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Sample records for caudwell xtreme everest

  1. Design and conduct of Caudwell Xtreme Everest: an observational cohort study of variation in human adaptation to progressive environmental hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythen Monty G

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological responses to hypoxaemia and cellular hypoxia are poorly understood, and inter-individual differences in performance at altitude and outcome in critical illness remain unexplained. We propose a model for exploring adaptation to hypoxia in the critically ill: the study of healthy humans, progressively exposed to environmental hypobaric hypoxia (EHH. The aim of this study was to describe the spectrum of adaptive responses in humans exposed to graded EHH and identify factors (physiological and genetic associated with inter-individual variation in these responses. Methods Design Observational cohort study of progressive incremental exposure to EHH. Setting University human physiology laboratory in London, UK (75 m and 7 field laboratories in Nepal at 1300 m, 3500 m, 4250 m, 5300 m, 6400 m, 7950 m and 8400 m. Participants 198 healthy volunteers and 24 investigators trekking to Everest Base Camp (EBC (5300 m. A subgroup of 14 investigators studied at altitudes up to 8400 m on Everest. Main outcome measures Exercise capacity, exercise efficiency and economy, brain and muscle Near Infrared Spectroscopy, plasma biomarkers (including markers of inflammation, allele frequencies of known or suspected hypoxia responsive genes, spirometry, neurocognitive testing, retinal imaging, pupilometry. In nested subgroups: microcirculatory imaging, muscle biopsies with proteomic and transcriptomic tissue analysis, continuous cardiac output measurement, arterial blood gas measurement, trans-cranial Doppler, gastrointestinal tonometry, thromboelastography and ocular saccadometry. Results Of 198 healthy volunteers leaving Kathmandu, 190 reached EBC (5300 m. All 24 investigators reached EBC. The completion rate for planned testing was more than 99% in the investigator group and more than 95% in the trekkers. Unique measurements were safely performed at extreme altitude, including the highest (altitude field measurements of exercise

  2. Design and conduct of Xtreme Everest 2: An observational cohort study of Sherpa and lowlander responses to graduated hypobaric hypoxia [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/57m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Gilbert-Kawai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxygen availability falls with ascent to altitude and also as a consequence of critical illness. Because cellular sequelae and adaptive processes may be shared in both circumstances, high altitude exposure (‘physiological hypoxia’ assists in the exploration of the response to pathological hypoxia. We therefore studied the response of healthy participants to progressive hypobaric hypoxia at altitude. The primary objective of the study was to identify differences between high altitude inhabitants (Sherpas and lowland comparators. Methods: We performed an observational cohort study of human responses to progressive hypobaric hypoxia (during ascent and subsequent normoxia (following descent comparing Sherpas with lowlanders. Studies were conducted in London (35m, Kathmandu (1300m, Namche Bazaar (3500m and Everest Base Camp (5300m. Of 180 healthy volunteers departing from Kathmandu, 64 were Sherpas and 116 were lowlanders. Physiological, biochemical, genetic and epigenetic data were collected. Core studies focused on nitric oxide metabolism, microcirculatory blood flow and exercise performance. Additional studies performed in nested subgroups examined mitochondrial and metabolic function, and ventilatory and cardiac variables. Of the 180 healthy participants who left Kathmandu, 178 (99% completed the planned trek. Overall, more than 90% of planned testing was completed. Forty-four study protocols were successfully completed at altitudes up to and including 5300m. A subgroup of identical twins (all lowlanders was also studied in detail. Conclusion: This programme of study (Xtreme Everest 2 will provide a rich dataset relating to human adaptation to hypoxia, and the responses seen on re-exposure to normoxia. It is the largest comprehensive high altitude study of Sherpas yet performed. Translational data generated from this study will be of relevance to diseases in which oxygenation is a major factor.

  3. Closed and open breathing circuit function in healthy volunteers during exercise at Mount Everest base camp (5300 m).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMorrow, R C N

    2012-08-01

    We present a randomised, controlled, crossover trial of the Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) closed circuit breathing system vs an open circuit and ambient air control in six healthy, hypoxic volunteers at rest and exercise at Everest Base Camp, at 5300 m. Compared with control, arterial oxygen saturations were improved at rest with both circuits. There was no difference in the magnitude of this improvement as both circuits restored median (IQR [range]) saturation from 75%, (69.5-78.9 [68-80]%) to > 99.8% (p = 0.028). During exercise, the CXE closed circuit improved median (IQR [range]) saturation from a baseline of 70.8% (63.8-74.5 [57-76]%) to 98.8% (96.5-100 [95-100]%) vs the open circuit improvement to 87.5%, (84.1-88.6 [82-89]%; p = 0.028). These data demonstrate the inverse relationship between supply and demand with open circuits and suggest that ambulatory closed circuits may offer twin advantages of supplying higher inspired oxygen concentrations and\\/or economy of gas use for exercising hypoxic adults.

  4. Operation Everest II

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    Wagner, Peter D. Operation Everest II. High Alt. Med. Biol. 11:111–119, 2010.—In October 1985, 25 years ago, 8 subjects and 27 investigators met at the United States Army Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) altitude chambers in Natick, Massachusetts, to study human responses to a simulated 40-day ascent of Mt. Everest, termed Operation Everest II (OE II). Led by Charlie Houston, John Sutton, and Allen Cymerman, these investigators conducted a large number of investigations...

  5. Higher than Everest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Paul

    2001-08-01

    Tired of exploring planet Earth? Have you ever imagined what it would be like to explore the Moon? Ever wonder about the topography of Mars? In this unique guidebook all of your extraterrestrial wanderlust can be fulfilled as Paul Hodge takes you on a virtual tour of the most spectacular sites in the Solar System. Hodge includes the latest information about the Solar System into his vivid descriptions of imaginary, challenging expeditions. Imagine: -- Descending into a fabulous canyon on Mars, one that dwarfs the Earth's Grand Canyon; -- Trekking up Venus' precipitous and scorching Mt. Maxwell; -- Journeying through the snows of Saturn's rings and the incredibly high, icy cliff of Miranda, the moon closest to Uranus. A compelling, extensively illustrated introduction to such otherworldly environments, Higher than Everest makes you believe that someday these adventures may actually take place. Paul Hodge is Professor of Astronomy at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Editor-in-Chief of the Astronomical Journal. Higher than Everest is based on a popular undergraduate course on the planets that he has taught for many years. Hodge's research has spanned from interplanetary dust to the extragalactic distance scale and currently includes star-formation and galactic evolution, using the Hubble Space Telescope to investigate nearby galaxies. He has written several books, most recently Meteorite Craters and Impact Structures of the Earth (Cambridge 1994).

  6. The economic impact of Norseman Xtreme Triathlon 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrian, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical examination of the direct economic impact of Norseman Xtreme Triathlon in Eidfjord. Confirming the results of other ex post analyses of sports in general, this study finds statistically significant evidence that Norseman Xtreme Triathlon contribute positively to a host‘s economy. The visitors of the event were surveyed with two different self-administrated questionnaires, developed by the researcher. The main generators of expenditure were found to be: accommo...

  7. Meteorological observations on Mount Everest in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Aihong; Qin Dahe; Ren Jiawen; Qin Xiang; Xiao Cunde; Hou Shugui; Kang Shichang; Yang Xingguo; Jiang Youyan

    2007-01-01

    Mount Everest, the highest point on the Earth is often referred to as the earth's third pole as such the place is relatively inaccessible and little is known about its meteorology. In April 2005, an automatic weather station was installed at the mountain's North Col (6523 ma. S. L. ). According to the observational 10-minute mean and daily records, the meteorological characteristics were analyzed.All the meteorological elements displayed obvious diurnal variations during May 1 to July 22, 2005. The monthly variation of daily meteorological elements on Mount Everest coincided with that on Dingri, the closest routine meteorological station, with the high correlation coefficients of 0. 928, 0. 877, 0. 682, 0. 755, 0. 826 and 0. 676 ( n = 83, p < 0. 001) for mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, relative humidity, pressure and wind speed, respectively. Furthermore, the vertical mean gradient of temperature was above 0.6℃/100 m, especially for the daily maximum temperature. Most weather events on Mount Everest prominently appeared on the same day as those on Dingri, especially those from daily mean pressure, temperature and relative humidity with the cross-correlation coefficients of 0. 673, 0. 485 and 0. 487 ( n = 83, p < 0. 001 ), respectively. Some other weather events on Mount Everest lagged one-day behind those on Dingri. Furthermore, forecasting of the weather events on Mount Everest from pressure on Dingri was more reliable than those from the other meteorological elements. The conclusions are much important for research on meteorology and climate changes in the region.

  8. The CDF II eXtremely Fast Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorko, I; Errede, D; Gerberich, H; Junk, T; Kasten, M; Levine, S; Mokos, R; Pitts, K; Rogers, E; Veramendi, G; Azzurri, P; Donati, S; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Cochran, E; Efron, J; Gartner, J; Hughes, R; Johnson, M; Kilminster, B; Lannon, K; McKim, J; Olivito, D; Parks, B; Slaunwhite, J; Winer, B; Dittmann, J; Hewamanage, S; Krumnack, N; Wilson, J S; Erbacher, R; Forrest, R; Ivanov, A; Soha, A; Flanagan, G; Jones, T; Holm, S; Klein, R; Schmidt, E E; Scott, L; Shaw, T; Wilson, P J

    2008-01-01

    The CDF II eXtremely Fast Tracker (XFT) is the trigger processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the central tracking chamber. The XFT tracks are also extrapolated to the electromagnetic calorimeter and muon chambers to generate trigger electron and muon candidates. The XFT is crucial for the entire CDF II physics program: it detects high pT leptons from W/Z and heavy flavor decays and, in conjunction with the Level 2 processors, it identifies secondary vertices from beauty decays. The XFT has thus been crucial for the recent measurement of the oscilation and Σb discovery. The increase of the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity demanded an upgrade of the system to cope with the higher occupancy of the chamber. In the upgraded XFT, three dimensional tracking reduces the level of fake tracks and measures the longitudinal track parameters, which strongly reinforce the trigger selections. This allows to mantain the trigger perfectly efficient at the record luminosities 2–3·...

  9. Using the Everest Team Simulation to Teach Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Elizabeth; Wright, April L.

    2015-01-01

    This resource review focuses on "Leadership and Team Simulation: Everest V2" released by Harvard Business Publishing. The review describes the simulation's story line of a commercial team expedition climbing to the summit of Mount Everest along with the simulation's architecture and key features. Building on Wright and Gilmore's (2012)…

  10. Performance assessment of a dynamic current allocator for the JET eXtreme Shape Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a recently proposed dynamic allocation technique that can be effectively adopted to handle the current saturations of the Poloidal Field coils with the eXtreme Shape Controller. The proposed approach allows to automatically relax the plasma shape regulation when the reference shape requires current levels out of the available ranges, finding in real-time an optimal trade-off between shape control precision and currents saturation avoidance. In this paper the results attained during preliminary analysis are presented, showing the advantage arising from the use of the dynamic allocator, versus the bare use of the eXtreme Shape Controller.

  11. Architecture and Design in eXtreme Programming; Introducing "Developer Stories"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rolf Njor; Møller, Thomas; Sönder, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces a new practice to eXtreme Programming (XP): Developer stories. The goal of these stories and their creation process is to incorporate architectural planning to XP thus ensuring a viable architecture. By conducting a small development project using XP, we find that establis......This article introduces a new practice to eXtreme Programming (XP): Developer stories. The goal of these stories and their creation process is to incorporate architectural planning to XP thus ensuring a viable architecture. By conducting a small development project using XP, we find that...... establishing a viable architecture might be problematic. Arguing that architectural quality criteria in XP are traceable to traditional criteria, and by pointing to related work regarding incremental continous design, requirements management and large-scale refactorings, we find support for this claim. We...

  12. EVEREST: Pixel Level Decorrelation of K2 Light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Luger, Rodrigo; Kruse, Ethan; Barnes, Rory; Becker, Andrew; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Deming, Drake

    2016-01-01

    We present EVEREST, an open-source pipeline for removing instrumental noise from K2 light curves. EVEREST employs a variant of pixel level decorrelation (PLD) to remove systematics introduced by the spacecraft's pointing error and a Gaussian process (GP) to capture astrophysical variability. We apply EVEREST to all K2 targets in campaigns 0-7, yielding light curves with precision comparable to that of the original Kepler mission for stars brighter than $K_p \\approx 13$, and within a factor of two of the Kepler precision for fainter targets. We perform cross-validation and transit injection and recovery tests to validate the pipeline, and compare our light curves to the other de-trended light curves available for download at the MAST High Level Science Products archive. We find that EVEREST achieves the highest average precision of any of these pipelines for unsaturated K2 stars. The improved precision of these light curves will aid in exoplanet detection and characterization, investigations of stellar variabi...

  13. EVER-EST: a virtual research environment for Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Fulvio; Albani, Mirko; Glaves, Helen

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing requirement for researchers to work collaboratively using common resources whilst being geographically dispersed. By creating a virtual research environment (VRE) using a service oriented architecture (SOA) tailored to the needs of Earth Science (ES) communities, the EVEREST project will provide a range of both generic and domain specific data management services to support a dynamic approach to collaborative research. EVER-EST will provide the means to overcome existing barriers to sharing of Earth Science data and information allowing research teams to discover, access, share and process heterogeneous data, algorithms, results and experiences within and across their communities, including those domains beyond Earth Science. Researchers will be able to seamlessly manage both the data involved in their computationally intensive disciplines and the scientific methods applied in their observations and modelling, which lead to the specific results that need to be attributable, validated and shared both within the community and more widely e.g. in the form of scholarly communications. Central to the EVEREST approach is the concept of the Research Object (RO) , which provides a semantically rich mechanism to aggregate related resources about a scientific investigation so that they can be shared together using a single unique identifier. Although several e-laboratories are incorporating the research object concept in their infrastructure, the EVER-EST VRE will be the first infrastructure to leverage the concept of Research Objects and their application in observational rather than experimental disciplines. Development of the EVEREST VRE will leverage the results of several previous projects which have produced state-of-the-art technologies for scientific data management and curation as well those which have developed models, techniques and tools for the preservation of scientific methods and their implementation in computational forms such as

  14. EVEREST: a virtual research environment for the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, H. M.; Marelli, F.; Albani, M.

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing requirement for researchers to work collaboratively using common resources whilst being geographically dispersed. By creating a virtual research environment (VRE) using a service oriented architecture (SOA) tailored to the needs of Earth Science (ES) communities, the EVEREST project will provide a range of both generic and domain specific data management services to support a dynamic approach to collaborative research. EVER-EST will provide the means to overcome existing barriers to sharing of Earth Science data and information allowing research teams to discover, access, share and process heterogeneous data, algorithms, results and experiences within and across their communities, including those domains beyond Earth Science. Data providers will be also able to monitor user experiences and collect feedback through the VRE, improving their capacity to adapt to the changing requirements of their end-users. The EVER-EST e-infrastructure will be validated by four virtual research communities (VRC) covering different multidisciplinary ES domains: including ocean monitoring, selected natural hazards (flooding, ground instability and extreme weather events), land monitoring and risk management (volcanoes and seismicity). Each of the VRC represents a different collaborative use case for the VRE according to its own specific requirements for data, software, best practice and community engagement. The diverse use cases will demonstrate how the VRE can be used for a range of activities from straight forward data/software sharing to investigating ways to improve cooperative working. Development of the EVEREST VRE will leverage on the results of several previous projects which have produced state-of-the-art technologies for scientific data management and curation as well those initiatives which have developed models, techniques and tools for the preservation of scientific methods and their implementation in computational forms such as scientific workflows.

  15. Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Shea; Immerzeel, W. W.; Wagnon, P.; Vincent, C.; Bajracharya, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to simulate historical and future glacier change in the Everest region of Nepal. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded APHRODITE data, and validated against independent station observations from the EVK2CNR network, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived esti...

  16. Tracking Change in rapid and eXtreme Development: A Challenge to SCM-tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2001-01-01

    Software configuration management (SCM) has proved to be an invaluable part of developing and maintaining high quality software. The benefits are not for free however: SCM tool operations often divert your attention from your development task, sometimes you have to endure a long waiting time while...... the tool does its job, change descriptions must be memorised until your next check-in, etc. This kind of overhead and disruption does not fit well with fast-paced development processes like rapid prototyping, explorative programming, and eXtreme Programming that favour creativity, speed, and...... communication more that managerial rigour. In the cost/benefit equation the balance may tip in favour of not using any SCM tool or only using a fraction of its potential. We think SCM has something to offer such projects, and present some proposals that may allow SCM tools to better suit the characteristics of...

  17. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Everest, Kansas in 2011.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-12-19

    Everest, Kansas, is a small rural community (population approximately 300) located in the southeast corner of Brown County, in the northeastern corner of Kansas. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform contamination in groundwater at Everest was initially identified in 1997 as a result of testing performed under the Commodity Credit Corporation/U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) private well sampling program conducted by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The KDHE collected samples from seven private wells in and near Everest. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform were found in only one of the wells, the Donnie Nigh domestic well (owned at that time by Tim Gale), approximately 3/8 mi northwest of the former Everest CCC/USDA facility. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform were detected at 121 {mu}g/L and 4 {mu}g/L, respectively. Nitrate was found at 12.62 mg/L. The USDA subsequently connected the Nigh residence to the Everest public water supply system. The findings of the 2011 monitoring at Everest support the following conclusions: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually during annual monitoring in 2009-2011 (and through the use of automatic recorders in 2002-2010) have consistently indicated an initial direction of groundwater flow from the former CCC/USDA facility to the north-northwest and toward the Nigh property, then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) At most of the monitored locations, carbon tetrachloride concentrations decreased in April 2011 relative to 2010 results. Noteworthy decreases of > 50% occurred at locations MW4, MW60, and MW88, in the most concentrated part of the plume. (3) Comparison of accumulated data demonstrates that the area of the carbon tetrachloride plume with concentrations > 200 {mu}g/L has decreased markedly over time and suggests a generally decreasing trend in contaminant levels. (4) The

  18. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Everest, Kansas, in 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-21

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) began its environmental investigations at Everest, Kansas, in 2000. The work at Everest is implemented on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The results of the environmental investigations have been reported in detail (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The lateral extent of the carbon tetrachloride in groundwater over the years of investigation has been interpreted as shown in Figure 1.1 (2001-2002 data), Figure 1.2 (2006 data), Figure 1.3 (2008 data), and Figure 1.4 (2009 data). The pattern of groundwater flow and inferred contaminant migration has consistently been to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property (e.g., Figure 1.5 [2008 data] and Figure 1.6 [2009 data]). Both the monitoring data for carbon tetrachloride and the low groundwater flow rates estimated for the Everest aquifer unit (Argonne 2003, 2006a,b, 2008) indicate slow contaminant migration. On the basis of the accumulated findings, in March 2009 the CCC/USDA developed a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water. This current monitoring plan (Appendix A in the report of monitoring in 2009 [Argonne 2010]) was approved by the KDHE (2009a). Under this plan, the monitoring wells are sampled by the low-flow procedure, and sample preservation, shipping, and analysis activities are consistent with previous work at Everest. The annual sampling will continue until identified conditions at the site indicate a technical justification for a change. The first annual sampling event under the new monitoring plan took place in April 2009. The results of analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and water level measurements were consistent with previous observations (Figures 1.1-1.4). No carbon tetrachloride was detected in surface

  19. The EVEREST project: sensitivity analysis of geological disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the EVEREST project is the evaluation of the sensitivity of the radiological consequences associated with the geological disposal of radioactive waste to the different elements in the performance assessment. Three types of geological host formations are considered: clay, granite and salt. The sensitivity studies that have been carried out can be partitioned into three categories according to the type of uncertainty taken into account: uncertainty in the model parameters, uncertainty in the conceptual models and uncertainty in the considered scenarios. Deterministic as well as stochastic calculational approaches have been applied for the sensitivity analyses. For the analysis of the sensitivity to parameter values, the reference technique, which has been applied in many evaluations, is stochastic and consists of a Monte Carlo simulation followed by a linear regression. For the analysis of conceptual model uncertainty, deterministic and stochastic approaches have been used. For the analysis of uncertainty in the considered scenarios, mainly deterministic approaches have been applied

  20. Airborne reconnaissance and Mount Everest: an historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    1994-10-01

    In 1933, aerial cameras had been developed that worked essentially as they do today. Aerial surveys were made, stereo plotters produced maps, and the science of photogrammetry was advancing. However, aircraft development had a long way to go before the SR-71 came along. Over the years, the general complexity of taking photographs from above increased by orders of magnitude. A 1933 British flight in two bi-wing aircraft over Mount Everest on an aerial survey mission is compared to a 1984 Space Shuttle flight dedicated to aerial, or more accurately, space photography. The comparison leads to the conclusion that in exploration, it is important that people involved must be given latitude to exercise self-initiative if we are to be successful in the exploration of the solar system and galaxy.

  1. Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Shea

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to simulate historical and future glacier change in the Everest region of Nepal. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded APHRODITE data, and validated against independent station observations from the EVK2CNR network, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived estimates of net glacier mass change from 1992 to 2008, termini position of four large glaciers at the end of the calibration period, average velocities observed on selected debris-covered glaciers, and total glacierized area. We integrate field-based observations of glacier mass balance and ice thickness with remotely-sensed observations of decadal glacier change to validate the model. Between 1961 and 2007, the mean modelled volume change over the Dudh Kosi basin is −6.4 ± 1.5 km3, a decrease of 15.6% from the original estimated ice volume in 1961. Modelled glacier area change between 1961 and 2007 is −101.0 ± 11.4 km2, a decrease of approximately 20% from the initial extent. Scenarios of future climate change, based on CMIP5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 end members, suggest that glaciers in the Everest region will continue to lose mass through the 21st century. Glaciers in the basin are concentrated between 5000 and 6000 m of elevation, and are thus expected to be sensitive to changes in temperature and equilibrium line altitude (ELA. Glacier volume reductions between −35 to −62% are possible by 2050, and sustained temperature increases to 2100 may result in total glacier volume losses of between −73 and −96%.

  2. Weather And Death On Mount Everest: An Analysis Of The Into Thin Air Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. W. K.; Semple, John L.

    2006-04-01

    Scientific interest in Mount Everest has been largely focused on the physiology of hypoxia caused by the summit's low barometric pressure. Although weather is recognized as a significant risk for climbers on the mountain, it has not been extensively studied. In this paper, we reconstruct the meteorological conditions associated with the deadly outbreak of high-impact weather on Mount Everest that occurred in May 1996 and was the subject of the best-selling book Into Thin Air. The authors show that during this event, two jet streaks—an upper-level short-wave trough and an intrusion of stratospheric air into the upper troposphere—were present in the vicinity of Mount Everest. Meanwhile, in the lower troposphere, there was convergence of water vapor transport from both the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal into the region to the south of Mount Everest. The authors propose that the ageostrophic circulation associated with the upper-level features resulted in a region of large-scale ascent near Mount Everest that, in combination with the anomalous availability of moisture in the region, triggered convective activity. The resulting high-impact weather trapped over 20 climbers on Mount Everest's exposed upper slopes leading to the deaths of 8. These synoptic-scale characteristics provide some expectation of predicting life-threatening high-altitude storms in the Himalayas. In addition, the authors argue that the falling barometric pressure and the presence of ozone-rich stratospheric air that occurred near the summit of Mount Everest during this event could have shifted a coping climber from a state of brittle tolerance to physiological distress.

  3. A population approach to renal replacement therapy epidemiology: lessons from the EVEREST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Fergus J; Jager, Kitty J

    2014-08-01

    The marked variation that exists in renal replacement therapy (RRT) epidemiology between countries and within countries requires careful systematic examination if the root causes are to be understood. While individual patient-level studies are undoubtedly important, there is a complementary role for more population-level, area-based studies--an aetiological approach. The EVEREST Study adopted such an approach, bringing RRT incidence rates, survival and modality mix together with macroeconomic factors, general population factors and renal service organizational factors for up to 46 countries. This review considers the background to EVEREST, its key results and then the main methodological lessons and their potential application to ongoing work. PMID:24166464

  4. Radwaste disposal in clay E.C. Everest Project, IPSN contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EVEREST project (European Commission programme) aims to evaluate the elements responsible for the dose equivalent associated with the disposal in deep geological formations of radioactive waste and to identify the main features controlling the radionuclide transfer up to human beings for both High-Level Waste (HLW) and Medium-Level Waste (MLW). This presentation deals with IPSN results concerning disposal in clay formations

  5. Surpassing Mt. Everest: extreme flight performance of alpine bumble-bees

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Michael E.; Dudley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Animal flight at altitude involves substantial aerodynamic and physiological challenges. Hovering at high elevations is particularly demanding from the dual perspectives of lift and power output; nevertheless, some volant insects reside and fly at elevations in excess of 4000 m. Here, we demonstrate that alpine bumble-bees possess substantial aerodynamic reserves, and can sustain hovering flight under hypobaria at effective elevations in excess of 9000 m, i.e. higher than Mt. Everest. Modulat...

  6. Radwaste disposal in granite - E.C. Everest project, IPSN contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EVEREST project (evaluation of elements responsible for the dose equivalents associated with the final disposal of both vitrified High-Level Waste and Medium-Level Waste) is an international study, launched in 1991 by the European Commission. Its objective is to assess, using deterministic and stochastic approaches, the magnitude of the changes in performance estimators due to uncertainties and variabilities in different elements involved in the performance assessment, such as parameter values, conceptual models, scenario characteristics and future states of the repository system

  7. Climatological significance of an ice core net-accumulation record at Mt. Qomolangma (Everest)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An ice core record at Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) since 1954 reveals a sharp decline in net-accumulation in the 1960s, and the annual net-accumulation during the 1970s to the beginning of the 1990s is only half of that at the end of the 1950s. The decreased net-accumulation is coincident with glacier retreat, which is associated with recent temperature increase in the region that intensified the ablation. Under the background of global warming, such glacier variation trends will aggravate.

  8. 23rd May 2011 - University of Liverpool Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Public Orator K. Everest (UK) Mrs Everest in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson D. Charlton, in LHCb surface building with Collaboration Spokesperson A. Golutvin, accompanied throughout by P. Wells and Liverpool University T. Bowcock and M. Klein.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilen Brice

    2011-01-01

    23rd May 2011 - University of Liverpool Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Public Orator K. Everest (UK) Mrs Everest in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson D. Charlton, in LHCb surface building with Collaboration Spokesperson A. Golutvin, accompanied throughout by P. Wells and Liverpool University T. Bowcock and M. Klein.

  9. Microbial community structure in major habitats above 6000 m on Mount Everest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial abundance in surface snow between 6600 and 8000 m a.s.l. On the northern slope of Mt. Everest was investigated by flow cytometry. Bacterial diversity in serac ice at 6000 m a.s.l., glacier meltwater at 6350 m, and surface snow at 6600 m a.s.l. Was examined by constructing a 16S rRNA gene clone library. Bacterial abundance in snow was higher than that in the Antarctic but similar to other mountain regions in the world. Bacterial abundance in surface snow increased with altitude but showed no correlation with chemical parameters. Bacteria in the cryosphere on Mt. Everest were closely related to those isolated from soil, aquatic environments, plants, animals, humans and other frozen environments. Bacterial community structures in major habitats above 6000 m were variable. The Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group absolutely dominated in glacial meltwater, while β-Proteobacteria and the CFB group dominated in serac ice, and β-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated in surface snow. The remarkable differences among the habitats were most likely due to the bacterial post-deposition changes during acclimation processes.

  10. The dynamics of supraglacial water storage in the Everest region, central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. Scott; Quincey, Duncan J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Smith, Mark W.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of supraglacial pond development in the Everest region are not well constrained at a glacier scale, despite their known importance for meltwater storage, promoting ablation, and transmitting thermal energy englacially during drainage events. Here, we use fine-resolution (~ 0.5-2 m) satellite imagery to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of 9340 supraglacial ponds across nine glaciers in the Everest region, ~ 2000-2015. Six of our nine study glaciers displayed a net increase in ponded area over their observation periods. However, large inter- and intra-annual changes in ponded area were observed of up to 17% (Khumbu Glacier), and 52% (Ama Dablam) respectively. Additionally, two of the fastest expanding lakes (Spillway and Rongbuk) partially drained over our study period. The Khumbu Glacier is developing a chain of connected ponds in the lower ablation area, which is indicative of a trajectory towards large lake development. We show that use of medium-resolution imagery (e.g. 30 m Landsat) is likely to lead to large classification omissions of supraglacial ponds, on the order of 15-88% of ponded area, and 77-99% of the total number of ponds. Fine-resolution imagery is therefore required if the full spectrum of ponds that exist on the surface of debris-covered glaciers are to be analysed.

  11. Measurements of radioactive and stable sulfur isotopes at Mt. Everest and its geochemical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.; Thiemens, M. H.; Zhang, Q.; Li, C.; Kang, S.; Hsu, S. C.; Zhang, Z.; Su, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Himalayas were recently identified as a global hotspot for deep stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) during spring [1]. Although STT transport in this region may play a vital role in tropospheric chemistry, the hydrological cycle and aquatic ecosystems in Asia, there is no direct measurement of a specific chemical stratospheric tracer to verify and evaluate its possible impact. Here, cosmogenic 35S tracer (half-life: ~87 days) produced in the stratosphere was measured for the first time in surface snow and river runoff samples collected at Mt. Everest in April 2013 using a low-noise liquid scintillation spectroscopy [2]. Strikingly, we find extraordinarily high concentrations of 35S in these samples (>10 times higher than the southern Tibetan Plateau), verifying the Himalayas as a gateway of springtime STT. In light of this, two studies were conducted: a) Measurements of 35SO2 and 35SO42- at the southern Tibetan Plateau reveals that the oxidative life time of SO2 is reduced to 2.1 days under the influence of aged stratospheric air masses from the Himalayas. A concept box model for estimating the influence of STT on surface O3 using 35S tracer is proposed. b) Quadruple stable sulfur isotopes in a sediment core (~250 years) from the Gokyo Lake (the world's highest freshwater lake) [3] near Mt. Everest are being measured to investigate the possible impact of STT on sulfur budget at the Himalayas. The absence of sulfide suggests that bacterial sulfate reduction may be negligible in this lake. Enrichment of uranium (EF ≈ 10) in 20th century samples highlights the impact of atmospheric deposition. S-isotope sulfate anomalies are not found (∆33S and ∆36S ≈ 0‰), implying that sulfate in this lake may be mainly contributed by eolian dust or derived from rock. This is also supported by the low enrichments of most trace elements (EF ≈ 1). Rare earth elements will be used to assist in identifying the potential sources and interpreting the variation of

  12. Surpassing Mt. Everest: extreme flight performance of alpine bumble-bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael E; Dudley, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Animal flight at altitude involves substantial aerodynamic and physiological challenges. Hovering at high elevations is particularly demanding from the dual perspectives of lift and power output; nevertheless, some volant insects reside and fly at elevations in excess of 4000 m. Here, we demonstrate that alpine bumble-bees possess substantial aerodynamic reserves, and can sustain hovering flight under hypobaria at effective elevations in excess of 9000 m, i.e. higher than Mt. Everest. Modulation of stroke amplitude and not wingbeat frequency is the primary means of compensation for overcoming the aerodynamic challenge. The presence of such excess capacity in a high-altitude bumble-bee is surprising and suggests intermittent behavioural demands for extreme flight performance supplemental to routine foraging. PMID:24501268

  13. Seasonal features of aerosol particles recorded in snow from Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) and their environmental implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Zhiyuan; KANG Shichang; QIN Dahe

    2009-01-01

    To assess the seasonality of aerosol deposition and anthropogenic effects on central Himalayas, a 1.85-m deep snow pit was dug on the northern slope of Mr. Qomolangma (Everest). Based on the morphology and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) signal, totally 1500 particles were classed into 7 groups: soot; aluminosilicates; fly ash; calcium sulfates; Ca/Mg carbonates; metal oxides; and biological particles and carbon fragments. The size distribution and number fractions of different particle groups exhibited distinct seasonal variations between non-monsoon and monsoon periods, which are clearly related to the differences in air mass pathways. Specifically, the relative abundance of soot in non-monsoon period (25%) was much higher than that in monsoon period (14%), indicating Mr. Qomolangma region received more anthropogenic influence in non-monsoon than monsoon period.

  14. 基于MapXtreme的雷电实时监测预警系统设计与实现%Design and Realization of Lightning Real-time Monitoring and Warning System Based on MapXtreme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳军; 吕爽; 方国强; 向继涛

    2011-01-01

    在MapXtreme结构的基础上,构建基于MapXtreme的雷电实时监测预警系统.该系统实现雷电探测站点运行状态和闪电数据的实时监控,查询历史闪电数据及根据过往闪电资料做出临近预报预警,该系统在四川省雷电业务分析中起了重要的作用.%Based on MapXtreme structure, a real-time monitoring and warning system of lightning based on MapXtreme is constructed. This system achieves real-time monitoring of lightning detection site running and lightning data, queries of historical lightning data, and makes now forecasting warning based on historical lightning data. The system plays an important role in Sichuan province lighting data analysis.

  15. Scenario selection procedures in the framework of the CEC EVEREST project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the EVEREST project directed by the Commission of the European Communities, five organization involved in waste management have harmonized their methodologies for selecting a final set of scenarios to be considered for sensitivity analysis studies associated with safety assessment of deep nuclear waste repositories. Three types of rock formation are being considered: clay, granite and salt. The systematic scenario approach in its different forms has been chosen by the regulatory authorities of most countries involved in the project. This approach recommends a detailed and well documented step by step procedure leading to a limited set of well characterized scenarios covering all aspects of the possible future events or combinations of events affecting the repository site. Following this general line, different logical schemes have been chosen and used by the parties involved in the project. The independent initiating event methodology (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion de Dechets Radioactifs and Institut de protection et de Surete Nucleaire, France) is based on the production of a limited list of about twenty independent initiating events with associated induced events and processes. The PROSA methodology (Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland; CEN/SCK, Belgium), which is based on a variant of the 'top-down' approach, starts from a comprehensive list of about 150 features, events and processes which can be associated with specific states of the barriers composing the system. The transport mechanism methodology approach (Gesellschaft fuer Reacktorsicherheit, Germany) is based on the selection of nuclide transport mechanisms combined with the entities which have an influence on these mechanisms. These schemes result in a final list of scenarios which are quite similar for the same site and rock formation. In the framework of EVEREST these scenarios are treated in a qualitative or semiquantitative manner or are analysed in detail with the associated

  16. Demo 94. Campana de vacío : hinchar un globo sin soplar y cocer un huevo en el Everest

    OpenAIRE

    Garro Martínez, Núria

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: a) Hinchar un globo sin soplar: Experimentar la relación entre el volumen y la presión de los gases. Demostrar que es posible hinchar un globo sin insuflar aire en su interior, reduciendo la presión (atmosférica). b) Cocer un huevo en el Everest: Comprobar la disminución del punto de ebullición del agua al reducir la presión (atmosférica)

  17. Medicines, Travellers and the Introduction and Spread of ‘Modern’ Medicine in the Mt Everest Region of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Heydon, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The significant contribution of medicines in the introduction and spread of ‘modern’ medicine has, with the exception of vaccination, been neglected in historical studies, yet medicines have been a significant factor in people’s experiences of sickness and in their use and non-use of health services. Although medicines are implicitly acknowledged in the literature as important in the provision of healthcare, this article uses a case study of the Mt Everest region of Nepal during the second ha...

  18. Improving the scientific research for the Geohazard Supersites through a Virtual Research Environment: the H2020 EVER-EST Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasatti, Elisa; Salvi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The EU's H2020 EVER-EST Project is dedicated to the realization of a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) for Earth Science researchers, during 2015-2018. EVER-EST implements innovative and state-of-the-art technologies in the area of Earth Science data catalogues, data access/processing and long-term data preservation together with models, techniques and tools for the computational methods, such as scientific workflows. The VRE is designed with the aim of providing the Earth Science user community with an innovative framework, enhancing their ability to interoperate and share knowledge and experience. Therefore, the VRE is user-centric and focuses the e-infrastructure capabilities in order to satisfy the needs of different Virtual Research Communities. Four use cases have been chosen to validate the e-infrastructure and the GEO Geohazard Supersites is one of them. EVER-EST will help the exploitation of the full potential of the GEO Geohazard Supersite and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) initiative demonstrating the use case in the Permanent Supersites of Mt Etna, Campi Flegrei-Vesuvius, and Icelandic volcanoes. Besides providing tools for active volcanoes monitoring and studies, we intend to demonstrate how a more organized and collaborative research environment, such as a VRE, can improve the quality of the scientific research on the Geohazard Supersites, addressing at the same time the problem of the slow uptake of scientific research findings in Disaster Risk Management. Presently, the full exploitation of the in situ and satellite data made available for each Supersite is delayed by the difficult access (especially for researchers in developing countries) to intensive processing and modelling capabilities. EVER-EST will provide these means and also a friendly virtual environment for the easy transfer of scientific knowledge as soon as it is acquired, promoting collaboration among researchers located in distant regions of the world. A further benefit will be to

  19. Determination of the Quasi-Geoid of Xinjiang and Tibet Areas and the Normal Height of Mt. Everest Based on EGM2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenBin Shen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The normal height H* is the height above the quasi-geoid, which coincides with the geoid in the ocean but slightly deviates from the geoid in terrestrial areas. In Mainland China, the height datum system is based on the quasi-geoid. The GPS technique provides the geodetic coordinates of an arbitrary point P on the ground with an accuracy of better than 1 cm. Hence, if the quasi-geoid is given, the normal height can subsequently be determined. In this study, we focus on the determination of the quasi-geoid of the Xinjiang and Tibet areas with a spatial resolution of 5' _ 5' as well as the normal height of Mt. Everest based on a newly released gravity field model EGM2008, which is complete to a degree and order of 2159. We determine the quasi-geoid of Xinjiang and Tibet areas using the digital elevation model of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, and determine the normal height of Mt. Everest using its geodetic coordinates provided by the Chinese State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping. Based upon the framework of Molodensky theory and EGM2008, we determined the 5' _ 5' quasi-geoid of the Xinjiang and Tibet areas and the normal height of Mt. Everest. Our results show that: (1 the accuracy of the determined 5' _ 5' quasi-geoid of Xinjiang and Tibet areas is around 0.2 m compared with 21 GPS leveling points distributed quite separately in the Xinjiang area (in the Tibet area the GPS/leveling data are not available except for the point at Mt. Everest; (2 the normal height of Mt. Everest is 8847.20 m, which is very close to the value provided by the fourth geodetic surveying campaign on Mt. Everest by the Chinese State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping (the difference is 0.1 m.

  20. SPHERE eXtreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, C.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Fusco, T.; Sevin, A.; Suarez, M.; Costille, A.; Vigan, A.; Soenke, C.; Perret, D.; Rochat, S.; Barrufolo, A.; Salasnich, B.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Dohlen, K.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Wildi, F.; Kasper, M.; Conan, J.-M.; Kulcsár, C.; Raynaud, H.-F.

    2014-08-01

    The SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetry High-contrast Exoplanet Research) instrument is an ESO project aiming at the direct detection of extra-solar planets. SPHERE has been successfully integrated and tested in Europe end 2013 and has been re-integrated at Paranal in Chile early 2014 for a first light at the beginning of May. The heart of the SPHERE instrument is its eXtreme Adaptive Optics (XAO) SAXO (SPHERE AO for eXoplanet Observation) subsystem that provides extremely high correction of turbulence and very accurate stabilization of images for coronagraphic purpose. However, SAXO, as well as the overall instrument, must also provide constant operability overnights, ensuring robustness and autonomy. An original control scheme has been developed to satisfy this challenging dichotomy. It includes in particular both an Optimized Modal Gain Integrator (OMGI) to control the Deformable Mirror (DM) and a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control law to manage the tip-tilt (TT) mirror. LQG allows optimal estimation and prediction of turbulent angle of arrival but also of possible vibrations. A specific and unprecedented control scheme has been developed to continuously adapt and optimize LQG control ensuring a constant match to turbulence and vibrations characteristics. SPHERE is thus the first operational system implementing LQG, with automatic adjustment of its models. SAXO has demonstrated performance beyond expectations during tests in Europe, in spite of internal limitations. Very first results have been obtained on sky last May. We thus come back to SAXO control scheme, focusing in particular on the LQG based TT control and the various upgrades that have been made to enhance further the performance ensuring constant operability and robustness. We finally propose performance assessment based on in lab performance and first on sky results and discuss further possible improvements.

  1. Thermal Resistances in the Everest Area derived from Satellite Imagery using a Nonlinear Energy Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounce, D.; McKinney, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    Debris cover has a large impact on sub-debris ablation rates and glacier evolution. A thin debris layer may enhance ablation by reducing albedo increasing radiation absorption, while thicker debris insulates the glacier causing ablation to decrease. Debris thickness, thermal conductivity, and meteorological conditions may be measured in the field, but they require extensive fieldwork (Brock et al., 2010; Nicholson and Benn, 2012). This has forced many simplifications and assumptions in models. Satellite imagery combined with an energy balance model has been used with to extract information about debris cover remotely (Nakawo and Rana, 1999; Zhang et al., 2011). The spatial distribution of thermal resistances derived from these studies have agreed well with field values; however, the values were considerably lower than the field values. The difference has been attributed to the mixed pixel effect. Foster et al. (2012) developed an energy balance model that agrees well with debris thickness measured in the field. The model requires knowledge of the thermal conductivity and utilizes a relationship between air and surface temperature to lower sensible heat fluxes. We derive thermal resistances of debris-covered glaciers from satellite imagery in the Everest area. Previous satellite studies have assumed a linear debris temperature gradient, which is valid for time periods of 24 hours or greater (Nicholson and Benn, 2006); however, gradients during the day are nonlinear (Nicholson and Benn, 2006; Reid and Brock, 2010). Landsat 7 imagery is used to account for the non-linear gradient, using the ratio of temperature gradient in the upper 10cm versus the entire debris thickness. These values are derived from temperature profiles on Ngozumpa Glacier (Nicholson, 2004). Meteorological data are obtained from the Pyramid Station. The derived thermal resistances agree well with those found on debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region. Brock, B., Mihalcea, C., Kirkbride, M

  2. Sedimentological, geomorphological and dynamic context of debris-mantled glaciers, Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) region, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrey, Michael J.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Glasser, Neil F.; Reynolds, John M.; Richardson, Shaun J.; Clemmens, Samuel

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents the sediment, landform and dynamic context of four avalanche-fed valley glaciers (Khumbu, Imja, Lhotse and Chukhung) in the Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) region of Nepal. All four glaciers have a mantle of debris dominated by sandy boulder-gravel that suppresses melting to an increasing degree towards the snout, leading to a progressive reduction in the overall slope of their longitudinal profile. Prominent lateral-terminal moraine complexes, also comprising sandy bouldergravel, enclose the glaciers. These terminal moraines originally grew by accretion of multiple sedimentary facies of basal glacial and supraglacial origin, probably by folding and thrusting when the glaciers were more dynamic during the Little Ice Age. The four glaciers are in various stages of recession, and demonstrate a range of scenarios from down-wasting of the glacier tongue, through morainedammed lake development, to post-moraine-dam breaching. Khumbu Glacier is at the earliest stage of supraglacial pond formation and shows no sign yet of developing a major lake, although one is likely to develop behind its >250 m high composite terminal moraine. Imja Glacier terminates in a substantial body of water behind a partially ice-cored moraine dam (as determined from geophysical surveys), but morphologically appears unlikely to be an immediate threat. Chukhung Glacier already has a breached moraine and a connected debris fan, and therefore no longer poses a threat. Lhotse Glacier has an inclined, free-draining tongue that precludes hazardous lake development. From the data assembled, a conceptual model, applicable to other Himalayan glaciers, is proposed to explain the development of large, lateral-terminal moraine complexes and associated potentially hazardous moraine dams. - 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved .

  3. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: Multi-centric results from EVEREST experience in large cohort of patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmetti, Giovanni Carlo, E-mail: giovanni.anselmetti@ircc.it [Interventional Radiology Unit, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Strada Provinciale No. 142, Km. 3, 95, 10060 Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Marcia, Stefano, E-mail: stemarcia@gmail.com [Radiology Unit, ASL8 Cagliari, SS. Trinità Hospital, Via Is Mirrionis 92, 09121 Cagliari (Italy); Saba, Luca, E-mail: lucasaba@tiscali.it [Radiology Unit, University of Cagliari, Policlinico Universitario, ss 554, Monserrato, 09127 Cagliari (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Unit, AORN Cardarelli, Via A. Cardarelli No. 9, 80131 Napoli (Italy); Bonaldi, Giuseppe, E-mail: bonaldi@mail.org [Neuroradiology Unit, Riuniti di Bergamo, Largo Barozzi, 124128 Bergamo (Italy); Carpeggiani, Paolo, E-mail: p.carpeggiani@ausl.mo.it [Neuroradiology Unit, Policlinico di Modena, Via Dal Pozzo 17, Modena (Italy); Marini, Stefano, E-mail: stemarini@gmail.com [Radiology Unit, University of Cagliari, San Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Via Ospedale 46, 09127 Cagliari (Italy); Manca, Antonio, E-mail: anto.manca@gmail.com [Interventional Radiology Unit, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Strada Provinciale No. 142, Km. 3, 95, 10060 Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Masala, Salvatore, E-mail: salva.masala@tiscali.it [Radiology Unit, Diagnostic Imaging Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate results and complications of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) performed in 6 different Italian Centres belonging to the European VErtebroplasty RESearch Team (E.VE.RES.T) in a large series of patients. Materials and methods: Follow-up was obtained in 4547 patients (3211 females and 1336 males; mean age 70.2 years) that underwent PV for a total of 13.437 treated vertebrae. Procedures were performed by using fluoroscopic guidance or combined CT-fluoroscopic guidance. All patients underwent PV in local anaesthesia except for second cervical vertebrae treated with a trans-oral approach that required general anaesthesia. Results: 4004 out of 4547 (88.0%) patients reported significant pain relief (difference > or = 2 point in pain evaluated with an 11-point visual analogue scale; p < 0.0001) within 48 h: an average of 7.7 ± 0.4 dropped to 1.8 ± 0.6 in the osteoporotic patients; 8.3 ± 0.4 to 2.4 ± 0.4 in metastases; 8.3 ± 0.4 to 1.7 ± 1.0 in myeloma; 6.2 ± 3.5 to 0.3 ± 0.2 in angioma and 7.4 ± 0.4 to 1.4 ± 0.9 in trauma. 430 osteoporotic patients (13%) were retreated for a subsequent fracture; in 302/430 patients (70.2%), the new fracture occurred in the contiguous vertebra. No major neurologic complications were reported and the most frequent minor complication was venous leakage (20.5%). Conclusions: This large series of patients confirms that percutaneous vertebroplasty is an effective and safe procedure in the treatment of vertebral fractures. Best results are obtained in the treatment of myeloma and trauma.

  4. A strategy for determining arterial blood gases on the summit of Mt. Everest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell Frank L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climbers on the summit of Mt. Everest are exposed to extreme hypoxia, and the physiological implications are of great interest. Inferences have been made from alveolar gas samples collected on the summit, but arterial blood samples would give critical information. We propose a plan to insert an arterial catheter at an altitude of 8000 m, take blood samples above this using an automatic sampler, store the samples in glass syringes in an ice-water slurry, and analyze them lower on the mountain 4 to 6 hours later. Results A preliminary design of the automatic sampler was successfully tested at the White Mountain Research Station (altitude 3800 m – 4300 m. To determine how much the blood gases changed over a long period, rabbit blood was tonometered to give a gas composition close to that expected on the summit (PO2 4.0 kPa (30 mmHg, PCO2 1.3 kPa (10 mmHg, pH 7.7 and the blood gases were measured every 2 hours for 8 hours both at sea level and 3800 m. The mean changes were PO2 +0.3 to +0.4 kPa (+2 to +3 mmHg, PCO2 0 to +0.13 kPa (+1 mmHg, pH -0.02 to -0.04, base excess -0.7 to -1.2 mM. In practice the delay before analysis should not exceed 4 to 6 hours. The small paradoxical rise in PO2 is presumably caused mainly by contamination of the blood with air. Conclusion We conclude that automatic arterial blood sampling at high altitude is technically feasible and that the changes in the blood gases over a period of several hours are acceptably small.

  5. Rongbuk re-visited: Geochronology of leucogranites in the footwall of the South Tibetan Detachment System, Everest Region, Southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, John M.; Searle, Michael P.; Jessup, Micah J.; Crowley, James L.; Law, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    The Hermit's Gorge area adjacent to the Rongbuk Glacier on the north side of Mount Everest is a critical location to establish the timing and duration of movement along the ductile strand of the South Tibetan Detachment system (STDS), a low-angle, north-dipping normal fault that bounds the upper part of the Greater Himalayan Sequence. Monazite from four leucogranite samples in the Hermit's Gorge that bracket the timing of ductile fabric development has been dated using both U/Th-Pb ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICPMS. Results suggest that the earliest, ~ 16.4 Ma, leucogranite sills have been folded and deformed along with the host sillimanite gneisses and calc-silicates whereas structurally higher sills and dykes that post-date fabric development are slightly younger, all within uncertainty of one another at 15.6 to 15.4 Ma. Field relations combined with age data constrain ductile fabric formation associated with movement along this strand of the STDS as being on-going at 16.4 Ma but had ceased prior to 15.6 Ma, while brittle faulting along the STDS is younger than 15.4 Ma. Combined with data from the Everest massif and surrounding region, ages of granite crystallization and ductile shearing propagated up-structural section and northward with time.

  6. Thermal resistances in the Everest Area (Nepal Himalaya) derived from satellite imagery using a nonlinear energy balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounce, D. R.; McKinney, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    Debris thickness is an important characteristic of many debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region of the Himalayas. The debris thickness controls the melt rates of the glaciers, which has large implications for hydrologic models, the glaciers response to climate change, and the development of glacial lakes. Despite its importance, there is little knowledge of how the debris thickness varies over these glaciers. This paper uses an energy balance model in conjunction with Landsat7 ETM+ satellite imagery to derive thermal resistances, which is the debris thickness divided by the thermal conductivity. The developed model accounts for the nonlinear temperature gradient in the debris cover to derive accurate thermal resistances. Fieldwork performed on Lhotse Shar/Imja glacier in September 2013 was used to validate the satellite-derived thermal resistances. Results indicate that accounting for the nonlinear temperature gradient is crucial. Furthermore, correcting the incoming shortwave radiation term for the effects of topography and including the turbulent heat fluxes is imperative to derive accurate thermal resistances. Since the topographic correction is important, the model will improve with the quality of the DEM. The main limitation of this work is the poor resolution (60 m) of the satellite's thermal band. The derived thermal resistances are accurate at this resolution, but are unable to derive trends related to slope and aspect on a finer scale. Nonetheless, the study finds this model derives accurate thermal resistances on this scale and is transferable to other debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region.

  7. Response of debris-covered glaciers in the Mount Everest region to recent warming, and implications for outburst flood hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, D. I.; Bolch, T.; Hands, K.; Gulley, J.; Luckman, A.; Nicholson, L. I.; Quincey, D.; Thompson, S.; Toumi, R.; Wiseman, S.

    2012-08-01

    In areas of high relief, many glaciers have extensive covers of supraglacial debris in their ablation zones, which alters both rates and spatial patterns of melting, with important consequences for glacier response to climate change. Wastage of debris-covered glaciers can be associated with the formation of large moraine-dammed lakes, posing risk of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs). In this paper, we use observations of glaciers in the Mount Everest region to present an integrated view of debris-covered glacier response to climate change, which helps provide a long-term perspective on evolving GLOF risks. In recent decades, debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region have been losing mass at a mean rate of ~ 0.32 m yr- 1, although in most cases there has been little or no change in terminus position. Mass loss occurs by 4 main processes: (1) melting of clean ice close to glacier ELAs; (2) melting beneath surface debris; (3) melting of ice cliffs and calving around the margins of supraglacial ponds; and (4) calving into deep proglacial lakes. Modelling of processes (1) and (2) shows that Everest-region glaciers typically have an inverted ablation gradient in their lower reaches, due to the effects of a down-glacier increase in debris thickness. Mass loss is therefore focused in the mid parts of glacier ablation zones, causing localised surface lowering and a reduction in downglacier surface gradient, which in turn reduce driving stress and glacier velocity, so the lower ablation zones of many glaciers are now stagnant. Model results also indicate that increased summer temperatures have raised the altitude of the rain-snow transition during the summer monsoon period, reducing snow accumulation and ice flux to lower elevations. As downwasting proceeds, formerly efficient supraglacial and englacial drainage networks are broken up, and supraglacial lakes form in hollows on the glacier surface. Ablation rates around supraglacial lakes are typically one or two

  8. Quantification of Everest region glacier velocities between 1992 and 2002, using satellite radar interferometry and feature tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincey, D. J.; Luckman, A.; Benn, D.

    Many glacier snouts in the Himalaya are known to be stagnant and exhibiting low surface gradients, conditions that are conducive to the formation of glacial lakes impounded either by the terminal moraine or by the remnant glacier snout. In this study, we use interferometry and feature-tracking techniques to quantify the extent of stagnation in 20 glaciers across the Everest (Qomolangma; Sagarmatha) region, and subsequently we examine the relationship between local catchment topography and ice dynamics. The results show that only one of the studied glaciers, Kangshung Glacier, is dynamic across its entire surface, with flow rates greater than 40 m a-1 being recorded in high-elevation areas. Twelve other glaciers show some evidence of flow, but are generally characterized by long, stagnant tongues, indicating widespread recession and in situ decay. The remaining seven glaciers show no evidence of flow in any of the available datasets. Hypsometric data suggest that catchment topography plays an important role in controlling glacier flow regimes, with those fed by wide, high-altitude accumulation areas showing the most extensive active ice, and those originating at low elevations exhibiting large areas of stagnant ice. Surface profiles extracted from a SRTM digital elevation model indicate that stagnant snouts are characterized by very low (<2°) surface angles and that down-wasting is the prevalent ablation pattern in the study area.

  9. Debris-covered energy balance model for Imja-Lhotse Shar Glacier in the Everest region of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Rounce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Debris thickness plays an important role in regulating ablation rates on debris-covered glaciers as well as controlling the likely size and location of supraglacial lakes. Despite its importance, lack of knowledge about debris properties and associated energy fluxes prevents the robust inclusion of the effects of a debris layer into most glacier surface energy balance models. This study combines fieldwork with a debris-covered energy balance model to estimate debris temperatures and ablation rates on Imja-Lhotse Shar glacier located in the Everest region of Nepal. The debris properties that significantly influence the energy balance model are thermal conductivity, albedo, and surface roughness. Fieldwork was conducted to measure thermal conductivity and a method was developed using Structure from Motion to estimate surface roughness. Debris temperatures measured during the 2014 melt season were used to calibrate and validate a debris-covered energy balance model by optimizing the albedo, thermal conductivity, and surface roughness at 10 debris-covered sites. Furthermore, three methods for estimating the latent heat flux were investigated. Model calibration and validation found the three methods had similar performance; however, comparison of modeled and measured ablation rates revealed that assuming a zero latent heat flux may overestimate ablation. Results also suggest that where debris moisture is unknown, measurements of the relative humidity or precipitation may be used to estimate wet debris periods, i.e., the latent heat flux is non-zero. The effect of temporal resolution on the model was also assessed and results showed that both 6 h data and daily average data slightly underestimate debris temperatures and ablation rates, thus these should only be used to estimate rough ablation rates when no other data are available.

  10. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work. PMID:24673535

  11. Thermochronologic constraints on the Miocene slip history of the South Tibetan detachment system in the Everest region, central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, M.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.; Wartho, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    North-dipping, low-angle normal faults of the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS) can be traced for a distance of more than 2000 km along strike and represent an important tectonic characteristic of the Miocene Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system. Nowhere is the STDS better exposed than the N-S-trending Rongbuk Valley in southern Tibet, where it can be traced down dip from the summit of Everest for a distance of over 30 km before disappearing beneath the valley floor. This places a minimum constraint on Miocene displacement on the feature in this area, but some research groups have suggested ~200 km of displacement based on the difference in metamorphic pressures across the STDS and the very low (sillimanite gneisses and leucogranites. Data obtained thus far indicate relatively rapid cooling of the footwall after the intrusion of deformed leucogranites at ca. 16.7 Ma to muscovite 40Ar/39Ar closure temperatures (ca. 15.5-14.2 Ma) and zircon (U-Th)/He closure temperatures (ca. 14.5-11 Ma). We attribute this cooling to tectonic denudation related to ca. 16 Ma STDS slip. Although the (U-Th)/He systematics of apatites from these rocks is complex, our current interpretation of available data places cooling through the ca. 75˚C closure isotherm at ca. 8-9 Ma, which would suggest a significant reduction in cooling rate that is observed in our inverse model runs of the 1D program, HeFTy. Ongoing analyses of footwall samples from ~8 km to the north of our Rongbuk sample localities in the Ra Chu river valley will greatly strengthen our datasets. With the Ra Chu analyses, our datasets will constrain the cooling history of the footwall for more than 20 km perpendicular to the strike of the detachment. Our presentation will also incorporate results from the program Pecube that will contribute to our calculation of the slip rate by specifying the appropriate exhumation rate.

  12. Two-year black carbon observations at Everest-Pyramid GAW Station (Nepal, 5079 m a.s.l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, A.; Cristofanelli, P.; Duchi, R.; Calzolari, F.; Roccato, F.; Laj, P.; Vuillermoz, E.; Verza, G. P.; Bonasoni, P.

    2009-04-01

    Carbonaceous aerosol play a complex role in atmospheric radiative balance; in particular black carbon, primary produced by fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, both absorbs and reflects incoming solar radiation, thus heating the lower troposphere and cooling the Earth surface. India and China, the most populated and rapidly developing countries, are between the actual major emitters. Thus the Himalayas range is an ideal location to investigate atmospheric composition changes. Due to technical and logistic difficulties, only few continuous observations of atmospheric constituents are available in this area. One of these observation sites is located in the Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l, where black carbon and other aerosol parameters as well as trace gas concentrations measurements are carried out since March 2006. The BC seasonal behaviour clearly shows a minimum in summer monsoon season with an averaged concentration of 52 ng m-3 and a standard deviation of 62 ng m-3; the seasonal maximum appears in pre-monsoon period with an averaged concentration of 340 ng m-3 and a standard deviation of 415 ng m-3. During this season black carbon values reached sometime very high levels up to 5 μg m-3 on 30 minutes base, showing high polluted conditions even at 5000 m. Aerosol mass (PM-1), as well as accumulation particle number show very similar seasonal trends, while ultrafine (Aitken+Nucleation) particles are more influenced by nucleation processes. In this work, we present an analysis of black carbon and aerosol mass variations during the first two years of measurements at the Everest-Pyramid station with the aim to identify background and polluted conditions.

  13. Isotopic signatures for natural versus anthropogenic Pb in high-altitude Mt. Everest ice cores during the past 800 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term record, extending back 800 years (1205 to 2002 AD), of the Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) as well as Pb concentrations from high altitude Mt. Everest ice cores has the potential to identify sources and source regions affecting natural and anthropogenic Pb deposition in central Asia. The results show that the regional natural background Pb isotope signature (∼ 1.20 for 206Pb/207Pb and ∼ 2.50 for 208Pb/207Pb) in the central Himalayas was dominated by mineral dust over the last ∼ 750 years from 1205 to 1960s, mostly originating from local sources with occasional contributions of long-range transported dust probably from Sahara desert and northwestern India. Since the 1970s, the Pb isotope ratios are characterized by a continuous decline toward less radiogenic ratios with the least mean ratios of 1.178 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.471 for 208Pb/207Pb in the period 1990–1996. The depression of the 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb values during the corresponding periods is most likely due to an increasing influence of less radiogenic Pb of anthropogenic origin mainly from leaded gasoline used in South Asia (India as well as possibly Bangladesh and Nepal). From 1997 to 2002, isotopic composition tends to show a shift to slightly more radiogenic signature. This is likely attributed to reducing Pb emissions from leaded gasoline in source regions, coinciding with the nationwide reduction of Pb in gasoline and subsequent phase-out of leaded gasoline in South Asia since 1997. An interesting feature is the relatively high levels of Pb concentrations and enrichment factors (EF) between 1997 and 2002. Although the reason for this feature remains uncertain, it would be probably linked with an increasing influence of anthropogenic Pb emitted from other sources such as fossil fuel combustion and non-ferrous metal production.

  14. POP and PAH contamination in the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (Himalaya, Nepal): Long-range atmospheric transport, glacier shrinkage, or local impact of tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzella, Licia; Salerno, Franco; Freppaz, Michele; Roscioli, Claudio; Pisanello, Francesca; Poma, Giulia

    2016-02-15

    Due to their physico-chemical properties, POPs and PAHs are subjected to long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and may be deposited in remote areas. In this study, the contamination with DDx, PCBs, PBDEs, and PAHs was investigated in sediments and soils collected on the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (Himalaya, Nepal) in two different sampling campaigns (2008 and 2012). The results showed a limited contamination with POPs and PAHs in both soil and sediment samples. Therefore, the southern slopes of Mt. Everest can be considered a remote area in almost pristine condition. The LRAT mechanism confirmed its primary role in the transfer of contaminants to remote regions, while the gradual melting of glaciers, due to global warming, and the subsequent release of contaminants was suggested to be a secondary source of pollution of the lake sediments. In addition, the increase of tourism in this area during the last decades might have influenced the present concentrations of PAHs in the sediments and soils. PMID:26657383

  15. Future hydrological regimes and glacier cover in the Everest region: The case study of the upper Dudh Koshi basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncini, Andrea; Bocchiola, Daniele; Confortola, Gabriele; Minora, Umberto; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Shrestha, Dibas; Senese, Antonella; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2016-09-15

    Assessment of future water resources under climate change is required in the Himalayas, where hydrological cycle is poorly studied and little understood. This study focuses on the upper Dudh Koshi river of Nepal (151km(2), 4200-8848ma.s.l.) at the toe of Mt. Everest, nesting the debris covered Khumbu, and Khangri Nup glaciers (62km(2)). New data gathered during three years of field campaigns (2012-2014) were used to set up a glacio-hydrological model describing stream flows, snow and ice melt, ice cover thickness and glaciers' flow dynamics. The model was validated, and used to assess changes of the hydrological cycle until 2100. Climate projections are used from three Global Climate Models used in the recent IPCC AR5 under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Flow statistics are estimated for two reference decades 2045-2054, and 2090-2099, and compared against control run CR, 2012-2014. During CR we found a contribution of ice melt to stream flows of 55% yearly, with snow melt contributing for 19%. Future flows are predicted to increase in monsoon season, but to decrease yearly (-4% vs CR on average) at 2045-2054. At the end of century large reduction would occur in all seasons, i.e. -26% vs CR on average at 2090-2099. At half century yearly contribution of ice melt would be on average 45%, and snow melt 28%. At the end of century ice melt would be 31%, and snow contribution 39%. Glaciers in the area are projected to thin largely up to 6500ma.s.l. until 2100, reducing their volume by -50% or more, and their ice covered area by -30% or more. According to our results, in the future water resources in the upper Dudh Koshi would decrease, and depend largely upon snow melt and rainfall, so that adaptation measures to modified water availability will be required. PMID:27262982

  16. Estimates of land surface heat fluxes of the Mt. Everest region over the Tibetan Plateau utilizing ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cunbo; Ma, Yaoming; Chen, Xuelong; Su, Zhongbo

    2016-02-01

    Regional land surface albedo, land surface temperature, net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux were derived in the Mt. Everest area utilizing topographical enhanced surface energy balance system (TESEBS) model and nine scenes of ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data under clear-sky and in-situ measurements at the QOMS station (the Qomolangma Station for Atmospheric Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences). The parameterization schemes for diffused and reflected downward shortwave radiation flux of the TESEBS model were improved by introducing the parameters sky-view factor (SVF) and terrain configuration factor (Ct). Then, a so-called C-correction method for land surface albedo was coupled into the TESEBS model to reduce the influences of topography. After topographical correction, the albedo of the dark tilted surface facing away from the Sun was compensated and albedo of the brightness surface facing the Sun was restrained. The downward shortwave radiation flux was broken down into three components including solar direct radiation flux, solar diffused radiation flux, and reflected solar radiation flux by surrounding terrain. The solar diffused radiation flux ranges from about 30 to 60 W/m2 at the satellite passing time on 6 January 2008. The reflected solar radiation flux changes from 0 to more than 100 W/m2 in the area covered by glaciers and snows. Thus, it is important to take the topographical effects into account in estimation of surface radiation balance in the mountainous area, especially in the glacier area. The retrieved land surface parameters, land surface radiation balance components, and the land surface energy balance components were evaluated by the field measurements in the QOMS station. The estimated results were very close to the in-situ observations with low mean bias errors, low root mean square errors and high correlation coefficients

  17. Isotopic signatures for natural versus anthropogenic Pb in high-altitude Mt. Everest ice cores during the past 800 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do [Korea Polar Research Institute, Songdo Techno Park, 7-50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Hou, Shugui [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Burn-Nunes, Laurie J. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Hong, Sungmin, E-mail: smhong@inha.ac.kr [Department of Ocean Sciences, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Barbante, Carlo [Department of Environmental Sciences, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30 123 Venice (Italy); Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes-CNR, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30 123 Venice (Italy); Boutron, Claude F. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (UMR Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS 5183 ), 54 rue Moliere, BP 96, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Unite de Formation et de Recherche ' Physique, Ingenierie, Terre, Environnement, Mecanique' , Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble ( Institut Universitaire de France ), 715 rue de la Houille Blanche, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rosman, Kevin J.R. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    A long-term record, extending back 800 years (1205 to 2002 AD), of the Pb isotopic composition ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) as well as Pb concentrations from high altitude Mt. Everest ice cores has the potential to identify sources and source regions affecting natural and anthropogenic Pb deposition in central Asia. The results show that the regional natural background Pb isotope signature ({approx} 1.20 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {approx} 2.50 for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) in the central Himalayas was dominated by mineral dust over the last {approx} 750 years from 1205 to 1960s, mostly originating from local sources with occasional contributions of long-range transported dust probably from Sahara desert and northwestern India. Since the 1970s, the Pb isotope ratios are characterized by a continuous decline toward less radiogenic ratios with the least mean ratios of 1.178 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and 2.471 for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb in the period 1990-1996. The depression of the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb values during the corresponding periods is most likely due to an increasing influence of less radiogenic Pb of anthropogenic origin mainly from leaded gasoline used in South Asia (India as well as possibly Bangladesh and Nepal). From 1997 to 2002, isotopic composition tends to show a shift to slightly more radiogenic signature. This is likely attributed to reducing Pb emissions from leaded gasoline in source regions, coinciding with the nationwide reduction of Pb in gasoline and subsequent phase-out of leaded gasoline in South Asia since 1997. An interesting feature is the relatively high levels of Pb concentrations and enrichment factors (EF) between 1997 and 2002. Although the reason for this feature remains uncertain, it would be probably linked with an increasing influence of anthropogenic Pb emitted from other sources such as fossil fuel combustion and non-ferrous metal production.

  18. The Sea Monitoring Virtual Research Community (VRC) in the EVER-EST Project (a virtual research environment for the Earth Sciences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglini, Federica; Boero, Ferdinando; Guarino, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    The EU's H2020 EVER-EST Project is dedicated to the realization of a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) for Earth Science researchers during 2015-2018. In this framework the Sea monitoring represents one of the four use case VRCs chosen to validate the EVER-EST e-infrastructure, which is aimed at representing a wide and multidisciplinary Earth Science domain. The objective of the Sea Monitoring Virtual Research Community (VRC) is to provide useful and applicable contributions to the identification and definition of variables indicated by the European Commission in the Marine Directive under the framework for Good Environment Status (GES). The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/marine/index_en.htm) has defined the descriptors for Good Environmental Status in marine waters. The first descriptor is biodiversity; the second one is the presence of non-indigenous species while the remaining nine (even when they consider physical, chemical or geological variables) require proper functioning of the ecosystem, linked to a good state of biodiversity. The Sea Monitoring VRC is direct to provide practical methods, procedures and protocols to support coherent and widely accepted interpretation of the Descriptors 1(Biodiversity), 2 (non- indigenous species), 4 (food webs) and 6 (seafloor integrity) identified in GES. In that context, the criteria and methodological standards already identified by the European Commission, and at same time considering the activities and projects in progress in the marine framework, will be taken into account. This research of practical methods to estimate and measure GES parameters requires a close cooperation among different disciplines including: biologists, geologists, geophysics, oceanographers, Earth observation experts and others. It will also require a number of different types of scientific data and observations (e.g. biology related, chemico-physical, etc.) from different inputs and sensors

  19. Climatic significance of δ18O records from an 80.36 m ice core in the East Rongbuk Glacier, Mount Qomolangma (Everest)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Dongqi; QIN; Dahe; HOU; Shugui; KANG; Shichang; REN

    2005-01-01

    The δ18O variations in an 80.36 m ice core retrieved in the accumulation zone of the East Rongbuk Glacier, Mount Qomolangma (Everest), is not consistent with changes of air temperature from both southern and northern slopes of Himalayas, as well as these of the temperature anomalies over the Northern Hemisphere. The negative relationship between the δ18O and the net accumulation records of the ice core suggests the "amount effect" of summer precipitation on the δ18O values in the region. Therefore, the δ18O records of the East Rongbuk ice core should be a proxy of Indian Summer Monsoon intensity, which shows lower δ18O values during strong monsoon phases and higher values during weak phases.

  20. European Program 'EVEREST'. Evaluation of the elements producing the effective doses associated to a radioactive waste disposal in deep underground geological formations. Comparative study of the results obtained by IPSN concerning the sedimentary and granite formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European exercise EVEREST that was run from 1991 to 1995 was a means of training for IPSN, having in view the expertise studies of ANDRA on the safety of radioactive waste geological disposal. The exercise implied two fictitious waste disposal sites, one inside a granite massif and the other in a clay formation, and had as principal objective identification and establishing a hierarchy of the radiological risk parameters important after the disposal closing. The study has considered the most likely scenario for evolution of the geological environment. As computing tools three codes were utilized: MELODIE, assuming a continuous 2D water flow and transfer of radionuclides from waste disposal to biosphere; TRISEC, assuming a continuous 3D water flow and NEWSAM, assuming a transient water flow in a multi-shell geometry. Results for the water circulation in different geological environment as well as the flux curves of soluble radionuclides are presented. Twenty seven radionuclides were retained as important by their radiological impact in assessing the influential EVEREST parameters. The EVEREST exercise does not prove the feasibility of a given geological disposal. It only contributes to the comprehension of the mechanisms controlling the radionuclide migration and gives a hierarchy of the questions which IPSN must answer in approaching the safety demonstrations required by ANDRA

  1. European Program 'EVEREST'. Evaluation of the elements producing the effective doses associated to a radioactive waste disposal in deep underground geological formations. Comparative study of the results obtained by IPSN concerning the sedimentary and granite formations; Programme europeen 'EVEREST'. Evaluation des elements responsables des doses efficaces associees a un stockage de dechets radioactifs en formations geologiques profondes. Etude comparative des resultats obtenus par l'IPSN concernant les formations sedimentaire et granitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudoin, Patrick; Serres, Christophe; Certes Catherine [Departement d' evaluation de surete, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1996-09-01

    The European exercise EVEREST that was run from 1991 to 1995 was a means of training for IPSN, having in view the expertise studies of ANDRA on the safety of radioactive waste geological disposal. The exercise implied two fictitious waste disposal sites, one inside a granite massif and the other in a clay formation, and had as principal objective identification and establishing a hierarchy of the radiological risk parameters important after the disposal closing. The study has considered the most likely scenario for evolution of the geological environment. As computing tools three codes were utilized: MELODIE, assuming a continuous 2D water flow and transfer of radionuclides from waste disposal to biosphere; TRISEC, assuming a continuous 3D water flow and NEWSAM, assuming a transient water flow in a multi-shell geometry. Results for the water circulation in different geological environment as well as the flux curves of soluble radionuclides are presented. Twenty seven radionuclides were retained as important by their radiological impact in assessing the influential EVEREST parameters. The EVEREST exercise does not prove the feasibility of a given geological disposal. It only contributes to the comprehension of the mechanisms controlling the radionuclide migration and gives a hierarchy of the questions which IPSN must answer in approaching the safety demonstrations required by ANDRA.

  2. Configuration Management for eXtreme Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, U.; Bendix, Lars Gotfred; Ekman, T.

    2003-01-01

    Extreme programming (XP) is a software development method that prescribes the use of 12 different practices. Four of these practices (collective code ownership, continuous integration, small releases and refactoring) can indeed be given good support by the use of simple configuration management (CM......) techniques. We report on our experience in providing many groups of novice developers with CM education, processes and tools to support the four CM-related XP practices in their projects. True to the spirit of XP both education and processes are very lightweight and we found that it was sufficient to focus...

  3. Changes in serum potassium levels during hospitalization in patients with worsening heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (from the EVEREST trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sadiya S; Campia, Umberto; Chioncel, Ovidiu; Zannad, Faiez; Rossignol, Patrick; Maggioni, Aldo P; Swedberg, Karl; Konstam, Marvin A; Senni, Michele; Nodari, Savina; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Subacius, Haris; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-03-15

    Both hyperkalemia and hypokalemia may be related to heart failure (HF) therapy and are associated with adverse outcomes. Abnormalities in serum potassium levels in hospitalized patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (EF) have not been previously investigated. A post hoc analysis was performed in 1,907 hospitalized patients with worsening HF and reduced EF in the placebo arm of the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in HF Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) trial. Serum potassium was measured at randomization and at discharge or day 7. The co-primary end points were all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular mortality or the first HF hospitalization (CVM + HFH). The association between inhospital change in potassium levels and time to outcomes was evaluated using multivariate Cox regression models. Study participants had a mean age of 65.6 ± 12.0 years and were on optimal guideline-directed medical therapies, including β blockers (77%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (85%), and aldosterone antagonists (55%). Baseline potassium concentration was 4.3 ± 0.6 mEq/l, and hyperkalemia or hypokalemia was seen in 6.5% of the participants. On average, serum potassium level increased by 0.21 ± 0.66 mEq/l, p reduced EF hospitalized for worsening HF, serum potassium abnormalities are common at baseline (within 48 hours of admission) and potassium levels increase during hospitalization, despite aggressive diuretic therapy. However, they are not associated with all-cause or CVM or HFH. Inhospital changes in potassium may limit the implementation of evidence-based therapies such as mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. PMID:25728846

  4. Weak precipitation, warm winters and springs impact glaciers of south slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya in the last two decades (1994–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salerno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on recent climate trends from the Himalayan range are limited, and even completely absent at high elevation. This contribution specifically explores the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya, analyzing the minimum, maximum, and mean temperature and precipitation time series reconstructed from seven stations located between 2660 and 5600m a.s.l. over the last twenty years (1994–2013. We complete this analysis with data from all the existing ground weather stations located on both sides of the mountain range (Koshi Basin over the same period. Overall we observe that the main and more significant increase in temperature is concentrated outside of the monsoon period. At higher elevations minimum temperature (0.072 ± 0.011 °C a−1, p −1, p > 0.1, while mean temperature increased by 0.044 ± 0.008 °C a−1, p −1, p p < 0.05, but the magnitude of this phenomenon is decidedly lower than the observed decrease of precipitation. (4 The lesser accumulation could be the cause behind the observed lower glacier flow velocity and the current stagnation condition of tongues, which in turn could have trigged melting processes under the debris glacier coverage, leading to the formation of numerous supraglacial and proglacial lakes that have characterized the region in the last decades. Without demonstrating the causes that could have led to the climate change pattern observed at high elevation, we conclude by listing the recent literature on hypotheses that accord with our observations.

  5. High-dose intracoronary irradiation after De Novo stent implantation. Results of the EVEREST (evaluation of Endoluminal Radiation in Elective Stenting) trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This randomized study was designed to compare the efficacy of high-dose coronary β-radiation after intravascular ultrasound-(IVUS)guided direct stenting with sham treatment in patients with de novo lesions. Patients and Methods: 32 patients were enrolled in the study protocol. Following angioplasty procedure, intracoronary brachytherapy was performed with the Novoste trademark Beta-Cath System. The prescribed dose was 24 Gy referred to the lamina elastica externa. Quantitative coronary angiography and IVUS were performed to analyze the treated coronary vessel. Results: Angiographic results revealed a significantly smaller minimal lumen diameter compared with the postprocedural minimal lumen diameter within the stented segment (p=0.004) in the nonirradiated group. The same significant result was observed in the injured segment of the nonirradiated patients (p=0.011). The IVUS data revealed a significant increase of the plaque volume after 8 months in the nonirradiated group compared to the postprocedural value (irradiated 5.41±8.83 mm3 vs. nonirradiated 21.11±16.08 mm3; p=0.001). Late luminal loss was significantly greater in the nonirradiated group (p=0.004). The primary clinical endpoint (death, myocardial infarction, repeat target lesion revascularization, percutaneous revascularization, coronary artery bypass surgery) was reached by seven irradiated (33.3%) and four (18.2%) nonirradiated patients (p=0.623). Late stent thrombosis was observed in one irradiated patient. Conclusion: The EVEREST trial has demonstrated the feasibility of high-dose intracoronary brachytherapy in de novo coronary lesions. There is a significant reduction of neointimal proliferation within the stented segment. Nevertheless, this benefit is vitiated by an increase of restenotic lesions outside the stent segment. (orig.)

  6. The EU Everest project: evaluation of elements responsible for the dose equivalent associated with the final disposal in deep geological formations of radioactive waste - IPSN contributions (granite and clay formations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results obtained by IPSN (Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety), concerning the sensitivity of the radiological consequences associated with deep nuclear waste disposal for both High-Level Waste (HLW) and Medium-Level Waste (MLW), in granite and clay geological formations, considering hypothetical sites. The European project EVEREST aims to identify the main features and parameters controlling the radionuclide transfer up to human beings: flow and transport phenomena are addressed (advection, dispersion, diffusion) as well as geochemistry (glass and radionuclides solubilities, radionuclides retardation due to sorption). Engineered barriers, canister duration and pertubations induced by the repository itself have not been taken into account. Even though considering hypothetical sites, data has been taken as representative as possible of geographical real sites. 'Best estimate' parameters values and their associated range of variation have been chosen with care, in agreement with expert judgement, as well for waste packages characteristics as for hydrogeological and geochemical parameters. (author)

  7. Reconstruction of the Ice Age Glaciation in the Southern Slopes of Mt. Everest, Cho Oyu, Lhotse and Makalu (Himalaya) (Part 1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Kuhle

    2006-01-01

    In the Khumbu- and Khumbakarna Himalaya an ice stream network and valley glacier system has been reconstructed for the last glacial 18 Ka BP, Stage o) with glaciogeomorphological and sedimentological methods. It was a part of the glacier system of the Himalaya and has communicated across transfluence passes with the neighbouring ice stream networks toward the W and E. The ice stream network has also received inflow from the N, from a Tibetan ice stream network, by the Kyetrak-Nangpa-Bote Koshi Drangka (Valley) in the W, by the W-Rongbuk glacier valley into the Ngozumpa Drangka (Valley), by the Central Rongbuk glacier valley into the Khumbu Drangka (Valley) and by the antecedent Arun Nadi transverse-valley in the E of the investigation area.The ice thickness of the valley glacier sections, the surface of which was situated above the snow-line,amounted to 1000~1450 m. The most extended parent valley glaciers have been measured approx. 70 km in length (Dudh Koshi glacier), 67 km (BarunArun glacier) and 80 km (Arun glacier). The tongue end of the Arun glacier has flowed down to c. 500 m and that of the Dudh Koshi glacier to c. 900 m asl. At heights of the catchment areas of 8481 (or 8475) m (Makalu), i.e., 8848 (or 8872) m (Mt. Everest,Sagarmatha, Chogolungma) this is a vertical distance of the Ice Age glaciation of c. 8000 m. The steep faces 6000~7000 m-high surfaces of the ice stream network were located 2000~5000 m above the ELA.Accordingly, their temperatures were so low, that their rock surfaces were free of flank ice and ice balconies. From the maximum past glacier extension up to the current glacier margins, 13 (altogether 14)glacier stages have been differentiated and in part 14C-dated. They were four glacier stages of the late glacial period, three of the neoglacial period and six of the historical period. By means of 130 medium-sized valley glaciers the corresponding ELA-depressions have been calculated in comparison with the current courses of the

  8. Integrating Ontology Debugging and Matching into the eXtreme Design Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Dragisic, Zlatan; Lambrix, Patrick; Blomqvist, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Ontology design patterns (ODPs) and related ontology development methodologies were designed as ways of sharing and reusing best practices in ontology engineering. However, while the use of these reduces the number of issues in the resulting ontologies defects can still be introduced into the ontology due to improper use or misinterpretation of the patterns. Thus, the quality of the developed ontologies is still a major concern. In this paper we address this issue by describing how ontology d...

  9. 78 FR 70209 - Airworthiness Directives; XtremeAir GmbH Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ..., Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri 64106; telephone: (816) 329-4123; fax: (816) 329-4090; email: karl.schletzbaum@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... mounts from a specific supplier may be affected. This condition, if not detected and corrected,...

  10. Higgs Discovery: Impact on Composite Dynamics Technicolor & eXtreme Compositeness Thinking Fast and Slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Francesco

    I discuss the impact of the discovery of a Higgs-like state on composite dynamics starting by critically examining the reasons in favour of either an elementary or composite nature of this state. Accepting the standard model interpretation I re-address the standard model vacuum stability within a Weyl-consistent computation. I will carefully examine the fundamental reasons why what has been discovered might not be the standard model Higgs. Dynamical electroweak breaking naturally addresses a number of the fundamental issues unsolved by the standard model interpretation. However this paradigm has been challenged by the discovery of a not-so-heavy Higgs-like state. I will therefore review the recent discovery1 that the standard model top-induced radiative corrections naturally reduce the intrinsic non-perturbative mass of the composite Higgs state towards the desired experimental value. Not only we have a natural and testable working framework but we have also suggested specic gauge theories that can realise, at the fundamental level, these minimal models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. These strongly coupled gauge theories are now being heavily investigated via first principle lattice simulations with encouraging results. The new findings show that the recent naive claims made about new strong dynamics at the electroweak scale being disfavoured by the discovery of a not-so-heavy composite Higgs are unwarranted. I will then introduce the more speculative idea of extreme compositeness according to which not only the Higgs sector of the standard model is composite but also quarks and leptons, and provide a toy example in the form of gauge-gauge duality.

  11. Introducing TAXI: a Transportable Array for eXtremely large area Instrumentation studies

    CERN Document Server

    Karg, T; Kleifges, M; Nahnhauer, R; Sulanke, K -H

    2014-01-01

    A common challenge in many experiments in high-energy astroparticle physics is the need for sparse instrumentation in areas of 100 km2 and above, often in remote and harsh environments. All these arrays have similar requirements for read-out and communication, power generation and distribution, and synchronization. Within the TAXI project we are developing a transportable, modular four-station test-array that allows us to study different approaches to solve the aforementioned problems in the laboratory and in the field. Well-defined interfaces will provide easy interchange of the components to be tested and easy transport and setup will allow in-situ testing at different sites. Every station consists of three well-understood 1 m2 scintillation detectors with nanosecond time resolution, which provide an air shower trigger. An additional sensor, currently a radio antenna for air shower detection in the 100 MHz band, is connected for testing and calibration purposes. We introduce the TAXI project and report the ...

  12. "An Assessment of Ecosystem Services of the Everest Region, Nepal"

    OpenAIRE

    Tamang, Bikram

    2011-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes in the region were analyzed on the basis of information extracted from satellite image data. Based on this information, it is clearly noticed that the different land use classes have changed their forms and degrees in different time periods due to the driving forces such as national park activities, influx of Tibetan refugees, climate change and growth of tourism. Furthermore, the landscapes dynamics and their relation to the provisioning of ecosystem services ...

  13. Organochlorine pesticides in fresh-fallen snow on East Rongbuk Glacier of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng; ZHU Tong; XU BaiQing; KANG ShiChang

    2007-01-01

    During a field campaign in April 2005, fresh-fallen snow samples were collected on the East Rongbuk Glacier of the Mt. Qomolangma at four altitudes (6500 m, 6300 m, 6100 m and 5900 m), to study the role of Mt. Qomolangma as "cold-traps" for Persistent Organic Pollutants. From these snow samples collected at the highest-altitude, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs):HCB,p, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDD were detected, with the concentrations in the ranges of 44-72 pg/L, 401-1560 pg/L, and 20-80 pg/L, respectively. The concentration of o, p'-DDT was around the method detection limit. Analysis of backward trajectories showed that the detected compounds came from the north of India, suggesting that DDTs detected in the snow were possibly originated from new emissions in this area. Relationships between the concentrations of OCPs in snow samples and the sampling altitudes were discussed. The altitudes had no obvious effect on HCB concentrations in the fresh-fallen snow, while increases in the concen- trations of p, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDD with increasing altitude were found, which was reversed compared to the trends observed in North America. Three factors likely resulted in this trend: (1) the properties of the target compounds; (2) the low temperatures at high altitudes; and (3) the location of the mountain sampling sites relative to their sources.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides in fresh-fallen snow on East Rongbuk Glacier of Mt.Qomolangma (Everest)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    During a field campaign in April 2005,fresh-fallen snow samples were collected on the East Rongbuk Glacier of the Mt. Qomolangma at four altitudes (6500 m,6300 m,6100 m and 5900 m),to study the role of Mt. Qomolangma as "cold-traps" for Persistent Organic Pollutants. From these snow samples col-lected at the highest-altitude,organochlorine pesticides (OCPs):HCB,p,p′-DDT and p,p′-DDD were detected,with the concentrations in the ranges of 44―72 pg/L,401―1560 pg/L,and 20―80 pg/L,re-spectively. The concentration of o,p′-DDT was around the method detection limit. Analysis of backward trajectories showed that the detected compounds came from the north of India,suggesting that DDTs detected in the snow were possibly originated from new emissions in this area. Relationships between the concentrations of OCPs in snow samples and the sampling altitudes were discussed. The altitudes had no obvious effect on HCB concentrations in the fresh-fallen snow,while increases in the concen-trations of p,p′-DDT and p,p′-DDD with increasing altitude were found,which was reversed compared to the trends observed in North America. Three factors likely resulted in this trend: (1) the properties of the target compounds; (2) the low temperatures at high altitudes; and (3) the location of the mountain sampling sites relative to their sources.

  15. Calculating the Potato Radius of Asteroids using the Height of Mt. Everest

    CERN Document Server

    Caplan, M E

    2015-01-01

    At approximate radii of 200-300 km, asteroids transition from oblong `potato' shapes to spheres. This limit is known as the Potato Radius, and has been proposed as a classification for separating asteroids from dwarf planets. The Potato Radius can be calculated from first principles based on the elastic properties and gravity of the asteroid. Similarly, the tallest mountain that a planet can support is also known to be based on the elastic properties and gravity. In this work, a simple novel method of calculating the Potato Radius is presented using what is known about the maximum height of mountains and Newtonian gravity for a spherical body. This method does not assume any knowledge beyond high school level mechanics, and may be appropriate for students interested in applications of physics to astronomy.

  16. Monitoring of High Mountain Glaciers in the Vicinity of Everest (Himalaya) using Remote Sensing Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakuri, S.; Salerno, F.; Bolch, T.; Smiraglia, C.; Tartari, G.

    2014-12-01

    Himalayan glaciers are of crucial interest due to their role in the cryospheric system and hydrology. This contribution examines glacier changes between 1960s and 2013 using satellite data. The study is focused in 3 basins in Nepal: Upper Sun Koshi (USKB; 2850 km2), Dudh Koshi (DKB; 3720 km2), and Tamor (TB; 5875 km2). We observed an overall glacier surface loss of 0.19 ± 0.26 % a-1 (146.1 to 136.9 km2) in SKB for 1975-2013 period; 0.27 ± 0.06 % a-1 (404.6 to 351.8 km2) in the DKB for 1962-2011, and 8.4% (0.25 ± 0.29 % a-1; 610.9 to 559.3 km2) in the TB for 1975-2009 period. In the DKB, we observed an upward shift of snow-line altitude (ΔSLA) by more than 180 m, a terminus retreat of on average ~ 400 m, and an increase of 17.6 ± 3.1% in debris coverage between 1962 and 2011. Moreover, we observed that (i) glaciers with increased debris cover have experienced a reduced termini retreat; (ii) negative mass balances (i.e., ΔSLA) induce increases of debris coverage; (iii) slight, but statistically insignificant acceleration of the surface area loss since early 1990s; but a significant loss for the largest glaciers (>10 km2) that have accumulation zones at higher elevations and along the preferable south-north direction of the monsoon; (iv) a significant ΔSLA; moreover, the largest glaciers present median ΔSLA that are nearly double than that of the smallest; this finding leads to a hypothesis that these glaciers are shrinking, not only due to warming temperatures, but also as a result of decreasing precipitation due to a weakening Asian monsoons registered over the last few decades. Furthermore, we present first results on the geodetic glacier mass and velocity changes of selected glaciers, and climatic trends. In fact, less accumulation due to the observed decrease of precipitation should cause lower glacier flow velocity until to the ice stagnation of tongues as observed by other previous studies in the region. Finally, we compared our findings with other studies in the high mountain Asia and conclude that the shrinkage of these glaciers are less than that of western and eastern Himalaya, and southern and eastern Tibetan Plateau. The location in higher elevations have likely reduced the impact of warming on these glaciers, but have not been excluded from a relentlessly continuous and slow recession process over the past 50 yrs.

  17. Climate change on the southern slope of Mt.Qomolangma (Everest) Region in Nepal since 1971

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Wei; ZHANG Yili; GAO Jungang; YANG Xuchao; LIU Linshan; Narendra R.KHANAL

    2013-01-01

    Based on monthly mean,maximum,and minimum air temperature and monthly mean precipitation data from 10 meteorological stations on the southern slope of the Mt.Qomolangma region in Nepal between 1971 and 2009,the spatial and temporal characteristics of climatic change in this region were analyzed using climatic linear trend,Sen's Slope Estimates and Mann-Kendall Test analysis methods.This paper focuses only on the southern slope and attempts to compare the results with those from the northern slope to clarify the characteristics and trends of climatic change in the Mt.Qomolangma region.The results showed that:(1) between 1971 and 2009,the annual mean temperature in the study area was 20.0℃,the rising rate of annual mean temperature was 0.25℃/10a,and the temperature increases were highly influenced by the maximum temperature in this region.On the other hand,the temperature increases on the northern slope of Mt.Qomolangma region were highly influenced by the minimum temperature.In 1974 and 1992,the temperature rose noticeably in February and September in the southern region when the increment passed 0.9℃.(2) Precipitation had an asymmetric distribution; between 1971 and 2009,the annual precipitation was 1729.01 mm.In this region,precipitation showed an increasing trend of 4.27mm/a,but this was not statistically significant.In addition,the increase in rainfall was mainly concentrated in the period from April to October,including the entire monsoon period (from June to September) when precipitation accounts for about 78.9% of the annual total.(3) The influence of altitude on climate warming was not clear in the southern region,whereas the trend of climate warming was obvious on the northern slope of Mt.Qomolangma.The annual mean precipitation in the southern region was much higher than that of the northern slope of the Mt.Qomolangma region.This shows the barrier effect of the Himalayas as a whole and Mt.Qomolangma in particular.

  18. Research and Evaluation on Ecotourism Resources of Jilong Valley in Everest National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangDegang; LiQian

    2005-01-01

    Jitong is a place behind The Himalayas, which is almost isolated from the world. There is typical vertical ecosystem thanks to its special geological environment. So it is honored as ""the most abundant species gene warehouse in the Plateau Area""and ""the most beautiful valley in the world"". To exploit this valiey is necessary along with the construction of Jilong Port on the border of Sino-Nepal Based on the research on the spot, the ecological resources there are evaluated and an idea that regards hiking tourism as main form and ecotourism as the theme is put forward in this paper, which explores a way to develop the valley on the basis of sustainability.

  19. The cerebral venous system and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark H; Imray, Christopher H E

    2016-01-15

    Most hypobaric hypoxia studies have focused on oxygen delivery and therefore cerebral blood inflow. Few have studied venous outflow. However, the volume of blood entering and leaving the skull (∼700 ml/min) is considerably greater than cerebrospinal fluid production (0.35 ml/min) or edema formation rates and slight imbalances of in- and outflow have considerable effects on intracranial pressure. This dynamic phenomenon is not necessarily appreciated in the currently taught static "Monro-Kellie" doctrine, which forms the basis of the "Tight-Fit" hypothesis thought to underlie high altitude headache, acute mountain sickness, and high altitude cerebral edema. Investigating both sides of the cerebral circulation was an integral part of the 2007 Xtreme Everest Expedition. The results of the relevant studies performed as part of and subsequent to this expedition are reviewed here. The evidence from recent studies suggests a relative venous outflow insufficiency is an early step in the pathogenesis of high altitude headache. Translation of knowledge gained from high altitude studies is important. Many patients in a critical care environment develop hypoxemia akin to that of high altitude exposure. An inability to drain the hypoxemic induced increase in cerebral blood flow could be an underappreciated regulatory mechanism of intracranial pressure. PMID:26294747

  20. EPISODE: A N E XTREME P ROGRAMMING M ETHOD F OR I NNOVATIVE S OFTWARE B ASED O N S YSTEMS D ESIGN A ND I TS P RACTICAL S TUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Goto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In software development, the waterfall model is com monly used, especially for large-scale software systems. For smaller-scale software development, ag ile software development approaches such as extreme programming or scrum are used. Traditional software development methodologies are mainly targeted toward customer-centric development, and therefore, new software methodologies are often not well received in the industry. In this study, we propose a new software development methodology that is aim ed at developing innovative software using artificial intelligence (AI, idea creation, value engineering , and systems design. The name of our method is named as EPISODE (Extreme Programming method for Innovative SOftware based on systems DEsign. EPISO DE supports the efficient and creative development of open source software (OSS by small groups. More over we describe an evaluation of EPISODE in a class

  1. EPISODE: A N E XTREME P ROGRAMMING M ETHOD F OR I NNOVATIVE S OFTWARE B ASED O N S YSTEMS D ESIGN A ND I TS P RACTICAL S TUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Takaaki Goto; Kensei Tsuchida; Tetsuro Nishino

    2014-01-01

    In software development, the waterfall model is com monly used, especially for large-scale software systems. For smaller-scale software development, ag ile software development approaches such as extreme programming or scrum are used. Traditional software development methodologies are mainly targeted toward customer-centric development, and therefore, new software methodologies are often not well received in the industry. In this study, we propose a new software dev...

  2. The Analysis of Harold White applied to the Natario Warp Drive Spacetime. From $10$ times the mass of the Universe to the mass of the Mount Everest

    OpenAIRE

    Loup, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows superluminal travel within the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario warp drive discovered in $2001$. However as stated by both Alcubierre and Natario themselves the warp drive violates all the known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor is negative implying in a negative energy density. While...

  3. Reconstruction of the Ice Age Glaciation in the Southern Slopes of Mt. Everest, Cho Oyu, Lhotse and Makalu (Himalaya) (Part 2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Kuhle

    2006-01-01

    @@ Editorial Note: The first section of this article was published in June 2006 (cf. pages 91~124 in No. 2, Vol. 3),and the publishing here is its sequel, which includes 22 Figures (i.e. Figures 9~30), two photos (Photo 1 and 2)and one table (i.e. Table 7). The figures before No.9 mentioned in the text of this part were published in previous issue, and please refer to them while reading. We sincerely apologize to you for any inconvenience this arrangement may have caused you.

  4. Family matters: football playing daughters, gender and bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Pielichaty, Hanya

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, scholarly work surrounding women’s football has focused on sexualities (Caudwell, 1999), gender identity development (Jeanes, 2006; 2011), international perspectives (Ben-Porat, 2011) and sexualisation through the media (Jones and Greer, 2011). Up until now the relationships between footballer and family have yet to be explored and analysed. Furthermore, research on youth studies has overlooked the importance of family relationships to young people over the past two decades (...

  5. Orange County Littoral Cell CRSMP Wastewater and Power Plant Discharge Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Graphical depiction of wastewater and power plant discharge pipelines/outlets locations in Southern California.The shapefile was collected by Everest International...

  6. Earth sciences within the project Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesy and geophysics; Le scienze della Terra nel progetto Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesia e geofisica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poretti, Giorgio [Trieste, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Matematiche

    1997-05-01

    Earth Sciences started the Ev-K2-CNR project in 1987 with the comparison between the heights of Mt. Everest and K2. Several gravimetric campaigns followed in the most difficult areas of the Himalayas. In 1991 a GPS network was established in Nepal for the determination of the Earth crust movements in the area. In 1992 a precise measurement of mount Everest was performed with classical and satellite technologies. Mount K2 was remeasured in Summer 1996.

  7. Suitability of XP for Service-Based Application Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Tomáš; Buchalcevová, A.

    Praha: KIT VŠE, 2007, s. 109-116. ISBN 978-80-245-1196-2. [Systems Integration 2007. Praha (CZ), 10.06.2007-12.06.2007] Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : SOA * eXtreme programming * RUP * Web services * service-based application life cycle Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  8. Developer Stories: Improving Architecture in Agile Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Jensen, Rolf Njor; Platz, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Within the field of Software Engineering emergence of agile methods has been a hot topic since the late 90s. eXtreme Programming (XP) ([1]) was one of the first agile methods and is one of the most well-known. However research has pointed to weaknesses in XP regarding supporting development of...

  9. A Novel Approach for Collaborative Pair Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sanjay; Kathuria, Vanshi

    2010-01-01

    The majority of an engineer's time in the software industry is spent working with other programmers. Agile methods of software development like eXtreme Programming strongly rely upon practices like daily meetings and pair programming. Hence, the need to learn the skill of working collaboratively is of primary importance for software developers.…

  10. Single-order lamellar multilayer gratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der R.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in the soft x-ray (SXR) and eXtreme UltraViolet (XUV) spectral ranges is the ability to manipulate the incident radiation using optical elements. By patterning conventional multilayer mirrors with nanoscale structures, novel optical elements with a variety of optical properties can

  11. 珠穆朗玛峰国家自然保护区吉隆藏布峡谷生态资源考察与评价%Research and Evaluation on Ecotourism Resources of Jilong Valley in Everest National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德刚; 李倩

    2005-01-01

    Jilong is a place behind The Himalayas, which is almost isolated from the world. There is typical vertical ecosystem thanks to its special geological environment. So it is honored as "the most abundant species gene warehouse in the Plateau Area"and "the most beautiful valley in the world To exploit this valley is necessary along with the construction of Jilong Port on the border of Sino-Nepal.Based on the research on the spot, the ecological resources there are evaluated and an idea that regards hiking tourism as main form and ecotourism as the theme is put forward in this paper, which explores a way to develop the valley on the basis of sustainability.

  12. Field evaluation of commercial repellents against the floodwater mosquito Psorophora columbiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in St. Johns County, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De; Holt, J Adam; Smith, Mike L; Moeller, Jeanne J

    2011-11-01

    Three plant-based repellents-REPEL LEMON Eucalyptus Insect Repellent Lotion (active ingredient [AI] 30% oil of eucalyptus), Bite Blocker Xtreme Sportsman Organic Insect Repellent ([AI] 3% soybean oil, 6% geranium oil, and 8% castor oil), and Bite Blocker BioUD Insect Repellent ([AI] 7.75% 2-undecanone)--were evaluated against OFF! ([AI] 15% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide, also called DEET) at a field site in Elkton, FL, to determine the mean protection time provided against Psorophora columbiae (Dyar & Knab). These products provided different protection times against biting Ps. columbiae. REPEL provided the longest protection time (330 min) followed by Bite Blocker Xtreme Sportsman (163 min), Bite Blocker BioUD (140 min), and OFF! (130 min). This study provides the first information about plant-based insect repellent protection times against Ps. columbiae. PMID:22238886

  13. The Effects of Pair Programming on Learning Efficiency in Short Programming Assignments

    OpenAIRE

    Subbaraya KUPPUSWAMI; Kalimuthu VIVEKANANDAN

    2004-01-01

    Pair programming is one of the important practices of a lightweight development methodology namely eXtreme Programming (XP). It emphasizes the practice of two persons working together at a single computer terminal, to design, code and test computer programs. The effects of pair programming on software development in industrial organizations were studied and it was found that pair programming increases the productivity by 15%. This evidence created an interest in amongst community of computer ...

  14. 千兆路由的安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    D-Link获得Wi-Fi联盟颁发的draft802.11n认证,首批通过认证的产品包括D-Link Xtreme N路由器(DIR-655)和PCMICA无线网卡(DWA-652)。在互操作性、安全性和向下兼容性上都有保障。

  15. Problematika výběru agilní metodiky vývoje software

    OpenAIRE

    Fujdiar, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Theme of this thesis is how to choose between agile methodologies of software development. Several agile methodologies, such as SCRUM, Kanban and eXtreme programming are described and also methods of choosing between methodologies or management techniques are discussed. New method of multi-criteria decision process on how to choose between Agile methodologies based on multi-dimensionality is presented with option of improving agile experience by adopting additional techniques. Diploma thesis ...

  16. An Investigation of Team Effectiveness in Agile Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    Haraldsen, Lars Martin Riiser

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Agile teamwork has been widely used and accepted in today's industry of software development. The methods in agile teamwork claim to improve performance and predictability, and has during the past years become the target for an emerging area of research. The majority of the existing studies concerning agile teamwork mainly focus around eXtreme Programming (XP). Abstract This report is one of few that discuss teamwork in software development having the agile methodology “Scr...

  17. Integrating agile software development into stage-gate managed product development

    OpenAIRE

    Karlström, Daniel; Runeson, Per

    2006-01-01

    Agile methods have evolved as a bottom-up approach to software development. However, as the software in embedded products is only one part of development projects, agile methods must coexist with project management models typically of the stage-gate type. This paper presents a qualitative case study of two large independent software system projects that have used eXtreme Programming (XP) for software development within contexts of stage-gate project management models. The study is comprised o...

  18. Demographic Differential Vulnerability to Extreme Climate Change (HELIX)

    OpenAIRE

    Zickgraf, Caroline; Perrin, Nathalie; Gemenne, François

    2014-01-01

    With the target of limiting global warming to 2ºC becoming increasingly difficult to achieve, policymakers, businesses and other decision-makers need to begin to plan ahead for adaptation to changes in climate associated with higher levels of global warming. Alongside this, ongoing international negotiations on limiting global warming require clear information on the demographic consequences of different levels of climate change. The HELIX project (High-End cLimate Impacts and eXtremes), and ...

  19. Mapping The Best Practices of XP and Project Management: Well defined approach for Project Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Javed, Muhammad; Ahmad, Bashir; Hussain, Shahid; Ahmad, Shakeel

    2010-01-01

    Software engineering is one of the most recent additions in various disciplines of system engineering. It has emerged as a key obedience of system engineering in a quick succession of time. Various Software Engineering approaches are followed in order to produce comprehensive software solutions of affordable cost with reasonable delivery timeframe with less uncertainty. All these objectives are only satisfied when project's status is properly monitored and controlled; eXtreme Programming (XP)...

  20. Support For Distributed Programming In Extreme Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dajda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic limitation emerging from practising eXtreme Programming methodology is theconstraint of close physical proximity between the members of the collaborating team including customer. This became the main idea behind research on XP supporting environmentfor geographically distributed teams. This work presents basic assumptions, elaborated architecture and selected implementation issues for the system of this type. Deliberations aresupplied with the initial results of the verification of its usability based on the users tests.

  1. Estudio ágil aplicado a los métodos de selección de componentes commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)

    OpenAIRE

    Navarrete Ramírez, Fredy Javier; Botella López, Pere; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Currently organizations tend to construct their Information Systems with components acquired or licensed from specific segments of the market. This is a growing trend in the industry because only a few companies have the resources to compete with the constant evolution of the market. On the other hand, the use of agile methods like eXtreme Programming (XP) within the development context has increased in the industry and the research community. There are several methods of selection within the...

  2. Thomas讲网球鞋之

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Eichmann; Sexxxxxy(译)

    2010-01-01

    Hi大家好,我是Thomas Eichmann,这次为大家带来的可是去年除NIKE、ADIDAS以外最热门的两双网球鞋,它们是索德林穿着的LOTTO SYN-RAPTOR XTREME SPEED与库兹涅佐娃、克里斯特尔斯的FILA TORNEOⅡ.

  3. 珠峰,我们来啦!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李太行

    2002-01-01

    One morning in July 2001, a groupof colorful caravans gatheredin front of the Tibet Mansion,Beijing, waiting for the start of a tour toTibet. This was the starting point of theFlowing Rainbow: Beijing-Tibet MountEverest Environmental Protection ArtTour.

  4. Understanding Turnover Intentions and Behavior of Indian Information Systems Professionals: A Study of Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction and Social Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Vidya V.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the phenomenal growth projected for the Indian information technology (IT) industry, one of the biggest challenges it faces is the high rate of turnover in offshore supplier firms based in India (Everest Research Group 2011). According to recent estimates, turnover rates among Indian information systems (IS) professionals have been…

  5. 75 FR 82026 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Resources. G Clay Heighten, M.D. G Medical Edge Healthcare Group, P.A. 20110336 G Everest Re Group, Ltd. G..., L.P. G Adam F. Press. G The St. John Companies, Inc. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sandra M... Brokerage, LLC. G Go Wireless, Inc. 20110300 G AGS Acquisition Co. G Advantage Sales & Marketing...

  6. Energy and matter

    OpenAIRE

    Gobato, Ricardo; Gobato, Alekssander; Fedrigo, Desire Francine Gobato

    2015-01-01

    Our work is an approach between matter and energy. Using the famous equation E = mc^2, Einstein and the Law of Universal Gravitation of Newton, we estimate that a small amount matter converted into energy is needed to lift, using the gravitational potential energy equation on the surface, a mountain of solid iron or even Mount Everest.

  7. Exped 2010--the challenges of an expedition doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K L

    2011-03-01

    'Exped 2010', a climbing and trekking expedition to the Everest region of Nepal, marked the 150th anniversary of the Army Cadet Force, during October 2010. A team of 20 cadets aged 14-18 years together with a combination of adults, mountain leaders and the expedition doctor, completed the trek to Everest Base Camp with a small number summiting Island Peak. The junior team, consisting of younger members aged 14-16 years, were limited to sleeping at a maximum altitude of 4240m but nevertheless, achieved a trekking altitude of 5000m. Over the three week period, there were a number of challenges for the expedition doctor--integrating into the team, finding time to rest and acclimatise along with the others whilst dealing with over 35 consultations, numerous cases of traveller's diarrhoea, several helicopter evacuations and also managing cases of altitude illness both within the group and for several foreign trekkers along the way. PMID:21465922

  8. New Concepts in Digital Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lankes, R David

    2009-01-01

    Let us start with a simple scenario: a man asks a woman 'how high is Mount Everest?' The woman replies '29,029 feet'. Nothing could be simpler. Now let us suppose that rather than standing in a room, or sitting on a bus, the man is at his desk and the woman is 300 miles away with the conversation taking place using e-mail. Still simple? Certainly - it happens every day. So why all the bother about digital (virtual, electronic, chat, etc.) reference? If the man is a pilot flying over Mount Everest, the answer matters. If you are a lawyer going to court, the identity of the woman is very importa

  9. The Jordan Romero Case; A Biological Super Athlete or a Product of the Sport Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kipreos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many questions have arisen in regards to Jordan Romero’s climbing actions, in terms of ethics and legality. Although, he has already successfully climbed most of the highest summits, his last expedition to climb mountain Everest, has found strong opposition and criticism. Jordan’s decision to climb Everest, at the age of 13, comes into contradiction with the convention on Human Rights, the International Public Law, the climbing rules and regulations of Nepal, and the Law of U.S.A. What should also be put into reference is the fact that Romero’s pursuit violates the Article No. 1 in the Declaration of Tyrol 2002 (Mountaineering, which defines individual responsibility for the activities of the climber. This paper outlines the legal and ethical aspects of Jordan’s venture, taking into account the biological hazards.

  10. XSC plasma control: Tool development for the session leader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosino, G. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, University Napoli Federico II (Italy)]. E-mail: ambrosin@unina.it; Albanese, R. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, University Mediterranea Reggio Calabria (Italy); Ariola, M. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, University Napoli Federico II (Italy); Cenedese, A. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-Consorzio RFX (Italy); Crisanti, F. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-Frascati (Italy); Tommasi, G. De [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, University Napoli Federico II (Italy); Mattei, M. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, University Mediterranea Reggio Calabria (Italy); Piccolo, F. [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association (United Kingdom); Pironti, A. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, University Napoli Federico II (Italy); Sartori, F. [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association (United Kingdom); Villone, F. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, University Cassino (Italy)

    2005-11-15

    A new model-based shape controller (XSC, i.e., eXtreme Shape Controller) able to operate with high elongation and triangularity plasmas has been designed and implemented at JET in 2003. The use of the XSC needs a number of steps, which at present are not automated and therefore imply the involvement of several experts. To help the session leader in preparing an experiment, a number of software tools are needed. The paper describes the SW tools that are currently in the developing phase, and describes the new framework for the preparation of a JET experiment.

  11. XSC plasma control: Tool development for the session leader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new model-based shape controller (XSC, i.e., eXtreme Shape Controller) able to operate with high elongation and triangularity plasmas has been designed and implemented at JET in 2003. The use of the XSC needs a number of steps, which at present are not automated and therefore imply the involvement of several experts. To help the session leader in preparing an experiment, a number of software tools are needed. The paper describes the SW tools that are currently in the developing phase, and describes the new framework for the preparation of a JET experiment

  12. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    OpenAIRE

    Bartl, S; Schümberg, S.; Deutsch, M.

    2009-01-01

    The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe riv...

  13. Post-processing of high-contrast observations of exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladysz S.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-processing of images delivered by the eXtreme Adaptive Optics (XAO instrumentation is a crucial step which can increase achievable contrast even by two orders of magnitude. In this communication I present a new class of algorithms for detection of extrasolar planets from a sequence of adaptive-optics-corrected images. In general, the methods discriminate between real sources and stellar PSF features based on statistics of recorded intensity. The methods are particularly useful in dealing with static speckles which are the greatest obstacle in detecting exoplanets.

  14. From agile to lean: the perspectives of the two agile online communities of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lane, Michael; Conboy, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed In the last several years there has been a noticeable focus shift of agile methods from eXtreme Programming (XP) and Scrum to Lean approaches, which is indicated as ???from agile to lean???. However our understanding of the driving factors behind this focus shift is very limited. The study proposed in this paper attempts to investigate the shift through a content analysis of two major agile mailing lists. The expected result is a set of driving factors behind the shift from a...

  15. Aprimorando a Gerência e o Desenvolvimento de Software com Metodologias Ágeis

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Andreazza Sganderla; Guilherme Lacerda; Vinicius Gadis Ribeiro; Sidnei Renato Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Este artigo aborda a melhoria da gerência e construção de software utilizando as metodologias ágeis eXtreme Programming e Scrum. São aplicadas as melhores práticas de ambas as metodologias em uma equipe de desenvolvimento de software, em um ambiente em que não havia nenhum processo bem definido de desenvolvimento de software. A escolha pelo uso das metodologias ágeis foi definida, pois atende ao dinamismo do cenário atual, requisitos voláteis, ambiente mais colaborativo e menos burocrático, t...

  16. FPGA Implementation of a Frame Synchronization Algorithm for Powerline Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tsakiris

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an FPGA implementation of a pilot–based time synchronization scheme employing orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for powerline communication channels. The functionality of the algorithm is analyzed and tested over a real powerline residential network. For this purpose, an appropriate transmitter circuit, implemented by an FPGA, and suitable coupling circuits are constructed. The system has been developed using VHDL language on Nallatech XtremeDSP development kits. The communication system operates in the baseband up to 30 MHz. Measurements of the algorithm's good performance in terms of the number of detected frames and timing offset error are taken and compared to simulations of existing algorithms.

  17. Esiplaanil heli / Harri Slip

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Slip, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Kõrvaklapid hinnaga alla 200 €: AKG Y50BT, Audio-Technica, Beyerdynamic Custom Street, Bose SoundTrue around-ear II, Creative Aurvana Gold, Denon AH-MM200, Focal Spirit One S, Grado SR 80e, JBL Everest V300, Klipsch Reference On Ear, Panasonic RP-HD10, Philips SHB8850NC, Sennheiser HD 25, SMS Audio On-Ear Wired Sport, Sony MDR-100AAP

  18. Journey through Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Nepal is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of bio-diversity due to its unique geographical position and altitude variation. The elevation of the country ranges from 60 meters above sea level to the highest point on earth, Mt. Everest at8,848 meters, all within a distance of 150 kilometers resulting in climatic conditions from Sub-tropical to Arctic.

  19. Corporate Social Necessity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HONG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Up until recently,Wang Shi was one of China's most respected role models and businessman.Wang,chairman of Vanke (万科),China's biggest property developer,has appeared in commercials for Ping An Insurance and Motorola,has scaled Mount Everest,and is often referred to as the godfather of China's real estate business.His blog is one of the most popular in China.But last month,Wang's blog got him in trouble.

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CATARACT IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy Valentinovich Lipatov; Timofey Aleksandrovich Chistyakov; Anatoliy Gennad'evich Kuz'min

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To compare different methods for surgical treatment of cataract in patients with diabetes melli-tus (DM) and substantiate the choice of its optimal modality. Materials and methods. Analysis included data on 209 patients (221 eyes) treated from January 2008 to December 2009 in the Department of Retinopathy and Ophthalmosurgey, Endocrinological Research Centre. Diabetic cataract was managed using UNIVERSAL-II, LEGACY EVEREST, and INFINITI phacoemulsifiers. Parameters studied in...

  1. 基于EclipseRCP的隧道通风安全信息系统研究%Study on Tunnel Ventilation Safety Information System Based on Eclipse RCP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少利

    2011-01-01

    运用Eclipse RCP技术、集成WindowBuilder、Hibernate3.2、JFreechart、PO12.5等多种开发工具,以MapXtremeJava4.8为地图服务器,选用Oracle10g数据库,设计并开发了隧道施工通风安全信息系统,具有日常管理、电子地图、数据分析、声光报警、短信提醒等特点,实现了隧道施工通风安全信息的可视化管理。%A tunnel ventilation safety information system, is developed by adopting Eclipse RCP technology and integrating Window Builder, Hibernate 3.2, JFreechart and POI 2.5, etc. , with MapXtreme Java 4.8 as map server and Oracle 10g as data-base. The developed system has many advantages, including daily management, electronic map, data analyzing, acoustic and visual alarming. In this way, visualized management of tunnel ventilation safety information is realized.

  2. Marginal fit of anterior 3-unit fixed partial zirconia restorations using different CAD/CAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Taek-Ka; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Few studies have investigated the marginal accuracy of 3-unit zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal fit of zirconia FPDs made using two CAD/CAM systems with that of metal-ceramic FPDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS Artificial resin maxillary central and lateral incisors were prepared for 3-unit FPDs and fixed in yellow stone. This model was duplicated to epoxy resin die. On the resin die, 15 three-unit FPDs were fabricated per group (45 in total): Group A, zirconia 3-unit FPDs made with the Everest system; Group B, zirconia 3-unit FPDs made with the Lava system; and Group C, metal-ceramic 3-unit FPDs. They were cemented to resin dies with resin cement. After removal of pontic, each retainer was separated and observed under a microscope (Presize 440C). Marginal gaps of experimental groups were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan test. RESULTS Mean marginal gaps of 3-unit FPDs were 60.46 µm for the Everest group, 78.71 µm for the Lava group, and 81.32 µm for the metal-ceramic group. The Everest group demonstrated significantly smaller marginal gap than the Lava and the metal-ceramic groups (P.05). CONCLUSION The marginal gaps of anterior 3-unit zirconia FPD differed according to CAD/CAM systems, but still fell within clinically acceptable ranges compared with conventional metal-ceramic restoration. PMID:24049561

  3. Spinning Giant in Anyang asks for Strategic Investment in Reconsolidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to a recent public announcement issude by Anyang municipal government,its largest cotton textile company,also the Everest in cotton spinning sector in Henan province,is now on the brink of bankruptcy oving to drooped business from global economic recessionl. Changtai Textile Group,having 400,000spindles in spinning capacity and 540,000square meters of plant area,three industrial parks,eight subsidiary companies,two ginners,was once the city honor for its giorious past,an undeniable contribution to local 5600 jobs,adorable taxpayer ,and one of the top 50 in the national cotton textile industry.

  4. FARKLI SİSTEM VE MATERYALLERLE ÜRETİLEN ZİRKONYA ALT YAPILARIN KENAR UYUMLARININ KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI Comparison of Marginal Fit of Zirconia Copings Produced by Different Systems and Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gültekin, Pınar; Deniz ŞEN; Aydın, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare marginal fit of zirconia copings produced by different systems and materials.Material and Methods: Tooth preparation with circumferential shoulder was performed on maxillary premolar acrylic tooth model. Copings (n=10) were produced with 5 different system-zirconia blocks (Cerec-InCoris ZI, Everest-BioZH, Celay-In-Ceram Zirconia, Zirkonzahn-IceZirkon ve Lava-Frame Zirconia) on prepared tooth model. Metal copings (Ni-Cr) were used as a control grou...

  5. TIGHTEN YOUR SEAT BELT, WE ARE ABOUT TO DESCEND : The Importance of Air Transportation in Tourism, Tenzing-Hillary Airport, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dawadi, Bipin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was done in order to focus on the importance of air transportation on tourism industry; it shows how an airport in the remote sector of Nepal develops the tourism industry and the economic situation of the entire region as well as connects the region to the outer world. The thesis was based on Tenzing-Hillary airport in Lukla, Nepal. The airport is the only means of transportation in the entire region and a gateway to Mount Everest, therefore the airport plays a very important ro...

  6. On the water hazards in the trans-boundary Kosi River basin

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, N. Sh.; Hu, G. Sh.; Deng, W.; Khanal, N.; Zhu, Y.H.; D. Han

    2013-01-01

    The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges River, which passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71 500 km2, the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8848 m of Mt Everest to 60 m of the Ganges Plain) and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacial lake outburst, debris flow, landslides, flooding, drought, soil erosion and sedimentatio...

  7. Thin Places

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Sandra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This inquiry into the three great quests of the twentieth century–the South Pole, Mount Everest, and the Moon–examines our motivations to venture into these sublime, yet life-taking places. The Thin Place was once the destination of the religious pilgrim seeking transcendence in an extreme environment. In our age, the Thin Place quest has morphed into a challenge to evolve beyond the confines of our own physiology; through human ingenuity and invention, we reach places not meant to accommod...

  8. Climbing Nitrogenase: Towards a Mechanism of Enzymatic Nitrogen Fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Brian M.; Dean, Dennis R.; Seefeldt, Lance C.

    2009-01-01

    “Nitrogen fixation”—the reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to two ammonia (NH3) molecules—by the Mo-dependent nitrogenase is essential for all life. Despite four decades of research, a daunting number of unanswered questions about the mechanism of nitrogenase make it the ‘Everest of enzymes’. This Account describes our efforts to climb one “face” of this mountain by meeting two interdependent challenges central to determining the mechanism of biological N2 reduction. The first challenge is to deter...

  9. Aprimorando a Gerência e o Desenvolvimento de Software com Metodologias Ágeis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Andreazza Sganderla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a melhoria da gerência e construção de software utilizando as metodologias ágeis eXtreme Programming e Scrum. São aplicadas as melhores práticas de ambas as metodologias em uma equipe de desenvolvimento de software, em um ambiente em que não havia nenhum processo bem definido de desenvolvimento de software. A escolha pelo uso das metodologias ágeis foi definida, pois atende ao dinamismo do cenário atual, requisitos voláteis, ambiente mais colaborativo e menos burocrático, tendo como objetivo principal o software em funcionamento e que realmente traga retorno ao cliente.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE MOST USED AGILE METHODS (XP, LEAN, SCRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BODJE N’KAUH NATHAN-REGIS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of Agile Software Development technologies, the software community is expecting in a large impact on producing quality. The Agile Software Development ideas were presentedin the form of Agile Manifesto which consists of four values and twelve principles. Toyota System production, set also a series of principles and practices which has lead Toyota Motor Corporationcommonly known simply as Toyota (multinational automaker on the top of the car industry market by achieving a reputation for the production of very high quality vehicles in all countries around the world. The main question that each new technology must pass through with success is: How much it’s worth? This paper propose a model for determining the significance worth of quality into the most used agilemethods (eXtreme programming, Scrum, Lean inspired by the Toyota Production System(TPS.

  11. First experimental results with the Current Limit Avoidance System at the JET tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Current Limit Avoidance System (CLA) has been recently deployed at the JET tokamak to avoid current saturations in the poloidal field (PF) coils when the eXtreme Shape Controller is used to control the plasma shape. In order to cope with the current saturation limits, the CLA exploits the redundancy of the PF coils system to automatically obtain almost the same plasma shape using a different combination of currents in the PF coils. In the presence of disturbances it tries to avoid the current saturations by relaxing the constraints on the plasma shape control. The CLA system has been successfully implemented on the JET tokamak and fully commissioned in 2011. This paper presents the first experimental results achieved in 2011–2012 during the restart and the ITER-like wall campaigns at JET

  12. Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on gap junctional intercellular communication and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The study on biological effect of electromagnetic fields has been paid close attention in recent years. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays an important role in the maintenance of cell proliferation and differentiation, and in the multistage process of carcinogenesis. A series of researches showed that xtremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields not only enhance the inhibition of GJIC induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, but also inhibit GJIC directly when the intensity is equal to or more than 0.4  mT, and that the mechanisms of GJIC inhibition by ELF magnetic fields are due to hyperphosphorylation of connexin 43, which is mediated by protein kinase C-activated signal transduction, and the internalization of connexin 43 from plasma membrane to cytoplasm.

  13. Evolutional development of controlling software for agricultural vehicles and robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Tsuneo; Jæger-Hansen, Claes Lund; Griepentrog, Hans-Werner

    Agricultural vehicles and robots expand their controlling software in size and complexity for their increasing functions. Due to repeated, ad hoc addition and modification, software gets structurally corrupted and becomes low performing, resource consuming and unreliable. This paper presents...... an evolutional development process combining Software Product Line (SPL) and eXtreme Derivation Development Process (XDDP). While SPL is a promising paradigm for successful reuse of software artefacts, it requires understanding of the whole system, a global and future view of the system, and preparation of well...... of the autonomous tractor, that applies XDDP initially for addition and modification of functions, accumulates core assets and cultivates a global view of the system through iterated development with XDDP, and finally shifts to SPL development....

  14. QualitySpy: a framework for monitoring software development processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Jureczko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of highly iterative, agile processes creates increasing need for automated monitoring of the quality of software artifacts, which would be focused on short terms (in the case of eXtreme Programming process iteration can be limited to one week. This paper presents a framework that calculates software metrics and cooperates with development tools (e.g. source version control system and issue tracking system to describe current state of a software project with regard to its quality. The framework is designed to support high level of automation of data collection and to be useful for researchers as well as for industry. The framework is currently being developed hence the paper reports already implemented features as well as future plans. The first release is scheduled for July.

  15. System architecture and hardware design of the CDF XFT online track processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trigger track processor is being designed for CDF Run 2. This processor identifies high momentum (PT > 1.5 GeV/c) charged tracks in the new central outer tracking chamber for the CDF II detector. The design of the track processor, called the eXtremely Fast Tracker (XFT), is highly parallel and handle an input rate of 183 Gbits/sec and output rate of 44 Gbits/sec. The XFT is pipelined and reports the results for a new event every 132ns. The XFT uses three stages, hit classification, segment finding, and segment linking. The pattern recognition algorithms for the three stages are implemented in Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) which allow for in-situ modification of the algorithm at any time. The PLDs reside on three different types of modules. Prototypes of each of these modules have been designed and built, and are working. An overview of the hardware design and the system architecture are presented

  16. Language Classification using N-grams Accelerated by FPGA-based Bloom Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, A; Gokhale, M

    2007-09-13

    N-Gram (n-character sequences in text documents) counting is a well-established technique used in classifying the language of text in a document. In this paper, n-gram processing is accelerated through the use of reconfigurable hardware on the XtremeData XD1000 system. Our design employs parallelism at multiple levels, with parallel Bloom Filters accessing on-chip RAM, parallel language classifiers, and parallel document processing. In contrast to another hardware implementation (HAIL algorithm) that uses off-chip SRAM for lookup, our highly scalable implementation uses only on-chip memory blocks. Our implementation of end-to-end language classification runs at 85x comparable software and 1.45x the competing hardware design.

  17. De-noising the galaxies in the Hubble XDF with EMPCA

    CERN Document Server

    Maturi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to model optical images of galaxies using Expectation Maximization Principal Components Analysis (EMPCA). The method relies on the data alone and does not assume any pre-established model or fitting formula. It preserves the statistical properties of the sample, minimizing possible biases. The precision of the reconstructions appears to be suited for photometric, morphological and weak lensing analysis, as well as the realization of mock astronomical images. Here, we put some emphasis on the latter because weak gravitational lensing is entering a new phase in which systematics are becoming the major source of uncertainty. Accurate simulations are necessary to perform a reliable calibration of the ellipticity measurements on which the final bias depends. As a test case, we process $7038$ galaxies observed with the ACS/WFC stacked images of the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) and measure the accuracy of the reconstructions in terms of their moments of brightness, which turn out to be compara...

  18. First experimental results with the Current Limit Avoidance System at the JET tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tommasi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Galeani, S. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Jachmich, S. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Koninklijke Militaire School - Ecole Royale Militaire, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Joffrin, E. [IRFM-CEA, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-paul-lez-Durance (France); Lennholm, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Lomas, P.J. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Neto, A.C. [Associazione EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, IST, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); McCullen, P. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Pironti, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Rimini, F.G. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Sips, A.C.C. [European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Varano, G.; Vitelli, R. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Zaccarian, L. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Universitè de Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2013-06-15

    The Current Limit Avoidance System (CLA) has been recently deployed at the JET tokamak to avoid current saturations in the poloidal field (PF) coils when the eXtreme Shape Controller is used to control the plasma shape. In order to cope with the current saturation limits, the CLA exploits the redundancy of the PF coils system to automatically obtain almost the same plasma shape using a different combination of currents in the PF coils. In the presence of disturbances it tries to avoid the current saturations by relaxing the constraints on the plasma shape control. The CLA system has been successfully implemented on the JET tokamak and fully commissioned in 2011. This paper presents the first experimental results achieved in 2011–2012 during the restart and the ITER-like wall campaigns at JET.

  19. Accurate PSF-matched photometry and photometric redshifts for the extreme deep field with the Chebyshev-Fourier functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Teja, Y.; Benítez, N.; Molino, A.; Fernandes, C. A. C.

    2015-10-01

    Photometric redshifts, which have become the cornerstone of several of the largest astronomical surveys like PanStarrs, DES, J-PAS and LSST, require precise measurements of galaxy photometry in different bands using a consistent physical aperture. This is not trivial, due to the variation in the shape and width of the point spread function (PSF) introduced by wavelength differences, instrument positions and atmospheric conditions. Current methods to correct for this effect rely on a detailed knowledge of PSF characteristics as a function of the survey coordinates, which can be difficult due to the relative paucity of stars tracking the PSF behaviour. Here we show that it is possible to measure accurate, consistent multicolour photometry without knowing the shape of the PSF. The Chebyshev-Fourier functions (CHEFs) can fit the observed profile of each object and produce high signal-to-noise integrated flux measurements unaffected by the PSF. These total fluxes, which encompass all the galaxy populations, are much more useful for galaxy evolution studies than aperture photometry. We compare the total magnitudes and colours obtained using our software to traditional photometry with SEXTRACTOR, using real data from the COSMOS survey and the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF). We also apply the CHEF technique to the recently published eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) and compare the results to those from COLORPRO on the HUDF. We produce a photometric catalogue with 35 732 sources (10 823 with signal-to-noise ratio ≥5), reaching a photometric redshift precision of 2 per cent due to the extraordinary depth and wavelength coverage of the eXtreme Deep Field images.

  20. Phantom studies using a high-resolution CT for ex-vivo imaging of degradable magnesium implants and simulated peri-implant bone formation in rabbit tibiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of the suitability of the high-resolution CT XtremeCT for ex vivo imaging of degradable magnesium implants with simulated peri-implant bone formation in rabbit tibiae and development of a method for calibrating the mass concentration of a magnesium alloy in an implant volume. Materials and Methods: Using specially designed phantoms, degradable magnesium implants of the alloys LAE442, ZEK100, AX30 and MgCa 0.8 %, without coating and with peri-implant bone formation simulated by a coating, as well as rabbit tibiae were scanned. CT numbers and the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) of the studied materials were determined. The visual distinction between implant and coating was evaluated. To calibrate the implant density, exemplary LAE442 pins with different mass concentrations were scanned using a specially constructed phantom. Subsequently, CT numbers corresponding to the appropriate mass concentration were determined. Results: The implants, coating and substantia corticalis showed a similar density. Visual distinction between coating and implant was strongly dependent on the respective magnesium alloy and chosen scan parameter. A CNR of at least 0.2 was required for a distinction between implant and coating. For the mass concentration, a high CT number linearity (R2 = 0.99) throughout the measuring range (1811 - 1273 mg/cm3 LAE442) was found. Conclusion: As expected, the XtremeCT is primarily suitable for the imaging of bone tissue and implants. Good visual distinction of peri-implant bone formation on magnesium implants in an ex vivo phantom model ranges from possible to difficult depending on the bone density and alloy composition. (orig.)

  1. Phantom studies using a high-resolution CT for ex-vivo imaging of degradable magnesium implants and simulated peri-implant bone formation in rabbit tibiae; Phantomuntersuchungen an einem hochaufloesenden CT zur Ex-vivo-Darstellung von degradierbaren Magnesiumimplantaten und simulierten periimplantaeren Knochenschichten in Kaninchentibiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, J.; Goblet, F.; Seifert, H. [Stiftung Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Fachgebiet Allgemeine Radiologie und Medizinische Physik; Meyer-Lindenberg, A. [Stiftung Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Klinik fuer Kleintiere; Bormann, D. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde; Stiller, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Evaluation of the suitability of the high-resolution CT XtremeCT for ex vivo imaging of degradable magnesium implants with simulated peri-implant bone formation in rabbit tibiae and development of a method for calibrating the mass concentration of a magnesium alloy in an implant volume. Materials and Methods: Using specially designed phantoms, degradable magnesium implants of the alloys LAE442, ZEK100, AX30 and MgCa 0.8 %, without coating and with peri-implant bone formation simulated by a coating, as well as rabbit tibiae were scanned. CT numbers and the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) of the studied materials were determined. The visual distinction between implant and coating was evaluated. To calibrate the implant density, exemplary LAE442 pins with different mass concentrations were scanned using a specially constructed phantom. Subsequently, CT numbers corresponding to the appropriate mass concentration were determined. Results: The implants, coating and substantia corticalis showed a similar density. Visual distinction between coating and implant was strongly dependent on the respective magnesium alloy and chosen scan parameter. A CNR of at least 0.2 was required for a distinction between implant and coating. For the mass concentration, a high CT number linearity (R{sup 2} = 0.99) throughout the measuring range (1811 - 1273 mg/cm{sup 3} LAE442) was found. Conclusion: As expected, the XtremeCT is primarily suitable for the imaging of bone tissue and implants. Good visual distinction of peri-implant bone formation on magnesium implants in an ex vivo phantom model ranges from possible to difficult depending on the bone density and alloy composition. (orig.)

  2. High-power sources for EUV lithography: state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Uwe; Kleinschmidt, Juergen; Gaebel, Kai M.; Birner, Henry; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Bolshukhin, Denis; Brudermann, Jesko; Chinh, Tran Duc; Flohrer, Frank; Goetze, Sven; Hergenhan, Guido; Kloepfel, Diethard; Korobochko, Vladimir; Mader, Bjoern; Mueller, Rainer; Ringling, Jens; Schriever, Guido; Ziener, Christian

    2004-09-01

    The availability of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources, measurement tools and integrated test systems is of major importance for the development of EUV lithography for use in high volume chip manufacturing which is expected to start in 2009. The estimates of cost of an EUV exposure tool in combination with sophisticated throughput models leads to a throughput of 120 wafers per hour necessary for economic use of EUV lithography. Concluding from that light sources are necessary which deliver an EUV output power of 115 W at 13.5 nm at the entrance of the illuminator system. The power requirement in combination with the required lifetimes of source components and collector optics make the source technology the most critical issue to be solved when developing EUV lithography. The present paper gives an update of the development status of EUV light sources at XTREME technologies, a joint venture of Lambda Physik AG, Goettingen, and Jenoptik LOS GmbH, Jena, Germany. Results on both laser produced plasma (LPP) and gas discharge produced plasma (GDPP), the two major technologies in EUV sources, are given. The LPP EUV sources use xenon-jet target systems and pulsed lasers with 500 W average power at up to 10 kHz developed at XTREME technologies. The maximum conversion efficiency from laser power into EUV in-band power is 1.0% into 2π solid angle. 2.0 W EUV radiation is generated at 13.5 nm in 2π sr solid angle. The small source volume of challenging in comparison to Xe-sources. GDPP and LPP sources still compete for the technology of high volume manufacturing sources for EUV lithography. Optimization potential of the etendue of the optical system of EUV scanners will certainly influence any technology decision for HVM sources.

  3. EUV source power and lifetime: the most critical issues for EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Uwe; Kleinschmidt, Juergen; Gaebel, Kai; Birner, Henry; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Bolshukhin, Denis; Brudermann, Jesko; Chinh, Tran Duc; Flohrer, Frank; Goetze, Sven; Hergenhan, Guido; Kloepfel, Diethard; Korobotchko, Vladimir; Mader, Bjorn; Mueller, Rainer; Ringling, Jens; Schriever, Guido; Ziener, Christian

    2004-05-01

    Semiconductor chip manufacturers are expecting to use extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography for high volume manufacturing of DRAMs and ICs starting by the end of this decade. Among all the technologies and modules which have to be developed EUV sources at 13.5 nm are considered to be the most critical issue. Specifically the required output power of 115 W at the entrance of the illuminator system in combination with the required lifetimes of source components and collector optics make the source technology critical for EUV lithography. The present paper gives an update of the development status of EUV light sources at XTREME technologies, a joint venture of Lambda Physik AG, Goettingen, and Jenoptik LOS GmbH, Jena, Germany. Results on both laser produced plasma (LPP) and gas discharge produced plasma (GDPP), the two major technologies in EUV sources, are given. The LPP EUV sources use xenon-jet target systems and pulsed lasers with 500 W average power at up to 10 kHz developed at XTREME technologies. The maximum conversion efficiency from laser power into EUV in-band power is 1.0 % into 2p solid angle. 2.0 W EUV radiation is generated at 13.5 nm in 2p sr solid angle. The small source volume of challenging in comparison to Xe-sources. GDPP and LPP sources still compete for the technology of high volume manufacturing sources for EUV lithography. Optimization potential of the etendue of the optical system of EUV scanners will certainly influence any technology decision for HVM sources.

  4. Cine club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine club

    2016-01-01

    Wednesday 15 June 2016 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber North Face   Directed by Philipp Stölzl Germany / Austria / Switzerland, 2008, 126 minutes Based on a true story, North Face is an adventure film about a competition to climb the most dangerous rock face in the Alps. Set in 1936, as Nazi propaganda urges the nation's Alpinists to conquer the unclimbed north face of the Swiss massif - the Eiger - two reluctant German climbers begin their daring ascent.. Original version German; English subtitles Wednesday 22 June 2016 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Everest   Directed by Baltasar Kormakur UK / USA, 2015, 121 minutes On the morning of May 10, 1996, climbers from two commercial expeditions start their final ascent toward the summit of Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. With little warning, a violent storm strikes the mountain, engulfing the adventurers in one of the fiercest blizzards ever encountered by man. Challenged by the harshest conditions imaginable, the te...

  5. Peak heart rates at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    We have measured maximal heart rate during a graded maximal bicycle exercise test to exhaustion in five healthy climbers before and during an expedition to Mt. Everest. Maximal heart rates at sea level were 186 (177-204) beats/min(-1) at sea level and 170 (169-182) beats/min(-1) with acute hypoxia....... After 1, 4 and 6 weeks of acclimatization to 5400 m, maximal heart rates were 155 (135-182), 158 (144-182), and 155 (140-183) beats/min(-1), respectively. Heart rates of two of the climbers were measured during their attempt to reach the summit of Mt. Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen. The...... peak heart rates at 8,750 m for the two climbers were 142 and 144 beats/min(-1), which were similar to their maximal heart rates during exhaustive bicycle exercise at 5,400 m, the values being 144 and 148 beats/min(-1), respectively. The peak heart rates at 8,750 m are in agreement with other field...

  6. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  7. Himalayas as seen from STS-66 shuttle Atlantis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    View is southeastward across China (Tibet), half of Nepal and India. The partly frozen lake near the center of the frame is Pei-Ku T'so ('Bos-tie Lake'). The central Himalaya stretches from Mount Everest on the left past Annapurna on the right. Large tributaries converge to form the Ganges River, flowing through the lowland basin south of the Himalaya. This photograph illustrates the rain shadow effect of the Himalaya Chain; wet, warm air from the Indian Ocean is driven against the mountains, lifted, and drained of water that forms ice caps, the abundant rivers, and forests of the foothills. In contrast the high plateau of Tibet is arid, composed largely of topographically-closed basins because stream flow is inadequate to form integrated drainage networks.

  8. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis applied to a repository in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with UNCSAM, as applied to a repository in rock salt for the EVEREST project. UNCSAM is a dedicated software package for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, which was already used within the preceding PROSA project. The use of UNCSAM provides a flexible interface to EMOSECN by substituting the sampled values in the various input files to be used by EMOSECN; the model calculations for this repository were performed with the EMOSECN code. Preceding the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, a number of preparations has been carried out to facilitate EMOSECN with the probabilistic input data. For post-processing the EMOSECN results, the characteristic output signals were processed. For the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with UNCSAM the stochastic input, i.e. sampled values, and the output for the various EMOSECN runs have been analyzed. (orig.)

  9. Rb-Sr ages of the biotite and muscovite of the Himalayas, eastern Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr ages of biotite from the southern flank of Mt. Everest, eastern Nepal, range from 14.1 to 1.3 m.y., the youngest biotite coexists with muscovite of 7.3 m.y. These different ages for different samples reflect the difference in cooling history related to the uplift of the Himalayas. The biotite ages decrease with increasing distance from the high mountain range, suggesting that the high range, i.e., the northern area, was uplifted earlier than the southern area. The relationship between the ages and altitutes of sampling sites indicates that the uplift rate of the northern area was 0.60 mm/yr. (author)

  10. Mountaineering fatalities on Aconcagua: 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westensee, Jeffrey; Rogé, Ignacio; Van Roo, Jon D; Pesce, Carlos; Batzli, Sam; Courtney, D Mark; Lazio, Matthew P

    2013-09-01

    High altitude mountaineering is a dangerous endeavor due to the hypoxic hypobaric environment, extreme weather, and technical skills required. One of the seven summits, Aconcagua (6962 m) is the highest mountain outside of Asia. Its most popular route is nontechnical, attracting >3000 mountaineers annually. Utilizing data from the Servicio Médico Aconcagua (park medical service), we performed a retrospective descriptive analysis with the primary objective of deriving a fatality rate on Aconcagua from 2001 to 2012. The fatality rate on Aconcagua was then compared to other popular mountains. For climbers who died, we report all available demographic data, mechanisms of death, and circumstances surrounding the death. Between 2001 and 2012, 42,731 mountaineers attempted to summit Aconcagua. There were 33 fatalities. The fatality rate was 0.77 per 1000, or 0.077%. The fatality rate on Aconcagua is lower than that on Everest or Denali but higher than that on Rainier. PMID:24028641

  11. Secrets to Successful Earth and Sky Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafreshi, Babak A.

    In the absolute silence of a desert night, surrounded by an arena of celestial beauties, a gentle breeze shifts the tiny grains of sand around me. There is a patchy glow of light visible all across the eastern horizon. It is gradually ascending over the sand dunes. The glow represents billions of stars in our home galaxy rising above the horizon of our planet. I have seen such dream-like starry scenes from many locations; from the boundless dark skies of the African Sahara when the summer Milky Way was arching over giant sandstones, to the shimmering beauty of the Grand Canyon under moonlight, and the transparent skies of the Himalayas when the bright stars of winter were rising above where the highest peak on Earth (Mt. Everest) meets the sky. These are forever-engraved moments in my memory. Astrophotography is not only about recording the celestial world. It can lead you to a life of adventure and discovery (Fig. 1).

  12. Geoid of Nepal from airborne gravity survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Einarsson, Indriði;

    2011-01-01

    An airborne gravity survey of Nepal was carried out December 2010 in a cooperation between DTU-Space, Nepal Survey Department, and NGA, USA. The entire country was flown with survey lines spaced 6 nm with a King Air aircraft, with a varying flight altitude from 4 to 10 km. The survey operations...... were a major challenge due to excessive jet streams at altitude as well as occasional excessive mountain waves. Despite the large 400 mGal+ range of gravity anomaly changes from the Indian plains to the Tibetan Plateau, results appear accurate to a few mGal, with proper evaluation from cross...... as well as recent GPS-heights of Mt. Everest. The new airborne data also provide an independent validation of GOCE gravity field results at the local ~100 km resolution scale....

  13. Painless acute myocardial infarction on Mount Kilimanjaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Nasiruddin; Rajhy, Mubina; Bapumia, Mustaafa

    2016-01-01

    An individual experiencing dyspnoea or syncope at high altitude is commonly diagnosed to have high-altitude pulmonary edema or cerebral edema. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is generally not considered in the differential diagnosis. There have been very rare cases of AMI reported only from Mount Everest. We report a case of painless ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that occurred while climbing Mount Kilimanjaro. A 51-year-old man suffered dyspnoea and loss of consciousness near the mountain peak, at about 5600 m. At a nearby hospital, he was treated as a case of high-altitude pulmonary edema. ECG was not obtained. Two days after the incident, he presented to our institution with continued symptoms of dyspnoea, light-headedness and weakness, but no pain. He was found to have inferior wall and right ventricular STEMI complicated by complete heart block. He was successfully managed with coronary angioplasty, with good recovery. PMID:26989121

  14. Landscapes of Mars A Visual Tour

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Gregory L

    2008-01-01

    Landscapes of Mars is essentially a picture book that provides a visual tour of Mars. All the major regions and topographical features will be shown and supplemented with chapter introductions and extended captions. In a way, think of it as a visual tourist guide. Other topics covered are Martian uplands on the order of the elevation of Mt. Everest, Giant volcanoes and a rift system, the Grand Canyon of Mars, craters and the absence of craters over large regions (erosion), and wind shadows around craters, sand dunes, and dust devils. The book includes discussions on the search for water (braided channels, seepage, sedimentary layering, etc.) as well as on the Viking mission search for life, Mars meteorite fossil bacteria controversy, and planetary protection in future missions. The book concludes with an exciting gallery of the best 3D images of Mars making the book a perfect tool for understanding Mars and its place in the solar system.

  15. Box vs styck : Ett beslutsunderlag till Stadium AB gällande styckhantering i distributionslagret som alternativ till boxar

    OpenAIRE

    Örtengren, Malin; Torstensson, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Stadium AB är ett av de största detaljhandelsföretagen i Sverige, som designar, köper och säljer sportutrustning samt sportmodeprodukter. I Stadiums butiker säljs både produkter från märkesleverantörer, exempelvis Adidas och Nike, samt varumärken med egen design, exempelvis SOC, 4D och Everest. Stadium befinner sig i en bransch där kundernas efterfrågan ständigt förändras med mode och säsong. Detta gör branschen komplex och medför att det ställs stora krav på varuförsörjningen till butikerna ...

  16. To localise or to be localised with WiFi in the Hubei museum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbree, E.; Zlatanova, S.; van Winden, K. B. A.; van der Laan, E. B.; Makri, A.; Taizhou, L.; Haojun, A.

    2013-11-01

    Indoor localisation is in demand for a variety of applications within the built environment. An overall solution based on a single technology has not yet been determined. The aim of this paper is to gain insight on Signal Strength monitoring by a special kind of WiFi Monitors in comparison to the commonly known fingerprinting method for the purpose of a 3D indoor navigation system. Ttwo different WiFi based localisation techniques are tested during the MSc Geomatics DaRen Syntheses Project in the Hubei Provincial Museum, China. The first method detects the beacon frames send by smartphones, laptops and other WiFi enabled devices in range using Libelium Meshlium Xtreme monitors. Their MAC addresses and the signal strength is measured by the Meshlium Xtreme and stored on an external database. We call this method WiFi monitoring. The second method a Wifi enabled device, like a smartphone, measures the signal strength of multiple Wifi Access Points in range to localise itself based on a previously created radio map. This method is known as WiFi fingerprinting. Both methods have some advantages and disadvantages. Advantages of the common way of WiFi fingerprinting are that the implementation costs are relatively low, because it is usually possible to use (a part of) the existing WiFi AP infrastructure. WiFi fingerprinting can reach a relatively high accuracy in the order of magnitude of meters. Finally, the location granularity can be adjusted to what is necessary for the purpose of the indoor localisation. This makes it employable for a wide range of purposes. The question remains how suitable these methods are for a 3D indoor navigation system for the Hubei provincial museum. One important aspect is the localisation-granularity necessary for the application. In a museum it is not necessary to know the exact X,Y position of a user (such high accuracy is unnecessary), more important is to know in which room the user is located so the information on exhibitions can be

  17. Same ammo, different weapons: enzymatic extracts from two apple genotypes with contrasted susceptibilities to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) differentially convert phloridzin and phloretin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Matthieu; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Guyot, Sylvain; Dat, James F; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-01

    The necrogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora responsible for the fire blight disease causes cell death in apple tissues to enrich intercellular spaces with nutrients. Apple leaves contain large amounts of dihydrochalcones (DHCs), including phloridzin and its aglycone phloretin. Previous work showed an important decrease in the constitutive DHCs stock in infected leaves, probably caused by transformation reactions during the infection process. At least two flavonoid transformation pathways have been described so far: deglucosylation and oxidation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether DHCs are differentially converted in two apple genotypes displaying contrasted susceptibilities to the disease. Different analyses were performed: i) enzymatic activity assays in infected leaves, ii) identification/quantification of end-products obtained after in vitro enzymatic reactions with DHCs, iii) evaluation of the bactericidal activity of end-products. The results of the enzymatic assays showed that deglucosylation was dominant over oxidation in the susceptible genotype MM106 while the opposite was observed in the resistant genotype Evereste. These data were confirmed by LC-UV/Vis-MS analysis of in vitro reaction mixtures, especially because higher levels of o-quinoid oxidation products of phloretin were measured by using the enzymatic extracts of Evereste infected leaves. Their presence correlated well with a strong bactericidal activity of the reaction mixtures. Thus, our results suggest that a differential transformation of DHCs occur in apple genotypes with a potential involvement in the establishment of the susceptibility or the resistance to fire blight, through the release of glucose or of highly bactericidal compounds respectively. PMID:23561298

  18. Study on the heights of the highest mountains of Mars and the Earth and their difference%火星和地球上山峰最高高度及其差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈出新; 常震

    2015-01-01

    The radius of Mars is only half of that of Earth,while the height of Mount Olympus,the highest mountain on Mars,is more than twice of that of Everest on Earth.There are still some peaks on Mars which are much higher than Everest. To explain the appearance of mountains or protrusions disproportional to the scale of the planet,a stress model of a mountain was set up.It was found that the main factor that affects the highest mountains’height is gravitational acceleration.The smaller the planet, the smaller its surface gravitational acceleration,and the more prominent the protrusions on its surface. The depth of the deepest trench on Earth was also estimated using the same method;the result is close to reality.%火星的半径只有地球半径的一半多一点,而火星的最高峰奥林匹斯山比地球的最高峰珠穆朗玛峰的两倍还高,火星上还有不少比珠峰还要高得多的山峰。为解释这种与天体尺度不成比例的山峰或凸起的出现原因,建立了一个山峰的应力模型,发现影响山峰高度的主要因素是重力加速度。越是小的天体,它的表面重力加速度越小,表面的凸起就越显著。同一模型亦较好地估算出与实际相近的地球最深海沟的深度。

  19. Enabling the 22nm node via grazing incidence collectors integrated into the DPP source for EUVL HVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, G.; Bragheri, A.; Cassol, G. L.; Ghislanzoni, R.; Mazzoleni, R.; Zocchi, F. E.

    2011-04-01

    Media Lario Technologies (MLT) has enabled the Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) roadmap with its grazing incidence collectors installed in all DPP sources since 2006. Furthermore, with several 100 WIF capable production grazing incidence collectors shipped in 2010, MLT is ready to support the start of High Volume Manufacturing (HVM). With a point-source collection efficiency of 25% and 6 kW power loading capability, the 9-shell collector design is capable of delivering 100 W in-band EUV power through the intermediate focus aperture. The customized reflective layer and the debris mitigation technology enable the 1-year lifetime objective under full production operating conditions. Integration of the grazing incidence collector in XTREME technologies' (XT) DPP source attached to ASML's NXE:3100 scanner has provided initial validation of the optical, thermal, and lifetime design objectives. In full HVM regime, we anticipate that the collector power loading will progressively reach 20 kW to enable 500 W inband EUV peak power at intermediate focus. We have started the development of a thermal management design maintaining the current optical stability with a collector power loading of 30 kW, thus meeting the aggressive HVM requirements.

  20. Teorizando as Práticas dos Métodos Ágeis no Desenvolvimento de Software Visando ao Processo de Inovação das Empresas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolci, Décio Bittencourt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian IT executives are being challenged to play an active and important role in the innovation process within their organizations. The purpose of this study is to explore agile software development methods in facing this challenge. We deployed a practice theory framework, in particular that of Orlikowski, in order to analyze practices from seven agile methods – eXtreme Programming (XP, Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM, Scrum, Crystal, Agile Modeling (AM, Feature Driven Design (FDD and Adaptive Software Development (ASD. Results show practices grouped into five underlying factors – learning, iteractive, customer, human and technical; in addition, they explain the shift in focus of the agile development in reference to previous methods, centering on the individual and their actions in social relations in place of essentially technical issues. Findings suggest that agile software development methods have principles and practices better suitable to the innovation challenge than their predecessors do. Furthermore, their practices can aid the organization in the constitution of institutional properties useful to the process of business model innovation.

  1. HI in XMD Galaxies III. GMRT observations of BCG HS0822+3542

    CERN Document Server

    Chengalur, J N; Martin, J M; Kniazev, A Yu; Chengalur, Jayaram N.

    2006-01-01

    We present Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) HI 21-cm line data for the smallest known eXtremely Metal Deficient (XMD) blue compact galaxy (BCG) HS0822+3542. From HST imaging it has been suggested that HS0822+3542 actually consists of two still smaller (~ 100pc sized) ultra-compact dwarfs that are in the process of merging. The brighter of these two putative ultra compact dwarfs has an ocular appearance, similar to that seen in galaxies that have suffered a penetrating encounter with a smaller companion. From our HI imaging we find that the gas distribution and kinematics in this object are similar to that of other low mass galaxies, albeit with some evidence for tidal disturbance. On the other hand, the HI emission has an angular size ~25 times larger than that of the putative ultra-compact dwarfs. The optical emission is also offset from the centre of the HI emission. HS0822+3542 is located in the Lynx-Cancer void, but has a nearby companion LSB dwarf galaxy SAO0822+3545. In light of all this we also c...

  2. DSP integrated, parameterized, FPGA based cavity simulator and controller for VUV-FEL. SIMCON ver.2.1. installation and configuration procedures - User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The note describes integrated system of hardware controller and simulator of the resonant superconducting, narrowband niobium cavity, originally considered for the TTF and TESLA in DESY, Hamburg (now predicted for the VUV and X-Ray FEL). The controller bases on a programmable circuit Xilinx VirtexII V3000 embedded on a PCB XtremeDSP Development Kit by Nallatech. The FPGA circuit configuration was done in the VHDL language. The internal hardware multiplication components, present in Virtex II chips, were used, to improve the floating point calculation efficiency. The implementation was achieved of a device working in the real time, according to the demands of the LLRF control system for the TESLA Test Facility. The device under consideration will be referred to as superconducting cavity (SCCav) SIMCON throughout this work. This document is intended to be used by end users and operators. It describes step by step how to install SIMCON in specific configuration, how and what software to copy to computer. There is described set of basic Matlab functions for developers of control algorithms. This paper also contains brief description how to use Matlab function of one algorithm with its graphic user panels. (orig.)

  3. Improvement of phase diversity algorithm for non-common path calibration in extreme AO context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Clélia; Fusco, Thierry; Sauvage, Jean-François; Mugnier, Laurent

    2008-07-01

    Exoplanet direct imaging with a ground-based telescope needs a very high performance adaptive optics (AO) system, so-called eXtreme AO (XAO), a coronagraph device, and a smart imaging process. One limitation of AO system in operation remains the Non Common Path Aberrations (NCPA). To achieve the ultimate XAO performance, these aberrations have to be measured with a dedicated wavefront sensor placed in the imaging camera focal plane, and then pre-compensated using the AO closed loop process. In any events, the pre-compensation should minimize the aberrations at the coronagraph focal plane mask. An efficient way for the NCPA measurement is the phase diversity technique. A pixel-wise approach is well-suited to estimate NCPA on large pupils and subsequent projection on the deformable mirror with Cartesian geometry. However it calls for a careful regularization for optimal results. The weight of the regularization is written in close-form for un-supervised tuning. The accuracy of NCPA pre-compensation is below 8 nm for a wide range of conditions. Point-by-point phase estimation improves the accuracy of the Phase Diversity method. The algorithm is validated in simulation and experimentally. It will be implemented in SAXO, the XAO system of the second generation VLT instrument: SPHERE.

  4. Atmospheric Aerosol Attenuation Measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Valore, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides a nearly calorimetric measurement of the primary particle energy, since the fluorescence light produced is proportional to the energy dissipated by an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) in the atmosphere. The atmosphere therefore acts as a giant calorimeter, whose properties need to be well known during data taking. Aerosols play a key role in this scenario, since their effect on light transmission is highly variable even on a time scale of one hour, and the corresponding correction to EAS energy can range from a few percent to more than 40%. For this reason, hourly Vertical Aerosol Optical Depth (taer(h)) profiles are provided for each of the four FD stations. Starting from 2004, up to now 9 years of taer(h) profiles have been produced using data from the Central Laser Facility (CLF) and the eXtreme Laser Facility (XLF) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The two laser facilities, the techniques developed to measure taer(h) profiles using laser dat...

  5. K-Stacker, a new way of detecting and characterizing exoplanets with high contrast imaging instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Coroller, H Le; Arnold, L; Dohlen, K; Fusco, T; Sauvage, J F; Vigan, A

    2015-01-01

    This year, a second generation of coronagraphs dedicated to high-contrast direct imaging of exoplanets is starting operations. Among them, SPHERE, installed at the focus of the UT3 Very Large Telescope, reaches unprecedented contrast ratios up to $10^{-6}$ -$ 10^{-7}$, using eXtreme Adaptive Optics and the Angular Differential Imaging (ADI) techniques. In this paper, we present a new method called Keplerian-Stacker that improves the detection limit of high contrast instruments like SPHERE, by up to a factor of 10. It consists of observing a star on a long enough period to let a hypothetical planet around that star move along its orbit. Even if in each individual observation taken during one night, we do not detect anything, we show that it is possible, using an optimization algorithm, to re-center the images according to keplerian motions (ex: 10-100 images taken over a long period of typically 1-10 years) and detect planets otherwise unreachable. This method can be used in combination with the ADI technics (...

  6. Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoionization by an eXtreme UltraViolet (XUV) attosecond pulse train (APT) in the presence of an infrared pulse (RABBITT method) conveys information about the atomic photoionization delay. By taking the difference of the spectral delays between pairs of rare gases (Ar,He), (Kr,He) and (Ne,He) it is possible to eliminate in each case the larger group delay (‘attochirp’) associated with the APT itself and obtain the Ar, Kr and Ne Wigner delays referenced to model calculations of the He delay. In this work we measure how the delays vary as a function of XUV photon energy but we cannot determine the absolute delay difference between atoms due to lack of precise knowledge of the initial conditions. The extracted delays are compared with several theoretical predictions and the results are consistent within 30 as over the energy range from 10 to 50 eV. An ‘effective’ Wigner delay over all emission angles is found to be more consistent with our angle-integrated measurement near the Cooper minimum in Ar. We observe a few irregular features in the delay that may be signatures of resonances. (paper)

  7. Perception of Human Skin in Street Lighting under Five Types of Led Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontoynont, Marc; Bruyère, Lucie; Blanc-Gonnet, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    A panel of observers has been invited to rate and compare the quality of 5 spectra of LED sources used for street lighting, on 30 subjects. Vertical illuminance on faces was 14 lx (+/- 3 lx) . All 30 subjects did not have the same type of skin. 60% were from the European Caucasian type (clear skin......), 23 % from the Asian one, 17% were from the Sub-Saharan type (dark skin). All subjects were also acting as observers. Correlated Colour temperature of sources was 2200K , 2700K, 3200K, 4000K, 4800K. This was obtained by mixing cool-white, warm-white and red LEDs (for the 2200 K and 2700 K sources only......). The xtreme stimuli (2200K and 4800K) were rejected by all participants. When presented in pairs (Thurstone protocole), 75% of observers preferred the 3200K stimulus, 61% the 4000 K stimulus, 59% preferred the 2700K stimulus. People with Asian skin was found to be preferred under CCT of 3200 K and...

  8. The clustering and halo occupation distribution of Lyman-break galaxies at z ~ 4

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jaehong; Wyithe, J Stuart B; Lacey, C G; Baugh, C M; Barone-Nugent, R L; Trenti, M; Bouwens, R J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the clustering of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 4. Using the hierarchical galaxy formation model GALFORM, we predict the angular correlation function (ACF) of LBGs and compare this with the measured ACF from survey fields including the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) and CANDELS field. We find that the predicted ACFs are in good agreement with the measured ones. However, the predicted ACFs show a weaker dependence on luminosity than is inferred from observations. We show that the fraction of satellite LBGs is important for determining the amplitude of the ACF on small scales. We find that central LBGs at z ~ 4 predominantly reside in haloes of mass ~ 10e11 - 10e12 M_{sun}/h and that satellites reside in larger haloes of mass ~ 10e12 - 10e13 M_{sun}/h. The model predicts fewer bright satellite LBGs at z ~ 4 than are inferred from clustering measurements. We investigate the effect of the photometric scatter in the observations on the ACF predictions. We find that the observational uncertaint...

  9. Improved removal of sticky and light contaminants from wastepaper. Final report, April 1, 1995--December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, P.; Kelly, A.

    1998-03-01

    Work under this two-year cooperative agreement addresses improved removal of light and sticky contaminants from waste paper. Such contaminants occur in ever-increasing amounts, resulting from glues, labels, book bindings, packaging tapes, etc., all associated with the waste paper stream. Despite various cleaning steps in the paper mill recycling systems, residual contamination remains, causing big problems with the product quality and with paper machine and converting operations. Some grades cannot be recycled at all. Stickies are truly a barrier against increased paper recycling. The stickies problem was attacked in four project segments--three of those have yielded tangible results. One segment has been outstanding in its success; namely, the development of a centrifugal reverse cleaning system consisting of primary and secondary stages, which have unparalleled high efficiency in the removal of light and sticky contaminants. This cleaning system, consists of primary XTREME and secondary XX-Clone units. Another segment of this work, washing wax contaminated old corrugated wastepaper (OCC), also has resulted in the new Xtrax process which was released for sale.

  10. Adoption of Pair Programming in the Academic Environment with Different Degree of Complexity in Students Perspective– An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Venkatesan,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Agile software development is a light weight process which is a solution for the heavy weight processes. EXtreme Programming is one of the Agile Methods. Pair Programming is one of best practice of eXtreme Programming. . It is a technique which concentrates not only on the software but also the developer who working on the software. Pair Programming is best suitable to produce efficient software. It accentuates the practice of two persons working together at a single computer terminal, to design, code and test computer programs. We studied the effects of pair programming in student context on knowledge transfer and enjoyment of work. We analyzed whether the taskcomplexity affects the effort differences between solo and pair programming. We conducted experiment to evaluate the efficiency of the knowledge transfer of the students when they adopt pair programming. The feedback from the student show the positive result that pair programming improves knowledge transfer and enjoyment of work. Through the experiment we also analyzed whether there is dependency between the task complexity and students capability. The result of this experiment shows that there is significant difference in the duration of task completion, the effort to perform the task correctly between solo and pair programming.

  11. Propagation of a short-pulse laser-driven electron beam in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the transport of an intense electron beam produced by high intensity laser pulses through metals and insulators. Targets were irradiated at two different intensities, 1017 W/cm2 and 1019 W/cm2, at the laser facility Xtreme Light XL-III in Beijing, a Ti:Sa laser source emitting 40 fs pulses at 800 nm. The main diagnostic was Cu-Kα fluorescence imaging. Images of Kα spots have been collected for those two laser intensities, for different target thickness, and for different materials. Experimental results are analyzed taking into account both collisional and collective effects as well as refluxing at the edge of the target. The target temperature is evaluated to be Tc ∼ 6 eV for intensity I = 1017 W/cm2 (for all the tested materials: plastic, aluminium, and copper), and Tc ∼ 60 eV in aluminium and 120 eV in titanium for intensity I = 1019 W/cm2.

  12. Scientific data analysis on data-parallel platforms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, Craig D.; Bayer, Gregory W.; Choe, Yung Ryn; Roe, Diana C.

    2010-09-01

    As scientific computing users migrate to petaflop platforms that promise to generate multi-terabyte datasets, there is a growing need in the community to be able to embed sophisticated analysis algorithms in the computing platforms' storage systems. Data Warehouse Appliances (DWAs) are attractive for this work, due to their ability to store and process massive datasets efficiently. While DWAs have been utilized effectively in data-mining and informatics applications, they remain largely unproven in scientific workloads. In this paper we present our experiences in adapting two mesh analysis algorithms to function on five different DWA architectures: two Netezza database appliances, an XtremeData dbX database, a LexisNexis DAS, and multiple Hadoop MapReduce clusters. The main contribution of this work is insight into the differences between these DWAs from a user's perspective. In addition, we present performance measurements for ten DWA systems to help understand the impact of different architectural trade-offs in these systems.

  13. Variability In Long-Wave Runup as a Function of Nearshore Bathymetric Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkin, Lauren McNeill [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Beaches and barrier islands are vulnerable to extreme storm events, such as hurricanes, that can cause severe erosion and overwash to the system. Having dunes and a wide beach in front of coastal infrastructure can provide protection during a storm, but the influence that nearshore bathymetric features have in protecting the beach and barrier island system is not completely understood. The spatial variation in nearshore features, such as sand bars and beach cusps, can alter nearshore hydrodynamics, including wave setup and runup. The influence of bathymetric features on long-wave runup can be used in evaluating the vulnerability of coastal regions to erosion and dune overtopping, evaluating the changing morphology, and implementing plans to protect infrastructure. In this thesis, long-wave runup variation due to changing bathymetric features as determined with the numerical model XBeach is quantified (eXtreme Beach behavior model). Wave heights are analyzed to determine the energy through the surfzone. XBeach assumes that coastal erosion at the land-sea interface is dominated by bound long-wave processes. Several hydrodynamic conditions are used to force the numerical model. The XBeach simulation results suggest that bathymetric irregularity induces significant changes in the extreme long-wave runup at the beach and the energy indicator through the surfzone.

  14. The fate of a red nugget: In-situ star formation of satellites around a massive compact galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Morishita, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    To study the accretion phase for local massive galaxies, we search accreting satellites around a massive compact galaxy (M_*~3.9x10^10Msun), spectroscopically confirmed (z_spec-1.9213) in the eXtreme Deep Field, which has been originally reported in Szomoru et al. We detect 1369 satellite candidates within the projected virial radius (rvir~300 kpc) of the compact galaxy in the all-combined ACS image with 5sigma-limiting magnitude of mACS~30.6 ABmag, which corresponds to ~1.6x10^7M_sun at the redshift. The photometric redshift measured with 12 multi-band images confirms 34 satellites out of the candidates. Most of the satellites are found to have the rest-frame colors consistent with star forming galaxies. We investigate the relation between stellar mass and star formation rate (the star formation main sequence), and find the steeper slope at the low-mass end (<10^8M_sun), while more massive satellites are consistently on the sequence reported in previous studies. Within the uncertainties of star formation ...

  15. Efficient Source of Cells in Proximal Oviduct for Testing Non-Viral Expression Constructs in the Chicken Bioreactor Model and for Other in Vitro Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnicka, Katarzyna; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszałek, Andrzej; Bajek, Anna; Drewa, Tomasz; Płucienniczak, Grazyna; Chojnacka-Puchta, Luiza; Cecuda-Adamczewska, Violetta; Dunisławska, Aleksandra; Bednarczyk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the usefulness of chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) in evaluating the efficacy of non-viral expression vectors carrying human therapeutic genes. Secondly, an efficient source of progenitor COEC for in vitro studies is described. Within the distal part of the oviduct, weak to moderate expression of a trans membrane glycoprotein (CD44) was observed. Single cells presenting only weak expression of CD44 were found in magnum sections. in vitro cultured oviduct cells originating from the distal oviduct were suitable for subculturing and showed a stable proliferation potential up to the 2nd passage. However, the pavimentous epithelial-like morphology of COEC was progressively lost over time and mainly a fibroblast-like monolayer was established in consecutive passages. Moreover, various commercial transfection agents including FuGENE6 and XtremeGENE9 DNA were used to optimize delivery of human interferon alfa-2a, (IFNα2a) a therapeutic protein gene under an ovalbumin promoter. The transfection efficiency of adherent COEC was estimated for up to 40% at a ratio of 6:1 of transfectant to pOVA5EIFN + GFP plasmid. Expression of IFNα2a was confirmed by western blotting in transformed COEC. In conclusion, the population of epithelial progenitor cells sourced from the distal oviduct can significantly contribute to in vitro culture of COEC, representing an efficient model to develop the production of avian bioreactors and other in vitro studies related to oviduct tissue. PMID:27172711

  16. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bartl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe river discharge conditions on a greater time scale. Therefore one major task were the historical searches and the examination of the retrieved documents and the contained information. After analysing this information the development of the river course and the discharge conditions were discussed. Using the provided knowledge, in an other subproject, a historical hydraulic model was established. Its results then again were used here. A further purpose was the determining of flood frequency based on all pre-processed data. The obtained knowledge about historical changes was also used to get an idea about possible future variations under climate change conditions. Especially variations in the runoff characteristic of the Elbe river over the course of the year were analysed. It succeeded to obtain a much longer discharge time series which contain fewer errors and uncertainties. Hence an optimized regional hazard assessment was realised.

  17. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, S.; Schümberg, S.; Deutsch, M.

    2009-11-01

    The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe river discharge conditions on a greater time scale. Therefore one major task were the historical searches and the examination of the retrieved documents and the contained information. After analysing this information the development of the river course and the discharge conditions were discussed. Using the provided knowledge, in an other subproject, a historical hydraulic model was established. Its results then again were used here. A further purpose was the determining of flood frequency based on all pre-processed data. The obtained knowledge about historical changes was also used to get an idea about possible future variations under climate change conditions. Especially variations in the runoff characteristic of the Elbe river over the course of the year were analysed. It succeeded to obtain a much longer discharge time series which contain fewer errors and uncertainties. Hence an optimized regional hazard assessment was realised.

  18. Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatchi, Caryn; Dahlström, J. M.; Kheifets, A. S.; Ivanov, I. A.; Canaday, D. M.; Agostini, P.; DiMauro, L. F.

    2014-12-01

    Photoionization by an eXtreme UltraViolet (XUV) attosecond pulse train (APT) in the presence of an infrared pulse (RABBITT method) conveys information about the atomic photoionization delay. By taking the difference of the spectral delays between pairs of rare gases (Ar,He), (Kr,He) and (Ne,He) it is possible to eliminate in each case the larger group delay (‘attochirp’) associated with the APT itself and obtain the Ar, Kr and Ne Wigner delays referenced to model calculations of the He delay. In this work we measure how the delays vary as a function of XUV photon energy but we cannot determine the absolute delay difference between atoms due to lack of precise knowledge of the initial conditions. The extracted delays are compared with several theoretical predictions and the results are consistent within 30 as over the energy range from 10 to 50 eV. An ‘effective’ Wigner delay over all emission angles is found to be more consistent with our angle-integrated measurement near the Cooper minimum in Ar. We observe a few irregular features in the delay that may be signatures of resonances. .

  19. Extreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager: XAOPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B A; Graham, J; Poyneer, L; Sommargren, G; Wilhelmsen, J; Gavel, D; Jones, S; Kalas, P; Lloyd, J; Makidon, R; Olivier, S; Palmer, D; Patience, J; Perrin, M; Severson, S; Sheinis, A; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Troy, M; Wallace, K

    2003-09-17

    Ground based adaptive optics is a potentially powerful technique for direct imaging detection of extrasolar planets. Turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere imposes some fundamental limits, but the large size of ground-based telescopes compared to spacecraft can work to mitigate this. We are carrying out a design study for a dedicated ultra-high-contrast system, the eXtreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager (XAOPI), which could be deployed on an 8-10m telescope in 2007. With a 4096-actuator MEMS deformable mirror it should achieve Strehl >0.9 in the near-IR. Using an innovative spatially filtered wavefront sensor, the system will be optimized to control scattered light over a large radius and suppress artifacts caused by static errors. We predict that it will achieve contrast levels of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} at angular separations of 0.2-0.8 inches around a large sample of stars (R<7-10), sufficient to detect Jupiter-like planets through their near-IR emission over a wide range of ages and masses. We are constructing a high-contrast AO testbed to verify key concepts of our system, and present preliminary results here, showing an RMS wavefront error of <1.3 nm with a flat mirror.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF STUDENT’S PERSONALITY ON PAIR PROGRAMMING TO ENHANCE THE LEARNING ACTIVITY IN THE ACADEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Venkatesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agile Software development is now a global phenomenon and is rapidly becoming organizations’ most preferred IT process. Extreme Programming (XP is one of the Agile Methods and Collaborative Pair Programming (CPP is one of the very important practices of eXtreme Programming. Agile focuses team work which is very important in the field of software development. The software industry has practiced CPP, where two programmers working side by side on one computer on the same problem with great success. Similar experiments have been conducted in academia and pair programming has been shown to be beneficial for both students and teaching staff in university courses. In this study, we conducted some set of experiments about the “human” aspect of the CPP; in particular the effects that personality attributes may have on pair programmer’s effectiveness as a pedagogical tool. A formal experiment has been conducted during 2012-13 odd semester at the PSG College of Technology, India to investigate the influence of personality differences among paired students using the five-factor model as a personality measurement framework. The aim of this research is to improve the implementation of CPP as a pedagogical tool to the academic setup through understanding the impact of the variation in the personality profile of paired students towards their academic performance.

  1. The Effects of Pair Programming on Learning Efficiency in Short Programming Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbaraya KUPPUSWAMI

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Pair programming is one of the important practices of a lightweight development methodology namely eXtreme Programming (XP. It emphasizes the practice of two persons working together at a single computer terminal, to design, code and test computer programs. The effects of pair programming on software development in industrial organizations were studied and it was found that pair programming increases the productivity by 15%. This evidence created an interest in amongst community of computer science educators to apply pair programming in educational settings. We have conducted an experiment with the students of computer science courses to compare the learning efficiency of students when they adopt pair programming with that of students using traditional method to do laboratory exercises of short duration. The learning efficiency was measured by evaluating design documents, completion time, and marks obtained in a written test that was conducted after every exercise. Our research confirms that the adoption of pair programming improves the design ability, reduces time taken to do a laboratory exercise and increases the knowledge and programming skill.

  2. INNOVATIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING TOOLS FOR FOUNDATION IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER M. K. CHEW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Students in Malaysia who aspire to pursue a degree in engineering have the option of enrolling in either a specific foundation programme or a generic pre-university programme, which while offering more flexibility, does not offer the focus of an engineering specific foundation programme. This paper outlines the design of a new foundation programme that is aimed at preparing year 11 students to smoothly transit into an engineering programme of their choice. This programme has three main features, firstly, it is project-based and designed according to the CDIO Framework, secondly, the theory part of the programme is delivered using technology, namely iBook and MOOCs, and thirdly it has and eXtreme Learning Process (XLP. The surveys done to assess the trial runs of the XLP and the iBook indicate that students found the methodology to be both useful and interesting. The first batch of students will join in July 2013 and more data will be available by then.

  3. In vitro and in vivo metabolism studies of dimethazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldof, Lore; Tudela, Eva; Lootens, Leen; van Lysebeth, Jasper; Meuleman, Phillip; Leroux-Roels, Geert; van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2016-08-01

    The use of anabolic steroids is prohibited in sports. Effective control is done by monitoring their metabolites in urine samples collected from athletes. Ethical objections however restrict the use of designer steroids in human administration studies. To overcome these problems alternative in vitro and in vivo models were developed to identify metabolites and to assure a fast response by anti-doping laboratories to evolutions on the steroid market. In this study human liver microsomes and an uPA(+/+) -SCID chimeric mouse model were used to elucidate the metabolism of a steroid product called 'Xtreme DMZ'. This product contains the designer steroid dimethazine (DMZ), which consists of two methasterone molecules linked by an azine group. In the performed stability study, degradation from dimethazine to methasterone was observed. By a combination of LC-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) and GC-MS(/MS) analysis methasterone and six other dimethazine metabolites (M1-M6), which are all methasterone metabolites, could be detected besides the parent compound in both models. The phase II metabolism of dimethazine was also investigated in the mouse urine samples. Only metabolites M1 and M2 were exclusively detected in the glucuro-conjugated fraction; all other compounds were also found in the free fraction. For effective control of DMZ misuse in doping control samples, screening for methasterone and methasterone metabolites should be sufficient. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26663462

  4. Post-merger analytic templates for GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Nagar, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Following the new analytic description of the postmerger (ringdown) waveform of coalescing, nonprecessing, spinning, black hole binaries (BBHs) introduced in Phys.~Rev.~D~90, 024054 (2014), we propose an analytic, closed form, time-domain, representation of the $\\ell=m=2$ gravitational radiation mode emitted after merger. This expression is given as a function of the masses and dimensionless spins $(m_{1,2},\\chi_{1,2})$ of the two inspiralling objects, as well as of the mass $M_{\\rm BH}$ and (complex) frequency $\\sigma_{1}$ of the fundamental quasi-normal mode of the final black hole. It is obtained by first fitting the postmerger waveform part of several numerical relativity simulations of the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) catalog and then suitably interpolating over (symmetric) mass ratio and spins. It is demonstrated that this analytic expression reproduces rather accurately the post-merger waveform of other SXS datasets not used to build it and, notably, the dataset SXS:BBH:0305, corresponding to a ...

  5. ELTs Adaptive Optics for Multi-Objects 3D Spectroscopy Key Parameters and Design Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Neichel, B; Fusco, T; Gendron, E; Puech, M; Rousset, G; Hammer, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last few years, new Adaptive Optics [AO] techniques have emerged to answer new astronomical challenges: Ground-Layer AO [GLAO] and Multi-Conjugate AO [MCAO] to access a wider Field of View [FoV], Multi-Object AO [MOAO] for the simultaneous observation of several faint galaxies, eXtreme AO [XAO] for the detection of faint companions. In this paper, we focus our study to one of these applications : high red-shift galaxy observations using MOAO techniques in the framework of Extremely Large Telescopes [ELTs]. We present the high-level specifications of a dedicated instrument. We choose to describe the scientific requirements with the following criteria : 40% of Ensquared Energy [EE] in H band (1.65um) and in an aperture size from 25 to 150 mas. Considering these specifications we investigate different AO solutions thanks to Fourier based simulations. Sky Coverage [SC] is computed for Natural and Laser Guide Stars [NGS, LGS] systems. We show that specifications are met for NGS-based systems at the cost of ...

  6. Meteoric fluids in the South Tibetan Detachment and palaeoaltimetry of Central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gébelin, Aude; Mulch, Andreas; Teyssier, Christian; Jessup, Micah J.; Brunel, Maurice; Cosca, Michael A.; Law, Rick D.

    2015-04-01

    The South Tibetan Detachment (STD) is one of the most fundamental structures within the Himalayan orogenic belt. It exposes a mylonite zone over a distance of > 1500 km along strike that is hundreds of metres thick and separates Paleozoic sedimentary units from high-grade metamorphic rocks and syntectonic leucogranites. In this study, we document the infiltration of meteoric fluids in the STD footwall at ~15 Ma when recrystallized hydrous minerals equilibrated with evolved meteoric water and therefore recorded the hydrogen isotope composition of water present during mylonitic deformation. Although these minerals deformed and recrystallized at significant depth (~10 km), they can be used as palaeoelevation proxies if they can be temporally and kinematically linked to the evolution of the STD. Stable isotope palaeoaltimetry uses the systematic relationship between the oxygen (d18O) and hydrogen (dD) isotope ratios of rainfall that scale with elevation in a predictable fashion (~2.8 per mil in d18O or ~22 per mil in dD per km). Here, we present palaeoaltimetry estimates based on the hydrogen isotope composition of synkinematic micas and amphiboles collected over 200 m of structural section from the STD into the underlying mylonitic footwall at Rongbuk Valley (Mount Everest region). Biotites reveal a very constant pattern of mid-Miocene 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages and exchanged isotopically at high temperature with D-depleted water (dDwater ~ -150 ±5 per mil) that originated from high-elevation precipitation and infiltrated the crustal hydrologic system at that time. To eliminate a climate impact on our palaeoelevation estimates, the hydrogen isotope record from the high elevation STD is compared to time-equivalent low-elevation foreland d18O records. Our palaeoaltimetry results indicate that the mean elevation of Mount Everest region during the mid-Miocene was similar to today (~5200 m). This has two main implications: (1) Strengthening of the Asian Summer Monsoon may

  7. Seasonal and annual mass balances of Mera and Pokalde glaciers (Nepal Himalaya since 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wagnon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Everest region, Nepal, ground-based monitoring programs were started on the debris-free Mera Glacier (27.7° N, 86.9° E; 5.1 km2, 6420 to 4940 m a.s.l. in 2007 and on the small Pokalde Glacier (27.9° N, 86.8° E; 0.1 km2, 5690 to 5430 m a.s.l., ∼ 25 km North of Mera Glacier in 2009. These glaciers lie on the southern flank of the central Himalaya under the direct influence of the Indian monsoon and receive more than 80% of their annual precipitation in summer (June to September. Despite a large inter-annual variability with glacier-wide mass balances ranging from −0.77± 0.40 m w.e. in 2011–2012 (Equilibrium-line altitude (ELA at ∼ 6055 m a.s.l. to + 0.46 ± 0.40 m w.e. in 2010–2011 (ELA at ∼ 5340 m a.s.l., Mera Glacier has been shrinking at a moderate mass balance rate of −0.10± 0.40 m w.e. yr−1 since 2007. Ice fluxes measured at two distinct transverse cross sections at ∼ 5350 m a.s.l. and ∼ 5520 m a.s.l. confirm that the mean state of this glacier over the last one or two decades corresponds to a limited mass loss, in agreement with remotely-sensed region-wide mass balances of the Everest area. Seasonal mass balance measurements show that ablation and accumulation are concomitant in summer which in turn is the key season controlling the annual glacier-wide mass balance. Unexpectedly, ablation occurs at all elevations in winter due to wind erosion and sublimation, with remobilized snow likely being sublimated in the atmosphere. Between 2009 and 2012, the small Pokalde Glacier lost mass more rapidly than Mera Glacier with respective mean glacier-wide mass balances of −0.72 and −0.26 ± 0.40 m w.e. yr−1. Low-elevation glaciers, such as Pokalde Glacier, have been usually preferred for in-situ observations in Nepal and more generally in the Himalayas, which may explain why compilations of ground-based mass balances are biased toward negative values compared with the regional mean under the present-day climate.

  8. Engineering Annual Summary 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimolitsas, S

    1999-05-01

    Unlike most research and development laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is responsible for delivering production-ready designs. Unlike most industry, LLNL is responsible for R and D that must significantly increase the nation's security. This rare combination of production engineering expertise and national R and D agenda identifies LLNL as one of the few organizations today that conducts cutting-edge engineering on grand-scale problems, while facing enormous technical risk and undergoing diligent scrutiny of its budget, schedule, and performance. On the grand scale, cutting-edge technologies are emerging from our recent ventures into ''Xtreme Engineering{trademark}.'' Basically, we must integrate and extend technologies concurrently and then push them to their extreme, such as building very large structures but aligning them with extreme precision. As we extend these technologies, we push the boundaries of engineering capabilities at both poles: microscale and ultrascale. Today, in the ultrascale realm, we are building NIF, the world's largest laser, which demands one of the world's most complex operating systems with 9000 motors integrated through over 500 computers to control 60,000 points for every laser shot. On the other pole, we have fabricated the world's smallest surgical tools and the smallest instruments for detecting biological and chemical agents used by antiterrorists. Later in this Annual Summary, we highlight some of our recent innovations in the area of Xtreme Engineering, including large-scale computer simulations of massive structures such as major bridges to prepare retrofitting designs to withstand earthquakes. Another feature is our conceptual breakthrough in developing the world's fastest airplane, HyperSoar, which can reach anywhere in the planet in two hours at speeds of 6700 mph. In the last few years, Engineering has significantly pushed the technology in structural

  9. Extreme ultraviolet light sources for use in semiconductor lithography—state of the art and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Uwe

    2004-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the development status and plans of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources at XTREME technologies, a joint venture of Lambda Physik AG, Göttingen and JENOPTIK LOS GmbH, Jena, Germany. Results for gas discharge-produced plasma (GDPP) and laser-produced plasma (LPP), the two major technologies in EUV sources, are presented. The GDPP EUV sources use the Z-pinch principle with efficient sliding-discharge pre-ionization. First prototypes of commercial gas discharge sources with an EUV power of 35 W in 2π sr have already been integrated into EUV microsteppers. These sources are equipped with a debris-filter which supports an optics lifetime exceeding 100 million pulses at 1 kHz repetition rate. The same lifetime was achieved for the components of the discharge system itself. The progress in the development of high-power discharge sources based on xenon resulted in an EUV power of 200 W into a 2π sr solid angle, in continuous operation, at 4.5 kHz repetition rate, by implementation of porous-metal cooling technology. The available intermediate focus (IF) power is 22 W taking into account experimentally verified losses in a 1.8 sr source collector module. The usable IF power depends on the etendue of the optical system of the EUV scanner. For the current size of the EUV emitting plasma the etendue acceptance factor may be below 0.5. The currently usable IF power with 1.8 sr collector mirror may therefore be about 10 W. Z-pinch discharge sources with Sn as the emitter have been developed as a more efficient alternative to xenon fuelled sources. Tin sources showed a conversion efficiency (CE) that was double that of xenon. EUV power of 400 W in 2π sr has been generated at only 4.5 kHz repetition rate. The available IF power is 44 W. Estimates evaluating the tin source performance reveal the potential for achieving high-volume manufacturing (HVM) power specification by using existing technology. Because of their small plasma size and the

  10. Extreme ultraviolet light sources for use in semiconductor lithography-state of the art and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives an overview of the development status and plans of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources at XTREME technologies, a joint venture of Lambda Physik AG, Goettingen and JENOPTIK LOS GmbH, Jena, Germany. Results for gas discharge-produced plasma (GDPP) and laser-produced plasma (LPP), the two major technologies in EUV sources, are presented. The GDPP EUV sources use the Z-pinch principle with efficient sliding-discharge pre-ionization. First prototypes of commercial gas discharge sources with an EUV power of 35 W in 2π sr have already been integrated into EUV microsteppers. These sources are equipped with a debris-filter which supports an optics lifetime exceeding 100 million pulses at 1 kHz repetition rate. The same lifetime was achieved for the components of the discharge system itself. The progress in the development of high-power discharge sources based on xenon resulted in an EUV power of 200 W into a 2π sr solid angle, in continuous operation, at 4.5 kHz repetition rate, by implementation of porous-metal cooling technology. The available intermediate focus (IF) power is 22 W taking into account experimentally verified losses in a 1.8 sr source collector module. The usable IF power depends on the etendue of the optical system of the EUV scanner. For the current size of the EUV emitting plasma the etendue acceptance factor may be below 0.5. The currently usable IF power with 1.8 sr collector mirror may therefore be about 10 W. Z-pinch discharge sources with Sn as the emitter have been developed as a more efficient alternative to xenon fuelled sources. Tin sources showed a conversion efficiency (CE) that was double that of xenon. EUV power of 400 W in 2π sr has been generated at only 4.5 kHz repetition rate. The available IF power is 44 W. Estimates evaluating the tin source performance reveal the potential for achieving high-volume manufacturing (HVM) power specification by using existing technology. Because of their small plasma size and the

  11. The effects of a pour-on formulation of fluazuron 2.5 % and flumethrin 1 % on populations of Rhipicephalus decoloratus and Rhipicephalus microplus both on and off bovine (Bonsmara breed) hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Josephus J; Liebenberg, Julian E; Nyangiwe, Nnkululeko; Austin, Clinton; Horak, Ivan G; Bhushan, Chandra

    2013-08-01

    The present study demonstrated the efficacy of a pour-on formulation of fluazuron 2.5 % and flumethrin 1 % (Drastic Deadline eXtreme®) against Rhipicephalus decoloratus and Rhipicephalus microplus on cattle on pasture previously grazed by experimentally infested animals. Six tick-free cattle were placed on the pasture and treated 7 days later (Day 0) with the pour-on. They were retreated on Days 63, 126 and 189 and monthly tick counts were done. Mean numbers of adult R. decoloratus and/or R. microplus decreased from 53 and 14 on Days 56 and 112 respectively to 2 or less on all other occasions including Day 254. Compared to the numbers of R. decoloratus and/or R. microplus larvae collected from vegetation in the previous year, larval numbers declined by 40.7 % on Day 28, and thereafter reduction remained between 84 % and 100 %. Pairs of tracer calves placed on the pasture for 7 days each month were then held in pens and adult ticks that detached collected. Reduction in the numbers of R. decoloratus collected from tracer animals was 75 % on Day 56 and remained above 93 % except for Day 224 when it temporarily decreased to 78.5 %. Reduction in the numbers of R. microplus was 97.5 % on Day 28 and remained above 98 % until the conclusion of the study on Day 254. Treatment with the pour-on formulation of fluazuron and flumethrin resulted in a marked decrease in the numbers of R. decoloratus and/or R. microplus on treated cattle followed by a reduction in the numbers of larvae questing on the vegetation and ticks picked up by tracer calves. No other potential host species for R. decoloratus and/or R. microplus were present in the camps. PMID:23749085

  12. Startup impurity diagnostics in Wendelstein 7-X stellarator in the first operational phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, H.; Langenberg, A.; Zhang, D.; Bertschinger, G.; Biedermann, C.; Biel, W.; Burhenn, R.; Buttenschön, B.; Grosser, K.; König, R.; Kubkowska, M.; Marchuk, O.; Pablant, N.; Ryc, L.; Pedersen, T. S.; the W7-X Team

    2015-10-01

    An essential element for stationary stellarator operation is the understanding of the impurity transport behavior. Neoclassical theory predicts an impurity transport towards the plasma core for the standard ion root regime in stellarators [1,2]. The performance of a quasi-stationary device like Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X, presently in the commissioning phase in Greifswald, Germany) could be limited in case of strong impurity accumulation. Therefore, a set of plasma diagnostics is foreseen to obtain key experimental quantities for the neoclassical transport modeling as ion temperature profile, density gradients and impurity concentration [1]. The core impurity content is monitored by the High Efficiency eXtreme ultraviolet Overview Spectrometer system (HEXOS) [2], covering the wavelength range 2.5-160 nm (intermediate ionization states of all relevant heavy intrinsic impurity species) with high spectral resolution and a time resolution of 1 ms, adequate for transport analysis. Impurity radiation at shorter wave lengths (4 nm-0.06 nm) will be monitored with the SX pulse height analysis system (PHA) [3]. The ion temperature profile can be deduced from inversion of data from the High Resolution X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HR-XIS), which measures the concentration and temperature of argon tracer gas in helium-like ionization stages [6,7,8]. A second X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer (XICS), which will additionally provide the poloidal ion rotation velocity, is under preparation [8,9]. The total radiation will be measured by two bolometer cameras [10,11]. The status of the impurity diagnostics for the first operational phase in W7-X is summarized in this paper and an outlook for the next experimental campaign is given.

  13. The Fate of a Red Nugget: In Situ Star Formation of Satellites around a Massive Compact Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Takahiro; Ichikawa, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    To study the accretion phase for local massive galaxies, we search accreting satellites around a massive compact galaxy ({M}*˜ 3.9× {10}10{M}⊙ ), spectroscopically confirmed ({z}{{spec}}=1.9213) in the eXtreme Deep Field, which has been originally reported in Szomoru et al. We detect 1369 satellite candidates within the projected virial radius ({r}{{vir}}˜ 300 kpc) of the compact galaxy in the all-combined Advanced Camera for Surveys image, with a 5σ -limiting magnitude of {m}{{ACS}}˜ 30.6 ABmag, which corresponds to ˜ 1.6× {10}7{M}⊙ at the redshift. The photometric redshift measured with 12 multi-band images confirms 34 satellites out of the candidates. Most of the satellites are found to have rest-frame colors consistent with star-forming galaxies. We investigate the relation between stellar mass and star formation rate (the star formation main sequence), and find a steeper slope at the low-mass end (\\lt {10}8{M}⊙ ), while more massive satellites are consistently on the sequence reported in previous studies. Within the uncertainties of star formation and photometric redshift, we conjecture possible scenarios for the compact galaxy which evolves to a local massive galaxy by way of significant size and mass growth. While the merging of the existing total stellar mass in the satellites is not enough to explain the mass growth predicted by observations and simulations, the contribution by in situ star formation in the satellites could compensate for the deficit. Provided that most satellites keep the observed in situ star formation and then quench before they accrete by, e.g., environmental quenching, the compact galaxy would become a massive early-type galaxy consistent with the local size-mass relation.

  14. Development of the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) for predicting the impact of storms on high-energy, active-margin coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Maarten van Ormondt; Erikson, Li H.; Jodi Eshleman; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Peter Ruggiero; Peter Adams; Foxgrover, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) applies a predominantly deterministic framework to make detailed predictions (meter scale) of storm-induced coastal flooding, erosion, and cliff failures over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers). CoSMoS was developed for hindcast studies, operational applications (i.e., nowcasts and multiday forecasts), and future climate scenarios (i.e., sea-level rise + storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm hazards information that may be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. The prototype system, developed for the California coast, uses the global WAVEWATCH III wave model, the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry-based global tide model, and atmospheric-forcing data from either the US National Weather Service (operational mode) or Global Climate Models (future climate mode), to determine regional wave and water-level boundary conditions. These physical processes are dynamically downscaled using a series of nested Delft3D-WAVE (SWAN) and Delft3D-FLOW (FLOW) models and linked at the coast to tightly spaced XBeach (eXtreme Beach) cross-shore profile models and a Bayesian probabilistic cliff failure model. Hindcast testing demonstrates that, despite uncertainties in preexisting beach morphology over the ~500 km alongshore extent of the pilot study area, CoSMoS effectively identifies discrete sections of the coast (100s of meters) that are vulnerable to coastal hazards under a range of current and future oceanographic forcing conditions, and is therefore an effective tool for operational and future climate scenario planning.

  15. New Frames for Old Masters. An overview of the British Library's Acetate Transfer programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Ryan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available After the second International Round Table on acetate microfilm, the British Library decided to top slice from its annual preservation budget, £200k every year for five years to address its cellulose acetate problem. We did this by instigating a programme of base transfer, transferring the frames from the old acetate masters onto new polyester stock. It proved to be quite a challenge and this paper reproduces largely the presentation given at CAMF, which was an overview of the background to the project and its progress. Twenty three million feet. Not a centipedes' picnic, but the amount of acetate microfilm the British Library has in its collections. A sobering statistic. But what does it really mean? Well, if we rolled it all out, it would be enough to stretch all the way from New York to Moscow. Or, for the more vertically minded, if we piled it all up, it would be taller than not just 1 Mount Everest, but 809. That represents a pretty huge problem whichever way you look at it and my first thought when it was handed to me was, 'where on earth do we start?'

  16. Strong Coupled and Segmented Nature of the Himalaya and the Adjoining Gangetic Foreland Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, B.; Rathor, S.; Pati, P.

    2012-04-01

    Our studies in the Gangetic plains and review of the work on the Himalaya suggest that both theses features are marked by abrupt changes across the Rapti River, flowing N-S in the plains and region N to it, instead of a gradual change from E to W as postulated earlier. The Eastern Nepal Himalaya N to the Middle Gangetic Plains (east of the Rapti River) is characterized by a high rate of convergence, which sustains the highest peaks in the world, including the Mount Everest. These lofty peaks cause significant crustal loading leading to high rate of subsidence in the foreland basin and also shed large sediment load, carried by the rivers to the plains to form megafans (e.g. Kosi and Gandak megafans). In the NW and the W Nepal Himalaya, rates of crustal shortening due to movements along the Himalayan Frontal Trust (HFT) are low, which are able to support lower heights of the Himalayan ranges (< 7000 m). These ranges shed small amounts of sediments, which are carried by streams to the plains. The adjoining foreland basin, the Upper Gangetic plain lying W to the Rapti River, is subsiding at a low rate, all major rivers are incised, and form large uplands. Moderately to strongly developed soils occur on the upland plains. These situations indicate the prevalence of separate steady states between the Upper- and Middle Gangetic plains and adjoining Himalaya.

  17. Multiple Carrying Capacities from a management-oriented perspective to operationalize sustainable tourism in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Manfredi, Emanuela C; Caroli, Paolo; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni

    2013-10-15

    This article describes how the concept of Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) has shifted from a uni-dimensional approach to incorporating environmental, social and political aspects. This shift is demonstrated by a study of a large, internationally popular protected area used by trekkers, the Mt. Everest Region, where qualitative data collected from visitors was combined with environmental modeling using a participatory framework. Tourist satisfaction showed positive margins for further tourist industry expansion, but current environmental conditions limit growth and further development. Space and time dimensions were also considered. We observed that the limits on growth and further development can be manipulated, with a certain degree of flexibility, through investments and regulatory measures. We hypothesized that TCC can play an important role in the management of protected areas only if it is viewed as a systematic, strategic policy tool within a planning process rather than as a unique, intrinsic number that is not modifiable. We conclude that to translate the strategy into action using standard measures, further investigation is needed to balance the various TCC components as a part of a decision-making framework that includes the integration of different cultural approaches and policy needs. PMID:23728182

  18. Glacier melting and precipitation trends detected by surface area changes in Himalayan ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Thakuri, Sudeep; Guyennon, Nicolas; Viviano, Gaetano; Tartari, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    Climatic time series for high-elevation Himalayan regions are decidedly scarce. Although glacier shrinkage is now sufficiently well described, the changes in precipitation and temperature at these elevations are less clear. This contribution shows that the surface area variations of unconnected glacial ponds, i.e. ponds not directly connected to glacier ice, but that may have a glacier located in their hydrological basin, can be considered as suitable proxies for detecting past changes in the main hydrological components of the water balance. On the south side of Mt Everest, glacier melt and precipitation have been found to be the main drivers of unconnected pond surface area changes (detected mainly with Landsat imagery). In general, unconnected ponds have decreased significantly by approximately 10 ± 5 % in terms of surface area over the last 50 years (1963-2013 period) in the study region. Here, an increase in precipitation occurred until the mid-1990s followed by a decrease until recent years. Until the 1990s, glacier melt was constant. An increase occurred in the early 2000s, while a declining trend in maximum temperature has caused a reduction in the glacier melt during recent years.

  19. Instance-oriented delegation: A solution for providing security to Grid-based mobile agent middleware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Tian-chi; LI Shan-ping

    2005-01-01

    New challenges are introduced when people try to build a general-purpose mobile agent middleware in Grid environment. In this paper, an instance-oriented security mechanism is proposed to deal with possible security threats in such mobile agent systems. The current security support in Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) requires the users to delegate their privileges to certain hosts. This host-oriented solution is insecure and inflexible towards mobile agent applications because it cannot prevent delegation abuse and control well the diffusion of damage. Our proposed solution introduces security instance, which is an encapsulation of one set of authorizations and their validity specifications with respect to the agent's specific code segments, or even the states and requests. Applications can establish and configure their security framework flexibly on the same platform, through defining instances and operations according to their own logic. Mechanisms are provided to allow users delegating their identity to these instances instead of certain hosts. By adopting this instance-oriented security mechanism, a Grid-based general-purpose MA middleware, Everest, is developed to enhance Globus Toolkit's security support for mobile agent applications.

  20. Widespread ground motion distribution caused by rupture directivity during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Guo, Yujia; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Masuda, Tetsu; Davuluri, Srinagesh; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2016-01-01

    The ground motion and damage caused by the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake can be characterized by their widespread distributions to the east. Evidence from strong ground motions, regional acceleration duration, and teleseismic waveforms indicate that rupture directivity contributed significantly to these distributions. This phenomenon has been thought to occur only if a strike-slip or dip-slip rupture propagates to a site in the along-strike or updip direction, respectively. However, even though the earthquake was a dip-slip faulting event and its source fault strike was nearly eastward, evidence for rupture directivity is found in the eastward direction. Here, we explore the reasons for this apparent inconsistency by performing a joint source inversion of seismic and geodetic datasets, and conducting ground motion simulations. The results indicate that the earthquake occurred on the underthrusting Indian lithosphere, with a low dip angle, and that the fault rupture propagated in the along-strike direction at a velocity just slightly below the S-wave velocity. This low dip angle and fast rupture velocity produced rupture directivity in the along-strike direction, which caused widespread ground motion distribution and significant damage extending far eastwards, from central Nepal to Mount Everest. PMID:27335317

  1. Crescent-shaped Earth and Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon -- the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft -- was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA's Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles (11.66 million kilometers) from Earth. The Moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager. In the picture are eastern Asia, the western Pacific Ocean and part of the Arctic. Voyager 1 was directly above Mt. Everest (on the night side of the planet at 25 degrees north latitude) when the picture was taken. The photo was made from three images taken through color filters, then processed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab. Because the Earth is many times brighter than the Moon, the Moon was artificially brightened by a factor of three relative to the Earth by computer enhancement so that both bodies would show clearly in the print. Voyager 2 was launched Aug. 20, 1977, followed by Voyager 1 on Sept. 5, 1977, en route to encounters at Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980 and 1981. JPL manages the Voyager mission for NASA.

  2. Crescent Earth and Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon -- the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft -- was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA's Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles (11.66 million kilometers) from Earth. The Moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager. In the picture are eastern Asia, the western Pacific Ocean and part of the Arctic. Voyager 1 was directly above Mt. Everest (on the night side of the planet at 25 degrees north latitude) when the picture was taken. The photo was made from three images taken through color filters, then processed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab. Because the Earth is many times brighter than the Moon, the Moon was artificially brightened by a factor of three relative to the Earth by computer enhancement so that both bodies would show clearly in the print. Voyager 2 was launched Aug. 20, 1977, followed by Voyager 1 on Sept. 5, 1977, en route to encounters at Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980 and 1981. JPL manages the Voyager mission for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  3. Biventricular function at high altitude: implications for regulation of stroke volume in chronic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, J Simon R

    2007-01-01

    The myocardium is well protected against chronic hypoxia. In chronic hypoxia stroke volume falls both at rest and on exercise. The fall in stroke volume is associated with reduction in left ventricular dimensions and filling pressure. An obvious explanation for this is the reduction in plasma volume observed at high altitude, but this does not appear to be the whole story. Neither is left ventricular systolic function abnormal even at the summit of Mount Everest. Hypoxia itself may have a direct effect on impairing myocardial relaxation. Increased pulmonary vascular resistance leads to right ventricular pressure overload. This may impair right ventricular function, and reduce stroke volume and venous return to the left atrium. Interaction between the right and left ventricles, which share a common septum and are potentially constrained in volume by the pericardium, may impair diastolic left ventricular filling as a consequence of right ventricular pressure overload, and hence reduce stroke volume. It is questionable how clinically significant is this left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The relative importance of different mechanisms which reduce stroke volume probably depends whether hemodynamics are measured at rest or on exercise. Intervention with sildenafil to ameliorate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is associated with both an increase in exercise capacity and stroke volume in hypoxia. Whether these have a causal association remains to be demonstrated. PMID:18269185

  4. On the water hazards in the trans-boundary Kosi River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sh. Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges River, which passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71 500 km2, the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8848 m of Mt Everest to 60 m of the Ganges Plain and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacial lake outburst, debris flow, landslides, flooding, drought, soil erosion and sedimentation. This paper describes the characteristics of water hazards in the basin, based on the literature review and site investigation covering hydrology, meteorology, geology, geomorphology and socio-economics. Glacial lake outbursts are a huge threat to the local population in the region and they usually further trigger landslides and debris flows. Floods are usually a result of interaction between man-made hydraulic structures and the natural environment. Debris flows are widespread and occur in clusters. Droughts tend to last over long periods and affect vast areas. Rapid population increase, the decline of ecosystems and climate change could further exacerbate various hazards in the region. The paper has proposed a set of mitigating strategies and measures. It is an arduous challenge to implement them in practice. More investigations are needed to fill in the knowledge gaps.

  5. Widespread ground motion distribution caused by rupture directivity during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Guo, Yujia; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Masuda, Tetsu; Davuluri, Srinagesh; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2016-01-01

    The ground motion and damage caused by the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake can be characterized by their widespread distributions to the east. Evidence from strong ground motions, regional acceleration duration, and teleseismic waveforms indicate that rupture directivity contributed significantly to these distributions. This phenomenon has been thought to occur only if a strike-slip or dip-slip rupture propagates to a site in the along-strike or updip direction, respectively. However, even though the earthquake was a dip-slip faulting event and its source fault strike was nearly eastward, evidence for rupture directivity is found in the eastward direction. Here, we explore the reasons for this apparent inconsistency by performing a joint source inversion of seismic and geodetic datasets, and conducting ground motion simulations. The results indicate that the earthquake occurred on the underthrusting Indian lithosphere, with a low dip angle, and that the fault rupture propagated in the along-strike direction at a velocity just slightly below the S-wave velocity. This low dip angle and fast rupture velocity produced rupture directivity in the along-strike direction, which caused widespread ground motion distribution and significant damage extending far eastwards, from central Nepal to Mount Everest. PMID:27335317

  6. Energetics and phasing of nonprecessing spinning coalescing black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Alessandro; Damour, Thibault; Reisswig, Christian; Pollney, Denis

    2016-02-01

    We present an improved numerical relativity (NR) calibration of the new effective-one-body (EOB) model for coalescing nonprecessing spinning black hole binaries recently introduced by Damour and Nagar [Phys. Rev. D 90, 044018 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.044018]. We do so by comparing the EOB predictions to both the phasing and the energetics provided by two independent sets of NR data covering mass ratios 1 ≤q ≤9.989 and dimensionless spin range -0.95 ≤χ ≤+0.994 . One set of data is a subset of the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) catalog of public waveforms; the other set consists of new simulations obtained with the Llama code plus Cauchy characteristic evolution. We present the first systematic computation of the gauge-invariant relation between the binding energy and the total angular momentum, Eb(j ), for a large sample of, spin-aligned, SXS and Llama data. The dynamics of the EOB model presented here involves only two free functional parameters, one [a6c(ν )] entering the nonspinning sector, as a 5PN effective correction to the interaction potential, and one [c3(a˜1,a˜2,ν )] in the spinning sector, as an effective next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order correction to the spin-orbit coupling. These parameters are determined [together with a third functional parameter Δ tNQC(χ ) entering the waveform] by comparing the EOB phasing with the SXS phasing, the consistency of the energetics being checked afterwards. The quality of the analytical model for gravitational wave data analysis purposes is assessed by computing the EOB/NR faithfulness. Over the NR data sample and when varying the total mass between 20 and 200 M⊙ the EOB/NR unfaithfulness (integrated over the NR frequency range) is found to vary between 99.493% and 99.984% with a median value of 99.944%.

  7. A High Amount of Local Adipose Tissue Is Associated With High Cortical Porosity and Low Bone Material Strength in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundh, Daniel; Rudäng, Robert; Zoulakis, Michail; Nilsson, Anna G; Darelid, Anna; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of fractures, especially at skeletal sites with a large proportion of cortical bone, such as the humerus and ankle. Obesity increases fracture risk independently of BMD, indicating that increased adipose tissue could have negative effects on bone quality. Microindentation assesses bone material strength index (BMSi) in vivo in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate if different depots of adipose tissue were associated with BMSi and cortical bone microstructure in a population based group of 202 women, 78.2 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD) years old. Bone parameters and subcutaneous (s.c.) fat were measured at the tibia with an XtremeCT device. BMSi was assessed using the OsteoProbe device, and based on at least 11 valid reference point indentations at the mid-tibia. Body composition was measured with dual X-ray absorptiometry. BMSi was inversely correlated to body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.17, p = 0.01), whole body fat mass (r = -0.16,p = 0.02), and, in particular, to tibia s.c. fat (r = -0.33, p Tibia s.c. fat was also correlated to cortical porosity (Ct.Po; r = 0.19, p = 0.01) and cortical volumetric BMD (Ct.vBMD; r = -0.23, p = 0.001). Using linear regression analyses, tibia s.c. fat was found to be independent of covariates (age, height, log weight, bisphosphonates or glucocorticoid use, smoking, calcium intake, walking speed, and BMSi operator) and associated with BMSi (β = -0.34,p tibia, but these bone parameters could only explain 3.3% and 5.1% of the variation in BMSi, respectively. In conclusion, fat mass was independently and inversely associated with BMSi and Ct.vBMD, but positively associated with Ct.Po, indicating a possible adverse effect of adipose tissue on bone quality and bone microstructure. Local s.c. fat in tibia was most strongly associated with these bone traits, suggesting a local or paracrine, rather than systemic, negative effect of fat on bone.

  8. Parámetros fisiológicos en caninos pre y post competencia de Agility en Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernando Forero López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se llevó a cabo en la ciudad de Bogotá, ubicada a una altura media 2600 msnm, con temperatura promedio de 14°C. Se realizó un muestreo en el Polideportivo el Salitre y otro en el parque central de Modelia. El objetivo principal fue monitorear y estandarizar los cambios fisiológicos que se presentan en caninos atletas, como respuesta al ejercicio realizado en pruebas de Agility. Se muestrearon 15 caninos hembras de diferentes razas practicantes del Agility, de las escuelas Atalanta y X-treme Dog. El control se obtuvo de individuos en reposo, previo al ejercicio, inmediatamente a su llegada al área de investigación, donde se situaron las pistas para el entrenamiento, que incluía la toma de temperatura rectal, frecuencia de pulso, frecuencia respiratoria y de sangre arterial (arteria femoral. La muestra arterial se procesó con analizador sanguíneo portátil, obteniendo de hematocrito, hemoglobina, sodio, potasio, cloruro, nitrógeno uréico (BUN, glucosa, lactato, pH sanguíneo, presión de dióxido de carbono (PCO2, presión de oxígeno (PO2, bicarbonato, tensión de dióxido de carbono(TCO2, saturación de oxígeno (SO2, exceso de base (BE, anion gap y osmolalidad. Luego se inició el entrenamiento, simulando una competencia real, donde cada canino pasó cuatro veces por pista, y al final se monitorearon, siguiendo el procedimiento descrito para el control. Se compararon los resultados pre y post ejercicio, presentándose: aumento para temperatura, frecuencia respiratoria, pulso, pH, hematocrito, hemoglobina, sodio, cloro y osmolalidad (p<0,001; incremento en los valores de potasio, lactato y glucosa (p<0,01; ascenso para PO2, SO2 y BUN (p<0,05; descenso para PCO2, TCO2, BE y Anión Gap (p<0,001. Se concluye que los caninos deportistas en Bogotá presentan hipertermia, taquicardia, hipocapnia, alcalosis respiratoria acompañada de una acidosis metabólica compensatoria y hemoconcentración por una deshidratación clasificada

  9. Validating tyrosinase homologue melA as a photoacoustic reporter gene for imaging Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paproski, Robert J.; Li, Yan; Barber, Quinn; Lewis, John D.; Campbell, Robert E.; Zemp, Roger

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pathogenic processes for infectious bacteria, appropriate research tools are required for replicating and characterizing infections. Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have primarily been used to image infections in animal models, but optical scattering in tissue significantly limits imaging depth and resolution. Photoacoustic imaging, which has improved depth-to-resolution ratio compared to conventional optical imaging, could be useful for visualizing melA-expressing bacteria since melA is a bacterial tyrosinase homologue which produces melanin. Escherichia coli-expressing melA was visibly dark in liquid culture. When melA-expressing bacteria in tubes were imaged with a VisualSonics Vevo LAZR system, the signal-to-noise ratio of a 9× dilution sample was 55, suggesting that ˜20 bacteria cells could be detected with our system. Multispectral (680, 700, 750, 800, 850, and 900 nm) analysis of the photoacoustic signal allowed unmixing of melA-expressing bacteria from blood. To compare photoacoustic reporter gene melA (using Vevo system) with luminescent and fluorescent reporter gene Nano-lantern (using Bruker Xtreme In-Vivo system), tubes of bacteria expressing melA or Nano-lantern were submerged 10 mm in 1% Intralipid, spaced between <1 and 20 mm apart from each other, and imaged with the appropriate imaging modality. Photoacoustic imaging could resolve the two tubes of melA-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were less than 1 mm from each other, while bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging could not resolve the two tubes of Nano-lantern-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were spaced 10 mm from each other. After injecting 100-μL of melA-expressing bacteria in the back flank of a chicken embryo, photoacoustic imaging allowed visualization of melA-expressing bacteria up to 10-mm deep into the embryo. Photoacoustic signal from melA could also be separated from deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin signal observed within the embryo and

  10. EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, U.; Kleinschmidt, J.; Gabel, K.; Hergenhan, G.; Ziener, C.; Schriever, G.; Ahmad, I.; Bolshukhin, D.; Brudermann, J.; de Bruijn, R.; Chin, T. D.; Geier, A.; Gotze, S.; Keller, A.; Korobotchko, V.; Mader, B.; Ringling, J.; Brauner, T.

    2005-05-01

    In the paper we report about the progress made at XTREME technologies in the development of EUV sources based on gas discharge produced plasma (GDPP) technologies and laser produced plasma (LPP) technologies. First prototype xenon GDPP sources of the type XTS 13-35 based on the Z-pinch principle with 35 W power in 2π sr have been integrated into micro-exposure tools from Exitech, UK. Specifications of the EUV sources and experience of integration as well as data about component and optics lifetime are presented. In the source development program for Beta exposure tools and high volume manufacturing exposure tools both tin and xenon have been investigated as fuel for the EUV sources. Development progress in porous metal cooling technology as well as pulsed power circuit design has led to GDPP sources with xenon fuel continuous operating with an output power of 200 W in 2π sr at 4500 Hz repetition rate. With tin fuel an output power of 400 W in 2π sr was obtained leaving all other conditions unaltered with respect to the xenon based source. The performance of the xenon fueled sources is sufficiently good to fulfill all requirements up to the beta tool level. For both the xenon and the tin GDPP sources detailed data about source performance are reported, including component lifetime and optics lifetime. The status of the integration of the sources with grazing incidence collector optics is discussed. Theoretical estimations of collection efficiencies are compared with experimental data to determine the loss mechanisms in the beam path. Specifically contamination issues related to tin as target material as well as debris mitigation in tin sources is addressed. As driver lasers for the LPP source research diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers have been used to generate EUV emitting plasma. As target material xenon has been employed. Conversion efficiencies have been measured and currently the maximum conversion efficiency amounts to 1 %. The laser driver power of 1.2 kW is

  11. Ambulatory and central haemodynamics during progressive ascent to high-altitude and associated hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, M G; Climie, R E D; Sharman, J E

    2014-12-01

    High-altitude hypoxia causes major cardiovascular changes, which may result in raised resting brachial blood pressure (BP). However, the effect of high-altitude hypoxia on more sensitive measures of BP control (such as 24 h ambulatory BP and resting central BP) is largely unknown. This study aimed to assess this and compare high-altitude responses to resting brachial BP, as well as determine the haemodynamic correlates of acute mountain sickness (AMS) during a progressive trekking ascent to high-altitude. Measures of oxygen saturation (pulse oximetry), 24 h ambulatory BP, resting brachial and central BP (Pulsecor) were recorded in 10 adults (aged 27±4, 30% male) during a 9-day trek to Mount Everest base camp, Nepal. Data were recorded at sea level (stage 1; <450 m above sea level (ASL)) and at progressive ascension to 3440 m ASL (stage 2), 4350 m ASL (stage 3) and 5164 m ASL (stage 4). The Lake Louise score (LLS) was used to quantify AMS symptoms. Total LLS increased stepwise from sea level to stage 4 (0.3±0.7 vs 4.4±2.0, P=0.012), whereas oxygen saturation decreased to 77±9% (P=0.001). The highest recordings of 24 h ambulatory, daytime, night time, brachial and central systolic BP and diastolic BP were achieved at stage 3, which were significantly greater than at sea level (P<0.005 for all). Twenty-four-hour ambulatory heart rate (HR) and night HR correlated with oxygen saturation (r=-0.741 and -0.608, both P<0.001) and total LLS (r=0.648 and r=0.493, both P<0.001). We conclude that 24 h ambulatory BP, central BP and HR are elevated during high-altitude hypoxia, but AMS symptoms are only related to tachycardia. PMID:24621622

  12. Technology demonstration for reusable launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, P.; Bonnal, Ch.

    2016-03-01

    Reusable launchers have been studied under CNES contracts for more than 30 years, with early concepts such as STS-2000 or Oriflamme, more recently with very significant efforts devoted to Liquid Fly Back Boosters as with the Bargouzin project led with Tsniimash, TSTO with the Everest concept studied by Airbus-DS as prime contractor or the RFS Reusable First Stage concept of a large first stage associated to a cryotechnic second stage. These investigations, summarized in the first part of the paper, enabled CNES to identify clearly the technology requirements associated to reusability, as well as cost efficiency through detailed non-recurring costs and mission costs analysis. In parallel, CNES set in place development logic for sub-systems and equipment based on demonstrators, hardware test benches enabling maturation of technologies up to a TRL such that an actual development can be decided with limited risk. This philosophy has been applied so far to a large number of cases, such as TPTech and TPX for Hydrogen turbo pump, GGPX as demonstrator of innovative gas generator, HX demonstrator of modern cryotechnic upper stage with a dozen of different objectives (Thermal Protection, 20K Helium storage, measurements …). This virtuous approach, "learn as you test", is currently applied in the phased approach towards scaled down reusable booster stage, whose possibility to be used as first stage of a microlaunch vehicle is under investigation. The selected technologies allow paving the way towards reusable booster stages for Ariane 6 evolutions or main reusable stage for a further generation of heavy launchers. The paper describes the logic behind this project, together with the demonstration objectives set for the various sub-systems as well as operations.

  13. MitraClip therapy in mitral regurgitation: a Markov model for the cost-effectiveness of a new therapeutic option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Patrice; Bourguignon, Sandrine; Jamet, Nicolas; Marque, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Mitral regurgitation is a heart condition resulting from blood flowing from the left ventricle towards the left atrium, increasing the risk of heart failure and mortality. While surgery can greatly reduce these risks, some patients are not eligible, resulting in medication being their only therapeutic alternative. The MitraClip (Abbot Vascular) is a medical device that is percutaneously implanted and designed to eliminate leaking of the mitral valve. Methods The efficacy of the MitraClip strategy vs medical management was assessed using a 4-state Markov model based on the mitral regurgitation grade (mitral regurgitation grade 0, I/II, and III/IV, and death). At each 1-month cycle, patients were or were not hospitalized. The model analyzed a fictional population of 1000 patients over a 5-year period from a national Health Insurance perspective. The primary end-point was the number of deaths avoided. Data from the EVEREST II High Risk Study patients were used along with a literature review. Results At 5 years, among the 1000 patients, 276 deaths were found to be avoidable with the MitraClip strategy. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was €93,363 per death avoided. The annual ICER was calculated to take into consideration excess costs resulting from the MitraClip over the first year (€29,984 vs €8557 for the reference strategy) and the reduction of costs in following years (€3122 for MitraClip vs €8557 for reference strategy). Thus, the mean ICER was calculated to be €20,720 per death avoided. Conclusion The MitraClip is a novel alternative therapy for mitral insufficiency in patients ineligible for surgery that may offer a medico-economic advantage. PMID:26909557

  14. Fossil cladoceran record from Lake Piramide Inferiore (5067 m asl in the Nepalese Himalayas: biogeographical and paleoecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Nevalainen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated 2500 years of community succession in Cladocera from the sediments of a mountain lake (Lake Piramide Inferiore located in the Khumbu Valley close to Mt. Everest in the Nepalese Himalayas. Our objective was to determine late Holocene changes in cladoceran species composition and abundance in a biogeographical context and with respect to previous proxy-based paleolimnological data (algal pigments and organic content. The results suggested that cladoceran fauna of Lake Piramide Inferiore was species-poor and dominated by Chydorus cf. sphaericus throughout the sequence. The sediment profile recorded the occurrence of Alona guttata type individuals, which were attributed to Alona werestschagini Sinev 1999 based on their morphology and the species' current distributional range, and this was the first record of its presence in the Himalayas. In addition, a periodic long-term succession of melanic Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia fusca Gurney, 1907 and non-melanic D. (Daphnia dentifera Forbes 1893 was observed in the sediments. The millennia-long cladoceran community changes, although subtle due to the C. cf. sphaericus dominance, were in general agreement with the previous proxy-data of lake productivity following the regional paleoclimatic development and apparently partly driven by bottom-up mechanisms. The periodic occurrence and success of D. fusca and D. dentifera throughout the late Holocene in Lake Piramide Inferiore, combined with the knowledge of their phenotypic properties (i.e. carapace melanization and previous investigations on their contemporary and past distribution in Khumbu Valley, suggested that they may have responded to altered underwater UV radiation regimes. Furthermore, they may have even periodically excluded each other subsequent to changes in the underwater UV environment. The results indicated the usefulness of fossil cladoceran analysis as a tool in biogeographical research, since the occurrence of species in space and

  15. Seasonal variations in the sources of natural and anthropogenic lead deposited at the East Rongbuk Glacier in the high-altitude Himalayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn-Nunes, Laurie, E-mail: L.Nunes@curtin.edu.au [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia); Vallelonga, Paul [Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Lee, Khanghyun [Environmental Measurement and Analysis Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex, Kyungseo-dong, Seo-gu, Incheon 404-170 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sungmin [Department of Ocean Sciences, Inha University, 100 Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Burton, Graeme [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia); Hou, Shugui [Key Laboratory of Coast and Island development of Ministry of Education, School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Moy, Andrew [Department of the Environment, Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston 7050, Tasmania (Australia); Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 80, Hobart 7001, Tasmania (Australia); Edwards, Ross; Loss, Robert; Rosman, Kevin [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopic compositions and concentrations, and barium (Ba) and indium (In) concentrations have been analysed at sub-annual resolution in three sections from a < 110 m ice core dated to the 18th and 20th centuries, as well as snow pit samples dated to 2004/2005, recovered from the East Rongbuk Glacier in the high-altitude Himalayas. Ice core sections indicate that atmospheric chemistry prior to ∼ 1953 was controlled by mineral dust inputs, with no discernible volcanic or anthropogenic contributions. Eighteenth century monsoon ice core chemistry is indicative of dominant contributions from local Himalayan sources; non-monsoon ice core chemistry is linked to contributions from local (Himalayan), regional (Indian/Thar Desert) and long-range (North Africa, Central Asia) sources. Twentieth century monsoon and non-monsoon ice core data demonstrate similar seasonal sources of mineral dust, however with a transition to less-radiogenic isotopic signatures that suggests local and regional climate/environmental change. The snow pit record demonstrates natural and anthropogenic contributions during both seasons, with increased anthropogenic influence during non-monsoon times. Monsoon anthropogenic inputs are most likely sourced to South/South-East Asia and/or India, whereas non-monsoon anthropogenic inputs are most likely sourced to India and Central Asia. - Highlights: • Pb isotopes in ice and snow show seasonality in Mt Everest atmospheric chemistry. • Local (Himalayan) mineral dust inputs are present year round. • Regional and long-range mineral dust inputs are evident during non-monsoon times. • Snow samples indicate increased anthropogenic inputs during non-monsoon times. • Anthropogenic inputs are linked with Indian, South Asian and Central Asian sources.

  16. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation. PMID

  17. Aging, Tolerance to High Altitude, and Cardiorespiratory Response to Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richalet, Jean-Paul; Lhuissier, François J

    2015-06-01

    Richalet, Jean-Paul, and François J. Lhuissier. Aging, tolerance to high altitude, and cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 16:117-124, 2015.--It is generally accepted that aging is rather protective, at least at moderate altitude. Some anecdotal reports even mention successful ascent of peaks over 8000 m and even Everest by elderly people. However, very few studies have explored the influence of aging on tolerance to high altitude and prevalence of acute high altitude related diseases, taking into account all confounding factors such as speed of ascent, altitude reached, sex, training status, and chemo-responsiveness. Changes in physiological responses to hypoxia with aging were assessed through a cross-sectional 20-year study including 4675 subjects (2789 men, 1886 women; 14-85 yrs old) and a longitudinal study including 30 subjects explored at a mean 10.4-year interval. In men, ventilatory response to hypoxia increased, while desaturation was less pronounced with aging. Cardiac response to hypoxia was blunted with aging in both genders. Similar results were found in the longitudinal study, with a decrease in cardiac and an increase in ventilatory response to hypoxia with aging. These adaptive responses were less pronounced or absent in post-menopausal untrained women. In conclusion, in normal healthy and active subjects, aging has no deleterious effect on cardiac and ventilatory responses to hypoxia, at least up to the eighth decade. Aging is not a contraindication for high altitude, as far as no pathological condition interferes and physical fitness is compatible with the intensity of the expected physical demand of one's individual. Physiological evaluation through hypoxic exercise testing before going to high altitude is helpful to detect risk factors of severe high altitude-related diseases. PMID:25946570

  18. Immunology presentation at the 1990 NASA/NSF Antarctica Biomedical Science Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Richard T.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of methodology used for determining human in vitro lymphocyte activation, proliferation and effector cell function was presented and results of previous manned space flight immunology studies from Apollo through Shuttle were reviewed. Until the Shuttle era, lymphocyte assays were not very sensitive and had such large variations among normal subjects that it was difficult to define a consistent effect of space flight. More sensitive assay, however, even with Shuttle missions as brief as 6 days indicate depressed T-cell proliferative responses are routinely observed following space flight. Using a slight modification of the Shuttle assay, five different human stress-immunology models have been studied over the last 6 years in our lab. These have included: academic examinations of medical students having blood drawn during major test periods on three separate groups of first year students and two hypoxia studies (at 25,000 feet in a 6 week chamber ascent to the equivalent of Mount Everest and twice on Pikes Peak at 14,000 feet). These studies are particularly pertinent to Antarctica, since the altitude equivalent of 11,000 feet at the South Pole may affect some of the variables that are being measured in immunology, physiology or cognitive studies. An extravehicular study was performed drawing blood from 35 individuals before and immediately following a chamber exposure study. Preliminary results from 30 Shuttle astronauts investigated immunophenotype analysis and the role of a novel monocyte population in modulating the previously observed suppressed in vitro immune function. The results of the Air Force Academy cadet stress study were also presented.

  19. Bhaktapur, Nepal: the MAL-ED birth cohort study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Strand, Tor; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Rita; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study site in Nepal is located in the Bhaktapur municipality, 15 km east of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Bhaktapur, an ancient city famous for its traditional temples and buildings, is included on UNESCO's World Heritage List and is a major tourist attraction in Nepal. Nepal is a land-locked country located in South Asia between China and India with an area of 147 181 km(2), ranging from sea-level plains to Mount Everest, the world's highest peak. The total population as of the 2011 census was 26.6 million, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.4. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is ranked 157 of 186 in the 2013 Human Development Report; one-third of the Nepali population lives below the poverty line. The current under-5 mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births, the infant mortality rate is 46 per 1000 live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 33 per 1000 live births. Vaccine coverage for all Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines is >80%. Among children, the most common diseases contributing to significant morbidity and mortality are acute respiratory infection and dehydration from severe diarrhea. In this article, we report on the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic features of the Bhaktapur MAL-ED site and describe the data that informed our cohort recruitment strategy. PMID:25305301

  20. Geodetic Constraint of the M=7.6 Bhuj 2001 Rupture and Convergence Across the Rann of Kachchh 1856-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, R.; Wallace, K.; Gaur, V.; Bendick, R.; Kier, G.; Blume, F.

    2002-12-01

    Teleseismic estimates of the Mw=7.6 Bhuj earthquake indicate that slip extended from 35 km to 9 km depth, and approximately 40 km along strike with a mean slip of 3-6 m. A search for historic triangulation markers in February 2001 recovered few control points, however, in June 2001 eighteen historic survey monuments were re-measured in a region within 150 km of the epicenter, with at least 10 points within 40 km of the inferred rupture. A leveling line close to the epicenter was remeasured between Feb and June 2001 by the Survey of India that showed 0.7 m of subsidence south of the epicenter. The GPS data were compared with the published 1856 trigonometrical survey in two ways, first by assuming that points remote from the epicenter had not changed in relative position since 1856, and second by assuming the validity of the 1856 Everest-spheroid parameters to compare with GPS 2001 positions. In each case deformation near the epicenter was less than 1.5 m at the points recovered, consistent with the parameters of the earthquake determined from teleseismic studies. The principal difference between the two reduction methods was that although both methods showed that little strain in the Kathiawar Peninsula SSE of the epicenter in the last 150 years, the coordinate transform analysis revealed 2 m of convergence across the Rann of Kachchh north of the epicenter. A number of reasons for this convergence can be invoked: errors in the original survey, an earthquake in 1856 that is known to have disturbed some of the trigonometrical point positions, or real convergence across the rift zone at a rate of roughly 1 cm/year. The first explanation is considered unlikely since the lines were from observations on elevated bedrock points. The second and third explanations indicate that convergence across this ancient rift is occurring at an unexpectedly high rate for a mid-plate setting.

  1. Research Objects for Sharing and Exchanging Research Data and Methods in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Pérez, José Manuel; Palma, Raul

    2016-04-01

    Scientists in data-intensive disciplines increasingly call for models that go beyond the publication of datasets, allowing systematic capture of the lifecycle of scientific investigations and providing a single entry point for accessing information about (to name a few) the hypotheses investigated, the datasets used, the computations, observations and experiments carried out, their outcomes and provenance, the conclusions and findings that were derived, and even the scientists involved in a particular investigation. In this scenario, Research Objects provide a structured means to encapsulate such information and the associated methods involved, along with essential metadata and annotations aimed at both humans and computers. Research objects are therefore portable units of scientific knowledge that enable the sharing, preservation, scholarly communication, validation, and re-use of scientific outcomes. In this presentation we will focus on the application of the Research Object concept in observational disciplines and particularly Earth Science. We will present the main concepts behind research objects and discuss the challenges involved in the extension and adaptation of existing practices, modelling vocabularies, middleware and tools for these disciplines. By deploying research object technologies in Earth Science, we aim to enhance the portability of scientific materials and methods, the collaboration capabilities within and between teams of earth scientists, the quality and long-term preservation capabilities of the methods, and the means to communicate, validate and measure the impact of scientific outcomes. This work is being conducted in the context of the Horizon2020 EVER-EST project, the main objective of which is the development of a research object-centric virtual research environment for Earth Science communities.

  2. Citizen Science in the Himalaya: The Sherpa-Scientist Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, U. N.; Breashears, D.; Rowe, P.

    2015-12-01

    Since the non-profit educational group, Black Ice Himalaya, launched in 2011 our goal has been to involve local communities in our research expeditions, in the form of a Sherpa-Scientist Initiative (SSI). This goes beyond simply helping with gear carries to research sites. It involves training the local Sherpa in equipment set-up, data collection, and analysis processes, with the goal of turning over this task to local communities and villages in the future. As the terrain continues to change - with the growth and expansion of glacial lakes, along with accumulation of pollutants on snow at higher altitudes - this training program presents an excellent opportunity for long-term data collection in sensitive alpine regions. In association with GlacierWorks and Midwest ROV LLC, skill training has included gigapan high-resolution photography, installing (and downloading) multiple time lapse cameras to track hour-by-hour glacial lake changes; lake bathymetry mapping using side-scan sonar from an unmanned towed platform; installing and managing weather stations; collecting and analyzing data from ASD field spectrometers; and collecting/filtering snow samples to look for contaminants (pollutants) affecting snow melt from 4000 - 6000 meters. A field manual documenting this work and intended to raise awareness of glacial trekking hazards has been disseminated to the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and Sagarmatha (Everest) National Park. In 2016-17, in collaboration with Vanguard Diving and Exploration, OpenROV, and Midwest ROV LLC, efforts will include SCUBA diving into glacial lakes to collect scientific data, with continued Sherpa training on how to assemble and use portable remotely piloted submersibles to aid in the assessment of glacial lake hazards.

  3. Resolving the impact of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport on the sulfur cycle and surface ozone over the Tibetan Plateau using a cosmogenic 35S tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mang; Zhang, Zhisheng; Su, Lin; Hill-Falkenthal, Jason; Priyadarshi, Antra; Zhang, Qianggong; Zhang, Guoshuai; Kang, Shichang; Chan, Chuen-Yu; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayas were recently identified as a global hot spot for deep stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) in spring. Although the STT in this region may play a vital role in tropospheric chemistry, the hydrological cycle and aquatic ecosystems in Asia, there is no direct measurement of a chemical stratospheric tracer to verify and evaluate its possible impacts. Here we use cosmogenic 35S as a tracer for air masses originating in the stratosphere and transported downward. We measure concentrations of 35S in fresh surface snow and river runoff samples collected from Mount Everest in April 2013 to be more than 10 times higher than previously reported by any surface measurement, in support of the Himalayas as a gateway of springtime STT. In light of this result, measurements of 35SO2 and 35SO42- at Nam Co in spring 2011 are reanalyzed to investigate the magnitudes of stratospheric air masses from the Himalayas to the tropospheric sulfur cycle and surface O3 level over the Tibetan Plateau. A simple one-box model reveals that the oxidative lifetime of SO2 is reduced in aged STT plumes. Triple oxygen isotopic measurements of sulfate samples suggest that enhanced O3 levels may shift the oxidation pathway of SO2 in the troposphere, which may be constrained by further intensive sampling and measurements. Comparison with surface O3 measurements and traditional meteorological tracing methods shows that 35S is a potentially unique and sensitive tracer to quantify the contribution of stratospheric air to surface O3 levels in fresh or aged STT plumes.

  4. Seasonal variations in the sources of natural and anthropogenic lead deposited at the East Rongbuk Glacier in the high-altitude Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead (Pb) isotopic compositions and concentrations, and barium (Ba) and indium (In) concentrations have been analysed at sub-annual resolution in three sections from a < 110 m ice core dated to the 18th and 20th centuries, as well as snow pit samples dated to 2004/2005, recovered from the East Rongbuk Glacier in the high-altitude Himalayas. Ice core sections indicate that atmospheric chemistry prior to ∼ 1953 was controlled by mineral dust inputs, with no discernible volcanic or anthropogenic contributions. Eighteenth century monsoon ice core chemistry is indicative of dominant contributions from local Himalayan sources; non-monsoon ice core chemistry is linked to contributions from local (Himalayan), regional (Indian/Thar Desert) and long-range (North Africa, Central Asia) sources. Twentieth century monsoon and non-monsoon ice core data demonstrate similar seasonal sources of mineral dust, however with a transition to less-radiogenic isotopic signatures that suggests local and regional climate/environmental change. The snow pit record demonstrates natural and anthropogenic contributions during both seasons, with increased anthropogenic influence during non-monsoon times. Monsoon anthropogenic inputs are most likely sourced to South/South-East Asia and/or India, whereas non-monsoon anthropogenic inputs are most likely sourced to India and Central Asia. - Highlights: • Pb isotopes in ice and snow show seasonality in Mt Everest atmospheric chemistry. • Local (Himalayan) mineral dust inputs are present year round. • Regional and long-range mineral dust inputs are evident during non-monsoon times. • Snow samples indicate increased anthropogenic inputs during non-monsoon times. • Anthropogenic inputs are linked with Indian, South Asian and Central Asian sources

  5. High fliers: the physiology of bar-headed geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Patrick J

    2010-07-01

    Up to half the world's population of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) migrate between central Asia and India and fly between 5000 m and 9000 m above sea level as they cross the Himalayas. The partial pressures of oxygen at these altitudes are, respectively, about 50% and 30% those at sea level. Flapping flight is energetically expensive, so how are bar-headed geese able to migrate at such altitudes? The haemoglobin of bar-headed geese has a greater affinity for oxygen than those of lowland birds, and birds are able to hyperventilate to a greater extent than mammals during severe hypoxia. Together, these mean that the concentration of oxygen in the arterial blood at a given altitude is greater in bar-headed geese than in lowland birds and mammals. The low partial pressure of CO(2) in arterial blood (hypocapnia) that accompanies hyperventilation does not cause reduction of cerebral blood flow in birds as it does in mammals, thus there is greater oxygen delivery to the brain in hypoxic birds, including bar-headed geese, than in mammals. Captive bar headed geese could not maintain elevated aerobic metabolism during exercise at a simulated altitude of 8500 m and their cardiac stroke volume was much lower than that during exercise at sea level. This suggests that if some individuals of this species of geese do really manage to fly over Mt Everest, they may only do so if they receive assistance from vertical air movements, for example from lee waves downwind from the mountains. PMID:20116442

  6. Energy metabolism and the high-altitude environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    At high altitude the barometric pressure falls, challenging oxygen delivery to the tissues. Thus, whilst hypoxia is not the only physiological stress encountered at high altitude, low arterial P(O2) is a sustained feature, even after allowing adequate time for acclimatization. Cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism is altered in subjects at, or returning from, high altitude. In the heart, energetic reserve falls, as indicated by lower phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but in the hypoxic rat heart fatty acid oxidation and respiratory capacity are decreased, whilst pyruvate oxidation is also lower after sustained hypoxic exposure. In skeletal muscle, there is not a consensus. With prolonged exposure to extreme high altitude (>5500 m) a loss of muscle mitochondrial density is seen, but this was not observed in a simulated ascent of Everest in hypobaric chambers. At more moderate high altitude, decreased respiratory capacity may occur without changes in mitochondrial volume density, and fat oxidation may be downregulated, although this is not seen in all studies. The underlying mechanisms, including the possible role of hypoxia-signalling pathways, remain to be resolved, particularly in light of confounding factors in the high-altitude environment. In high-altitude-adapted Tibetan natives, however, there is evidence of natural selection centred around the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway, and metabolic features in this population (e.g. low cardiac phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios, increased cardiac glucose uptake and lower muscle mitochondrial densities) share similarities with those in acclimatized lowlanders, supporting a possible role for the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway in the metabolic response of cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism to high altitude. PMID:26315373

  7. Mechanisms underlying hypoxia tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster: hairy as a metabolic switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-induced cell injury has been related to multiple pathological conditions. In order to render hypoxia-sensitive cells and tissues resistant to low O2 environment, in this current study, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model to dissect the mechanisms underlying hypoxia-tolerance. A D. melanogaster strain that lives perpetually in an extremely low-oxygen environment (4% O2, an oxygen level that is equivalent to that over about 4,000 m above Mt. Everest was generated through laboratory selection pressure using a continuing reduction of O2 over many generations. This phenotype is genetically stable since selected flies, after several generations in room air, survive at this low O2 level. Gene expression profiling showed striking differences between tolerant and naïve flies, in larvae and adults, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Up-regulated genes in the tolerant flies included signal transduction pathways (e.g., Notch and Toll/Imd pathways, but metabolic genes were remarkably down-regulated in the larvae. Furthermore, a different allelic frequency and enzymatic activity of the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI was present in the tolerant versus naïve flies. The transcriptional suppressor, hairy, was up-regulated in the microarrays and its binding elements were present in the regulatory region of the specifically down-regulated metabolic genes but not others, and mutations in hairy significantly reduced hypoxia tolerance. We conclude that, the hypoxia-selected flies: (a altered their gene expression and genetic code, and (b coordinated their metabolic suppression, especially during development, with hairy acting as a metabolic switch, thus playing a crucial role in hypoxia-tolerance.

  8. Drivers of archaeal ammonia-oxidizing communities in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KaterynaZhalnina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA are highly abundant and play an important role in the nitrogen cycle. In addition, AOA have a significant impact on soil quality. AOA may cause nitrogen loss from soils, and the nitrate produced by AOA can lead to ground and surface water contamination, water eutrophication, and soil subsidence. The ammonia-oxidizing archaea discovered to date are classified in the phylum Thaumarchaeota. Only a few archaeal genomes are available in databases. As a result, AOA genes are not well annotated, and it is difficult to mine and identify archaeal genes within metagenomic libraries. Nevertheless, 16S rRNA and comparative analysis of ammonia monooxygenase sequences show that soils can vary greatly in the relative abundance of AOA. In some soils, AOA can comprise more than 10% of the total prokaryotic community. In other soils, AOA comprise less than 0.5% of the community. Many approaches have been used to measure the abundance and diversity of this group including DGGE, T-RFLP, q-PCR, and DNA sequencing. AOA have been studied across different soil types and various ecosystems from the Antarctic dry valleys to the tropical forests of South America to the soils near Mount Everest. Different studies have identified multiple soil factors that trigger the abundance of AOA. These factors include pH, concentration of available ammonia, organic matter content, moisture content, nitrogen content, clay content, as well as other triggers. Land use management appears to have a major effect on the abundance of AOA in soil, which may be the result of nitrogen fertilizer used in agricultural soils. This review summarizes the published results on this topic and suggests future work that will increase our understanding of how soil management and edaphoclimatic factors influence AOA.

  9. 近60年来雪豹(Uncia uncia)研究的文献分析%Literature analysis on snow leopard research during last six decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦; 马鸣; 买尔旦·吐尔干

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis on the bibliographic record of scientific thesis on the snow leopard from international and domestic publications from 1950 -2010 and 1964 -2010 was conducted respectively. The philological principles and methods from different aspects such as year, author, institution and key word were used to investigate the distribution pattern, current status of snow leopard research thesis to reveal the current progress in this thematic research field worldwide. Results showed that the year 2008 was the most prosperous year with the highest record in the published literature both in China and overseas. The nations with relatively high output are China, Norway, the United States, India and Mongolia. China's specific research on the snow leopard was highly concentrated on the two major research teams as Xinjiang institute of Ecology and Geography and Beijing Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The hot topics of snow leopard research were those like conservation, ecology, human and wildlife conflict, biodiversity, endangered animal, gene, habitat, population density and food resource; the hot spots are such areas like the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, Al-tuntagh National Reserve, the Altay Mountain, Hengduan Mountain, Tashkurghan, the Mount Everest and the Tomur Peak Natural Reserve.%应用文献计量学的原理和方法,就外文1950-2010年,中文1964-2010年公开发表的雪豹生物学研究文献进行统计和分析.分别从雪豹研究文献的发文年代、作者、机构和

  10. Radiation environment between seabed and space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for space, the international space station project which makes it possible for 6-7 space-people to stay all the time in the space from around 2003 will be introduced. Space radiation is the sum of the galactic cosmic-ray, solar flare particles and Van Allen belt radiation, the proton from the third of which gives >50% of exposure dose to the spaceman. The exposure dose is about 1 mSv except for such an abnormal case as solar flaring. In the airplane, there are problems of technology concerning the measurement and evaluation of radiation the personnels receive and of its control which requires standardization of the technology. For estimating exposure dose, actual measurement and calibration are necessary. Exposure evaluation is influenced by the touring height, latitude, direction, solar activity and neutron dose. There are few available data concerning the radiation environment in the mountain and a case report on Mt. Everest is described. Doses due to cosmic and terrestrial gamma rays were evaluated. On the ground, the external exposure dose is mostly derived from cosmic ray and ground-surface gamma ray originated from natural radionuclides in the earth. There are described statistical properties of surface gamma ray-dose rate distribution, 2-D power spectrum of upset field which can be used for re-evaluation of actually measured data and planning of regional survey, and evaluation by 1-D spectrum. Radiation environment in the seabed is described on that around Japan based on data collected by the submersible ''Shinkai 2000''. The radioactivity level was found virtually 100-200 cps which was considered to be similar to Japanese average dose level of 80 nGy/hr. However, there were found regions exhibiting 500 cps level. For measurement, dose-rate meters of the ionization chamber types, GM tube type and scintillation type are used. NaI (Tl) scintillation spectrometer is useful since high energy regions can be efficiently separated and measurable. (K.H.)

  11. Benzolamide improves oxygenation and reduces acute mountain sickness during a high-altitude trek and has fewer side effects than acetazolamide at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, David J; Wolff, Chris B; Hedges, Anne-Marie; Nathan, John; Flower, Rod J; Milledge, James S; Swenson, Erik R

    2016-06-01

    Acetazolamide is the standard carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor used for acute mountain sickness (AMS), however some of its undesirable effects are related to intracellular penetrance into many tissues, including across the blood-brain barrier. Benzolamide is a much more hydrophilic inhibitor, which nonetheless retains a strong renal action to engender a metabolic acidosis and ventilatory stimulus that improves oxygenation at high altitude and reduces AMS. We tested the effectiveness of benzolamide versus placebo in a first field study of the drug as prophylaxis for AMS during an ascent to the Everest Base Camp (5340 m). In two other studies performed at sea level to test side effect differences between acetazolamide and benzolamide, we assessed physiological actions and psychomotor side effects of two doses of acetazolamide (250 and 1000 mg) in one group of healthy subjects and in another group compared acetazolamide (500 mg), benzolamide (200 mg) and lorazepam (2 mg) as an active comparator for central nervous system (CNS) effects. At high altitude, benzolamide-treated subjects maintained better arterial oxygenation at all altitudes (3-6% higher at all altitudes above 4200 m) than placebo-treated subjects and reduced AMS severity by roughly 50%. We found benzolamide had fewer side effects, some of which are symptoms of AMS, than any of the acetazolamide doses in Studies 1 and 2, but equal physiological effects on renal function. The psychomotor side effects of acetazolamide were dose dependent. We conclude that benzolamide is very effective for AMS prophylaxis. With its lesser CNS effects, benzolamide may be superior to acetazolamide, in part, because some of the side effects of acetazolamide may contribute to and be mistaken for AMS. PMID:27433337

  12. Effective Management of Trans boundary Landscapes - Geospatial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotru, R.; Rawal, R. S.; Mathur, P. K.; Chettri, N.; Chaudhari, S. A.; Uddin, K.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Singh, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity advocates the use of landscape and ecosystem approaches for managing biodiversity, in recognition of the need for increased regional cooperation. In this context, ICIMOD and regional partners have evolved Transboundary Landscape concept to address the issues of conservation and sustainable use of natural resources and systems (e.g., biodiversity, rangelands, farming systems, forests, wetlands, and watersheds, etc.). This concept defines the landscapes by ecosystems rather than political/administrative boundaries. The Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is extremely heterogeneous, with complex inter linkages of biomes and habitats as well as strong upstream-downstream linkages related to the provisioning of ecosystem services. Seven such transboundary landscapes, identified across west to east extent of HKH, have been considered for programmatic cooperation, include: Wakhan, Karakoram-Pamir, Kailash, Everest, Kangchenjunga, Brahmaputra-Salween, and Cherrapunjee- Chittagong. The approach is people centered and considers the cultural conservation as an essential first step towards resource conservation efforts in the region. Considering the multi-scale requirements of study, the geospatial technology has been effectively adopted towards: (i) understanding temporal changes in landscapes, (ii) long term ecological and social monitoring, (ii) identifying potential bio corridors, (iii) assessing landscape level vulnerability due to climatic and non-climatic drivers, and (iv) developing local plans on extractions of high value economic species supporting livelihoods, agroforestry system and ecotourism, etc. We present here our recent experiences across different landscapes on assessment of three decadal changes, vegetation type mapping, assessment of socio-ecological drivers, corridor assessment, ecosystem services assessment, models for optimal natural resource use systems and long term socio-ecological monitoring.

  13. Effects of prolonged exposure to hypobaric hypoxia on oxidative stress, inflammation and gluco-insular regulation: the not-so-sweet price for good regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Siervo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The mechanisms by which low oxygen availability are associated with the development of insulin resistance remain obscure. We thus investigated the relationship between such gluco-insular derangements in response to sustained (hypobaric hypoxemia, and changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and counter-regulatory hormone responses. METHODS: After baseline testing in London (75 m, 24 subjects ascended from Kathmandu (1,300 m to Everest Base Camp (EBC;5,300 m over 13 days. Of these, 14 ascended higher, with 8 reaching the summit (8,848 m. Assessments were conducted at baseline, during ascent to EBC, and 1, 6 and 8 week(s thereafter. Changes in body weight and indices of gluco-insular control were measured (glucose, insulin, C-Peptide, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] along with biomarkers of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-HNE, inflammation (Interleukin-6 [IL-6] and counter-regulatory hormones (glucagon, adrenalin, noradrenalin. In addition, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 and venous blood lactate concentrations were determined. RESULTS: SpO2 fell significantly from 98.0% at sea level to 82.0% on arrival at 5,300 m. Whilst glucose levels remained stable, insulin and C-Peptide concentrations increased by >200% during the last 2 weeks. Increases in fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and glucagon correlated with increases in markers of oxidative stress (4-HNE and inflammation (IL-6. Lactate levels progressively increased during ascent and remained significantly elevated until week 8. Subjects lost on average 7.3 kg in body weight. CONCLUSIONS: Sustained hypoxemia is associated with insulin resistance, whose magnitude correlates with the degree of oxidative stress and inflammation. The role of 4-HNE and IL-6 as key players in modifying the association between sustained hypoxia and insulin resistance merits further investigation.

  14. Personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y su capacidad de agencia de autocuidado, Cartagena Pessoas com diabete mellitus tipo 2 e sua capacidade de agência de autocuidado, Cartagena Patients with Type 2 Mellitus Diabetes and their Self-Care Agency Capacity, Cartagena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleth Herrera Lían

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 se constituye en un problema de salud pública por las repercusiones bio-psicosociales, la presencia de complicaciones neurovasculares y metabólicas en la persona que la padece. Enfermería cumple un papel importante a través de la educación y la capacitación. Objetivo: Identificar la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado de las personas con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, inscritos en los programas de control de diabetes en 19 UPAS de Cartagena. Metodología: diseño descriptivo con abordaje cuantitativo, en una muestra de 225 adultos de ambos sexos, seleccionados en forma aleatoria. La capacidad de agencia de autocuidado se identificó con la escala de Valoración de las capacidades de autocuidado, desarrollada por Isenberg y Everest, traducida al español por Gallegos y adaptada por la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Para presentar los datos se utilizó la estadística descriptiva, los resultados se presentan en tablas y gráficas. Resultados: Predominó el sexo femenino (68,4 %; la unión libre (59,1 %; escolaridad (50,6 % con básica primaria; bajos ingresos económicos (menos de un salario mínimo mensual vigente, 34.7 %. Al valorar la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado, el 73.8 % de los pacientes obtuvo una calificación de muy buena (76-100 %, según escala. Al valorar los aspectos comprendidos en la escala se encontró que más del 50 % de las personas siempre sacan tiempo para ellos, piden explicación sobre su salud, examinan su cuerpo para ver si hay cambios y conservan un ambiente limpio. Conclusiones: El apoyo social recibido por los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y las prácticas de higiene personal y del entorno, el conocimiento y la adherencia a la dieta, permiten a los pacientes una buena capacidad de agencia de autocuidado.Contexto: A diabete mellitus tipo 2 se configura como um problema de saúde pública por conta das repercussões biopsicossociais e da presen

  15. Significance of QRS duration and left bundle branch block in development and course of congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria L. A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with severe chronic heart failure (CHF often have such intraventricular conduction disturbances as left bundle branch block which show morphological and QRS-duration changes on ECG and result in evident intra- and interventricular dyssinchrony. Delayed left ventricular activation via interventricular septum results in evident asynchrony at the beginning of left and right ventricular contration. Diagnostic significance of ECG data increases in presence of CHF clinical signs, especially echocardiographic signs of myocardial dysfunction. EVEREST study analyzed the influence of QRS duration on number of hospital admissions and mortality in patients with CHF. The study included 2962 patients, 1614 of them had normal QRS duration – less than 120 ms, 1321 patients had increased QRS duration – more than 120 ms. 678 deaths occurred during followup period, 307 (18.7% of them were from group with normal QRS duration and 371 (28.1% – from group with increased QRS interval. Mortality rate due to cardiovascular causes was more significant in patients with increased QRS. In 3 months of follow-up the mortality rate was 21.1% in patients with increased QRS and 14.6% in patients with normal QRS. In 9.9 months of follow-up the rates were 41.6% and 32.4%, respectively. Different international studies showed that isolated right ventricular pacing resulted in prolongation of QRS complex and contributed to CHF progression. 2010 patients were randomized in MOST-study which aimed to compare dual chamber pacing and right ventricular pacing. Reduction of CHF symptoms was noted in the course of study in patients who underwent dual chamber pacing, while M.O. Sweeney et al. analyzed the results of treatment of 1339 patients with initially normal QRS duration. However the authors revealed a higher rate in group of right ventricular pacing which proved the higher rates of hospital admission for CHF and more frequent rates for atrial fibrillation occurrence

  16. Carbonaceous aerosols on the south edge of the Tibetan Plateau: concentrations, seasonality and sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Cong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To quantitatively evaluate the effect of carbonaceous aerosols on the south edge of the Tibetan Plateau, aerosol samples were collected weekly from August 2009 to July 2010 at Mt. Everest (Qomolangma Station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, briefly QOMS, 28.36° N, 86.95° E, 4276 m a.s.l.. The samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC and major ions. The average concentrations of OC, EC and WSOC were 1.43, 0.25 and 0.77 μg m−3, respectively. The concentration levels of OC and EC at QOMS are comparable to those at high elevation sites on the southern slopes of the Himalayas (Langtang and NCO-P, but three to six times lower than those at Manora Peak, India and Godavari, Nepal. Sulfate was the most abundant anion species followed by nitrate, accounting for 25 and 12% of total ionic mass, respectively. Ca2+ was the most abundant cation species (annual average of 0.88 μg m−3. The various aerosol compositions showed distinctive seasonality. The dust loading, represented by Ca2+ concentration, was relatively constant throughout the year. While OC, EC and other ionic species (NH4+, K+, NO3−, and SO42− exhibited a pronounced peak in the pre-monsoon period and a minimum in the monsoon season. Similar seasonal trends of aerosol composition were also reported previously from the southern slope of the Himalayas, such as Langtang and NCO-P. This phenomenon indicates that both slopes of Himalayas share a common atmospheric environment regime. The strong correlation of OC and EC in QOMS aerosols with K+ and levoglucosan indicates that they were mainly originated from biomass burning. The active fire spots observed by MODIS and their backward trajectories further demonstrate that in pre-monsoon season, agricultural and forest fires in the northern India and Nepal were most likely sources of carbonaceous aerosol at QOMS. In addition to large-scale atmospheric

  17. Chemical evidences of the effects of global change in high elevation lakes in Central Himalaya, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartari, Gianni; Lami, Andrea; Rogora, Michela; Salerno, Franco

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the lakes integrate the pressure of their surrounding terrestrial environment and the climatic variability. Both the water column and sediments are capable to accumulate signals of global change, such as warming of the deep layers or mutation of diverse biological records (e.g., fossil diatoms) and the nutrient loads variability affecting the trophic state. Typically, the biological responses to climate change have been studied in several types of lakes, while documented changes in water chemistry are much rare. A long term study of 20 high altitude lakes located in central southern Himalaya (Mt Everest) conducted since the 90s has highlighted a general change in the chemical composition of the lake water: a substantial rise in the ionic content was observed, particularly pronounced in the case of sulphate. In a couple of these lakes, monitored on an annual basis, the sulphate concentrations increased over 4-fold. A change in the composition of atmospheric wet deposition, as well as a possible influence of decrease in seasonal snow cover duration, which could have exposed larger basin surfaces to alteration processes, were excluded. The chemical changes proved to be mainly related to the sulphide oxidation processes occurring in the bedrocks or the hydrographic basins. In particular, the oxidation processes, considered as the main factor causing the sulphate increase, occurred in subglacial environments characterized by higher glacier velocities causing higher glacier shrinkage. Associated to this mechanism, the exposure of fresh mineral surfaces to the atmosphere may have contributed also to increases in the alkalinity of lakes. Weakened monsoon of the past two decades may have partially contributed to the solute enrichment of the lakes through runoff waters. The almost synchronous response of the lakes studied, which differs in terms of the presence of glaciers in their basins, highlights the fact that the increasing ionic content of lake

  18. Asian Ice Core Array (AICA): Late Holocene Atmospheric Dust Reconstruction over Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigholm, B. O.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V. B.; Kang, S.; Aizen, E.; Kreutz, K. J.; Kaspari, S.; Fujita, K.; Takeuchi, N.; Wake, C. P.; Kurbatov, A.

    2010-12-01

    as well as consequences on regional socio-economics. Preliminary analysis suggests that atmospheric dust concentrations have generally declined at AICA sites in recent decades. Longer AICA records from the Himalayas (Everest) and central TP (Geladaindong) show generally opposite dust concentration trends over that last ~350 years and may be suggestive of regionally varying emission strength and/or atmospheric transport (e.g. westerly vs. monsoonal dominated circulation).

  19. Scientific workflow and support for high resolution global climate modeling at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaj, V.; Mayer, B.; Wang, F.; Hack, J.; McKenna, D.; Hartman-Baker, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) facilitates the execution of computational experiments that require tens of millions of CPU hours (typically using thousands of processors simultaneously) while generating hundreds of terabytes of data. A set of ultra high resolution climate experiments in progress, using the Community Earth System Model (CESM), will produce over 35,000 files, ranging in sizes from 21 MB to 110 GB each. The execution of the experiments will require nearly 70 Million CPU hours on the Jaguar and Titan supercomputers at OLCF. The total volume of the output from these climate modeling experiments will be in excess of 300 TB. This model output must then be archived, analyzed, distributed to the project partners in a timely manner, and also made available more broadly. Meeting this challenge would require efficient movement of the data, staging the simulation output to a large and fast file system that provides high volume access to other computational systems used to analyze the data and synthesize results. This file system also needs to be accessible via high speed networks to an archival system that can provide long term reliable storage. Ideally this archival system is itself directly available to other systems that can be used to host services making the data and analysis available to the participants in the distributed research project and to the broader climate community. The various resources available at the OLCF now support this workflow. The available systems include the new Jaguar Cray XK6 2.63 petaflops (estimated) supercomputer, the 10 PB Spider center-wide parallel file system, the Lens/EVEREST analysis and visualization system, the HPSS archival storage system, the Earth System Grid (ESG), and the ORNL Climate Data Server (CDS). The ESG features federated services, search & discovery, extensive data handling capabilities, deep storage access, and Live Access Server (LAS) integration. The scientific workflow enabled on

  20. The human development index: a portrait of the 75 districts in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, S

    1995-06-01

    A Human Development Index (HDI) is computed for Nepal's 75 districts based on minimum and maximum values. Life expectancy and literacy data are based on the 1991 census. Real per capita Gross Domestic Product is in purchasing power parity (PPP) in US dollars in 1994. Resource access per capita uses data on bank deposits and credits in mid-1991. Results show a range in life expectancy from a low of 37 years in Mugu district to a high of 74 years in Kathmandu district. National literacy averages about 40% of total population. District averages range from 21% in Humla district to 71% in Kathmandu. Resource access ranges from Rupees 147 in Kalilot district to Rupees 47,000 in Kathmandu district. The national average is Rupees 2590 (Rupees 37.2 = 1 US dollar in 1991). Correlations between the 3 HDI indicators show a stronger correlation between life expectancy and literacy. Each indicator appears to represent some unique aspect. District level correlation among the 3 indicators is weaker. The highest HDI ranks are in Kathmandu, followed by Lalitpur, which has a substantially lower rank. The 5th highest rank is in the industrial city of Biratnagar, and the 8th highest rank is in Chitwan. The traditional garments and brassware district of Palpa ranks 17th. Modern Gorkha district ranks 32nd. The Mount Everest district of Solukhumbu ranks 43rd. Kapilbastu, the birth place of Buddha, ranks 56th. Districts north of Kathmandu rank 51st and 54th. Only 5 districts have a rank of over 5. 14 districts have HDI values ranging between 0.4 and 0.5. 30 districts have values between 0.3 and 0.4. 15 districts have values between 0.2 and 0.3. The worst 11 districts have values under 0.2. The UN Development Programme considers a value below 0.5 a low level of human development, which means 70 of Nepal districts. Only Kathmandu has a high level. Lalitpur, Kaski, Bhaktapur, and Morang have a medium level of human development. Correlation of HDI with other development indicators indicates

  1. Intuitive ultrasonography for autonomous medical care in limited-resource environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Melton, Shannon L.; Ebert, Douglas; Hamilton, Douglas R.

    2011-05-01

    Management of health problems in limited resource environments, including spaceflight, faces challenges in both available equipment and personnel. The medical support for spaceflight outside Low Earth Orbit is still being defined; ultrasound (US) imaging is a candidate since trials on the International Space Station (ISS) prove that this highly informative modality performs very well in spaceflight. Considering existing estimates, authors find that US could be useful in most potential medical problems, as a powerful factor to mitigate risks and protect mission. Using outcome-oriented approach, an intuitive and adaptive US image catalog is being developed that can couple with just-in-time training methods already in use, to allow non-expert crew to autonomously acquire and interpret US data for research or diagnosis. The first objective of this work is to summarize the experience in providing imaging expertise from a central location in real time, enabling data collection by a minimally trained operator onsite. In previous investigations, just-in-time training was combined with real-time expert guidance to allow non-physician astronauts to perform over 80 h of complex US examinations on ISS, including abdominal, cardiovascular, ocular, musculoskeletal, dental/sinus, and thoracic exams. The analysis of these events shows that non-physician crew-members, after minimal training, can perform complex, quality US examinations. These training and guidance methods were also adapted for terrestrial use in professional sporting venues, the Olympic Games, and for austere locations including Mt. Everest. The second objective is to introduce a new imaging support system under development that is based on a digital catalog of existing sample images, complete with image recognition and acquisition logic and technique, and interactive multimedia reference tools, to guide and support autonomous acquisition, and possibly interpretation, of images without real-time link with a human

  2. The long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols from South Asia to Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kang, Shichang; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    High levels of carbonaceous aerosol exist over South Asia, the area adjacent to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Little is known about if they can be transported across the Himalayas, and as far inland as the Tibetan Plateau. To resolve such scientific questions, aerosol samples were collected weekly from August 2009 to July 2010 at Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research(QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.). In the laboratory, major ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, levoglucosan, water-soluble organic carbon, and organic acids were analyzed. The concentration levels of OC and EC at QOMS are comparable to those at high-elevation sites on the southern slopes of the Himalayas (Langtang and NCO-P), but 3 to 6 times lower than those at Manora Peak, India, and Godavari, Nepal. Sulfate was the most abundant anion species followed by nitrate. The dust loading, represented by Ca2+ concentration, was relatively constant throughout the year. OC, EC and other ionic species (NH+4 , K+, NO‑ and SO2‑) exhibited a pronounced peak in the pre-monsoon period and a minimum in the monsoon season, being similar to the seasonal trends of aerosol compo-sition reported previously from the southern slope of the Himalayas. The strong correlation of OC and EC in QOMS aerosols with K+ and levoglucosan indicates that they mainly originated from biomass burning. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds (malonic acid/ succinic acid, maleic acid/fumaric acid) further support this finding. The fire spots observed by MODIS and backward air-mass trajectories further demonstrate that in pre-monsoon season, agricultural and forest fires in northern India and Nepal were most likely sources of carbonaceous aerosol at QOMS. In addition to large-scale atmospheric circulation, the unique mountain/valley breeze system can also have an important effect on air-pollutant transport.With the consideration of the darkening force of

  3. Chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 at the high-altitude Himalayan station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P (5079 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cozic

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We report chemical composition data for PM10 and PM1 from the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P, the world's highest aerosol observatory, located at 5079 m a.s.l. at the foothills of Mt. Everest. Despite its high altitude, the average PM10 mass apportioned by the chemical analyses is of the order of 6 μg m−3 (i.e., 10 μg/scm, with almost a half of this mass accounted for by organic matter, elemental carbon (EC and inorganic ions, the rest being mineral dust. Organic matter, in particular, accounted for by 2.0 μg m−3 (i.e., 3.6 μg/scm on a yearly basis, and it is by far the major PM10 component beside mineral oxides. Non-negligible concentrations of EC were also observed (0.36 μg/scm, confirming that light-absorbing aerosol produced from combustion sources can be efficiently transported up the altitudes of Himalayan glaciers. The concentrations of carbonaceous and ionic aerosols follow a common time trend with a maximum in the premonsoon season, a minimum during the monsoon and a slow recovery during the postmonsoon and dry seasons, which is the same phenomenology observed for other Nepalese Himalayan sites in previous studies. Such seasonal cycle can be explained by the seasonal variations of dry and moist convection and of wet scavenging processes characterizing the climate of north Indian subcontinent. We document the effect of orographic transport of carbonaceous and sulphate particles upslope the Himalayas, showing that the valley breeze circulation, which is almost permanently active during the out-of-monsoon season, greatly impacts the chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 in the high Himalayas and provides an efficient mechanism for bringing anthropogenic aerosols into the Asian upper troposphere (>5000 m a.s.l.. The concentrations of mineral dust are impacted to a smaller extent by valley breezes and follow a unique seasonal cycle which suggest multiple source areas in central and south-west Asia. Our findings, based on

  4. Chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 at the high-altitude Himalayan station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P (5079 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Laj

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We report chemical composition data for PM10 and PM1 from the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P, the world's highest aerosol observatory, located at 5079 m a.s.l. at the foothills of Mt. Everest. Despite its high altitude, the average PM10 mass apportioned by the chemical analyses is of the order of 6 μg m−3 (i.e., 10 μg/scm, with almost a half of this mass accounted for by organic matter, elemental carbon (EC and inorganic ions, the rest being mineral dust. Organic matter, in particular, accounted for by 2.0 μg m−3 (i.e., 3.6 μg/scm on a yearly basis, and it is by far the major PM10 component beside mineral oxides. Non-negligible concentrations of EC were also observed (0.36 μg/scm, confirming that optically-active aerosol produced from combustion sources can be efficiently transported up the altitudes of Himalayan glaciers. The concentrations of carbonaceous and ionic aerosols follow a common time trend with a maximum in the premonsoon season, a minimum during the monsoon and a slow "ramp-up" period in the postmonsoon and dry seasons, which is the same phenomenology observed for other Nepalese Himalayan sites in previous studies. Such seasonal cycle can be explained by the seasonal variations of dry and moist convection and of wet scavenging processes characterizing the climate of north Indian subcontinent. We document the effect of orographic transport of carbonaceous and sulphate particles upslope the Himalayas, showing that the valley breeze circulation, which is almost permanently active during the out-of-monsoon season, greatly impacts the chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 in the high Himalayas and provides an efficient mechanism for bringing anthropogenic optically-active aerosols into the Asian upper troposphere (>5000 m a.s.l.. The concentrations of mineral dust are impacted to a smaller extent by valley breezes and follow a unique seasonal cycle which suggest multiple source areas in central and south-west Asia. Our

  5. МИКРОКОАКСИАЛЬНАЯ ФАКОЭМУЛЬСИФИКАЦИЯ КАТАРАКТЫ НА ГЛАЗАХС КОМПЕНСИРОВАННОЙИ ОПЕРИРОВАННОЙ ГЛАУКОМОЙ

    OpenAIRE

    Николашин, С.; Тахчиди, Х.; Мачехин, В.

    2008-01-01

    Проведена сравнительная характеристика техники операции и результатов микрокоаксиальной и обычной факоэмульсификации катаракты на глазах с оперированной и компенсированной глаукомой и катарактой. Установлено, что проведение микрокоаксиальной факоэмульсификации катаракты через разрез 2,2 мм на глазах с компенсированной и оперированной глаукомой и катарактой с использованием ультраслива «Microsmooth» и иглы«Tapered Kelman ABS» фирмы «Alcon» на аппарате «Legacy – 20000 Everest» эффективно, безоп...

  6. Storage-Intensive Supercomputing Benchmark Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J; Dossa, D; Gokhale, M; Hysom, D; May, J; Pearce, R; Yoo, A

    2007-10-30

    : SuperMicro X7DBE Xeon Dual Socket Blackford Server Motherboard; 2 Intel Xeon Dual-Core 2.66 GHz processors; 1 GB DDR2 PC2-5300 RAM (2 x 512); 80GB Hard Drive (Seagate SATA II Barracuda). The Fusion board is presently capable of 4X in a PCIe slot. The image resampling benchmark was run on a dual Xeon workstation with NVIDIA graphics card (see Chapter 5 for full specification). An XtremeData Opteron+FPGA was used for the language classification application. We observed that these benchmarks are not uniformly I/O intensive. The only benchmark that showed greater that 50% of the time in I/O was the graph algorithm when it accessed data files over NFS. When local disk was used, the graph benchmark spent at most 40% of its time in I/O. The other benchmarks were CPU dominated. The image resampling benchmark and language classification showed order of magnitude speedup over software by using co-processor technology to offload the CPU-intensive kernels. Our experiments to date suggest that emerging hardware technologies offer significant benefit to boosting the performance of data-intensive algorithms. Using GPU and FPGA co-processors, we were able to improve performance by more than an order of magnitude on the benchmark algorithms, eliminating the processor bottleneck of CPU-bound tasks. Experiments with a prototype solid state nonvolative memory available today show 10X better throughput on random reads than disk, with a 2X speedup on a graph processing benchmark when compared to the use of local SATA disk.

  7. Design and Dynamic Performance of a Small Water Cooled Reactor Fuelled with Plutonium in Rock-Like Oxide (ROX) Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a design study for a small water-cooled reactor with plutonium fuel in a rock like oxide (ROX) form are reported. A summary is given of the five study areas, Physics, Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, Navalisation and Dynamics, and Shielding and Decommissioning. The dynamics simulation for the whole plant is then described in more detail. The physics of the fuel module is studied using the WIMS suite of deterministic codes with selected computations checked with the Monte-Carlo code MONK. Whole core calculations are undertaken with the WIMS/SNAP code. Essential parameters are provided to the other study areas including reactivity feedback coefficients for the Dynamics. The Thermal Hydraulic design aims to remove the required maximum power using pumped flow and also to provide significant power removal using natural circulation. The major components of the primary circuit are sized and flow rates in pumped and natural circulation calculated by hand and by using the TRACPFQ code. This information is also used in the dynamics study. Further details of the Physics and Thermal hydraulics studies will be given at PHYSOR 2006. The materials study is being published elsewhere, but a brief description of the temperature and stress calculations for the fuel pellet performed with the ABACUS finite element code is given. Navalisation and dynamics of the plant are examined. The power requirements for the plant are estimated and a suitable electric propulsion system is proposed and sized. A whole plant model is built using the AcslXtreme computer package in which a block diagram of the system is constructed via a graphical interface and simulations of the system transients are produced. The block diagram for the whole system is described followed by the describing equations for the major blocks representing neutron kinetics, fuel element heat transfer, thermal hydraulics of the primary circuit and of the steam generators. Also included are describing equations for

  8. To investigate the prevention and treatment of common complications of replacement therapy with pulmonary surfactant in neonates%新生儿肺表面活性物质替代疗法常见并发症的防治探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万忠和; 蓉容; 班奕

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristic and prophylactic -therapeutic measures of common complications of pulmonary surfactant(PS) replacement therapy in neonates. Methods We analyzed the clinical data of 65 cases preterm neonates treated with PS replacement therapy in neonatal intensive care unit(NICU) of our hospital. Results In 65 cases,32 cases had one to five complications,totally 60 times. Those included 14 times pneumonia (21.5%), 10 times (15.4%)pneumorrhagia, 8times(12.3%) apnoea, intraventricular hemorrhage and bronchopulmonary dysplasia respectively 6 times(9.2%), patent ductus arteriosus, 3 times(4.6%), atelectasis and retinopathy of prematurity respectively 11 times(16.9%). 18 cases Of 32 xtremely low birth weight infants (56.3%) had different degree complications, and as that of 6 cases of 8 very low birth weight infants.54 cases after complex treatment were survival (survival rate 83.1%) and 11 cases died (mortality 16.9%). Conclusion Active precaution and early discovery and treatment all kinds of complications immediately could improve the effect of PS replacement therapy and reduce the mortality of the preterms.%目的 对新生儿肺表面活性物质(PS)替代疗法常见并发症的临床特点、诊断及其防治措施进行探讨.方法 对我院新生儿科重症监护病房(NICU)应用PS替代疗法的65例早产儿临床资料进行回顾性分析,分析PS替代治疗常见并发症的发生情况、临床特点、诊断、防治措施及其预后.结果 在65例应用PS的早产儿中,32例发生1~5种并发症,共60例次,其中肺炎14例(21.5%),肺出血10例(15.4%),呼吸暂停、脑室内出血(IVH)及支气管肺发育不良(BPD)各8例(12.3%),动脉导管未闭6例(9.2%),肺不张及早产儿视网膜病(ROP)各3例(4.6%).32例极低出生体重儿中,18例发生不同程度并发症(占56.3%):8例超低出生体重儿中,6例出现并发症(占75.0%).经综合治疗存活54例,存活率为83.1%.死亡11

  9. X-2 in flight after drop from B-50 mothership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Company X-2 (46-674) drops away from its Boeing B-50 mothership in this photo. Lt. Col. Frank 'Pete' Everest piloted 674 on its first unpowered flight on 5 August 1954. He made the first rocket-powered flight on 18 November 1955. Everest made the first supersonic X-2 flight in 674 on 25 April 1956, achieving a speed of Mach 1.40. In July, he reached Mach 2.87, just short of the Mach 3 goal. The other X-2, 675, was written off prior to making any powered flights. An explosion during a captive flight resulted in the death of Bell test pilot Jean 'Skip' Ziegler. The X-2 was jettisoned over Lake Ontario, and the launch aircraft was damaged beyond repair. The first X-2, 674, continued flying, making a total of 17 launches. On 7 September 1956, Capt. Iven Kincheloe became the first man to exceed 100,000 feet when he reached an altitude of 126,200 feet in 674. The X-2, initially an Air Force program, was scheduled to be transferred to the civilian National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) for scientific research. The Air Force delayed turning the aircraft over to the NACA in the hope of attaining Mach 3 in the airplane. The service requested and received a two-month extension to qualify another Air Force test pilot, Capt. Miburn 'Mel' Apt, in the X-2 and attempt to exceed Mach 3. After several ground briefings in the simulator, Apt (with no previous rocket plane experience) made his flight on 27 September 1956. Apt raced away from the B-50 under full power, quickly outdistancing the F-100 chase planes. At high altitude, he nosed over, accelerating rapidly. The X-2 reached Mach 3.2 (2,094 mph) at 65,000 feet. Apt became the first man to fly more than three times the speed of sound. Still above Mach 3, he began an abrupt turn back to Edwards. This maneuver proved fatal as the X-2 began a series of diverging rolls and tumbled out of control. Apt tried to regain control of the aircraft. Unable to do so, Apt separated the escape capsule. Too late, he

  10. Computer modeling of Earthshine contamination on the VIIRS solar diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stephen P.; Agravante, Hiroshi; Hauss, Bruce; Klein, James E.; Weiss, Stephanie C.

    2005-10-01

    was causing higher than expected radiometric error, and asked whether VIIRS might have a similar problem. The NPOESS Models and Simulation (M&S) team considered whether the Lambertian BRDF assumption would cause an underestimating of the ESC error. Particularly, snow, ice and water show very large BRDFs for geometries for forward scattered, near-grazing angles of incidence, and in common parlance this is called glare. The observed earth geometry during the period where the SD is illuminated by the sun has just such geometries that produce strongly forward scattering glare. In addition the SD acquisition occurs in the polar regions, where snow, ice and water are most prevalent. Using models in their Environmental Products Verification and Remote Sensing Testbed (EVEREST), the M&S team produced a model that meticulously traced the light rays from the attenuation screen to each detector and combined this with a model of the satellite orbit, with solar geometry and radiative transfer models that include the effect of the BRDF of various surfaces. This modeling showed that radiometric errors up to 4.5% over water and 1.5% over snow or ice. Clouds produce errors up to 0.8%. The likelihood of these high errors occurring has not been determined. Because of this analysis, various remedial options are now being considered.

  11. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Himalaya in the Kangra reentrant where the great Kangra earthquake of 1905 was located. (ii) The Aravalli Delhi Mobile Belt (ADMB) and its margin faults extend to the Western Himalayan front via Delhi where it interacts with the Delhi-Lahore ridge and further north with the Himalayan front causing seismic activity. (iii) The Shahjahanpur and Faizabad ridges strike the Himalayan front in Central Nepal that do not show any enhanced seismicity which may be due to their being parts of the Bundelkhand craton as simple basement highs. (iv) The west and the east Patna faults are parts of transcontinental lineaments, such as Narmada-Son lineament. (v) The Munghyr-Saharsa ridge is fault controlled and interacts with the Himalayan front in the Eastern Nepal where Bihar-Nepal earthquakes of 1934 has been reported. Some of these faults/lineaments of the Indian continent find reflection in seismogenic lineaments of Himalaya like Everest, Arun, Kanchenjunga lineaments. A set of NW-SE oriented gravity highs along the Himalayan front and the Ganga and the Indus basins represents the folding of the basement due to compression as anticlines caused by collision of the Indian and the Asian plates. This study has also delineated several depressions like Saharanpur, Patna, and Purnia depressions.

  12. Addressing capability computing challenges of high-resolution global climate modelling at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaj, Valentine; Norman, Matthew; Evans, Katherine; Taylor, Mark; Worley, Patrick; Hack, James; Mayer, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    ,640 equivalent cores. Scientific applications, such as CESM, are also required to demonstrate a "computational readiness capability" to efficiently scale across and utilize 20% of the entire system. The 0,25 deg configuration of the spectral element dynamical core of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM-SE), the atmospheric component of CESM, has been demonstrated to scale efficiently across more than 5,000 nodes (80,000 CPU cores) on Titan. The tracer transport routines of CAM-SE have also been ported to take advantage of the hybrid many-core architecture of Titan using GPUs [see EGU2014-4233], yielding over 2X speedup when transporting over 100 tracers. The high throughput I/O in CESM, based on the Parallel IO Library (PIO), is being further augmented to support even higher resolutions and enhance resiliency. The application performance of the individual runs are archived in a database and routinely analyzed to identify and rectify performance degradation during the course of the experiments. The various resources available at the OLCF now support a scientific workflow to facilitate high-resolution climate modelling. A high-speed center-wide parallel file system, called ATLAS, capable of 1 TB/s, is available on Titan as well as on the clusters used for analysis (Rhea) and visualization (Lens/EVEREST). Long-term archive is facilitated by the HPSS storage system. The Earth System Grid (ESG), featuring search & discovery, is also used to deliver data. The end-to-end workflow allows OLCF users to efficiently share data and publish results in a timely manner.

  13. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas is located at the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and it acts as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols, e.g. from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at the three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sites over the southern (Pokhara station and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal and northern (Qomolangma (Mt. Everest station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS_CAS in Tibet, China slopes of the Himalayas. While observations at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere, Pokhara is an urban site with much higher aerosol load due to the influence of local anthropogenic activities. The annual mean of aerosol optical depth (AOD during the investigated period was 0.06 at QOMS_CAS, 0.04 at EVK2-CNR and 0.51 at Pokhara, respectively. Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large scale atmospheric circulation. Vegetation fires, peaking during April in the Himalayan region and northern India, contribute to a growing fine mode AOD at 500 nm at the three stations. Dust transported to these sites results in an increase of coarse mode AOD during the monsoon season at the three sites. Meanwhile, coarse mode AOD at EVK2-CNR is higher than QOMS_CAS from July to September, indicating the Himalayas blocks the coarse particles carried by the southwest winds. The precipitation scavenging effect is obvious at Pokhara, which can significantly reduce the aerosol load during the monsoon season. Unlike the seasonal variations, diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local topography. In general, precipitation can lead to a decrease of the aerosol load and the average particle size at each station. AOD changes in a short time with the emission rate near

  14. Our Place in Space: Exploring the Earth-Moon System and Beyond with NASA's CINDI E/PO Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Where does space begin? How far is the Moon? How far is Mars? How does our dynamic star, the Sun, affect its family of planets? All of these questions relate to exploration of our Solar System, and are also part of the Education/Public Outreach (E/PO) Program for NASA’s CINDI project, a space weather mission of opportunity. The Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation has been flying aboard the US Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite in the upper atmosphere of the Earth since April 2008. The Earth’s ionosphere, the part of the atmosphere CINDI studies, is also in space. The CINDI E/PO program uses this fact in lessons designed to help students in middle schools and introductory astronomy classes develop a sense of their place in space. In the activity "How High is Space?" students’ start by building an 8-page scale model of the Earth’s atmosphere with 100 km/page. The peak of Mount Everest, commercial airplanes, and the tops of thunderheads all appear at the bottom of the first page of the model, with astronaut altitude -where space begins- at the top of the same sheet of paper. In "Where Would CINDI Be?" the idea of scale is further developed by modeling the Earth-Moon system to scale first in size, then in distance, using half of standard containers of play dough. With a lowest altitude of about 400 km, similar to that of the International Space Station and orbiting Space Shuttle, CINDI is close to the Earth when compared with the nearly thousand times greater distance to the Moon. Comparing and combining the atmosphere and Earth-Moon system models help reinforce ideas of scale and build student understanding of how far away the Moon actually is. These scale models have also been adapted for use in Family Science Nights, and to include the planet Mars. In this presentation, we will show how we use CINDI’s scale modeling activities and others from our broader space sciences E/PO program in formal and informal

  15. Final master work plan : environmental investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas, 2002 revision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J. C.; Environmental Research

    2003-01-23

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under which Argonne National Laboratory provides technical assistance for hazardous waste site characterization and remediation for the CCC/USDA. Carbon tetrachloride is the contaminant of primary concern at sites in Kansas where former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities were located. Argonne applies its QuickSite(reg sign) Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) approach to these former facilities. The QuickSite environmental site characterization methodology is Argonne's proprietary implementation of the ESC process (ASTM 1998). Argonne has used this approach at several former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas, including Agenda, Agra, Everest, and Frankfort. The Argonne ESC approach revolves around a multidisciplinary, team-oriented approach to problem solving. The basic features and steps of the QuickSite methodology are as follows: (1) A team of scientists with diverse expertise and strong field experience is required to make the process work. The Argonne team is composed of geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, hydrogeologists, chemists, biologists, engineers, computer scientists, health and safety personnel, and regulatory staff, as well as technical support staff. Most of the staff scientists are at the Ph.D. level; each has on average, more than 15 years of experience. The technical team works together throughout the process. In other words, the team that plans the program also implements the program in the field and writes the reports. More experienced scientists do not remain in the office while individuals with lesser degrees or experience carry out the field work. (2) The technical team reviews, evaluates, and interprets existing data for the site and the contaminants there to determine which data sets are technically valid and can be used in initially designing the field program. A basic

  16. Glacier sensitivity to climate change in the Nepalese Himalaya quantified using higher-order modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, A. V.; Egholm, D. L.; Glasser, N. F.; Quincey, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies of glaciers in the eastern Himalaya have identified rapid changes in ice volume with small changes in climate indicating that these glaciers are highly sensitive to primary climate variables (e.g. daily variations in air temperature and monsoon precipitation). However, quantifying Himalayan glacier sensitivity to climate change is challenging due to: (1) a lack of information about how glaciological and geomorphological factors influence the balance of large debris-covered glaciers; (2) the local modification of meteorological variables by the interaction of high topography with regional atmospheric circulation systems; and (3) the simple representation of ice dynamics in many numerical glacier models which limits their usefulness in regions with steep terrain. To quantify the sensitivity of Himalayan glaciers to climate change we apply the integrated second-order shallow ice approximation (iSOSIA) [Egholm et al. 2011, Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface] to large debris-covered glaciers on the southern slopes of Mt. Everest in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal. iSOSIA considers both the longitudinal and transverse stresses that drive mountain glacier flow in regions with steep terrain--a more suitable approach for Himalayan glaciers than those models based on approximations developed for shallow ice sheets. We apply iSOSIA at a 100-m resolution on a regular grid using a daily timestep to Nepalese glaciers including Khumbu, Ngozumpa and Lhotse. Our mass balance model development has focused on the dynamic representation of snow avalanching onto the glacier surfaces as this accounts for up to 75% of accumulation. We investigate Himalayan glacier sensitivities to primary climatological, glaciological and geological variables including air temperature, supraglacial debris cover, and catchment hypsometry. Furthermore, we aim to improve the representation of climate in glacier models for the Himalaya by testing a range of methods to describe these

  17. Imaging Water in Deformed Quartzites: Examples from Caledonian and Himalayan Shear Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Andreas; Ashley, Kyle; Hasnan, Hasnor; Holyoke, Caleb; Jezek, Lynna; Law, Richard; Thomas, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Infrared IR measurements of OH absorption bands due to water in deformed quartz grains have been collected from major shear zones of the Caledonian and Himalayan orogens. Mean intragranular water contents were determined from the magnitude of the broad OH absorption at 3400 cm‑1 as a function of structural position, averaging over multiple grains, using an IR microscope coupled to a conventional FTIR spectrometer with apertures of 50-100 μm. Images of water content were generated by scanning areas of up to 4 mm2 of individual specimens with a 10 μm synchrotron-generated IR beam and contouring OH absorptions. Water contents vary with structural level relative to the central cores of shear zones and they vary at the grain scale corresponding to deformation and recrystallization microstructures. Gradients in quartz water content expressed over structural distances of 10 to 400 m from the centers of the Moine Thrust (Stack of Glencoul, NW Scotland), the Main Central Thrust (Sutlej valley of NW India), and the South Tibetan Detachment System (Rongbuk valley north of Mount Everest) indicate that these shear zones functioned as fluid conduits. However, the gradients differ substantially: in some cases, enhanced fluid fluxes appear to have increased quartz water contents, while in others, they served to decrease water contents. Water contents of Moine thrust quartzites appear to have been reduced during shear at greenschist facies by processes of regime II BLG/SGR dislocation creep. Intragranular water contents of the protolith 70 m below the central fault core are large (4078 ± 247 ppm, H/106 Si) while mylonites within 5 mm of the Moine hanging wall rocks have water contents of only 1570 (± 229) ppm. Water contents between these extremes vary systematically with structural level and correlate inversely with the extent of dynamic recrystallization (20 to 100%). Quartz intragranular water contents of Himalayan thrust and low-angle detachment zones sheared at upper

  18. The challenges of catchment hydrological modelling in the Himalayan region: a case study from the Dudh Kosi River basin of Eastern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Santosh; Bajracharya, Sagar R.; Shea, Joseph; Wahid, Shahriar M.; Shrestha, Arun B.; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert

    2014-05-01

    Catchment-scale hydrological modelling in the Himalayan region suffers from multiple issues that affect our ability to represent the hydrological dynamics of a river system. Due to a lack of monitoring infrastructure, especially in the high-altitude areas, the spatial distribution of precipitation is essentially unknown. Therefore, the regionalization of precipitation in river basins is a challenging task that has implications in the modelling approach at different levels. This paper explores the uncertainty in modelled discharge using different precipitation input datasets in the glaciated catchment of the Dudh Kosi River basin in Eastern Nepal (3712 km2). The basin hosts some of the world's highest mountain peaks, including Mt Everest. Six precipitation stations, which cover mostly the lowland area of the basin, give a station density of one station per 618 km2. First, we examine precipitation dynamics in the study area based on the observed data. Second, the process-oriented distributed J2000 hydrological model is applied in the Dudh Kosi River basin. Third, the model is run with APHRODITE-(V1003R1), CPC-RFE-(2.0) and TRMM-(V7) precipitation products to compare observed and modelled discharge. Nearly 82% of the precipitation occurs during the monsoon season (June - September), and the limited station observations suggest that there is non-uniform distribution of precipitation in which the underlying topography has a great influence. The maximum precipitation occurred at the station which is located on the middle hills region, followed by the station located at the foothills of the Higher Himalaya. Compared to the observed precipitation, the TRMM product is found to be 7% less than the observed data, whereas the other two products were up to 35% less. The model was applied with the six stations data and the regionalization was carried out using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method to simulate the hydrograph. The model was first applied between 1985-1997 in

  19. Star Formation in Henize 206

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    from that explosion impacted a cloud of nearby hydrogen gas, compressed it, and started a new generation of star formation. The death of one star led to the birth of many new stars. This is particularly evident in the MIPS inset, where the 24-micron emission peaks correspond to newly formed stars. The ultraviolet and visible-light photons from the new stars are absorbed by surrounding dust and re-radiated at longer infrared wavelengths, where it is detected by Spitzer. This emission nebula was cataloged by Karl Henize (HEN-eyes) while spending 1948-1951 in South Africa doing research for his Ph.D. dissertation at the University of Michigan. Henize later became a NASA astronaut and, at age 59, became the oldest rookie to fly on the Space Shuttle during an eight-day flight of the Challenger in 1985. He died just short of his 67th birthday in 1993 while attempting to climb the north face of Mount Everest, the world's highest peak.

  20. 21st century Himalayan hydropower: Growing exposure to glacial lake outburst floods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    . Everest and Lulana regions of Nepal and Bhutan, respectively. Together with the dense, cascading sequence of hydropower stations along several river networks in these areas, the combination of GLOFs and artificial reservoirs in steep terrain may result in increasing threats to downstream communities. Hydropower stations are infrastructural investments with minimum design lives of several decades, and our results suggest that their planning should be orchestrated with projected changes in glacier response to future climate change. Our data underline the preponderance of glacial lakes in areas with high glacial retreat rates and a commensurate exposure of hydropower stations to GLOFs. To ensure sustainable water resources use at minimum risk implications for on-site downstream communities, potential changes in GLOF hazard should be taken seriously when planning hydropower stations in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya.

  1. Quartz fabric-based deformation thermometry: examples of its application, relationships to petrology-based PT paths, and potential problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Richard; Waters, Dave; Morgan, Sven; Stahr, Don; Francsis, Matthew; Ashley, Kyle; Kronenberg, Andreas; Thomas, Jay; Mazza, Sarah; Heaverlo, Nicholas

    2013-04-01

    metamorphism. b) Footwall to the South Tibetan Detachment in the Mount Everest area where deformation is demonstrably related to the exhumation stage of a petrologically well-constrained PT path. c) Hanging wall to the Main Central Thrust in the Sutlej Valley of NW India where deformation temperatures inferred from fabric opening angles are closely similar to temperatures of metamorphism indicated by garnet-biotite and oxygen isotope-based thermometry. d) Moine, Ben Hope and Naver thrust sheets of NW Scotland where structurally upwards-increasing deformation temperatures are compared with temperatures indicated by garnet-biotite thermometry. e) Mylonitic quartzites in footwall to Moine thrust at the Stack of Glencoul where hydrolytic weakening may have played an important role in deformation/recrystallization and associated fabric development. f) Thrust sheets in the Appalachians of Vermont that display a complex PTt history due to thrust sheet loading. Kruhl, J.H. 1998. Reply: Prism- and basal-plane parallel subgrain boundaries in quartz: a microstructural geothermobarometer. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 16, 142-146.

  2. 10-year record of atmospheric composition in the high Himalayas: source, transport and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasoni, Paolo; Laj, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Maione, Michela; Putero, Davide; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Gobbi, Gianpaolo; Sellegri, Karine; Verza, Gianpietro; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Arduini, Jgor

    2016-04-01

    South Asia represents a global "hot-spot" for air-quality and climate impacts. Since the end of the 20th Century, field experiments and satellite observations identified a thick layer of atmospheric pollutants extending from the Indian Ocean up to the atmosphere of the Himalayas. Since large amount of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) - like atmospheric aerosol (in particular, the light-absorbing aerosol) and ozone - characterize this region, severe implications were recognized for population health, ecosystem integrity as well as regional climate impacts, especially for what concerns hydrological cycle, monsoon regimes and cryosphere. Since 2006, the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid (NCO-P, 27.95N, 86.82 E, 5079 m a.s.l.), a global station of the WMO/GAW programme has been active in the eastern Nepal Himalaya, not far from the Mt. Everest. NCO-P is located away from large direct anthropogenic pollution sources. The closest major urban area is Kathmandu (200 km south-west from the measurement site). As being located along the Khumbu valley, the observations are representative of synoptic-scale and mountain thermal circulation, providing direct information about the vertical transport of pollutants/climate-altering compounds to the Himalayas and to the free troposphere. In the framework of international programmes (GAW/WMO, UNEP-ABC, AERONET) the following continuous measurement programmes have been carried out at NCO-P: surface ozone, aerosol size distribution (from 10 nm to 25 micron), total particle number, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, equivalent BC, PM1-PM10, AOD by sun-photometry, global solar radiation (SW and LW), meteorology. Long-term sampling programmes for the off-line determination of halogenated gases and aerosol chemistry have been also activated. The atmospheric observation records at NCO-P, now representing the longest time series available for the high Himalayas, provided the first direct evidences about the systematic

  3. Climbing nitrogenase: toward a mechanism of enzymatic nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Brian M; Dean, Dennis R; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2009-05-19

    "Nitrogen fixation", the reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to two ammonia (NH3) molecules, by the Mo-dependent nitrogenase is essential for all life. Despite four decades of research, a daunting number of unanswered questions about the mechanism of nitrogenase activity make it the "Everest of enzymes". This Account describes our efforts to climb one "face" of this mountain by meeting two interdependent challenges central to determining the mechanism of biological N2 reduction. The first challenge is to determine the reaction pathway: the composition and structure of each of the substrate-derived moieties bound to the catalytic FeMo cofactor (FeMo-co) of the molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein of nitrogenase. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to discriminate between the two classes of potential reaction pathways: (1) a "distal" (D) pathway, in which H atoms add sequentially at a single N or (2) an "alternating" (A) pathway, in which H atoms add alternately to the two N atoms of N2. Second, it is necessary to characterize the dynamics of conversion among intermediates within the accepted Lowe-Thorneley kinetic scheme for N2 reduction. That goal requires an experimental determination of the number of electrons and protons delivered to the MoFe protein as well as their "inventory", a partition into those residing on each of the reaction components and released as H2 or NH3. The principal obstacle to this "climb" has been the inability to generate N2 reduction intermediates for characterization. A combination of genetic, biochemical, and spectroscopic approaches recently overcame this obstacle. These experiments identified one of the four-iron Fe-S faces of the active-site FeMo-co as the specific site of reactivity, indicated that the side chain of residue alpha70V controls access to this face, and supported the involvement of the side chain of residue alpha195H in proton delivery. We can now freeze-quench trap N2 reduction pathway intermediates and use electron

  4. The Jalisco Seismic Telemetric Network (RESJAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Gonzalez-Ledezma, M.; Garcia-Puga, J.

    2001-12-01

    The region of Jalisco is one of the most active seismic regions in Mexico, the main tectonic units in this region are the Jalisco Block and the Rivera Plate. The greatest earthquake (M=8.2) occurred in Mexico in the Twenty-Century (1932) took place in the coast of Jalisco, this was followed by another one (Ms =7.8) fifteen days later. In 1995 an earthquake magnitude 8.0 took place in the coast of Jalisco, but its rupture area was only the southern half of the rupture area proposed for the 1932 earthquakes, these facts suggest the existence of an important seismic Gap in the north coast of Jalisco which includes the area of Bahía de Banderas. However, not only subduction earthquakes occurred in this region there are also large inland earthquakes, such as the December 27, 1568 and February 11, 1872 events. There are also three active volcanoes Sanganguey, Ceboruco and the most active volcano in Mexico, the Colima volcano. In spite of these facts and the risk associated to these processes, there were only one seismological permanent station in Chamela on the coast of Jalisco and an analog telemetric network (RESCO) located on the Colima Volcano and the south part of the Colima Rift Zone (CRZ). By these reasons, the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil de Jalisco (Jalisco Civil Defense) began a project to install a Digital Telemetric Network in the region in several phases, this project is carrying out jointly with SisVOc UdeG.; due to the size of the area and the topography of the region it is very difficult to get direct telemetric links, by these reasons the network is designed in cells with nodes, where the nodes are the different Campus of the University of Guadalajara located in the region, all Campus are linked by a computer network. First phase started in August 2001, it includes the installation of six stations, each station with a Kinemetrics Everest 24 bit datalogger, GPS time, and a Lennartz LE3Dlite 1Hz sensor, using KNI NMS to control and data acquisition

  5. Atmospheric aerosol brown carbon in the high Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Elena; Decesari, Stefano; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Facchini, M. Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol can reach very high concentrations in the planetary boundary layer in South-East Asia ("brown clouds"), affecting atmospheric transparency and generating spatial gradients of temperature over land with a possible impact on atmospheric dynamics and monsoon circulation. Besides black carbon (BC), an important light-absorbing component of anthropogenic aerosols is the organic carbon component known as 'brown carbon' (BrC). In this research, we provided first measurements of atmospheric aerosol BrC in the high Himalayas during different seasons. Aerosol sampling was conducted at the GAW-WMO Global station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (NCO-P) located in the high Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. in the foothills of Mt. Everest. PM10 aerosol samples were collected from July 2013 to November 2014. The sampling strategy was set up in order to discriminate the daytime valley breeze bringing polluted air masses up to the observatory and free tropospheric air during nighttime. Water-soluble BrC (WS-BrC) and methanol-soluble BrC (MeS-BrC) were extracted and analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer equipped with a 50 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell. In the polluted air masses, the highest levels of the BrC light absorption coefficient at 365 nm (babs365) were observed during the pre-monsoon season (1.83±1.46 Mm‑1 for WS-BrC and 2.86±2.49 Mm‑1 for MeS-BrC) and the lowest during the monsoon season (0.21±0.22 Mm‑1 for WS-BrC and 0.32±0.29 Mm‑1 for MeS-BrC). The pre-monsoon season is the most frequently influenced by a strong atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) transport to NCO-P due to increased convection and mixing layer height over South Asia combined with the highest up-valley wind speed and the increase of the emissions from open fires due to the agricultural practice along the Himalayas foothills and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In contrast, the monsoon season is characterized by a weakened valley wind regime and an

  6. EDITORIAL: Extreme Ultraviolet Light Sources for Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, David

    2004-12-01

    filaments, for both Xe and Sn. The embodiment of electrical discharge plasmas and laser-produced plasmas into commercially available EUV sources, with EUV powers that project to suitable levels, is presented in the fifth paper by Uwe Stamm of XTREME Technologies in Göttingen. For discharge produced plasmas, thermal loading and electrode erosion are significant issues. Vladimir Borisov and his colleagues, at the Troitsk Institute outside Moscow, address these issues and provide novel ideas for the multiplexing of several discharge plasmas feeding a single optical system. Igor Fomenkov and his colleagues at Cymer in San Diego describe issues associated with a dense plasma focus pinch, including a comparison of operations with both positive and negative polarity. In the eighth paper, Malcolm McGeoch of Plex in Massachusetts provides a theoretical description of the vaporization and ionization of spherical tin droplets in discharge plasma. Together this cluster of papers provides a broad review of the current status of high power EUV plasma sources for semiconductor manufacturing. This very current topic, of intense interest worldwide, is considered further in a book [4] of collected papers to become available in mid-2005. Additionally, a special journal issue emphasizing coherent EUV sources, albeit at lower average powers, is soon to appear [5]. References [1] http://public.itrsr.net [2] Attwood D 2000 Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) www.coe.Berkeley.edu/AST/sxreuv [3] Moore G E 1965 Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits Electronics Magazine 114 Moore G E 1995 Lithography and the Future of Moore's Law SPIE 243 2 [4] Bakshi V ed 2005 EUV Sources for Lithography (Bellingham WA:SPIE) at press [5] IEEE J. Special Topics in Quantum Electronics, Short Wavelength and EUV Lasers 10 Dec 2004 at press

  7. Guest Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhou Chen

    2009-12-01

    and Wenxiang Zhang focuses on the topic of software quality. The authors present a quantitative assessing model in the paper. They give a clear overview and the detailed description of the method. Jianfeng Yang, Puliu Yan, Yinbo Xie, Qing Geng et al presents a novel parallel clustering algorithm in the paper “An Efficient Parallel Clustering Algorithm for Large Scale Database”. Their algorithm is named Stem-Leaf-Point Plot Clustering Algorithm (SLPPCA, which will create clusters of different shapes and sizes as the basis of the algorithm. They also describe their experiments in detail. The complexities in practical software development are still the key issues. Minghui Wu and Hui Yan give an exploration in system dynamics through a case study in the paper “Simulation in Software Engineering with System Dynamics: A Case Study”. Their approach encapsulates collective knowledge of software engineering fields as the contents inside. They use Brooks’ Law and the effects of Pair Programming in eXtreme Programming (XP as the case in the paper. Youtian Qu, Chaonan Wang, Lili Zhong, Huilai Zou et al propose an agent component-based architecture for software development in the paper “Research for an Intelligent Component-Oriented Software Development Approaches”. They combine the advantages of software agents and software components in their architecture to reduce the complexity of software development. We would like to thank all the author s and especially the reviewers of IWCSEI’08 and this special issue. Their work led to the improvement in the quality of these papers.

  8. 青藏高原冰川区可溶性有机碳含量和来源研究%Concentration and Source of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Snowpits of the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严芳萍; 康世昌; 陈鹏飞; 柏建坤; 李洋; 胡召富; 李潮流

    2015-01-01

    Snowpit samples of three glaciers ( Laohugou NO. 12 Glacier ( LHG), Small Dongkemadi Glacier on Mount Tanggula (TGL) and East Rongbuk Glacier on Mount Everest (ZF)) in the Tibetan Plateau were collected. Concentrations of DOC and major ions were analyzed. The results showed that average DOC concentrations of the snowpits of LHG, TGL and ZF were (250. 30 ± 157. 10), (216. 92 ± 142. 82) and (152. 50 ± 56. 11) μg·L - 1 , respectively. DOC of TGL and ZF accounted for large parts of total values of DOC and ions. Correspondingly, DOC of LHG accounted for small part (only 5% ), because LHG was located at north China and intensively influenced by natural mineral dust, which caused high concentrations of Ca2 + (the highest value could reach 5 299. 18μg·L - 1 ) and consequently low percentage of DOC of snowpit samples. Correlation and PCA analyses were used to study the sources of DOC. DOC was significantly correlated with Ca2 + , Mg2 + , K + and SO2 -4 . Additionally, PCA further indicated that the main potential source of DOC was the natural source of mineral dust. Meanwhile, anthropogenic pollutants ( e. g. biomass, fossil combustion and agricultural related pollutants) could also not be ignored. Moreover, the carbon depositional fluxes of three snowpits were roughly estimated, and the values of LHG, TGL and ZF snowpits were 189. 23, 132. 76 and 128. 44 mg·(m2·a) - 1 , respectively, which played a significant role in the carbon cycle in this region and was also helpful for the study of glaciers fluctuation.%对青藏高原祁连山老虎沟12号冰川、唐古拉山小冬克玛底冰川及珠穆朗玛峰北坡东绒布冰川雪坑样品中可溶性有机碳(DOC)和主要离子的质量浓度进行了分析.结果表明3个雪坑中 DOC 的平均质量浓度分别为(250.30±157.10)、(216.92±142.82)和(152.50±56.11)μg·L -1,具有从北到南依次减小的空间分布特点.3个雪坑 DOC 和主要离子质量浓度比例分析表明,唐古拉山冰川区和

  9. Atmospheric Brown Clouds in the Himalayas: first two years of continuous observations at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (5079 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bonasoni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed description of the atmospheric conditions characterizing the high Himalayas, thanks to continuous observations begun in March 2006 at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P located at 5079 m a.s.l. on the southern foothills of Mt. Everest, in the framework of ABC-UNEP and SHARE-Ev-K2-CNR projects. The work presents a characterization of meteorological conditions and air-mass circulation at NCO-P during the first two years of activity. The mean values of atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind speed recorded at the site were: 551 hPa, −3.0 °C, 4.7 m s−1, respectively. The highest seasonal values of temperature (1.7 °C and relative humidity (94% were registered during the monsoon season, which was also characterized by thick clouds, present in about 80% of the afternoon hours, and by a frequency of cloud-free sky of less than 10%. The lowest temperature and relative humidity seasonal values were registered during winter, −6.3 °C and 22%, respectively, the season being characterised by mainly cloud-free sky conditions and rare thick clouds. The summer monsoon influenced rain precipitation (seasonal mean: 237 mm, while wind was dominated by flows from the bottom of the valley (S–SW and upper mountain (N–NE.

    The atmospheric composition at NCO-P has been studied thanks to measurements of black carbon (BC, aerosol scattering coefficient, PM1, coarse particles and ozone. The annual behaviour of the measured parameters shows the highest seasonal values during the pre-monsoon (BC: 316.9 ng m−3, PM1: 3.9 μg m−3, scattering coefficient: 11.9 Mm−1, coarse particles: 0.37 cm−3 and O3: 60.9 ppbv, while the lowest concentrations occurred during the monsoon (BC: 49.6 ng m−3, PM1: 0.6 μg m−3, scattering coefficient: 2.2 Mm−1, and O3: 38.9 ppbv

  10. Glaciers of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    -glacier systems of the world including the Himalaya, Karakorum, Tien Shan and Altay mountain ranges. The glaciers are widely scattered and cover an area of about 59,425 km2. The mountain glaciers may be classified as maritime, subcontinental or extreme continental. In Afghanistan, more than 3,000 small glaciers occur in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains. Most glaciers occur on north-facing slopes shaded by mountain peaks and on east and southeast slopes that are shaded by monsoon clouds. The glaciers provide vital water resources to the region and cover an area of about 2,700 km2. Glaciers of northern Pakistan are some of the largest and longest mid-latitude glaciers on Earth. They are located in the Hindu Kush, Himalaya, and Karakoram mountains and cover an area of about 15,000 km2. Glaciers here are important for their role in providing water resources and their hazard potential. The glaciers in India are located in the Himalaya and cover about 8,500 km2. The Himalaya contains one of the largest reservoirs of snow and ice outside the polar regions. The glaciers are a major source of fresh water and supply meltwater to all the rivers in northern India, thereby affecting the quality of life of millions of people. In Nepal, the glaciers are located in the Himalaya as individual glaciers; the glacierized area covers about 5,324 km2. The region is the highest mountainous region on Earth and includes the Mt. Everest region. Glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya have a total area of about 1,317 km2. Many recent glacier studies are focused on glacier lakes that have the potential of generating dangerous glacier lake outburst floods. Research on the glaciers of the middle-latitude, high-mountain glaciers of Asia has also focused on the information contained in the ice cores from the glaciers. This information helps in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic records, and the computer modeling of global climate change.

  11. Final master work plan : environmental investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas, 2002 revision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J. C.; Environmental Research

    2003-01-23

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under which Argonne National Laboratory provides technical assistance for hazardous waste site characterization and remediation for the CCC/USDA. Carbon tetrachloride is the contaminant of primary concern at sites in Kansas where former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities were located. Argonne applies its QuickSite(reg sign) Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) approach to these former facilities. The QuickSite environmental site characterization methodology is Argonne's proprietary implementation of the ESC process (ASTM 1998). Argonne has used this approach at several former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas, including Agenda, Agra, Everest, and Frankfort. The Argonne ESC approach revolves around a multidisciplinary, team-oriented approach to problem solving. The basic features and steps of the QuickSite methodology are as follows: (1) A team of scientists with diverse expertise and strong field experience is required to make the process work. The Argonne team is composed of geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, hydrogeologists, chemists, biologists, engineers, computer scientists, health and safety personnel, and regulatory staff, as well as technical support staff. Most of the staff scientists are at the Ph.D. level; each has on average, more than 15 years of experience. The technical team works together throughout the process. In other words, the team that plans the program also implements the program in the field and writes the reports. More experienced scientists do not remain in the office while individuals with lesser degrees or experience carry out the field work. (2) The technical team reviews, evaluates, and interprets existing data for the site and the contaminants there to determine which data sets are technically valid and can be used in initially designing the field program. A basic

  12. Atmospheric Brown Clouds in the Himalayas: first two years of continuous observations at the Nepal-Climate Observatory at Pyramid (5079 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bonasoni

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is strongly influenced by the so-called Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC, a wide polluted layer extending from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas during the winter and pre-monsoon seasons (November to April. This thick, grey-brown haze blanket substantially interacts with the incoming solar radiation, causing a cooling of the Earth's surface and a warming of the atmosphere, thus influencing the monsoon system and climate. In this area, the Himalayan region, particularly sensitive to climate change, offers a unique opportunity to detect global change processes and to analyse the influence of anthropogenic pollution on background atmospheric conditions through continuous monitoring activities.

    This paper provides a detailed description of the atmospheric conditions characterizing the high Himalayas, thanks to continuous observations begun in March 2006 at the Nepal Climate Observatory – Pyramid (NCO-P located at 5079 m a.s.l. on the southern foothills of Mt. Everest, in the framework of ABC-UNEP and SHARE-Ev-K2-CNR projects. Besides giving an overview of the measurement site and experimental activities, the work presents an in-depth characterization of meteorological conditions and air-mass circulation at NCO-P during the first two years of activity (March 2006–February 2008. The mean values of atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind speed recorded at the site were: 551 hPa, −3.0 °C, 4.7 m s−1, respectively. The highest seasonal values of temperature (1.7 °C and relative humidity (94% were registered during the monsoon season, which was also characterized by thick clouds present in about 80% of the afternoon hours and by a frequency of cloud-free sky less than 10%. The lowest temperature and relative humidity values were registered during winter, −6.3 °C and 22%, respectively, the season being characterised by mainly cloud-free sky conditions and rare thick clouds. The summer monsoon influenced

  13. SRTM Data Release for Eurasia, Index Map and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The colored regions of this map show the extent of digital elevation data recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This release includes data for most of Europe and Asia plus numerous islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. SRTM flew on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000 and used an interferometric radar system to map the topography of Earth's landmass between latitudes 56 degrees south and 60 degrees north.The data were processed into geographic 'tiles,' each of which represents one by one degree of latitude and longitude. A degree of latitude measures 111 kilometers (69 miles) north-south, and a degree of longitude measures 111 kilometers or less east-west, decreasing away from the equator. The data are being released to the public on a continent-by-continent basis. This Eurasia segment includes 5,940 tiles, more than a third of the total data set. Previous releases covered North America and South America. Forthcoming releases will include Africa-Arabia and Australia plus an 'Islands' release for those islands not included in the continental releases. Together these data releases constitute the world's first high-resolution, near-global elevation model. The resolution of the publicly released data is three arcseconds (1/1,200 of a degree of latitude and longitude), which is about 90 meters (295 feet).European coverage in the current data release stretches eastward from the British Isles and the Iberian Peninsula in the west, across the Alps and Carpathian Mountains, as well as the Northern European Plain, to the Ural and Caucasus Mountains bordering Asia. The Asian coverage includes a great diversity of landforms, including the Tibetan Plateau, Tarin Basin, Mongolian Plateau, and the mountains surrounding Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake. Mt. Everest in the Himalayas, at 8,848 meters (29,029 feet) is the world's highest mountain. From India's Deccan Plateau, to Southeast Asia, coastal China, and Korea, various

  14. Proceedings of the 6. conference days on radioprotection optimization in the nuclear, industrial and medical domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 6. ALARA conference was jointly organised by the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) and several professional associations (ABR, AFPPE, ARRAD, ATSR, RAMIP, SFPM, SFR). The conference was the occasion to review all aspects relative to the issues of radioprotection optimization and to its implementation to workers, patients and the public in the nuclear, industrial and medical domains. A particular attention must be given to the application of the ALARA principle in all sectors relevant to radioprotection, especially in a context characterized by: big dismantling works under preparation in the French nuclear park, an increased use of X-radiation in the medical domain - involving both patients and medical personnel, new knowledge concerning the health effects of ionizing radiations, and an evolution of European and international radioprotection safety standards. All these aspects were discussed during these conference days. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) together with their corresponding abstracts (in French) and dealing with: 1 - Review of the evolution of workers/patients exposure in France and comparison with international data (E. Vial); 2 - Status of low dose epidemiology (M.O. Bernier); 3 - Radioprotection optimization method at the MELOX plant (A. De Vita); 4 - Elaboration method for the annual dosimetric objective of the French nuclear park (C. Pignot); 5 - Optimisation principle in the new EURATOM Directive (N. Saad); 6 - Integrated management of radiological and non-radiological risks: the inevitable challenge (P. Deboodt); 7 - Radiological and conventional risks: the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) integrated approach (S. Faure); 8 - EVEREST (Evolving towards an entry into controlled areas in street clothes, M. Alvarez); 9 - Example of multi-risk management in the medical domain (C. Tourneux); 10 - Radioprotection optimisation in the research domain (P. Barbey); 11 - Child scanning dosimetry

  15. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    (Kovel) So, what's the future going to look like for us? The office is putting together an initiative with the community, which we call the E3 Initiative. We're looking for a 10-year horizon for what's going to happen. Through the series of town hall meetings, which many of you participated in, we have produced a document on `Transforming Energy, the Environment and Science through simulations at the eXtreme Scale'; it can be found at http://www.science.doe.gov/ascr/ProgramDocuments/TownHall.pdf . We sometimes call it the Exascale initiative. Exascale computing is the gold-ring level of computing that seems just out of reach; but if we work hard and stretch, we just might be able to reach it. We envision that there will be a SciDAC-X, working at the extreme scale, with SciDAC teams that will perform and carry out science in the areas that will have a great societal impact, such as alternative fuels and transportation, combustion, climate, fusion science, high-energy physics, advanced fuel cycles, carbon management, and groundwater. We envision institutes for applied mathematics and computer science that probably will segue into algorithms because, at the extreme scale, we see the distinction between the applied math and the algorithm per se and its implementation in computer science as being inseparable. We envision an INCITE-X with multi-petaflop platforms, perhaps even exaflop computing resources. ESnet will be best in class - our 10-year plan calls for having 400 terabits per second capacity available in dual rings around the country, an enormously fast data communications network for moving large amounts of data. In looking at where we've been and where we are going, we can see that the gigaflops and teraflops era was a regime where we were following Moore's law through advances in clock speed. In the current regime, we're introducing massive parallelism, which I think is exemplified by Intel's announcement of their teraflop chip, where they envision more than a