, foram encontrados efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear causado por VTB. O vírus foi purificado a partir de folhas com infecção sistêmica de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa. Injeções de preparações purificadas em coelho geraram um anti-soro policlonal que reagiu especificamente com o antígeno homólogo em teste de ELISA. As evidências obtidas indicam que as manchas cloróticas do Clerodendrum estão associadas a um VTB do tipo nuclear, tentativamente denominado de vírus da mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus- ClCSV.

  3. Reaction of arracacha genotypes to the root soft rot caused by Pectobacterium chrysanthemi Reação de genótipos de mandioquinha-salsa à podridão-mole das raízes causada por Pectobacterium chrysanthemi

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    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to screen thirty-two arracacha genotypes for their reaction to root soft rot. Twenty roots of each genotype were inoculated with two Pectobacterium chrysanthemi isolates in a randomized experiment (10 roots/isolate. After inoculation, roots were individually wrapped with PVC film and kept at 26ºC in closed plastic bags. Soft rot lesions were recorded after 36 hours and genotypes were grouped in four classes of susceptibility by cluster analysis: 10 were less susceptible, 16 intermediate, 3 susceptible and 3 very susceptible. All the tested arracacha genotypes showed only variation in the degree of susceptibility.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de 32 genótipos de mandioquinha-salsa à podridão-mole das raízes. Vinte raízes de cada genótipo foram inoculadas com dois isolados de Pectobacterium chrysanthemi em um experimento casualizado (10 raízes/isolado. Após a inoculação, as raízes foram embaladas com filmes de PVC e mantidas a 26ºC em sacos de plástico. As lesões de podridão-mole foram avaliadas após 36 horas e os genótipos agrupados em quatro classes de suscetibilidade por análise de agrupamento: 10 foram menos suscetíveis, 16 intermediários, 3 suscetíveis e 3 muito suscetíveis. Todos os genótipos avaliados demonstraram apenas variação no grau de suscetibilidade.

  4. Coleção fluídica na interface do LASIK causada por glaucoma secundário à ceratouveíte herpética: relato de caso LASIK interface fluid accumulation caused by glaucoma associated with herpetic keratouveitis: case report

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    Eliane Mayumi Nakano

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A infecção por Herpes simplex vírus (HSV é causa freqüente de inflamação intra-ocular ou uveíte anterior. A hipertensão ocular é característica comumente observada nas ceratouveítes herpéticas. Neste relato descrevemos o acúmulo de fluido e descolamento do "flap" corneano da ceratomileusis, no pós-operatório tardio de LASIK (28 meses, associado a quadro hipertensivo ocular secundário a ceratouveíte herpética. Este achado corrobora a suposição que a cicatrização corneana após LASIK seja apenas parcial e o espaço virtual produzido pela ceratomileuisis permaneça indefinidamente. Condições de aumento excessivo da pressão intra-ocular podem causar edema corneano com acúmulo de fluido da interface.Herpes simplex virus infection is a frequent cause of intraocular inflammation or anterior uveitis. Ocular hypertension is a common feature in herpetic keratouveitis. We describe a fluid accumulation and flap displacement in late postoperative period (28 months of LASIK associated with ocular hypertension caused by herpetic keratouveitis. This finding supports the theory that flap attachment after LASIK is only partial and the virtual space remains indefinitely. The presence of ocular hypertension may lead to corneal edema and fluid accumulation in the interface.

  5. Papel da lipoperoxidação na intensificação da remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto Rol de la lipoperoxidación en la intensificación de la remodelación ocasionada por el betacaroteno tras infarto Role of lipoperoxidation in the remodeling intensification induced by beta-carotene after infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S. Azevedo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Os mecanismos envolvidos na maior remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto são desconhecidos. OBJETIVO: Analisar o papel da lipoperoxidação na remodelação ventricular após o infarto do miocárdio, em ratos suplementados com betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram infartados e distribuídos em dois grupos: C (controle e BC (500mg/kg/dieta. Após seis meses, foram realizados ecocardiograma e avaliação bioquímica. Utilizamos o teste t, com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Os animais do grupo BC apresentaram maiores médias das áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p FUNDAMENTO: Los mecanismos implicados en la mayor remodelación ocasionada por betacaroteno tras el infarto son desconocidos. OBJETIVO: Analizar el rol que juega la lipoperoxidación en la remodelación ventricular tras el infarto de miocardio, en ratas suplementadas con betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Se había inducido a un infarto a las ratas y se las distribuyó en grupos: C (control y BC (500mg/kg/dieta. Tras seis meses, se realizaron ecocardiograma y evaluación bioquímica. Utilizamos la prueba t, con significancia del 5%. RESULTADOS: Los animales del grupo BC presentaron mayores promedios de las áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in the biggest remodeling caused by the post-infarct beta-carotene are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of lipoperoxidation in the ventricular remodeling after infarct of the myocardium in rats supplemented with beta-carotene. METHODS: Rats were infarcted and divided into two groups: C (control and BC (500mg/kg/regimen. After six months, echocardiogram and biochemical evaluation were performed. The t test was used, with 5% significance. RESULTS: The animals from BC group presented highest means of the diastolic (C = 1.57 ± 0.4 mm²/g, BC = 2.09 ± 0.3 mm²/g; p < 0.001 and systolic (C = 1.05 ± 0.3 mm²/g, BC = 1.61

  6. Insuficiência respiratória aguda causada por pneumonia em organização secundária à terapia antineoplásica para linfoma não Hodgkin Acute respiratory failure caused by organizing pneumonia secondary to antineoplastic therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriell Ramalho Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Doenças difusas do parênquima pulmonar pertencem a um grupo de doenças de evolução geralmente subaguda ou crônica, mas que podem determinar insuficiência respiratória aguda. Paciente masculino, 37 anos, em terapia para linfoma não Hodgkin, admitido com tosse seca, febre, dispneia e insuficiência respiratória aguda hipoxêmica. Iniciadas ventilação mecânica e antibioticoterapia, porém houve evolução desfavorável. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax mostrava opacidades pulmonares em "vidro fosco" bilaterais. Devido ao paciente ter feito uso de três drogas relacionadas à pneumonia em organização (ciclofosfamida, doxorrubicina e rituximabe e quadros clínico e radiológico serem sugestivos, iniciou-se pulsoterapia com metilprednisolona com boa resposta. Pneumonia em organização pode ser idiopática ou associada a colagenoses, drogas e neoplasias, e geralmente responde bem a corticoterapia. O diagnóstico é anatomopatológico, mas condições clínicas do paciente não permitiam a realização de biópsia pulmonar. Pneumonia em organização deve ser diagnóstico diferencial em pacientes com aparente pneumonia de evolução desfavorável ao tratamento antimicrobiano.Interstitial lung diseases belong to a group of diseases that typically exhibit a subacute or chronic progression but that may cause acute respiratory failure. The male patient, who was 37 years of age and undergoing therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, was admitted with cough, fever, dyspnea and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation and antibiotic therapy were initiated but were associated with unfavorable progression. Thoracic computed tomography showed bilateral pulmonary "ground glass" opacities. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was initiated with satisfactory response because the patient had used three drugs related to organizing pneumonia (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and rituximab, and the clinical and radiological symptoms were

  7. Microbiological assessment of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Omar

    2014-09-18

    Sep 18, 2014 ... tum 4/35 (11.4%) and urine 1/35 (2.9%). Other studies reported higher rates of isolation of B. cepa- cia complex from specimens other than those in our study. Gales et al. (2005)3 found that out of 176 NFGNB (83/176) belonging to Burkholderia spp.: 52/83 (62.7%) were from blood, 25/83 (30.1%) were from ...

  8. Development of Burkholderia mallei and pseudomallei vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediane Batista Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are Gram-negative bacteria that cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Inhalational infection with either organism can result in severe and rapidly fatal pneumonia. Inoculation by the oral and cutaneous routes can also produce infection. chronic infection develops after recovery from acute infection with both agents, and control of infection with antibiotics requires prolonged treatment. Symptoms for both meliodosis and glanders are non-specific, making diagnosis difficult.B. pseudomallei can be located in the environment, but in the host, B. mallei and B. psedomallei are intracellular organisms. Thefection results in similar immune responses to both agents. Effective early innate immune responses are critical to controlling the early phase of the infection. Innate immune signaling molecules such as TLR, NOD, MyD88 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN- and TNF-α play key roles in regulating control of infection. Neutrophils and monocytes are critical cells in the early infection for these microorganisms. Both monocytes and macrophages are necessary for limiting dissemination of B. pseudomallei. In contrast, the role of adaptive immune responses in controlling Burkholderia infection is less well understood. However, T cell responses are critical for vaccine protection from Burkholderia infection. At present, effective vaccines for prevention of glanders or meliodosis have not been developed, although recently progress of Burkholderia vaccines has received renewed attention.This review will summarize current and past approaches to develop Burkholderia mallei and pseudomalllei vaccines, with emphasis on immune mechanisms of protection and the challenges facing the field. At present, immunization with live attenuated bacteria provides the most effective and durable immunity, and it is important therefore to understand the immune correlates of protection induced by live attenuated vaccines.

  9. Intestinal intussusception and occlusion caused by small bowel polyps in the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Management by combined intraoperative enteroscopy and resection through minimal enterostomy: case report Intussuscepção intestinal e oclusão intestinal causada por pólipos em intestino delgado na síndrome Peutz-Jeghers. Tratamento com ressecção por enterotomia associado a enteroscopia intra-operatória: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim J. Gama-Rodrigues

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a hereditary disease that requires frequent endoscopic and surgical intervention, leading to secondary complications such as short bowel syndrome. CASE REPORT: This paper reports on a 15-year-old male patient with a family history of the disease, who underwent surgery for treatment of an intestinal occlusion due to a small intestine intussusception. DISCUSSION: An intra-operative fiberscopic procedure was included for the detection and treatment of numerous polyps distributed along the small intestine. Enterotomy was performed to treat only the larger polyps, therefore limiting the intestinal resection to smaller segments. The postoperative follow-up was uneventful. CONCLUSION: We point out the importance of conservative treatment for patients with this syndrome, especially those who will undergo repeated surgical interventions because of clinical manifestation while they are still young.A síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers é uma doença de caráter hereditário que freqüentemente requer intervenções endoscópicas e cirúrgicas repetidas, levando a complicações secundárias como, por exemplo, a síndrome do intestino curto. RELATO DE CASO: Relatamos neste artigo o caso de paciente de 15 anos, masculino, com história familiar para a doença, que foi submetido ao procedimento cirúrgico para tratar oclusão devido a intussucepção de intestino delgado. DISCUSSÃO: Associou-se método fibroscópico intra-operatório com a finalidade de detecção e ressecção de numerosos pólipos distribuídos em todo o intestino delgado. Realizaram-se enterotomias para a retirada dos pólipos maiores, restringindo-se, portanto, a ressecção intestinal a segmentos menores. A evolução clínica foi boa. CONCLUSÃO: Ressalta-se a importância do manejo de forma conservadora dos pacientes portadores desta síndrome, principalmente naqueles cujas manifestações clínicas de importância cirúrgica aparecem precocemente.

  10. Micetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis: reporte de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Guevara R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente peruano, agricultor, con una infección cutánea de origen traumático causada por Nocardia brasiliensis, que evolucionó hacia la amputación del miembro inferior afectado. El diagnóstico se realizó por examen directo y cultivo del espécimen.

  11. Un caso raro de valvulopatía causada por alcaptonuria

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    Sara de Cima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available La alcaptonuria es una enfermedad rara autosómica recesiva del metabolismo de la tirosina que provoca el acúmulo de ácido homogentísico en determinados tejidos del cuerpo humano, como el tejido cartilaginoso, causando calcificación, degeneración y fibrosis. Las manifestaciones cardiovasculares son poco frecuentes, habiendo pocos casos descritos en la literatura en los que se produce afectación valvular cardíaca. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 76 años con historia de alcaptonuria que fue diagnosticada de doble lesión aórtica severa e insuficiencia mitral moderada, requiriendo intervención quirúrgica para recambio valvular aórtico y mitral. Revisamos la etiología, la patogénesis, las manifestaciones clínicas, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de esta patología.

  12. Mortalidade em florestas de Pinus palustris causada por tempestade de raios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; Jorge Paladino Corrêa de Lima; Jose Américo de Mello Filho

    2002-01-01

    The importance of lightning as an ignition source for the fire driven Pinus palustris ecosystem is widely recognized. Lightning also impacts this system on a smaller scale by causing individual tree mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the level of mortality due to lightning activity at the Department of Energy's Savannah...

  13. Características laboratoriais das ceratites e conjuntivites causadas por Streptococcus sp

    OpenAIRE

    Solari,Helena Parente; Sousa,Luciene Barbosa de; Freitas,Denise de; Yu,Maria Cecília Zorat; Höfling-Lima,Ana Luisa

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Analisar os resultados laboratoriais de conjuntivites e ceratites com cultura positiva para Streptococcus sp, avaliando a incidência das diferentes espécies e os dados dos antibiogramas. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de revisão de prontuários de pacientes encaminhados ao laboratório de Doenças Externas do Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP com resultado de cultivo bacteriano positivo de córnea ou conjuntiva e com identificação de alguma cepa do gênero Streptococcus sp, no perí...

  14. SENSIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA CAUSADA POR EL Streptococcus Pyogenes EN MUESTRAS DE CULTIVO DE EXUDADO FARÍNGEO

    OpenAIRE

    Solórzano Solórzano, Stalin Lorenzo; Universidad Técnica de Machala, El Oro – Ecuador

    2016-01-01

    El Streptococcus pyogenes es uno de los de los gérmenes patógenos más frecuentes, causante de enfermedades supurativas y no supurativas; son la causa más habitual de faringitis bacteriana y constituye una de las mayores causas de enfermedad infecciosa relacionada con morbi-mortalidad en todo el mundo. Después de un período de incubación de 2 a 4 días; el aislamiento del microorganismo causal en el exudado faríngeo no implica necesariamente su patogenicidad; y  es necesaria la demostración de ...

  15. Biological relevance of mucoid vs. nonmucoid morphotype variation by Burkholderia cepacia complex

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Andreia Filipa Campos, 1989-

    2012-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Celular e Biotecnologia). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 O género Burkholderia é constituído por um grupo de bactérias gram-negativas que apresentam uma elevada diversidade metabólica e que podem ser encontradas em diversos nichos ecológicos tais como o solo e a água, em associação com plantas ou como agentes infeciosos de animais e humanos. Estudos fenotípicos e genotípicos mostraram que algumas destas bactérias apresentavam uma el...

  16. Brain abscess caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padigione, A.; Spelman, D.; Ferris, N. [Alfred Hospital, Prahran, VIC (Australia)

    1997-10-01

    Full text: Melioidosis, or infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an important human disease in South East Asia and Northern Australia. Neurological manifestations are well recognized amongst its protean presentations, but direct focal central nervous system infection is infrequently described with only 9 adult and 5 paediatric cases reported in the English language literature. A case of brain abscess due to Burkholderia pseudomallei occurring in a 20 year old Dutch visitor to Australia which progressed despite antibiotic treatment is described. A review of the clinical manifestations, Magnetic Resonance (MR) appearance, diagnosis and treatment of melioidosis is presented, highlighting that: (i) physicians outside endernic areas should consider melioidosis in any patient with an appropriate travel history, (ii) MR imaging is more sensitive then CT in diagnosing early brain infection, especially of the brainstem; (iii) Bacterial culture, the mainstay of diagnosis, has many shortcomings; (iv)In vitro antibiotic sensitivity testing may not translate into clinical efficacy; and (v) Steroids appear to have little role, even in severe disease.

  17. Burkholderia glumae: next major pathogen of rice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Melanson, Rebecca A; Rush, Milton C

    2011-05-01

    Burkholderia glumae causes bacterial panicle blight of rice, which is an increasingly important disease problem in global rice production. Toxoflavin and lipase are known to be major virulence factors of this pathogen, and their production is dependent on the TofI/TofR quorum-sensing system, which is mediated by N-octanoyl homoserine lactone. Flagellar biogenesis and a type III secretion system are also required for full virulence of B. glumae. Bacterial panicle blight is thought to be caused by seed-borne B. glumae; however, its disease cycle is not fully understood. In spite of its economic importance, neither effective control measures for bacterial panicle blight nor rice varieties showing complete resistance to the disease are currently available. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying B. glumae virulence and of the rice defence mechanisms against the pathogen would lead to the development of better methods of disease control for bacterial panicle blight. Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia. Gram-negative, capsulated, motile, lophotrichous flagella, pectolytic. Aborted seed, empty grains as a result of failure of grain filling, brown spots on panicles, seedling rot. Seed sterilization, planting partially resistant lines (no completely resistant line is available). KNOWN VIRULENCE FACTORS: Toxoflavin, lipase, type III effectors. © 2010 LSU AGCENTER. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2010 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  18. Brain abscess caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padigione, A.; Spelman, D.; Ferris, N.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Melioidosis, or infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an important human disease in South East Asia and Northern Australia. Neurological manifestations are well recognized amongst its protean presentations, but direct focal central nervous system infection is infrequently described with only 9 adult and 5 paediatric cases reported in the English language literature. A case of brain abscess due to Burkholderia pseudomallei occurring in a 20 year old Dutch visitor to Australia which progressed despite antibiotic treatment is described. A review of the clinical manifestations, Magnetic Resonance (MR) appearance, diagnosis and treatment of melioidosis is presented, highlighting that: (i) physicians outside endernic areas should consider melioidosis in any patient with an appropriate travel history, (ii) MR imaging is more sensitive then CT in diagnosing early brain infection, especially of the brainstem; (iii) Bacterial culture, the mainstay of diagnosis, has many shortcomings; (iv)In vitro antibiotic sensitivity testing may not translate into clinical efficacy; and (v) Steroids appear to have little role, even in severe disease

  19. Phylogeography of Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates, Western Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Jay E; Gulvik, Christopher A; Elrod, Mindy G; Batra, Dhwani; Rowe, Lori A; Sheth, Mili; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2017-07-01

    The bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, which is mainly associated with tropical areas. We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among genome sequences from isolates of B. pseudomallei that originated in the Western Hemisphere by comparing them with genome sequences of isolates that originated in the Eastern Hemisphere. Analysis indicated that isolates from the Western Hemisphere form a distinct clade, which supports the hypothesis that these isolates were derived from a constricted seeding event from Africa. Subclades have been resolved that are associated with specific regions within the Western Hemisphere and suggest that isolates might be correlated geographically with cases of melioidosis. One isolate associated with a former World War II prisoner of war was believed to represent illness 62 years after exposure in Southeast Asia. However, analysis suggested the isolate originated in Central or South America.

  20. Burkholderia cepacia complex: Beyond pseudomonas and acinetobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC is an important nosocomial pathogen in hospitalised patients, particularly those with prior broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy. BCC causes infections that include bacteraemia, urinary tract infection, septic arthritis, peritonitis and respiratory tract infection. Due to high intrinsic resistance and being one of the most antimicrobial-resistant organisms encountered in the clinical laboratory, these infections can prove very difficult to treat and, in some cases, result in death. Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF and those with chronic granulomatous disease are predisposed to infection by BCC bacteria. BCC survives and multiplies in aqueous hospital environments, including disinfectant agents and intravenous fluids, where it may persist for long periods. Outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of BCC septicaemia have been documented in intensive care units, oncology units and renal failure patients. BCC is phenotypically unremarkable, and the complex exhibits an extensive diversity of genotypes. BCC is of increasing importance for agriculture and bioremediation because of their antinematodal and antifungal properties as well as their capability to degrade a wide range of toxic compounds. It has always been a tedious task for a routine microbiological laboratory to identify the nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli, and poor laboratory proficiency in identification of this nonfermenter worldwide still prevails. In India, there are no precise reports of the prevalence of BCC infection, and in most cases, these bacteria have been ambiguously reported as nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli or simply Pseudomonas spp. The International Burkholderia cepacia Working Group is open to clinicians and scientists interested in advancing knowledge of BCC infection/colonisation in persons with CF through the collegial exchange of information and promotion of coordinated approaches to research.

  1. Rotura neumática de colon por aire comprimido

    OpenAIRE

    VITÓN H,REBECA; QUADROS B,PEDRO; RODRÍGUEZ M,JOSÉ ANTONIO

    2010-01-01

    La ruptura del colon causada por aire comprimido a alta presión es rara. A propósito de un caso se revisan los mecanismos de producción, tipos de roturas, clínica, diagnóstico y tratamiento de estos traumatismos.

  2. Compactação causada pelo manejo de plantas invasoras em latossolo vermelho-amarelo cultivado com cafeeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sant'Anna Moreira Pais

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de plantas invasoras é considerado uma das principais atividades que promovem degradação da estrutura do solo em lavouras cafeeiras, devido à compactação do solo causada pelas operações de controle de plantas invasoras. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo de plantas invasoras sem capina, bem como, utilizando esse modelo, qual manejo de plantas invasoras causa menor ou maior compactação do solo. Este estudo foi realizado em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LVA cultivado com cafeeiros da cutivar Topázio MG 1190 desde 2006, localizado na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, na comunidade Farias, em Lavras-MG. Os manejos de plantas invasoras avaliados foram: na linha de tráfego da entrelinha - grade de discos, herbicida de pós-emergência, herbicida de pré-emergência, roçadora e trincha; e no centro da entrelinha, onde não houve tráfego - amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capina manual, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e soja (Glicine max L. A amostragem consistiu de duas etapas: uma para determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo de plantas invasoras sem capina; e outra para avaliar a compactação promovida pelos outros manejos de plantas invasoras. A fim de determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo sem capina, foram coletadas no centro da entrelinha 20 amostras com estrutura indeformada nas profundidades de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm, totalizando 60 amostras. Essas amostras foram submetidas ao ensaio de compressão uniaxial para obter as pressões de pré-consolidação e as umidades volumétricas, que foram usadas para determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga. Para determinar a compactação causada pelos manejos de plantas invasoras, realizados por meio do controle mecânico, foram coletadas em janeiro de 2010, nas linhas de tráfego das entrelinhas, 180 amostras com

  3. Prevalence of Burkholderia species, including members of Burkholderia cepacia complex, among UK cystic and non-cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Dervla T D; Lilley, Daniel; Coward, Amy; Martin, Kate; Perry, Claire; Pike, Rachel; Hill, Robert; Turton, Jane F

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to establish the prevalence of different Burkholderia species among UK cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF patients over a 2 year period. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry was used to identify isolates to genus level, followed by recA/gyrB sequence clustering or species-specific PCR. In all, 1047 Burkholderia isolates were submitted for identification from 361 CF patients and 112 non-CF patients, 25 from the hospital environment and three from a commercial company. Potential cross-infection was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi- locus-sequence typing (MLST). MICs were determined for 161 Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) isolates. CF Trust registry data were sought to examine clinical parameters relating to Bcc infection. Burkholderia multivorans was the most prevalent species among CF patients affecting 56 % (192) patients, followed by Burkholderia cenocepacia IIIA (15 %; 52 patients). Five novel recA clusters were found. Among non-CF patients, Burkholderia cepacia was the most prevalent species (37/112; 34 %), with 18 of 40 isolates part of a UK-wide B. cepacia 'cluster'. This and three other clusters were investigated by PFGE and MLST. Cable-pili positive isolates included two novel sequence types and representatives of ET12. Antibiotic susceptibility varied between and within species and CF/non- CF isolates. CF Trust registry data suggested no significant difference in lung function between patients harbouring B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans and other Bcc species (P=0.81). The dominance of B. multivorans in CF, the presence of a B. cepacia cluster among non-CF patients and the existence of putative novel species all highlighted the continuing role of Burkholderia species as opportunistic pathogens.

  4. Caso clínico-radiológico: Amenorrea primaria por himen imperforado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moënne B. Karla, Dra.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una adolescente que consulta por amenorrea primaria causada por un himen imperforado. Se discute el cuadro clínico imaginológico del himen imperforado, las causas de amenorrea con desarrollo adecuado de caracteres sexuales secundarios y la utilidad de las imágenes en el estudio de estas pacientes.

  5. Caso clínico-radiológico: Amenorrea primaria por himen imperforado

    OpenAIRE

    Moënne B. Karla, Dra.; Merino O. Paulina M, Dra.; Hernández C. María Isabel, Dra.

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de una adolescente que consulta por amenorrea primaria causada por un himen imperforado. Se discute el cuadro clínico imaginológico del himen imperforado, las causas de amenorrea con desarrollo adecuado de caracteres sexuales secundarios y la utilidad de las imágenes en el estudio de estas pacientes.

  6. Transfer of 13 species of the genus Burkholderia to the genus Caballeronia and reclassification of Burkholderia jirisanensis as Paraburkholderia jirisanensis comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Linardopoulou, Elena V; Samadpour, Mansour

    2017-10-01

    A recent study of a group of Burkholderia glathei-like bacteria resulted in the description of 13 novel species of the genus Burkholderia. However, our analysis of phylogenetic positions of these species and their molecular signatures (conserved protein sequence indels) showed that they belong to the genus Caballeronia, and we propose to transfer them to this genus. The reclassified species names are proposed as Caballeroniaarationis comb. nov., Caballeroniaarvi comb. nov., Caballeroniacalidae comb. nov., Caballeroniacatudaia comb. nov., Caballeroniaconcitans comb. nov., Caballeroniafortuita comb. nov., Caballeroniaglebae comb. nov., Caballeroniahypogeia comb. nov., Caballeroniapedi comb. nov., Caballeroniaperedens comb. nov., Caballeroniaptereochthonis comb. nov., Caballeroniatemeraria comb. nov. and Caballeronia turbans comb. nov. It is also proposed to reclassify Burkholderia jirisanensis as Paraburkholderiajirisanensis comb. nov. Based on the results of the polyphasic study, B. jirisanensis had been described as a member of the A-group of the genus Burkholderiaand the most closely related to Burkholderia rhizosphaerae, Burkholderia humisilvae and Burkholderia solisilvae currently classified as belonging to the genus Paraburkholderia.

  7. ATP-binding cassette systems in Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titball Richard W

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP binding cassette (ABC systems are responsible for the import and export of a wide variety of molecules across cell membranes and comprise one of largest protein superfamilies found in prokarya, eukarya and archea. ABC systems play important roles in bacterial lifestyle, virulence and survival. In this study, an inventory of the ABC systems of Burkholderia pseudomallei strain K96243 and Burkholderia mallei strain ATCC 23344 has been compiled using bioinformatic techniques. Results The ABC systems in the genomes of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei have been reannotated and subsequently compared. Differences in the number and types of encoded ABC systems in belonging to these organisms have been identified. For example, ABC systems involved in iron acquisition appear to be correlated with differences in genome size and lifestyles between these two closely related organisms. Conclusion The availability of complete inventories of the ABC systems in B. pseudomallei and B. mallei has enabled a more detailed comparison of the encoded proteins in this family. This has resulted in the identification of ABC systems which may play key roles in the different lifestyles and pathogenic properties of these two bacteria. This information has the potential to be exploited for improved clinical identification of these organisms as well as in the development of new vaccines and therapeutics targeted against the diseases caused by these organisms.

  8. Burkholderia pseudomallei musculoskeletal infections (melioidosis in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Vivek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis, an infection due to gram negative Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an important cause of sepsis in east Asia especially Thailand and northern Australia. It usually causes abscesses in lung, liver, spleen, skeletal muscle and parotids especially in patients with diabetes, chronic renal failure and thalassemia. Musculoskeletal melioidosis is not common in India even though sporadic cases have been reported mostly involving soft tissues. During a two-year-period, we had five patients with musculoskeletal melioidosis. All patients presented with multifocal osteomyelitis, recurrent osteomyelitis or septic arthritis. One patient died early because of septicemia and multi-organ failure. All patients were diagnosed on the basis of positive pus culture. All patients were treated by surgical debridement followed by a combination of antibiotics; (ceftazidime, amoxy-clavulanic acid, co-trimoxazole and doxycycline for six months except for one who died due to fulminant septicemia. All other patients recovered completely with no recurrences. With increasing awareness and better diagnostic facilities, probably musculoskeletal melioidosis will be increasingly diagnosed in future.

  9. Burkholderia pseudomallei transcriptional adaptation in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieng Sylvia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen of phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. How the bacterium interacts with host macrophage cells is still not well understood and is critical to appreciate the strategies used by this bacterium to survive and how intracellular survival leads to disease manifestation. Results Here we report the expression profile of intracellular B. pseudomallei following infection of human macrophage-like U937 cells. During intracellular growth over the 6 h infection period, approximately 22 % of the B. pseudomallei genome showed significant transcriptional adaptation. B. pseudomallei adapted rapidly to the intracellular environment by down-regulating numerous genes involved in metabolism, cell envelope, motility, replication, amino acid and ion transport system and regulatory function pathways. Reduced expression in catabolic and housekeeping genes suggested lower energy requirement and growth arrest during macrophage infection, while expression of genes encoding anaerobic metabolism functions were up regulated. However, whilst the type VI secretion system was up regulated, expression of many known virulence factors was not significantly modulated over the 6hours of infection. Conclusions The transcriptome profile described here provides the first comprehensive view of how B. pseudomallei survives within host cells and will help identify potential virulence factors and proteins that are important for the survival and growth of B. pseudomallei within human cells.

  10. Prevalence of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G; Zheng, D; Cai, Q; Yuan, Z

    2010-01-01

    Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is now recognized as an important public health problem in Southeast Asia and tropical northern Australia. Although B. pseudomallei has been detected in various water and soil samples in southeast China, the enviromental distribution of B. pseudomallei in China is unclear. In the winter months of 2007, 154 and 130 soil and water samples, respectively, were collected from several locations in Guangxi, China. The samples were screened for B. pseudomallei by bacterial culture and identification and confirmed by PCR for species-specific 16S rDNA and flagellin genes. B. pseudomallei was detected in 8.4% of the soil samples but in none of the water samples. All positive samples were confined to a single low-lying region from rice paddy fields. Counts of B. pseudomallei ranged from 23 to 521 c.f.u./g soil. This is the first geographical distribution survey of B. pseudomallei in soil in Guangxi, China, and the data are of importance for further evaluating the impact of this pathogen on melioidosis in this region.

  11. Ações do enfermeiro na identificação precoce de alterações sistêmicas causadas pela sepse grave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Garrido

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs têm sido organizadas como setores estratégicos para o suporte especializado de assistência ao paciente grave. Objetivo: Verificar as ações do enfermeiro para a identificação precoce das alterações sistêmicas causadas pela sepse grave relacionadas às alterações hemodinâmicas, neurológicas, respiratórias, renais e nutricionais dos pacientes internados em UTIs adulto. Métodos: Estudo descritivo com 24 enfermeiros. Os dados foram coletados por meio de formulário composto de questões estruturadas. Resultados: Apenas 36% dos enfermeiros possuem especialização em UTI adulto; verificou-se que os profissionais identificam parcialmente os sinais e sintomas apresentados pelo paciente séptico. Conclusão: Os enfermeiros encontram dificuldade na identificação precoce das alterações sistêmicas causadas pela sepse grave relacionada às alterações hemodinâmicas, neurológicas, respiratórias, renais e nutricionais dos pacientes internados em UTI adulto, o que pode estar relacionado com a falta de treinamento e de protocolos estabelecidos pelas instituições.

  12. Diagnostico por PCR del complejo Sigatoka en Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Magally; Díaz Thais; Castañeda Darío; Arango Rafael

    1999-01-01

    Las Sigatokas negra y amarilla son enfermedades causadas por Mycosphaerella fijiensis y Mycosphaerella musicola respectivamente. Estas dos especies de hongos estrechamente relacionadas y morfológicamente similares, causan necrosis severa en las hojas de banano y plátano disminuyendo el área de tejido fotosintético y acelerando la maduración del fruto. Las enfermedades producidas por estos hongos afectan la mayoría de las áreas cultivada...

  13. Osteomalacia inducida por tumor: hemangiopericitoma rinosinusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta M. Serafini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La osteomalacia inducida por tumor es una rara enfermedad del metabolismo óseo caracterizada por el aumento en la excreción de fosfato a nivel renal seguido de hipofosfatemia. Es causada por agentes fosfatúricos producidos por determinados tumores. La resección total del tumor resulta en la completa reversión de las anormalidades bioquímicas, la desaparición de las manifestaciones clínicas y los hallazgos en los estudios por imágenes. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 61 años con cuadro clínico y laboratorio compatibles con osteomalacia oncogénica inducida por tumor mesenquimático de localización rinosinusal. En nuestro caso el diagnóstico histológico correspondió a una neoplasia de tipo vascular: hemangiopericitoma.

  14. Survival of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods Donald E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of Burkholderia pseudomallei to survive in water likely contributes to its environmental persistence in endemic regions. To determine the physiological adaptations which allow B. pseudomallei to survive in aqueous environments, we performed microarray analyses of B. pseudomallei cultures transferred from Luria broth (LB to distilled water. Findings Increased expression of a gene encoding for a putative membrane protein (BPSL0721 was confirmed using a lux-based transcriptional reporter system, and maximal expression was noted at approximately 6 hrs after shifting cells from LB to water. A BPSL0721 deficient mutant of B. pseudomallei was able to survive in water for at least 90 days indicating that although involved, BPSL0721 was not essential for survival. BPSL2961, a gene encoding a putative phosphatidylglycerol phosphatase (PGP, was also induced when cells were shifted to water. This gene is likely involved in cell membrane biosynthesis. We were unable to construct a PGP mutant suggesting that the gene is not only involved in survival in water but is essential for cell viability. We also examined mutants of polyhydroxybutyrate synthase (phbC, lipopolysaccharide (LPS oligosaccharide and capsule synthesis, and these mutations did not affect survival in water. LPS mutants lacking outer core were found to lose viability in water by 200 days indicating that an intact LPS core provides an outer membrane architecture which allows prolonged survival in water. Conclusion The results from these studies suggest that B. pseudomallei survival in water is a complex process that requires an LPS molecule which contains an intact core region.

  15. Defense mechanisms of hepatocytes against Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje eBast

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The gram-negative facultative intracellular rod Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, an infectious disease with a wide range of clinical presentations. Among the observed visceral abscesses, the liver is commonly affected. However, neither this organotropism of B. pseudomallei nor local hepatic defense mechanisms have been thoroughly investigated so far. Own previous studies using electron microscopy of the murine liver after systemic infection of mice indicated that hepatocytes might be capable of killing B. pseudomallei. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further elucidate the interaction of B. pseudomallei with these cells and to analyse the role of hepatocytes in anti-B. pseudomallei host defense. In vitro studies using the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2 revealed that B. pseudomallei can invade these cells. Subsequently, B. pseudomallei is able to escape from the vacuole, to replicate within the cytosol of HepG2 cells involving its type 3 and type 6 secretion systems, and to induce actin tail formation. Furthermore, stimulation of HepG2 cells showed that IFNgamma can restrict growth of B. pseudomallei in the early and late phase of infection whereas the combination of IFNgamma, IL-1beta and TNFalpha is required for the maximal antibacterial activity. This anti-B. pseudomallei defense of HepG2 cells did not seem to be mediated by iNOS-derived nitric oxide or NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide. In summary, this is the first study describing B. pseudomallei intracellular life cycle characteristics in hepatocytes and showing that IFNgamma-mediated, but nitric oxide- and reactive oxygen species-independent, effector mechanisms are important in anti-B. pseudomallei host defense of hepatocytes.

  16. Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria beyond legumes: Burkholderia in Rubiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Verstraete

    Full Text Available Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria not only occur in root nodules of legumes but are also found in leaves of certain Rubiaceae. The discovery of bacteria in plants formerly not implicated in endosymbiosis suggests a wider occurrence of plant-microbe interactions. Several ß-proteobacteria of the genus Burkholderia are detected in close association with tropical plants. This interaction has occurred three times independently, which suggest a recent and open plant-bacteria association. The presence or absence of Burkholderia endophytes is consistent on genus level and therefore implies a predictive value for the discovery of bacteria. Only a single Burkholderia species is found in association with a given plant species. However, the endophyte species are promiscuous and can be found in association with several plant species. Most of the endophytes are part of the plant-associated beneficial and environmental group, but others are closely related to B. glathei. This soil bacteria, together with related nodulating and non-nodulating endophytes, is therefore transferred to a newly defined and larger PBE group within the genus Burkholderia.

  17. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates in 2 pet iguanas, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Ashley M; Hawkins, Michelle G; Koski, Marilyn A; Lifland, Barry; Byrne, Barbara A; Swanson, Alexandra A; Rood, Michael P; Gee, Jay E; Elrod, Mindy Glass; Beesley, Cari A; Blaney, David D; Ventura, Jean; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Beeler, Emily S

    2014-02-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, was isolated from abscesses of 2 pet green iguanas in California, USA. The international trade in iguanas may contribute to importation of this pathogen into countries where it is not endemic and put persons exposed to these animals at risk for infection.

  18. Isolation of an Acanthamoeba strain with intracellular Burkholderia pickettii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, R; Hauröder, B

    1997-04-01

    Burkholderia pickettii is a facultative pathogen that has been isolated from patient sources and environmental sources including respiratory therapy solutions, deionized water and aqueous disinfectants. The organism has been associated with septicemia and respiratory tract infections. In our investigation, Burkholderia pickettii (biovar 2) was for the first time isolated from Acanthamoeba sp. (group II), a free living amoeba species recovered from the wet area of a physiotherapy unit. Pathogenic strains of acanthamoebae may cause amoebic-encephalitis (AE) and keratitis. Light and electron microscopic examinations showed that in a first step, the bacterial were phagocytized by the amoebae. In contrast to Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli that were used as food organisms and digested within food vacuoles, Burkholderia pickettii caused the amoebae to develop large vacuoles filled with completely intact and motile bacteria. 3-5 days after infection, Pseudomonas pickettii had multiplied within the enlarging parasitophorous vacuoles. Ultrastructural changes in the host cells occurred and the amoebae finally underwent rupture or lysis. In cocultivation assays we could not only reinfect the original host amoeba but Acanthamoeba strains from other habitats could successfully be infected with Burkholderia pickettii as well.

  19. Characterization of Burkholderia cepacia genomovar I as a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Burkholderia is an important bacterial genus containing several species of ecological, biotechnological and pathological .... The data were later transformed .... application. The effects of agrochemicals on UPMB3 for good management of BSR by the bacteria also need to be investigated. REFERENCES.

  20. Novel recombinant ethyl ferulate esterase from Burkholderia multivorans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rashamuse, KJ

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available techniques. Detailed molecular identification based on species-specific primers and two conserved genes (16S rRNA and recA) led to the identification of the isolate as Burkholderia multivorans UWC10. A gene (designated estEFH5) encoding an EFH enzyme...

  1. Characterization of Burkholderia cepacia genomovar I as a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Burkholderia cepacia genomovar I as a potential biocontrol agent of Ganoderma boninense in oil palm. ... to the species level based on Biolog® Identification System, and to carry out DNA fingerprinting for strain differentiation as well as differentiate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic human forms.

  2. Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates in 2 Pet Iguanas, California, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Zehnder, Ashley M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Koski, Marilyn A.; Lifland, Barry; Byrne, Barbara A.; Swanson, Alexandra A.; Rood, Michael P.; Gee, Jay E.; Elrod, Mindy Glass; Beesley, Cari A.; Blaney, David D.; Ventura, Jean; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Beeler, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, was isolated from abscesses of 2 pet green iguanas in California, USA. The international trade in iguanas may contribute to importation of this pathogen into countries where it is not endemic and put persons exposed to these animals at risk for infection.

  3. Efflux Pump-mediated Drug Resistance in Burkholderia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Podnecky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several members of the genus Burkholderia are prominent pathogens. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance. Virtually all Burkholderia species are also resistant to polymyxin, prohibiting use of drugs like colistin that are available for treatment of infections caused by most other drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Despite clinical significance and antibiotic resistance of Burkholderia species, characterization of efflux pumps lags behind other non-enteric Gram-negative pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although efflux pumps have been described in several Burkholderia species, they have been best studied in B. cenocepacia and B. pseudomallei. As in other non-enteric Gram-negatives, efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division (RND family are the clinically most significant efflux systems in these two species. Several efflux pumps were described in B. cenocepacia, which when expressed confer resistance to clinically significant antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. Three RND pumps have been characterized in B. pseudomallei, two of which confer either intrinsic or acquired resistance to aminoglycosides, macrolides, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, trimethoprim, and in some instances trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole. Several strains of the host-adapted B. mallei, a clone of B. pseudomallei, lack AmrAB-OprA and are therefore aminoglycoside and macrolide susceptible. B. thailandensis is closely related to B. pseudomallei, but non-pathogenic to humans. Its pump repertoire and ensuing drug resistance profile parallels that of B. pseudomallei. An efflux pump in B. vietnamiensis plays a significant role in acquired aminoglycoside resistance. Summarily, efflux pumps are significant players in Burkholderia drug resistance.

  4. Removal of Burkholderia cepacia biofilms with oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, D W; Mishra, S K; Pierson, D L

    1995-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect the water system aboard US space shuttles and is the anticipated biocide for the international space station. Water quality on spacecraft must be maintained at the highest possible levels for the safety of the crew. Furthermore, the treatment process used to maintain the quality of water on research must be robust and operate for long periods with minimal crew intervention. Biofilms are recalcitrant and pose a major threat with regard to chronic contamination of spacecraft water systems. We measured the effectiveness of oxidizing biocides on the removal and regrowth of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia biofilms. B. cepacia, isolated from the water distribution system of the space shuttle Discovery, was grown in continuous culture to produce a bacterial contamination source for biofilm formation and removal studies. A 10(7) CFU ml-1 B. cepacia suspension, in distilled water, was used to form biofilms on 3000 micrometers2 glass surfaces. Rates of attachment were measured directly with image analysis and were found to be 7.8, 15.2, and 22.8 attachment events h-1 for flow rates of 20.7, 15.2, and 9.8 ml min-1, respectively. After 18 h of formation, the B. cepacia biofilms were challenged with oxidants (ozone, chlorine, and iodine) and the rates of biofilm removal determined by image analysis. Fifty percent of the biofilm material was removed in the first hour of continous treatment with 24 mg l-1 chlorine or 2 mg l-1 ozone. Iodine (48 mg l-1) did not remove any measurable cellular material after 6 h continuous contact. After this first removal of biofilms by the oxidants, the surface was allowed to refoul and was again treated with the biocide. Iodine was the only compound that was unable to remove cellular debris from either primary or secondary biofilms. Moreover, treating primary biofilms with iodine increased the rate of formation of secondary biofilms, from 4.4 to 5.8 attachment events h-1. All the oxidants tested inactivated the B

  5. Crosstalk between sugarcane and a plant-growth promoting Burkholderia species

    OpenAIRE

    Chanyarat Paungfoo-Lonhienne; Thierry G. A. Lonhienne; Yun Kit Yeoh; Bogdan C. Donose; Richard I. Webb; Jeremy Parsons; Webber Liao; Evgeny Sagulenko; Prakash Lakshmanan; Philip Hugenholtz; Susanne Schmidt; Mark A. Ragan

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial species in the plant-beneficial-environmental clade of Burkholderia represent a substantial component of rhizosphere microbes in many plant species. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of the interaction, we combined functional studies with high-resolution dual transcriptome analysis of sugarcane and root-associated diazotrophic Burkholderia strain Q208. We show that Burkholderia Q208 forms a biofilm at the root surface and suppresses the virulence factors that typically t...

  6. Higiene alimentaria para la prevención de trastornos digestivos infecciosos y por toxinas

    OpenAIRE

    G. Manuel Moreno, Dr.; Alarcón Alejandra, Nut.

    2010-01-01

    El principal factor que interviene en el origen y prevención de las enfermedades trasmitidas por los alimentos es la higiene alimentaria. Dichas enfermedades son causadas por la ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados con microorganismos patógenos ocasionando una infección o por la ingestión de alimentos contaminados con toxinas. Los principales agentes involucrados son Escherichia Coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria Monocytogenes, Norovirus, virus Hepatitis A, Astrovirus, ...

  7. Identification of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei adhesins for human respiratory epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Robert J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei cause the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. A well-studied aspect of pathogenesis by these closely-related bacteria is their ability to invade and multiply within eukaryotic cells. In contrast, the means by which B. pseudomallei and B. mallei adhere to cells are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to identify adherence factors expressed by these organisms. Results Comparative sequence analyses identified a gene product in the published genome of B. mallei strain ATCC23344 (locus # BMAA0649 that resembles the well-characterized Yersinia enterocolitica autotransporter adhesin YadA. The gene encoding this B. mallei protein, designated boaA, was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to significantly increase adherence to human epithelial cell lines, specifically HEp2 (laryngeal cells and A549 (type II pneumocytes, as well as to cultures of normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE. Consistent with these findings, disruption of the boaA gene in B. mallei ATCC23344 reduced adherence to all three cell types by ~50%. The genomes of the B. pseudomallei strains K96243 and DD503 were also found to contain boaA and inactivation of the gene in DD503 considerably decreased binding to monolayers of HEp2 and A549 cells and to NHBE cultures. A second YadA-like gene product highly similar to BoaA (65% identity was identified in the published genomic sequence of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 (locus # BPSL1705. The gene specifying this protein, termed boaB, appears to be B. pseudomallei-specific. Quantitative attachment assays demonstrated that recombinant E. coli expressing BoaB displayed greater binding to A549 pneumocytes, HEp2 cells and NHBE cultures. Moreover, a boaB mutant of B. pseudomallei DD503 showed decreased adherence to these respiratory cells. Additionally, a B. pseudomallei strain lacking expression of both boaA and boaB was impaired in its ability to

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAF BLIGHT OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CAUSED BY Alternaria dauci (KÜHN GROVES & SKOLKO: SURVIVAL OF Alternaria dauci IN VEGETAL RESIDUES OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CROP ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DA QUEIMA DAS FOLHAS DA CENOURA (Daucus carota L. CAUSADA POR Alternaria dauci (Kühn GROVES & SKOLKO: Sobrevivência de Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & SKOLKO em restos culturais da cenoura (Daucus carota L.

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    Geraldo Martins Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The spore viability of Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & Skolko in carrot (Daucus carota L. debris which were kept at different levels of temperature and relative humidity, without light, was studied. The temperature levels tested were 8, 16, 24 and 32°C, and the relative humidity levels 3, 18, 51, 73 and 100%. The treatments were different combinations of these levels. Humidity was the more important factor in preserving the fungus spore ability to germinate and its infectivity. Under conditions of high relative humidity and temperatures of 24 and 32°C, the spores rapidly lost their viability. This did not happen when the relative humidity was equal to, or below, 51%. The survival of fungus mycelium on carrot petioles was studied in non-treated organic soil, at different humidity levels, at three different depths, during a period of 120 days. Soil humidity was the factor of major significance in the persistence of the mycelium, followed by depths and time factors. In petioles kept at depths of 10 and 20 cm in humid soil, the survival was greatly reduced, while survival was markedly higher in those kept at the surface of dry soil. The effect of humidity on the viability of mycelium was studied also under soiless condition. Petioles were maintained in relative humidity controlled chamber, at 24°C. In saturated atmosphere (100% humidity, the mycelium viability was lost in less than 20 days. It was concluded that both, the conidial and mycelial form of Alternaria dauci are quite sensitive to high humidity levels.

    Estudou-se a sobrevivência das formas conidial e miceliana de Alternaria dauci, respectivamente, sobre folhas necrosadas e pecíolos de cenoura, sob diferentes condições mesológicas. Os esporos do fungo sobre conidióforos em folhas necrosadas de cenoura foram mantidos por 120 dias sob condi

  9. More than skin deep: moisturizing body milk and Burkholderia cepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Amy E; Price, Connie Savor

    2008-01-01

    Alvarez-Lerma and colleagues observed over an 18-day period that five critically ill patients admitted to a multidisciplinary 18-bed intensive care unit contracted Burkholderia cepacia from unopened containers of moisturizing body milk, calling into question the use in critical care settings of cosmetic products that do not guarantee sterilization during the manufacturing process. Is this the answer to the problem, however, or should the use of lotions in such settings be re-examined?

  10. More than skin deep: moisturizing body milk and Burkholderia cepacia

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, Amy E; Price, Connie Savor

    2008-01-01

    Alvarez-Lerma and colleagues observed over an 18-day period that five critically ill patients admitted to a multidisciplinary 18-bed intensive care unit contracted Burkholderia cepacia from unopened containers of moisturizing body milk, calling into question the use in critical care settings of cosmetic products that do not guarantee sterilization during the manufacturing process. Is this the answer to the problem, however, or should the use of lotions in such settings be re-examined?

  11. Environmental Survival, Military Relevance, and Persistence of Burkholderia Pseudomallei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    that this species has a wide range of potential carbon and nitrogen sources and strategies to ensure iron and phosphate supply, the metabolic range of B...in the species’ metabolic repertoire. There is no ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen ; a feature required by Burkholderia species recently noted to...reside in leguminous root nodules (Moulin et al., 2001). The accumulation of PHB is a feature of a metabolism adapted to long-term survival; but

  12. Diagnósticos e atendimentos para surdocegos por rubéola congênita

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    Susana Maria Mana Aráoz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, damos ênfase ao diagnóstico e posterior atendimento da surdocegueira causada por Rubéola Congênita. Destacamos as particularidades inerentes a este quadro em âmbito geral, através do uso de pesquisa para este fim.

  13. Characterization of integrons in Burkholderia cepacia clinical isolates

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    Linda Furlanis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen able to colonize the airways of Cystic Fibrosis (CF patients, frequently developing chronic infections. In 20% of cases these infections cause severe and poorly controlled pathological situations because of the intrinsic antibiotic resistance expressed by the microorganism. CF patients are often subjected to antibiotic therapy: this facilitates the acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants by the infecting bacteria. Integrons are mobile genetic elements that are widespread in bacterial populations and favor the acquisition of gene cassettes coding for these determinants.The presence of class 1 integrons was investigated by PCR with primers specific for the 5’ and 3’ ends in Burkholderia isolates recovered from patients in treatment at the CF center of Friuli Venezia Giulia. The same integron, carrying an uncommon allelic form (Ib of the aacA4 gene in its cassette array and conferring resistance to some aminoglycosides, was found in two independent isolates (different RAPD profiles infecting two different patients. In both isolates the integron was carried by plasmids and was still present 3 and 6 years later the first finding. Despite the exchange of integrons between bacterial pathogens is fully described, these items were not frequently found in Burkholderia isolates. Although the clinical relevance of the integron we identified is low (a single gene cassette encoding a widespread resistance,we feel concerned that these genetic elements begin to circulate in this bacterial species, as this could make more and more troublesome the treatment of infections notoriously difficult to eradicate.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Organophosphorus Compound-Degrading Burkholderia zhejiangensis Strain CEIB S4-3

    OpenAIRE

    Hern?ndez-Mendoza, Armando; Mart?nez-Ocampo, Fernando; Lozano-Aguirre Beltr?n, Luis Fernando; Popoca-Ursino, Elida Carolina; Ortiz-Hern?ndez, Laura; S?nchez-Salinas, Enrique; Dant?n-Gonz?lez, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia species are widely distributed in the environment. A Burkholderia zhejiangensis strain was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil from an agricultural field in Mexico and identified as an organophosphorus compound-degrading bacterium. In this study, we report the draft genome sequence of Burkholderia zhejiangensis strain CEIB S4-3.

  15. Immunoproteomic analysis of proteins expressed by two related pathogens, Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia cenocepacia, during human infection.

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    Minu Shinoy

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes chronic infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF. It is a highly antibiotic resistant organism and Bcc infections are rarely cleared from patients, once they are colonized. The two most clinically relevant species within Bcc are Burkholderia cenocepacia and Burkholderia multivorans. The virulence of these pathogens has not been fully elucidated and the virulence proteins expressed during human infection have not been identified to date. Furthermore, given its antibiotic resistance, prevention of infection with a prophylactic vaccine may represent a better alternative than eradication of an existing infection. We have compared the immunoproteome of two strains each from these two species of Bcc, with the aim of identifying immunogenic proteins which are common to both species. Fourteen immunoreactive proteins were exclusive to both B. cenocepacia strains, while 15 were exclusive to B. multivorans. A total of 15 proteins were immunogenic across both species. DNA-directed RNA polymerase, GroEL, 38kDa porin and elongation factor-Tu were immunoreactive proteins expressed by all four strains examined. Many proteins which were immunoreactive in both species, warrant further investigations in order to aid in the elucidation of the mechanisms of pathogenesis of this difficult organism. In addition, identification of some of these could also allow the development of protective vaccines which may prevent colonisation.

  16. Accurate and rapid identification of the Burkholderia pseudomallei near-neighbour, Burkholderia ubonensis, using real-time PCR.

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    Erin P Price

    Full Text Available Burkholderia ubonensis is an environmental bacterium belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc, a group of genetically related organisms that are associated with opportunistic but generally nonfatal infections in healthy individuals. In contrast, the near-neighbour species Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a disease that can be fatal in up to 95% of cases if left untreated. B. ubonensis is frequently misidentified as B. pseudomallei from soil samples using selective culturing on Ashdown's medium, reflecting both the shared environmental niche and morphological similarities of these species. Additionally, B. ubonensis shows potential as an important biocontrol agent in B. pseudomallei-endemic regions as certain strains possess antagonistic properties towards B. pseudomallei. Current methods for characterising B. ubonensis are laborious, time-consuming and costly, and as such this bacterium remains poorly studied. The aim of our study was to develop a rapid and inexpensive real-time PCR-based assay specific for B. ubonensis. We demonstrate that a novel B. ubonensis-specific assay, Bu550, accurately differentiates B. ubonensis from B. pseudomallei and other species that grow on selective Ashdown's agar. We anticipate that Bu550 will catalyse research on B. ubonensis by enabling rapid identification of this organism from Ashdown's-positive colonies that are not B. pseudomallei.

  17. Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice Encefalite experimental causada por cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps em camundongos

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    Hidelberto Matos-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship. METHODS: The animals were intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions. RESULTS: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.OBJETIVOS: Apresentar o modelo experimental de neurocisticercose (NCC com cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps, descrever a inflamação, suscetibilidade e resistência em camundongos BALB/c e C57BL/6, caracterizando melhor a relação parasito-hospedeiro. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram inoculados intracranialmente com cisticercos de T. crassiceps em estádio inicial e eutanasiados aos 7, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a infecção. Retiraram-se os encéfalos para análise histopatológica, classificação dos parasitos e lesões inflamatórias. RESULTADOS: Foi possível induzir NCC nas duas linhagens de camundongos utilizados como modelo experimental. Os animais BALB/c apresentaram lesões inflamatórias mais intensas do que os camundongos C57BL/6 e induziram nos parasitos necrose na fase tardia com padrão inflamatório agudo. Os C57BL/6 mostraram-se mais hábeis em provocar necrose precocemente nos cisticercos, mas com padrão inflamatório crônico. CONCLUSÕES: Este modelo experimental induziu NCC nos animais com inflamações e lesões. Os camundongos C57BL/6 foram hábeis em induzir precocemente necrose nos parasitos, apresentando lesões inflamatórias com menor intensidade.

  18. Cervical celullitis in broiler chickens for Escherichia coli/ Celulite cervical em frangos de corte causada por Escherichia coli

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    Ivens Gomes Guimarães

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was report the isolation of Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with cellulitis in the cervical region. It was carried through the isolation of E. coli of the lesion of cellulitis from broilers and carried through histopathological examination of skin that had characterized the lesion. Focal ulcerations of epidermis, fibrin in dermis and difuse infiltrated by lymphocytes and heterophils on subcutaneous tissues.Neste trabalho, relata-se o isolamento de Escherichia coli em frangos de corte apresentando lesão de celulite na região cervical. Foi realizado o isolamento de E. coli da lesão de celulite e realizado exames histopatológicos que caracterizaram a lesão. Na epiderme foram verificadas lesões ulcerativas, presença de fibrina na derme e infiltração difusa de linfócitos e heterófilos no tecido subcutâneo.

  19. CLORURO DE BENZALCONIO EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE LA DERMATOMICOSIS CAUSADA POR Trichophyton sp. EN EL CUY (Cavia cobayo)

    OpenAIRE

    Bezada Q., Sandra; Práctica privada.; Noé M., Norma; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.; Béjar C., Vilma; Instituto de Medicina Tropical “DAC”, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.; Mascari G., Juan; Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agraria (INIA)

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of benzalkonium chloride for the treatment of dermatomicosis caused by Trichophyton sp. in guinea pig (Cavia cobayo) was evaluated in 200 guinea pigs of two months old, that showed typical clinical signs of dermatomicosis. Hair samples and skin grudges were taken for direct exam and for in vitro culture in Dermatophytes Test Medium and Mycobiotic. Skin biopsies for pathobiology were prepared. The guinea pig were divided in groups A and B of 100 animals each. Group A was treated w...

  20. Técnica de correção de hipernasalidade causada por adenoidectomia Management of hipernasality caused by adenoidectomy

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    Patrícia Junqueira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A tonsila faríngea quando aumentada, pode causar obstrução nas vias aéreas superiores e levar à respiração bucal de suplência¹. Em alguns casos adenoidectomia e/ou adenoamigdalectomia são indicadas para remoção do fator obstrutivo, possibilitando a respiração nasal. Temos observado que algumas crianças mesmo sem apresentar queixas e/ou alterações vocais no período pré-operatório, desenvolvem uma qualidade vocal hipernasal após adenoidectomia12. Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever um caso de hipernasalidade após adenoidectomia e relatar o tratamento fonoaudiológico, bem como, os possíveis riscos e seqüelas após o procedimento cirúrgico.Hipertrophic adenoid is a frequent cause of obstruction of the upper respiratory tract and may lead to a mouth breathing condition. in some cases, surgical procedures such as adenoidectomy and or tonsillectomy are necessary to reestablish the nasal breathing. We have observed that following adenoidectomy, many children present with vocal hipernasality, even when there is no previous history or complains. In this paper, the authors describe a case of severe hipernasality following adenoidectomy, as well as detailed steps of the speech therapy approach. The risks and sequelae of this vocal condition related to adenoidectomy are also discussed.

  1. Incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad foliar causada por Mycosphaerella spp. en Eucaliptales de Galicia (NO España)

    OpenAIRE

    Otero, Lázara; Aguín, Olsa; Sáinz Osés, María Jesús; Mansilla, P.

    2007-01-01

    El género Mycosphaerella incluye más de 30 especies que son patógenas en eucalipto. La enfermedad que ocasionan se conoce como MLB (Mycosphaerella leaf blotch). El síntoma más característico consiste en la aparición de unas manchas necróticas en las hojas que reducen su capacidad fotosintética, con la consiguiente disminución del crecimiento y de la producción de madera. En 2005-2006 se hizo un muestreo en las masas de eucalipto, la mayoría de Eucalyptus globulus, situadas en las provincia...

  2. Endocarditis bacteriana causada por Corynebacterium diphtheriae, biotipo gravís, no toxigénico: informe de un caso

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    Nélida Muñoz

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un niño de 9 años, atendido en el Hospital Erazmo Meoz de Cúcuta, entre el 22 de noviembre de 1995 y el 18 de diciembre del mismo año, con diagnóstico de anemia, síndrome mielodisplásico y endocarditis bacteriana. En los hemocultivos, se aisló un bacilo grampositivo, identificado inicialmente como Listeria monocytogenes. El aislamiento fue enviado al Laboratorio de Referencia de Microbiología del INS para confirmación, en donde se identificó la bacteria como Corynebacterium diphtheriae, biotipo gravis, no toxigénico. No fue posible realizar el seguimiento del paciente debido a que los padres solicitaron su salida voluntaria de la institución.

  3. El Virus (VIH y la Enfermedad Causada por esta Infección (Sida VIH-SIDA y Cerebro.

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    Gabriel Toro G.

    2007-03-01

    Las células CD4 realizan respuestas de tipo TH1 parcial, no hay adecuada formación de granulomas y los microorganismos oportunistas citados encuentran una situación propicia para su desarrollo. Como es un trastorno básico de la inmunidad celular, la reactivación de las infecciones oportunistas constituye, si no el único como veremos, si el elemento fundamental del complejo que hoy se denomina SIDA...

  4. Características laboratoriais das ceratites e conjuntivites causadas por Streptococcus sp Laboratorial findings of Streptococcus keratitis and conjunctivitis

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    Helena Parente Solari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar os resultados laboratoriais de conjuntivites e ceratites com cultura positiva para Streptococcus sp, avaliando a incidência das diferentes espécies e os dados dos antibiogramas. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de revisão de prontuários de pacientes encaminhados ao laboratório de Doenças Externas do Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP com resultado de cultivo bacteriano positivo de córnea ou conjuntiva e com identificação de alguma cepa do gênero Streptococcus sp, no período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2001. Analisou-se idade do paciente, espécie de Streptococcus e os testes de sensibilidade aos seguintes antibióticos: cefalotina, amicacina, gentamicina, tobramicina, ciprofloxacina, lomefloxacina, ofloxacina, norfloxacina e vancomicina. RESULTADOS: As espécies mais encontradas foram Streptococcus pneumoniae e Streptococcus viridans. Com relação aos antibióticos, a sensibilidade foi maior à cefalotina, às quinolonas e à vancomicina. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se os antibióticos tópicos comercialmente disponíveis, as quinolonas apresentam melhor espectro de ação quando comparadas aos aminoglicosídios.PURPOSE: To evaluate laboratorial findings of Streptococcus keratitis and conjunctivitis, analyzing the different species and the results of bacterial susceptibility to an antibiotics. METHODS: Retrospective study of the records from the External Disease Laboratory of the Ophthalmology Department of the Federal University of São Paulo, with conjunctival or corneal positive bacterial culture for Streptococcus sp, between January 1995 and December 2001. The collected data were age, Streptococcus species and the bacterial susceptibility to the following antibiotics: cephalotin, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramicin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and vancomicin. RESULTS: The most frequent species were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus viridans. Regarding bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics we found a higher susceptibility to the following antibiotics: cephalotin, quinolones and vancomicin. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the commercially available topic antibiotics, the quinolones presented better results when compared to the aminoglycosides.

  5. Identification of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei adhesins for human respiratory epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan Robert J; Wooten Ronald M; Grose William; Lazarus John J; Lipski Serena; Balder Rachel; Woods Donald E; Lafontaine Eric R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei cause the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. A well-studied aspect of pathogenesis by these closely-related bacteria is their ability to invade and multiply within eukaryotic cells. In contrast, the means by which B. pseudomallei and B. mallei adhere to cells are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to identify adherence factors expressed by these organisms. Results Comparative sequence analyses ident...

  6. Characterisation of the simultaneous molybdenum reduction and glyphosate degradation by Burkholderia vietnamiensis AQ5-12 and Burkholderia sp. AQ5-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Motharasan; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Yasid, Nur Adeela; Yakasai, Hafeez Muhammad; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2018-02-01

    In this novel study, we report on the use of two molybdenum-reducing bacteria with the ability to utilise the herbicide glyphosate as the phosphorus source. The bacteria reduced sodium molybdate to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue), a colloidal and insoluble product, which is less toxic. The characterisation of the molybdenum-reducing bacteria was carried out using resting cells immersed in low-phosphate molybdenum media. Two glyphosate-degrading bacteria, namely Burkholderia vietnamiensis AQ5-12 and Burkholderia sp. AQ5-13, were able to use glyphosate as a phosphorous source to support molybdenum reduction to Mo-blue. The bacteria optimally reduced molybdenum between the pHs of 6.25 and 8. The optimum concentrations of molybdate for strain Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AQ5-12 was observed to be between 40 and 60 mM, while for Burkholderia sp. AQ5-13, the optimum molybdate concentration occurred between 40 and 50 mM. Furthermore, 5 mM of phosphate was seen as the optimum concentration supporting molybdenum reduction for both bacteria. The optimum temperature aiding Mo-blue formation ranged from 30 to 40 °C for Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AQ5-12, whereas for Burkholderia sp. AQ5-13, the range was from 35 to 40 °C. Glucose was the best electron donor for supporting molybdate reduction, followed by sucrose, fructose and galactose for both strains. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source in supporting molybdenum reduction. Interestingly, increasing the glyphosate concentrations beyond 100 and 300 ppm for Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AQ5-12 and Burkholderia sp. AQ5-13, respectively, significantly inhibited molybdenum reduction. The ability of these bacteria to reduce molybdenum while degrading glyphosate is a useful process for the bioremediation of both toxicants.

  7. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S

    2014-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence based trees, members of the genus Burkholderia grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades including those corresponding to the clinically important Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei groups were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs) that are uniquely found in a number of well-defined groups of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I in this work) which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus (viz. the BCC and the B. pseudomallei group) as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. The second main clade (Clade II), which is composed of environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 identified CSIs that are specific for this group. Additionally, our work has also identified multiple CSIs that serve to clearly demarcate a number of smaller groups of Burkholderia spp. including 3 CSIs that are specific for the B. cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the B. pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for

  8. Phylogeographic, genomic, and meropenem susceptibility analysis of Burkholderia ubonensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin P Price

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Burkholderia ubonensis is commonly co-isolated from environmental specimens harbouring the melioidosis pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei. B. ubonensis has been reported in northern Australia and Thailand but not North America, suggesting similar geographic distribution to B. pseudomallei. Unlike most other Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc species, B. ubonensis is considered non-pathogenic, although its virulence potential has not been tested. Antibiotic resistance in B. ubonensis, particularly towards drugs used to treat the most severe B. pseudomallei infections, has also been poorly characterised. This study examined the population biology of B. ubonensis, and includes the first reported isolates from the Caribbean. Phylogenomic analysis of 264 B. ubonensis genomes identified distinct clades that corresponded with geographic origin, similar to B. pseudomallei. A small proportion (4% of strains lacked the 920kb chromosome III replicon, with discordance of presence/absence amongst genetically highly related strains, demonstrating that the third chromosome of B. ubonensis, like other Bcc species, probably encodes for a nonessential pC3 megaplasmid. Multilocus sequence typing using the B. pseudomallei scheme revealed that one-third of strains lack the "housekeeping" narK locus. In comparison, all strains could be genotyped using the Bcc scheme. Several strains possessed high-level meropenem resistance (≥32 μg/mL, a concern due to potential transmission of this phenotype to B. pseudomallei. In silico analysis uncovered a high degree of heterogeneity among the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen cluster loci, with at least 35 different variants identified. Finally, we show that Asian B. ubonensis isolate RF23-BP41 is avirulent in the BALB/c mouse model via a subcutaneous route of infection. Our results provide several new insights into the biology of this understudied species.

  9. Exploring the HME and HAE1 efflux systems in the genus Burkholderia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasca Maria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Burkholderia includes a variety of species with opportunistic human pathogenic strains, whose increasing global resistance to antibiotics has become a public health problem. In this context a major role could be played by multidrug efflux pumps belonging to Resistance Nodulation Cell-Division (RND family, which allow bacterial cells to extrude a wide range of different substrates, including antibiotics. This study aims to i identify rnd genes in the 21 available completely sequenced Burkholderia genomes, ii analyze their phylogenetic distribution, iii define the putative function(s that RND proteins perform within the Burkholderia genus and iv try tracing the evolutionary history of some of these genes in Burkholderia. Results BLAST analysis of the 21 Burkholderia sequenced genomes, using experimentally characterized ceoB sequence (one of the RND family counterpart in the genus Burkholderia as probe, allowed the assembly of a dataset comprising 254 putative RND proteins. An extensive phylogenetic analysis revealed the occurrence of several independent events of gene loss and duplication across the different lineages of the genus Burkholderia, leading to notable differences in the number of paralogs between different genomes. A putative substrate [antibiotics (HAE1 proteins/heavy-metal (HME proteins] was also assigned to the majority of these proteins. No correlation was found between the ecological niche and the lifestyle of Burkholderia strains and the number/type of efflux pumps they possessed, while a relation can be found with genome size and taxonomy. Remarkably, we observed that only HAE1 proteins are mainly responsible for the different number of proteins observed in strains of the same species. Data concerning both the distribution and the phylogenetic analysis of the HAE1 and HME in the Burkholderia genus allowed depicting a likely evolutionary model accounting for the evolution and spreading of HME and HAE

  10. Recurrent urinary tract infection by burkholderia cepacia in a live related renal transplant recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeshan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia is high virulent organism usually causing lower respiratory tract infections especially in Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and post lung transplant. Urinary tract infections with Burkholderia cepacia have been associated after bladder irrigation or use of contaminated hospital objects. Post renal transplant urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious complications. Recurrent urinary tract infection with Burkholderia cepacia is a rare finding. Complete anatomical evaluation is essential in case recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) after renal transplant. Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) and neurogenic urinary bladder was found to be important risk factors. (author)

  11. Burkholderia cepacia lipase is a promising biocatalyst for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Francesco; Natalello, Antonino; Castoldi, Simone; Lotti, Marina; Santambrogio, Carlo; Grandori, Rita

    2016-07-01

    Lipases resistant to inhibition and denaturation by methanol are valuable tools for biotechnological applications, in particular for biofuel production. Microbial lipases have attracted a great deal of interest because of their stability at high concentrations of organic solvents. Burkholderia cepacia lipase (BCL) is tested here for robustness towards methanol in terms of conformational stability and catalytic activity in transesterification assays. This lipase turns out to be even more tolerant than the homologous and better characterized enzyme from Burkholderia glumae. BCL unfolding transition, as monitored by far-UV circular dichroism (CD) and intrinsic fluorescence, displays a Tm above 60°C in the presence of 50% methanol. The protein unfolds at low pH, and the organic solvent affects the nature of the denatured state under acidic conditions. The protein performs well in transesterification assays upon prolonged incubations at high methanol concentrations. BCL is highly tolerant to methanol and displays particularly high conformational stability under conditions employed for transesterification reactions. These features depict BCL as a promising enzyme for biofuel industry. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Microbial degradation of quinoline by immobilized cells of Burkholderia pickettii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianlong, Wang; Xiangchun, Quan; Liping, Han; Yi, Qian; Hegemann, Werner

    2002-05-01

    A quinoline-biodegrading microorganism was isolated from activated sludge of coke-oven wastewater treatment plant using quinoline as sole carbon and nitrogen source. It is a gram negative, rod-shaped and aerobic strain, which was identified as Burkholderia pickettii. The biodegradation of quinoline was carried out with this isolated strain. Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrum (GC/MS) revealed that 2-hydroxyquinoline (2-OH-Q) was the first intermediate in the course of quinoline biodegradation. A novel immobilization carrier, that is, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-gauze hybrid carrier, was developed. The isolated strain was immobilized by two different immobilizing techniques and used for the quinolinerdegradation. It was found that biodegradation rate of quinoline by the microorganisms immobilized on PVA-gauze hybrid carrier was faster than that by the microorganisms immobilized in PVA gel beads. Kinetics of quinoline biodegradation by cells of Burkholderia pickettii immobilized on PVA-gauze hybrid carrier was investigated. The results demonstrate that quinoline degradation could be described by zero-order reaction rate equation when the initial quinoline concentration was in the range of 50-500 mg l(-1).

  13. Polyhydroxybutyrate and polyhydroxydodecanoate produced by Burkholderia contaminans IPT553.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, F; Brandt, C A; da Silva, E S; de Andrade Rodrigues, M F

    2017-04-06

    In this paper, we introduce a new Burkholderia contaminans capable of producing a newly characterized polymer. CG-MS and magnetic nuclear resonance 1 H and 13 C were used to determine the constitution of polymers produced in glucose, glucose with casein, sucrose and sucrose with casein. Three pairs of primers were used to find the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthase class and sequence. The synthesized polymers were composed by short-chain length PHA (scl-PHA), especially polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), and medium chain length PHA (mcl-PHA), especially polyhydroxydodecanoate (PHDd), and their concentration, constitution and molecular weight depend on carbon source used. The bacterium showed only class I synthase which could not explain the mcl-PHA production. Burkholderia contaminans has a class I PHA synthase and produces PHB combined to PHDd when cultivated in sucrose or glucose, and PHDd concentration is affected when casein is used. PHA are natural polymers produced by a wide range of bacteria. The presence of PHDd monomers confers to the polymer elastomeric properties. Previously, PHDd was only obtained when bacteria were cultivated in related carbon source. In this work, B. contaminansIPT553 produced PHB with PHDd using simple and low-cost carbon sources that can make possible the cheaper production of a more flexible biopolymer with crystallinity and elasticity different from the more common PHAs. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Type VI Secretion is a Major Virulence Determinant in Burkholderia Mallei

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schell, Mark A; Ulrich, Ricky L; Ribot, Wilson J; Brueggemann, Ernst E; Hines, Harry B; Chen, Dan; Lipscomb, Lyla; Kim, H. S; Mrazek, Jan; Nierman, William C; DeShazer, David

    2007-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted pathogen and a category B biothreat agent. Although the B. mallei VirAG two-component regulatory system is required for virulence in hamsters, the virulence genes it regulates are unknown...

  15. BIOAUGMENTATION WITH BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA PR1301 FOR IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot field study was conducted at the Moffett Federal Airfield, Mountain View, California, to determine whether effective in-situ aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of TCE could be accomplished through bioaugmentation with a genetically modified strain of Burkholderia cepacia ...

  16. Identification of Burkholderia spp. in the clinical microbiology laboratory: comparison of conventional and molecular methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Pelt (Cindy); C.M. Verduin (Cees); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); M.C. Vos (Margreet); B. Tummler; C. Segonds; F. Reubsaet; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCystic fibrosis (CF) predisposes patients to bacterial colonization and infection of the lower airways. Several species belonging to the genus Burkholderia are potential CF-related pathogens, but microbiological identification may be complicated. This

  17. Agricultural Use of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) Cepacia: A Threat to Human Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    ROI DK50838). References 1. BurkholderW. Sour skin, a bacterial rot of onion bulbs. Phytopathology 1950;40:115-8. 2. Goldmann D, Klinger J...Burkholderia cepacia. Microbiological Reviews 1996;60:539-74. 7. Isles A, Maclusky I, Corey M, Gold R, Prober C, Fleming P, et al. Pseudomonas...biological control. Phytopathology 1993;83:1466-73. 40. King E, Parke J. Population density of the biocontrol agent Burkholderia cepacia AMMDR1 on

  18. Molecular mechanisms underlying the close association between soil Burkholderia and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopnisek, Nejc; Zühlke, Daniela; Carlier, Aurélien; Barberán, Albert; Fierer, Noah; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial species belonging to the genus Burkholderia have been repeatedly reported to be associated with fungi but the extent and specificity of these associations in soils remain undetermined. To assess whether associations between Burkholderia and fungi are widespread in soils, we performed a co-occurrence analysis in an intercontinental soil sample collection. This revealed that Burkholderia significantly co-occurred with a wide range of fungi. To analyse the molecular basis of the interaction, we selected two model fungi frequently co-occurring with Burkholderia, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani, and analysed the proteome changes caused by cultivation with either fungus in the widespread soil inhabitant B. glathei, whose genome we sequenced. Co-cultivation with both fungi led to very similar changes in the B. glathei proteome. Our results indicate that B. glathei significantly benefits from the interaction, which is exemplified by a lower abundance of several starvation factors that were highly expressed in pure culture. However, co-cultivation also gave rise to stress factors, as indicated by the increased expression of multidrug efflux pumps and proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Our data suggest that the ability of Burkholderia to establish a close association with fungi mainly lies in the capacities to utilize fungal-secreted metabolites and to overcome fungal defense mechanisms. This work indicates that beneficial interactions with fungi might contribute to the survival strategy of Burkholderia species in environments with sub-optimal conditions, including acidic soils. PMID:25989372

  19. Crosstalk between sugarcane and a plant-growth promoting Burkholderia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Lonhienne, Thierry G A; Yeoh, Yun Kit; Donose, Bogdan C; Webb, Richard I; Parsons, Jeremy; Liao, Webber; Sagulenko, Evgeny; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Hugenholtz, Philip; Schmidt, Susanne; Ragan, Mark A

    2016-11-21

    Bacterial species in the plant-beneficial-environmental clade of Burkholderia represent a substantial component of rhizosphere microbes in many plant species. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of the interaction, we combined functional studies with high-resolution dual transcriptome analysis of sugarcane and root-associated diazotrophic Burkholderia strain Q208. We show that Burkholderia Q208 forms a biofilm at the root surface and suppresses the virulence factors that typically trigger immune response in plants. Up-regulation of bd-type cytochromes in Burkholderia Q208 suggests an increased energy production and creates the microaerobic conditions suitable for BNF. In this environment, a series of metabolic pathways are activated in Burkholderia Q208 implicated in oxalotrophy, microaerobic respiration, and formation of PHB granules, enabling energy production under microaerobic conditions. In the plant, genes involved in hypoxia survival are up-regulated and through increased ethylene production, larger aerenchyma is produced in roots which in turn facilitates diffusion of oxygen within the cortex. The detected changes in gene expression, physiology and morphology in the partnership are evidence of a sophisticated interplay between sugarcane and a plant-growth promoting Burkholderia species that advance our understanding of the mutually beneficial processes occurring in the rhizosphere.

  20. Isolation and Identification of Burkholderia glumae from Symptomless Rice Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey on isolation and detection of the casual organism of bacterial grain rot of rice was conducted during 1997–2006. In 2006, six pathogenic bacterial strains were isolated from two symptomless seed samples of rice (Oryza sativa L. originally produced in Hainan Province and then planted in Zhejiang Province, China. They were identified as Burkholderia glumae which is the causal organism of bacterial grain rot of rice by physiological characteristics, colony morphology, pathogenicity test, Biolog, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis and RAPD-PCR compared with the four standard reference strains. It is confirmed that there is the infection of B. glumae in so-called ‘health looking seeds’.

  1. Higiene alimentaria para la prevención de trastornos digestivos infecciosos y por toxinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Manuel Moreno, Dr.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El principal factor que interviene en el origen y prevención de las enfermedades trasmitidas por los alimentos es la higiene alimentaria. Dichas enfermedades son causadas por la ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados con microorganismos patógenos ocasionando una infección o por la ingestión de alimentos contaminados con toxinas. Los principales agentes involucrados son Escherichia Coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria Monocytogenes, Norovirus, virus Hepatitis A, Astrovirus, Rotavirus, y Virus Coxsackie. Toxinas producidas por hongos o por microflora marina y los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes pueden también causar serios problemas de salud. La inocuidad alimentaría ha tomado relevancia debido a una mayor exigencia por consumidores cada día más informados y por las demandas del comercio exterior. Medidas que aseguren una adecuada higiene alimentaría nos permitirá prevenir enfermedades, principalmente digestivas, causadas por variados agentes en los alimentos. Esto se logra por la implementación de las medidas propuestas por la Comisión Internacional conocida como Codex Alimentarius.

  2. Use of the common marmoset to study Burkholderia mallei infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jelesijevic

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted bacterium that does not persist outside of its equine reservoir. The organism causes the zoonosis glanders, which is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. Infection by B. mallei typically occurs via the respiratory or percutaneous route, and the most common manifestations are life-threatening pneumonia and bacteremia. Glanders is difficult to diagnose and requires prolonged antibiotic therapy with low success rates. There is no vaccine to protect against B. mallei and there is concern regarding its use as a biothreat agent. Thus, experiments were performed to establish a non-human primate model of intranasal infection to study the organism and develop countermeasures. Groups of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus were inoculated intranasally with B. mallei strain ATCC 23344 and monitored for clinical signs of illness for up to 13 days. We discovered that 83% of marmosets inoculated with doses of 2.5 X 10(4 to 2.5 X 10(5 bacteria developed acute lethal infection within 3-4 days. Signs of disease were severe and included lethargy, inappetence, conjunctivitis, mucopurulent and hemorrhagic nasal discharges, and increased respiratory effort with abdominal lifts. Burkholderia mallei was cultured from the lungs, spleen and liver of these animals, and pathologic examination of tissues revealed lesions characteristic of glanders. Challenge experiments also revealed that 91% of animals infected with doses ranging from 25 to 2.5 X 10(3 bacteria exhibited mild non-specific signs of illness and were culture negative. One marmoset inoculated with 2.5 X 10(3 organisms developed moderate signs of disease and reached humane end-points 8 days post-infection. The liver and spleen of this animal were colonized with the agent and pathological analysis of tissues showed nasal, splenic and hepatic lesions. Taken together, these data indicate that the marmoset is a suitable model to study respiratory infection by B

  3. Development of ceftazidime resistance in an acute Burkholderia pseudomallei infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarovich DS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Derek S Sarovich,1,2,* Erin P Price,1,2,* Direk Limmathurotsakul,3 James M Cook,1 Alex T Von Schulze,1 Spenser R Wolken,1 Paul Keim,1 Sharon J Peacock,3,4 Talima Pearson1 1Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA; 2Tropical and Emerging Infectious Diseases Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Australia; 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Burkholderia pseudomallei, a bacterium that causes the disease melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. First-line antibiotic therapy for treating melioidosis is usually the synthetic β-lactam, ceftazidime (CAZ, as almost all B. pseudomallei strains are susceptible to this drug. However, acquired CAZ resistance can develop in vivo during treatment with CAZ, which can lead to mortality if therapy is not switched to a different drug in a timely manner. Serial B. pseudomallei isolates obtained from an acute Thai melioidosis patient infected by a CAZ susceptible strain, who ultimately succumbed to infection despite being on CAZ therapy for the duration of their infection, were analyzed. Isolates that developed CAZ resistance due to a proline to serine change at position 167 in the β-lactamase PenA were identified. Importantly, these CAZ resistant isolates remained sensitive to the alternative melioidosis treatments; namely, amoxicillin-clavulanate, imipenem, and meropenem. Lastly, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assays capable of rapidly identifying CAZ resistance in B. pseudomallei isolates at the position 167 mutation site were developed. The ability to rapidly identify the emergence of CAZ resistant B. pseudomallei populations in melioidosis patients will allow timely alterations in treatment strategies

  4. Lesões traumáticas de pele causadas pelos espinhos de Mimosa pudica e Mimosa debilis em equídeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra S. Belo Reis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas pesquisas sobre a natureza e causa de lesões de pele em equídeos em uma propriedade no município de Castanhal, região Nordeste do Estado do Pará. Foram realizadas visitas técnicas, estudos epidemiológicos, coletas de sangue, biópsias de pele afetada e a inspeção da pastagem. O estudo incluiu 25 equídeos, dos quais 14 machos e 11 fêmeas, de seis meses e oito anos de idade. Os animais apresentaram lesões ulcerativas, de bordos irregulares, na cabeça (narinas, focinho, lábios superiores e inferiores e chanfro, na cavidade oral (vestíbulo bucal e gengiva e nos membros (boletos, metacarpos e metatarsos e articulação escápulo-umeral. No exame histopatológico foram observados focos de erosões cutâneas, caracterizados por perda e necrose da epiderme, com espongiose, degeneração vesicular da epiderme remanescente e leve infiltrado inflamatório na derme subjacente, constituído predominantemente por macrófagos e, em menor grau, eosinófilos. Na inspeção da pastagem, constituída de Brachiaria humidicola, foi constatada grande invasão de duas plantas providas de espinhos, Mimosa pudica e Mimosa debilis, ambas da família Leg. Mimosoideae. Concluiu-se, que as lesões de pele foram causadas pela ação traumática dos espinhos de Mimosa pudica e Mimosa debilis.

  5. Toxicidade ocular causada pelo tamoxifeno: relato de caso Ocular toxicity caused by tamoxifen: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Terumi Inada

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho é relatar um caso de toxicidade ocular pelo tamoxifeno. Para isso, aferiu-se a melhor acuidade visual corrigida de ambos os olhos em tabela de Snellen. Foram realizados biomicroscopia do segmento anterior, refração, oftalmoscopia, angiofluoresceinografia e retinografia numa paciente de 63 anos, sexo feminino, cor branca, em uso de tamoxifeno 20 mg/dia há 4 anos, com acuidade visual corrigida de 20/70 e 20/40. A biomicroscopia do segmento anterior apresentava ceratopatia verticilata e catarata nuclear e cortical posterior de 1+/4 em ambos os olhos. À oftalmoscopia, foi verificado alteração do brilho macular de ambos os olhos. E a angiofluoresceinografia mostrou hiperfluorescência na área macular em fase precoce (defeito em janela. Relata-se um caso de ceratopatia e maculopatia causadas pelo tamoxifeno.To report tamoxifen ocular toxicity. The best visual acuity was measured in both eyes with Snellen chart, slit-lamp examination of anterior segment, refraction, dilated fundus examination, fluorescein angiography and retinography in a 63-year-old patient, female, white, using tamoxifen 20 mg/day for 4 years, with 20/70 and 20/40 corrected visual acuity. The anterior segment examination showed corneal linear subepithelial opacity inferior to the visual axis and nuclear and posterior cortical cataract (1+/4 in both eyes. Fundus examination showed alteration of macular color in both eyes. Fluorescein angiography presented hyperfluorescence in the macular area at an early phase (window defect. Report of keratopathy and maculopathy caused by tamoxifen.

  6. Infección por toxoplasma: panorama actual

    OpenAIRE

    Palmezano Díaz, Jorge Mario; Plazas Rey, Lisette Katherine; Rojas Carvajal, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Tema y alcance: este artículo pretende ofrecer al lector una mirada general sobre la toxoplasmosis, una zoonosis causada por Toxoplasma gondii, que afecta tanto a los hospederos intermediarios, como a los definitivos; buscamos que pueda entenderse la dinámica de la enfermedad, dejando de lado ciertos mitos sobre esta. Características: los félidos (Felidae) son los hospederos definitivos, entre los cuales encontramos a los gatos como los más cercanos al ser humano, que desarrollan la forma sex...

  7. Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP modulates pepper growth and resistance against Phytophthora capsici

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.M.; Hamayun, M.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2016-01-01

    Biological control of crop diseases is desirable for sustainable agriculture as it minimizes chemical inputs in the agricultural system and promotes eco-friendly environment. We analyzed the favorable role of Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP against the pathogen Phytophthora capsici in pepper. We screen thirty rhizobateria for their anti-pathogen activity, and found that Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP exhibits maximum growth inhibition of the pathogen P. capsici. The bacterium inoculation to pepper plants significantly enhanced growth attributes of pepper in infected and control treatments. The total proteins (10.9%), and the amino acids viz. glycine (4.08 ug/g), leucine (3.3 ug/g), and alanine (3.26 ug/g) were preset in considerably higher quantities in Burkholderia sp. applied treatments as compare to control. The systemic acquired resistance (SAR) of the host plant was up-regulated by Burkholderia sp. KCTC, as endogenous salicylic acid (235.5 ng/g) and jasmonic acid (22.8 ng/g) levels were found higher in such treatments. It was concluded that Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP mitigates the adverse effects of P. capsici on pepper crop and can improve crop productivity at the field level. (author)

  8. [Phylogenetic analysis of the genes for naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation in Burkholderia sp. strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmalkova, T Yu; Sazonova, O I; Kosheleva, I A; Boronin, A M

    2013-06-01

    The genetic systems responsible for naphthalene and phenanthrene catabolism have been analyzed in the five strains of Burkholderia sp. isolated from soil samples (West Siberia) contaminated by heavy residual fuel oil and in the strain Burkholderia sp. BS3702 from the laboratory collection isolated from soil samples of the coke gas works (Vidnoe, Moscow oblast). The results of this work demonstrate that naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation in the above strains is encoded by the sequences not homologous to the classical nah genes of pseudomonades. In the Burkholderia sp. BS3702 strain, the initial stages of phenanthrene degradation and the subsequent stages of salicylate degradation are controlled by the sequences of different evolutionary origins (phn and nag genes).

  9. Evolving serodiagnostics by rationally designed peptide arrays: the Burkholderia paradigm in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Claudio; Gori, Alessandro; Gagni, Paola; Sola, Laura; Girelli, Daniela; Sottotetti, Samantha; Cariani, Lisa; Chiari, Marcella; Cretich, Marina; Colombo, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Efficient diagnosis of emerging and novel bacterial infections is fundamental to guide decisions on therapeutic treatments. Here, we engineered a novel rational strategy to design peptide microarray platforms, which combines structural and genomic analyses to predict the binding interfaces between diverse protein antigens and antibodies against Burkholderia cepacia complex infections present in the sera of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The predicted binding interfaces on the antigens are synthesized in the form of isolated peptides and chemically optimized for controlled orientation on the surface. Our platform displays multiple Burkholderia-related epitopes and is shown to diagnose infected individuals even in presence of superinfections caused by other prevalent CF pathogens, with limited cost and time requirements. Moreover, our data point out that the specific patterns determined by combined probe responses might provide a characterization of Burkholderia infections even at the subtype level (genomovars). The method is general and immediately applicable to other bacteria.

  10. Binding of protegrin-1 to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer Robert I

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia infections of cystic fibrosis patients' lungs are often resistant to conventional antibiotic therapy. Protegrins are antimicrobial peptides with potent activity against many bacteria, including P. aeruginosa. The present study evaluates the correlation between protegrin-1 (PG-1 sensitivity/resistance and protegrin binding in P. aeruginosa and B. cepacia. Methods The PG-1 sensitivity/resistance and PG-1 binding properties of P. aeruginosa and B. cepacia were assessed using radial diffusion assays, radioiodinated PG-1, and surface plasmon resonance (BiaCore. Results The six P. aeruginosa strains examined were very sensitive to PG-1, exhibiting minimal active concentrations from 0.0625–0.5 μg/ml in radial diffusion assays. In contrast, all five B. cepacia strains examined were greater than 10-fold to 100-fold more resistant, with minimal active concentrations ranging from 6–10 μg/ml. When incubated with a radioiodinated variant of PG-1, a sensitive P. aeruginosa strain bound considerably more protegrin molecules per cell than a resistant B. cepacia strain. Binding/diffusion and surface plasmon resonance assays revealed that isolated lipopolysaccharide (LPS and lipid A from the sensitive P. aeruginosa strains bound PG-1 more effectively than LPS and lipid A from resistant B. cepacia strains. Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that the relative resistance of B. cepacia to protegrin is due to a reduced number of PG-1 binding sites on the lipid A moiety of its LPS.

  11. Degradation of parabens by Pseudomonas beteli and Burkholderia latens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Aeshna; Chauhan, Sateesh; Dare, Manish; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2010-06-01

    p-Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) are commonly used antimicrobial preservatives in pharmaceutical formulations. Two microorganisms, isolated from non-sterile methyl paraben (MP) and propyl paraben (PP) solutions, were found to degrade the respective parabens. Identification by 16S rRNA partial gene sequencing revealed them to be Pseudomonas beteli and Burkholderia latens, respectively. The present work describes a previously unreported interaction of the parabens with P. beteli and B. latens. Degradation of MP at various concentrations by P. beteli, followed a logarithmic pattern, while that of PP by B. latens was found to be linear. It was subsequently observed that P. beteli could degrade only MP, while B. latens could degrade both the parabens. Absence of HPLC chromatogram peaks of expected degradation products indicated that the parabens were used up as a carbon source. The behaviour of pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) of the pharmacopoeial preservative effectiveness test (PET), towards MP, showed that none had the ability to degrade the paraben. It was concluded that, for a paraben-preserved multi-dose ophthalmic formulation, the sole use of the four pathogens that are recommended by the pharmacopoeia for PET can falsely indicate the formulation to be effective against 'in-use' contamination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Type III Secretion in the Melioidosis PathogenBurkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Broek, Charles W; Stevens, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of both humans and animals. Melioidosis is an emerging disease which is predicted to be vastly under-reported. Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are critical virulence factors in Gram negative pathogens of plants and animals. The genome of B. pseudomallei encodes three T3SSs. T3SS-1 and -2, of which little is known, are homologous to Hrp2 secretion systems of the plant pathogens Ralstonia and Xanthomonas . T3SS-3 is better characterized and is homologous to the Inv/Mxi-Spa secretion systems of Salmonella spp. and Shigella flexneri , respectively. Upon entry into the host cell, B. pseudomallei requires T3SS-3 for efficient escape from the endosome. T3SS-3 is also required for full virulence in both hamster and murine models of infection. The regulatory cascade which controls T3SS-3 expression and the secretome of T3SS-3 have been described, as well as the effect of mutations of some of the structural proteins. Yet only a few effector proteins have been functionally characterized to date and very little work has been carried out to understand the hierarchy of assembly, secretion and temporal regulation of T3SS-3. This review aims to frame current knowledge of B. pseudomallei T3SSs in the context of other well characterized model T3SSs, particularly those of Salmonella and Shigella .

  13. Molecular Characterization of Putative Virulence Determinants in Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Moi Puah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative saprophyte Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an infectious disease which is endemic in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. This bacterium possesses many virulence factors which are thought to contribute to its survival and pathogenicity. Using a virulent clinical isolate of B. pseudomallei and an attenuated strain of the same B. pseudomallei isolate, 6 genes BPSL2033, BP1026B_I2784, BP1026B_I2780, BURPS1106A_A0094, BURPS1106A_1131, and BURPS1710A_1419 were identified earlier by PCR-based subtractive hybridization. These genes were extensively characterized at the molecular level, together with an additional gene BPSL3147 that had been identified by other investigators. Through a reverse genetic approach, single-gene knockout mutants were successfully constructed by using site-specific insertion mutagenesis and were confirmed by PCR. BPSL2033::Km and BURPS1710A_1419::Km mutants showed reduced rates of survival inside macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and also low levels of virulence in the nematode infection model. BPSL2033::Km demonstrated weak statistical significance (P=0.049 at 8 hours after infection in macrophage infection study but this was not seen in BURPS1710A_1419::Km. Nevertheless, complemented strains of both genes were able to partially restore the gene defects in both in vitro and in vivo studies, thus suggesting that they individually play a minor role in the virulence of B. pseudomallei.

  14. Monitoring Therapeutic Treatments against Burkholderia Infections Using Imaging Techniques

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    Tiffany M. Mott

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, are Category B select agents with biothreat potential, and yet effective therapeutic treatments are lacking. In this study, we showed that CpG administration increased survival, demonstrating protection in the murine glanders model. Bacterial recovery from infected lungs, liver and spleen was significantly reduced in CpG-treated animals as compared with non-treated mice. Reciprocally, lungs of CpG-treated infected animals were infiltrated with higher levels of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes, as compared to control animals. Employing the B. mallei bioluminescent strain CSM001 and the Neutrophil-Specific Fluorescent Imaging Agent, bacterial dissemination and neutrophil trafficking were monitored in real-time using multimodal in vivo whole body imaging techniques. CpG-treatment increased recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs and reduced bioluminescent bacteria, correlating with decreased bacterial burden and increased protection against acute murine glanders. Our results indicate that protection of CpG-treated animals was associated with recruitment of neutrophils prior to infection and demonstrated, for the first time, simultaneous real time in vivo imaging of neutrophils and bacteria. This study provides experimental evidence supporting the importance of incorporating optimized in vivo imaging methods to monitor disease progression and to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic treatment during bacterial infections.

  15. Burkholderia pseudomallei: First case of melioidosis in Portugal

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    Ana Pelerito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus and the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infection associated with high mortality rate in humans. It can be naturally found as an environmental saprophyte in soil or stagnant water, and rice paddies that predominate in regions of endemicity such as Northeast Thailand. B. pseudomallei is a Biosafety Level 3 organism due to risks of aerosolization and severe disease and is now included in formal emergency preparedness plans and guidelines issued by various authorities in the United States and Europe. Here, we report the first case of imported melioidosis in Portugal. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the patient's blood as well as from a left gluteal abscess pus. The isolate strain showed the unusual resistance profile to first-line eradication therapy trimethroprim/sulfamethoxazole. Whole genome sequencing revealed its similarity with isolates from Southeast Asia, suggesting the Thai origin of this Portuguese isolate, which is in agreement with a recent patient's travel to Thailand.

  16. Burkholderia, a Genus Rich in Plant-Associated Nitrogen Fixers with Wide Environmental and Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-De Los Santos, Paulina; Bustillos-Cristales, Rocío; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús

    2001-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia comprises 19 species, including Burkholderia vietnamiensis which is the only known N2-fixing species of this bacterial genus. The first isolates of B. vietnamiensis were recovered from the rhizosphere of rice plants grown in a phytotron, but its existence in natural environments and its geographic distribution were not reported. In the present study, most N2-fixing isolates recovered from the environment of field-grown maize and coffee plants cultivated in widely separated regions of Mexico were phenotypically identified as B. cepacia using the API 20NE system. Nevertheless, a number of these isolates recovered from inside of maize roots, as well as from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of maize and coffee plants, showed similar or identical features to those of B. vietnamiensis TVV75T. These features include nitrogenase activity with 10 different carbon sources, identical or very similar nifHDK hybridization patterns, very similar protein electrophoregrams, identical amplified 16S rDNA restriction (ARDRA) profiles, and levels of DNA-DNA reassociation higher than 70% with total DNA from strain TVV75T. Although the ability to fix N2 is not reported to be a common feature among the known species of the genus Burkholderia, the results obtained show that many diazotrophic Burkholderia isolates analyzed showed phenotypic and genotypic features different from those of the known N2-fixing species B. vietnamiensis as well as from those of B. kururiensis, a bacterium identified in the present study as a diazotrophic species. DNA-DNA reassociation assays confirmed the existence of N2-fixing Burkholderia species different from B. vietnamiensis. In addition, this study shows the wide geographic distribution and substantial capability of N2-fixing Burkholderia spp. for colonizing diverse host plants in distantly separated environments. PMID:11375196

  17. Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei Near-Neighbor Species in the Northern Territory of Australia.

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    Jennifer L Ginther

    Full Text Available Identification and characterization of near-neighbor species are critical to the development of robust molecular diagnostic tools for biothreat agents. One such agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, a soil bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, is lacking in this area because of its genomic diversity and widespread geographic distribution. The Burkholderia genus contains over 60 species and occupies a large range of environments including soil, plants, rhizospheres, water, animals and humans. The identification of novel species in new locations necessitates the need to identify the true global distribution of Burkholderia species, especially the members that are closely related to B. pseudomallei. In our current study, we used the Burkholderia-specific recA sequencing assay to analyze environmental samples from the Darwin region in the Northern Territory of Australia where melioidosis is endemic. Burkholderia recA PCR negative samples were further characterized using 16s rRNA sequencing for species identification. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that over 70% of the bacterial isolates were identified as B. ubonensis indicating that this species is common in the soil where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals many novel branches within the B. cepacia complex, one novel B. oklahomensis-like species, and one novel branch containing one isolate that is distinct from all other samples on the phylogenetic tree. During the analysis with recA sequencing, we discovered 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the reverse priming region of B. oklahomensis. A degenerate primer was developed and is proposed for future use. We conclude that the recA sequencing technique is an effective tool to classify Burkholderia and identify soil organisms in a melioidosis endemic area.

  18. Efectos ambientales por el cambio de uso de suelo en la etapa la arboleda, en la urbanizaciòn ciudad celeste, canton samborondon

    OpenAIRE

    Espol; Jordan Rubio, Joann Eduardo; Piedra Soto, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    Este trabajo se enfocó en las consecuencias causadas por el cambio de uso de suelo sobre el ambiente, por la actividad del movimiento de tierra que se realiza para el proceso de construcción de viviendas en la etapa “la arboleda” de la urbanización “ciudad celeste” en el cantón samborondón, provincia del guayas. Guayaquil MAGISTER EN CAMBIO CLIMATICO

  19. Adaptation and Antibiotic Tolerance of Anaerobic Burkholderia pseudomallei ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Mohamad A.; Austin, Chad R.; Stewart, Amanda L.; Higgins, Mike; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés; Voskuil, Martin I.

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis and is remarkably resistant to most classes of antibacterials. Even after months of treatment with antibacterials that are relatively effective in vitro, there is a high rate of treatment failure, indicating that this pathogen alters its patterns of antibacterial susceptibility in response to cues encountered in the host. The pathology of melioidosis indicates that B. pseudomallei encounters host microenvironments that limit aerobic respiration, including the lack of oxygen found in abscesses and in the presence of nitric oxide produced by macrophages. We investigated whether B. pseudomallei could survive in a nonreplicating, oxygen-deprived state and determined if this physiological state was tolerant of conventional antibacterials. B. pseudomallei survived initial anaerobiosis, especially under moderately acidic conditions similar to those found in abscesses. Microarray expression profiling indicated a major shift in the physiological state of hypoxic B. pseudomallei, including induction of a variety of typical anaerobic-environment-responsive genes and genes that appear specific to anaerobic B. pseudomallei. Interestingly, anaerobic B. pseudomallei was unaffected by antibacterials typically used in therapy. However, it was exquisitely sensitive to drugs used against anaerobic pathogens. After several weeks of anaerobic culture, a significant loss of viability was observed. However, a stable subpopulation that maintained complete viability for at least 1 year was established. Thus, during the course of human infection, if a minor subpopulation of bacteria inhabited an oxygen-restricted environment, it might be indifferent to traditional therapy but susceptible to antibiotics frequently used to treat anaerobic infections. PMID:21537012

  20. Influence of neutrophil defects on Burkholderia cepacia complex pathogenesis

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    Laura A. Porter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc is a group of Gram-negative bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and have emerged as opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. The primary patient populations infected with Bcc include individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF, as well as those with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD. While Bcc infection in CF is better characterized than in CGD, these two genetic diseases are not obviously similar and it is currently unknown if there is any commonality in host immune defects that is responsible for the susceptibility to Bcc. CF is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator, resulting in manifestations in various organ systems, however the major cause of morbidity and mortality is currently due to bacterial respiratory infections. CGD, on the other hand, is a genetic disorder that is caused by defects in phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Because of the defect in CGD, phagocytes in these patients are unable to produce reactive oxygen species, which results in increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. Despite this significant defect in microbial clearance, the spectrum of pathogens frequently implicated in infections in CGD is relatively narrow and includes some bacterial species that are considered almost pathognomonic for this disorder. Very little is known about the cause of the specific susceptibility to Bcc over other potential pathogens more prevalent in the environment, and a better understanding of specific mechanisms required for bacterial virulence has become a high priority. This review will summarize both the current knowledge and future directions related to Bcc virulence in immunocompromised individuals with a focus on the roles of bacterial factors and neutrophil defects in pathogenesis.

  1. Polar Lipids of Burkholderia pseudomallei Induce Different Host Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Mima, Naoko; Trunck, Lily A.; Schweizer, Herbert P.; Bowen, Richard A.; Dascher, Kyle; Mwangi, Waithaka; Eckstein, Torsten M.

    2013-01-01

    Melioidosis is a disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world that is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. In endemic regions the disease occurs primarily in humans and goats. In the present study, we used the goat as a model to dissect the polar lipids of B. pseudomallei to identify lipid molecules that could be used for adjuvants/vaccines or as diagnostic tools. We showed that the lipidome of B. pseudomallei and its fractions contain several polar lipids with the capacity to elicit different immune responses in goats, namely rhamnolipids and ornithine lipids which induced IFN-γ, whereas phospholipids and an undefined polar lipid induced strong IL-10 secretion in CD4+ T cells. Autologous T cells co-cultured with caprine dendritic cells (cDCs) and polar lipids of B. pseudomallei proliferated and up-regulated the expression of CD25 (IL-2 receptor) molecules. Furthermore, we demonstrated that polar lipids were able to up-regulate CD1w2 antigen expression in cDCs derived from peripheral blood monocytes. Interestingly, the same polar lipids had only little effect on the expression of MHC class II DR antigens in the same caprine dendritic cells. Finally, antibody blocking of the CD1w2 molecules on cDCs resulted in decreased expression for IFN-γ by CD4+ T cells. Altogether, these results showed that polar lipids of B. pseudomallei are recognized by the caprine immune system and that their recognition is primarily mediated by the CD1 antigen cluster. PMID:24260378

  2. Deciphering the role of RND efflux transporters in Burkholderia cenocepacia.

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    Silvia Bazzini

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 is representative of a highly problematic group of cystic fibrosis (CF pathogens. Eradication of B. cenocepacia is very difficult with the antimicrobial therapy being ineffective due to its high resistance to clinically relevant antimicrobial agents and disinfectants. RND (Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division efflux pumps are known to be among the mediators of multidrug resistance in gram-negative bacteria. Since the significance of the 16 RND efflux systems present in B. cenocepacia (named RND-1 to -16 has been only partially determined, the aim of this work was to analyze mutants of B. cenocepacia strain J2315 impaired in RND-4 and RND-9 efflux systems, and assess their role in the efflux of toxic compounds. The transcriptomes of mutants deleted individually in RND-4 and RND-9 (named D4 and D9, and a double-mutant in both efflux pumps (named D4-D9, were compared to that of the wild-type B. cenocepacia using microarray analysis. Microarray data were confirmed by qRT-PCR, phenotypic experiments, and by Phenotype MicroArray analysis. The data revealed that RND-4 made a significant contribution to the antibiotic resistance of B. cenocepacia, whereas RND-9 was only marginally involved in this process. Moreover, the double mutant D4-D9 showed a phenotype and an expression profile similar to D4. The microarray data showed that motility and chemotaxis-related genes appeared to be up-regulated in both D4 and D4-D9 strains. In contrast, these gene sets were down-regulated or expressed at levels similar to J2315 in the D9 mutant. Biofilm production was enhanced in all mutants. Overall, these results indicate that in B. cenocepacia RND pumps play a wider role than just in drug resistance, influencing additional phenotypic traits important for pathogenesis.

  3. Intrinsic Resistance of Burkholderia cepacia Complex to Benzalkonium Chloride

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    Youngbeom Ahn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products that are contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC bacteria may pose serious consequences to vulnerable patients. Benzyldimethylalkylammonium chloride (BZK cationic surfactants are extensively used in medical applications and have been implicated in the coselection of antimicrobial resistance. The ability of BCC to degrade BZK, tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C14BDMA-Cl, dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C12BDMA-Cl, decyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C10BDMA-Cl, hexyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, and benzyltrimethylammonium chloride was determined by incubation in 1/10-diluted tryptic soy broth (TSB to determine if BCC bacteria have the ability to survive and inactivate these disinfectants. With BZK, C14BDMA-Cl, and C12BDMA-Cl, inhibition of the growth of 20 BCC strains was observed in disinfectant solutions that ranged from 64 to 256 µg/ml. The efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone increased the sensitivity of bacteria to 64 µg/ml BZK. The 20 BCC strains grew well in 1/10-diluted TSB medium with BZK, C12BDMA-Cl, and C10BDMA-Cl; they absorbed and degraded the compounds in 7 days. Formation of benzyldimethylamine and benzylmethylamine as the initial metabolites suggested that the cleavage of the C alkyl-N bond occurred as the first step of BZK degradation by BCC bacteria. Proteomic data confirmed the observed efflux activity and metabolic inactivation via biodegradation in terms of BZK resistance of BCC bacteria, which suggests that the two main resistance mechanisms are intrinsic and widespread.

  4. Polar lipids of Burkholderia pseudomallei induce different host immune responses.

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    Mercedes Gonzalez-Juarrero

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is a disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world that is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. In endemic regions the disease occurs primarily in humans and goats. In the present study, we used the goat as a model to dissect the polar lipids of B. pseudomallei to identify lipid molecules that could be used for adjuvants/vaccines or as diagnostic tools. We showed that the lipidome of B. pseudomallei and its fractions contain several polar lipids with the capacity to elicit different immune responses in goats, namely rhamnolipids and ornithine lipids which induced IFN-γ, whereas phospholipids and an undefined polar lipid induced strong IL-10 secretion in CD4(+ T cells. Autologous T cells co-cultured with caprine dendritic cells (cDCs and polar lipids of B. pseudomallei proliferated and up-regulated the expression of CD25 (IL-2 receptor molecules. Furthermore, we demonstrated that polar lipids were able to up-regulate CD1w2 antigen expression in cDCs derived from peripheral blood monocytes. Interestingly, the same polar lipids had only little effect on the expression of MHC class II DR antigens in the same caprine dendritic cells. Finally, antibody blocking of the CD1w2 molecules on cDCs resulted in decreased expression for IFN-γ by CD4(+ T cells. Altogether, these results showed that polar lipids of B. pseudomallei are recognized by the caprine immune system and that their recognition is primarily mediated by the CD1 antigen cluster.

  5. Variability of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Sensitivities to Chlorine Disinfection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Heather A.; Rose, Laura J.; Shams, Alicia; Bradley, Meranda; Arduino, Matthew J.; Rice, Eugene W.

    2009-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a select agent and the causative agent of melioidosis. Variations in previously reported chlorine and monochloramine concentration time (Ct) values for disinfection of this organism make decisions regarding the appropriate levels of chlorine in water treatment systems difficult. This study identified the variation in Ct values for 2-, 3-, and 4-log10 reductions of eight environmental and clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei in phosphate-buffered water. The greatest calculated Ct values for a 4-log10 inactivation were 7.8 mg·min/liter for free available chlorine (FAC) at pH 8 and 5°C and 550 mg·min/liter for monochloramine at pH 8 and 5°C. Ionic strength of test solutions, culture hold times in water, and cell washing were ruled out as sources of the differences in prior observations. Tolerance to FAC was correlated with the relative amount of extracellular material produced by each isolate. Solid-phase cytometry analysis using an esterase-cleaved fluorochrome assay detected a 2-log10-higher level of organisms based upon metabolic activity than did culture, which in some cases increased Ct values by fivefold. Despite strain-to-strain variations in Ct values of 17-fold for FAC and 2.5-fold for monochloramine, standard FAC disinfection practices utilized in the United States should disinfect planktonic populations of these B. pseudomallei strains by 4 orders of magnitude in less than 10 min at the tested temperatures and pH levels. PMID:19542324

  6. Alanine racemase mutants of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei and use of alanine racemase as a non-antibiotic-based selectable marker.

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    Sheryl L W Zajdowicz

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are category B select agents and must be studied under BSL3 containment in the United States. They are typically resistant to multiple antibiotics, and the antibiotics used to treat B. pseudomallei or B. mallei infections may not be used as selective agents with the corresponding Burkholderia species. Here, we investigated alanine racemase deficient mutants of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei for development of non-antibiotic-based genetic selection methods and for attenuation of virulence. The genome of B. pseudomallei K96243 has two annotated alanine racemase genes (bpsl2179 and bpss0711, and B. mallei ATCC 23344 has one (bma1575. Each of these genes encodes a functional enzyme that can complement the alanine racemase deficiency of Escherichia coli strain ALA1. Herein, we show that B. pseudomallei with in-frame deletions in both bpsl2179 and bpss0711, or B. mallei with an in-frame deletion in bma1575, requires exogenous D-alanine for growth. Introduction of bpsl2179 on a multicopy plasmid into alanine racemase deficient variants of either Burkholderia species eliminated the requirement for D-alanine. During log phase growth without D-alanine, the viable counts of alanine racemase deficient mutants of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei decreased within 2 hours by about 1000-fold and 10-fold, respectively, and no viable bacteria were present at 24 hours. We constructed several genetic tools with bpsl2179 as a selectable genetic marker, and we used them without any antibiotic selection to construct an in-frame ΔflgK mutant in the alanine racemase deficient variant of B. pseudomallei K96243. In murine peritoneal macrophages, wild type B. mallei ATCC 23344 was killed much more rapidly than wild type B. pseudomallei K96243. In addition, the alanine racemase deficient mutant of B. pseudomallei K96243 exhibited attenuation versus its isogenic parental strain with respect to growth and survival in murine

  7. Alanine Racemase Mutants of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei and Use of Alanine Racemase as a Non-Antibiotic-Based Selectable Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdowicz, Sheryl L. W.; Jones-Carson, Jessica; Vazquez-Torres, Andres; Jobling, Michael G.; Gill, Ronald E.; Holmes, Randall K.

    2011-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are category B select agents and must be studied under BSL3 containment in the United States. They are typically resistant to multiple antibiotics, and the antibiotics used to treat B. pseudomallei or B. mallei infections may not be used as selective agents with the corresponding Burkholderia species. Here, we investigated alanine racemase deficient mutants of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei for development of non-antibiotic-based genetic selection methods and for attenuation of virulence. The genome of B. pseudomallei K96243 has two annotated alanine racemase genes (bpsl2179 and bpss0711), and B. mallei ATCC 23344 has one (bma1575). Each of these genes encodes a functional enzyme that can complement the alanine racemase deficiency of Escherichia coli strain ALA1. Herein, we show that B. pseudomallei with in-frame deletions in both bpsl2179 and bpss0711, or B. mallei with an in-frame deletion in bma1575, requires exogenous d-alanine for growth. Introduction of bpsl2179 on a multicopy plasmid into alanine racemase deficient variants of either Burkholderia species eliminated the requirement for d-alanine. During log phase growth without d-alanine, the viable counts of alanine racemase deficient mutants of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei decreased within 2 hours by about 1000-fold and 10-fold, respectively, and no viable bacteria were present at 24 hours. We constructed several genetic tools with bpsl2179 as a selectable genetic marker, and we used them without any antibiotic selection to construct an in-frame ΔflgK mutant in the alanine racemase deficient variant of B. pseudomallei K96243. In murine peritoneal macrophages, wild type B. mallei ATCC 23344 was killed much more rapidly than wild type B. pseudomallei K96243. In addition, the alanine racemase deficient mutant of B. pseudomallei K96243 exhibited attenuation versus its isogenic parental strain with respect to growth and survival in murine peritoneal macrophages

  8. The genome of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315, an epidemic pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden, Matthew T G; Seth-Smith, Helena M B; Crossman, Lisa C

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial infections of the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients cause major complications in the treatment of this common genetic disease. Burkholderia cenocepacia infection is particularly problematic since this organism has high levels of antibiotic resistance, making it difficult to eradica...

  9. NOVEL ORGANIZATION OF THE GENES FOR PHTHALATE DEGRADATION FROM BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA DBO1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholderia cepacia DBO1 is able to utilize phthalate as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth. Two overlapping cosmid clones containing the genes for phthalate degradation were isolated from this strain. Subcloning and activity analysis localized the genes for phthala...

  10. Differential Toll-Like Receptor-Signalling of Burkholderia pseudomallei Lipopolysaccharide in Murine and Human Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weehuizen, Tassili A. F.; Prior, Joann L.; van der Vaart, Thomas W.; Ngugi, Sarah A.; Nepogodiev, Sergey A.; Field, Robert A.; Kager, Liesbeth M.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F.; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis and is a CDC category B bioterrorism agent. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 impairs host defense during pulmonary B.pseudomallei infection while TLR4 only has limited impact. We investigated the role of TLRs in

  11. Rapid DNA vaccination against Burkholderia pseudomallei flagellin by tattoo or intranasal application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; Wagemakers, Alex; Birnie, Emma; Haak, Bastiaan W.; Trentelman, Jos J. A.; Weehuizen, Tassili A. F.; Ersöz, Jasmin; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Hovius, Joppe W.; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Bins, Adriaan D.

    2017-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease with a high mortality that is endemic in South-East Asia and Northern Australia. The causative pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, is listed as potential bioterror weapon due to its high virulence and potential for easy dissemination. Currently, there is

  12. Biocontrol of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria and bacterial phytopathogens by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Damian; Chanyi, Ryan M; Dooley, James S; Moore, John E; Koval, Susan F

    2017-04-01

    Bdellovibrio and like organisms are predatory bacteria that have the unusual property of using the cytoplasmic constituents of other Gram-negative bacteria as nutrients. These predators may thus provide an alternative approach to the biocontrol of human and plant pathogens. Predators were isolated on Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2 and J2315 as prey cells, in enrichment cultures with soil and sewage. Three isolates (DM7C, DM8A, and DM11A) were identified as Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on the basis of morphology, a periplasmic life cycle, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The prey range of these isolates was tested on Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria and several phytopathogenic bacteria of agricultural importance. Of 31 strains of the Burkholderia cepacia complex tested, only 4 were resistant to predation by strain DM7C. A subset of 9 of the prey tested were also susceptible to strains DM8A and DM11A. Of 12 phytopathogens tested, 4 were resistant to strains DM7C and DM8A, and only 2 were resistant to strain DM11A. Thus, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus strains retrieved from environmental samples on 2 Burkholderia cenocepacia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients did not distinguish in their prey range between other isolates of that pathogen or phytopathogens. Such strains hold promise as potential wide-spectrum biocontrol agents.

  13. Distribution of Burkholderia cepacia complex species among isolates recovered from persons with or without cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reik, Rebecca; Spilker, Theodore; Lipuma, John J

    2005-06-01

    We analyzed Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates recovered from 1,218 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and 90 patients without CF. Although all B. cepacia complex species were found, some were rarely identified. The distribution of species differed between the CF and non-CF populations and appears to be changing over time among CF patients.

  14. Changes in agricultural management drive the diversity of Burkholderia species isolated from soil on PCAT medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salles, Joanna; Samyn, E.; Vandamme, P.; Van Veen, J.A.; van Elsas, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In order to assess the diversity of culturable Burkholderia populations in rhizosphere and bulk soil and to evaluate how different agricultural management regimes and land use history affect this diversity, four treatments were evaluated: permanent grassland; grassland converted into maize

  15. Differences in Inflammation Patterns Induced by African and Asian Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weehuizen, Tassili A. F.; Birnie, Emma; Ferwerda, Bart; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; de Vos, Alex F.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2017-01-01

    AbstractBurkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an emerging tropical disease of high mortality. Sub-Saharan Africa represents potential melioidosis "hotspots"; however, to date, only a few cases have been reported. Here in, we compared the inflammatory patterns induced by a

  16. Assessing the potential for Burkholderia pseudomallei in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is an underreported zoonosis in many countries where environmental conditions may be favorable for B. pseudomallei. This soil saprophyte is most often detected in tropical areas such as Southeast Asia and Northern Australia where the cas...

  17. Neutrophil extracellular traps in the host defense against sepsis induced by Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Hanna K.; Koh, Gavin C. K. W.; Achouiti, Ahmed; van der Meer, Anne J.; Bulder, Ingrid; Stephan, Femke; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Day, Nick P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a central player in the host response to bacteria: neutrophils release extracellular DNA (nucleosomes) and neutrophil elastase to entrap and kill bacteria. We studied the role of NETs in Burkholderia pseudomallei infection (melioidosis), an important cause

  18. N-acylhomoserine-lactone-mediated communication between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia in mixed biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, K; Hentzer, Morten; Geisenberger, O

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia are capable of forming mixed biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Both bacteria employ quorum-sensing systems, which rely on N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules, to co-ordinate expression of virulence factors with the forma...

  19. Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex among ventilated pediatric patients linked to hospital sinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Cynthia A; Cohen, Adam L; Trevino, Ingrid; Rupp, Angela Hammer; Harris, Michelle; Forkan-Kelly, Sinead; Noble-Wang, Judith; Jensen, Bette; Shams, Alicia; Arduino, Matthew J; LiPuma, John J; Gerber, Susan I; Srinivasan, Arjun

    2011-11-01

    We investigated a cluster of Burkholderia cepacia complex colonization in ventilated pediatric patients. Isolates from 15 patients, 2 sink drains, and several ventilator components were found to belong to a single B cenocepacia clone. Hospital tap water used during oral and tracheostomy care was identified as the most likely mechanism for transmission. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  20. Description of an injury in a human caused by a false tocandira (Dinoponera gigantea, Perty, 1833 with a revision on folkloric, pharmacological and clinical aspects of the giant ants of the genera Paraponera and Dinoponera (sub-family Ponerinae Descrição de injúria humana causada por falsa tocandira (Dinoponera gigantea, Perty, 1833 com revisão dos aspectos folclóricos, farmacológicos e clínicos das formigas gigantes do gênero Paraponera e Dinoponera (sub-família Ponerinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors observed an injury caused by the sting of a false tocandira ant in the hand of an amateur fisherman and they describe the clinical findings and the evolution of the envenoming, which presented an acute and violent pain, cold sweating, nausea, a vomiting episode, malaise, tachycardia and left axillary's lymphadenopathy. About three hours after the accident, still feeling intense pain in the place of the sting, he presented an episode of great amount of blood in the feces with no history of digestive, hematological or vascular problems. The intense pain decreased after eight hours, but the place stayed moderately painful for about 24 hours. In that moment, he presented small grade of local edema and erythema. The authors still present the folkloric, pharmacological and clinical aspects related to the tocandiras stings, a very interesting family of ants, which presents the largest and more venomous ants of the world.A partir de um acidente causado pela picada de uma formiga falsa tocandira na mão de um pescador amador, os autores descrevem os achados clínicos locais observados, tais como edema, eritema e dor excruciante e a evolução do envenenamento, que cursou com fenômenos sistêmicos imediatos, como sudorese fria, náuseas, vômitos, mal estar, taquicardia e linfadenopatia axilar à esquerda. Após três horas, a dor intensa persistia e o paciente apresentou um episódio de hematoquesia, sem história anterior de enfermidades do trato digestivo, hematológicas ou vasculares. O uso de analgésicos (Tramal® 300 mg/dia, água quente e gelo não melhorou a dor, que arrefeceu em oito horas, tendo permanecido por cerca de 24 horas. São apresentados ainda os aspectos folclóricos, farmacológicos e clínicos relacionados às picadas de tocandiras.

  1. The Siderophore Product Ornibactin Is Required for the Bactericidal Activity of Burkholderia contaminans MS14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Foxfire, Adam; Xu, Jianhong; Baird, Sonya M; Jia, Jiayuan; Delgado, Keren H; Shin, Ronald; Smith, Leif; Lu, Shi-En

    2017-04-15

    Burkholderia contaminans MS14 was isolated from soil in Mississippi. When it is cultivated on nutrient broth-yeast extract agar, the colonies exhibit bactericidal activity against a wide range of plant-pathogenic bacteria. A bacteriostatic compound with siderophore activity was successfully purified and was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to be ornibactin. Isolation of the bactericidal compound has not yet been achieved; therefore, the exact nature of the bactericidal compound is still unknown. During an attempt to isolate the bactericidal compound, an interesting relationship between the production of ornibactin and the bactericidal activity of MS14 was characterized. Transposon mutagenesis resulted in two strains that lost bactericidal activity, with insertional mutations in a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene for ornibactin biosynthesis and a luxR family transcriptional regulatory gene. Coculture of these two mutant strains resulted in restoration of the bactericidal activity. Furthermore, the addition of ornibactin to the NRPS mutant restored the bactericidal phenotype. It has been demonstrated that, in MS14, ornibactin has an alternative function, aside from iron sequestration. Comparison of the ornibactin biosynthesis genes in Burkholderia species shows diversity among the regulatory elements, while the gene products for ornibactin synthesis are conserved. This is an interesting observation, given that ornibactin is thought to have the same defined function within Burkholderia species. Ornibactin is produced by most Burkholderia species, and its role in regulating the production of secondary metabolites should be investigated. IMPORTANCE Identification of the antibacterial product from strain MS14 is not the key feature of this study. We present a series of experiments that demonstrate that ornibactin is directly involved in the bactericidal phenotype of MS14. This observation provides evidence for an alternative function for

  2. The in vitro tolerant persister population in Burkholderia pseudomallei is altered by environmental factors

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    William Charles Nierman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial persistence due to antibiotic tolerance is a critical aspect of antibiotic treatment failure, disease latency, and chronic or reemergent infections. The levels of persisters is especially notable for the opportunistic Gram-negative pathogens from the Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera. We examined the rate of drug tolerant persisters in Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, Burkholderia cepacia complex organisms, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at mid-log growth in LB broth culture. We found that a fraction of the antibiotic-sensitive cells from every species were tolerant to a 24 hour high-dose antibiotic challenge. All tested Burkholderia strains demonstrated a drug tolerant persister population at a rate that was at least 100 – 500 times higher than P. aeruginosa. When challenged with a 10X minimum inhibitory concentration 24 hour exposure to five different antibiotics with different modes of action we found that in B. pseudomallei Bp82 the same fraction of persisters in the bacterial population was revealed when using 4 of them. This observation suggests that our assay is detecting a single homogeneous persister population. Persistence in B. pseudomallei Bp82 was highly dependent on growth stage, with a surprisingly high persister fraction of >64% of the late stationary phase cells being antibiotic tolerant. Adaptation of B. pseudomallei to distilled water storage resulted in a population of drug tolerant cells up to 100% of the non-drug-challenged viable cell count. Cultivation of B. pseudomallei with a sub-inhibitory concentration of several antibiotics resulted in altered persister fractions within the population relative to cultures lacking the antibiotic. Our study provides insight into the sensitivity of the persister fraction within the population of B. pseudomallei due to environmental variables and suggests a lack of diversity within the persister population.

  3. Genetic diversity of Burkholderia (Proteobacteria) species from the Caatinga and Atlantic rainforest biomes in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, A C; Santos, H R M; Gross, E; Corrêa, R X

    2013-03-11

    The genus Burkholderia (β-Proteobacteria) currently comprises more than 60 species, including parasites, symbionts and free-living organisms. Several new species of Burkholderia have recently been described showing a great diversity of phenotypes. We examined the diversity of Burkholderia spp in environmental samples collected from Caatinga and Atlantic rainforest biomes of Bahia, Brazil. Legume nodules were collected from five locations, and 16S rDNA and recA genes of the isolated microorganisms were analyzed. Thirty-three contigs of 16S rRNA genes and four contigs of the recA gene related to the genus Burkholderia were obtained. The genetic dissimilarity of the strains ranged from 0 to 2.5% based on 16S rDNA analysis, indicating two main branches: one distinct branch of the dendrogram for the B. cepacia complex and another branch that rendered three major groups, partially reflecting host plants and locations. A dendrogram designed with sequences of this research and those designed with sequences of Burkholderia-type strains and the first hit BLAST had similar topologies. A dendrogram similar to that constructed by analysis of 16S rDNA was obtained using sequences of the fragment of the recA gene. The 16S rDNA sequences enabled sufficient identification of relevant similarities and groupings amongst isolates and the sequences that we obtained. Only 6 of the 33 isolates analyzed via 16S rDNA sequencing showed high similarity with the B. cepacia complex. Thus, over 3/4 of the isolates have potential for biotechnological applications.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of a Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Isolated from a Pet Green Iguana in Prague, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Prasad; El-Adawy, Hosny; Mertens, Katja; Melzer, Falk; Hnizdo, Jan; Stamm, Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated from pus from an abscess of a pet iguana living in a private household in Prague, Czech Republic. This paper presents the complete genome sequence of B. pseudomallei strain VB976100. PMID:28280033

  5. Burkholderia pseudomallei: Its Detection in Soil and Seroprevalence in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilani, Md Shariful Alam; Robayet, Jamshedul Alam Mohammad; Mohiuddin, Md; Hasan, Md Rokib; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Haq, Jalaluddin Ashraful

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an endemic disease in Bangladesh. No systematic study has yet been done to detect the environmental source of the organism and its true extent in Bangladesh. The present study attempted to isolate B. pseudomallei in soil samples and to determine its seroprevalence in several districts in Bangladesh. Soil samples were collected from rural areas of four districts of Bangladesh from where culture confirmed melioidosis cases were detected earlier. Multiple soil samples, collected from 5-7 sampling points of 3-5 sites of each district, were cultured in Ashdown selective media. Suspected colonies of B. pseudomallei were identified by biochemical and serological test, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 16s rRNA specific primers. Blood samples were collected from 940 healthy individuals of four districts to determine anti- B. pseudomallei IgG antibody levels by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sonicated crude antigen. Out of 179 soil samples, B. pseudomallei was isolated from two samples of Gazipur district which is located 58 km north of capital Dhaka city. Both the isolates were phenotypically identical, arabinose negative and showed specific 550bp band in PCR. Out of 940 blood samples, anti- B. pseudomallei IgG antibody, higher than the cut-off value (>0.8), was detected in 21.5% individuals. Seropositivity rate was 22.6%-30.8% in three districts from where melioidosis cases were detected earlier, compared to 9.8% in a district where no melioidosis case was either detected or reported (p 50 years respectively. The seropositivity rates were 26.0% and 20.6% in male and female respectively, while it was 20-27% among different occupational groups. No significant association was observed with gender (χ2 = 3.441, p = 0.064) or any occupational group (χ2 = 3.835, p = 0.280). This is the first study demonstrating the presence of B. pseudomallei in the environmental (soil) samples of

  6. Burkholderia pseudomallei genome plasticity associated with genomic island variation

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    Currie Bart J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling saprophyte and the cause of melioidosis. Horizontal gene transfer contributes to the genetic diversity of this pathogen and may be an important determinant of virulence potential. The genome contains genomic island (GI regions that encode a broad array of functions. Although there is some evidence for the variable distribution of genomic islands in B. pseudomallei isolates, little is known about the extent of variation between related strains or their association with disease or environmental survival. Results Five islands from B. pseudomallei strain K96243 were chosen as representatives of different types of genomic islands present in this strain, and their presence investigated in other B. pseudomallei. In silico analysis of 10 B. pseudomallei genome sequences provided evidence for the variable presence of these regions, together with micro-evolutionary changes that generate GI diversity. The diversity of GIs in 186 isolates from NE Thailand (83 environmental and 103 clinical isolates was investigated using multiplex PCR screening. The proportion of all isolates positive by PCR ranged from 12% for a prophage-like island (GI 9, to 76% for a metabolic island (GI 16. The presence of each of the five GIs did not differ between environmental and disease-associated isolates (p > 0.05 for all five islands. The cumulative number of GIs per isolate for the 186 isolates ranged from 0 to 5 (median 2, IQR 1 to 3. The distribution of cumulative GI number did not differ between environmental and disease-associated isolates (p = 0.27. The presence of GIs was defined for the three largest clones in this collection (each defined as a single sequence type, ST, by multilocus sequence typing; these were ST 70 (n = 15 isolates, ST 54 (n = 11, and ST 167 (n = 9. The rapid loss and/or acquisition of gene islands was observed within individual clones. Comparisons were drawn between isolates obtained

  7. A Reverse-phase Protein Microarray-based Screen Identifies Host Signaling Dynamics upon Burkholderia spp. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-27

    University, Manassas, VA, USA, 4 PerkinElmer, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA Burkholderia is a diverse genus of gram-negative bacteria that causes high...host-Burkholderia spp. interaction is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of infection as well as identifying therapeutic targets for drug ... Drug Discov. 2, 233–241. doi: 10.2174/157489107782497335 Han, C., Jin, J., Xu, S., Liu, H., Li, N., and Cao, X. (2010). Integrin CD11b negatively

  8. Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov., a nitrogen fixing species isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) with the ability to effectively nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Lourdes; Salazar-Salazar, Corelly; Méndez, Rafael Díaz; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Hirsch, Ann M; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina

    2013-12-01

    During a survey of Burkholderia species with potential use in agrobiotechnology, a group of 12 strains was isolated from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato plants growing in Mexico (Nepantla, Mexico State). A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains are related to Burkholderia kururiensis and Burkholderia mimosarum (97.4 and 97.1 %, respectively). However, they induced effective nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots of Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on polyphasic taxonomy, the group of strains represents a novel species for which the name Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov. is proposed. The type species is TNe-841(T) (= LMG 26416(T) = CIP 110324(T)).

  9. Análise do progresso e danos causadas pelo amarelão do meloeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Antonio Apoliano dos; Cardoso,José Edmilson; Bezerra,Marlos Alves; Pinheiro Neto,Luiz Gonzaga

    2008-01-01

    A análise do progresso do amarelão do meloeiro causado pelo Melon Yellowing-associated Virus (MYaV) e os danos causados por essa doença na produção e no teor de sólidos solúveis totais de frutos do meloeiro foram estudadas em dois híbridos (Aclain e Frevo), sob condições naturais de infecção, em um plantio comercial no município de Russas, Ceará. As plantas foram monitoradas durante todo o ciclo quanto à incidência. Ao final do ciclo, os frutos foram colhidos, pesados e o teor de sólidos solú...

  10. Meningitis neonatal por Neisseria meningitidis serogrupo B

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    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    Full Text Available La meningitis meningocóccica es una infección poco frecuente en el período neonatal internacionalmente, y solo hay una publicación previa en la literatura médica cubana hace 25 años atrás, de recién nacidos con meningitis bacteriana causada por Neisseria meningitidis. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido febril, con manifestaciones de toxicidad, fontanela abombada, y cuando se realizó punción lumbar, se encontró pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo y se aisló N. meningitidis serogrupo B, por lo que se diagnostica meningitis meningocóccica neonatal. Tuvo evolución favorable. Se describen algunas características de la infección meningocócica, y se destaca el diagnóstico y tratamiento recomendado para este tipo de infección, así como se hace referencia a reportes de casos publicados en la literatura internacional.

  11. Construction and characterization of stable, constitutively expressed, chromosomal green and red fluorescent transcriptional fusions in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengchang; Bangar, Hansraj; Saldanha, Roland; Pemberton, Adin; Aronow, Bruce; Dean, Gary E; Lamkin, Thomas J; Hassett, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    Here, we constructed stable, chromosomal, constitutively expressed, green and red fluorescent protein (GFP and RFP) as reporters in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using bioinformatic approaches and other experimental analyses, we identified P0253 and P1 as potent promoters that drive the optimal expression of fluorescent reporters in single copy in B. anthracis and Burkholderia spp. as well as their surrogate strains, respectively. In comparison, Y. pestis and its surrogate strain need two chromosomal copies of cysZK promoter (P2cysZK) for optimal fluorescence. The P0253-, P2cysZK-, and P1-driven GFP and RFP fusions were first cloned into the vectors pRP1028, pUC18R6KT-mini-Tn7T-Km, pmini-Tn7-gat, or their derivatives. The resultant constructs were delivered into the respective surrogates and subsequently into the select agent strains. The chromosomal GFP- and RFP-tagged strains exhibited bright fluorescence at an exposure time of less than 200 msec and displayed the same virulence traits as their wild-type parental strains. The utility of the tagged strains was proven by the macrophage infection assays and lactate dehydrogenase release analysis. Such strains will be extremely useful in high-throughput screens for novel compounds that could either kill these organisms, or interfere with critical virulence processes in these important bioweapon agents and during infection of alveolar macrophages. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Identificación y cuantificación de los efectos y consecuencias de los impactos ambientales generados por la mineria de extracción de oro por lixiviación de cianuro. Caso Mineria Yanacocha SRL, en Cajamarca, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoub López, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    En el proyecto realizado se ha estudiado la situación de vulnerabilidad medioambiental, específicamente del recurso hídrico, causada por la empresa Minera Yanacocha S.R.L (MYSRL) situada en la región de Cajamarca, en el Perú. La empresa minera es origen de conflictos en relación al agua, por su situación (cabecera de cuatro cuencas hidrográficas) y por la contaminación en la cantidad y calidad de sus aguas percibida por la población local. Para conocer los posibles impactos del...

  13. Lipopolysaccharide from Burkholderia thailandensis E264 provides protection in a murine model of melioidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Sarah A; Ventura, Valeria V; Qazi, Omar; Harding, Sarah V; Kitto, G Barrie; Estes, D Mark; Dell, Anne; Titball, Richard W; Atkins, Timothy P; Brown, Katherine A; Hitchen, Paul G; Prior, Joann L

    2010-11-03

    Burkholderia thailandensis is a less virulent close relative of Burkholderia pseudomallei, a CDC category B biothreat agent. We have previously shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from B. pseudomallei can provide protection against a lethal challenge of B. pseudomallei in a mouse model of melioidosis. Sugar analysis on LPS from B. thailandensis strain E264 confirmed that this polysaccharide has a similar structure to LPS from B. pseudomallei. Mice were immunised with LPS from B. thailandensis or B. pseudomallei and challenged with a lethal dose of B. pseudomallei strain K96243. Similar protection levels were observed when either LPS was used as the immunogen. This data suggests that B. thailandensis LPS has the potential to be used as part of a subunit based vaccine against pathogenic B. pseudomallei. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of class I integron in a Burkholderia cepacia complex strain isolated from blood colture

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    Linda Furlanis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc consists of several species that cause lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis but are also capable to colonize immunocompromised patients. Once established, the infection is usually difficult to eradicate, as Bcc is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. Besides, the acquisition of additional resistance determinants by horizontal gene transfer makes very difficult the therapeutic approach to these infections. Among horizontally acquired DNAs, integrons have been frequently reported in many Gramnegative bacteria that affect human health, but they have not been found frequently in Burkholderia isolates until now. In the present work we report on a Bcc isolate, recovered from the blood of an immunocompromised patient, that carries a 2.3 kb class I integron already described in a Salmonella enterica isolate eight years ago, coding for aacA4, aadA1 and catB2 in its cassette array.

  15. Nasal Acai Polysaccharides Potentiate Innate Immunity to Protect against Pulmonary Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Skyberg, Jerod A.; Rollins, MaryClare F.; Holderness, Jeff S.; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Goodyear, Andrew; Dow, Steven W.; Jutila, Mark A.; Pascual, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei infections are highly lethal in untreated patients, and current antibiotic regimens are not always effective. Activating the innate immune system provides an alternative means of treating infection and can also complement antibiotic therapies. Several natural agonists were screened for their ability to enhance host resistance to infection, and polysaccharides derived from the Acai berry (Acai PS) were found to have potent abilitie...

  16. Burkholderia kirstenboschensis sp. nov. nodulates papilionoid legumes indigenous to South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Emma T; van Zyl, Elritha; Beukes, Chrizelle W; Avontuur, Juanita R; Chan, Wai Yin; Palmer, Marike; Mthombeni, Lunghile S; Phalane, Francina L; Sereme, T Karabo; Venter, Stephanus N

    2015-12-01

    Despite the diversity of Burkholderia species known to nodulate legumes in introduced and native regions, relatively few taxa have been formally described. For example, the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa is thought to represent one of the major centres of diversity for the rhizobial members of Burkholderia, yet only five species have been described from legumes occurring in this region and numerous are still awaiting taxonomic treatment. Here, we investigated the taxonomic status of 12 South African root-nodulating Burkholderia isolates from native papilionoid legumes (Hypocalyptus coluteoides, H. oxalidifolius, H. sophoroides and Virgilia oroboides). Analysis of four gene regions (16S rRNA, recA, atpD and rpoB) revealed that the isolates represent a genealogically unique and exclusive assemblage within the genus. Its distinctness was supported by all other aspects of the polyphasic approach utilized, including the genome-based criteria DNA-DNA hybridization (≥70.9%) and average nucleotide identities (≥96%). We accordingly propose the name B. kirstenboschensis sp. nov. for this taxon with isolate Kb15(T) (=LMG 28727(T); =SARC 695(T)) as its type strain. Our data showed that intraspecific genome size differences (≥0.81 Mb) and the occurrence of large DNA regions that are apparently unique to single individuals (16-23% of an isolate's genome) can significantly limit the value of data obtained from DNA-DNA hybridization experiments. Substitution of DNA-DNA hybridization with whole genome sequencing as a prerequisite for the description of Burkholderia species will undoubtedly speed up the pace at which their diversity are documented, especially in hyperdiverse regions such as the Cape Floristic Region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Multitarget Quantitative PCR Improves Detection and Predicts Cultivability of the Pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei

    OpenAIRE

    Göhler, A; Trung, TT; Hopf, V; Kohler, C; Hartleib, J; Wuthiekanun, V; Peacock, SJ; Limmathurotsakul, D; Tuanyok, A; Steinmetz, I

    2017-01-01

    : Burkholderia pseudomallei is present in the environment in many parts of the world and causes the often-fatal disease melioidosis. The sensitive detection and quantification of B. pseudomallei in the environment are a prerequisite for assessing the risk of infection. We recently reported the direct detection of B. pseudomallei in soil samples using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting a single type three secretion system 1 (TTSS1) gene. Here, we extend the qPCR-based analysis of B. pseudomal...

  18. Combining functional and structural genomics to sample the essential Burkholderia structome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Baugh

    Full Text Available The genus Burkholderia includes pathogenic gram-negative bacteria that cause melioidosis, glanders, and pulmonary infections of patients with cancer and cystic fibrosis. Drug resistance has made development of new antimicrobials critical. Many approaches to discovering new antimicrobials, such as structure-based drug design and whole cell phenotypic screens followed by lead refinement, require high-resolution structures of proteins essential to the parasite.We experimentally identified 406 putative essential genes in B. thailandensis, a low-virulence species phylogenetically similar to B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, using saturation-level transposon mutagenesis and next-generation sequencing (Tn-seq. We selected 315 protein products of these genes based on structure-determination criteria, such as excluding very large and/or integral membrane proteins, and entered them into the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infection Disease (SSGCID structure determination pipeline. To maximize structural coverage of these targets, we applied an "ortholog rescue" strategy for those producing insoluble or difficult to crystallize proteins, resulting in the addition of 387 orthologs (or paralogs from seven other Burkholderia species into the SSGCID pipeline. This structural genomics approach yielded structures from 31 putative essential targets from B. thailandensis, and 25 orthologs from other Burkholderia species, yielding an overall structural coverage for 49 of the 406 essential gene families, with a total of 88 depositions into the Protein Data Bank. Of these, 25 proteins have properties of a potential antimicrobial drug target i.e., no close human homolog, part of an essential metabolic pathway, and a deep binding pocket. We describe the structures of several potential drug targets in detail.This collection of structures, solubility and experimental essentiality data provides a resource for development of drugs against

  19. Combining functional and structural genomics to sample the essential Burkholderia structome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Loren; Gallagher, Larry A; Patrapuvich, Rapatbhorn; Clifton, Matthew C; Gardberg, Anna S; Edwards, Thomas E; Armour, Brianna; Begley, Darren W; Dieterich, Shellie H; Dranow, David M; Abendroth, Jan; Fairman, James W; Fox, David; Staker, Bart L; Phan, Isabelle; Gillespie, Angela; Choi, Ryan; Nakazawa-Hewitt, Steve; Nguyen, Mary Trang; Napuli, Alberto; Barrett, Lynn; Buchko, Garry W; Stacy, Robin; Myler, Peter J; Stewart, Lance J; Manoil, Colin; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2013-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia includes pathogenic gram-negative bacteria that cause melioidosis, glanders, and pulmonary infections of patients with cancer and cystic fibrosis. Drug resistance has made development of new antimicrobials critical. Many approaches to discovering new antimicrobials, such as structure-based drug design and whole cell phenotypic screens followed by lead refinement, require high-resolution structures of proteins essential to the parasite. We experimentally identified 406 putative essential genes in B. thailandensis, a low-virulence species phylogenetically similar to B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, using saturation-level transposon mutagenesis and next-generation sequencing (Tn-seq). We selected 315 protein products of these genes based on structure-determination criteria, such as excluding very large and/or integral membrane proteins, and entered them into the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infection Disease (SSGCID) structure determination pipeline. To maximize structural coverage of these targets, we applied an "ortholog rescue" strategy for those producing insoluble or difficult to crystallize proteins, resulting in the addition of 387 orthologs (or paralogs) from seven other Burkholderia species into the SSGCID pipeline. This structural genomics approach yielded structures from 31 putative essential targets from B. thailandensis, and 25 orthologs from other Burkholderia species, yielding an overall structural coverage for 49 of the 406 essential gene families, with a total of 88 depositions into the Protein Data Bank. Of these, 25 proteins have properties of a potential antimicrobial drug target i.e., no close human homolog, part of an essential metabolic pathway, and a deep binding pocket. We describe the structures of several potential drug targets in detail. This collection of structures, solubility and experimental essentiality data provides a resource for development of drugs against infections and diseases

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of Type VI System Clusters and Effectors in Burkholderia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Thi Nguyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Type VI secretion system (T6SS has been discovered in a variety of gram-negative bacteria as a versatile weapon to stimulate the killing of eukaryotic cells or prokaryotic competitors. Type VI secretion effectors (T6SEs are well known as key virulence factors for important pathogenic bacteria. In many Burkholderia species, T6SS has evolved as the most complicated secretion pathway with distinguished types to translocate diverse T6SEs, suggesting their essential roles in this genus. Here we attempted to detect and characterize T6SSs and potential T6SEs in target genomes of plant-associated and environmental Burkholderia species based on computational analyses. In total, 66 potential functional T6SS clusters were found in 30 target Burkholderia bacterial genomes, of which 33% possess three or four clusters. The core proteins in each cluster were specified and phylogenetic trees of three components (i.e., TssC, TssD, TssL were constructed to elucidate the relationship among the identified T6SS clusters. Next, we identified 322 potential T6SEs in the target genomes based on homology searches and explored the important domains conserved in effector candidates. In addition, using the screening approach based on the profile hidden Markov model (pHMM of T6SEs that possess markers for type VI effectors (MIX motif (MIX T6SEs, 57 revealed proteins that were not included in training datasets were recognized as novel MIX T6SE candidates from the Burkholderia species. This approach could be useful to identify potential T6SEs from other bacterial genomes.

  1. Global Distribution and Evolution of a Toxinogenic Burkholderia-Rhizopus Symbiosis▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Gerald; Möbius, Nadine; Scherlach, Kirstin; Partida-Martinez, Laila P.; Winkler, Robert; Schmitt, Imke; Hertweck, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Toxinogenic endobacteria were isolated from a collection of Rhizopus spp. representing highly diverse geographic origins and ecological niches. All endosymbionts belonged to the Burkholderia rhizoxinica complex according to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight biotyping and multilocus sequence typing, suggesting a common ancestor. Comparison of host and symbiont phylogenies provides insights into possible cospeciation and horizontal-transmission events. PMID:19286793

  2. Global Analysis of the Burkholderia thailandensis Quorum Sensing-Controlled Regulon

    OpenAIRE

    Majerczyk, Charlotte; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Jacobs, Michael; Armour, Christopher D.; Radey, Mathew; Schneider, Emily; Phattarasokul, Somsak; Bunt, Richard; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia thailandensis contains three acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing circuits and has two additional LuxR homologs. To identify B. thailandensis quorum sensing-controlled genes, we carried out transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of quorum sensing mutants and their parent. The analyses were grounded in the fact that we identified genes coding for factors shown previously to be regulated by quorum sensing among a larger set of quorum-controlled genes. We also found that gene...

  3. An Objective Approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Selection as Challenge Material for Medical Countermeasures Efficacy Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zandt, Kristopher E.; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul S.; Warren, Richard L.; Gelhaus, H. Carl

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs), the high mortality rate...

  4. Avaliação de contaminação ambiental causada por poluentes orgânicos persistentes utilizando simulação computacional

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto,Glaucia Maria F.; Pinto,Jefferson Ferreira; Maciel Filho,Rubens

    2007-01-01

    Environmental concern is growing in the current days and there is global agreement to banish production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POP). The synthetic insecticides chlordecone and mirex, classified as POPs, have similar structures and they are potentially toxic. This work uses properties and physicochemical constants related to the pesticides and computational simulation to evaluate the leach phenomenon and persistency in soil. The largest tendency of persistence of the compoun...

  5. Controle de perdas causadas por rupturas nas gôndolas em uma rede de supermercado no estado do Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Wagner da Silva Mesquita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of stock-outs in supermarkets is constantly being analyzed, since, in addition to losing sales, retailers impart a negative influence on the loyalty of customers to the brand of missing products, compromising operational results. Despite technologies that have been developed to cope with them, stock-out levels in the last sixty years have remained very high: out of every 100 items, eight are missing in the shelves. In this article, the objective was to identify the main causes of stock-outs and to create action plans to contain them. For this, a case study was carried out, using a qualitative methodology. A questionnaire was applied and interviews were conducted with the managers of five different sectors of a supermarket chain. Seven steps were identified to reverse or reduce stock-outs; only two respondents followed all of them. We confirmed the importance of having an effective tool in the fight against losses due to stock-outs, given their negative impact on consumers and their repercussions on retail.

  6. CITOTOXICIDAD DE UNA ASPARTIL PEPTIDASA DE Salpichroa origanifolia FRENTE A LA INFECCIÓN CAUSADA POR Phytophthora capsici EN ZAPALLITOS VERDES (Cucurbita maxima, var. Zapallito)

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela F. Rocha; María E. Díaz; Adriana M. Rosso; Mónica G. Parisi

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici es un oomicete patógeno que causa importantes pérdidas en la producción de cultivos de interés agroeconómico. Los agroquímicos utilizados tradicionalmente para combatir estos fitopatógenos causan efectos adversos sobre la salud y el medio ambiente. Las plantas de la flora autóctona representan una fuente alternativa de metabolitos antifúngicos naturales. En nuestro laboratorio hemos estudiado la especie Salpichroa origanifolia, una hierba perenne autóctona del Norte y Cen...

  7. Humoral immune alterations caused by lead: studies on an adult toad model Alteraciones inmunes humorales causadas por plomo: estudios en un modelo de sapo adulto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina E. Rosenberg

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that environmental metal levels affect the immune function. In the particular case of the impact of heavy metals, information available suggests that the immune system is a target for low-dose Pb exposure. Among vertebrates it was shown that amphibians are capable of forming antibodies against a variety of antigens, causing several responses such as anaphylactic response and rejecting grafts. In this study, the production of antibodies was assessed against sheep red blood cells (SRBC in the anuran Bufo arenarum after six weekly injections of sublethal doses of lead (50 mg.kg-1, as lead acetate. Natural antibodies (natural heteroagglutinins were also quantified against SRBC. Both assessments were carried out employing an ELISA method developed to this end, measuring absorbance (A. For natural anti-SRBC antibodies in both control (C and Pb treated (T toads, there was a non significant tendency to increase the initial absorbances (C initial: 0.69±0.39 A; T initial: 0.54±0.30 A, relative to those registered at the end of the experiments (C final: 0.89±0.49 A; T final: 0.76±0.31A; the T/C ratios also did not show changes. The only significant difference was found between initial and final samples from lead-treated toads (pExiste evidencia de que los niveles de metal ambientales afectan la función inmune. En el caso particular del impacto de metales pesados, la información disponible sugiere que el sistema inmune es un blanco para la exposición a bajas dosis de Pb. Entre los vertebrados, se ha mostrado que los anfibios son capaces de formar anticuerpos contra una variedad de antígenos, que causan diversas respuestas, tales como respuesta anafiláctica y rechazo de injertos. En este estudio, la producción de anticuerpos fue evaluada contra eritrocitos de oveja (EO en el anuro Bufo arenarum, luego de seis inyecciones semanales de dosis subletales de plomo (50 mg.kg-1, como acetato de Pb. Los anticuerpos naturales (heteroaglutininas naturales fueron también cuantificados contra EO. Ambas evaluaciones fueron llevadas a cabo empleando un método de ELISA desarrollado a este fin, midiendo la absorbancia (A. Para los anticuerpos anti-EO naturales, tanto en sapos controles (C como en sapos tratados con Pb (T, hubo una tendencia significativa a incrementar las absorbancias iniciales (C inicial: 0,69±0,39 A; T inicial: 0,54±0,30 A; la relación T/C tampoco mostró cambios. La única diferencia significativa se encontró entre las muestras inicial y final de los sapos tratados con plomo (p<0,014. Los niveles de anticuerpos anti-EO inmune de sapos inmunizados con EO mostraron un bajo incremento significativo (p<0,05 en los animales tratados con plomo (T final: 0,66±0,36 A, al compararse con sapos control (C final: 0,91±0,50 A al final del experimento. De este modo, se concluye que los cambios debidos a las dosis analizadas de Pb en los niveles de anticuerpos no pueden explicarse sólo sobre la base de un único mecanismo de acción del metal, sino como resultado de una conjunción de efectos sobre diferentes subpoblaciones de células inmunocompetentes. Estas diferentes respuestas sugieren que los factores que afectan los animales expuestos a un estímulo externo son diferentes de aquellos que influyen la respuesta en los animales silvestres.

  8. Celularidade do leite e Unidades Formadoras de Colônias nas mastites causadas por Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e coagulase negativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Langoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A mastite é a principal afecção do gado destinado à produção leiteira, que impacta significativamente a cadeia produtiva do leite, com reflexos ainda para a saúde pública. Estudou-se aspectos relacionados à etiologia, celularidade e de contagem bacteriana em 10 propriedades leiteiras, localizadas no Estado de São Paulo. Foram examinadas 1148 vacas em lactação, totalizando 4584 glândulas mamárias. Foram considerados os casos, em que houve isolamento de estafilococos coagulase positiva (SCP e estafilococos coagulase negativa (SCN. Os resultados revelaram microbiota com vários patógenos e diferentes espécies de SCN (128 casos e SCP (45, Staphylococcus aureus(90, Streptococcus agalactiae(70, Streptococcus dysgalactiae (69, Streptococcus uberis(29, Corynebacteriumspp. (230, Klebsiella pneumoniae(28, Klebsiella oxytoca(2, Escherichia coli(15, Enterobactersp. (3. Os resultados de contagem de células somáticas (CCS relacionados aos SCP e SCN não mostraram diferenças entre as propriedades avaliadas, entretanto com diferenças significantes ao se avaliar a CCS entre os dois grupos de estafilococos, como pode ser evidenciado ao comparar SCN Discreto e SCP exuberante (P<0,01, SCP Discreto e SCP exuberante (P<0,001 e SCN moderado e SCP exuberante (P<0,01. A avaliação da CCS relacionada à intensidade da infecção, considerando-se como crescimento discreto o isolamento de até nove colônias, moderado de dez a 29 colônias e exuberante, com 30 ou mais colônias, revelou para ambos os grupos de estafilococos que quanto maior o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC, a CCS é mais elevada, sendo sempre maior nos casos de SCP. Conclui-se que quando há maior número de UFC, há concomitantemente maior CCS/mL de leite, no caso dos SCP e SCN, o que mostra relação direta da intensidade do processo infeccioso com a resposta da celularidade do leite, bem como pela relevância desses na etiologia das mastites e dos aspectos negativos tanto para a produção, quanto na qualidade do leite produzido nas propriedades.

  9. USO DA COMBINAÇÃO DE CETAMINA E METADONA NO TRATAMENTO DA DOR NEUROPÁTICA CAUSADA POR DIFERENTES ETIOLOGIAS CLÍNICAS

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Celoni de Mello de Godoy

    2013-01-01

    Metadona e cetamina têm sido usados no tratamento da dor neuropática, mas os benefícios da associação das duas drogas são desconhecidos. Com o objetivo de melhorar a eficácia analgésica e reduzir a ocorrência de efeitos adversos, uma solução oral de metadona mais cetamina foi testada em pacientes que sofrem de dor neuropática de diferentes etiologias e resistentes a outros tipos de tratamento. Todos os pacientes foram tratados no ambulatório da dor do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria (HU...

  10. Alterações nos cabelos não pigmentados causadas por radiação ultravioleta, visível e infravermelha

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Richena

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: O cabelo branco se torna amarelo com o tempo, apesar de não possuir melanina, o pigmento responsável pela coloração. Este amarelecimento gera insatisfação nas pessoas. Neste trabalho estudamos em profundidade as mudanças de cor e as propriedades mecânicas do cabelo branco após exposição ao UV, Vis e IV, e os fatores que afetam o amarelecimento, incluindo descoloração com H2O2 e a presença de umidade, e tentamos identificar os cromóforos amarelos. Usamos cabelos brancos de dois tipos: ...

  11. Cerebelite aguda causada por vírus Epstein-Barr: relato de caso Acute cerebellitis caused by Epstein-Barr virus: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A cerebelite aguda pode ocorrer em associação a infecção pelo vírus da varicela-zoster, enterovirus, caxumba, micoplasma e outros agentes infecciosos. A cerebelite aguda é uma complicação rara da infecção pelo vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV. Relatamos o caso de uma mulher de 21 anos com história de 12 dias de evolução com náuseas, vômitos, ataxia de marcha e membros, tremor cefálico e de membros, opsoclono, mioclonias e rash cutâneo. Sorologia para EBV foi positiva. A infecção pelo EBV, com complicações neurológicas, pode não se apresentar com os sinais e sintomas clássicos da mononucleose infeciosa.Acute cerebellitis can occur in association with varicella-zoster virus, enterovirus, mumps, mycoplasma, and other infective organisms. Acute cerebellitis is a rare complication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection. We report the case of a 21-year-old woman with a 12-day history of nausea and vomiting, gait and limbs ataxia, myoclonus, tremor of head and all four limbs, opsoclonus and cutaneous rash. Anti-EBV IgG and IgM antibodies against antiviral capsid were positive and anti-EBV against virus-associated nuclear antigen was also positive. EBV infection in association with neurological findings can occur without the classic signs and symptoms of infectious mononucleosis.

  12. Development of a warning system for wheat blast caused by Pyricularia grisea Desenvolvimento de sistema de previsão de brusome causada por Pyricularia grisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Araújo de Andrade Cardoso

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. blast caused by Pyricularia grisea is a new disease in Brazil and no resistant cultivars are available. The interactions between temperature and wetness durations have been used in many early warning systems. Hence, growth chamber experiments to assess the effect of different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35ºC and the duration of spike-wetness (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 hours on the intensity of blast in cultivar BR23 were carried out. Each temperature formed an experiment and the duration of wetness the treatments. The highest blast intensity was observed at 30°C and increased as the duration of the wetting period increased while the lowest occurred at 25°C and 10 hours of spike wetness. Regardless of the temperature, no symptoms occurred when the wetting period was less than 10 hours but at 25°C and a 40 h wetting period blast intensity exceeded 85%. These variations in blast intensity as a function of temperature are explained by a generalized beta model and as a function of the duration of spike wetness by the Gompertz model. Disease intensity was modeled as a function of both temperature and the durations of spike wetness and the resulting equation provided a precise description of the response of P. grisea to temperatures and the durations of spike wetness. This model was used to construct tables that can be used to predict the intensity of P. grisea wheat blast based on the temperatures and the durations of wheat spike wetness obtained in the field.Em experimentos conduzidos em câmaras de crescimento, com o cultivar suscetível de trigo BR 23 (Triticum aestivum L. foram avaliadas as interações entre temperaturas e durações do período de molhamento contínuo das espigas sobre a intensidade da brusone (Pyricularia grisea. As temperaturas testadas foram de 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC e os períodos de duração do molhamento das espigas de 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 horas. Cada temperatura constituiu um experimento e as horas de molhamento os tratamentos. A menor intensidade da doença foi observada a 25 °C com 10 horas de molhamento das espigas. Com molhamentos inferiores a 10 horas de duração não se observaram sintomas da doença em nenhuma das temperaturas. Intensidade de doença superior a 85% foi detectada a 25 °C com 40 horas de molhamento. As variações de intensidade da brusone do trigo pela temperatura foram explicadas pelo modelo Beta generalizado e o de duração de molhamento das espigas pelo modelo de Gompertz. A intensidade da doença foi modelada em função da temperatura e da duração do molhamento das espigas. A equação resultante fornece uma descrição precisa da resposta a intensidade da brusone aos efeitos combinados de temperatura e de duração do molhamento. O modelo foi usado para elaborar tabelas de períodos críticos que podem ser utilizadas na validação de um modelo de previsão da brusone em espigas de trigo segundo o modelo climático.

  13. Alteraciones bioquímicas y fisiológicas causadas por ibuprofeno y carbamazepina en juveniles de Solea senegalensis: efecto modulador de la temperatura

    OpenAIRE

    González Mira, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Desde el desarrollo de la sociedad industrializada, un gran número de sustancias contaminantes derivadas de las actividades antropogénicas se vierten continuamente en mares y océanos. Así mismo, se está produciendo un incremento de la temperatura de las aguas como consecuencia del cambio global. El deterioro actual de los océanos, convertidos en sumideros de desechos antropogénicos, es más evidente en las zonas costeras, donde las fluctuaciones de temperatura son amplias y donde confluyen las...

  14. La enfermería en la bronquiolitis del lactante causada por el Virus Respiratorio Sincitial. Revisión bibliográfica

    OpenAIRE

    García Goñi, Naiara

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: El Virus Respiratorio Sincitial es el mayor responsable de la infección de la bronquiolitis aguda, que supone una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en los lactantes, cuya incidencia está aumentando mucho en los últimos años, generando unos elevados costes socioeconómicos. Objetivos: Realizar una revisión bibliográfica sobre aspectos de la clínica, el diagnóstico y tratamiento, con objeto de reflejar la importancia de enfermería, en cuanto a la educación sanitaria q...

  15. Otite parasitária causada por Rhabditis (Rhabditis freitasi (Nematoda: Rhabditidae em animais da raça Gir no estado do Acre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francirley , Monteiro e Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The bovine parasitic otitis has been reported in several states of Brazil. It is caused by rhabditiforms nematodes, attacking cattle Gir and Indubrasil breeds. The aim of this work was to describe the occurrence of the disease in animals of the cattle Gir breed in Rio Branco, State of Acre, Brazil. The animals belonged to the Station of Improvement and Animal Genetic Diffusion. Samples were collected from five of these individuals, with swabs aid, conditioned in plastic tubes and kept in alcohol 70%. The specimens were visualized using optical microscopy, and the morphometry was accomplished through a micrometrical ocular. The data were inserted in the Excel spreadsheet, running on Windows 7, and analyzed through descriptive statistics. The animals presented purulent secretion in the external ear canals, shook their heads, showed inquietude and sensibility to the touch during the clinical trials, when intense infestation was observed. One of the individuals died. Animal genetic improvement programs are negatively interfered by infestations like these. It was possible and opportune to find out the moment and place how such illness has entered in the state of Acre. This work aims to help reinforce the importance of future studies to report new cases in the state of Acre.

  16. Global Analysis of the Burkholderia thailandensis Quorum Sensing-Controlled Regulon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczyk, Charlotte; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Jacobs, Michael; Armour, Christopher D.; Radey, Mathew; Schneider, Emily; Phattarasokul, Somsak; Bunt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia thailandensis contains three acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing circuits and has two additional LuxR homologs. To identify B. thailandensis quorum sensing-controlled genes, we carried out transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of quorum sensing mutants and their parent. The analyses were grounded in the fact that we identified genes coding for factors shown previously to be regulated by quorum sensing among a larger set of quorum-controlled genes. We also found that genes coding for contact-dependent inhibition were induced by quorum sensing and confirmed that specific quorum sensing mutants had a contact-dependent inhibition defect. Additional quorum-controlled genes included those for the production of numerous secondary metabolites, an uncharacterized exopolysaccharide, and a predicted chitin-binding protein. This study provides insights into the roles of the three quorum sensing circuits in the saprophytic lifestyle of B. thailandensis, and it provides a foundation on which to build an understanding of the roles of quorum sensing in the biology of B. thailandensis and the closely related pathogenic Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei. PMID:24464461

  17. Biochemical Characterization of Glutamate Racemase-A New Candidate Drug Target against Burkholderia cenocepacia Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygun Israyilova

    Full Text Available The greatest obstacle for the treatment of cystic fibrosis patients infected with the Burkholderia species is their intrinsic antibiotic resistance. For this reason, there is a need to develop new effective compounds. Glutamate racemase, an essential enzyme for the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall, is an excellent candidate target for the design of new antibacterial drugs. To this aim, we recombinantly produced and characterized glutamate racemase from Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315. From the screening of an in-house library of compounds, two Zn (II and Mn (III 1,3,5-triazapentadienate complexes were found to efficiently inhibit the glutamate racemase activity with IC50 values of 35.3 and 10.0 μM, respectively. Using multiple biochemical approaches, the metal complexes have been shown to affect the enzyme activity by binding to the enzyme-substrate complex and promoting the formation of an inhibited dimeric form of the enzyme. Our results corroborate the value of glutamate racemase as a good target for the development of novel inhibitors against Burkholderia.

  18. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Burkholderia cepacia complex: significance of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Felicity K; Milne, Kathleen E N; Stead, David A; Gould, Ian M

    2016-11-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is notorious for the life-threatening pulmonary infections it causes in patients with cystic fibrosis. The multidrug-resistant nature of Bcc and differing infective Bcc species make the design of appropriate treatment regimens challenging. Previous synergy studies have failed to take account of the species of Bcc isolates. Etest methodology was used to facilitate minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antimicrobial combination testing on 258 isolates of Bcc, identified to species level by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). The most active antimicrobials were trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, doxycycline and minocycline (52.5%, 46.4% and 45.9% of isolates susceptible, respectively). Synergy was observed in 9.2% of the 1799 combinations tested; the most common synergistic combinations were tobramycin + ceftazidime, meropenem + tobramycin and levofloxacin + piperacillin/tazobactam (35.4%, 32.3% and 22.2% synergy, respectively). Antimicrobial susceptibility analysis revealed differences between Burkholderia cenocepacia and Burkholderia multivorans. Disparity in clinical outcome during infection with these two micro-organisms necessitates further investigation into the clinical outcomes of treatment regimens in light of species identification and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  19. Global analysis of the Burkholderia thailandensis quorum sensing-controlled regulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczyk, Charlotte; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Jacobs, Michael; Armour, Christopher D; Radey, Mathew; Schneider, Emily; Phattarasokul, Somsak; Bunt, Richard; Greenberg, E Peter

    2014-04-01

    Burkholderia thailandensis contains three acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing circuits and has two additional LuxR homologs. To identify B. thailandensis quorum sensing-controlled genes, we carried out transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of quorum sensing mutants and their parent. The analyses were grounded in the fact that we identified genes coding for factors shown previously to be regulated by quorum sensing among a larger set of quorum-controlled genes. We also found that genes coding for contact-dependent inhibition were induced by quorum sensing and confirmed that specific quorum sensing mutants had a contact-dependent inhibition defect. Additional quorum-controlled genes included those for the production of numerous secondary metabolites, an uncharacterized exopolysaccharide, and a predicted chitin-binding protein. This study provides insights into the roles of the three quorum sensing circuits in the saprophytic lifestyle of B. thailandensis, and it provides a foundation on which to build an understanding of the roles of quorum sensing in the biology of B. thailandensis and the closely related pathogenic Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei.

  20. Demanda domiciliar por carnes no Brasil: a questão da separabilidade

    OpenAIRE

    Travassos, Guilherme Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Diante da importância do setor de carnes para a economia brasileira, além das transformações na demanda domiciliar por carnes no Brasil, causadas principalmente por mudanças estruturais, tais como a urbanização, mudanças nas características demográficas e a elevação da demanda por praticidade, com a maior inserção da mulher no mercado de trabalho, este estudo buscou analisar a demanda por carnes pelas famílias brasileiras, baseado na Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF/IBGE) de 2008/2009. ...

  1. Transfer of eleven species of the genus Burkholderia to the genus Paraburkholderia and proposal of Caballeronia gen. nov. to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed to split the genus Burkholderia into two genera according to phylogenetic clustering: (1) a genus retaining this name and consisting mainly of animal and plant pathogens and (2) the genus Paraburkholderia including so-called environmental bacteria. The latter genus name has been validly published recently. During the period between the effective and valid publications of the genus name Paraburkholderia, 16 novel species of the genus Burkholderiawere described, but only two of them can be classified as members of this genus based on the emended genus description. Analysis of traits and phylogenetic positions of the other 11 species shows that they belong to the genus Paraburkholderia, and we propose to transfer them to this genus. The reclassified species names are proposed as Paraburkholderia dipogonis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia ginsengiterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia humisilvae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia insulsa comb. nov., Paraburkholderia kirstenboschensis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia metalliresistens comb. nov., Paraburkholderia monticola comb. nov., Paraburkholderia panaciterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia rhizosphaerae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia solisilvae comb. nov. and Paraburkholderia susongensis comb. nov. The remaining three species are transferred to the new genus Caballeronia gen. nov. proposed to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia forming a distinctive clade in phylogenetic trees. The new genus members are Caballeronia choica comb. nov., Caballeronia cordobensis comb. nov., Caballeronia glathei comb. nov., Caballeronia grimmiae comb. nov., Caballeronia humi comb. nov., Caballeronia megalochromosomata comb. nov., Caballeronia jiangsuensis comb. nov., Caballeronia sordidicola comb. nov., Caballeronia telluris comb. nov., Caballeronia terrestris comb. nov., Caballeronia udeis comb. nov., and Caballeronia zhejiangensis comb. nov.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis ( Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate) survival under combinations of pH and NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis ( Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate; potential bioterrorism agent) survival under different levels of NaCl and pH. B. thailandensis in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with NaCl (0-3%), and pH-adjusted to 4-7 was treated with gamma irradiation (0-0.5 kGy). Surviving cell counts of bacteria were then enumerated on tryptic soy agar. Data for the cell counts were also used to calculate D10 values (the dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/mL of B. thailandensis). Cell counts of B. thailandensis were decreased ( Pirradiation dose increased, and no differences ( P≥0.05) in cell counts of the bacteria were observed among different levels of NaCl and pH. D10 values ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 kGy, regardless of NaCl and pH level. These results indicate that low doses of gamma irradiation should be a useful treatment in decreasing the potential bioterrorism bacteria, which may possibly infect humans through foods.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate) survival under combinations of pH and NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, Jeollabuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyoung-Hee [Department of Oral Microbiology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeollabuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon, E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.k [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, Jeollabuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate; potential bioterrorism agent) survival under different levels of NaCl and pH. B. thailandensis in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with NaCl (0-3%), and pH-adjusted to 4-7 was treated with gamma irradiation (0-0.5 kGy). Surviving cell counts of bacteria were then enumerated on tryptic soy agar. Data for the cell counts were also used to calculate D{sub 10} values (the dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/mL of B. thailandensis). Cell counts of B. thailandensis were decreased (P<0.05) as irradiation dose increased, and no differences (P>=0.05) in cell counts of the bacteria were observed among different levels of NaCl and pH. D{sub 10} values ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 kGy, regardless of NaCl and pH level. These results indicate that low doses of gamma irradiation should be a useful treatment in decreasing the potential bioterrorism bacteria, which may possibly infect humans through foods.

  4. Endophytic colonization of rice (Oryza sativa L. by the diazotrophic bacterium Burkholderia kururiensis and its ability to enhance plant growth

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    Katherine A. Mattos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia kururiensis is a diazotrophic bacterium originally isolated from a polluted aquifer environment and presents a high level of similarity with the rice endophyte "B. brasilensis" species. This work assessed the ability of B. kururiensis to endophytically colonize rice plantlets by monitoring different tissues of root-inoculated plants for the presence of bacterial growth in different media, electron microscopy and by 16S rDNA analysis. Observations of roots, stems and leaves of inoculated rice plantlets by electron microscopy revealed B. kururiensis colonization predominantly on root hair zones, demonstrating endophytic colonization primarily through the endodermis, followed by spreading into xylem vessels, a possible pathway leading to aerial parts. Although indifferent for the bacterial growth itself, addition of a nitrogen source was a limiting factor for endophytic colonization. As endophytic colonization was directly associated to an enhanced plant development, production of phytohormone auxin/indole-3-acetic acid by B. kururiensis was assayed with transgenic rice plantlets containing an auxin-responsive reporter (DR5-GUS. Our findings suggest the ability of auxin production by plant-associated B. kururiensis which may have a stimulatory effect on plant development, as evidenced by activation of DR5-GUS. We hereby demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of B. kururiensis to endophytically colonize rice, promoting both plant growth and rice grain yield.Burkholderia kururiensis é uma bactéria diazotrófica, originalmente isolada de um ambiente aquático poluído e apresenta alto nível de similaridade com a espécie endofítica "B. brasilensis" encontrada na planta de arroz. Este artigo demonstrou a habilidade de B. kururiensis colonizar endofiticamente plântulas de arroz, após esta bactéria ter sido inoculada na raiz das plantas. Esta capacidade foi confirmada pelo crescimento bacteriano em diferentes tecidos da planta

  5. Clasificación del reflejo óculo-cardiaco por la desviación centesimal de viola

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    Luis Rubén Paz B.

    1947-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde mucho tiempo antes, habían notado los observadores, las modificaciones reflejas de las funciones vegetativas causadas por la excitación de algún nervio sensitivo y aun habían deducido de esta observación, aplicaciones prácticas, como la cura operatoria de las lesiones nasales en el tratamiento de algunos casas de asma (W. Hack a explicaciones patogénicas, como la atribución del sincope del principio de la anestesia por inhalación a la brusca irritación de las terminaciones sensitivas de la pituitaria (Knoll y Kratschmer.

  6. Burkholderia thailandensis harbors two identical rhl gene clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of rhamnolipids

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    Woods Donald E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhamnolipids are surface active molecules composed of rhamnose and β-hydroxydecanoic acid. These biosurfactants are produced mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and have been thoroughly investigated since their early discovery. Recently, they have attracted renewed attention because of their involvement in various multicellular behaviors. Despite this high interest, only very few studies have focused on the production of rhamnolipids by Burkholderia species. Results Orthologs of rhlA, rhlB and rhlC, which are responsible for the biosynthesis of rhamnolipids in P. aeruginosa, have been found in the non-infectious Burkholderia thailandensis, as well as in the genetically similar important pathogen B. pseudomallei. In contrast to P. aeruginosa, both Burkholderia species contain these three genes necessary for rhamnolipid production within a single gene cluster. Furthermore, two identical, paralogous copies of this gene cluster are found on the second chromosome of these bacteria. Both Burkholderia spp. produce rhamnolipids containing 3-hydroxy fatty acid moieties with longer side chains than those described for P. aeruginosa. Additionally, the rhamnolipids produced by B. thailandensis contain a much larger proportion of dirhamnolipids versus monorhamnolipids when compared to P. aeruginosa. The rhamnolipids produced by B. thailandensis reduce the surface tension of water to 42 mN/m while displaying a critical micelle concentration value of 225 mg/L. Separate mutations in both rhlA alleles, which are responsible for the synthesis of the rhamnolipid precursor 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxyalkanoic acid, prove that both copies of the rhl gene cluster are functional, but one contributes more to the total production than the other. Finally, a double ΔrhlA mutant that is completely devoid of rhamnolipid production is incapable of swarming motility, showing that both gene clusters contribute to this phenotype. Conclusions Collectively, these

  7. Identification of a Putative P-Transporter Operon in the Genome of a Burkholderia Strain Living inside the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Gigaspora margarita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lozano, J. M.; Bonfante, P.

    1999-01-01

    This article reports the identification of a putative P-transporter operon in the genome of a Burkholderia sp. living in the cytoplasm of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita. Its presence suggests that Burkholderia sp. has the potential for P uptake from this environment. This finding raises new questions concerning the importance of intracellular bacteria for mycorrhizal symbiosis. PMID:10383982

  8. Draft genome sequence of Burkholderia sordidicola S170, a potential plant growth promoter isolated from coniferous forest soil in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lladó, Salvador; Xu, Zhuofei; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia species are key players in the accumulation of carbon from cellulose decomposition in coniferous forest ecosystems. We report here the draft genome of Burkholderia sordidicola strain S170, containing features associated with known genes involved in plant growth promotion, the biologi...

  9. Fratura de órbita por queda de cavalo e correção de estrabismo Orbit fracture by horse fall and strabismus correction

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    Abelardo de Souza Couto Junior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se uma paciente com fratura orbitária grave causada por queda de cavalo. Relato do seu tratamento cirúrgico com correção do estrabismo e tentativa de correção da enoftamia.Description of a patient with orbital fracture cause by a horse fall. Follow-up the surgical treatment of the strabismus and the enophtlamos.

  10. La responsabilidad del Estado por la actividad del legislador

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    María Consuelo Alonso García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analizar el fenómeno de la responsabilidad del Estado causada por los hechos del legislador ha sido un trabajo desarrollado tanto por la doctrina y la jurisprudencia internacional a mediados del siglo xx. En Francia, por ejemplo, se presentó el primer antecedente jurisprudencial en el año de 1934. En España, su estudio empezó a gestionarse con la promulgación de la Constitución de 1978, presentándose el primer fallo judicial en el año de 1993. Para el caso colombiano, la Constitución de 1991 introdujo en su artículo 90 el fundamento constitucional de la responsabilidad patrimonial del Estado, sin que esto significase que la jurisprudencia del Consejo de Estado encontrase las bases de esta responsabilidad en diferentes disposiciones de la Constitución. Sin embargo, los primeros fallos relacionados con este título de imputación en Colombia fueron emitidos por el máximo tribunal de lo contencioso administrativo en 1998, y por la Corte Constitucional a través de la sentencia C-038 de 2006, providencia judicial que estableció algunas de las características que posee esta figura jurídica.

  11. Nitrous oxide emission potentials of Burkholderia species isolated from the leaves of a boreal peat moss Sphagnum fuscum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yanxia; Li, Li; Wang, Mengcen; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Using a culture-based nitrous oxide (N2O) emission assay, three active N2O emitters were isolated from Sphagnum fuscum leaves and all identified as members of Burkholderia. These isolates showed N2O emission in the medium supplemented with [Formula: see text] but not with [Formula: see text], and Burkholderia sp. SF-E2 showed the most efficient N2O emission (0.20 μg·vial(-1)·day(-1)) at 1.0 mM KNO3. In Burkholderia sp. SF-E2, the optimum pH for N2O production was 5.0, close to that of the phyllosphere of Sphagnum mosses, while the optimum temperature was uniquely over 30 °C. The stimulating effect of additional 1.5 mM sucrose on N2O emission was ignorable, but Burkholderia sp. SF-E2 upon exposure to 100 mg·L(-1) E-caffeic acid showed uniquely 67-fold higher N2O emission. All of the three N2O emitters were negative in both acetylene inhibition assay and PCR assay for nosZ-detection, suggesting that N2O reductase or the gene itself is missing in the N2O-emitting Burkholderia.

  12. Lesões de pele causadas pelos espinhos de Mimosa pudica (Leg. Mimosoideae nos membros de bovinos e ovinos no estado do Pará Cutaneous lesions of the legs caused by the thorns of Mimosa pudica (Leg. Mimosoideae in cattle and sheep in the State of Pará

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    José Diomedes Barbosa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada uma doença em bovinos e ovinos caracterizada por lesões ulcerativas e granulomatosas da pele dos membros. Os estudos epidemiológicos e patológicos permitiram concluir que essas lesões são causadas pelos espinhos de Mimosa pudica (Leg. Mimosoideae. A doença foi observada somente em pastagens acentuadamente infestadas e os animais se recuperaram rapidamente após retirados destes pastos. Nos ovinos as lesões atingiam partes mais altas dos membros do que nos bovinos, devido ao seu menor porte.A condition of cattle and sheep characterized by ulcerous and granulomatous skin lesions of the legs was studied. Epidemiological data and the nature of the lesions indicate that they are caused by the thorns of Mimosa pudica (Leg. Mimosoideae. The disease was observed only in pastures largely infested by the plant, and animals recover quickly when moved from them.

  13. Epidemia de febre clássica de dengue causada pelo sorotipo 2 em Araguaiana, Tocantins, Brasil Dengue epidemic, serotype 2, in Araguaina, Tocantins, Brazil

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    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Registramos a ocorrência de epidemia de dengue causada pelo sorotipo 2 (DEN 2 na cidade de Araguaina, estado do Tocantins (TO situado no Brasil central. Quatrocentos indíviduos de 74 famílias, residentes nos bairros S. João, Araguaina Sul e Neblina foram entrevistados e sangrados, independentemente de terem adoecido ou não. Os soros tanto de adultos quanto de crianças de ambos os sexos foram usados para pesquisa de anticorpos inibidores da hemaglutinação (IH e IgM através de ensaio imunoenzimático (MAC ELISA. Nas casas onde haviam doentes no momento do inquérito, sangue total também foi colhido para tentativa de isolamento de vírus. O quadro clínico apresentado pelos pacientes foi caracterizado por febre, cefaléia, mialgias, artralgias e exantema do tipo máculo-papular não pruriginoso. A infecção foi mais frequente em mulheres (33.9% do que nos homens (23.8%, ocorrendo em todas as faixas etárias, inclusive em crianças com menos de um ano de idade, bem como em maiores de 70 anos. Um total de 1105 mosquitos (56 fêmeas e 45 machos de Culex quinquefasciatus e 567 fêmeas e 437 machos de Aedes aegypti foram obtidos a partir de larvas coletadas em Araguaina. As fêmeas de Ae. aegypti obtidas das larvas fizeram repasto sangüíneo em 8 pacientes febris. O diagnóstico laboratorial foi feito por isolamento de vírus (cultura de células de Aedes albopictus, clone C6/36 e por sorologia (IH e MAC ELISA. Foram isoladas 5 amostras de DEN 2 de pacientes febris e tipadas por imunofluorescência indireta usando anticorpos monoclonais de dengue. Nenhuma amostra viral foi isolada de mosquitos. Outrossim, comprovou-se infecção em 111 pessoas sangradas, o que revelou um índice de positividade de 27.75% (111 em 400, sendo que 66.2% das famílias estudadas apresentaram pelo menos um indivíduo positivo. Ocorreram ainda, 26.1% de infecções assintomáti-cas. Por outro lado, a correlação de positividade entre os dois testes usados (IH e MAC

  14. Algunos aspectos relacionados con las enfermedades tropicales transmitidas por moluscos

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    A. Mijail Pérez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Muchas especies de moluscos son hospedantes de diversos parásitos que provocan infecciones muy serias e incluso mortales en seres humanos y ganado. La esquistosomiasis extendida por 74 países, infecta a unos 200 millones de personas y está en segundo lugar, después de la malaria, como causa de la mortalidad humana originada por parásitos. La infección es causada por un platelminto que se desarrolla en caracoles de agua dulce y que desde el agua puede penetrar en la piel de un ser humano y desarrollarse dentro de sus órganos, produciendo distintos grados de infección, hasta provocar la muerte. Distintas especies de esos caracoles están extendidas por Centro América. El cólera, otra enfermedad que también es mortal, se ha encontrado en moluscos bivalvos comestibles colectados en el Golfo de Nicoya, que bordea Nicaragua y Costa Rica Estas epidemias se pueden combatir con diversos métodos de control de los caracoles hospedantes de parásitos.

  15. Endoftalmitis poscirugía de catarata por Sphingomonas paucimobilis

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    Omar Mauri Garrido

    Full Text Available Se presenta la caracterización y manejo terapéutico de un caso de endoftalmitis bacteriana posoperatoria causada por el germen Sphingomonas paucimobilis. La endoftalmitis es la inflamación de los tejidos intraoculares, considerada como la más devastadora de las complicaciones posoperatorias; posee pronóstico visual muy reservado y un elevado riesgo de secuela. Las Sphingomonas paucimobilis son bacterias gramnegativas con forma de bacilo, quimioheterótrofa y estrictamente aerobias que causan enfermedades en los seres humanos, principalmente infecciones hospitalarias que típicamente son tratadas fácilmente con antibióticos. Por sus capacidades biodegradantes y biosintéticas, son pocos los reportes hallados de infección intraocular por este germen. El pronóstico visual es favorable con un diagnóstico precoz y la aplicación del tratamiento adecuado. En este artículo se presentan un caso de endoftalmitis poscirugía de catarata por Sphingomonas paucimobilis reportado en Cuba en el mes de septiembre de 2009.

  16. Comparative analysis of two phenotypically-similar but genomically-distinct Burkholderia cenocepacia-specific bacteriophages

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    Lynch Karlene H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic analysis of bacteriophages infecting the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC is an important preliminary step in the development of a phage therapy protocol for these opportunistic pathogens. The objective of this study was to characterize KL1 (vB_BceS_KL1 and AH2 (vB_BceS_AH2, two novel Burkholderia cenocepacia-specific siphoviruses isolated from environmental samples. Results KL1 and AH2 exhibit several unique phenotypic similarities: they infect the same B. cenocepacia strains, they require prolonged incubation at 30°C for the formation of plaques at low titres, and they do not form plaques at similar titres following incubation at 37°C. However, despite these similarities, we have determined using whole-genome pyrosequencing that these phages show minimal relatedness to one another. The KL1 genome is 42,832 base pairs (bp in length and is most closely related to Pseudomonas phage 73 (PA73. In contrast, the AH2 genome is 58,065 bp in length and is most closely related to Burkholderia phage BcepNazgul. Using both BLASTP and HHpred analysis, we have identified and analyzed the putative virion morphogenesis, lysis, DNA binding, and MazG proteins of these two phages. Notably, MazG homologs identified in cyanophages have been predicted to facilitate infection of stationary phase cells and may contribute to the unique plaque phenotype of KL1 and AH2. Conclusions The nearly indistinguishable phenotypes but distinct genomes of KL1 and AH2 provide further evidence of both vast diversity and convergent evolution in the BCC-specific phage population.

  17. A case report of Tubo-ovarian abscess caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nernsai, Pattaranit; Sophonsritsuk, Areepan; Lertvikool, Srithean; Jinawath, Artit; Chitasombat, Maria Nina

    2018-02-08

    Melioidosis, the disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei is endemic in the Northeastern part of Thailand, South-East Asia, and Northern Australia. The pelvic involvement of disease is rare even in an endemic area. Therefore, we describe in this report the clinical presentation, management, and outcome of the patient with primary tubo-ovarian abscess due to melioidosis. A 31-year-old Thai cassava farmer woman presented with fever and abdominal pain at left lower quadrant for one month. She also had pain, swelling, and redness of the genitalia without any ulcer. She had odorless whitish vaginal discharge. The pelvic examination revealed excitation pain on the left side of her cervix. Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed a large left tubo-ovarian abscess size 9.4 × 4.8 cm located at anterior of the uterus. Urgent exploratory laparotomy revealed left hydrosalpinx with a large amount of pus. The pus culture grew Burkholderia pseudomallei. The computer tomography of the abdomen revealed multiple hepatosplenic abscesses. The patient underwent left salpingo-oophorectomy and pus drainage. The pathological examination of excised left adnexa revealed chronic and acute suppurative inflammation with necrotic tissue. She was given intravenous ceftazidime for one month, and her clinical symptom improved. She was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus at this visit and treated with insulin injection. She continued to take oral co-trimoxazole for 20 weeks. The final diagnosis was disseminated melioidosis with left tubo-ovarian abscess and hepatosplenic abscesses in a newly diagnosed morbidly obese diabetic patient. Burkholderia pseudomallei should be considered as the causative organism of gynecologic infection among patient with risk factor resided in an endemic area who do not respond to standard antibiotics. The pus culture from the site of infection is the only diagnostic method of pelvic melioidosis, appropriate antibiotics, and adequate surgical drainage were the

  18. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei O-antigen serotypes in near-neighbor species

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    Stone Joshua K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis and a CDC category B select agent with no available effective vaccine. Previous immunizations in mice have utilized the lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a potential vaccine target because it is known as one of the most important antigenic epitopes in B. pseudomallei. Complicating this strategy are the four different B. pseudomallei LPS O-antigen types: A, B, B2, and rough. Sero-crossreactivity is common among O-antigens of Burkholderia species. Here, we identified the presence of multiple B. pseudomallei O-antigen types and sero-crossreactivity in its near-neighbor species. Results PCR screening of O-antigen biosynthesis genes, phenotypic characterization using SDS-PAGE, and immunoblot analysis showed that majority of B. mallei and B. thailandensis strains contained the typical O-antigen type A. In contrast, most of B. ubonensis and B. thailandensis-like strains expressed the atypical O-antigen types B and B2, respectively. Most B. oklahomensis strains expressed a distinct and non-seroreactive O-antigen type, except strain E0147 which expressed O-antigen type A. O-antigen type B2 was also detected in B. thailandensis 82172, B. ubonensis MSMB108, and Burkholderia sp. MSMB175. Interestingly, B. thailandensis-like MSMB43 contained a novel serotype B positive O-antigen. Conclusions This study expands the number of species which express B. pseudomallei O-antigen types. Further work is required to elucidate the full structures and how closely these are to the B. pseudomallei O-antigens, which will ultimately determine the efficacy of the near-neighbor B serotypes for vaccine development.

  19. Versatility of the Burkholderia cepacia complex for the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides: a comparative structural investigation.

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    Bruno Cuzzi

    Full Text Available The Burkholderia cepacia Complex assembles at least eighteen closely related species that are ubiquitous in nature. Some isolates show beneficial potential for biocontrol, bioremediation and plant growth promotion. On the contrary, other strains are pathogens for plants and immunocompromised individuals, like cystic fibrosis patients. In these subjects, they can cause respiratory tract infections sometimes characterised by fatal outcome. Most of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex species are mucoid when grown on a mannitol rich medium and they also form biofilms, two related characteristics, since polysaccharides are important component of biofilm matrices. Moreover, polysaccharides contribute to bacterial survival in a hostile environment by inhibiting both neutrophils chemotaxis and antimicrobial peptides activity, and by scavenging reactive oxygen species. The ability of these microorganisms to produce exopolysaccharides with different structures is testified by numerous articles in the literature. However, little is known about the type of polysaccharides produced in biofilms and their relationship with those obtained in non-biofilm conditions. The aim of this study was to define the type of exopolysaccharides produced by nine species of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex. Two isolates were then selected to compare the polysaccharides produced on agar plates with those formed in biofilms developed on cellulose membranes. The investigation was conducted using NMR spectroscopy, high performance size exclusion chromatography, and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The results showed that the Complex is capable of producing a variety of exopolysaccharides, most often in mixture, and that the most common exopolysaccharide is always cepacian. In addition, two novel polysaccharide structures were determined: one composed of mannose and rhamnose and another containing galactose and glucuronic acid. Comparison of exopolysaccharides obtained

  20. Plant host and sugar alcohol induced exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdson, S Josefin; Brown, Alan R; Mewburn, Ben R; Clarke, David J; Fry, Stephen C; Campopiano, Dominic J; Govan, John R W

    2008-08-01

    The species that presently constitute the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have multiple roles; they include soil and water saprophytes, bioremediators, and plant, animal and human pathogens. Since the first description of pathogenicity in the Bcc was based on sour skin rot of onion bulbs, this study returned to this plant host to investigate the onion-associated phenotype of the Bcc. Many Bcc isolates, which were previously considered to be non-mucoid, produced copious amounts of exopolysaccharide (EPS) when onion tissue was provided as the sole nutrient. EPS production was not species-specific, was observed in isolates from both clinical and environmental sources, and did not correlate with the ability to cause maceration of onion tissue. Chemical analysis suggested that the onion components responsible for EPS induction were primarily the carbohydrates sucrose, fructose and fructans. Additional sugars were investigated, and all alcohol sugars tested were able to induce EPS production, in particular mannitol and glucitol. To investigate the molecular basis for EPS biosynthesis, we focused on the highly conserved bce gene cluster thought to be involved in cepacian biosynthesis. We demonstrated induction of the bce gene cluster by mannitol, and found a clear correlation between the inability of representatives of the Burkholderia cenocepacia ET12 lineage to produce EPS and the presence of an 11 bp deletion within the bceB gene, which encodes a glycosyltransferase. Insertional inactivation of bceB in Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD results in loss of EPS production on sugar alcohol media. These novel and surprising insights into EPS biosynthesis highlight the metabolic potential of the Bcc and show that a potential virulence factor may not be detected by routine laboratory culture. Our results also highlight a potential hazard in the use of inhaled mannitol as an osmolyte to improve mucociliary clearance in individuals with cystic fibrosis.

  1. Eradication of Burkholderia cepacia Using Inhaled Aztreonam Lysine in Two Patients with Bronchiectasis

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    A. Iglesias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are not many articles about the chronic bronchial infection/colonization in patients with underlying lung disease other than cystic fibrosis (CF, especially with non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFBQ. The prevalence of B. cepacia complex is not well known in NCFBQ. The vast majority of published clinical data on Burkholderia infection in individuals with CF is comprised of uncontrolled, anecdotal, and/or single center experiences, and no consensus has emerged regarding treatment. We present two cases diagnosed with bronchiectasis (BQ of different etiology, with early pulmonary infection by B. cepacia complex, which was eradicated with inhaled aztreonam lysine.

  2. [Optimization of biocontrol agent Burkholderia pyrrocinia strain JK-SH007 fermentation by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Ren, Jiahong; Ye, Jianren

    2013-02-01

    In order to improve ferment efficiency of biocontrol agent Burkholderia pyrrocinia JK-SH007, the fermentation conditions of this strain were optimized. The optimal fermentation conditions were corn steep liquor (13.88 g/L) and glucose (3.37 g/L) by screening test, steepest ascent experiments and response surface analysis. The results showed that the cell density of JK-SH007 (1.18 x 10(9) CFU/mL) increased 1.35 times than before, and there was a 28.84% increase in antifungal activity.

  3. Characterization of Burkholderia rhizoxinica and B. endofungorum isolated from clinical specimens.

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    Jay E Gee

    Full Text Available Eight isolates submitted to CDC from 1989 to 2006 from clinical specimens were initially identified as members of the genus Burkholderia based on preliminary cellular fatty acid analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. With the recent descriptions of the new species B. rhizoxinica and B. endofungorum, which are considered endosymbiotic bacteria in Rhizopus microsporus fungi, we now identify seven of these clinical isolates as B. rhizoxinica and one as B. endofungorum based on biochemical testing, 16s rRNA, and DNA-DNA hybridization results. We also further characterize these isolates by assessing toxin production and/or by multiple locus sequence typing.

  4. Phenotypic characterization of three clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Ceará, Brazil

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    CG Virginio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis was found in a small cluster of cases in Tejuçuoca, Ceará, Brazil. Tests were carried out to determine its phenotypic characteristics: colony morphology on Ashdown agar and MacConkey agar, biochemical profile in conventional biochemical tests and API 20NE, arabinose assimilation and susceptibility testing by disk diffusion, comparing with data in the literature. This study confirms the presence of B. pseudomallei in Brazil and describes its characteristics.

  5. The promise of bacteriophage therapy for Burkholderia cepacia complex respiratory infections.

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    Diana Dawn Semler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, increased attention has been given to evaluating the efficacy of phage therapy, especially in scenarios where the bacterial infectious agent of interest is highly antibiotic resistant. In this regard, phage therapy is especially applicable to infections caused by the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC since members of the BCC are antibiotic pan-resistant. Current studies in BCC phage therapy are unique from many other avenues of phage therapy research in that the research is not only comprised of phage isolation, in vitro phage characterization and in vivo infection model efficacy, but also adapting aerosol drug delivery techniques to aerosol phage formulation delivery and storage.

  6. Multitarget Quantitative PCR Improves Detection and Predicts Cultivability of the Pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei

    OpenAIRE

    G?hler, Andre; Trung, Trinh Thanh; Hopf, Verena; Kohler, Christian; Hartleib, J?rg; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Peacock, Sharon J.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Tuanyok, Apichai; Steinmetz, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia pseudomallei is present in the environment in many parts of the world and causes the often-fatal disease melioidosis. The sensitive detection and quantification of B. pseudomallei in the environment are a prerequisite for assessing the risk of infection. We recently reported the direct detection of B. pseudomallei in soil samples using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting a single type three secretion system 1 (TTSS1) gene. Here, we extend the qPCR-based analysis of B. ps...

  7. The genome of the fungal-interactive soil bacterium Burkholderia terrae BS001 : A plethora of outstanding interactive capabilities unveiled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, Irshad Ul; Graupner, Katharina; Nazir, Rashid; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia terrae strain BS001, obtained as an inhabitant of the mycosphere of Laccaria proxima (a close relative of Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten), actively interacts with Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten. We here summarize the remarkable ecological behavior of B. terrae BS001 in the mycosphere and

  8. Use of Whole-Genome Sequencing to Link Burkholderia pseudomallei from Air Sampling to Mediastinal Melioidosis, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Bart J; Price, Erin P; Mayo, Mark; Kaestli, Mirjam; Theobald, Vanessa; Harrington, Ian; Harrington, Glenda; Sarovich, Derek S

    2015-11-01

    The frequency with which melioidosis results from inhalation rather than percutaneous inoculation or ingestion is unknown. We recovered Burkholderia pseudomallei from air samples at the residence of a patient with presumptive inhalational melioidosis and used whole-genome sequencing to link the environmental bacteria to B. pseudomallei recovered from the patient.

  9. Use of Whole-Genome Sequencing to Link Burkholderia pseudomallei from Air Sampling to Mediastinal Melioidosis, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Bart J.; Price, Erin P.; Mayo, Mark; Kaestli, Mirjam; Theobald, Vanessa; Harrington, Ian; Harrington, Glenda; Sarovich, Derek S.

    2015-01-01

    The frequency with which melioidosis results from inhalation rather than percutaneous inoculation or ingestion is unknown. We recovered Burkholderia pseudomallei from air samples at the residence of a patient with presumptive inhalational melioidosis and used whole-genome sequencing to link the environmental bacteria to B. pseudomallei recovered from the patient.

  10. Degradation of toluene and trichloroethylene by Burkholderia cepacia G4 in growth-limited fed-batch culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, Astrid E.; Houwing, Joukje; Dolfing, Jan; Janssen, Dick B.

    Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4 was cultivated in a fed-batch bioreactor on either toluene or toluene plus trichloroethylene (TCE), The culture was allowed to reach a constant cell density under conditions in which the amount of toluene supplied equals the maintenance energy demand of the

  11. A sensor kinase recognizing the cell-cell signal BDSF (cis-2-dodecenoic acid) regulates virulence in Burkholderia cenocepacia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Y.; Yang, Liang; Twomey, K.B.

    2010-01-01

    P>Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic human pathogen that uses cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) as a quorum-sensing signal to control expression of virulence factors. BDSF is a signal molecule of the diffusible signal factor (DSF) family that was first described in the plant pathogen...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia stabilis LA20W, a Trehalose Producer That Uses Levulinic Acid as a Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuya; Koike, Hideaki; Kondo, Susumu; Hori, Tomoyuki; Kanno, Manabu; Kimura, Nobutada; Morita, Tomotake; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia stabilis LA20W produces trehalose using levulinic acid (LA) as a substrate. Here, we report the 7.97-Mb draft genome sequence of B. stabilis LA20W, which will be useful in investigations of the enzymes involved in LA metabolism and the mechanism of LA-induced trehalose production. PMID:27491978

  13. Burkholderia cenocepacia Strain CEIB S5-1, a Rhizosphere-Inhabiting Bacterium with Potential in Bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Mart?nez-Ocampo, Fernando; Lozano-Aguirre Beltr?n, Luis Fernando; Hern?ndez-Mendoza, Armando; Rojas-Espinoza, Luis Enrique; Popoca-Ursino, Elida Carolina; Ortiz-Hern?ndez, Mar?a Laura; S?nchez-Salinas, Enrique; Ramos Quintana, Fernando; Dant?n-Gonz?lez, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is considered an opportunistic pathogen from humans and may cause disease in plants. A bioprospection from a plaguicide-contaminated agricultural field in Mexico identified several methyl parathion-degrading bacteria. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. cenocepacia strain CEIB S5-1, which gave us clues into ecological biodiversity.

  14. Systematic review and consensus guidelines for environmental sampling of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Dance, David A B; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Warner, Jeffrey; Wagner, David M; Tuanyok, Apichai; Wertheim, Heiman; Yoke Cheng, Tan; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Puthucheary, Savithiri; Day, Nicholas P J; Steinmetz, Ivo; Currie, Bart J; Peacock, Sharon J

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Tier 1 Select Agent and the cause of melioidosis, is a Gram-negative bacillus present in the environment in many tropical countries. Defining the global pattern of B. pseudomallei distribution underpins efforts to prevent infection, and is dependent upon robust environmental sampling methodology. Our objective was to review the literature on the detection of environmental B. pseudomallei, update the risk map for melioidosis, and propose international consensus guidelines for soil sampling. An international working party (Detection of Environmental Burkholderia pseudomallei Working Party (DEBWorP)) was formed during the VIth World Melioidosis Congress in 2010. PubMed (January 1912 to December 2011) was searched using the following MeSH terms: pseudomallei or melioidosis. Bibliographies were hand-searched for secondary references. The reported geographical distribution of B. pseudomallei in the environment was mapped and categorized as definite, probable, or possible. The methodology used for detecting environmental B. pseudomallei was extracted and collated. We found that global coverage was patchy, with a lack of studies in many areas where melioidosis is suspected to occur. The sampling strategies and bacterial identification methods used were highly variable, and not all were robust. We developed consensus guidelines with the goals of reducing the probability of false-negative results, and the provision of affordable and 'low-tech' methodology that is applicable in both developed and developing countries. The proposed consensus guidelines provide the basis for the development of an accurate and comprehensive global map of environmental B. pseudomallei.

  15. Chronic suppurative joint effusion due to burkholderia pseudomallei: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative bacillus is the causative agent of Melioidosis, a glanders-like disease, primarily a disease of animals. Melioidosis has been only a rare and sporadic disease in humans outside its endemic region. Currently, diagnosis of B. pseudomallei in the clinical laboratory is very difficult, owing to low awareness of physicians to the nonspecific clinical manifestations, lack of responsiveness among microbiologists outside endemic areas, identification systems in the average sentinel laboratory, and the biosafety conditions necessary to process these organisms. We report a case of chronic left hip joint effusion in a known case of diabetes mellitus. Gram stain of computed tomography (CT-guided aspirate from the joint revealed Gram-negative bacilli along with pus cells. Culture was confirmed as Burkholderia pseudomallei on Vitek2C, which was sensitive to ceftazidime and trimethoprim/sulfmethoxazole. Unfortunately, patient could not be started on appropriate antibiotics due to delay in detection and patient succumbed to severe septicemia. This case is reported to highlight importance of automated identification and sensitivity especially in nonendemic areas and unusual antibiogram of this organism for which disc diffusion method is not standardized.

  16. Cyanide toxicity to Burkholderia cenocepacia is modulated by polymicrobial communities and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve P. Bernier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbes within polymicrobial communities can establish positive and negative interactions that have the potential to influence the overall behaviour of the community. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc can co-exist in the lower airways, however several studies have shown that P. aeruginosa can effectively kill the Bcc in vitro, for which hydrogen cyanide was recently proposed to play a critical role. Here we show that modification of the environment (i.e. culture medium, long-term genetic adaptation of P. aeruginosa to the cystic fibrosis (CF lung, or the addition of another bacterial species to the community can alter the sensitivity of Burkholderia cenocepacia to P. aeruginosa toxins. We specifically demonstrate that undefined rich media leads to higher susceptibility of B. cenocepacia to P. aeruginosa toxins like cyanide as compared to a synthetic medium (SCFM, that mimics the CF lung nutritional content. Overall, our study shows that the polymicrobial environment can have profound effects on negative interactions mediated by P. aeruginosa against B. cenocepacia. In fact, evolved P. aeruginosa or the presence of other species such as Staphylococcus aureus can directly abolish the direct competition mediated by cyanide and consequently maintaining a higher level of species diversity within the community.

  17. Proteomics Analyses of the Opportunistic Pathogen Burkholderia vietnamiensis Using Protein Fractionations and Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanthi Wickramasekara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this work were to obtain a more extensive coverage of the Burkholderia vietnamiensis proteome than previously reported and to identify virulence factors using tandem mass spectrometry. The proteome of B. vietnamiensis was precipitated into four fractions to as extracellular, intracellular, cell surface and cell wall proteins. Two different approaches were used to analyze the proteins. The first was a gel-based method where 1D SDS-PAGE was used for separation of the proteins prior to reverse phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The second method used MudPIT analysis (Multi dimensional Protein Identification Technique, where proteins are digested and separated using cation exchange and reversed phase separations before the MS/MS analysis (LC/LC-MS/MS. Overall, gel-based LC-MS/MS analysis resulted in more protein identifications than the MudPIT analysis. Combination of the results lead to identification of more than 1200 proteins, approximately 16% of the proteins coded from the annotated genome of Burkholderia species. Several virulence factors were detected including flagellin, porin, peroxiredoxin and zinc proteases.

  18. Variable virulence factors in Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis associated with human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek S Sarovich

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative environmental bacterium that causes melioidosis, a potentially life-threatening infectious disease affecting mammals, including humans. Melioidosis symptoms are both protean and diverse, ranging from mild, localized skin infections to more severe and often fatal presentations including pneumonia, septic shock with multiple internal abscesses and occasionally neurological involvement. Several ubiquitous virulence determinants in B. pseudomallei have already been discovered. However, the molecular basis for differential pathogenesis has, until now, remained elusive. Using clinical data from 556 Australian melioidosis cases spanning more than 20 years, we identified a Burkholderia mallei-like actin polymerization bimA(Bm gene that is strongly associated with neurological disease. We also report that a filamentous hemagglutinin gene, fhaB3, is associated with positive blood cultures but is negatively correlated with localized skin lesions without sepsis. We show, for the first time, that variably present virulence factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of melioidosis. Collectively, our study provides a framework for assessing other non-ubiquitous bacterial virulence factors and their association with disease, such as candidate loci identified from large-scale microbial genome-wide association studies.

  19. Burkholderia contaminans Biofilm Regulating Operon and Its Distribution in Bacterial Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, Olga L; Kunda, Marina S; Ryzhova, Natalia N; Aksenova, Ekaterina I; Semenov, Andrey N; Romanova, Yulia M; Gintsburg, Alexandr L

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Burkholderia spp. is a principal cause of lung chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. A "lacking biofilm production" (LBP) strain B. contaminans GIMC4587:Bct370-19 has been obtained by insertion modification of clinical strain with plasposon mutagenesis. It has an interrupted transcriptional response regulator (RR) gene. The focus of our investigation was a two-component signal transduction system determination, including this RR. B. contaminans clinical and LBP strains were analyzed by whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics resources. A four-component operon (BiofilmReg) has a key role in biofilm formation. The relative location (i.e., by being separated by another gene) of RR and histidine kinase genes is unique in BiofilmReg. Orthologs were found in other members of the Burkholderiales order. Phylogenetic analysis of strains containing BiofilmReg operons demonstrated evidence for earlier inheritance of a three-component operon. During further evolution one lineage acquired a fourth gene, whereas others lost the third component of the operon. Mutations in sensor domains have created biodiversity which is advantageous for adaptation to various ecological niches. Different species Burkholderia and Achromobacter strains all demonstrated similar BiofilmReg operon structure. Therefore, there may be an opportunity to develop a common drug which is effective for treating all these causative agents.

  20. Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides of Burkholderia: new compounds potentially implicated in biocontrol and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeel, Qassim; Pupin, Maude; Jacques, Philippe; Leclère, Valérie

    2017-05-25

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Burkholderia live in various ecological niches and present a significant role in the environments through the excretion of a wide variety of secondary metabolites including modular nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs). These metabolites represent a widely distributed biomedically and biocontrol important class of natural products including antibiotics, siderophores, and anticancers as well as biopesticides that are considered as a novel source that can be used to defend ecological niche from competitors and to promote plant growth. The aim of this review is to present all NRPs produced or potentially produced by strains of Burkholderia, as NRPs represent a major source of active compounds implicated in biocontrol. The review is a compilation of results from a large screening we have performed on 48 complete sequenced genomes available in NCBI to identify NRPS gene clusters, and data found in the literature mainly because some interesting compounds are produced by strains not yet sequenced. In addition to NRPs, hybrids NRPs/PKs are also included. Specific features about biosynthetic gene clusters and structures of the modular enzymes responsible for the synthesis, the biological activities, and the potential uses in agriculture and pharmaceutical of NRPs and hybrids NRPs/PKs will also be discussed.

  1. Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex are cyanogenic under biofilm and colonial growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshino Saiko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc is a collection of nine genotypically distinct but phenotypically similar species. They show wide ecological diversity and include species that are used for promoting plant growth and bio-control as well species that are opportunistic pathogens of vulnerable patients. Over recent years the Bcc have emerged as problematic pathogens of the CF lung. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is another important CF pathogen. It is able to synthesise hydrogen cyanide (HCN, a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. We have recently shown that HCN production by P. aeruginosa may have a role in CF pathogenesis. This paper describes an investigation of the ability of bacteria of the Bcc to make HCN. Results The genome of Burkholderia cenocepacia has 3 putative HCN synthase encoding (hcnABC gene clusters. B. cenocepacia and all 9 species of the Bcc complex tested were able to make cyanide at comparable levels to P. aeruginosa, but only when grown surface attached as colonies or during biofilm growth on glass beads. In contrast to P. aeruginosa and other cyanogenic bacteria, cyanide was not detected during planktonic growth of Bcc strains. Conclusion All species in the Bcc are cyanogenic when grown as surface attached colonies or as biofilms.

  2. Systematic review and consensus guidelines for environmental sampling of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Direk Limmathurotsakul

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Tier 1 Select Agent and the cause of melioidosis, is a Gram-negative bacillus present in the environment in many tropical countries. Defining the global pattern of B. pseudomallei distribution underpins efforts to prevent infection, and is dependent upon robust environmental sampling methodology. Our objective was to review the literature on the detection of environmental B. pseudomallei, update the risk map for melioidosis, and propose international consensus guidelines for soil sampling.An international working party (Detection of Environmental Burkholderia pseudomallei Working Party (DEBWorP was formed during the VIth World Melioidosis Congress in 2010. PubMed (January 1912 to December 2011 was searched using the following MeSH terms: pseudomallei or melioidosis. Bibliographies were hand-searched for secondary references. The reported geographical distribution of B. pseudomallei in the environment was mapped and categorized as definite, probable, or possible. The methodology used for detecting environmental B. pseudomallei was extracted and collated. We found that global coverage was patchy, with a lack of studies in many areas where melioidosis is suspected to occur. The sampling strategies and bacterial identification methods used were highly variable, and not all were robust. We developed consensus guidelines with the goals of reducing the probability of false-negative results, and the provision of affordable and 'low-tech' methodology that is applicable in both developed and developing countries.The proposed consensus guidelines provide the basis for the development of an accurate and comprehensive global map of environmental B. pseudomallei.

  3. Functional characterisation of Burkholderia pseudomallei biotin protein ligase: A toolkit for anti-melioidosis drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Thomas E H; Sorenson, Alanna E; Schaeffer, Patrick M

    2017-06-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is the causative agent of melioidosis. The bacterium is responsible for 20% of community-acquired sepsis cases and 40% of sepsis-related mortalities in northeast Thailand, and is intrinsically resistant to aminoglycosides, macrolides, rifamycins, cephalosporins, and nonureidopenicillins. There is no vaccine and its diagnosis is problematic. Biotin protein ligase (BirA) which is essential for fatty acid synthesis has been proposed as a drug target in bacteria. Very few bacterial BirA have been characterized, and a better understanding of these enzymes is necessary to further assess their value as drug targets. BirA within the Burkholderia genus have not yet been investigated. We present for the first time the cloning, expression, purification and functional characterisation of the putative Bp BirA and orthologous B. thailandensis (Bt) biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) substrate. A GFP-tagged Bp BirA was produced and applied for the development of a high-throughput (HT) assay based on our differential scanning fluorimetry of GFP-tagged proteins (DSF-GTP) principle as well as an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Our biochemical data in combination with the new HT DSF-GTP and biotinylation activity assay could facilitate future drug screening efforts against this drug-resistant organism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Competition Experiments for Legume Infection Identify Burkholderia phymatum as a Highly Competitive β-Rhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Burkholderia (β-proteobacteria have only recently been shown to be able to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with several legumes, which is why they are also referred to as β-rhizobia. Therefore, very little is known about the competitiveness of these species to nodulate different legume host plants. In this study, we tested the competitiveness of several Burkholderia type strains (B. diazotrophica, B. mimosarum, B. phymatum, B. sabiae, B. symbiotica and B. tuberum to nodulate four legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata and Mimosa pudica under our closely defined growth conditions. The assessment of nodule occupancy of these species on different legume host plants revealed that B. phymatum was the most competitive strain in the three papilionoid legumes (bean, cowpea and siratro, while B. mimosarum outcompeted the other strains in mimosa. The analysis of phenotypes known to play a role in nodulation competitiveness (motility, exopolysaccharide production and additional in vitro competition assays among β-rhizobial strains suggested that B. phymatum has the potential to be a very competitive legume symbiont.

  5. Efflux-mediated resistance to a benzothiadiazol derivative effective against Burkholderia cenocepacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Camilla eScoffone

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia is a major concern for people suffering from Cystic Fibrosis as it contributes to serious respiratory tract infections. The lack of drugs effective against this opportunistic pathogen, along with the high level of resistance to multiple antibiotics, render the treatment of these infections particularly difficult.Here a new compound, belonging to the 2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-5-yl family (10126109, with a bactericidal effect and a MIC of 8 µg/ml against B. cenocepacia, is described. The compound is not cytotoxic and effective against B. cenocepacia clinical isolates and members of all the known Burkholderia cepacia complex species.Spontaneous mutants resistant to 10126109 were isolated and mutations in the MerR transcriptional regulator BCAM1948 were identified. In this way, a mechanism of resistance to this new molecule was described, which relies on the overexpression of the RND-9 efflux pump. Indeed, rnd-9 overexpression was confirmed by qRT-PCR, and RND-9 was identified in the membrane fractions of the mutant strains. Moreover, the increase in the MIC values of different drugs in the mutant strains, together with complementation experiments, suggested the involvement of RND-9 in the efflux of 10126109, thus indicating again the central role of efflux transporters in B. cenocepacia drug resistance.

  6. Ações de enfermagem na prevenção de úlceras por pressão em UTI

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, Margareth Pereira; Vieira, Rosemeire dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    A úlcera por pressão é caracterizada por uma lesão da pele causada pela associação de fatores internos e externos após um período de fluxo sanguíneo deficiente. Este artigo teve como objetivo identificar na literatura científica as ações de enfermagem na prevenção de úlceras por pressão em UTI. O delineamento da pesquisa foi orientado pelos seguintes critérios nas Bases de Dados de Pesquisa da Lilacs, utilizando os descritores: ulcera de pressão, ulcera de decúbito, ulcera por pressão, unidad...

  7. Ação do licopeno nos músculos esquelético e cardíaco sob estresse oxidativo por exercícios

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Karina; Magosso, Rodrigo Ferro; Lagoeiro, Cristiani Gomes; Castellan, Vanessa Teixeira; Silva, Natália Santanielo; Scrivante, Bruno Ferraresi; Qualhato, Gabriel; Figueiredo, Augusto César Ribeiro; Benetti, Edson José; Rebelo, Ana Cristina Silva

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Os radicais livres produzidos durante os exercícios podem exceder o sistema de defesa antioxidante, provocando danos oxidativos de biomoléculas específicas. As lesões causadas pelos radicais livres nas células podem ser prevenidas ou reduzidas por meio da atividade de antioxidantes naturais, sendo estes encontrados em muitos alimentos. O licopeno é um dos mais potentes carotenoides com ação antioxidante, sendo utilizado na prevenção da carcinogênese e aterogênese por proteger molé...

  8. Factores asociados a infección urinaria por bacterias gram negativas BLEE positivas en población pediátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado Santis, Elida teresa

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: Las infección del tracto urinario (ITU) causada por bacterias productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en niños ha venido en aumento en los últimos años. Se pretendió identificar los factores asociados para su presentación, en una muestra de pacientes en la Clínica Infantil Colsubsidio. Metodología: Estudio de casos y controles, tomando como casos niños con ITU de origen comunitario causado por bacterias BLEE positivas, pareado con niños con ITU caus...

  9. Diagnostico por PCR del complejo Sigatoka en Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Magally

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Las Sigatokas negra y amarilla son enfermedades causadas por Mycosphaerella fijiensis y Mycosphaerella musicola respectivamente. Estas dos especies de hongos estrechamente relacionadas y morfológicamente similares, causan necrosis severa en las hojas de banano y plátano disminuyendo el área de tejido fotosintético y acelerando la maduración del fruto. Las enfermedades producidas por estos hongos afectan la mayoría de las áreas cultivadas de banano y plátano a nivel mundial, generando un gran problema económico y ambiental. Los síntomas que produce cada uno de estos patógenos en el cultivo son similares, por lo que su correcta identificación en campo se hace difícil. Con el fin de hacer una identificación precisa de cada uno de ellos decidimos estandarizar una prueba diagnóstica basada en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR utilizando dos oligonucleótidos de 21 bases (MF 137 y MM 137 específicos para cada una de las especies M. fijiensis y M. musicola respectivamente. MF 137 y MM 137 codifican regiones variables identificadas en las secuencias interespaciadoras (ITS del DNA ribosomal.

  10. Fagoterapia frente a infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Tamariz

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad de los bacteriófagos frente a infecciones localizadas y sistémicas producidas por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de tipo experimental en 45 ratones de la cepa Balb/c divididos en nueve grupos de cinco individuos. Se aislaron diez bacteriófagos nativos a partir de muestras clínicas y efluentes hospitalarios, se evaluó su capacidad lítica y su espectro de actividad, en base a lo cual se seleccionaron seis fagos para los ensayos de fagoterapia. Adicionalmente, se empleó un bacteriófago de origen comercial. La fagoterapia fue evaluada mediante profilaxis y terapia de infecciones localizadas y sistémicas causadas por la inoculación de MRSA por vía subcutánea y endovenosa respectivamente. Se probó la efectividad de tres esquemas terapéuticos: monoterapia, cóctel de fagos en múltiples dosis y de cóctel de fagos en una sola dosis. También se comparó la actividad terapéutica de los fagos frente a vancomicina y clindamicina. Resultados. El cóctel de fagos y la terapia a diversas dosis fueron efectivos para prevenir y controlar infecciones localizadas por MRSA, su actividad fue similar a la de vancomicina y clindamicina. La dosis única del cóctel de fagos no logró controlar la infección localizada; asimismo, la fagoterapia no resultó efectiva en infecciones sistémicas. Conclusiones. La fagoterapia se proyecta como una alternativa viable frente a infecciones causadas por MRSA. Se requieren estudios que evalúen aspectos relacionados con la inocuidad de los fagos frente al paciente

  11. IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE USING BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA G4 PR1: ANALYSIS OF MICROBIAL ECOLOGY PARAMETERS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of bacteria into aquifers for bioremediation purposes requires monitoring of the persistence and activity of microbial populations for efficacy and risk assessment purposes. Burkholderia cepacia G4 PR1 constitutively expresses a toluene ortho-monooxygenase (tom) ...

  12. Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) e Capra hircus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) parasitados por Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) no Distrito Federal, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Edison Cansi; Márcio de Castro; Vanessa Mustafa; Mirna Porto; José Borges

    2011-01-01

    A oestrose é uma miíase obrigatória e cavitária de ovinos e caprinos, domésticos e selvagens, causada por larvas da mosca Oestrus ovis (Linnaeus). Este estudo relata a presença de O. ovis na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil como parasitas de caprinos e ovinos. Nós obtivemos seis larvas de ovinos e caprinos suspeitos de oestrose em Brasília. As larvas originaram duas moscas fêmeas adultas de O. ovis, após 20 e 23 dias res...

  13. Comparación de tres pruebas serológicas para detectar infecciones por Paragonimus mexicanus en gatos infectados

    OpenAIRE

    William R. Cornejo; Pilar F. Alva; Carlos R. Sevilla; Alina F. Huiza

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La paragonimiasis es una enfermedad pulmonar causada por tremátodes del género Paragonimus. Generalmente, el diagnóstico de laboratorio de la infección en humanos se realiza mediante la detección de huevos del parásito en esputo o heces; sin embargo, los resultados pueden ser negativos, necesitándose métodos diagnósticos alternativos. Objetivos: Comparar tres pruebas serológicas para la detección de anticuerpos contra el antígeno somático del estadio adulto de Paragonimus mexica...

  14. Enfisema subcutáneo en mano y antebrazo por aire comprimido

    OpenAIRE

    M. Klein; S. Szkrabko; J. Rodriguez Martín; S. Payaslian

    2003-01-01

    Las lesiones cutáneas que se acompañan de crepitación sugieren la sospecha de infecciones causadas por gérmenes productores de gas. Las causas no infecciosas no son tan reconocidas y suelen tener buen pronóstico. Presentamos un paciente de 27 años que consultó por hinchazón de la mano y antebrazo izquierdo luego de sufrir una lesión cutánea punzante en un dedo, y de secar el área con aire comprimido. En el examen se comprobó un extenso enfisema subcutáneo desde la mano hasta el codo. Una radi...

  15. Sistema Nacional de Informações Tóxico-Farmacológicas SINITOX e as intoxicações humanas por agrotóxicos no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Bochner,Rosany

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o perfil das intoxicações por agrotóxicos, estes separados por agrotóxicos de uso agrícola, agrotóxicos de uso doméstico, produtos veterinários e raticidas, a partir da análise da base de dados do Sistema Nacional de Informações Tóxico-Farmacológicas (SINITOX), para o período de 1999 a 2003. Os resultados encontrados apontam perfis diferentes para as intoxicações causadas por estes quatro produtos. Enquanto intoxicações por agrotóxicos de uso agrícola e por produtos ve...

  16. Burkholderia dabaoshanensis sp. nov., a heavy-metal-tolerant bacteria isolated from Dabaoshan mining area soil in China.

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    Honghui Zhu

    Full Text Available Heavy-metal-tolerant bacteria, GIMN1.004(T, was isolated from mine soils of Dabaoshan in South China, which were acidic (pH 2-4 and polluted with heavy metals. The isolation was Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, and rod-shaped bacteria having a cellular width of 0.5-0.6 µm and a length of 1.3-1.8 µm. They showed a normal growth pattern at pH 4.0-9.0 in a temperature ranging from 5 °C to 40 °C.The organism contained ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinine, and C(16:0, summed feature 8 (C(18:1ω7c and C(18:1ω6c, C(18:0, summed feature 3 (C(16:1ω7c or iso-C(15:0 2-OH, C(17:0 cyclo, C(18:1ω9c, C(19:0 cyclo ω8c, C(14:0 as major fatty acid. These profiles were similar to those reported for Burkholderia species. The DNA G+C % of this strain was 61.6%. Based on the similarity to 16S rRNA gene sequence, GIMN1.004(T was considered to be in the genus Burkholderia. The similarities of 16S rRNA gene sequence between strain GIMN1.004(T and members of the genus Burkholderia were 96-99.4%, indicating that this novel strain was phylogenetically related to members of that genus. The novel strain showed the highest sequence similarities to Burkholderia soli DSM 18235(T (99.4%; Levels of DNA-DNA hybridization with DSM 18235(T was 25%. Physiological and biochemical tests including cell wall composition analysis, differentiated phenotype of this strain from that closely related Burkholderia species. The isolation had great tolerance to cadmium with MIC of 22 mmol/L, and adsorbability of 144.94 mg/g cadmium,and it was found to exhibit antibiotic resistance characteristics. The adsorptive mechanism of GIMN1.004(T for cadmium depended on the action of the amide,carboxy and phosphate of cell surface and producing low-molecular-weight (LMW organic acids to complex or chelated Cd(2+.Therefore, the strain GIMN1.004(T represented a new cadmium resistance species, which was tentatively named as Burkholderia dabaoshanensis sp. nov. The strain type

  17. Survival, sublethal injury, and recovery of environmental Burkholderia pseudomallei in soil subjected to desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Eloise; Smith, James J; Norton, Robert; Corkeron, Maree

    2013-04-01

    Environmental Burkholderia pseudomallei isolated from sandy soil at Castle Hill, Townsville, in the dry tropic region of Queensland, Australia, was inoculated into sterile-soil laboratory microcosms subjected to variable soil moisture. Survival and sublethal injury of the B. pseudomallei strain were monitored by recovery using culture-based methods. Soil extraction buffer yielded higher recoveries as an extraction agent than sterile distilled water. B. pseudomallei was not recoverable when inoculated into desiccated soil but remained recoverable from moist soil subjected to 91 days' desiccation and showed a growth response to increased soil moisture over at least 113 days. Results indicate that endemic dry tropic soil may act as a reservoir during the dry season, with an increase in cell number and potential for mobilization from soil into water in the wet season.

  18. Molecular typing of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolated from patients attending an Italian Cystic Fibrosis Centre.

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    Teri, Antonio; Sottotetti, Samantha; Biffi, Arianna; Girelli, Daniela; D'Accico, Monica; Arghittu, Milena; Colombo, Carla; Corti, Fabiola; Pizzamiglio, Giovanna; Cariani, Lisa

    2018-03-02

    Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are capable of causing severe infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Bcc infection is often extremely difficult to treat due to its intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics. In addition, it seems to speed up the decline of lung function and is considered a contraindication for lung transplantation in CF. This study investigates the species of the Bcc strains recovered from chronically infected CF subjects by means of: isolation, identification methods and complete recA nucleotide sequences of 151 samples. Molecular typing showed that B. cenocepacia III is the dominant strain found in the group of subjects being treated at the Milan CF Centre (Italy) and that the infection is chronically maintained by the same species. Defining species by means of molecular analysis yields important information for the clinician in order to establish the most appropriate therapy and implement correct measures for prevention of transmission among CF subjects.

  19. Burkholderia cenocepacia Infections in Cystic Fibrosis Patients: Drug Resistance and Therapeutic Approaches

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    Viola C. Scoffone

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen particularly dangerous for cystic fibrosis (CF patients. It can cause a severe decline in CF lung function possibly developing into a life-threatening systemic infection known as cepacia syndrome. Antibiotic resistance and presence of numerous virulence determinants in the genome make B. cenocepacia extremely difficult to treat. Better understanding of its resistance profiles and mechanisms is crucial to improve management of these infections. Here, we present the clinical distribution of B. cenocepacia described in the last 6 years and methods for identification and classification of epidemic strains. We also detail new antibiotics, clinical trials, and alternative approaches reported in the literature in the last 5 years to tackle B. cenocepacia resistance issue. All together these findings point out the urgent need of new and alternative therapies to improve CF patients’ life expectancy.

  20. Biological Control of White Rot in Garlic Using Burkholderia pyrrocinia CAB08106-4

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    Kwang Seop Han

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available White rot caused by Sclerotium cepivorum was reported to be severe soil-born disease on garlic. Disease progress of white rot of garlic (Allium sativum L. was investigated during the growing season of 2009 to 2011 at Taean and Seosan areas. The white rot disease on bulb began to occur from late April and peaked in late May. The antifungal bacteria, Burkholderia pyrrocinia CAB08106-4 was tested in field bioassay for suppression of white rot disease. As a result of the nucleotide sequence of the gene 16S rRNA, CAB008106-4 strain used in this study has been identified as B. pyrrocinia. B. pyrrocinia CAB080106-4 isolate suppressed the white rot with 69.6% control efficacy in field test. These results suggested that B. pyrrocinia CAB08106-4 isolate could be an effective biological control agent against white rot of garlic.

  1. Biosurfactant Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia gladioli Isolated from Mangrove Sediments Using Alternative Substrates

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    Karla Maria Catter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are surface-active agents produced by a variety of microorganisms. To make biosurfactant production economically feasible, several alternative carbon sources have been proposed. This study describes biosurfactant production by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia gladioli isolated from mangrove sediments in Northeastern Brazil and cultured in mineral media enriched with waste cooking oil. The biosurfactants were tested for drop collapse, emulsion formation and stability and surface tension. P. aeruginosa performed better both at lowering the surface tension (from 69 to 28 mN/m and at forming stable emulsions (approximately 80% at 48 hours of culture. The strains tested in this study were found to be efficient biosurfactant producers when cultured on substrates enriched with vegetable oil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i5.771

  2. Cometabolic degradation of trichloroethylene by Burkholderia cepacia G4 with poplar leaf homogenate.

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    Kang, Jun Won; Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    2014-07-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated organic solvent, is one of the most common and widespread groundwater contaminants worldwide. Among the group of TCE-degrading aerobic bacteria, Burkholderia cepacia G4 is the best-known representative. This strain requires the addition of specific substrates, including toluene, phenol, and benzene, to induce the enzymes to degrade TCE. However, the substrates are toxic and introducing them into the soil can result in secondary contamination. In this study, poplar leaf homogenate containing natural phenolic compounds was tested for the ability to induce the growth of and TCE degradation by B. cepacia G4. The results showed that the G4 strain could grow and degrade TCE well with the addition of phytochemicals. The poplar leaf homogenate also functioned as an inducer of the toluene-ortho-monooxygenase (TOM) gene in B. cepacia G4.

  3. An improved selective culture medium enhances the isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei from contaminated specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Andrew; Strange, Linda; Rholl, Drew A; Silisouk, Joy; Dance, David A B; Schweizer, Herbert P; Dow, Steven

    2013-11-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative environmental bacterium found in tropical climates that causes melioidosis. Culture remains the diagnostic gold standard, but isolation of B. pseudomallei from heavily contaminated sites, such as fecal specimens, can be difficult. We recently reported that B. pseudomallei is capable of infecting the gastrointestinal tract of mice and suggested that the same may be true in humans. Thus, there is a strong need for new culture techniques to allow for efficient detection of B. pseudomallei in fecal and other specimens. We found that the addition of norfloxacin, ampicillin, and polymyxin B to Ashdown's medium (NAP-A) resulted in increased specificity without affecting the growth of 25 B. pseudomallei strains. Furthermore, recovery of B. pseudomallei from human clinical specimens was not affected by the three additional antibiotics. Therefore, we conclude that NAP-A medium provides a new tool for more sensitive isolation of B. pseudomallei from heavily contaminated sites.

  4. DETECTION OF BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI FROM POST-FLOOD SOIL SAMPLES IN KELANTAN, MALAYSIA.

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    Shaharudin, Rafiza; Ahmad, Norazah; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir; Veloo, Yuvaneswary

    2016-09-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an important causative organism of fatal community bacteremia especially in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Outbreaks of melioidosis have been reported post-floods and -typhoons. A cross sectional study was conducted in January 2015, following a major flood in Kelantan, Malaysia to detect presence of B. pseudomallei from soil. A total of 89 soil samples were cultured for B. pseudomallei on Ashdown agar. Putative colonies underwent further staining and biochemical testing prior to confirmation by PCR. Rate of detection was 1%, although low, it nevertheless indicated a risk for melioidosis among flood victims in Kelantan. Flood affected individuals should be made aware of symptoms of melioidosis and healthcare providers must have a high index of suspicion of patients presenting with fever. Such subjects should be screened for the possibility of melioidosis and given prompt treatment to avoid preventable death.

  5. Burkholderia pseudomallei identification: a comparison between the API 20NE and VITEK2GN systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Rama Narayana; Crawley, Brett; Phang, Elaine

    2008-12-01

    Sixty unique clinical isolates previously reported as Burkholderia pseudomallei were run in parallel through the API 20NE and VITEK2GN identification systems after 24h growth on Columbia agar with 5% sheep blood. The identifications and confidence levels determined by each test modality were compared. The VITEK2GN identified 47 (78.3%) and the API20NE identified 52 (86.7%) of the isolates as B. pseudomallei. The modal octal profile for the latter was 1156577. The alternative identification most commonly made by both systems was B. cepacia. Comparison of the two modalities gave a Cohen's kappa of 0.6008, suggesting good overall inter-test agreement. Both are good test modalities capable of identifying B. pseudomallei reliably, with the API20NE having the advantage of correctly identifying a slightly greater number of isolates, and the VITEK2 having the advantage of a shorter test turnaround time.

  6. SNaPBcen: a novel and practical tool for genotyping Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Nadia; Coutinho, Carla P; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Araujo, Ricardo

    2013-08-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is the most prevalent and feared member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex in lung infections of cystic fibrosis (CF). Genotyping and monitoring of long-term colonization are critical at clinical units; however, the differentiation of specific lineages performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is still limited to a small number of isolates due to the high cost and time-consuming procedure. The aim of this study was to optimize a protocol (the SNaPBcen assay) for extensive bacterial population studies. The strategy used for the SNaPBcen assay is based on targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in MLST genes instead of sequencing full MLST sequences. Nonpolymorphic and redundant MLST positions were eliminated, and a set of 24 polymorphisms included in the SNaPBcen assay ensures a high-resolution genomic characterization. These polymorphisms were identified based on the comparative analysis of 137 B. cenocepacia MLST profiles available online (http://pubmlst.org/bcc/). The group of 81 clinical isolates of B. cenocepacia examined in this study using the SNaPBcen assay revealed 51 distinct profiles, and a final discriminatory power of 0.9997 compared with MLST was determined. The SNaPBcen assay was able to reveal isolates with microvariations and the presence of multiple clonal variants in patients chronically colonized with B. cenocepacia. Main phylogenetic subgroups IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC of B. cenocepacia could be separated by the Gl94R polymorphism included in the panel. The SNaPBcen assay proved to be a rapid and robust alternative to the standard MLST for B. cenocepacia, allowing the simultaneous analysis of multiple polymorphisms following amplification and mini-sequencing reactions.

  7. Using multispectral imaging flow cytometry to assess an in vitro intracellular Burkholderia thailandensis infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Dominic; Ducker, Catherine; Clark, Graeme; Prior, Jo; Rowland, Caroline A

    2016-04-01

    The use of in vitro models to understand the interaction of bacteria with host cells is well established. In vitro bacterial infection models are often used to quantify intracellular bacterial load by lysing cell populations and subsequently enumerating the bacteria. Modern established techniques employ the use of fluorescence technologies such as flow cytometry, fluorescent microscopy, and/or confocal microscopy. However, these techniques often lack either the quantification of large data sets (microscopy) or use of gross fluorescence signal which lacks the visual confirmation that can provide additional confidence in data sets. Multispectral imaging flow cytometry (MIFC) is a novel emerging field of technology. This technology captures a bright field and fluorescence image of cells in a flow using a charged coupled device camera. It allows the analysis of tens of thousands of single cell images, making it an extremely powerful technology. Here MIFC was used as an alternative method of analyzing intracellular bacterial infection using Burkholderia thailandensis E555 as a model organism. It has been demonstrated that the data produced using traditional enumeration is comparable to data analyzed using MIFC. It has also been shown that by using MIFC it is possible to generate other data on the dynamics of the infection model rather than viable counts alone. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to inhibit the uptake of bacteria into mammalian cells and identify differences between treated and untreated cell populations. The authors believe this to be the first use of MIFC to analyze a Burkholderia bacterial species during intracellular infection. © 2016 Crown copyright. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of ISAC. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  8. Secondary metabolites from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from soil can kill Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boottanun, Patcharaporn; Potisap, Chotima; Hurdle, Julian G; Sermswan, Rasana W

    2017-12-01

    Bacillus species are Gram-positive bacteria found in abundance in nature and their secondary metabolites were found to possess various potential activities, notably antimicrobial. In this study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N2-4 and N3-8 were isolated from soil and their metabolites could kill Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium also found in soil in its endemic areas. Moreover, the metabolites were able to kill drug resistant isolates of B. pseudomallei and also inhibit other pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii but not the non-pathogenic Burkholderia thailandensis, which is closely related to B. pseudomallei. Since the antimicrobial activity of N3-8 was not partially decreased or abolished when treated with proteolytic enzymes or autoclaved, but N2-4 was, these two strains should have produced different compounds. The N3-8 metabolites with antimicrobial activity consisted of both protein and non-protein compounds. The inhibition spectrum of the precipitated proteins compared to the culture supernatant indicated a possible synergistic effect of the non-protein and peptide compounds of N3-8 isolates against other pathogens. When either N2-4 or N3-8 isolates was co-cultured with B. pseudomallei the numbers of the bacteria decreased by 5 log 10 within 72 h. Further purification and characterization of the metabolites is required for future use of the bacteria or their metabolites as biological controls of B. pseudomallei in the environment or for development as new drugs for problematic pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Chlorhexidine Tolerance in Burkholderia cenocepacia Biofilms▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenye, Tom; Van Acker, Heleen; Peeters, Elke; Sass, Andrea; Buroni, Silvia; Riccardi, Giovanna; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-01-01

    The high tolerance of biofilm-grown Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria against antimicrobial agents presents considerable problems for the treatment of infected cystic fibrosis patients and the implementation of infection control guidelines. In the present study, we analyzed the tolerance of planktonic and sessile Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 cultures and examined the transcriptional response of sessile cells to treatment with chlorhexidine. At low (0.0005%) and high (0.05%) concentrations, chlorhexidine had a similar effect on both populations, but at intermediate concentrations (0.015%) the antimicrobial activity was more pronounced in planktonic cultures. The exposure of sessile cells to chlorhexidine resulted in an upregulation of the transcription of 469 (6.56%) and the downregulation of 257 (3.59%) protein-coding genes. A major group of upregulated genes in the treated biofilms encoded membrane-related and regulatory proteins. In addition, several genes coding for drug resistance determinants also were upregulated. The phenotypic analysis of RND (resistance-nodulation-division) efflux pump mutants suggests the presence of lifestyle-specific chlorhexidine tolerance mechanisms; efflux system RND-4 (BCAL2820-BCAL2822) was more responsible for chlorhexidine tolerance in planktonic cells, while other systems (RND-3 [BCAL1672-BCAL1676] and RND-9 [BCAM1945-BCAM1947]) were linked to resistance in sessile cells. After sessile cell exposure, multiple genes encoding chemotaxis and motility-related proteins were upregulated in concert with the downregulation of an adhesin-encoding gene (BCAM2143), suggesting that sessile cells tried to escape the biofilm. We also observed the differential expression of 19 genes carying putative small RNA molecules, indicating a novel role for these regulatory elements in chlorhexidine tolerance. PMID:21357299

  10. Rapid emergence of a ceftazidime-resistant Burkholderia multivorans strain in a cystic fibrosis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokell, Joshua R; Gharaibeh, Raad Z; Steck, Todd R

    2013-12-01

    Burkholderia multivorans poses a serious health threat to cystic fibrosis patients due to innate resistance to multiple antibiotics and acquisition of resistance to a range of antibiotics due to the frequent use of antibiotics to treat chronic infections. Monitoring antibiotic susceptibility is crucial to managing patient care. We identified the rapid emergence of a ceftazidime-resistant strain in a single patient within four days during a hospitalization for treatment of an exacerbation. B. multivorans was isolated from expectorated sputum samples using Burkholderia cepacia selective agar. A macrodilution assay was performed on all isolates to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of ceftazidime. Approximately 4000 colonies were scored to identify the percent of ceftazidime-resistant colonies. Extracted DNA was used to determine the total bacterial counts and abundance of B. multivorans using quantitative PCR. An increase from no detectable B. multivorans ceftazidime-resistant colonies to over 75% of all colonies tested occurred within a four-day period. The resistant population remained dominant in 6 of the 8 samples in the following 17 months of the study. qPCR revealed an association between change in the percent of resistant colonies and abundance of B. multivorans, but not of total bacteria. No association was found between the acquisition of resistance to ceftazidime and other antibiotics commonly used to treat B. multivorans infections. The rapid emergence of a ceftazidime-resistant by B. multivorans strain occurred during a hospitalization while under selective pressure of antibiotics. The resistant strain maintained dominance in the B. multivorans population which resulted in an overall decline in a patient health and treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2013 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Burkholderia pseudomallei Bsa type III secretion system effectors using hypersecreting mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Broek, Charles W; Chalmers, Kevin J; Stevens, Mark P; Stevens, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals. One of the virulence factors critical for early stages of infection is the Burkholderia secretion apparatus (Bsa) Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS), a molecular syringe that injects bacterial proteins, called effectors, into eukaryotic cells where they subvert cellular functions to the benefit of the bacteria. Although the Bsa T3SS itself is known to be important for invasion, intracellular replication, and virulence, only a few genuine effector proteins have been identified and the complete repertoire of proteins secreted by the system has not yet been fully characterized. We constructed a mutant lacking bsaP, a homolog of the T3SS "gatekeeper" family of proteins that exert control over the timing and magnitude of effector protein secretion. Mutants lacking BsaP, or the T3SS translocon protein BipD, were observed to hypersecrete the known Bsa effector protein BopE, providing evidence of their role in post-translational control of the Bsa T3SS and representing key reagents for the identification of its secreted substrates. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ), a gel-free quantitative proteomics technique, was used to compare the secreted protein profiles of the Bsa T3SS hypersecreting mutants of B. pseudomallei with the isogenic parent strain and a bsaZ mutant incapable of effector protein secretion. Our study provides one of the most comprehensive core secretomes of B. pseudomallei described to date and identified 26 putative Bsa-dependent secreted proteins that may be considered candidate effectors. Two of these proteins, BprD and BapA, were validated as novel effector proteins secreted by the Bsa T3SS of B. pseudomallei. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Structural basis for mannose recognition by a lectin from opportunistic bacteria Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameignere, Emilie; Malinovská, Lenka; Sláviková, Margita; Duchaud, Eric; Mitchell, Edward P; Varrot, Annabelle; Sedo, Ondrej; Imberty, Anne; Wimmerová, Michaela

    2008-04-15

    Chronic colonization of the lungs by opportunist bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and members of the Bcc (Burkholderia cepacia complex) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality among CF (cystic fibrosis) patients. PA-IIL (lecB gene), a soluble lectin from Ps. aeruginosa, has been the subject of much interest because of its very strong affinity for fucose. Orthologues have been identified in the opportunist bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum, Chromobacterium violaceum and Burkholderia of Bcc. The genome of the J2315 strain of B. cenocepacia, responsible for epidemia in CF centres, contains three genes that code for proteins with PA-IIL domains. The shortest gene was cloned in Escherichia coli and pure recombinant protein, BclA (B. cenocepacia lectin A), was obtained. The presence of native BclA in B. cenocepacia extracts was checked using a proteomic approach. The specificity of recombinant BclA was characterized using surface plasmon resonance showing a preference for mannosides and supported with glycan array experiments demonstrating a strict specificity for oligomannose-type N-glycan structures. The interaction thermodynamics of BclA with methyl alpha-D-mannoside demonstrates a dissociation constant (K(d)) of 2.75 x 10(-6) M. The X-ray crystal structure of the complex with methyl alpha-D-mannoside was determined at 1.7 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution. The lectin forms homodimers with one binding site per monomer, acting co-operatively with the second dimer site. Each monomer contains two Ca2+ ions and one sugar ligand. Despite strong sequence similarity, the differences between BclA and PA-IIL in their specificity, binding site and oligomerization mode indicate that the proteins should have different roles in the bacteria.

  13. Molecular detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in patients with suspected pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    Evangeline Jayakumar, Ramya Barani, Vigna Seshan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Since melioidosis mimics tuberculosis clinically and radiologically, there is a need for a rapid diagnostic method to help the clinician to initiate appropriate antimicrobial treatment in order to prevent mortality. Our objective was to standardize a nested PCR for B. pseudomallei and its detection in pulmonary and extra pulmonary samples from patients with suspected TB. Materials and Methods: Archived pulmonary and extra pulmonary samples which were negative for M. tuberculosis smear microscopy, culture and PCR were included in the study. DNA was extracted (QiAmp Blood DNA kit, Qiagen, Germany and conventional nested PCR were carried out to detect the presence of 16S-23S spacer region of B. pseudomallei. The DNA was detected by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis and the presence of 251 bp was considered positive. Results: A total of 55 samples were tested, out of which 9 (16.3% samples tested positive for Burkholderia pseudomallei using nested PCR, which included 5 extra pulmonary and 4 pulmonary samples. These patients belonged to Tamil Nadu 8 (88.8% and West Bengal 1 (11.1% both of which are rice growing regions. Among the nine patients who were positive for B. pseudomallei by nested PCR, 2 (22% were receiving empirical anti-tubercular treatment (ATT. Also, these patients encountered co-morbid condition like renal failure, malignancy, diabetes and co-infection with HIV. Conclusion: We suggest that the patients with symptoms suggestive of both pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis should be routinely tested for Burkholderia pseudomallei by molecular methods for timely initiation of appropriate therapy and avoid unnecessary exposure to ATT. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(1: 21-28

  14. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo susceptibilities of Burkholderia mallei to Ceftazidime and Levofloxacin

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    Torres Alfredo G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia mallei is a zoonotic Gram negative bacterium which primarily infects solipeds but can cause lethal disease in humans if left untreated. The effect of two antibiotics with different modes of action on Burkholderia mallei strain ATCC23344 was investigated by using in vitro and in vivo studies. Results Determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs in vitro was done by the agar diffusion method and the dilution method. The MICs of levofloxacin and ceftazidime were in the similar range, 2.5 and 5.0 μg/ml, respectively. Intracellular susceptibility of the bacterium to these two antibiotics in J774A.1 mouse macrophages in vitro was also investigated. Macrophages treated with antibiotics demonstrated uptake of the drugs and reduced bacterial loads in vitro. The efficacy of ceftazidime and levofloxacin were studied in BALB/c mice as post-exposure treatment following intranasal B. mallei infection. Intranasal infection with 5 × 105 CFUs of B. mallei resulted in 90% death in non-treated control mice. Antibiotic treatments 10 days post-infection proved to be effective in vivo with all antibiotic treated mice surviving to day 34 post-infection. The antibiotics did not result in complete clearance of the bacterial infection and presence of the bacteria was found in lungs and spleens of the survivors, although bacterial burden recovered from levofloxacin treated animals appeared reduced compared to ceftazidime. Conclusion Both antibiotics demonstrated utility for the treatment of glanders, including the ability for intracellular penetration and clearance of organisms in vitro.

  15. Diazotrophic Burkholderia species isolated from the Amazon region exhibit phenotypical, functional and genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Krisle; Cassetari, Alice de Souza; Lima, Adriana Silva; De Brandt, Evie; Pinnock, Eleanor; Vandamme, Peter; Moreira, Fatima Maria de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Forty-eight Burkholderia isolates from different land use systems in the Amazon region were compared to type strains of Burkholderia species for phenotypic and functional characteristics that can be used to promote plant growth. Most of these isolates (n=46) were obtained by using siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum - 44) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris - 2) as the trap plant species; two isolates were obtained from nodules collected in the field from Indigofera suffruticosa and Pithecellobium sp. The evaluated characteristics were the following: colony characterisation on "79" medium, assimilation of different carbon sources, enzymatic activities, solubilisation of phosphates, nitrogenase activity and antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. phaseoli. Whole cell protein profiles, 16S rRNA, gyrB, and recA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing were used to identify the isolates. The isolates showed different cultural and biochemical characteristics depending on the legume species from which they were obtained. Except for one isolate from I. suffruticosa, all isolates were able to solubilise calcium phosphate and present nitrogenase activity under free-living conditions. Only one isolate from common beans, showed antifungal activity. The forty four isolates from siratro nodules were identified as B. fungorum; isolates UFLA02-27 and UFLA02-28, obtained from common bean plants, were identified as B. contaminans; isolate INPA89A, isolated from Indigofera suffruticosa, was a close relative of B. caribensis but could not be assigned to an established species; isolate INPA42B, isolated from Pithecellobium sp., was identified as B. lata. This is the first report of nitrogenase activity in B. fungorum, B. lata and B. contaminans. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Interactions of Burkholderia terrae with soil fungi: Mechanisms, gene expression patterns and ecological behavior of Burkholderia terrae BS001 during its interaction with Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and Trichoderma asperellum 302 in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Haq, Irshad U.

    2016-01-01

    Even though soil is a nutrient-limited environment, there are zones of high microbial activity. Mainly zones that are influenced by plants, fungi, or a combination of both, are of interest. The mycosphere (niche under the influence of fungi) is the zone where, in particular, bacterial-fungal interactions take place. In my thesis, I studied the interaction of the soil bacterium Burkholderia terrae with Lyophyllum sp. strain studied Karsten and Trichoderma asperellum 302. In particular, I studi...

  17. Unusual Multiple Production of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones a by Burkholderia sp. Strain C10B Isolated from Dentine Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Share Yuan Goh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria realize the ability to communicate by production of quorum sensing (QS molecules called autoinducers, which regulate the physiological activities in their ecological niches. The oral cavity could be a potential area for the presence of QS bacteria. In this study, we report the isolation of a QS bacterial isolate C10B from dentine caries. Preliminary screening using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 biosensor showed that isolate C10B was able to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs. This bacterium was further identified as a member of Burkholderia, an opportunistic pathogen. The isolated Burkholderia sp. was confirmed to produce N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL, N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL, N-decanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL and N-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL.

  18. Ocurrence of the antibiotic producing bacterium Burkholderia sp. in colonies of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Adão Valmir; Dillon, Rod J; Dillon, Viv M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Samuels, Richard I

    2004-10-15

    Fungus garden material from recently established Atta sexdens rubropilosa colonies (6-12 months old) was sampled to detect antibiotic producing microorganisms that inhibited the growth of pathogens of insects and of the fungus gardens but did not affect their mutualistic fungus. A bacterium with activity against the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was isolated from 56% of the gardens tested (n=57) and identified from its biochemical profile and from 16S and 23S ribosomal DNA sequences as a member of the genus Burkholderia. The ant-associated Burkholderia isolates secreted a potent, anti-fungal agent that inhibited germination of conidia of the entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, of the saprophytic Verticillium lecanii, and also of a specialist fungus garden Escovopsis weberi. Growth of the ant's mutualist fungus was unaffected.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae cultivated in vivo and co-culture with Burkholderia seminalis

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Li; Muhammad Ibrahim; Mengyu Ge; Zhouqi Cui; Guochang Sun; Fei Xu; Michael Kube

    2014-01-01

    Response of bacterial pathogen to environmental bacteria and its host is critical for understanding of microbial adaption and pathogenesis. Here, we used RNA-Seq to comprehensively and quantitatively assess the transcriptional response of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 cultivated in vitro, in vivo and in co-culture with rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. Results revealed a slight response to other bacteria, but a strong response to host. In particular, a large numbe...

  20. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in Burkholderia pyrrocinia JK-SH007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin-Yan; Ye, Jian-Ren; Huang, Lin; He, Ling-Min; Li, De-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Burkholderia pyrrocinia strain JK-SH007 isolated from poplar stems plays a highly significant role in the growth promotion and the biocontrol of poplar canker during colonization in poplar. In this research, the ideal reference gene was filtered and determined for the transcript normalization. Additionally, the expression of pyrG under all four conditions was relatively stable in B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The temperate Burkholderia phage AP3 of the Peduovirinae shows efficient antimicrobial activity against B. cenocepacia of the IIIA lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszniowski, Bartosz; Latka, Agnieszka; Maciejewska, Barbara; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Olszak, Tomasz; Briers, Yves; Holt, Giles S; Valvano, Miguel A; Lavigne, Rob; Smith, Darren L; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna

    2017-02-01

    Burkholderia phage AP3 (vB_BceM_AP3) is a temperate virus of the Myoviridae and the Peduovirinae subfamily (P2likevirus genus). This phage specifically infects multidrug-resistant clinical Burkholderia cenocepacia lineage IIIA strains commonly isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. AP3 exhibits high pairwise nucleotide identity (61.7 %) to Burkholderia phage KS5, specific to the same B. cenocepacia host, and has 46.7-49.5 % identity to phages infecting other species of Burkholderia. The lysis cassette of these related phages has a similar organization (putative antiholin, putative holin, endolysin, and spanins) and shows 29-98 % homology between specific lysis genes, in contrast to Enterobacteria phage P2, the hallmark phage of this genus. The AP3 and KS5 lysis genes have conserved locations and high amino acid sequence similarity. The AP3 bacteriophage particles remain infective up to 5 h at pH 4-10 and are stable at 60 °C for 30 min, but are sensitive to chloroform, with no remaining infective particles after 24 h of treatment. AP3 lysogeny can occur by stable genomic integration and by pseudo-lysogeny. The lysogenic bacterial mutants did not exhibit any significant changes in virulence compared to wild-type host strain when tested in the Galleria mellonella moth wax model. Moreover, AP3 treatment of larvae infected with B. cenocepacia revealed a significant increase (P phage is a promising potent agent against bacteria belonging to the most common B. cenocepacia IIIA lineage strains.

  2. Reclassification of the Specialized Metabolite Producer Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 as a Member of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveridge, E Joel; Jones, Cerith; Bull, Matthew J; Moody, Suzy C; Kahl, Małgorzata W; Khan, Zainab; Neilson, Louis; Tomeva, Marina; Adams, Sarah E; Wood, Andrew C; Rodriguez-Martin, Daniel; Pinel, Ingrid; Parkhill, Julian; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Crosby, John

    2017-07-01

    Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is a Gram-negative bacterium, first isolated from Japanese soil samples, that produces the monobactam isosulfazecin and the β-lactam-potentiating bulgecins. To characterize the biosynthetic potential of P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433, its complete genome was determined using single-molecule real-time DNA sequence analysis. The 7.8-Mb genome comprised four replicons, three chromosomal (each encoding rRNA) and one plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 was misclassified at the time of its deposition and is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, most closely related to Burkholderia ubonensis The sequenced genome shows considerable additional biosynthetic potential; known gene clusters for malleilactone, ornibactin, isosulfazecin, alkylhydroxyquinoline, and pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis and several uncharacterized biosynthetic gene clusters for polyketides, nonribosomal peptides, and other metabolites were identified. Furthermore, P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 harbors many genes associated with environmental resilience and antibiotic resistance and was resistant to a range of antibiotics and metal ions. In summary, this bioactive strain should be designated B. cepacia complex strain ATCC 31433, pending further detailed taxonomic characterization. IMPORTANCE This work reports the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433, a known producer of bioactive compounds. Large numbers of both known and novel biosynthetic gene clusters were identified, indicating that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is an untapped resource for discovery of novel bioactive compounds. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is in fact a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, most closely related to the species Burkholderia ubonensis Further investigation of the classification and biosynthetic potential of P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is warranted. Copyright © 2017

  3. Biotransformation of Cholesterol and 16?,17?-Epoxypregnenolone and Isolation of Hydroxylase in Burkholderia cepacia SE-1

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, XiangDong; Pang, CuiPing; Cao, Yuting; Fan, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The metabolism of cholesterol is critical in eukaryotes as a precursor for vitamins, steroid hormones, and bile acids. Some steroid compounds can be transformed into precursors of steroid medicine by some microorganisms. In this study, the biotransformation products of cholesterol and 16α,17α-epoxypregnenolone produced by Burkholderia cepacia SE-1 were investigated, and a correlative enzyme, hydroxylase, was also studied. The biotransformation products, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-oxocholesterol...

  4. Induction of Biofilm Formation in the Betaproteobacterium Burkholderia unamae CK43B Exposed to Exogenous Indole and Gallic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dongyeop; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia unamae CK43B, a member of the Betaproteobacteria that was isolated from the rhizosphere of a Shorea balangeran sapling in a tropical peat swamp forest, produces neither indole nor extracellular polymeric substances associated with biofilm formation. When cultured in a modified Winogradsky's medium supplemented with up to 1.7 mM indole, B. unamae CK43B maintains its planktonic state by cell swelling and effectively degrades exogenous indole. However, in medium supplemented with 1....

  5. Brief communication genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei revealed high genetic variability among isolates from a single population group

    OpenAIRE

    Zueter, Abdelrahman Mohammad; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul; Yean, Chan Yean; Harun, Azian

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil dwelling Gram-negative bacteria predominates in Southeast Asia zone and the tropical part of Australia. Genetic diversity has been explored among various populations and environments worldwide. To date, little data is available on MLST profiling of clinical B. pseudomallei isolates in peninsular Malaysia. In this brief report, thirteen culture positive B. pseudomallei cases collected from a single population of Terengganu state in the Western Peninsular Mal...

  6. Evaluación de los sistemas comerciales automatizados VITEK 2 y API 20NE para la identificación de organismos del complejo Burkholderia cepacia aislados de muestras clínicas Evaluation of commercial systems VITEK 2 and API 20NE for identification of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria from clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Oderiz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Las especies del complejo Burkholderia cepacia (CBC son capaces de causar infecciones crónicas del tracto respiratorio en pacientes con fibrosis quística y en otros individuos inmunocomprometidos. La mayoría de estas especies exhiben alta resistencia a la terapia antibiótica, lo que genera la necesidad de una detección rápida y precisa para poder implementar estrategias de control adecuadas. En este trabajo se utilizó la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR para amplificar el gen recA (PCR-recA, con el fin de identificar microorganismos pertenecientes al CBC. Con este método molecular como referencia, se evaluó la sensibilidad (S y la especificidad (E de dos sistemas de identificación comerciales automatizados, VITEK 2 y API 20NE (bioMérieux®, así como también el valor de las pruebas bioquímicas manuales más representativas para la identificación de estos microorganismos. El método VITEK 2 presentó una S del 71,1 % y una E del 100 %; para el método API 20NE, estos valores fueron 69,7 % y 90,2 %, respectivamente. En cuanto a las pruebas fenotípicas manuales, los resultados obtenidos fueron más heterogéneos, lo que posiblemente se deba a que estas bacterias podrían sufrir presión selectiva para sobrevivir en pacientes crónicos y perder factores fenotípicos característicos. La técnica de PCR-recA resultó de fácil implementación, por lo que cabe considerar a esta técnica de identificación como una opción viable, aun en laboratorios de diagnóstico clínico de mediana complejidad.Species belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC are capable of causing chronic respiratory tract infections in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis as wel as in immunocompromised individuals. Most of these species are highly resistant to antibiotic therapy, generating the need for their rapid and accurate detection for the proper treatment and clinical management of these patients. In this wok, the polymerase

  7. Pansinusitis y afectación intracraneal por implante dental Pansinusitis and intracranial impact of a dental implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Rubio-Palau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Las sinusitis odontógenas son una patología relativamente frecuente causada por infecciones dentales, quistes periapicales así como tras procedimientos bucodentales como una endodoncia, una elevación sinusal o la colocación de un implante. A continuación se presenta un caso extremo de una pansinusitis derecha con fistulización a espacio epidural causada por un implante osteointegrado. Ante la sospecha de una sinusitis maxilar de origen odontogénico se debe iniciar rápidamente un tratamiento antibiótico correcto y un seguimiento estrecho ya que pueden tener consecuencias fatales como la pérdida de un ojo, abscesos cerebrales o incluso la muerte.Odontogenic sinusitis is a relatively common disease caused by dental infections, periapical cysts and oral procedures such as root canal, sinus lift or implant placement. We report an extreme case of a right pansinusitis with an epidural space fistula caused by osseointegrated implants. When maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin is suspected, we should quickly start effective antibiotic treatment and monitor the patient closely because odontogenic sinusitis can have serious consequences, such as the loss of an eye, brain abscess or death.

  8. The Madagascar hissing cockroach as a novel surrogate host for Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Nathan A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are gram-negative pathogens responsible for the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Both species cause disease in humans and animals and have been designated as category B select agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Burkholderia thailandensis is a closely related bacterium that is generally considered avirulent for humans. While it can cause disease in rodents, the B. thailandensis 50% lethal dose (LD50 is typically ≥ 104-fold higher than the B. pseudomallei and B. mallei LD50 in mammalian models of infection. Here we describe an alternative to mammalian hosts in the study of virulence and host-pathogen interactions of these Burkholderia species. Results Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MH cockroaches possess a number of qualities that make them desirable for use as a surrogate host, including ease of breeding, ease of handling, a competent innate immune system, and the ability to survive at 37°C. MH cockroaches were highly susceptible to infection with B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis and the LD50 was 50 for Escherichia coli in MH cockroaches was >105 cfu. B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1 mutants were all attenuated in MH cockroaches, which is consistent with previous virulence studies conducted in rodents. B. pseudomallei mutants deficient in the other five T6SS gene clusters, T6SS-2 through T6SS-6, were virulent in both MH cockroaches and hamsters. Hemocytes obtained from MH cockroaches infected with B. pseudomallei harbored numerous intracellular bacteria, suggesting that this facultative intracellular pathogen can survive and replicate inside of MH cockroach phagocytic cells. The hemolymph extracted from these MH cockroaches also contained multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs with intracellular B. pseudomallei, which indicates that infected hemocytes can

  9. Intoxicação exógena por “chumbinho” como forma de autoextermínio no Estado de Goiás, 2003 - 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Carolina Sousa da Silva; Fábio Paulo Vilela; Graciela Mara Ordones do Nascimento Brandão

    2010-01-01

    A intoxicação exógena por chumbinho é considerada importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade no Brasil devido ao fácil acesso, baixo custo e por sua eficácia frente às tentativas de suicídio, tornando-se um problema de Saúde Pública. No Estado de Goiás não existem levantamentos sobre esse tipo de intoxicação, causadas intencionalmente, designando esta investigação. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, retrospectivo documental com abordagem quantitativa, com o objetivo de estabelecer o perfil da...

  10. Comparación de las técnicas Kato-Katz, TSET y TSR en el diagnóstico de infección por Fasciola hepatica en humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Uribe Delgado; Raúl Fernando Sierra Balcárcel; Cindy Tatiana Espinosa González

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La Fasciolosis es una enfermedad causada por el parásito Fasciola hepatica, que afecta primordialmente a bovinos, ovinos, caprinos y en algunas zonas de forma endémica a los humanos. En la investigación clínica y epidemiológica de fasciolosis humana es importante contar con técnicas coprológicas de diagnóstico de alta sensibilidad y especificidad. Objetivo: realizar la comparación de tres técnicas coprológicas para el diagnóstico de infección por Fasciola hepatica en humanos. Me...

  11. Produção de sentidos parentais no cuidado de crianças com microcefalia por vírus Zika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Elpídio de Sá

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar as necessidades parentais quanto ao cuidado para o desenvolvimento de lactentes e crianças com microcefalia causada pelo vírus da Zika (ZIKV. Métodos: Pesquisa qualitativa realizada em um centro de tratamento e estimulação precoce da Universidade Federal do Ceará, em Fortaleza, Brasil, no período de julho de 2016. Participaram do estudo 23 responsáveis, entre pais e familiares, de crianças com diagnóstico de microcefalia causada por Zika, cujos dados foram coletados por meio de grupos focais e analisados através da análise de conteúdo. Resultados: Os participantes relataram a necessidade de maior atenção, compreensão e apoio psicossocial por parte da instituição e dos profissionais envolvidos; mais conhecimento sobre o contexto geral da condição da criança; e intervenções educativas em saúde com acompanhamento continuado (follow-up voltadas para as reais necessidades das crianças e suas famílias. Conclusão: Evidenciou-se nos resultados a ausência e urgência da necessidade do desenvolvimento e implementação de estratégias e ações em saúde que favoreçam a escuta ativa e humanizada das famílias, reduzam o impacto negativo causado pela condição das crianças nas famílias e viabilizem um maior e melhor desenvolvimento de lactentes e crianças com microcefalia causada pelo vírus da Zika.

  12. Fiebre Tifoidea Diagnóstico por pruebas inmunoenzimáticas: Elisa

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    Miguel Guzmán

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe el desarrollo y normalización de una técnica inmunoenzimática para el diagnóstico indirecto de la Fiebre Tifoidea. El método permite un análisis simple y objetivo de los resultados. La reacción enzimática es proporcional a la concentración de anticuerpos en el suero contra el antígeno somático-0, por tanto, el método es cuantitativo. Por lo demás, la técnica tiene un alto grado de especificidad para Salmonella typhi, ya que los sueros de pacientes con Salmonelosis causada por Salmonella enteritidis serotipos paratyphi A, B y typhimurium dieron resultados negativos, en forma similar a los presentados por el grupo control antes de la vacunación específica. Los resultados obtenidos con esta técnica permitieron definir el nivel de anticuerpos que puede presentar una población control supuestamente sana frente a los niveles inducidos por la enfermedad. Los resultados postvacunales en el grupo control mostraron títulos sorprendentemente bajos; un análisis de este fenómeno se presentó en forma amplia. Igualmente se proponen futuras investigaciones sobre este campo.

  13. Sea urchin granuloma Granulomas por ouriços-do-mar

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    André Luiz Rossetto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in humans. The phylum Echinoderma include more than 6000 species of starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers some of which have been found responsible for injuries to humans. Initial injuries by sea urchins are associated with trauma and envenomation, but later effects can be observed. Sea urchin granuloma is a chronic granulomatous skin disease caused by frequent and successive penetration of sea urchin spines which have not been removed from wounds. The authors report a typical case of sea urchin granuloma in a fisherman and its therapeutic implications.Os acidentes por animais aquáticos traumatizantes e venenosos podem provocar morbidez importante em humanos. Equinodermos marinhos incluem mais de 6000 espécies de estrelas-do-mar, ouriços-do-mar, "bolachas-de-praia" e pepinos-do-mar. Vários equinodermos têm sido responsabilizados por acidentes em humanos. Granulomas por ouriço-do-mar são lesões de caráter granulomatoso, crônicas, causada por acidentes com espículas de ouriço-do-mar. Os autores relatam um caso típico de granulomas por ouriço-do-mar ocorrido em um pescador e enfatizam as implicações terapêuticas aplicadas.

  14. Ocorrência de parasitoses intestinais com ênfase na infecção por Strongyloides stercoralis e coccídios (Cryptosporidium sp., Cystoisospora belli e Cyclospora cayetanensis) em pacientes portadores de HIV/AIDS atendidos no serviço de assistência especializada (SAE) do município de Jataí-Go

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelos, Natane Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    As infecções oportunistas são frequentemente observadas em pacientes portadores do vírus HIV/aids. Dentre os parasitos mais comuns, tem-se o nematódeo Strongyloides stercoralis e os coccídios intestinais responsáveis por agravar o quadro clínico dos pacientes, muitas vezes por casos recorrentes e de caráter crônico. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a prevalência de enteroparasitos com ênfase em infecções causadas por S. stercoralis e coccídios intestinais em pacientes portadores do...

  15. Estudo terapêutico aberto com sulfato de aminosidine na leishmaniose mucosa causada for Leishmania (viannia braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A.S. Romero

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de setembro a novembro de 1994 foram tratados 21 pacientes com leishmaniose mucosa ativa, predominantemente adultos lavradores do sexo masculino, com sulfato de aminosidine intramuscular, I6mg/kg/dia por 20 dias. Treze pacientes eram virgens de tratamento e 8 haviam sido tratados sem sucesso com Glucantime®". O diagnóstico baseou-se inicialmente em crítêrios epidemiolôgicos, clínicos e nos resultados da intrademoireação de Montenegro e a imunofluorescência indireta para anticoipos séricos antileishmânia e durante o acompanhamento nos resultados dos estudos parasitológicos. Sessenta e sete por cento dos pacientes tiveram diagnóstico parasitológico confirmado sendo a inoculação do material de biópsia das lesões em hamsters o método mais sensível. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 12,6 meses. A adesão ao tratamento foi de 100%. Os efeitos colaterais foram dor no local da injeção (86%, proteinúria leve (24%, elevação do nível sérico de creatinina (5% e perda auditiva subclínica em um dos dois pacientes que realizaram audiometria. Obsevou-se cura clínica em 48% dos pacientes e a percentagem acumulada de recidiva foi de 29% (4/14pacientes durante o acompanhamento.

  16. Mortalidad por envenenamiento en niños

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    Híjar Martha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer el panorama de las muertes por envenenamiento en niños de 0-14 años ocurridas en la República mexicana, entre 1979 y 1994. Material y métodos. Se utilizaron fuentes secundarias. Las variables analizadas fueron: edad, sexo, año, causa externa de traumatismos y envenenamientos, de la IX Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades: E850-E858, E860-E869 y E905. Mediante un modelo de regresión Poisson se analizaron tendencias por causa específica y se obtuvieron riesgos relativos según edad, sexo y entidad federativa. Resultados. Hubo un total de 11 272 defunciones en menores de 15 años; las principales causas fueron el envenenamiento y las reacciones tóxicas causadas por plantas y animales venenosos (E905, el envenenamiento accidental por gas de uso doméstico y por monóxido de carbono (E868 y el envenenamiento accidental por otras drogas (E858. El grupo de edad que presentó los mayores riesgos, para las causas mencionadas, fue el de menores de un año con un riesgo relativo (RR de 29.6, IC95% 29.2-33.4; RR 3.47, IC95% 2.86-4.22, y RR 31.86, IC95% 24.8-40.9. El riesgo fue similar en ambos sexos, salvo para la causa E905. El estado de Aguascalientes se situó sistemáticamente entre los de mayor riesgo para todas las causas analizadas, mientras que Nuevo León siempre se ubicó entre los de riesgo más bajo. Conclusiones. El envenenamiento constituye una importante causa de muerte en los niños; el riesgo se incrementa al disminuir la edad. Considerando que esas muertes son potencialmente evitables y que la mayor parte de los envenenamientos ocurren en el hogar, para prevenirlos, se recomienda a los familiares vigilar y mantener fuera de peligro al niño. Por otra parte, la multicausalidad del fenómeno requiere que su prevención se realice desde una perspectiva multidisciplinaria que genere una cultura y un ambiente de seguridad en la sociedad.

  17. Clinical Epidemiology of Septic Arthritis Caused byBurkholderia pseudomalleiand Other Bacterial Pathogens in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teparrukkul, Prapit; Nilsakul, Jiraphorn; Dunachie, Susanna; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2017-12-01

    Septic arthritis is a medical emergency, and if not treated appropriately, it can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Melioidosis, a serious infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei , is highly endemic in South and Southeast Asia and northern Australia. We reviewed the medical charts of adult patients admitted with bacterial septic arthritis at Sunpasitthiprasong Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani, northeast Thailand from January 2012 to December 2014. Bacterial septic arthritis was defined as one or more hot swollen joints with isolation of a pathogenic organism from an affected joint or from blood. A total of 154 patients with septic arthritis were retrospectively evaluated. The most common causes were B. pseudomallei (48%, N = 74), Streptococcus spp. (29%, N = 44), and Staphylococcus aureus (10%, N = 16). Prevalence of diabetes, bacteremia, and pneumonia was higher in B. pseudomallei septic arthritis than in septic arthritis caused by the other bacteria (all P septic arthritis is common and associated with high mortality in northeast Thailand. Emergence of Streptococcus arthritis is observed. Difficulty in diagnosing melioidosis and identifying B. pseudomallei in areas where health care workers are not familiar with the disease is discussed. In melioidosis-endemic regions, parenteral ceftazidime could be considered as empirical antimicrobial therapy for patients with septic arthritis and underlying diseases.

  18. Burkholderia gladioli strain NGJ1 deploys a prophage tail-like protein for mycophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens are responsible for approximately two third of the infectious plant diseases. Historically they have been associated with several devastating famines, causing death and disabilities in humans. Mostly fungal diseases are being controlled by using fungicides which otherwise have adverse side effects on the health of consumers as well as environment. Due to extensive usages, pathogens have evolved resistance against most of the commonly used fungicides and rendered them ineffective. Controlling fungal disease in a sustainable and eco-friendly fashion remains a challenge. The antifungal biocontrol agents are being considered as potent, alternative and ecofriendly approach to manage fungal diseases. In our recent work, we have identified a rice associated bacterium; Burkholderia gladioli strain NGJ1 which demonstrates broad spectrum fungal eating (mycophagous property. We determined that the bacterium utilizes its type III secretion system (Injectisome machinery to deploy a prophage tail-like protein (Bg_9562 into fungal cells to devour them. The purified Bg_9562 protein from over-expressing recombinant E. coli strain demonstrates broad spectrum antifungal activity. Overall our study opens up a new opportunity to exploit prophage tail-like protein as potent antifungal compound to control plant as well as animal fungal diseases.

  19. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola against Some Phytopathogenic Fungi

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    Hazem S. Elshafie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The trend to search novel microbial natural biocides has recently been increasing in order to avoid the environmental pollution from use of synthetic pesticides. Among these novel natural biocides are the bioactive secondary metabolites of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola (Bga. The aim of this study is to determine antifungal activity of Bga strains against some phytopathogenic fungi. The fungicidal tests were carried out using cultures and cell-free culture filtrates against Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium expansum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phytophthora cactorum. Results demonstrated that all tested strains exert antifungal activity against all studied fungi by producing diffusible metabolites which are correlated with their ability to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. All strains significantly reduced the growth of studied fungi and the bacterial cells were more bioactive than bacterial filtrates. All tested Bulkholderia strains produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which inhibited the fungal growth and reduced the growth rate of Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. GC/MS analysis of VOCs emitted by strain Bga 11096 indicated the presence of a compound that was identified as 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl-cyclohexene, a liquid hydrocarbon classified as cyclic terpene. This compound could be responsible for the antifungal activity, which is also in agreement with the work of other authors.

  20. Molecular architecture of the N-type ATPase rotor ring from Burkholderia pseudomallei.

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    Schulz, Sarah; Wilkes, Martin; Mills, Deryck J; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Meier, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The genome of the highly infectious bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei harbors an atp operon that encodes an N-type rotary ATPase, in addition to an operon for a regular F-type rotary ATPase. The molecular architecture of N-type ATPases is unknown and their biochemical properties and cellular functions are largely unexplored. We studied the B. pseudomallei N 1 N o -type ATPase and investigated the structure and ion specificity of its membrane-embedded c-ring rotor by single-particle electron cryo-microscopy. Of several amphiphilic compounds tested for solubilizing the complex, the choice of the low-density, low-CMC detergent LDAO was optimal in terms of map quality and resolution. The cryoEM map of the c-ring at 6.1 Å resolution reveals a heptadecameric oligomer with a molecular mass of ~141 kDa. Biochemical measurements indicate that the c 17 ring is H + specific, demonstrating that the ATPase is proton-coupled. The c 17 ring stoichiometry results in a very high ion-to-ATP ratio of 5.7. We propose that this N-ATPase is a highly efficient proton pump that helps these melioidosis-causing bacteria to survive in the hostile, acidic environment of phagosomes. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  1. Exploring the Anti-Burkholderia cepacia Complex Activity of Essential Oils: A Preliminary Analysis.

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    Maida, Isabel; Lo Nostro, Antonella; Pesavento, Giovanna; Barnabei, Martina; Calonico, Carmela; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Flamini, Guido; Gori, Luigi; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-01-01

    In this work we have checked the ability of the essential oils extracted from six different medicinal plants (Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, and Thymus vulgaris) to inhibit the growth of 18 bacterial type strains belonging to the 18 known species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). These bacteria are opportunistic human pathogens that can cause severe infection in immunocompromised patients, especially those affected by cystic fibrosis (CF), and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. The analysis of the aromatograms produced by the six oils revealed that, in spite of their different chemical composition, all of them were able to contrast the growth of Bcc members. However, three of them (i.e., Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus vulgaris) were particularly active versus the Bcc strains, including those exhibiting a high degree or resistance to ciprofloxacin, one of the most used antibiotics to treat Bcc infections. These three oils are also active toward both environmental and clinical strains (isolated from CF patients), suggesting that they might be used in the future to fight B. cepacia complex infections.

  2. Exploring the Anti-Burkholderia cepacia Complex Activity of Essential Oils: A Preliminary Analysis

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    Isabel Maida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have checked the ability of the essential oils extracted from six different medicinal plants (Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, and Thymus vulgaris to inhibit the growth of 18 bacterial type strains belonging to the 18 known species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc. These bacteria are opportunistic human pathogens that can cause severe infection in immunocompromised patients, especially those affected by cystic fibrosis (CF, and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. The analysis of the aromatograms produced by the six oils revealed that, in spite of their different chemical composition, all of them were able to contrast the growth of Bcc members. However, three of them (i.e., Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus vulgaris were particularly active versus the Bcc strains, including those exhibiting a high degree or resistance to ciprofloxacin, one of the most used antibiotics to treat Bcc infections. These three oils are also active toward both environmental and clinical strains (isolated from CF patients, suggesting that they might be used in the future to fight B. cepacia complex infections.

  3. Survival and Intra-Nuclear Trafficking of Burkholderia pseudomallei: Strategies of Evasion from Immune Surveillance?

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    Jamuna Vadivelu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During infection, successful bacterial clearance is achieved via the host immune system acting in conjunction with appropriate antibiotic therapy. However, it still remains a tip of the iceberg as to where persistent pathogens namely, Burkholderia pseudomallei (B. pseudomallei reside/hide to escape from host immune sensors and antimicrobial pressure.We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM to investigate post-mortem tissue sections of patients with clinical melioidosis to identify the localisation of a recently identified gut microbiome, B. pseudomallei within host cells. The intranuclear presence of B. pseudomallei was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM of experimentally infected guinea pig spleen tissues and Live Z-stack, and ImageJ analysis of fluorescence microscopy analysis of in vitro infection of A549 human lung epithelial cells.TEM investigations revealed intranuclear localization of B. pseudomallei in cells of infected human lung and guinea pig spleen tissues. We also found that B. pseudomallei induced actin polymerization following infection of A549 human lung epithelial cells. Infected A549 lung epithelial cells using 3D-Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the intranuclear localization of B. pseudomallei.B. pseudomallei was found within the nuclear compartment of host cells. The nucleus may play a role as an occult or transient niche for persistence of intracellular pathogens, potentially leading to recurrrent episodes or recrudescence of infection.

  4. Kinetics of enzymatic transesterification and thermal deactivation using immobilized Burkholderia lipase as catalyst.

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    Tran, Dang-Thuan; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-03-01

    The most effective way of enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel is through lipase-catalyzed transesterification, while its performance and economic feasibility should still be improved. In this study, lipase produced by an isolated Burkholderia sp. was immobilized on microsize Celite materials functionally modified with long alkyl groups. The specific activity of the immobilized lipase was 1,154 U/g. The methanolysis of olive oil catalyzed by the immobilized lipase obeyed Ping Pong Bi Bi model with an estimated V max, K m,TG, K m,M and K i,M value of 0.61 mol/(L min), 7.93 mol/L, 1.01 mol/L, and 0.24 mol/L, respectively. The activation energy of the enzymatic reaction is estimated as 15.51 kJ/mol. The immobilized lipase exhibits high thermal stability with thermal deactivation energy of 83 kJ/mol and a long half-life. The enthalpy, Gibb's free energy, and entropy of the immobilized lipase were in the range of 80.02-80.35 kJ/mol, 88.35-90.13 kJ/mol, and -28.22 to -25.11 J/(mol K), respectively.

  5. A new species of Burkholderia isolated from sugarcane roots promotes plant growth.

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    Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Lonhienne, Thierry G A; Yeoh, Yun Kit; Webb, Richard I; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chan, Cheong Xin; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Ragan, Mark A; Schmidt, Susanne; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2014-03-01

    Sugarcane is a globally important food, biofuel and biomaterials crop. High nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates aimed at increasing yield often result in environmental damage because of excess and inefficient application. Inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria is an attractive option for reducing N fertilizer needs. However, the efficacy of bacterial inoculants is variable, and their effective formulation remains a knowledge frontier. Here, we take a new approach to investigating diazotrophic bacteria associated with roots using culture-independent microbial community profiling of a commercial sugarcane variety (Q208(A) ) in a field setting. We first identified bacteria that were markedly enriched in the rhizosphere to guide isolation and then tested putative diazotrophs for the ability to colonize axenic sugarcane plantlets (Q208(A) ) and promote growth in suboptimal N supply. One isolate readily colonized roots, fixed N2 and stimulated growth of plantlets, and was classified as a new species, Burkholderia australis sp. nov. Draft genome sequencing of the isolate confirmed the presence of nitrogen fixation. We propose that culture-independent identification and isolation of bacteria that are enriched in rhizosphere and roots, followed by systematic testing and confirming their growth-promoting capacity, is a necessary step towards designing effective microbial inoculants. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Differential Toll-Like Receptor-Signalling of Burkholderia pseudomallei Lipopolysaccharide in Murine and Human Models.

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    Tassili A F Weehuizen

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis and is a CDC category B bioterrorism agent. Toll-like receptor (TLR-2 impairs host defense during pulmonary B.pseudomallei infection while TLR4 only has limited impact. We investigated the role of TLRs in B.pseudomallei-lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced inflammation. Purified B.pseudomallei-LPS activated only TLR2-transfected-HEK-cells during short stimulation but both HEK-TLR2 and HEK-TLR4-cells after 24 h. In human blood, an additive effect of TLR2 on TLR4-mediated signalling induced by B.pseudomallei-LPS was observed. In contrast, murine peritoneal macrophages recognized B.pseudomallei-LPS solely through TLR4. Intranasal inoculation of B.pseudomallei-LPS showed that both TLR4-knockout(-/- and TLR2x4-/-, but not TLR2-/- mice, displayed diminished cytokine responses and neutrophil influx compared to wild-type controls. These data suggest that B.pseudomallei-LPS signalling occurs solely through murine TLR4, while in human models TLR2 plays an additional role, highlighting important differences between specificity of human and murine models that may have important consequences for B.pseudomallei-LPS sensing by TLRs and subsequent susceptibility to melioidosis.

  7. Differential Toll-Like Receptor-Signalling of Burkholderia pseudomallei Lipopolysaccharide in Murine and Human Models.

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    Weehuizen, Tassili A F; Prior, Joann L; van der Vaart, Thomas W; Ngugi, Sarah A; Nepogodiev, Sergey A; Field, Robert A; Kager, Liesbeth M; van 't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F; Wiersinga, W Joost

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis and is a CDC category B bioterrorism agent. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 impairs host defense during pulmonary B.pseudomallei infection while TLR4 only has limited impact. We investigated the role of TLRs in B.pseudomallei-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation. Purified B.pseudomallei-LPS activated only TLR2-transfected-HEK-cells during short stimulation but both HEK-TLR2 and HEK-TLR4-cells after 24 h. In human blood, an additive effect of TLR2 on TLR4-mediated signalling induced by B.pseudomallei-LPS was observed. In contrast, murine peritoneal macrophages recognized B.pseudomallei-LPS solely through TLR4. Intranasal inoculation of B.pseudomallei-LPS showed that both TLR4-knockout(-/-) and TLR2x4-/-, but not TLR2-/- mice, displayed diminished cytokine responses and neutrophil influx compared to wild-type controls. These data suggest that B.pseudomallei-LPS signalling occurs solely through murine TLR4, while in human models TLR2 plays an additional role, highlighting important differences between specificity of human and murine models that may have important consequences for B.pseudomallei-LPS sensing by TLRs and subsequent susceptibility to melioidosis.

  8. Characterization of lesion formation in marmosets following inhalational challenge with different strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michelle; Nunez, Alejandro; Ngugi, Sarah A; Sinclair, Adam; Atkins, Timothy P

    2015-12-01

    The marmoset model of melioidosis was used to explore whether there was any difference in the disease presentation and/or the lesion formation following inhalational challenge with one of four strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei (K96243, 1026b, HBPUB10303a and HBPUB10134a). Marmosets were challenged with a range of bacterial doses and bacterial load, histological and physiological features were determined temporally following lethal disease. Melioidosis presented as an acute, febrile disease with bacteraemia, bacterial dissemination, necrotizing hepatitis, splenitis and pneumonia which was independent of the challenge strain. Generally, there were no major differences in the manifestation of melioidosis following challenge by the different strains of B. pseudomallei; however, there were some differences in the time to death and the severity of the pathological features. The pathological features observed in the liver and spleen of animals challenged with B. pseudomallei strain 1026b were statistically less severe (P < 0.05) and less frequent. However, more severe foci of disease were evident in the lungs of animals challenged with strain 1026b. In all cases, the lesions developed from small areas of bacteria-infected macrophages surrounded by non-infected neutrophils into large lesions with both immune cell types infected. The marmoset model was a useful tool enabling the distinction of subtle difference in the pathological response to B. pseudomallei. © 2016 Crown copyright. International Journal of Experimental Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Company of the International Journal of Experimental Pathology (CIJEP).

  9. Morphological characterization of several strains of the rice-pathogenic bacterium Burkholderia glumae in North Sumatra

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    Hasibuan, M.; Safni, I.; Lisnawita; Lubis, K.

    2018-02-01

    Burkholderia glumae is a quarantine seed-borne bacterial pathogen causing panicle blight disease on rice. This pathogen has been detected in some locations in Java, and recently, farmers in North Sumatra have reported rice yield loss with symptoms similar with those on rice infeced by the rice-pathogenic bacterium B. glumae. This research was aimed to isolate several bacterial strains from several rice varieties in various locations in North Sumatra and characterize the morphology of the strains to detect and identify the unknown bacterial strains presumably B. glumae. Several rice seed varieties were collected from Medan and Deli Serdang Districts. The seed samples were extracted, isolated and purified, then grown in semi-selective media PPGA. The morphological characteristics of the bacterial strains were determined including Gram staining, bacterial colony’s and bacterial cell’s morphology. The results showed that of eleven strains isolated, two strains were Gram negative and nine strains were Gram positive. On the basis of colony morphology, all strains had circular form, flat elevation and cream colour while the colony margin varied, i.e. entire and undulate. Most strains had bacillus/rod shape (8 strains) and only 3 strains were coccus.

  10. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 17759 using a detoxified sugar maple hemicellulosic hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenyang; Perrotta, Joseph A; Stipanovic, Arthur J; Nomura, Christopher T; Nakas, James P

    2012-03-01

    Sugar maple hemicellulosic hydrolysate containing 71.9 g/l of xylose was used as an inexpensive feedstock to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 17759. Several inhibitory compounds present in wood hydrolysate were analyzed for effects on cell growth and PHA production with strong inhibition observed at concentrations of 1 g/l furfural, 2 g/l vanillin, 7 g/l levulinic acid, and 1 M acetic acid. Gradual catabolism of lower concentrations of these inhibitors was observed in this study. To increase the fermentability of wood hydrolysate, several detoxification methods were tested. Overliming combined with low-temperature sterilization resulted in the highest removal of total inhibitory phenolics (65%). A fed-batch fermentation exhibited maximum PHA production after 96 h (8.72 g PHA/L broth and 51.4% of dry cell weight). Compositional analysis by NMR and physical-chemical characterization showed that PHA produced from wood hydrolysate was composed of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) with a molecular mass (M (N)) of 450.8 kDa, a melting temperature (T (m)) of 174.4°C, a glass transition temperature (T (g)) of 7.31°C, and a decomposition temperature (T (decomp)) of 268.6°C.

  11. Host immunity in the protective response to vaccination with heat-killed Burkholderia mallei

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    Paessler Slobodan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed initial cell, cytokine and complement depletion studies to investigate the possible role of these effectors in response to vaccination with heat-killed Burkholderia mallei in a susceptible BALB/c mouse model of infection. Results While protection with heat-killed bacilli did not result in sterilizing immunity, limited protection was afforded against an otherwise lethal infection and provided insight into potential host protective mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that mice depleted of either B cells, TNF-α or IFN-γ exhibited decreased survival rates, indicating a role for these effectors in obtaining partial protection from a lethal challenge by the intraperitoneal route. Additionally, complement depletion had no effect on immunoglobulin production when compared to non-complement depleted controls infected intranasally. Conclusion The data provide a basis for future studies of protection via vaccination using either subunit or whole-organism vaccine preparations from lethal infection in the experimental BALB/c mouse model. The results of this study demonstrate participation of B220+ cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α in protection following HK vaccination.

  12. Post-exposure therapeutic efficacy of COX-2 inhibition against Burkholderia pseudomallei.

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    Saja Asakrah

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacillus and the etiologic agent of melioidosis, a severe disease in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Like other multidrug-resistant pathogens, the inherent antibiotic resistance of B. pseudomallei impedes treatment and highlights the need for alternative therapeutic strategies that can circumvent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. In this work, we demonstrate that host prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production plays a regulatory role in the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei. PGE2 promotes B. pseudomallei intracellular survival within macrophages and bacterial virulence in a mouse model of pneumonic melioidosis. PGE2-mediated immunosuppression of macrophage bactericidal effector functions is associated with increased arginase 2 (Arg2 expression and decreased nitric oxide (NO production. Treatment with a commercially-available COX-2 inhibitor suppresses the growth of B. pseudomallei in macrophages and affords significant protection against rapidly lethal pneumonic melioidosis when administered post-exposure to B. pseudomallei-infected mice. COX-2 inhibition may represent a novel immunotherapeutic strategy to control infection with B. pseudomallei and other intracellular pathogens.

  13. Optimization of olive oil hydrolysis process using immobilized Lipase from Burkholderia cepacia sp. in Polyurethane

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    Nádia Ligianara Dewes Nyari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to achieve the best conditions for the  olive oil hydrolysis process at optimal pH and temperature using Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized in situ in rigid polyurethane support. The influences of the temperature (13.85 to 56.5ºC and pH (4.18 to 9.82 were evaluated by a central composite rotational experimental design 22. The operational stability and storage conditions were also studied. The olive oil hydrolysis process was optimized in pH 7.0, at 40°C and 15 min of reaction, with 66 and 93 U g-1 of hydrolysis activity in free and immobilized lipase, respectively, with > 700% yield. The immobilized remained stable for up to 40 days of storage at temperatures of 60oC, and for 100 days from 4 to 25°C. The operational stability of the immobilized was 6 continuous cycles. In this way, immobilization showed to be a promising alternative for its application in olive oil hydrolysis, having storage stability and reuse capability.

  14. Screening for potential anti-infective agents towards Burkholderia pseudomallei infection

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    Eng, Su Anne; Nathan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    The established treatment for melioidosis is antibiotic therapy. However, a constant threat to this form of treatment is resistance development of the causative agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, towards antibiotics. One option to circumvent this threat of antibiotic resistance is to search for new alternative anti-infectives which target the host innate immune system and/or bacterial virulence. In this study, 29 synthetic compounds were evaluated for their potential to increase the lifespan of an infected host. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was adopted as the infection model as its innate immune pathways are homologous to humans. Screens were performed in a liquid-based survival assay containing infected worms exposed to individual compounds and survival of untreated and compound-treated worms were compared. A primary screen identified nine synthetic compounds that extended the lifespan of B. pseudomallei-infected worms. Subsequently, a disc diffusion test was performed on these selected compounds to delineate compounds into those that enhanced the survival of worms via antimicrobial activity i.e. reducing the number of infecting bacteria, or into those that did not target pathogen viability. Out of the nine hits selected, two demonstrated antimicrobial effects on B. pseudomallei. Therefore, the findings from this study suggest that the other seven identified compounds are potential anti-infectives which could protect a host against B. pseudomallei infection without developing the risk of drug resistance.

  15. Drosophila melanogaster as a model host for the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

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    Josée Castonguay-Vanier

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Colonization with bacterial species from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc is associated with fast health decline among individuals with cystic fibrosis. In order to investigate the virulence of the Bcc, several alternative infection models have been developed. To this end, the fruit fly is increasingly used as surrogate host, and its validity to enhance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships has been demonstrated with a variety of microorganisms. Moreover, its relevance as a suitable alternative to mammalian hosts has been confirmed with vertebrate organisms.The aim of this study was to establish Drosophila melanogaster as a surrogate host for species from the Bcc. While the feeding method proved unsuccessful at killing the flies, the pricking technique did generate mortality within the populations. Results obtained with the fruit fly model are comparable with results obtained using mammalian infection models. Furthermore, validity of the Drosophila infection model was confirmed with B. cenocepacia K56-2 mutants known to be less virulent in murine hosts or in other alternative models. Competitive index (CI analyses were also performed using the fruit fly as host. Results of CI experiments agree with those obtained with mammalian models.We conclude that Drosophila is a useful alternative infection model for Bcc and that fly pricking assays and competition indices are two complementary methods for virulence testing. Moreover, CI results indicate that this method is more sensitive than mortality tests.

  16. Molecular phylogeny of Burkholderia pseudomallei from a remote region of Papua New Guinea.

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    Anthony Baker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The island of New Guinea is located midway between the world's two major melioidosis endemic regions of Australia and Southeast Asia. Previous studies in Papua New Guinea have demonstrated autochthonous melioidosis in Balimo, Western province. In contrast to other regions of endemicity, isolates recovered from both environmental and clinical sources demonstrate narrow genetic diversity over large spatial and temporal scales. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed molecular typing techniques to determine the phylogenetic relationships of these isolates to each other and to others worldwide to aid in understanding the origins of the Papua New Guinean isolates. Multi-locus sequence typing of the 39 isolates resolved three unique sequence types. Phylogenetic reconstruction and Structure analysis determined that all isolates were genetically closer to those from Australia than those from Southeast Asia. Gene cluster analysis however, identified a Yersinia-like fimbrial gene cluster predominantly found among Burkholderia pseudomallei derived from Southeast Asia. Higher resolution VNTR typing and phylogenetic reconstruction of the Balimo isolates resolved 24 genotypes with long branch lengths. These findings are congruent with long term persistence in the region and a high level of environmental stability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given that anthropogenic influence has been hypothesized as a mechanism for the dispersal of B. pseudomallei, these findings correlate with limited movement of the indigenous people in the region. The palaeogeographical and anthropogenic history of Australasia and the results from this study indicate that New Guinea is an important region for the further study of B. pseudomallei origins and dissemination.

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genetic Characterisation of Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolated from Malaysian Patients

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    Yalda Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. Ceftazidime (CAZ, the synthetic β-lactam, is normally used as the first-line antibiotic therapy for treatment of melioidosis. However, acquired CAZ resistance can develop in vivo during treatment with CAZ, leading to mortality if therapy is not switched to a different antibiotic(s in a timely manner. In this study, susceptibilities of 81 B. pseudomallei isolates to nine different antimicrobial agents were determined using the disk diffusion method, broth microdilution test and Etest. Highest percentage of susceptibility was demonstrated to CAZ, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, meropenem, imipenem, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Although these drugs demonstrated the highest percentage of susceptibility in B. pseudomallei, the overall results underline the importance of the emergence of resistance in this organism. PCR results showed that, of the 81 B. pseudomallei, six multidrug resistant (MDR isolates carried bpeB, amrB, and BPSS1119 and penA genes. Genotyping of the isolates using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed six different PCR fingerprinting patterns generated from the six MDR isolates clusters (A and eight PCR fingerprinting patterns generated for the remaining 75 non-MDR isolates clusters (B.

  18. Glutamate uptake is important for osmoregulation and survival in the rice pathogen Burkholderia glumae.

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    Yongsung Kang

    Full Text Available Bacteria exhibit an optimal growth rate in culture media with sufficient nutrients at an optimal temperature and pH. In addition, the concentration of solutes plays a critical role in bacterial growth and survival. Glutamate is known to be a major anionic solute involved in osmoregulation and the bacterial cell's response to changes in solute concentration. To determine how glutamate uptake is involved in osmoregulation in the rice bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae BGR1, we mutated the gltI gene encoding a periplasmic substrate binding protein of a glutamate transport system to abolish glutamate uptake, and monitored the growth of the gltI null mutant in Luria-Bertani medium. We found that the gltI null mutant showed a slower growth rate than the wild-type strain and experienced hyperosmotic stress resulting in water loss from the cytoplasm in stationary phase. When the incubation time was extended, the mutant population collapsed due to the hyperosmotic stress. The gltI null mutant exhibited loss of adaptability under both hypoosmotic and hyperosmotic stresses. The growth rate of the gltI null mutant was restored to the level of wild-type growth by exogenous addition of glycine betaine to the culture medium, indicating that glycine betaine is a compatible solute in B. glumae. These results indicate that glutamate uptake from the environment plays a key role in osmoregulation in B. glumae.

  19. Toward modern inhalational bacteriophage therapy: nebulization of bacteriophages of Burkholderia cepacia complex.

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    Golshahi, Laleh; Seed, Kimberley D; Dennis, Jonathan J; Finlay, Warren H

    2008-12-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections have renewed interest in finding substitute methods of treatment. The purpose of the present in vitro study was to investigate the possibility of respiratory delivery of a Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteriophage by nebulized aerosol administration. Bacteriophages in isotonic saline were aerosolized with Pari LC star and eFlow nebulizers, at titers with mean value (standard deviation) of 2.15 x 10(8) (1.63 x 10(8)) plaque-forming unit (PFU)/mL in 2.5-mL nebulizer fills. The breathing pattern of an adult was simulated using a pulmonary waveform generator. During breath simulation, the size distributions of the nebulized aerosol were measured using phase doppler anemometry (PDA). Efficiency of nebulizer delivery was subsequently determined by collection of aerosol on low resistance filters and measurement of bacteriophage titers. These filter titers were used as input data to a mathematical lung deposition model to predict regional deposition of bacteriophages in the lung and initial bacteriophage titers in the liquid surface layer of each conducting airway generation. The results suggest that BCC bacteriophages can be nebulized successfully within a reasonable delivery time and predicted titers in the lung indicate that this method may hold potential for treatment of bacterial lung infections common among cystic fibrosis patients.

  20. Diversities in virulence, antifungal activity, pigmentation and DNA fingerprint among strains of Burkholderia glumae.

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    Karki, Hari S; Shrestha, Bishnu K; Han, Jae Woo; Groth, Donald E; Barphagha, Inderjit K; Rush, Milton C; Melanson, Rebecca A; Kim, Beom Seok; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae is the primary causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice. In this study, 11 naturally avirulent and nine virulent strains of B. glumae native to the southern United States were characterized in terms of virulence in rice and onion, toxofalvin production, antifungal activity, pigmentation and genomic structure. Virulence of B. glumae strains on rice panicles was highly correlated to virulence on onion bulb scales, suggesting that onion bulb can be a convenient alternative host system to efficiently determine the virulence of B. glumae strains. Production of toxoflavin, the phytotoxin that functions as a major virulence factor, was closely associated with the virulence phenotypes of B. glumae strains in rice. Some strains of B. glumae showed various levels of antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of sheath blight, and pigmentation phenotypes on casamino acid-peptone-glucose (CPG) agar plates regardless of their virulence traits. Purple and yellow-green pigments were partially purified from a pigmenting strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, and the purple pigment fraction showed a strong antifungal activity against Collectotrichum orbiculare. Genetic variations were detected among the B. glumae strains from DNA fingerprinting analyses by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) for BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic (BOX) or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences of bacteria; and close genetic relatedness among virulent but pigment-deficient strains were revealed by clustering analyses of DNA fingerprints from BOX-and ERIC-PCR.

  1. Optimisation of culture composition for glyphosate degradation byBurkholderia vietnamiensisstrain AQ5-12.

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    Manogaran, Motharasan; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Yasid, Nur Adeela; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima

    2018-02-01

    The herbicide glyphosate is often used to control weeds in agricultural lands. However, despite its ability to effectively kill weeds at low cost, health problems are still reported due to its toxicity level. The removal of glyphosate from the environment is usually done by microbiological process since chemical process of degradation is ineffective due to the presence of highly stable bonds. Therefore, finding glyphosate-degrading microorganisms in the soil of interest is crucial to remediate this glyphosate. Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AQ5-12 was found to have glyphosate-degrading ability. Optimisation of biodegradation condition was carried out utilising one factor at a time (OFAT) and response surface methodology (RSM). Five parameters including carbon and nitrogen source, pH, temperature and glyphosate concentration were optimised. Based on OFAT result, glyphosate degradation was observed to be optimum at fructose concentration of 6, 0.5 g/L ammonia sulphate, pH 6.5, temperature of 32 °C and glyphosate concentration at 100 ppm. Meanwhile, RSM resulted in a better degradation with 92.32% of 100 ppm glyphosate compared to OFAT. The bacterium was seen to tolerate up to 500 ppm glyphosate while increasing concentration results in reduced degradation and bacterial growth rate.

  2. Environmental Attributes Influencing the Distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Northern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony L Baker

    Full Text Available Factors responsible for the spatial and temporal clustering of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the environment remain to be elucidated. Whilst laboratory based experiments have been performed to analyse survival of the organism in various soil types, such approaches are strongly influenced by alterations to the soil micro ecology during soil sanitisation and translocation. During the monsoonal season in Townsville, Australia, B. pseudomallei is discharged from Castle Hill (an area with a very high soil prevalence of the organism by groundwater seeps and is washed through a nearby area where intensive sampling in the dry season has been unable to detect the organism. We undertook environmental sampling and soil and plant characterisation in both areas to ascertain physiochemical and macro-floral differences between the two sites that may affect the prevalence of B. pseudomallei. In contrast to previous studies, the presence of B. pseudomallei was correlated with a low gravimetric water content and low nutrient availability (nitrogen and sulphur and higher exchangeable potassium in soils favouring recovery. Relatively low levels of copper, iron and zinc favoured survival. The prevalence of the organism was found to be highest under the grasses Aristida sp. and Heteropogon contortus and to a lesser extent under Melinis repens. The findings of this study indicate that a greater variety of factors influence the endemicity of melioidosis than has previously been reported, and suggest that biogeographical boundaries to the organisms' distribution involve complex interactions.

  3. Bioremediation of refinery wastewater using immobilised Burkholderia cepacia and Corynebacterium sp and their transconjugants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi T. Ajao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available When oil spill occurs, it poses serious toxic hazards to all forms of life. Mixed culture of Burkholderia cepacia and Corynebacterium sp isolated from refinery sludge using selective enrichment technique was used for bioremediation of refinery wastewater in a laboratoryscale bioreactor. Physicochemical parameters of both raw and treated water were as determined and compared with Federal Environ - mental Protection Agency (FEPA-limit, Abuja, Nigeria to asses the efficiency of the bioremediation process. Each of the bacterium was screened for the presence of plasmid DNA and for the involvement or otherwise of plasmid in the bioremediation of wastewater. The immobilised cells showed percentage decrease in chemical oxygen demand (97%, biochemical oxygen demand (94%, phenol (98%, total petroleum hydrocarbon (79%, oil and grease (90% of the refinery waste water after 20 days of treatment while their transconjugants showed the multiplicative effect by achieving the same percentage after 10 days of treatment. Therefore, the findings revealed that bioaugmentation of wastewater using transmissible catabolic plasmid will enhance efficiency of the bioremediation by spreading the plasmid among indigenous microbial community either through horizontal gene transfer or transformation.

  4. What drives the occurrence of the melioidosis bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei in domestic gardens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Kaestli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is an often fatal infectious disease affecting humans and animals in tropical regions and is caused by the saprophytic environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Domestic gardens are not only a common source of exposure to soil and thus to B. pseudomallei, but they also have been found to contain more B. pseudomallei than other environments. In this study we addressed whether anthropogenic manipulations common to gardens such as irrigation or fertilizers change the occurrence of B. pseudomallei. We conducted a soil microcosm experiment with a range of fertilizers and soil types as well as a longitudinal interventional study over three years on an experimental fertilized field site in an area naturally positive for B. pseudomallei. Irrigation was the only consistent treatment to increase B. pseudomallei occurrence over time. The effects of fertilizers upon these bacteria depended on soil texture, physicochemical soil properties and biotic factors. Nitrates and urea increased B. pseudomallei load in sand while phosphates had a positive effect in clay. The high buffering and cation exchange capacities of organic material found in a commercial potting mix led to a marked increase in soil salinity with no survival of B. pseudomallei after four weeks in the potting mix sampled. Imported grasses were also associated with B. pseudomallei occurrence in a multivariate model. With increasing population density in endemic areas these findings inform the identification of areas in the anthropogenic environment with increased risk of exposure to B. pseudomallei.

  5. Susceptibility of Opportunistic Burkholderia glumae to Copper Surfaces Following Wet or Dry Surface Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouqi Cui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae has been proposed to have a potential risk to vulnerable communities. In this work, we investigated the antibacterial activity and mechanism of copper surfaces against multi-drug resistant B. glumae from both patients and rice plants. The susceptibility of B. glumae to copper surfaces was noted by a significant decline in viable bacterial counts, relative to the slight reduction of stainless steel and polyvinylchloride, both of which were used as control surfaces. The mode of action of bacterial killing was determined by examing the mutagenicity, DNA damage, copper ions accumulation, and membrane damage in bacterial cells. The results indicated that the cells exposed to copper surfaces did not cause severe DNA lesions or increase the mutation frequencies, but resulted in a loss of cell membrane integrity within minutes. Furthermore, bacterial cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated significantly higher amounts of copper compared to control surfaces. Overall, this study showed that metallic copper had strong antibacterial effect against B. glumae by causing DNA and membrane damage, cellular accumulation of copper, and cell death following DNA degradation, which could be utilized to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination and infection.

  6. A preliminary X-ray study of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate isomerase from Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Shin, Dong Hae

    2009-11-01

    Sedoheptulose-7-phosphate isomerase (GmhA) converts d-sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to d,d-heptose 7-phosphate. This is the first step in the biosynthesis pathway of NDP-heptose, which is responsible for the pleiotropic phenotype. This biosynthesis pathway is the target of inhibitors to increase the membrane permeability of Gram-negative pathogens or of adjuvants working synergistically with known antibiotics. Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a seriously invasive disease in animals and humans in tropical and subtropical areas. GmhA from B. pseudomallei is one of the targets of antibiotic adjuvants for melioidosis. In this study, GmhA has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Synchrotron X-ray data were also collected to 1.9 angstrom resolution. The crystal belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 61.3, b = 84.2, c = 142.3 angstrom. A full structural determination is under way in order to provide insights into the structure- function relationships of this protein.

  7. Polysaccharide specific monoclonal antibodies provide passive protection against intranasal challenge with Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuCoin, David P; Reed, Dana E; Marlenee, Nicole L; Bowen, Richard A; Thorkildson, Peter; Judy, Barbara M; Torres, Alfredo G; Kozel, Thomas R

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus that is the causative agent of melioidosis. The bacterium is inherently resistant to many antibiotics and mortality rates remain high in endemic areas. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) are two surface-associated antigens that contribute to pathogenesis. We previously developed two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to the CPS and LPS; the CPS mAb was shown to identify antigen in serum and urine from melioidosis patients. The goal of this study was to determine if passive immunization with CPS and LPS mAbs alone and in combination would protect mice from a lethal challenge with B. pseudomallei. Intranasal (i.n.) challenge experiments were performed with B. pseudomallei strains 1026b and K96423. Both mAbs provided significant protection when administered alone. A combination of mAbs was protective when low doses were administered. In addition, combination therapy provided a significant reduction in spleen colony forming units (cfu) compared to results when either the CPS or LPS mAbs were administered alone.

  8. Polysaccharide specific monoclonal antibodies provide passive protection against intranasal challenge with Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P AuCoin

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus that is the causative agent of melioidosis. The bacterium is inherently resistant to many antibiotics and mortality rates remain high in endemic areas. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS and capsular polysaccharide (CPS are two surface-associated antigens that contribute to pathogenesis. We previously developed two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs specific to the CPS and LPS; the CPS mAb was shown to identify antigen in serum and urine from melioidosis patients. The goal of this study was to determine if passive immunization with CPS and LPS mAbs alone and in combination would protect mice from a lethal challenge with B. pseudomallei. Intranasal (i.n. challenge experiments were performed with B. pseudomallei strains 1026b and K96423. Both mAbs provided significant protection when administered alone. A combination of mAbs was protective when low doses were administered. In addition, combination therapy provided a significant reduction in spleen colony forming units (cfu compared to results when either the CPS or LPS mAbs were administered alone.

  9. Candidate Essential Genes in Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 Identified by Genome-Wide TraDIS

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yee-Chin

    2016-08-22

    Burkholderia cenocepacia infection often leads to fatal cepacia syndrome in cystic fibrosis patients. However, antibiotic therapy rarely results in complete eradication of the pathogen due to its intrinsic resistance to many clinically available antibiotics. Recent attention has turned to the identification of essential genes as the proteins encoded by these genes may serve as potential targets for development of novel antimicrobials. In this study, we utilized TraDIS (Transposon Directed Insertion-site Sequencing) as a genome-wide screening tool to facilitate the identification of B. cenocepacia genes essential for its growth and viability. A transposon mutant pool consisting of approximately 500,000 mutants was successfully constructed, with more than 400,000 unique transposon insertion sites identified by computational analysis of TraDIS datasets. The saturated library allowed for the identification of 383 genes that were predicted to be essential in B. cenocepacia. We extended the application of TraDIS to identify conditionally essential genes required for in vitro growth and revealed an additional repertoire of 439 genes to be crucial for B. cenocepacia growth under nutrient-depleted conditions. The library of B. cenocepacia mutants can subsequently be subjected to various biologically related conditions to facilitate the discovery of genes involved in niche adaptation as well as pathogenicity and virulence.

  10. Encefalitis del tallo cerebral y mielitis por Listeria monocytogenes

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    Aracelly Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La romboencefalitis por Listeria monocytogenes es una presentación poco común de la listeriosis del sistema nervioso central; sin embargo, es la presentación más común en personas inmunocompetentes. Aun más rara es la combinación de romboencefalitis con mielitis causada por L. monocytogenes; no obstante, en este artículo se reporta un caso de encefalitis del tallo y mielitis grave en un paciente sin compromiso del sistema inmunitario. Se presenta un paciente de 21 años de edad, sin deficiencias del sistema inmunitario, que consumió productos lácteos no pasteurizados y, posteriormente, presentó un cuadro de cefalea, vómito, deterioro de su estado general y, finalmente, alteración del estado de conciencia y muerte. Consultó al Instituto Neurológico de Colombia y se hizo diagnóstico de encefalitis del tallo y mielitis por L. monocytogenes. Se discuten las diferencias entre el caso presentado y los reportados en la literatura científica. Ante un paciente con signos de compromiso del tallo cerebral, de posible origen infeccioso, es prudente iniciar tratamiento antibiótico para L. monocytogenes y, en caso de poca respuesta, escalar rápidamente en dicho tratamiento. También lo es extender el estudio radiológico hacia la columna vertebral, con el fin de descartar compromiso de la médula espinal.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i3.1482

  11. Estudo terapêutico aberto com sulfato de aminosidine na leishmaniose mucosa causada for Leishmania (viannia braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A.S. Romero

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de setembro a novembro de 1994 foram tratados 21 pacientes com leishmaniose mucosa ativa, predominantemente adultos lavradores do sexo masculino, com sulfato de aminosidine intramuscular, I6mg/kg/dia por 20 dias. Treze pacientes eram virgens de tratamento e 8 haviam sido tratados sem sucesso com Glucantime®". O diagnóstico baseou-se inicialmente em crítêrios epidemiolôgicos, clínicos e nos resultados da intrademoireação de Montenegro e a imunofluorescência indireta para anticoipos séricos antileishmânia e durante o acompanhamento nos resultados dos estudos parasitológicos. Sessenta e sete por cento dos pacientes tiveram diagnóstico parasitológico confirmado sendo a inoculação do material de biópsia das lesões em hamsters o método mais sensível. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 12,6 meses. A adesão ao tratamento foi de 100%. Os efeitos colaterais foram dor no local da injeção (86%, proteinúria leve (24%, elevação do nível sérico de creatinina (5% e perda auditiva subclínica em um dos dois pacientes que realizaram audiometria. Obsevou-se cura clínica em 48% dos pacientes e a percentagem acumulada de recidiva foi de 29% (4/14pacientes durante o acompanhamento.From September to November 1994, 21 patients with active mucosal leishmaniasis were treated with aminosidine sulphate I6mg/kg/day by intramuscular injection for 20 days. They were principally adult male agricultural workers. Thirteen patients had not received specific treatment and eight had failed to respond to Glucantime® therapy. Diagnosis was based on clinical and epidemiological observations, a search for the parasite, leishmanin skin sensitivity and indirect fluorescent antibody serological tests. Sixty seven percent of patients had Leishmania parasites isolated from inoculated hamsters or visualized in imprints or histopathological sections. The mean follow-up period was 12.6 months. All patients completed treatment. Side effects were

  12. Celulitis por citomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruiz Lascano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritematoedematosa. La tratamos con antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo que realizamos un estudio histopatológico de piel que mostró cambios citopáticos compatibles con infección por CMV. Los cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos fueron negativos. La inmunohistoquímica específica para CMV y el estudio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de la biopsia de piel fueron positivas, al igual que la antigenemia. El tratamiento con ganciclovir produjo la mejoría del cuadro clínico. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado la celulitis como manifestación de enfermedad cutánea por CMV.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Burkholderia phenoliruptrix BR3459a (CLA1), a heat-tolerant, nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa flocculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Cunha, Cláudio; Goda Zuleta, Luiz Fernando; Paula de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Prioli Ciapina, Luciane; Lustrino Borges, Wardsson; Pitard, Rosa Maria; Baldani, José Ivo; Straliotto, Rosangela; de Faria, Sérgio Miana; Hungria, Mariangela; Sousa Cavada, Benildo; Mercante, Fábio Martins; Ribeiro de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza

    2012-12-01

    The genus Burkholderia represents a challenge to the fields of taxonomy and phylogeny and, especially, to the understanding of the contrasting roles as either opportunistic pathogens or bacteria with biotechnological potential. Few genomes of nonpathogenic strains, especially of diazotrophic symbiotic bacteria, have been sequenced to improve understanding of the genus. Here, we contribute with the complete genome sequence of Burkholderia phenoliruptrix strain BR3459a (CLA1), an effective diazotrophic symbiont of the leguminous tree Mimosa flocculosa Burkart, which is endemic to South America.

  14. Embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Gómez Santa María; Mauro García Aurelio; Yanina Castillo Costa; Víctor Mauro; Carlos Barrero

    2009-01-01

    Los primeros registros de embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato se publicaron recientemente (2003) y desde entonces se describieron no más de 15 casos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente joven a quien dos meses antes de la consulta se le había efectuado una vertebroplastia percutánea con polimetilmetacrilato. Por síntomas pleuríticos se le realizó una radiografía de tórax, que evidenció múltiples imágenes radioopacas en ambos campos pulmonares. La embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato...

  15. Development and validation of Burkholderia pseudomallei-specific real-time PCR assays for clinical, environmental or forensic detection applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin P Price

    Full Text Available The bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a rare but serious illness that can be fatal if untreated or misdiagnosed. Species-specific PCR assays provide a technically simple method for differentiating B. pseudomallei from near-neighbor species. However, substantial genetic diversity and high levels of recombination within this species reduce the likelihood that molecular signatures will differentiate all B. pseudomallei from other Burkholderiaceae. Currently available molecular assays for B. pseudomallei detection lack rigorous validation across large in silico datasets and isolate collections to test for specificity, and none have been subjected to stringent quality control criteria (accuracy, precision, selectivity, limit of quantitation (LoQ, limit of detection (LoD, linearity, ruggedness and robustness to determine their suitability for environmental, clinical or forensic investigations. In this study, we developed two novel B. pseudomallei specific assays, 122018 and 266152, using a dual-probe approach to differentiate B. pseudomallei from B. thailandensis, B. oklahomensis and B. thailandensis-like species; other species failed to amplify. Species specificity was validated across a large DNA panel (>2,300 samples comprising Burkholderia spp. and non-Burkholderia bacterial and fungal species of clinical and environmental relevance. Comparison of assay specificity to two previously published B. pseudomallei-specific assays, BurkDiff and TTS1, demonstrated comparable performance of all assays, providing between 99.7 and 100% specificity against our isolate panel. Last, we subjected 122018 and 266152 to rigorous quality control analyses, thus providing quantitative limits of assay performance. Using B. pseudomallei as a model, our study provides a framework for comprehensive quantitative validation of molecular assays and provides additional, highly validated B. pseudomallei assays for the scientific research community.

  16. Mecanismos da intoxicação do fígado de rato causada pelo gossipol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Luís de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O fígado desempenha uma função central no metabolismo devido à sua interposição entre o trato digestivo e a circulação geral do organismo. Ele é também o principal órgão envolvido na biotransformação de substâncias exógenas (xenobióticos, com capacidade de converter compostos hidrofóbicos em hidrossolúveis, mais facilmente eliminados pelo organismo. O gossipol é uma substância fenólica tóxica presente na semente de algodão (Gossypium sp. Com o objetivo de estudar os mecanismos envolvidos na hepatotoxicidade do gossipol avaliou-se os seus efeitos no sistema antioxidante do fígado de ratos no que diz respeito ao estresse oxidativo e aspectos histopatológicos. Foram utilizados ratos machos da linhagem Wistar, separados em dois grupos, sendo que um recebeu óleo de canola (veículo, grupo Controle e o outro recebeu gossipol na dosagem de 40 mg/kg de peso vivo do animal por 15 dias (grupo Tratado. O tratamento com gossipol promoveu alterações na atividade sérica das enzimas marcadoras de dano hepático e um significativo estresse oxidativo caracterizado pela diminuição nos níveis da glutationa reduzida (GSH e consequente aumento da glutationa oxidada (GSSG, incluindo, ainda, danos à membrana plasmática e de organelas demonstrados pela peroxidação lipídica. O resultado da avaliação histopatológica demonstrou degeneração dos hepatócitos.

  17. Embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gómez Santa María

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros registros de embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato se publicaron recientemente (2003 y desde entonces se describieron no más de 15 casos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente joven a quien dos meses antes de la consulta se le había efectuado una vertebroplastia percutánea con polimetilmetacrilato. Por síntomas pleuríticos se le realizó una radiografía de tórax, que evidenció múltiples imágenes radioopacas en ambos campos pulmonares. La embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato es una complicación muy poco frecuente de ese procedimiento y un diagnóstico diferencial para tener en cuenta en pacientes con el antecedente y que consulten por dolor precordial o disnea.REV ARGENT CARDIOL 2009;77:129-130.

  18. The Capsular Polysaccharide of Burkholderia pseudomallei Contributes to Survival in Serum by Reducing Complement Factor C3b Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shauna L.; DeVinney, Rebekah; Woods, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei produces an extracellular polysaccharide capsule -3)-2-O-acetyl-6-deoxy-β-d-manno-heptopyranose-(1- which has been shown to be an essential virulence determinant. The addition of purified capsule was shown to increase the virulence of a capsule mutant strain in the Syrian hamster model of acute melioidosis. An increase in the number of wild-type B. pseudomallei cells in the blood was seen by 48 h, while the number of capsule mutant cells in the blood declined by 48 h...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Burkholderia terrae Strain BS001, Which Interacts with Fungal Surface Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazir, Rashid; Hansen, Martin A.; Sorensen, Soren

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia terrae BS001 is a soil bacterium which was originally isolated from the mycosphere of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria proxima. It exhibits a range of fungus-interacting traits which reveal its propensity to actively interact at fungal interfaces. Here, we present the approximately...... 11.5-Mb (G+C content, 61.52 draft genome sequence of B. terrae BS001 with the aim of providing insight into the genomic basis of its ecological success in fungus-affected soil settings....

  20. Phosphorus uptake of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus is not effected by the biocontrol bacterium ¤Burkholderia cepacia¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskov, S.; Larsen, J.; Jakobsen, I.

    2002-01-01

    intraradices (BEG87) were studied in root-free soil compartments separated from a rooting compartment by a fine nylon-mesh. B. cepacia had no effect on AM fungal biomass and energy reserves measured using the signature fatty acid 16:1omega5 from phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and neutral lipid fatty acids......The biocontrol bacterium Burkholderia cepacia is known to suppress a broad range of root pathogenic fungi, while its impact on other beneficial non-target organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is unknown. Direct interactions between five B. cepacia strains and the AM fungus, Glomus...

  1. Bacterial triterpenoids of the hopane series as biomarkers for the chemotaxonomy of Burkholderia, Pseudomonas and Ralstonia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvejic, J H; Putra, S R; El-Beltagy, A; Hattori, R; Hattori, T; Rohmer, M

    2000-02-15

    Hopanoid fingerprints allowed to differentiate bacteria formerly connected to the genus Pseudomonas. Whereas all strains related to Pseudomonas and Ralstonia were devoid of any detectable hopanoid, these pentacyclic triterpenoids were found in the Burkholderia species and in related soil isolates, which contained as main hopanoid a bacteriohopanetetrol carbapseudopentose ether, accompanied by significant amounts of its novel Delta(6) unsaturated homologue. Unsaturated hopanoids represent an extremely rare feature in soil bacteria and the only known indication for a catabolism of this pentacyclic carbon skeleton in bacteria.

  2. Diarrea crónica refractaria y malabsorción secundaria a hipogammaglobulinemia común variable, infestación crónica por giardia lamblia y gastrectomía total por adenocarcinoma gástrico: un manejo nutricional complejo Chonic diarrhea and malabsorption due to common variable immunodeficiency, gastrectomy and giardiasis infection: a difficult nutritional management

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Domínguez-López; I. González-Molero; C. P. Ramírez-Plaza; F. Soriguer; G. Olveira

    2011-01-01

    El adenocarcinoma gástrico es una de las causas más frecuentes de mortalidad en el mundo, siendo la cirugía el único tratamiento potencialmente curativo, aunque los efectos adversos digestivos y nutricionales son frecuentes y abundantes. La hipogammaglobulinemia variable común es causa de frecuentes manifestaciones digestivas, derivándose las más importantes en diarrea crónica causada por giardiasis, hiperplasia nodular linfoide o atrofia vellosa, siendo frecuente la malabsorción y la desnutr...

  3. Sentimentos de mulheres sobre as alterações causadas pela mastectomia Women´s feelings about the changes caused by mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilla Abrantes de Sousa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudo objetivou analisar os sentimentos de mulheres de um grupo de apoio sobre as alterações causadas pela mastectomia. Método: Estudo do tipo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa, realizado em um grupo de apoio à mulheres mastectomizadas em Cajazeiras, no estado da Paraíba, Brasil, em junho e julho de 2014, com 20 sujeitos. Utilizou-se uma entrevista semiestruturada para coleta de dados. A análise foi feita através do processo metodológico do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Resultados: Evidenciou-se que as mulheres adotaram uma maneira singular de enfrentamento do câncer de mama variando entre sentimentos negativos, preocupação em se afastar dos filhos, maior aproximação da espiritualidade e aceitação da doença com naturalidade. Conclusão: É importante destacar que a partir da compreensão destes sentimentos, o enfermeiro poderá construir um plano de cuidados adequado às necessidades de saúde deste público alvo, proporcionando assim uma ação mais eficiente, eficaz e humana.

  4. Mecanismos fisiopatogênicos e diagnóstico laboratorial da infecção causada pela Entamoeba histolytica Physiopathogenic mechanisms and laboratorial diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Luciano Neves Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A amebíase é a segunda causa de morte entre as doenças parasitárias no mundo. Seu agente etiológico é o protozoário Entamoeba histolytica, que através da secreção de proteinases é capazes de destruir o tecido hospedeiro, matando as células-alvo por contato e fagocitando eritrócitos. Dessa forma, os trofozoítos invadem a mucosa intestinal, provocando a colite amebiana. Em alguns casos atravessam a mucosa e, através da circulação porta, chegam ao fígado, onde causam necrose constituída por poucos trofozoítos rodeados de hepatócitos mortos e debris celulares liquefeitos. Essa invasão está diretamente relacionada com a capacidade de síntese e a secreção de moléculas responsáveis pela virulência dos trofozoítos, como os amebaporos, as lectinas e as cisteína proteinases. O diagnóstico da infecção causada pelo patógeno é rotineiramente realizado através da microscopia óptica de amostras frescas ou espécimes fixados. Entretanto essa metodologia apresenta limitações, sendo incapaz de distinguir as espécies pertencentes ao complexo E. histolytica/E. dispar. A pesquisa de coproantígenos e a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR têm sido utilizadas para diferenciação desses protozoários em amostras fecais. No entanto, estudos mais aprofundados são necessários para maior compreensão sobre a relação parasita/hospedeiro, a proteômica e a genômica do protozoário, o desenvolvimento de vacinas e a real prevalência dessa infecção no Brasil e no mundo.Amebiasis is the second cause of death among parasitary diseases in the world. Its etiologic agent is the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, which destroys the host tissue by means of the secretion of proteinases, kills the target-cells by contact and phagocytizes erythrocytes. Accordingly, the trophozoites invade the intestinal mucosa, what causes amoebaean colitis. In some cases, they pass through the mucosa and reach the liver through the portal system, where

  5. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

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    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  6. Multitarget Quantitative PCR Improves Detection and Predicts Cultivability of the Pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhler, Andre; Trung, Trinh Thanh; Hopf, Verena; Kohler, Christian; Hartleib, Jörg; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Tuanyok, Apichai; Steinmetz, Ivo

    2017-04-15

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is present in the environment in many parts of the world and causes the often-fatal disease melioidosis. The sensitive detection and quantification of B. pseudomallei in the environment are a prerequisite for assessing the risk of infection. We recently reported the direct detection of B. pseudomallei in soil samples using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting a single type three secretion system 1 (TTSS1) gene. Here, we extend the qPCR-based analysis of B. pseudomallei in soil by validating novel qPCR gene targets selected from a comparative genomic analysis. Two hundred soil samples from two rice paddies in northeast Thailand were evaluated, of which 47% (94/200) were B. pseudomallei culture positive. The TTSS1 qPCR and two novel qPCR assays that targeted open reading frames (ORFs) BPSS0087 and BPSS0745 exhibited detection rates of 76.5% (153/200), 34.5% (69/200), and 74.5% (150/200), respectively. The combination of TTSS1 and BPSS0745 qPCR increased the detection rate to 90% (180/200). Combining the results of the three qPCR assays and the BPSS1187 nested PCR previously published, all 200 samples were positive by at least one PCR assay. Samples positive by either TTSS1 ( n = 153) or BPSS0745 ( n = 150) qPCR were more likely to be direct-culture positive, with odds ratios of 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 9.5; P qPCR improved the B. pseudomallei detection rate in soil samples and predicted culture positivity. This approach has the potential for use as a sensitive environmental screening method for B. pseudomallei IMPORTANCE The worldwide environmental distribution of the soil bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei remains to be determined. So far, most environmental studies have relied on culture-based approaches to detect this pathogen. Since current culture methods are laborious, are time consuming, and have limited sensitivity, culture-independent and more sensitive methods are needed. In this study, we show that a B

  7. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella.

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    Virna L Saenz

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector.

  8. The concentrations of ambient Burkholderia pseudomallei during typhoon season in endemic area of melioidosis in Taiwan.

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    Ya-Lei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a severe bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei with a high case-fatality rate. Epidemiological and animal studies show the possibility of inhalation transmission. However, no B. pseudomallei concentrations in ambient air have been researched. Here, we developed a method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei and then measured concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei during the typhoon season and the non-typhoon season to determine the factors influencing ambient B. pseudomallei levels. METHODS: We quantified ambient B. pseudomallei by using a filter/real-time qPCR method in the Zoynan Region in Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. Twenty-four hour samples were collected at a sampling rate of 20 L/min every day from June 11 to December 21, 2012 including during the typhoon season (June to September and reference season (October to December. RESULTS: We successfully developed a filtration/real-time qPCR method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei. Ambient B. pseudomallei were only detected during the typhoon season when compared to the reference season. For the typhoons affecting the Zoynan Region, the positive rates of ambient B. pseudomallei were very high at 80% to 100%. During June to December, rainfall was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei with a statistical significance. Sediment at a nearby pond significantly influenced the concentration of ambient B. pseudomallei. During the typhoon month, the typhoon was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei whereas wind speed was reversely correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest the possibility of transmission of B. pseudomallei via inhalation during the typhoon season.

  9. The concentrations of ambient Burkholderia pseudomallei during typhoon season in endemic area of melioidosis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Lei; Yen, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Lee, Min Sheng; Ho, Chi-Kung; Mena, Kristina D; Wang, Peng-Yau; Chen, Pei-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei with a high case-fatality rate. Epidemiological and animal studies show the possibility of inhalation transmission. However, no B. pseudomallei concentrations in ambient air have been researched. Here, we developed a method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei and then measured concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei during the typhoon season and the non-typhoon season to determine the factors influencing ambient B. pseudomallei levels. We quantified ambient B. pseudomallei by using a filter/real-time qPCR method in the Zoynan Region in Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. Twenty-four hour samples were collected at a sampling rate of 20 L/min every day from June 11 to December 21, 2012 including during the typhoon season (June to September) and reference season (October to December). We successfully developed a filtration/real-time qPCR method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei. Ambient B. pseudomallei were only detected during the typhoon season when compared to the reference season. For the typhoons affecting the Zoynan Region, the positive rates of ambient B. pseudomallei were very high at 80% to 100%. During June to December, rainfall was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei with a statistical significance. Sediment at a nearby pond significantly influenced the concentration of ambient B. pseudomallei. During the typhoon month, the typhoon was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei whereas wind speed was reversely correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei. Our data suggest the possibility of transmission of B. pseudomallei via inhalation during the typhoon season.

  10. Phosphonium alkyl PEG sulfate ionic liquids as coating materials for activation of Burkholderia cepacia lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yui; Kadotani, Shiho; Nishihara, Takashi; Hikino, Yoshichika; Fukaya, Yukinobu; Nokami, Toshiki; Itoh, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Lipases are among the most widely used enzymes applicable for various substrates; however, the slow reactions or poor enantioselective reactions are sometimes obtained. To develop ionic liquid type activating agents for lipase, four types of phosphonium cetyl(PEG)10 sulfate ionic liquids have been synthesized and used as coating materials of Burkholderia cepacia lipase (Lipase PS) through the lyophilization process. Tributyl ([2-methoxy]ethoxymethyl)phosphonium cetyl(PEG)10 sulfate ([P444MEM ][C16 (PEG)10 SO4 ]) (PL1) worked best among them, and PL1-coated lipase PS displayed high reactivity in transesterification of broad types of secondary alcohols using vinyl acetate as an acylating reagent with perfect enantioselectivity (E > 200). The substrate preference of PL1-PS differs from that of commercial lipase PS or [bdmim] [C16 (PEG)10 SO4 ]-coated lipase (IL1-PS); PL1-PS displayed excellent enantioselectivity in the reaction of 2-chloro-1-phenylethanol with E > 200, though insufficient E values were recorded for lipase PS (E = 12) and IL1-PS (E = 123) for this alcohol. PL1-PS also showed perfect enantioselectivity (E > 200) for the reaction of 1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethanol, while IL1-PS showed E = 130 for this compound. We further succeeded in demonstrating the recyclable use of PL1-PS five times in tributyl(3-methoxypropyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([P444PM ][Tf2 N]) as a solvent. Since PL1-PS is easily applicable to 10-20 gram-scaled reactions, it is expected that the IL-coated enzyme might be useful for practical preparation of a wide variety of chiral secondary alcohols. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. RsaM: a transcriptional regulator of Burkholderia spp. with novel fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalska, Karolina [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Chhor, Gekleng [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Clancy, Shonda [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Jedrzejczak, Robert [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Babnigg, Gyorgy [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Winans, Stephen C. [Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca NY USA; Joachimiak, Andrzej [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, IL USA

    2014-07-04

    Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a set of closely related bacterial species that are notorious pathogens of cystic fibrosis patients, responsible for life-threatening lung infections. Expression of several virulence factors of Bcc is controlled by a mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). QS is a means of bacterial communication used to coordinate gene expression in a cell-density-dependent manner. The system involves the production of diffusible signaling molecules (N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones, AHLs), that bind to cognate transcriptional regulators and influence their ability to regulate gene expression. One such system that is highly conserved in Bcc consists of CepI and CepR. CepI is AHL synthase, while CepR is an AHL-dependent transcription factor. In most members of the Bcc group, the cepI and cepR genes are divergently transcribed and separated by additional genes. One of them, bcam1869, encodes the BcRsaM protein, which was recently postulated to modulate the abundance or activity of CepI or CepR. Here we show the crystal structure of BcRsaM from B. cenocepacia J2315. It is a single-domain protein with unique topology and presents a novel fold. The protein is a dimer in the crystal and in solution. This regulator has no known DNA binding motifs and direct binding of BcRsaM to the cepI promoter could not be detected in in vitro assays. Therefore, we propose that the modulatory action of RsaM might result from interactions with other components of the QS machinery rather than from direct association with the DNA promoter.

  12. An objective approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei strain selection as challenge material for medical countermeasures efficacy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zandt, Kristopher E; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul S; Warren, Richard L; Gelhaus, H Carl

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs), the high mortality rates associated with melioidosis raises significant ethical issues concerning treating individuals with new compounds with unknown efficacies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has formulated a set of guidelines for the licensure of new MCMs to treat diseases in which it would be unethical to test the efficacy of these drugs in humans. The FDA "Animal Rule" 21 CFR 314 calls for consistent, well-characterized B. pseudomallei strains to be used as challenge material in animal models. In order to facilitate the efficacy testing of new MCMs for melioidosis using animal models, we intend to develop a well-characterized panel of strains for use. This panel will comprise of strains that were isolated from human cases, have a low passage history, are virulent in animal models, and are well-characterized phenotypically and genotypically. We have reviewed published and unpublished data on various B. pseudomallei strains to establish an objective method for selecting the strains to be included in the panel of B. pseudomallei strains with attention to five categories: animal infection models, genetic characterization, clinical and passage history, and availability of the strain to the research community. We identified 109 strains with data in at least one of the five categories, scored each strain based on the gathered data and identified six strains as candidate for a B. pseudomallei strain panel.

  13. Rapid DNA vaccination against Burkholderia pseudomallei flagellin by tattoo or intranasal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankelma, Jacqueline M; Wagemakers, Alex; Birnie, Emma; Haak, Bastiaan W; Trentelman, Jos J A; Weehuizen, Tassili A F; Ersöz, Jasmin; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Hovius, Joppe W; Wiersinga, W Joost; Bins, Adriaan D

    2017-11-17

    Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease with a high mortality that is endemic in South-East Asia and Northern Australia. The causative pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, is listed as potential bioterror weapon due to its high virulence and potential for easy dissemination. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine for prevention of melioidosis. Here, we explore the use of rapid plasmid DNA vaccination against B. pseudomallei flagellin for protection against respiratory challenge. We tested three flagellin DNA vaccines with different subcellular targeting designs. C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated via skin tattoo on day 0, 3 and 6 before intranasal challenge with B. pseudomallei on day 21. Next, the most effective construct was used as single vaccination on day 0 by tattoo or intranasal formulation. Mice were sacrificed 72 hours post-challenge to assess bacterial loads, cytokine responses, inflammation and microscopic lesions. A construct encoding a cellular secretion signal resulted in the most effective protection against melioidosis via tattooing, with a 10-fold reduction in bacterial loads in lungs and distant organs compared to the empty vector. Strikingly, a single intranasal administration of the same vaccine resulted in >1000-fold lower bacterial loads and increased survival. Pro-inflammatory cytokine responses were significantly diminished and strong reductions in markers for distant organ damage were observed. A rapid vaccination scheme using flagellin DNA tattoo provides significant protection against intranasal challenge with B. pseudomallei, markedly improved by a single administration via airway mucosa. Hence intranasal vaccination with flagellin-encoding DNA may be applicable when acute mass vaccination is indicated and warrants further testing.

  14. Genotyping of Burkholderia mallei from an outbreak of glanders in Bahrain suggests multiple introduction events.

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    Holger C Scholz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glanders, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei, is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of solipeds causing severe disease in animals and men. Although eradicated from many Western countries, it recently emerged in Asia, the Middle-East, Africa, and South America. Due to its rareness, little is known about outbreak dynamics of the disease and its epidemiology.We investigated a recent outbreak of glanders in Bahrain by applying high resolution genotyping (multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats, MLVA and comparative whole genome sequencing to B. mallei isolated from infected horses and a camel. These results were compared to samples obtained from an outbreak in the United Arab Emirates in 2004, and further placed into a broader phylogeographic context based on previously published B. mallei data. The samples from the outbreak in Bahrain separated into two distinct clusters, suggesting a complex epidemiological background and evidence for the involvement of multiple B. mallei strains. Additionally, the samples from Bahrain were more closely related to B. mallei isolated from horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004 than other B. mallei which is suggestive of repeated importation to the region from similar geographic sources.High-resolution genotyping and comparative whole genome analysis revealed the same phylogenetic patterns among our samples. The close relationship of the Dubai/UAE B. mallei populations to each other may be indicative of a similar geographic origin that has yet to be identified for the infecting strains. The recent emergence of glanders in combination with worldwide horse trading might pose a new risk for human infections.

  15. Effect of phosphoglycerate mutase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency on symbiotic Burkholderia phymatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Prell, Jurgen; James, Euan K; Sheu, Der-Shyan; Sheu, Shih-Yi

    2012-04-01

    Burkholderia phymatum STM815 is a β-rhizobial strain that can effectively nodulate several species of the large legume genus Mimosa. Two Tn5-induced mutants of this strain, KM16-22 and KM51, failed to form root nodules on Mimosa pudica, but still caused root hair deformation, which is one of the early steps of rhizobial infection. Both mutants grew well in a complex medium. However, KM16-22 could not grow on minimal medium unless a sugar and a metabolic intermediate such as pyruvate were provided, and KM51 also could not grow on minimal medium unless a sugar was added. The Tn5-interrupted genes of the mutants showed strong homologies to pgm, which encodes 2,3-biphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase (dPGM), and fbp, which encodes fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). Both enzymes are known to be involved in obligate steps in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzyme assays confirmed that KM16-22 and KM51 had indeed lost dPGM and FBPase activity, respectively, whilst the activities of these enzymes were expressed normally in both free-living bacteria and symbiotic bacteroids of the parental strain STM815. Both mutants recovered their enzyme activity after the introduction of wild-type pgm or fbp genes, were subsequently able to use carbohydrate as a carbon source, and were able to form root nodules on M. pudica and to fix nitrogen as efficiently as the parental strain. We conclude that the enzymes dPGM and FBPase are essential for the formation of a symbiosis with the host plant.

  16. Virulence traits associated with Burkholderia cenocepacia ST856 epidemic strain isolated from cystic fibrosis patients

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    Milka Malešević

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia cenocepacia is considered one of the most problematic cystic fibrosis (CF pathogens. Colonization prevalence in the Serbian CF population is high and virtually exclusively limited to a single highly transmissible clone of B. cenocepacia ST856 which is positive for both the B. cepacia epidemic strain marker (BCESM and cable pilin, and is closely related to the epidemic strain CZ1 (ST32. Methods Biofilm formation for 182 isolates, and adhesion to components of the host extracellular matrix, proteolytic activity, mucoidy and motility of selected ST856 representatives, as well as B. cenocepacia ST858 and ST859, and B. stabilis ST857, novel STs isolated from Serbian CF patients, were investigated in this study. The presence of the cepI, cepR, fliG, llpE, wbiI, and bcscV genes was analyzed. Results Biofilm-formation ability of analyzed strains was poor under standard laboratory conditions, but changed in stress conditions (cold stress and conditions that mimic CF milieu (increased CO2. All strains expressed ability to bind to collagen and fibronectin albeit with different intensity. Representatives of ST856 exhibited gelatinase activity. ST858, ST859 and 9/11 of ST856 genotypes were positive for swimming and twitching motility whereas ST857 was non-motile. Mucoidy was demonstrated in all ST856 genotypes, ST857 was semi-mucoid, and ST858 and ST859 were non-mucoid. Molecular analysis for major virulence factors revealed that ST856 and ST857 carried the six analyzed genes, while ST858 and ST859 were negative for the llpE gene. Conclusion Variations in virulence phenotypes in different genotypes of epidemic B. cenocepacia ST856 clone, in vitro, could be a consequence of diversification driven by pathoadaptation. Diversity of epidemic clone genotypes virulence, could be challenging for accurate diagnosis and treatment, as well as for infection control.

  17. Randomized Soil Survey of the Distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Rice Fields in Laos ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Langla, Sayan; Amornchai, Premjit; Sirisouk, Joy; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Moore, Catrin E.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Buisson, Yves; Newton, Paul N.

    2011-01-01

    Melioidosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Southeast Asia, where the causative organism (Burkholderia pseudomallei) is present in the soil. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), B. pseudomallei is a significant cause of sepsis around the capital, Vientiane, and has been isolated in soil near the city, adjacent to the Mekong River. We explored whether B. pseudomallei occurs in Lao soil distant from the Mekong River, drawing three axes across northwest, northeast, and southern Laos to create nine sampling areas in six provinces. Within each sampling area, a random rice field site containing a grid of 100 sampling points each 5 m apart was selected. Soil was obtained from a depth of 30 cm and cultured for B. pseudomallei. Four of nine sites (44%) were positive for B. pseudomallei, including all three sites in Saravane Province, southern Laos. The highest isolation frequency was in east Saravane, where 94% of soil samples were B. pseudomallei positive with a geometric mean concentration of 464 CFU/g soil (95% confidence interval, 372 to 579 CFU/g soil; range, 25 to 10,850 CFU/g soil). At one site in northwest Laos (Luangnamtha), only one sample (1%) was positive for B. pseudomallei, at a concentration of 80 CFU/g soil. Therefore, B. pseudomallei occurs in Lao soils beyond the immediate vicinity of the Mekong River, alerting physicians to the likelihood of melioidosis in these areas. Further studies are needed to investigate potential climatic, soil, and biological determinants of this heterogeneity. PMID:21075883

  18. An objective approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei strain selection as challenge material for medical countermeasures efficacy testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher E. Van Zandt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs, the high mortality rates associated with melioidosis raises significant ethical issues concerning treating individuals with new compounds with unknown efficacies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has formulated a set of guidelines for the licensure of new MCMs to treat diseases in which it would be unethical to test the efficacy of these drugs in humans. The FDA Animal Rule 21 CFR 314 calls for consistent, well-characterized B. pseudomallei strains to be used as challenge material in animal models. In order to facilitate the efficacy testing of new MCMs for melioidosis using animal models, we intend to develop a well-characterized panel of strains for use. This panel will comprise of strains that were isolated from human cases, have a low passage history, are virulent in animal models, and are well characterized phenotypically and genotypically. We have reviewed published and unpublished data on various B. pseudomallei strains to establish an objective method for selecting the strains to be included in the panel of B. pseudomallei strains with attention to five categories: animal infection models, genetic characterization, clinical and passage history, and availability of the strain to the research community. We identified 109 strains with data in at least one of the five categories, scored each strain based on the gathered data and identified 6 strains as candidate for a B. pseudomallei strain panel.