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Sample records for caudwell xtreme everest

  1. Caudwell Xtreme Everest: A prospective study of the effects of environmental hypoxia on cognitive functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygall, Jan; Wilson, Mark H.; Martin, Daniel; Levett, Denny; Mitchell, Kay; Mythen, Monty; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Grocott, Mike P.; Aref-Adib, Golnar; Edsell, Mark; Plant, Tracie; Imray, Chris; Cooke, Debbie; Harrington, Jane; Khosravi, Maryam; Newman, Stanton P.

    2017-01-01

    Background The neuropsychological consequences of exposure to environmental hypobaric hypoxia (EHH) remain unclear. We thus investigated them in a large group of healthy volunteers who trekked to Mount Everest base camp (5,300 m). Methods A neuropsychological (NP) test battery assessing memory, language, attention, and executive function was administered to 198 participants (age 44.5±13.7 years; 60% male). These were studied at baseline (sea level), 3,500 m (Namche Bazaar), 5,300 m (Everest Base Camp) and on return to 1,300 m (Kathmandu) (attrition rate 23.7%). A comparable control group (n = 25; age 44.5±14.1 years; 60% male) for comparison with trekkers was tested at/or near sea level over an equivalent timeframe so as to account for learning effects associated with repeat testing. The Reliable Change Index (RCI) was used to calculate changes in cognition and neuropsychological function during and after exposure to EHH relative to controls. Results Overall, attention, verbal ability and executive function declined in those exposed to EHH when the performance of the control group was taken into account (RCI .05 to -.95) with decline persisting at descent. Memory and psychomotor function showed decline at highest ascent only (RCI -.08 to -.56). However, there was inter-individual variability in response: whilst NP performance declined in most, this improved in some trekkers. Cognitive decline was greater amongst older people (r = .42; p < .0001), but was otherwise not consistently associated with socio-demographic, mood, or physiological variables. Conclusions After correcting for learning effects, attention, verbal abilities and executive functioning declined with exposure to EHH. There was considerable individual variability in the response of brain function to sustained hypoxia with some participants not showing any effects of hypoxia. This might have implications for those facing sustained hypoxia as a result of any disease. PMID:28346535

  2. Design and conduct of Caudwell Xtreme Everest: an observational cohort study of variation in human adaptation to progressive environmental hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythen Monty G

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological responses to hypoxaemia and cellular hypoxia are poorly understood, and inter-individual differences in performance at altitude and outcome in critical illness remain unexplained. We propose a model for exploring adaptation to hypoxia in the critically ill: the study of healthy humans, progressively exposed to environmental hypobaric hypoxia (EHH. The aim of this study was to describe the spectrum of adaptive responses in humans exposed to graded EHH and identify factors (physiological and genetic associated with inter-individual variation in these responses. Methods Design Observational cohort study of progressive incremental exposure to EHH. Setting University human physiology laboratory in London, UK (75 m and 7 field laboratories in Nepal at 1300 m, 3500 m, 4250 m, 5300 m, 6400 m, 7950 m and 8400 m. Participants 198 healthy volunteers and 24 investigators trekking to Everest Base Camp (EBC (5300 m. A subgroup of 14 investigators studied at altitudes up to 8400 m on Everest. Main outcome measures Exercise capacity, exercise efficiency and economy, brain and muscle Near Infrared Spectroscopy, plasma biomarkers (including markers of inflammation, allele frequencies of known or suspected hypoxia responsive genes, spirometry, neurocognitive testing, retinal imaging, pupilometry. In nested subgroups: microcirculatory imaging, muscle biopsies with proteomic and transcriptomic tissue analysis, continuous cardiac output measurement, arterial blood gas measurement, trans-cranial Doppler, gastrointestinal tonometry, thromboelastography and ocular saccadometry. Results Of 198 healthy volunteers leaving Kathmandu, 190 reached EBC (5300 m. All 24 investigators reached EBC. The completion rate for planned testing was more than 99% in the investigator group and more than 95% in the trekkers. Unique measurements were safely performed at extreme altitude, including the highest (altitude field measurements of exercise

  3. Everest

    CERN Multimedia

    Bonington,C

    1978-01-01

    Chris Bonington, est né à Hampstead et a fait des études à University Collège School à Londres et au Royal Military Academy à Sundhorst. Il est un alpiniste mondialement connu qui a fait un grand nombre de premiers ascensions, comme celle de la face sud-ouest de l'Everest avec une équipe de 70 hommes en septembre 1975

  4. Design and conduct of Xtreme Everest 2: An observational cohort study of Sherpa and lowlander responses to graduated hypobaric hypoxia [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/57m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Gilbert-Kawai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxygen availability falls with ascent to altitude and also as a consequence of critical illness. Because cellular sequelae and adaptive processes may be shared in both circumstances, high altitude exposure (‘physiological hypoxia’ assists in the exploration of the response to pathological hypoxia. We therefore studied the response of healthy participants to progressive hypobaric hypoxia at altitude. The primary objective of the study was to identify differences between high altitude inhabitants (Sherpas and lowland comparators. Methods: We performed an observational cohort study of human responses to progressive hypobaric hypoxia (during ascent and subsequent normoxia (following descent comparing Sherpas with lowlanders. Studies were conducted in London (35m, Kathmandu (1300m, Namche Bazaar (3500m and Everest Base Camp (5300m. Of 180 healthy volunteers departing from Kathmandu, 64 were Sherpas and 116 were lowlanders. Physiological, biochemical, genetic and epigenetic data were collected. Core studies focused on nitric oxide metabolism, microcirculatory blood flow and exercise performance. Additional studies performed in nested subgroups examined mitochondrial and metabolic function, and ventilatory and cardiac variables. Of the 180 healthy participants who left Kathmandu, 178 (99% completed the planned trek. Overall, more than 90% of planned testing was completed. Forty-four study protocols were successfully completed at altitudes up to and including 5300m. A subgroup of identical twins (all lowlanders was also studied in detail. Conclusion: This programme of study (Xtreme Everest 2 will provide a rich dataset relating to human adaptation to hypoxia, and the responses seen on re-exposure to normoxia. It is the largest comprehensive high altitude study of Sherpas yet performed. Translational data generated from this study will be of relevance to diseases in which oxygenation is a major factor.

  5. Closed and open breathing circuit function in healthy volunteers during exercise at Mount Everest base camp (5300 m).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMorrow, R C N

    2012-08-01

    We present a randomised, controlled, crossover trial of the Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) closed circuit breathing system vs an open circuit and ambient air control in six healthy, hypoxic volunteers at rest and exercise at Everest Base Camp, at 5300 m. Compared with control, arterial oxygen saturations were improved at rest with both circuits. There was no difference in the magnitude of this improvement as both circuits restored median (IQR [range]) saturation from 75%, (69.5-78.9 [68-80]%) to > 99.8% (p = 0.028). During exercise, the CXE closed circuit improved median (IQR [range]) saturation from a baseline of 70.8% (63.8-74.5 [57-76]%) to 98.8% (96.5-100 [95-100]%) vs the open circuit improvement to 87.5%, (84.1-88.6 [82-89]%; p = 0.028). These data demonstrate the inverse relationship between supply and demand with open circuits and suggest that ambulatory closed circuits may offer twin advantages of supplying higher inspired oxygen concentrations and\\/or economy of gas use for exercising hypoxic adults.

  6. Griffith Pugh, pioneer Everest physiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael P; Milledge, James S

    2002-01-01

    Lewis Griffith Cresswell Evans Pugh (1909-1994), best known as the physiologist on the successful 1953 British Everest Expedition, inspired a generation of scientists in the field of altitude medicine and physiology in the decades after World War II. This paper details his early life, his introduction to exercise physiology during the war, and his crucially important work in preparation for the Everest expedition on Cho Oyu in 1952. Pugh's other great contribution to altitude physiology was as scientific leader of the 1960-1961 Himalayan Scientific and Mountaineering Expedition (the Silver Hut), and the origins and results of this important expedition are discussed. He had a major and continuing interest in the physiology of cold, especially in real-life situations in Antarctica, exposure to cold wet conditions on hills in Britain, and in long distance swimming. He also extended his interest to Olympic athletes at moderate altitude (Mexico City) and to heat stress in athletes. Pugh's strength as a physiologist was his readiness to move from laboratory to fieldwork with ease and his rigor in applying the highest standards in both situations. He led by example in both his willingness to act as a subject for experiments and in his attention to detail. He was not an establishment figure; he was critical of authority and well known for his eccentricity, but he inspired great loyalty in those who worked with him.

  7. Performance and sex differences in 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Stiefel, Michael; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    The performance and sex differences of long-distance triathletes competing in 'Ironman Hawaii' are well investigated. However, less information is available with regards to triathlon races of the Ironman distance held under extreme environmental conditions (e.g. extreme cold) such as the 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' which started in 2003. In 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon', athletes swim at a water temperature of ~13-15°C, cycle at temperatures of ~5-20°C and run at temperatures of ~12-28°C in the valley and of ~2-12°C at Mt. Gaustatoppen. This study analysed the performance trends and sex differences in 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' held from 2003 to 2015 using mixed-effects regression analyses. During this period, a total of 175 women (10.6%) and 1,852 men (89.4%) successfully finished the race. The number of female (r² = 0.53, P = 0.0049) and male (r² = 0.37, P = 0.0271) finishers increased and the men-to-women ratio decreased (r² = 0.86, P 0.05). Across years, women improved in swimming and both women and men improved in cycling and in overall race time (P 0.05). In summary, in 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' from 2003 to 2015, the number of successful women increased across years, women achieved a similar performance to men in swimming, cycling and overall race time, and women improved across years in swimming, cycling and overall race time.

  8. Improving Mobility in eXtreme Programming Methods through Computer Support Cooperative Work

    OpenAIRE

    Ridi Ferdiana; Paulus Insap Santosa

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging in eXtreme Programming is composing the entire team member and customer onsite. This problem will become seriously when the entire team member unavailable in the same place or the customer cannot give representation person for the development team. This situation will make information imperfectly for both customer and team member. In this research, we solve the problem by implementing computer support cooperative work (CSCW) as a tool to improve eXtreme Programming...

  9. Using the Everest Team Simulation to Teach Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Elizabeth; Wright, April L.

    2015-01-01

    This resource review focuses on "Leadership and Team Simulation: Everest V2" released by Harvard Business Publishing. The review describes the simulation's story line of a commercial team expedition climbing to the summit of Mount Everest along with the simulation's architecture and key features. Building on Wright and Gilmore's (2012)…

  10. The CDF II eXtremely Fast Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorko, I; Errede, D; Gerberich, H; Junk, T; Kasten, M; Levine, S; Mokos, R; Pitts, K; Rogers, E; Veramendi, G; Azzurri, P; Donati, S; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Cochran, E; Efron, J; Gartner, J; Hughes, R; Johnson, M; Kilminster, B; Lannon, K; McKim, J; Olivito, D; Parks, B; Slaunwhite, J; Winer, B; Dittmann, J; Hewamanage, S; Krumnack, N; Wilson, J S; Erbacher, R; Forrest, R; Ivanov, A; Soha, A; Flanagan, G; Jones, T; Holm, S; Klein, R; Schmidt, E E; Scott, L; Shaw, T; Wilson, P J

    2008-01-01

    The CDF II eXtremely Fast Tracker (XFT) is the trigger processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the central tracking chamber. The XFT tracks are also extrapolated to the electromagnetic calorimeter and muon chambers to generate trigger electron and muon candidates. The XFT is crucial for the entire CDF II physics program: it detects high pT leptons from W/Z and heavy flavor decays and, in conjunction with the Level 2 processors, it identifies secondary vertices from beauty decays. The XFT has thus been crucial for the recent measurement of the oscilation and Σb discovery. The increase of the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity demanded an upgrade of the system to cope with the higher occupancy of the chamber. In the upgraded XFT, three dimensional tracking reduces the level of fake tracks and measures the longitudinal track parameters, which strongly reinforce the trigger selections. This allows to mantain the trigger perfectly efficient at the record luminosities 2–3·...

  11. The Ascent of Olympus - An Everest Anniversary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C. S.

    Olympus Mons, at 21,183 m above the Mars gravitational equipotential, stands just under 2.5 times the height of Mount Everest. Symbolically, as the highest construct in the Solar System, it is the most important feature to be climbed. Despite its powerful symbolism, the mountain presents one of the most tedious long distance expeditions on Mars - a ~300 km journey up a near constant 5 degree slope. Only at the beginning and the end of the expedition do the scarp and caldera cliffs present impressive climbs. In almost all respects Olympus presents environmental challenges much worse than Everest, apart from the lack of fatal storms, perhaps the only environmental factor in which Olympus is an improvement. Similarly to Everest, Olympus presents scien- tific questions of immense interest. In this mini-review I compare Olympus and Everest as exploratory and scientific challenges.

  12. Final report : Phase III targeted investigation, Everest, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), formerly operated grain storage facilities at two different locations at Everest, Kansas (Figure 1.1). One facility (referred to in this report as the Everest facility) was at the western edge of the city. The second facility (referred to in this report as Everest East) was about 0.5 mi northeast of the town. The CCC/USDA operated these facilities from the early 1950s until the early 1970s, at a time when commercial fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the CCC/USDA and private industry for the preservation of grain in storage. In 1997 the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) sampled several domestic drinking water and non-drinking water wells in the Everest area as part of the CCC/USDA Private Well Sampling Program. All of the sampled wells were outside the Everest city limits. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was identified at a single domestic drinking water well (the Nigh well, DW06; Figure 1.1) approximately 3/8 mi northwest of the former Everest CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Subsequent KDHE investigations suggested that the contamination in DW06 could be linked to the former use of grain fumigants at the CCC/USDA facility. For this reason, the CCC/USDA is conducting a phased environmental study to determine the source and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination at Everest and to identify potential remedial options. The studies are being performed by the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Two phases of investigation were completed previously; this report presents the findings of the targeted Phase III investigation at Everest.

  13. The impact of global warming on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G W K; Semple, John L

    2009-01-01

    Global warming impacts a wide range of human activities and ecosystems. One unanticipated consequence of the warming is an increase in barometric pressure throughout the troposphere. Mount Everest's extreme height and resulting low barometric pressure places humans near its summit in an extreme state of hypoxia. Here we quantify the degree with which this warming is increasing the barometric pressure near Everest's summit and argue that it is of such a magnitude as to make the mountain, over time, easier to climb.

  14. EVEREST: Pixel Level Decorrelation of K2 Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Rodrigo; Agol, Eric; Kruse, Ethan; Barnes, Rory; Becker, Andrew; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Deming, Drake

    2016-10-01

    We present EPIC Variability Extraction and Removal for Exoplanet Science Targets (EVEREST), an open-source pipeline for removing instrumental noise from K2 light curves. EVEREST employs a variant of pixel level decorrelation to remove systematics introduced by the spacecraft’s pointing error and a Gaussian process to capture astrophysical variability. We apply EVEREST to all K2 targets in campaigns 0-7, yielding light curves with precision comparable to that of the original Kepler mission for stars brighter than {K}p≈ 13, and within a factor of two of the Kepler precision for fainter targets. We perform cross-validation and transit injection and recovery tests to validate the pipeline, and compare our light curves to the other de-trended light curves available for download at the MAST High Level Science Products archive. We find that EVEREST achieves the highest average precision of any of these pipelines for unsaturated K2 stars. The improved precision of these light curves will aid in exoplanet detection and characterization, investigations of stellar variability, asteroseismology, and other photometric studies. The EVEREST pipeline can also easily be applied to future surveys, such as the TESS mission, to correct for instrumental systematics and enable the detection of low signal-to-noise transiting exoplanets. The EVEREST light curves and the source code used to generate them are freely available online.

  15. Improving Mobility in eXtreme Programming Methods through Computer Support Cooperative Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridi Ferdiana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging in eXtreme Programming is composing the entire team member and customer onsite. This problem will become seriously when the entire team member unavailable in the same place or the customer cannot give representation person for the development team. This situation will make information imperfectly for both customer and team member. In this research, we solve the problem by implementing computer support cooperative work (CSCW as a tool to improve eXtreme Programming method. By joining these two concepts, we get 15% productivity improvement as a ratio between XP projects with CSCW and without CSCW.

  16. Using eXtreme Programming in a StudentEnvironment: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of shorter time to market of software products there an increasing requirement for techniques and methods to improve the productivity levels in software development together with a requirement for increased flexibility and the introduction of late changes. This in turn has lead to the introduction of a set of techniques known as ―Agile methods which include one methodology known as ―eXtreme Programming. This is a collection of values, principles, and practices. Since these met...

  17. EVEREST: Pixel Level Decorrelation of K2 Light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Luger, Rodrigo; Kruse, Ethan; Barnes, Rory; Becker, Andrew; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Deming, Drake

    2016-01-01

    We present EVEREST, an open-source pipeline for removing instrumental noise from K2 light curves. EVEREST employs a variant of pixel level decorrelation (PLD) to remove systematics introduced by the spacecraft's pointing error and a Gaussian process (GP) to capture astrophysical variability. We apply EVEREST to all K2 targets in campaigns 0-7, yielding light curves with precision comparable to that of the original Kepler mission for stars brighter than $K_p \\approx 13$, and within a factor of two of the Kepler precision for fainter targets. We perform cross-validation and transit injection and recovery tests to validate the pipeline, and compare our light curves to the other de-trended light curves available for download at the MAST High Level Science Products archive. We find that EVEREST achieves the highest average precision of any of these pipelines for unsaturated K2 stars. The improved precision of these light curves will aid in exoplanet detection and characterization, investigations of stellar variabi...

  18. EVER-EST: a virtual research environment for Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Fulvio; Albani, Mirko; Glaves, Helen

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing requirement for researchers to work collaboratively using common resources whilst being geographically dispersed. By creating a virtual research environment (VRE) using a service oriented architecture (SOA) tailored to the needs of Earth Science (ES) communities, the EVEREST project will provide a range of both generic and domain specific data management services to support a dynamic approach to collaborative research. EVER-EST will provide the means to overcome existing barriers to sharing of Earth Science data and information allowing research teams to discover, access, share and process heterogeneous data, algorithms, results and experiences within and across their communities, including those domains beyond Earth Science. Researchers will be able to seamlessly manage both the data involved in their computationally intensive disciplines and the scientific methods applied in their observations and modelling, which lead to the specific results that need to be attributable, validated and shared both within the community and more widely e.g. in the form of scholarly communications. Central to the EVEREST approach is the concept of the Research Object (RO) , which provides a semantically rich mechanism to aggregate related resources about a scientific investigation so that they can be shared together using a single unique identifier. Although several e-laboratories are incorporating the research object concept in their infrastructure, the EVER-EST VRE will be the first infrastructure to leverage the concept of Research Objects and their application in observational rather than experimental disciplines. Development of the EVEREST VRE will leverage the results of several previous projects which have produced state-of-the-art technologies for scientific data management and curation as well those which have developed models, techniques and tools for the preservation of scientific methods and their implementation in computational forms such as

  19. EVEREST: a virtual research environment for the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, H. M.; Marelli, F.; Albani, M.

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing requirement for researchers to work collaboratively using common resources whilst being geographically dispersed. By creating a virtual research environment (VRE) using a service oriented architecture (SOA) tailored to the needs of Earth Science (ES) communities, the EVEREST project will provide a range of both generic and domain specific data management services to support a dynamic approach to collaborative research. EVER-EST will provide the means to overcome existing barriers to sharing of Earth Science data and information allowing research teams to discover, access, share and process heterogeneous data, algorithms, results and experiences within and across their communities, including those domains beyond Earth Science. Data providers will be also able to monitor user experiences and collect feedback through the VRE, improving their capacity to adapt to the changing requirements of their end-users. The EVER-EST e-infrastructure will be validated by four virtual research communities (VRC) covering different multidisciplinary ES domains: including ocean monitoring, selected natural hazards (flooding, ground instability and extreme weather events), land monitoring and risk management (volcanoes and seismicity). Each of the VRC represents a different collaborative use case for the VRE according to its own specific requirements for data, software, best practice and community engagement. The diverse use cases will demonstrate how the VRE can be used for a range of activities from straight forward data/software sharing to investigating ways to improve cooperative working. Development of the EVEREST VRE will leverage on the results of several previous projects which have produced state-of-the-art technologies for scientific data management and curation as well those initiatives which have developed models, techniques and tools for the preservation of scientific methods and their implementation in computational forms such as scientific workflows.

  20. Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, J. M.; W. W. Immerzeel; Wagnon, P.; Vincent, C; S. Bajracharya

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to simulate historical and future glacier change in the Everest region of Nepal. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded APHRODITE data, and validated against independent station observations from the EVK2CNR network, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived esti...

  1. Architecture and Design in eXtreme Programming; Introducing "Developer Stories"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rolf Njor; Møller, Thomas; Sönder, Peter

    2006-01-01

    that establishing a viable architecture might be problematic. Arguing that architectural quality criteria in XP are traceable to traditional criteria, and by pointing to related work regarding incremental continous design, requirements management and large-scale refactorings, we find support for this claim. We......This article introduces a new practice to eXtreme Programming (XP): Developer stories. The goal of these stories and their creation process is to incorporate architectural planning to XP thus ensuring a viable architecture. By conducting a small development project using XP, we find...

  2. Cadence Xtreme Ⅲ Systems助设计团队采用硬件辅助验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cadence设计系统公司目前宣布推出Cadence Incisive DesignTeam Xtreme Ⅲ Systems,这是Incisive功能验证平台中的Incisive Xtreme系列加速器/仿真器的新一代产品。充分考虑设计工程师需求,Xtreme Ⅲ Systems为精明的模拟设计师提供将硬件辅助验证的强大功能、速度与易用性相结合的系统。

  3. The Himalayas and a Survey of Determining the Height of Mt. Everest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction to this article describes the Himalayan mountain range, while the next chapter outlines its formation. The article then goes on to describe the early use of trigonometric networks in Europe and India, and the important achievements of Sir George Everest. When his successor, A. S. Waugh, extended the trigonometric network to the foot of the Himalayas, he determined the height of the highest peak of Mt. Everest trigonometrically, by measuring vertical angles only in the direction of Mt. Everest. Later, it became possible to determine the height of the highest peak in the world more precisely, using modern surveying means. The peak was named Mt. Everest in 1865, at the proposal of A. S. Waugh. It is known by other names by the indigenousl populations in China and Nepal. Finally, the earliest attempts to climb Mt. Everest are described.

  4. Results of groundwater monitoring at Everest, Kansas, in April 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-05

    On September 7, 2005, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) presented a Scoping Memo (Argonne 2005) for preliminary consideration by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), suggesting possible remedial options for the carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at Everest, Kansas. The suggested approaches were discussed by representatives of the KDHE, the CCC/USDA, and Argonne at the KDHE office in Topeka on September 8-9, 2005, along with other technical and logistic issues related to the Everest site. In response to these discussions, the KDHE recommended (KDHE 2005) evaluation of several remedial processes, either alone or in combination, as part of a Corrective Action Study (CAS) for Everest. The primary remedial processes suggested by the KDHE were the following: Hydraulic control by groundwater extraction with aboveground treatment; Air sparging (AS) coupled with soil vapor extraction (SVE) in large-diameter boreholes (LDBs); and Phytoremediation. As a further outcome of the 2005 meeting and as a precursor to development of a possible CAS, the CCC/USDA completed the following supplemental investigations at Everest to address several specific technical concerns discussed with the KDHE: (1) Construction of interpretive cross sections at strategic locations selected by the KDHE along the main plume migration pathway, to depict the hydrogeologic characteristics affecting groundwater flow and contaminant movement (Argonne 2006a). (2) A field investigation in early 2006 (Argonne 2006b), as follows: (a) Installation and testing of a production well and associated observation points, at locations approved by the KDHE, to determine the response of the Everest aquifer to groundwater extraction near the Nigh property. (b) Groundwater sampling for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the installation of additional permanent monitoring points at locations selected by the KDHE, to further

  5. Nation related participation and performance trends in 'Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' from 2006 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph A; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Signori, Alessio; Stiefel, Michael; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the nation related participation and performance trends in triathletes competing in 'Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' between 2006 and 2014 using mixed models, one-way analysis of variance and multi-variate regression analyses. A total of 1594 athletes (139 women and 1455 men) originating from 34 different countries finished the race. Most of the athletes originated from Norway, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden, USA and France. In the mixed model analysis considering all finishers (n = 1594), with calendar year, sex and country as independent and overall race time as dependent variable, calendar year (p Triathlon' originated from Norway and the fastest race times were achieved by Norwegian women and men. Norwegian women improved race times across years but not Norwegian men.

  6. Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, J. M.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Wagnon, P.; Vincent, C.; Bajracharya, S.

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to examine the sensitivity of glaciers in the Everest region of Nepal to climate change. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded station data, and bias-corrected with independent station observations, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived estimates of net glacier mass change from 1992 to 2008, termini position of four large glaciers at the end of the calibration period, average velocities observed on selected debris-covered glaciers, and total glacierized area. We integrate field-based observations of glacier mass balance and ice thickness with remotely sensed observations of decadal glacier change to validate the model. Between 1961 and 2007, the mean modelled volume change over the Dudh Koshi basin is -6.4 ± 1.5 km3, a decrease of 15.6% from the original estimated ice volume in 1961. Modelled glacier area change between 1961 and 2007 is -101.0 ± 11.4 km2, a decrease of approximately 20% from the initial extent. The modelled glacier sensitivity to future climate change is high. Application of temperature and precipitation anomalies from warm/dry and wet/cold end-members of the CMIP5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 ensemble results in sustained mass loss from glaciers in the Everest region through the 21st century.

  7. Building on extreme height - what you need to know before designing on Mount Everest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, B.; Roelvink, K.; Silveira, R.

    2015-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual contains general information on the environment of Mt Everest, culture, health, climate, resources, transportation options, building materials and building constructions.

  8. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Everest, Kansas, in 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-21

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) began its environmental investigations at Everest, Kansas, in 2000. The work at Everest is implemented on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The results of the environmental investigations have been reported in detail (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The lateral extent of the carbon tetrachloride in groundwater over the years of investigation has been interpreted as shown in Figure 1.1 (2001-2002 data), Figure 1.2 (2006 data), Figure 1.3 (2008 data), and Figure 1.4 (2009 data). The pattern of groundwater flow and inferred contaminant migration has consistently been to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property (e.g., Figure 1.5 [2008 data] and Figure 1.6 [2009 data]). Both the monitoring data for carbon tetrachloride and the low groundwater flow rates estimated for the Everest aquifer unit (Argonne 2003, 2006a,b, 2008) indicate slow contaminant migration. On the basis of the accumulated findings, in March 2009 the CCC/USDA developed a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water. This current monitoring plan (Appendix A in the report of monitoring in 2009 [Argonne 2010]) was approved by the KDHE (2009a). Under this plan, the monitoring wells are sampled by the low-flow procedure, and sample preservation, shipping, and analysis activities are consistent with previous work at Everest. The annual sampling will continue until identified conditions at the site indicate a technical justification for a change. The first annual sampling event under the new monitoring plan took place in April 2009. The results of analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and water level measurements were consistent with previous observations (Figures 1.1-1.4). No carbon tetrachloride was detected in surface

  9. Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Shea

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to simulate historical and future glacier change in the Everest region of Nepal. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded APHRODITE data, and validated against independent station observations from the EVK2CNR network, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived estimates of net glacier mass change from 1992 to 2008, termini position of four large glaciers at the end of the calibration period, average velocities observed on selected debris-covered glaciers, and total glacierized area. We integrate field-based observations of glacier mass balance and ice thickness with remotely-sensed observations of decadal glacier change to validate the model. Between 1961 and 2007, the mean modelled volume change over the Dudh Kosi basin is −6.4 ± 1.5 km3, a decrease of 15.6% from the original estimated ice volume in 1961. Modelled glacier area change between 1961 and 2007 is −101.0 ± 11.4 km2, a decrease of approximately 20% from the initial extent. Scenarios of future climate change, based on CMIP5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 end members, suggest that glaciers in the Everest region will continue to lose mass through the 21st century. Glaciers in the basin are concentrated between 5000 and 6000 m of elevation, and are thus expected to be sensitive to changes in temperature and equilibrium line altitude (ELA. Glacier volume reductions between −35 to −62% are possible by 2050, and sustained temperature increases to 2100 may result in total glacier volume losses of between −73 and −96%.

  10. Local Optimization and Adversarial Consideration:Agent Skills in Everest Simulation Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾洋; 崔立辉; 刘俊峰; 王庆林

    2004-01-01

    Skilled individual agents are firm basis of a strong soccer team. The skills available to Everest 2002 agents include kicking, dribbling, forwarding, ball interception and tackling. These intermediate sub goals are implemented by a combination of local optimization which hopes to determine the optimal primitive action from a local perspective and adversarial consideration which takes into account opponents and limitations imposed by simulation environment. Everest 2002 RoboCup simulation teams, building on 11 skilled agents and an on-line coach, won the 2nd place in RoboCup 2002 simulation league.

  11. Final Phase II report : QuickSite(R) investigation, Everest, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Research)

    2003-11-01

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated grain storage facilities at two different locations at Everest, Kansas (Figure 1.1). One facility (referred to in this report as the Everest facility) was at the western edge of the city of Everest. The CCC/USDA operated this facility from 1950 until the early 1970s. The second facility (referred to in this report as Everest East) was about 0.5 mi northeast of the town. The CCC/USDA operated this facility from 1954 until the early 1970s. While these two former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities were in operation, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain. In 1997, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) sampled several domestic drinking water and nondrinking water wells in the Everest area. The KDHE sampling was part of the CCC/USDA Private Well Sampling Program, which was initiated to determine whether carbon tetrachloride was present in domestic wells near former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities in Kansas. All of the sampled domestic drinking water wells were located outside the Everest city boundaries. As a result of this sampling, carbon tetrachloride contamination was identified at a single domestic drinking water well (the Nigh well; DW06) approximately 3/8 mi northwest of the former Everest CCC/USDA grain storage facility. The CCC/USDA subsequently connected the Nigh residence to the Everest municipal water system. As a result of the detection of carbon tetrachloride in this well, the KDHE conducted preliminary investigations to further evaluate the existence of contamination and its potential effect on public health and the environment. The KDHE concluded that carbon tetrachloride in groundwater at Everest might, in part, be linked to historical use of carbon tetrachloride-based grain fumigants at the former CCC/USDA facilities. For

  12. Microbial community structure in moraine lakes and glacial meltwaters, Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqin; Yao, Tandong; Jiao, Nianzhi; Kang, Shichang; Zeng, Yonghui; Huang, Sijun

    2006-12-01

    The bacterial diversity and abundance in two moraine lakes and two glacial meltwaters (5140, 5152, 5800 and 6350 m above sea level, respectively) in the remote Mount Everest region were examined through 16S rRNA gene clone library and flow cytometry approaches. In total, 247 clones were screened by RFLP and 60 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained, belonging to the following groups: Proteobacteria (8% alpha subdivision, 21% beta subdivision, and 1% gamma subdivision), Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides (CFB) (54%), Actinobacteria (4%), Planctomycetes (2%), Verrucomicrobia (2%), Fibrobacteres (1%) and Eukaryotic chroloplast (3%), respectively. The high dominance of CFB distinguished the Mount Everest waters from other mountain lakes. The highest bacterial abundance and diversity occurred in the open moraine lake at 5152 m, and the lowest in the glacial meltwater at 6350 m. Low temperature at high altitude is considered to be critical for component dominancy. At the same altitude, nutrient availability plays a role in regulating population structure. Our results also show that the bacteria in Mount Everest may be derived from different sources.

  13. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p Lake was located at 623 m higher than Imja Lake, and radiation of Rongbuk Lake was higher than the Imja Lake. Although size of Imja Lake was larger than the Rongbuk Lake in 2008, the growth speed of Rongbuk Lake was accelerating since 2000 and exceeds Imja Lake in 2000-2008. This trend of expansion of Rongbuk Lake is anticipated to be continued in the 21st century. Rongbuk Lake would be the biggest potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) at the Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

  14. Results of groundwater monitoring and vegetation sampling at Everest, Kansas, in 2009 .

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-05-13

    In April 2008, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) conducted groundwater sampling for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the existing network of monitoring points at Everest, Kansas (Argonne 2008). The objective of the 2008 investigation was to monitor the distribution of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater previously identified in CCC/USDA site characterization and groundwater sampling studies at Everest in 2000-2006 (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The work at Everest is being undertaken on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The findings of the 2008 investigation were as follows: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders demonstrated a consistent pattern of groundwater flow - and inferred contaminant migration - to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) The range of concentrations and the areal distribution of carbon tetrachloride identified in the groundwater at Everest in April 2008 were generally consistent with previous results. The results of the 2008 sampling (reflecting the period from 2006 to 2008) and the earlier investigations at Everest (representing the period from 2000 to 2006) show that no significant downgradient extension of the carbon tetrachloride plume occurred from 2000 to 2008. (3) The slow contaminant migration indicated by the monitoring data is qualitatively consistent with the low groundwater flow rates in the Everest aquifer unit estimated previously on the basis of site-specific hydraulic testing (Argonne 2006a,b). (4) The April 2008 and earlier sampling results demonstrate that the limits of the plume have been

  15. Climatological significance of an ice core net-accumulation record at Mt. Qomolangma (Everest)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An ice core record at Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) since 1954 reveals a sharp decline in net-accumulation in the 1960s, and the annual net-accumulation during the 1970s to the beginning of the 1990s is only half of that at the end of the 1950s. The decreased net-accumulation is coincident with glacier retreat, which is associated with recent temperature increase in the region that intensified the ablation. Under the background of global warming, such glacier variation trends will aggravate.

  16. K2 C12 Raw Cadence TPFs for EVEREST TRAPPIST-1 De-trending

    OpenAIRE

    Luger, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Raw data used by EVEREST to de-trend the TRAPPIST-1 K2 Campaign 12 raw cadence light curve. Check out the links below to read up on how to use this data. NOTE: The TRAPPIST-1 long cadence and short cadence TPFs have been updated to reflect the correct BJD times for every cadence. Previously, the timestamps were in geocentric time, yielding an offset of ~8 minutes, which primarily affected the precision of transit analyses in the short cadence data. HOWEVER, the timestamps in the auxiliary...

  17. [Diet for the first expedition of Soviet climbers to Mount Everest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belakovskiĭ, M S; Voskoboĭnikov, V A; Guliaev, V N; Zakharenko, T S; Senkevich, Iu A

    1984-01-01

    Biomedical requirements for the diets to be used by the Soviet mountaineers during their Everest expedition have been determined, employing the experience of Soviet mountaineers who have ascended the highest summits in this country, dietary data accumulated by the mountaineers who have conquered the Himalaya Mountains and the Karakoram Range, as well as current concepts of human physiology and biochemistry in highlands. This paper presents the major nutritional parameters of the diets and the arrangement of meals. The Soviet mountaineers were on the whole happy with the diets and showed no disorders in the health state, gastrointestinal system or digestive function that can be of nutritional origin.

  18. Brief communication: Observations of a glacier outburst flood from Lhotse Glacier, Everest area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounce, David R.; Byers, Alton C.; Byers, Elizabeth A.; McKinney, Daene C.

    2017-02-01

    Glacier outburst floods with origins from Lhotse Glacier, located in the Everest region of Nepal, occurred on 25 May 2015 and 12 June 2016. The most recent event was witnessed by investigators, which provided unique insights into the magnitude, source, and triggering mechanism of the flood. The field assessment and satellite imagery analysis following the event revealed that most of the flood water was stored englacially and that the flood was likely triggered by dam failure. The flood's peak discharge was estimated to be 210 m3 s-1.

  19. 23rd May 2011 - University of Liverpool Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Public Orator K. Everest (UK) Mrs Everest in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson D. Charlton, in LHCb surface building with Collaboration Spokesperson A. Golutvin, accompanied throughout by P. Wells and Liverpool University T. Bowcock and M. Klein.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilen Brice

    2011-01-01

    23rd May 2011 - University of Liverpool Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Public Orator K. Everest (UK) Mrs Everest in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson D. Charlton, in LHCb surface building with Collaboration Spokesperson A. Golutvin, accompanied throughout by P. Wells and Liverpool University T. Bowcock and M. Klein.

  20. Research on Unified Process Based on eXtreme Programming%基于极限编程的统一过程探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟琪; 何俊梅; 张为群

    2004-01-01

    对统一过程(Unified Process,UP)、极限编程(eXtreme Programming,XP)进行了简要分析,结合这两者在软件开发中所表现出来的优点,提出了一种使用XP的自底向上方法对UP的自顶向下方法进行改进的方案.改进后的过程能在介于这两者规模之间的项目中进行灵活的应用.

  1. Microbial community structure in major habitats above 6000 m on Mount Everest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial abundance in surface snow between 6600 and 8000 m a.s.l. On the northern slope of Mt. Everest was investigated by flow cytometry. Bacterial diversity in serac ice at 6000 m a.s.l., glacier meltwater at 6350 m, and surface snow at 6600 m a.s.l. Was examined by constructing a 16S rRNA gene clone library. Bacterial abundance in snow was higher than that in the Antarctic but similar to other mountain regions in the world. Bacterial abundance in surface snow increased with altitude but showed no correlation with chemical parameters. Bacteria in the cryosphere on Mt. Everest were closely related to those isolated from soil, aquatic environments, plants, animals, humans and other frozen environments. Bacterial community structures in major habitats above 6000 m were variable. The Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group absolutely dominated in glacial meltwater, while β-Proteobacteria and the CFB group dominated in serac ice, and β-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated in surface snow. The remarkable differences among the habitats were most likely due to the bacterial post-deposition changes during acclimation processes.

  2. The dynamics of supraglacial water storage in the Everest region, central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. Scott; Quincey, Duncan J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Smith, Mark W.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of supraglacial pond development in the Everest region are not well constrained at a glacier scale, despite their known importance for meltwater storage, promoting ablation, and transmitting thermal energy englacially during drainage events. Here, we use fine-resolution (~ 0.5-2 m) satellite imagery to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of 9340 supraglacial ponds across nine glaciers in the Everest region, ~ 2000-2015. Six of our nine study glaciers displayed a net increase in ponded area over their observation periods. However, large inter- and intra-annual changes in ponded area were observed of up to 17% (Khumbu Glacier), and 52% (Ama Dablam) respectively. Additionally, two of the fastest expanding lakes (Spillway and Rongbuk) partially drained over our study period. The Khumbu Glacier is developing a chain of connected ponds in the lower ablation area, which is indicative of a trajectory towards large lake development. We show that use of medium-resolution imagery (e.g. 30 m Landsat) is likely to lead to large classification omissions of supraglacial ponds, on the order of 15-88% of ponded area, and 77-99% of the total number of ponds. Fine-resolution imagery is therefore required if the full spectrum of ponds that exist on the surface of debris-covered glaciers are to be analysed.

  3. Measurements of radioactive and stable sulfur isotopes at Mt. Everest and its geochemical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.; Thiemens, M. H.; Zhang, Q.; Li, C.; Kang, S.; Hsu, S. C.; Zhang, Z.; Su, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Himalayas were recently identified as a global hotspot for deep stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) during spring [1]. Although STT transport in this region may play a vital role in tropospheric chemistry, the hydrological cycle and aquatic ecosystems in Asia, there is no direct measurement of a specific chemical stratospheric tracer to verify and evaluate its possible impact. Here, cosmogenic 35S tracer (half-life: ~87 days) produced in the stratosphere was measured for the first time in surface snow and river runoff samples collected at Mt. Everest in April 2013 using a low-noise liquid scintillation spectroscopy [2]. Strikingly, we find extraordinarily high concentrations of 35S in these samples (>10 times higher than the southern Tibetan Plateau), verifying the Himalayas as a gateway of springtime STT. In light of this, two studies were conducted: a) Measurements of 35SO2 and 35SO42- at the southern Tibetan Plateau reveals that the oxidative life time of SO2 is reduced to 2.1 days under the influence of aged stratospheric air masses from the Himalayas. A concept box model for estimating the influence of STT on surface O3 using 35S tracer is proposed. b) Quadruple stable sulfur isotopes in a sediment core (~250 years) from the Gokyo Lake (the world's highest freshwater lake) [3] near Mt. Everest are being measured to investigate the possible impact of STT on sulfur budget at the Himalayas. The absence of sulfide suggests that bacterial sulfate reduction may be negligible in this lake. Enrichment of uranium (EF ≈ 10) in 20th century samples highlights the impact of atmospheric deposition. S-isotope sulfate anomalies are not found (∆33S and ∆36S ≈ 0‰), implying that sulfate in this lake may be mainly contributed by eolian dust or derived from rock. This is also supported by the low enrichments of most trace elements (EF ≈ 1). Rare earth elements will be used to assist in identifying the potential sources and interpreting the variation of

  4. Visitor impacts on trails in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Sanjay K; Nepal, Stella Amor

    2004-08-01

    This study summarizes findings of a visitor impact study conducted in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal. The effect of visitor use, and the influence of environmental characteristics on trail conditions are investigated. Seven trails divided into 208 trail segments, and with a total length of 90 kilometers were included in the assessment. A four-class rating system has been used for the assessment of trail conditions. Arc/Info and Arc/View geographic information system (GIS) are used to analyze spatial patterns of impacts. The study indicates a strong correlation between visitor use and trail degradation. However, locational and environmental factors are equally important variables. The study concludes that more systematic, and experimental studies are needed that can make a clear distinction between human-induced trail damage and the effects of natural factors.

  5. Mount Everest: a space analogue for speech monitoring of cognitive deficits and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip; Morey, Angie; Hochstadt, Jesse; Larson, Mara; Mather, Sandra

    2005-06-01

    In deep-space missions, the basal ganglia and hippocampus, subcortical structures of the brain that play critical roles in motor activity, cognition, and memory, will be vulnerable to damage from cosmic rays. These metabolically active structures are also sensitive to damage arising from the low oxygen content of air at extreme altitudes. We have, therefore, used Mount Everest as an analogue for deep space, where astronauts will be subject to danger and stress as well as neural damage. We can ethically obtain data because our climber-subjects already intend to climb Mt. Everest. We record speech and test cognitive and linguistic performance before, during, and after exposure to hypoxic conditions. From these data we have derived and validated computer-implemented acoustic voice measures that track slight as well as profound cognitive impairment. Vowel duration and speech motor sequencing errors increase as climbers ascend, reflecting degraded basal ganglia activity. These metrics detect deficits in language comprehension and the ability to change plans in changing circumstances. Preliminary analyses also reveal memory deficits reflecting hippocampal damage. Our speech metrics are unobtrusive and do not reveal the content of a verbal message; they could be derived automatically, allowing space crews to detect subtle motor and cognitive deficits and invoke countermeasures before performance is profoundly impaired. In future work we will be validating the voice metrics of stress in collaboration with the Dinges NSBRI laboratory study of task-induced stress. Our procedures can also be applied in general aviation and in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, and other neurological disorders.

  6. Response of debris-covered glaciers in the Mount Everest region to recent warming, and implications for outburst flood hazards

    OpenAIRE

    D. I. Benn; Bolch, Tobias; Hands, K; Gulley, J; Luckman, A.; L. I. Nicholson; Quincey, D; Thompson, S.; R. Toumi; Wiseman, S

    2012-01-01

    In areas of high relief, many glaciers have extensive covers of supraglacial debris in their ablation zones, which alters both rates and spatial patterns of melting, with important consequences for glacier response to climate change. Wastage of debris-covered glaciers can be associated with the formation of large moraine-dammed lakes, posing risk of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs). In this paper, we use observations of glaciers in the Mount Everest region to present an integrated view of...

  7. Improving the scientific research for the Geohazard Supersites through a Virtual Research Environment: the H2020 EVER-EST Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasatti, Elisa; Salvi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The EU's H2020 EVER-EST Project is dedicated to the realization of a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) for Earth Science researchers, during 2015-2018. EVER-EST implements innovative and state-of-the-art technologies in the area of Earth Science data catalogues, data access/processing and long-term data preservation together with models, techniques and tools for the computational methods, such as scientific workflows. The VRE is designed with the aim of providing the Earth Science user community with an innovative framework, enhancing their ability to interoperate and share knowledge and experience. Therefore, the VRE is user-centric and focuses the e-infrastructure capabilities in order to satisfy the needs of different Virtual Research Communities. Four use cases have been chosen to validate the e-infrastructure and the GEO Geohazard Supersites is one of them. EVER-EST will help the exploitation of the full potential of the GEO Geohazard Supersite and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) initiative demonstrating the use case in the Permanent Supersites of Mt Etna, Campi Flegrei-Vesuvius, and Icelandic volcanoes. Besides providing tools for active volcanoes monitoring and studies, we intend to demonstrate how a more organized and collaborative research environment, such as a VRE, can improve the quality of the scientific research on the Geohazard Supersites, addressing at the same time the problem of the slow uptake of scientific research findings in Disaster Risk Management. Presently, the full exploitation of the in situ and satellite data made available for each Supersite is delayed by the difficult access (especially for researchers in developing countries) to intensive processing and modelling capabilities. EVER-EST will provide these means and also a friendly virtual environment for the easy transfer of scientific knowledge as soon as it is acquired, promoting collaboration among researchers located in distant regions of the world. A further benefit will be to

  8. Progress in technology for the 2005 height determination of Qomolangma Feng (Mt. Everest)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Junyong; YUAN; Janli; GUO; Chunxi; ZHANG; Yanping; ZHANG; Peng

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 China carried out a new geodetic campaign for the height determination of Qomolangma Feng--Mt. Everest (QF in short). The technical progresses in geodesy for the 2005 campaign are presented in the paper. GPS positioning was the key technique in the campaign. After summarizing the experiences and lessons of the GPS positioning on the QF summit in the previous QF height determination campaigns, some measures were taken to raise the accuracy and reliability of the height determination with GPS techniques. In order to raise the accuracy of the height determination of the QF summit with classical geodetic techniques, laser ranging was used together with the trigonometric levelling in the 2005 campaign. It is the first time in China the thickness of the ice-snow layer on the QF summit was measured by ground penetrating radar integrated with GPS. The local gravity field and geoid in the QF area was improved on the basis of earth gravity field model integrated with new ground gravity data, DTM data and GPS leveling data in the QF area. In the 2005 campaign the normal height and orthometric height (height above sea level) of the snow surface of the QF summit were obtained as 8846.67 m and 8847.93 m respectively. The orthometric height of the rock surface of the QF summit is 8844.43 m,and the thickness of the ice-snow layer on the QF summit is 3.50 m.

  9. Vpliv hipoksije na vedenjsko termoregulacijo - poročilo z odprave Si.mobil Ski Everest 2000: The effect of hypoxia on behavioural temperature regulation - report from the Si.mobil Ski Everest 2000 expedition:

    OpenAIRE

    Gorjanc, Jurij; Jaki, Polona; Mekjavić, Igor B.

    2002-01-01

    During the Si.mobil Ski Everest 2000 expedition the hypothesis that hypoxia affects temperature perception was tested. Subjects (N = 5), all members of the expedition, provided subjective ratings of temperature perception on a 7-point scale and thermal comfort on a 4-point scale at Base Camp (BC, 5360 m), Camp 1(C1, 6050 m), Camp 2 (C2, 6500 m), Camp 3 (C3, 7300 m) and Camp 4 (C4, 7950 m). In addition, we recorded oxygen saturation (SaO2, %), axilla temperature (Tax), and tympanic temperature...

  10. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: Multi-centric results from EVEREST experience in large cohort of patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmetti, Giovanni Carlo, E-mail: giovanni.anselmetti@ircc.it [Interventional Radiology Unit, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Strada Provinciale No. 142, Km. 3, 95, 10060 Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Marcia, Stefano, E-mail: stemarcia@gmail.com [Radiology Unit, ASL8 Cagliari, SS. Trinità Hospital, Via Is Mirrionis 92, 09121 Cagliari (Italy); Saba, Luca, E-mail: lucasaba@tiscali.it [Radiology Unit, University of Cagliari, Policlinico Universitario, ss 554, Monserrato, 09127 Cagliari (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Unit, AORN Cardarelli, Via A. Cardarelli No. 9, 80131 Napoli (Italy); Bonaldi, Giuseppe, E-mail: bonaldi@mail.org [Neuroradiology Unit, Riuniti di Bergamo, Largo Barozzi, 124128 Bergamo (Italy); Carpeggiani, Paolo, E-mail: p.carpeggiani@ausl.mo.it [Neuroradiology Unit, Policlinico di Modena, Via Dal Pozzo 17, Modena (Italy); Marini, Stefano, E-mail: stemarini@gmail.com [Radiology Unit, University of Cagliari, San Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Via Ospedale 46, 09127 Cagliari (Italy); Manca, Antonio, E-mail: anto.manca@gmail.com [Interventional Radiology Unit, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Strada Provinciale No. 142, Km. 3, 95, 10060 Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Masala, Salvatore, E-mail: salva.masala@tiscali.it [Radiology Unit, Diagnostic Imaging Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate results and complications of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) performed in 6 different Italian Centres belonging to the European VErtebroplasty RESearch Team (E.VE.RES.T) in a large series of patients. Materials and methods: Follow-up was obtained in 4547 patients (3211 females and 1336 males; mean age 70.2 years) that underwent PV for a total of 13.437 treated vertebrae. Procedures were performed by using fluoroscopic guidance or combined CT-fluoroscopic guidance. All patients underwent PV in local anaesthesia except for second cervical vertebrae treated with a trans-oral approach that required general anaesthesia. Results: 4004 out of 4547 (88.0%) patients reported significant pain relief (difference > or = 2 point in pain evaluated with an 11-point visual analogue scale; p < 0.0001) within 48 h: an average of 7.7 ± 0.4 dropped to 1.8 ± 0.6 in the osteoporotic patients; 8.3 ± 0.4 to 2.4 ± 0.4 in metastases; 8.3 ± 0.4 to 1.7 ± 1.0 in myeloma; 6.2 ± 3.5 to 0.3 ± 0.2 in angioma and 7.4 ± 0.4 to 1.4 ± 0.9 in trauma. 430 osteoporotic patients (13%) were retreated for a subsequent fracture; in 302/430 patients (70.2%), the new fracture occurred in the contiguous vertebra. No major neurologic complications were reported and the most frequent minor complication was venous leakage (20.5%). Conclusions: This large series of patients confirms that percutaneous vertebroplasty is an effective and safe procedure in the treatment of vertebral fractures. Best results are obtained in the treatment of myeloma and trauma.

  11. Meteorological Features at 6523 m of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) between 1 May and 22 July 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Aihong; REN Jiawen; QIN Xiang; JIANG Youyan

    2006-01-01

    Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), the highest mountain peak in the world, has little been studied extensively from a meteorological perspective, mostly because of the remoteness of the region and the resultant lack of meteorological data. An automatic weather station (AWS), the highest in the world, was set up on 27 April 2005 at the Ruopula Pass (6523 m asl) on the northern slope of Mt. Qomolangma by the team of integrated scientific expedition to Mt. Qomolangma. Here its meteorological characteristics were analyzed according to the 10-minute-averaged and 24-hour records of air temperature, relative humidity,air pressure and wind from 1 May to 22 July 2005. It is shown that at 6523 m of Mt. Qomolangma, these meteorological elements display very obvious diurnal variations, and the character of averaged diurnal variation is one-peak-and-one-vale for air temperature, one-vale for relative humidity, two-peak-and-two-vale for air pressure, and one-peak with day-night asymmetry for wind speed. In the 83 days,all the air temperature, relative humidity and air pressure increased with some different fluctuations,while wind speed decreased gradually and wind direction turned from north to south. The variations of relative humidity had great fluctuations and obvious local differences. Then the paper discusses the reason for the characters of diurnal and daily variations.Compared with the corresponding records in May 1960, 5-day-averaged maximums, minimums and diurnal variations of air temperature in May 2005 were apparently lower.

  12. Ice cliff dynamics in the Everest region of the Central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Watson, C.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Smith, Mark W.

    2017-02-01

    The importance of ice cliffs for glacier-scale ablation on debris-covered glaciers is now widely recognised. However, a paucity of data exists to describe the spatio-temporal distribution of ice cliffs. In this study we analysed the position and geometry of 8229 ice cliffs and 5582 supraglacial ponds on 14 glaciers in the Everest region between 2000 and 2015. We observed notable ice cliff and pond spatial coincidence. On average across our study glaciers, 77% of supraglacial pond area was associated with an adjacent ice cliff, and 49% of ice cliffs featured an adjacent supraglacial pond. The spatial density of ice cliffs was not directly related to glacier velocity, but did peak within zones of active ice. Furthermore, we found that ice cliff density was glacier-specific, temporally variable, and was positively correlated with surface lowering and decreasing debris thickness for individual glaciers. Ice cliffs predominantly had a north-facing (commonly north-westerly) aspect, which was independent of glacier flow direction, thereby signifying a strong solar radiation control on cliff evolution. Independent field observations indicated that cliff morphology was related to aspect, local debris thickness, and presence of a supraglacial pond, and highlighted the importance of surface runnel formation, which acts as a preferential pathway for meltwater and debris fluxes. Overall, by coupling remote sensing and in-situ observations it has been possible to capture local and glacier-scale ice cliff dynamics across 14 glaciers, which is necessary if explicit parameterisation of ice cliffs in dynamic glacier models is to be achieved.

  13. Quick and Heterogeneous Glacier Downwasting at Everest (Qomolangma) from 2000 to 2012 Based on Bistatic SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lin; Gang, Li; Jiang, Liming; Hopper, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Himalayan and its surroundings distribute the world's largest part of low-latitude high-altitude glaciers and contributed about 10% of total glacier mass lost in recent decade. Remote sensing geodetic observation including satellite altimetry and topography are alternatives of mapping glacier height changes given the harsh environment of in-situ observations. In this research, we applied two pairs of X-band bistatic TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X images obtained in 2011 and 2012 and formed TanDEM-X DEM with bistatic interferometry. By referring to C and X-band SRTM obtained in 2000. Glacier Mass balance for Everest and its surroundings was -0.446 ± 0.120 m w.e. a-1. Glacier lost at south slope was a bit more severe than north slope, which are -0.481 ± 0.129 m w.e. a-1 and -0.419 ± 0.119 m w.e. a-1. Basically debris-cover suppressed glacier mass lost at most elevations, however for long and large glacier such as Rongbuk, at high elevation debris-cover leaded to a higher lost rate. Comparing to previous study derived glaciers mass balance with stereo photogrammetry, glacier lost rate accelerated in last few decades for the whole Everest region. Two largest glaciers, Rongbuk Glacier at north slope and Khumbu Glacier at south slope both presented increasing mass lost rates.

  14. SPHERE eXtreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, C.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Fusco, T.; Sevin, A.; Suarez, M.; Costille, A.; Vigan, A.; Soenke, C.; Perret, D.; Rochat, S.; Barrufolo, A.; Salasnich, B.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Dohlen, K.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Wildi, F.; Kasper, M.; Conan, J.-M.; Kulcsár, C.; Raynaud, H.-F.

    2014-08-01

    The SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetry High-contrast Exoplanet Research) instrument is an ESO project aiming at the direct detection of extra-solar planets. SPHERE has been successfully integrated and tested in Europe end 2013 and has been re-integrated at Paranal in Chile early 2014 for a first light at the beginning of May. The heart of the SPHERE instrument is its eXtreme Adaptive Optics (XAO) SAXO (SPHERE AO for eXoplanet Observation) subsystem that provides extremely high correction of turbulence and very accurate stabilization of images for coronagraphic purpose. However, SAXO, as well as the overall instrument, must also provide constant operability overnights, ensuring robustness and autonomy. An original control scheme has been developed to satisfy this challenging dichotomy. It includes in particular both an Optimized Modal Gain Integrator (OMGI) to control the Deformable Mirror (DM) and a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control law to manage the tip-tilt (TT) mirror. LQG allows optimal estimation and prediction of turbulent angle of arrival but also of possible vibrations. A specific and unprecedented control scheme has been developed to continuously adapt and optimize LQG control ensuring a constant match to turbulence and vibrations characteristics. SPHERE is thus the first operational system implementing LQG, with automatic adjustment of its models. SAXO has demonstrated performance beyond expectations during tests in Europe, in spite of internal limitations. Very first results have been obtained on sky last May. We thus come back to SAXO control scheme, focusing in particular on the LQG based TT control and the various upgrades that have been made to enhance further the performance ensuring constant operability and robustness. We finally propose performance assessment based on in lab performance and first on sky results and discuss further possible improvements.

  15. Practice and Search of Agile Development and eXtreme Programming in Developing Management Information System%敏捷开发-XP在管理信息系统中实践与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志明

    2009-01-01

    极限编程XP(eXtreme Programming)是敏捷开发的代表,是一个混乱而有序的、基于实践的软件开发方法.通过介绍极限编程的特点及其在某信息管理系统中的应用,探讨研究了极限编程在中小型需求易变的信息管理系统开发项目的实际运用和实践总结.

  16. Plan for proposed aquifer hydraulic testing and groundwater sampling at Everest, Kansas, in January-February 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    On September 8-9, 2005, representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), and Argonne National Laboratory met at the KDHE's offices in Topeka to review the status of the CCC/USDA's environmental activities in Kansas. A key CCC/USDA goal for this meeting was to obtain KDHE input on the selection of possible remedial approaches to be examined as part of the Corrective Action Study (CAS) for this site. As a result of the September meeting, the KDHE recommended several additional activities for the Everest site, to further assist in selecting and evaluating remedial alternatives for the CAS. The requested actions included the following: (1) Construction of several additional interpretive cross sections to improve the depiction of the hydrogeologic characteristics affecting groundwater and contaminant movement along the apparent main plume migration pathway to the north-northwest of the former CCC/USDA facility, and in the vicinity of the Nigh property. (2) Identification of potential locations for several additional monitoring wells, to better constrain the apparent western and northwestern margins of the existing groundwater plume. (3) Development of technical recommendations for a stepwise pumping study of the Everest aquifer unit in the area near and to the north of the Nigh property. On October 21, 2005, Argonne issued a brief Cross Section Analysis (Argonne 2006a) addressing these concerns, on behalf of the CCC/USDA. This report includes the following: (1) Preliminary recommendations for the siting of three new monitoring wells, at locations identified by the KDHE. Argonne also suggested, however, that the installation and sampling of these wells be deferred until after completion of the CAS evaluation. (2) A proposed strategy for testing of the Everest aquifer unit near the Nigh property, involving initial test pumping of the former Nigh domestic

  17. Response of debris-covered glaciers in the Mount Everest region to recent warming, and implications for outburst flood hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, D. I.; Bolch, T.; Hands, K.; Gulley, J.; Luckman, A.; Nicholson, L. I.; Quincey, D.; Thompson, S.; Toumi, R.; Wiseman, S.

    2012-08-01

    In areas of high relief, many glaciers have extensive covers of supraglacial debris in their ablation zones, which alters both rates and spatial patterns of melting, with important consequences for glacier response to climate change. Wastage of debris-covered glaciers can be associated with the formation of large moraine-dammed lakes, posing risk of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs). In this paper, we use observations of glaciers in the Mount Everest region to present an integrated view of debris-covered glacier response to climate change, which helps provide a long-term perspective on evolving GLOF risks. In recent decades, debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region have been losing mass at a mean rate of ~ 0.32 m yr- 1, although in most cases there has been little or no change in terminus position. Mass loss occurs by 4 main processes: (1) melting of clean ice close to glacier ELAs; (2) melting beneath surface debris; (3) melting of ice cliffs and calving around the margins of supraglacial ponds; and (4) calving into deep proglacial lakes. Modelling of processes (1) and (2) shows that Everest-region glaciers typically have an inverted ablation gradient in their lower reaches, due to the effects of a down-glacier increase in debris thickness. Mass loss is therefore focused in the mid parts of glacier ablation zones, causing localised surface lowering and a reduction in downglacier surface gradient, which in turn reduce driving stress and glacier velocity, so the lower ablation zones of many glaciers are now stagnant. Model results also indicate that increased summer temperatures have raised the altitude of the rain-snow transition during the summer monsoon period, reducing snow accumulation and ice flux to lower elevations. As downwasting proceeds, formerly efficient supraglacial and englacial drainage networks are broken up, and supraglacial lakes form in hollows on the glacier surface. Ablation rates around supraglacial lakes are typically one or two

  18. Multi-decadal mass loss of glaciers in the Everest area (Nepal Himalaya) derived from stereo imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, T.; Pieczonka, T.; Benn, D. I.

    2011-04-01

    Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as changing runoff distribution, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs) allow glacier mass balance to be calculated. Here, we present a time series of mass changes for ten glaciers covering an area of about 50 km2 south and west of Mt. Everest, Nepal, using stereo Corona spy imagery (years 1962 and 1970), aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1). This is the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya. We reveal that the glaciers have been significantly losing mass since at least 1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss for 1970-2007 is 0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a-1, however, not higher than the global average. Comparisons of the recent DTMs with earlier time periods indicate an accelerated mass loss. This is, however, hardly statistically significant due to high uncertainty, especially of the lower resolution ASTER DTM. The characteristics of surface lowering can be explained by spatial variations of glacier velocity, the thickness of the debris-cover, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

  19. Multi-decadal mass loss of glaciers in the Everest area (Nepal Himalaya derived from stereo imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bolch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as changing runoff distribution, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs. The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs allow glacier mass balance to be calculated. Here, we present a time series of mass changes for ten glaciers covering an area of about 50 km2 south and west of Mt. Everest, Nepal, using stereo Corona spy imagery (years 1962 and 1970, aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1. This is the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya. We reveal that the glaciers have been significantly losing mass since at least 1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss for 1970–2007 is 0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a−1, however, not higher than the global average. Comparisons of the recent DTMs with earlier time periods indicate an accelerated mass loss. This is, however, hardly statistically significant due to high uncertainty, especially of the lower resolution ASTER DTM. The characteristics of surface lowering can be explained by spatial variations of glacier velocity, the thickness of the debris-cover, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

  20. Isotopic signatures for natural versus anthropogenic Pb in high-altitude Mt. Everest ice cores during the past 800 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do; Hou, Shugui; Burn-Nunes, Laurie J; Hong, Sungmin; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F; Rosman, Kevin J R

    2011-12-15

    A long-term record, extending back 800 years (1205 to 2002 AD), of the Pb isotopic composition ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb) as well as Pb concentrations from high altitude Mt. Everest ice cores has the potential to identify sources and source regions affecting natural and anthropogenic Pb deposition in central Asia. The results show that the regional natural background Pb isotope signature (~1.20 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and ~2.50 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb) in the central Himalayas was dominated by mineral dust over the last ~750 years from 1205 to 1960s, mostly originating from local sources with occasional contributions of long-range transported dust probably from Sahara desert and northwestern India. Since the 1970s, the Pb isotope ratios are characterized by a continuous decline toward less radiogenic ratios with the least mean ratios of 1.178 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and 2.471 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb in the period 1990-1996. The depression of the (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb values during the corresponding periods is most likely due to an increasing influence of less radiogenic Pb of anthropogenic origin mainly from leaded gasoline used in South Asia (India as well as possibly Bangladesh and Nepal). From 1997 to 2002, isotopic composition tends to show a shift to slightly more radiogenic signature. This is likely attributed to reducing Pb emissions from leaded gasoline in source regions, coinciding with the nationwide reduction of Pb in gasoline and subsequent phase-out of leaded gasoline in South Asia since 1997. An interesting feature is the relatively high levels of Pb concentrations and enrichment factors (EF) between 1997 and 2002. Although the reason for this feature remains uncertain, it would be probably linked with an increasing influence of anthropogenic Pb emitted from other sources such as fossil fuel combustion and non-ferrous metal production.

  1. Nitrogen chemistry in surface waters and wet deposition at high altitude in the Sagarmatha (Mt Everest) National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, R.; Polesello, S.; Rusconi, M.

    2012-04-01

    The knowledge of the nitrogen cycle is mainly based on studies conducted in relatively human-altered zones located in the north-western hemisphere. Therefore it is of great interest to identify the limits of natural variations of nitrogen in ecosystems that have not experienced the nitrogen pollution, and have undergone minor alterations from human activities. Among the alpine environments of the world, the region of Mount Everest, is a unique ecosystem with a degree of biodiversity among the highest existing, but characterized by a recognized fragility and low resilience. The extreme climate, the slow growing seasons and the thin soils make this ecosystem very sensitive to any environmental change. A yearly sampling campaign was conducted in the Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal) during the monsoon season in 2008 to collect surface water samples at high elevation from 4300 to 5500 m asl. In addition during 2007 and 2008 the sampling of wet deposition was carried on at 5050 m asl at the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid ABC site. The nitrate concentration in the running waters fell in the lower range of the values reported for comparable environments in Europe. As well, the wet deposition load of nitrogen was remarkable lower than those observed in high elevation areas in Europe and North America. A comparison among running waters, precipitations and small lakes, located in the same area, revealed significant higher nitrate concentrations in running waters compared to the other two matrixes. Conversely, ammonia level resulted higher in the rain compared to surface waters. The spatial and temporal variation of the chemical species in running waters were analyzed taking in account the use of soil in the basins and the hydrological regime.

  2. Debris-covered energy balance model for Imja-Lhotse Shar Glacier in the Everest region of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Rounce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Debris thickness plays an important role in regulating ablation rates on debris-covered glaciers as well as controlling the likely size and location of supraglacial lakes. Despite its importance, lack of knowledge about debris properties and associated energy fluxes prevents the robust inclusion of the effects of a debris layer into most glacier surface energy balance models. This study combines fieldwork with a debris-covered energy balance model to estimate debris temperatures and ablation rates on Imja-Lhotse Shar glacier located in the Everest region of Nepal. The debris properties that significantly influence the energy balance model are thermal conductivity, albedo, and surface roughness. Fieldwork was conducted to measure thermal conductivity and a method was developed using Structure from Motion to estimate surface roughness. Debris temperatures measured during the 2014 melt season were used to calibrate and validate a debris-covered energy balance model by optimizing the albedo, thermal conductivity, and surface roughness at 10 debris-covered sites. Furthermore, three methods for estimating the latent heat flux were investigated. Model calibration and validation found the three methods had similar performance; however, comparison of modeled and measured ablation rates revealed that assuming a zero latent heat flux may overestimate ablation. Results also suggest that where debris moisture is unknown, measurements of the relative humidity or precipitation may be used to estimate wet debris periods, i.e., the latent heat flux is non-zero. The effect of temporal resolution on the model was also assessed and results showed that both 6 h data and daily average data slightly underestimate debris temperatures and ablation rates, thus these should only be used to estimate rough ablation rates when no other data are available.

  3. Future hydrological regimes and glacier cover in the Everest region: The case study of the upper Dudh Koshi basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncini, Andrea; Bocchiola, Daniele; Confortola, Gabriele; Minora, Umberto; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Shrestha, Dibas; Senese, Antonella; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2016-09-15

    Assessment of future water resources under climate change is required in the Himalayas, where hydrological cycle is poorly studied and little understood. This study focuses on the upper Dudh Koshi river of Nepal (151km(2), 4200-8848ma.s.l.) at the toe of Mt. Everest, nesting the debris covered Khumbu, and Khangri Nup glaciers (62km(2)). New data gathered during three years of field campaigns (2012-2014) were used to set up a glacio-hydrological model describing stream flows, snow and ice melt, ice cover thickness and glaciers' flow dynamics. The model was validated, and used to assess changes of the hydrological cycle until 2100. Climate projections are used from three Global Climate Models used in the recent IPCC AR5 under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Flow statistics are estimated for two reference decades 2045-2054, and 2090-2099, and compared against control run CR, 2012-2014. During CR we found a contribution of ice melt to stream flows of 55% yearly, with snow melt contributing for 19%. Future flows are predicted to increase in monsoon season, but to decrease yearly (-4% vs CR on average) at 2045-2054. At the end of century large reduction would occur in all seasons, i.e. -26% vs CR on average at 2090-2099. At half century yearly contribution of ice melt would be on average 45%, and snow melt 28%. At the end of century ice melt would be 31%, and snow contribution 39%. Glaciers in the area are projected to thin largely up to 6500ma.s.l. until 2100, reducing their volume by -50% or more, and their ice covered area by -30% or more. According to our results, in the future water resources in the upper Dudh Koshi would decrease, and depend largely upon snow melt and rainfall, so that adaptation measures to modified water availability will be required.

  4. Spatial variability in mass loss of glaciers in the Everest region, central Himalayas, between 2000 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Owen; Quincey, Duncan J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Rowan, Ann V.

    2017-02-01

    Region-wide averaging of Himalayan glacier mass change has masked any catchment or glacier-scale variability in glacier recession; thus the role of a number of glaciological processes in glacier wastage remains poorly understood. In this study, we quantify mass loss rates over the period 2000-2015 for 32 glaciers across the Everest region and assess how future ice loss is likely to differ depending on glacier hypsometry. The mean mass balance of all 32 glaciers in our sample was -0.52 ± 0.22 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1. The mean mass balance of nine lacustrine-terminating glaciers (-0.70 ± 0.26 m w.e. a-1) was 32 % more negative than land-terminating, debris-covered glaciers (-0.53 ± 0.21 m w.e. a-1). The mass balance of lacustrine-terminating glaciers is highly variable (-0.45 ± 0.13 to -0.91 ± 0.22 m w.e. a-1), perhaps reflecting glacial lakes at different stages of development. To assess the importance of hypsometry on glacier response to future temperature increases, we calculated current (Dudh Koshi - 0.41, Tama Koshi - 0.43, Pumqu - 0.37) and prospective future glacier accumulation area Ratios (AARs). IPCC AR5 RCP 4.5 warming (0.9-2.3 °C by 2100) could reduce AARs to 0.29 or 0.08 in the Tama Koshi catchment, 0.27 or 0.17 in the Dudh Koshi catchment and 0.29 or 0.18 in the Pumqu catchment. Our results suggest that glacial lake expansion across the Himalayas could expedite ice mass loss and the prediction of future contributions of glacial meltwater to river flow will be complicated by spatially variable glacier responses to climate change.

  5. Quaternary fans and terraces in the Khumbu Himal south of Mount Everest: their characteristics, age and formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, P.L.; Owen, L.A.; Finkel, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Large fans and terraces are frequent in the Khumbu Himal within the high Himalayan valleys south of Mt. Everest. These features are composed of massive matrix- and clast-supported diamicts that were formed from both hyperconcentrated flows and coarse-grained debris flows. Cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) exposure ages for boulders on fans and terraces indicate that periods of fan and terrace formation occurred at c. 16, c. 12, c. 8, c. 4 and c. 1.5 ka, and are broadly coincident with the timing of glaciation in the region. The dating precision is insufficient to resolve whether the surfaces formed before, during or after the correlated glacial advance. However, the sedimentology, and morphostratigraphic and geomorphological relationships suggest that fan and terrace sedimentation in this part of the Himalaya primarily occurs during glacier retreat and is thus paraglacial in origin. Furthermore, modern glacial-lake outburst floods and their associated deposits are common in the Khumbu Himal as the result of glacial retreat during historical times. We therefore suggest that Late Quaternary and Holocene fan and terrace formation and sediment transfer are probably linked to temporal changes in discharge and sediment load caused by glacier oscillations responding to climate change. The timing of major sedimentation events in this region can be correlated with fans and terraces in other parts of the Himalaya, suggesting that major sedimentation throughout the Himalaya is synchronous and tied to regional climatic oscillations. Bedrock incision rates calculated from strath terrace ages average c. 3.9 mm a−1, suggesting that the overall rate of incision is set by regional uplift.

  6. Thermochronologic constraints on the slip history of the South Tibetan detachment system in the Everest region, southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mary Hannah; Hodges, Kip V.; Ehlers, Todd A.; van Soest, Matthijs; Wartho, Jo-Anne

    2017-02-01

    North-dipping, low-angle normal faults of the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS) are tectonically important features of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system. The STDS is best exposed in the N-S-trending Rongbuk Valley in southern Tibet, where the primary strand of the system - the Qomolangma detachment - can be traced down dip from the summit of Everest for a distance of over 30 km. The metamorphic discontinuity across this detachment implies a large net displacement, with previous studies suggesting >200 km of slip. Here we refine those estimates through thermal-kinematic modeling of new (U-Th)/He and 40Ar/39Ar data from deformed footwall leucogranites. While previous studies focused on the early ductile history of deformation along the detachment, our data provide new insights regarding the brittle-ductile to brittle slip history. Thermal modeling results generated with the program QTQt indicate rapid, monotonic cooling from muscovite 40Ar/39Ar closure (ca. 15.4-14.4 Ma at ca. 490 °C) to zircon (U-Th)/He closure (ca. 14.3-11.0 Ma at ca. 200 °C), followed by slower cooling to apatite (U-Th)/He closure at ca. 9-8 Ma (at ca. 70 °C). Although previous work has suggested that ductile slip on the detachment lasted only until ca. 15.6 Ma, thermal-kinematic modeling of our new data suggests that rapid (ca. 3-4 km/Ma) tectonic exhumation by brittle-ductile to brittle fault slip continued to at least ca. 13.0 Ma. Much lower modeled exhumation rates (≤0.5 km/Ma) after ca. 13 Ma are interpreted to reflect erosional denudation rather than tectonic exhumation. Projection of fault-related exhumation rates backward through time suggests total slip of ca. 61 to 289 km on the Qomolangma detachment, with slightly more than a third of that slip occurring under brittle-ductile to brittle conditions.

  7. Isotopic signatures for natural versus anthropogenic Pb in high-altitude Mt. Everest ice cores during the past 800 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do [Korea Polar Research Institute, Songdo Techno Park, 7-50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Hou, Shugui [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Burn-Nunes, Laurie J. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Hong, Sungmin, E-mail: smhong@inha.ac.kr [Department of Ocean Sciences, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Barbante, Carlo [Department of Environmental Sciences, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30 123 Venice (Italy); Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes-CNR, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30 123 Venice (Italy); Boutron, Claude F. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (UMR Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS 5183 ), 54 rue Moliere, BP 96, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Unite de Formation et de Recherche ' Physique, Ingenierie, Terre, Environnement, Mecanique' , Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble ( Institut Universitaire de France ), 715 rue de la Houille Blanche, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rosman, Kevin J.R. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    A long-term record, extending back 800 years (1205 to 2002 AD), of the Pb isotopic composition ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) as well as Pb concentrations from high altitude Mt. Everest ice cores has the potential to identify sources and source regions affecting natural and anthropogenic Pb deposition in central Asia. The results show that the regional natural background Pb isotope signature ({approx} 1.20 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {approx} 2.50 for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) in the central Himalayas was dominated by mineral dust over the last {approx} 750 years from 1205 to 1960s, mostly originating from local sources with occasional contributions of long-range transported dust probably from Sahara desert and northwestern India. Since the 1970s, the Pb isotope ratios are characterized by a continuous decline toward less radiogenic ratios with the least mean ratios of 1.178 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and 2.471 for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb in the period 1990-1996. The depression of the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb values during the corresponding periods is most likely due to an increasing influence of less radiogenic Pb of anthropogenic origin mainly from leaded gasoline used in South Asia (India as well as possibly Bangladesh and Nepal). From 1997 to 2002, isotopic composition tends to show a shift to slightly more radiogenic signature. This is likely attributed to reducing Pb emissions from leaded gasoline in source regions, coinciding with the nationwide reduction of Pb in gasoline and subsequent phase-out of leaded gasoline in South Asia since 1997. An interesting feature is the relatively high levels of Pb concentrations and enrichment factors (EF) between 1997 and 2002. Although the reason for this feature remains uncertain, it would be probably linked with an increasing influence of anthropogenic Pb emitted from other sources such as fossil fuel combustion and non-ferrous metal production.

  8. The Sea Monitoring Virtual Research Community (VRC) in the EVER-EST Project (a virtual research environment for the Earth Sciences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglini, Federica; Boero, Ferdinando; Guarino, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    The EU's H2020 EVER-EST Project is dedicated to the realization of a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) for Earth Science researchers during 2015-2018. In this framework the Sea monitoring represents one of the four use case VRCs chosen to validate the EVER-EST e-infrastructure, which is aimed at representing a wide and multidisciplinary Earth Science domain. The objective of the Sea Monitoring Virtual Research Community (VRC) is to provide useful and applicable contributions to the identification and definition of variables indicated by the European Commission in the Marine Directive under the framework for Good Environment Status (GES). The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/marine/index_en.htm) has defined the descriptors for Good Environmental Status in marine waters. The first descriptor is biodiversity; the second one is the presence of non-indigenous species while the remaining nine (even when they consider physical, chemical or geological variables) require proper functioning of the ecosystem, linked to a good state of biodiversity. The Sea Monitoring VRC is direct to provide practical methods, procedures and protocols to support coherent and widely accepted interpretation of the Descriptors 1(Biodiversity), 2 (non- indigenous species), 4 (food webs) and 6 (seafloor integrity) identified in GES. In that context, the criteria and methodological standards already identified by the European Commission, and at same time considering the activities and projects in progress in the marine framework, will be taken into account. This research of practical methods to estimate and measure GES parameters requires a close cooperation among different disciplines including: biologists, geologists, geophysics, oceanographers, Earth observation experts and others. It will also require a number of different types of scientific data and observations (e.g. biology related, chemico-physical, etc.) from different inputs and sensors

  9. Final work plan : indoor air and ambient air sampling near the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Everest, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-05-24

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at the western edge of Everest, Kansas, from the early 1950s to the early 1970s. Sampling by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) in 1997 resulted in the detection of carbon tetrachloride in one domestic well (the Nigh well) northwest of the former facility. On behalf of the CCC/USDA, Argonne National Laboratory subsequently conducted a series of investigations to characterize the contamination (Argonne 2003, 2006a,b,c). Automatic, continuous monitoring of groundwater levels began in 2002 and is ongoing at six locations. The results have consistently indicated groundwater flow toward the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA property to the Nigh property, then west-southwest from the Nigh property to the intermittent creek. Sitewide periodic groundwater and surface water sampling with analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) began in 2008. Argonne's combined data indicate no significant downgradient extension of contamination since 2000. At present, the sampling is annual, as approved by the KDHE (2009) in response to a plan developed for the CCC/USDA (Argonne 2009). This document presents a plan for collecting indoor air samples in homes located along and adjacent to the defined extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination. The plan was requested by the KDHE. Ambient air samples to represent the conditions along this pathway will also be taken. The purpose of the proposed work is to satisfy KDHE requirements and to collect additional data for assessing the risk to human health due to the potential upward migration of carbon tetrachloride and its primary degradation product (chloroform) into homes located in close proximity to the former grain storage facility, as well as along and within 100 ft laterally from the currently defined plume emanating from the former Everest facility. Investigation of the indoor air

  10. D-dimer is not elevated in asymptomatic high altitude climbers after descent to 5340 m: the Mount Everest Deep Venous Thrombosis Study (Ev-DVT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafren, Ken; Feldman, Joanne; Becker, Robert J; Williams, Sarah R; Weiss, Eric A; Deloughery, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We performed this study to determine the prevalence of elevated D-dimer, a marker for deep venous thrombosis (DVT), in asymptomatic high altitude climbers. On-site personnel enrolled a convenience sample of climbers at Mt. Everest Base Camp (Nepal), elevation 5340 m (17,500 ft), during a single spring climbing season. Subjects were enrolled after descent to base camp from higher elevation. The subjects completed a questionnaire to evaluate their risk factors for DVT. We then performed a D-dimer test in asymptomatic individuals. If the D-dimer test was negative, DVT was considered ruled out. Ultrasound was available to perform lower-extremity compression ultrasounds to evaluate for DVT in case the D-dimer was positive. We enrolled 76 high altitude climbers. None had a positive D-dimer test. The absence of positive D-dimer tests suggests a low prevalence of DVT in asymptomatic high altitude climbers.

  11. Climatic significance of δ18O records from an 80.36 m ice core in the East Rongbuk Glacier, Mount Qomolangma (Everest)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Dongqi; QIN; Dahe; HOU; Shugui; KANG; Shichang; REN

    2005-01-01

    The δ18O variations in an 80.36 m ice core retrieved in the accumulation zone of the East Rongbuk Glacier, Mount Qomolangma (Everest), is not consistent with changes of air temperature from both southern and northern slopes of Himalayas, as well as these of the temperature anomalies over the Northern Hemisphere. The negative relationship between the δ18O and the net accumulation records of the ice core suggests the "amount effect" of summer precipitation on the δ18O values in the region. Therefore, the δ18O records of the East Rongbuk ice core should be a proxy of Indian Summer Monsoon intensity, which shows lower δ18O values during strong monsoon phases and higher values during weak phases.

  12. An 800-year record of atmospheric As, Mo, Sn, and Sb in central Asia in high-altitude ice cores from Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungmin; Lee, Khanghyun; Hou, Shugui; Hur, Soon Do; Ren, Jiawen; Burn, Laurie J; Rosman, Kevin J R; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F

    2009-11-01

    As, Mo, Sn, and Sb have been determined by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) in 143 depth intervals of high-altitude ice cores from Mt. Everest, covering an 800-year time period from 1205 to 2002 AD. The results clearly demonstrate the long-term historical record of atmospheric transport and deposition of As, Mo, Sn, and Sb that has prevailed at high altitudes in the central Himalayas. Natural contributions, mainly from mineral dust, have dominated the atmospheric cycles of As, Mo, Sn, and to some extent Sb during the 700 years prior to the 20th century. Compared to those of the pre-1900 period, pronounced increases of both concentrations and crustal enrichment factors are observed since the 1970s, with the highest increase factor for Sn and the lowest for As. Such increases are attributed to anthropogenic emissions of these elements, largely from stationary fossil fuel combustion and nonferrous metals production, particularly in India. Our central Himalayan ice core record provides an explicit recognition of rising atmospheric As, Mo, Sn, and Sb pollution in response to rapid economic growth in central Asia.

  13. Weak precipitation, warm winters and springs impact glaciers of south slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya) in the last two decades (1994-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, F.; Guyennon, N.; Thakuri, S.; Viviano, G.; Romano, E.; Vuillermoz, E.; Cristofanelli, P.; Stocchi, P.; Agrillo, G.; Ma, Y.; Tartari, G.

    2014-12-01

    Studies on recent climate trends from the Himalayan range are limited, and even completely absent at high elevation. This contribution specifically explores the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya), analyzing the minimum, maximum, and mean temperature and precipitation time series reconstructed from seven stations located between 2660 and 5600m a.s.l. over the last twenty years (1994-2013). We complete this analysis with data from all the existing ground weather stations located on both sides of the mountain range (Koshi Basin) over the same period. Overall we observe that the main and more significant increase in temperature is concentrated outside of the monsoon period. At higher elevations minimum temperature (0.072 ± 0.011 °C a-1, p 0.1), while mean temperature increased by 0.044 ± 0.008 °C a-1, p flow velocity and the current stagnation condition of tongues, which in turn could have trigged melting processes under the debris glacier coverage, leading to the formation of numerous supraglacial and proglacial lakes that have characterized the region in the last decades. Without demonstrating the causes that could have led to the climate change pattern observed at high elevation, we conclude by listing the recent literature on hypotheses that accord with our observations.

  14. Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on symptoms of acute mountain sickness and basic physiological responses in a group of male adolescents during ascent to Mount Everest Base Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennis, Philip J; Mitchell, Kay; Gilbert-Kawai, Edward; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Wade, Angie; Feelisch, Martin; Grocott, Michael P; Martin, Daniel S

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, on acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms and physiological responses, in a group of young males trekking to Mount Everest Base Camp (EBC). Forty healthy male students (mean age (SD): 16 (1) yrs) trekked to EBC over 11 days. Following an overnight fast, each morning participants completed the Lake Louise AMS questionnaire and underwent a series of physiological tests: resting blood pressure as well as resting and exercising heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation. The exercise test consisted of a standardised 2-min stepping protocol and measurements were taken in the last 10 s. Participants in the intervention arm of the study consumed 140 ml of concentrated beetroot juice daily, containing approximately 10 mmol of nitrate, while those in the control arm consumed 140 ml of concentrated blackcurrant cordial with negligible nitrate content. Drinks were taken for the first seven days at high altitude (days 2-8), in two equal doses; one with breakfast, and one with the evening meal. Mixed modelling revealed no significant between-groups difference in the incidence of AMS (Odds Ratio - nitrate vs.

  15. The Fourth Geodetic Surveying Campaign on Mt. Everest and its Adjacent Area%珠峰及邻近区域第四次大地测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全德; 陈俊勇; 庞尚益; 张骥; 王泽民

    2001-01-01

    The fourth geodetic surveying campaign on Mt. Everest and itsadjacent area was successfully conducted by Chinese surveyors in 1998. Its fieldwork introductions, data acquisitions, data processing methods and the final results achieved were described in this paper. A thoroughly scientific Analyse based on comparing the 4-session geodetic surveying observations which were conducted in 1998, 1992,1975 and 1966-1968 respectively shows that Qinghai-Tibet Block is still moving on its way of northeast horizontally under the motivation caused by Indian Block movement, while relative vertical movement has waving fluctuation during the entire rising process.%叙述了我国大地测量工作者于1998年对珠穆朗玛峰及邻近区域进行的第四次大规模的大地测量外业概况和取得的成果,以及数据处理方法和最终结果。经过对1998、1966-1968、1975、1992年珠峰及邻近区域四次大地测量数据综合分析,从地学方面进行研究,得出青藏块体在印度板块的推动下,仍向北东东方向运动;珠峰地区相对垂直运动在整体抬升的过程中伴有波浪式的起伏等结论。

  16. Weak precipitation, warm winters and springs impact glaciers of south slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya in the last two decades (1994–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salerno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on recent climate trends from the Himalayan range are limited, and even completely absent at high elevation. This contribution specifically explores the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya, analyzing the minimum, maximum, and mean temperature and precipitation time series reconstructed from seven stations located between 2660 and 5600m a.s.l. over the last twenty years (1994–2013. We complete this analysis with data from all the existing ground weather stations located on both sides of the mountain range (Koshi Basin over the same period. Overall we observe that the main and more significant increase in temperature is concentrated outside of the monsoon period. At higher elevations minimum temperature (0.072 ± 0.011 °C a−1, p −1, p > 0.1, while mean temperature increased by 0.044 ± 0.008 °C a−1, p −1, p p < 0.05, but the magnitude of this phenomenon is decidedly lower than the observed decrease of precipitation. (4 The lesser accumulation could be the cause behind the observed lower glacier flow velocity and the current stagnation condition of tongues, which in turn could have trigged melting processes under the debris glacier coverage, leading to the formation of numerous supraglacial and proglacial lakes that have characterized the region in the last decades. Without demonstrating the causes that could have led to the climate change pattern observed at high elevation, we conclude by listing the recent literature on hypotheses that accord with our observations.

  17. Configuration Management for eXtreme Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, U.; Bendix, Lars Gotfred; Ekman, T.

    2003-01-01

    Extreme programming (XP) is a software development method that prescribes the use of 12 different practices. Four of these practices (collective code ownership, continuous integration, small releases and refactoring) can indeed be given good support by the use of simple configuration management (CM...

  18. Weak precipitation, warm winters and springs impact glaciers of south slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya) in the last 2 decades (1994-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, F.; Guyennon, N.; Thakuri, S.; Viviano, G.; Romano, E.; Vuillermoz, E.; Cristofanelli, P.; Stocchi, P.; Agrillo, G.; Ma, Y.; Tartari, G.

    2015-06-01

    Studies on recent climate trends from the Himalayan range are limited, and even completely absent at high elevation (> 5000 m a.s.l.). This study specifically explores the southern slopes of Mt. Everest, analyzing the time series of temperature and precipitation reconstructed from seven stations located between 2660 and 5600 m a.s.l. during 1994-2013, complemented with the data from all existing ground weather stations located on both sides of the mountain range (Koshi Basin) over the same period. Overall we find that the main and most significant increase in temperature is concentrated outside of the monsoon period. Above 5000 m a.s.l. the increasing trend in the time series of minimum temperature (+0.072 °C yr-1) is much stronger than of maximum temperature (+0.009 °C yr-1), while the mean temperature increased by +0.044 °C yr-1. Moreover, we note a substantial liquid precipitation weakening (-9.3 mm yr-1) during the monsoon season. The annual rate of decrease in precipitation at higher elevations is similar to the one at lower elevations on the southern side of the Koshi Basin, but the drier conditions of this remote environment make the fractional loss much more consistent (-47% during the monsoon period). Our results challenge the assumptions on whether temperature or precipitation is the main driver of recent glacier mass changes in the region. The main implications are the following: (1) the negative mass balances of glaciers observed in this region can be more ascribed to a decrease in accumulation (snowfall) than to an increase in surface melting; (2) the melting has only been favoured during winter and spring months and close to the glaciers terminus; (3) a decrease in the probability of snowfall (-10%) has made a significant impact only at glacier ablation zone, but the magnitude of this decrease is distinctly lower than the observed decrease in precipitation; (4) the decrease in accumulation could have caused the observed decrease in glacier flow

  19. Reconstruction of the Ice Age Glaciation in the Southern Slopes of Mt. Everest, Cho Oyu, Lhotse and Makalu (Himalaya) (Part 1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Kuhle

    2006-01-01

    In the Khumbu- and Khumbakarna Himalaya an ice stream network and valley glacier system has been reconstructed for the last glacial 18 Ka BP, Stage o) with glaciogeomorphological and sedimentological methods. It was a part of the glacier system of the Himalaya and has communicated across transfluence passes with the neighbouring ice stream networks toward the W and E. The ice stream network has also received inflow from the N, from a Tibetan ice stream network, by the Kyetrak-Nangpa-Bote Koshi Drangka (Valley) in the W, by the W-Rongbuk glacier valley into the Ngozumpa Drangka (Valley), by the Central Rongbuk glacier valley into the Khumbu Drangka (Valley) and by the antecedent Arun Nadi transverse-valley in the E of the investigation area.The ice thickness of the valley glacier sections, the surface of which was situated above the snow-line,amounted to 1000~1450 m. The most extended parent valley glaciers have been measured approx. 70 km in length (Dudh Koshi glacier), 67 km (BarunArun glacier) and 80 km (Arun glacier). The tongue end of the Arun glacier has flowed down to c. 500 m and that of the Dudh Koshi glacier to c. 900 m asl. At heights of the catchment areas of 8481 (or 8475) m (Makalu), i.e., 8848 (or 8872) m (Mt. Everest,Sagarmatha, Chogolungma) this is a vertical distance of the Ice Age glaciation of c. 8000 m. The steep faces 6000~7000 m-high surfaces of the ice stream network were located 2000~5000 m above the ELA.Accordingly, their temperatures were so low, that their rock surfaces were free of flank ice and ice balconies. From the maximum past glacier extension up to the current glacier margins, 13 (altogether 14)glacier stages have been differentiated and in part 14C-dated. They were four glacier stages of the late glacial period, three of the neoglacial period and six of the historical period. By means of 130 medium-sized valley glaciers the corresponding ELA-depressions have been calculated in comparison with the current courses of the

  20. Effects of inherited cores and magmatic overgrowths on zircon (U-Th)/He ages and age-eU trends from Greater Himalayan sequence rocks, Mount Everest region, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Devon A.; Reiners, Peter W.; Hourigan, Jeremy K.; Carrapa, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Previous constraints on the timing and rate of exhumation of the footwall of the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS) north of Mount Everest suggest rapid Miocene cooling from ˜ 700°C to 120°C between ˜14-17 Ma. However, 25 new single grain zircon He ages from leucogranites intruding Greater Himalayan Sequence rocks in the footwall of the STDS are between 9.9 and 15 Ma, with weighted mean ages between 10 and 12 Ma. Zircon grains exhibit a positive correlation between age and effective uranium (eU). Laser ablation zircon U-Pb geochronology, detailed SEM observations, and laser ablation depth-profiling of these zircons reveal low-eU 0.5-2.5 Ga inherited cores overgrown by high-eU 17-22 Ma rims. This intragranular zonation produces ages as much as 32% too young when a standard alpha-ejection correction assuming uniform eU distribution is applied. Modeling of the effects of varying rim thickness and rim eU concentration on the bulk grain eU and alpha-ejection correction suggests that zonation also exerts the primary control on the form of the age-eU correlation observed. Application of grain-specific zonation-dependent age corrections to our data yields zircon He ages between 14 and 17 Ma, in agreement with AFT and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Growth of magmatic rims followed by cooling to < 120°C within 1-6 million years supports rapid tectonic exhumation associated with slip along the STDS in the Miocene. This study highlights the importance of characterizing parent nuclide zonation in zircon He studies which seek to understand the timing of exhumation along exhumed crustal blocks.

  1. The CDF II eXtremely fast tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana

    2006-09-01

    The CDF II Extremely Fast Tracker is the trigger track processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the CDF II central outer tracking chamber. The system is now being upgraded to perform a three dimensional track reconstruction. A review of the upgrade is presented here.

  2. XACC - eXtreme-scale Accelerator Programming Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    Hybrid programming models for beyond-CMOS technologies will prove critical for integrating new computing technologies alongside our existing infrastructure. Unfortunately the software infrastructure required to enable this is lacking or not available. XACC is a programming framework for extreme-scale, post-exascale accelerator architectures that integrates alongside existing conventional applications. It is a pluggable framework for programming languages developed for next-gen computing hardware architectures like quantum and neuromorphic computing. It lets computational scientists efficiently off-load classically intractable work to attached accelerators through user-friendly Kernel definitions. XACC makes post-exascale hybrid programming approachable for domain computational scientists.

  3. Tracking Change in rapid and eXtreme Development: A Challenge to SCM-tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2001-01-01

    Software configuration management (SCM) has proved to be an invaluable part of developing and maintaining high quality software. The benefits are not for free however: SCM tool operations often divert your attention from your development task, sometimes you have to endure a long waiting time while...

  4. eXtreme multiplex spectrograph: a high-demanding mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, S.; Meisenheimer, K.; Dubbeldam, C. M.; Content, R.; Rohloff, R. R.; Prada, F.; Shanks, T.; Sharples, R.

    2010-07-01

    XMS is a multi-channel wide-field spectrograph designed for the prime focus of the 3.5m Calar-Alto telescope. The instrument is composed by four quadrants, each of which contains a spectrograph channel. An innovative mechanical design -at concept/preliminary stage- has been implemented to: 1) Minimize the separation between the channels to achieve maximal filling factor; 2) Cope with the very constraining space and mass overall requirements; 3) Achieve very tight alignment tolerances; 4) Provide lens self-centering under large temperature excursions; 5) Provide masks including 4000 slits (edges thinner than 100μ). An overview of this very challenging mechanical design is here presented.

  5. 78 FR 70209 - Airworthiness Directives; XtremeAir GmbH Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... bearing and the lower engine mount to the firewall attachment plate, which could reduce the structural..., Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri 64106... crack was reported by an operator in a weld seam between the lower left landing gear attachment...

  6. "An Assessment of Ecosystem Services of the Everest Region, Nepal"

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes in the region were analyzed on the basis of information extracted from satellite image data. Based on this information, it is clearly noticed that the different land use classes have changed their forms and degrees in different time periods due to the driving forces such as national park activities, influx of Tibetan refugees, climate change and growth of tourism. Furthermore, the landscapes dynamics and their relation to the provisioning of ecosystem services ...

  7. ……who has climbed a few Everests himself

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel Bruce Ullrich

    2007-01-01

    @@ Mr Chancellor, Ladies and gentleman, I would like to extend my warmest congratulations to those graduating today. Today is the culmination of a number of years of hard work, sacrifice and dedication and I know how proud your own family members and colleagues will be.

  8. World’s Highest Mountain,Everest, Is Even Taller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John; Poirier; 常莎荟

    1999-01-01

    编辑同志,我在读了贵刊今年第10期上的“华盛顿纪念碑长高了”一文后不久,我在网上读到了珠峰长高了的短文,兴味盎然。 今年五月由Pete Athans and Bill Crouse率领的7人小队,在珠峰之巅使用了称为Global Positioning System的高科技设备,历时50分钟,测得珠峰的最新高度为29,035feet(编者注:约8849.87米)—about five and a half miles high.这个新测得的权威高度,比1954年测得的29,028feet整整高了7英尺! 在这个7英尺中,固然有前人测量时产生的误差,但是,另一个原因是本文的首句所言:…is still growing! 似乎世界上的许多东西都在不声不响的长高。这些文章都只是报道了这些不可思议的表面现象,至于为什么会产生这种现象,就不得而知。我将注意这方面的报道,如果你们有这方面的分析文章,也望能在贵刊刊登。

  9. Annual Report of Groundwater Monitoring at Everest, Kansas, in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In March 2009, the CCC/USDA developed a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water (Argonne 2009). Under this plan, approved by the KDHE (2009), monitoring wells are sampled by using the low-flow procedure, and surface water samples are collected at five locations along the intermittent creek. Vegetation sampling is conducted as a secondary indicator of plume migration. Results of annual sampling in 2009-2011 for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and water level measurements (Argonne 2010a, 2011a,b) were consistent with previous observations (Argonne 2003, 2006a,d, 2008). No carbon tetrachloride was detected in surface water of the intermittent creek or in tree branch samples collected at locations along the creek banks. This report presents the results of the fourth annual sampling event, conducted in 2012.

  10. 77 FR 17323 - Special Conditions: XtremeAir GmbH, XA42; Acrobatic Category Aerodynamic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... maintain a 3 degree angle of descent. (D) In place of 14 CFR part 23, Sec. 23.177, Static directional and... unusual design feature associated with its static stability. This airplane can perform at the highest...: April 25, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Ross Schaller, Federal Aviation...

  11. Wet deposition at the base of Mt Everest: Seasonal evolution of the chemistry and isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Delconte, Carlo A.; Sacchi, Elisa; Wilson, Alana M.; Williams, Mark W.; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Putero, Davide

    2016-12-01

    The chemistry of wet deposition was investigated during 2012-2014 at the Pyramid International Laboratory in the Upper Khumbu Valley, Nepal, at 5050 m a.s.l., within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme. The main hydro-chemical species and stable isotopes of the water molecule were determined for monsoon rain (July-September) and snow samples (October-June). To evaluate the synoptic-scale variability of air masses reaching the measurement site, 5 day back-trajectories were computed for the sampling period. Ion concentrations in precipitation during the monsoon were low suggesting that they represent global regional background concentrations. The associations between ions suggested that the principal sources of chemical species were marine aerosols, rock and soil dust, and fossil fuel combustion. Most chemical species exhibited a pattern during the monsoon, with maxima at the beginning and at the end of the season, partially correlated with the precipitation amount. Snow samples exhibited significantly higher concentrations of chemical species, compared to the monsoon rainfall observations. Particularly during 2013, elevated concentrations of NO3-, SO42- and NH4+ were measured in the first winter snow event, and in May at the end of the pre-monsoon season. The analysis of large-scale circulation and wind regimes as well as atmospheric composition observations in the region indicates the transport of polluted air masses from the Himalayan foothills and Indian sub-continent up to the Himalaya region. During the summer monsoon onset period, the greater values of pollutants can be attributed to air-mass transport from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) of the Indo-Gangetic plains. Isotopic data confirm that during the monsoon period, precipitation occurred from water vapor that originated from the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal; by contrast during the non-monsoon period, an isotopic signature of more continental origin appeared, indicating that the higher recorded NO3- and SO42- concentrations could be ascribed to a change in air circulation patterns. A comparison of recent monsoon deposition chemistry with data from the 1990's shows similar levels of contaminants in the rainfall. However, non-monsoon deposition can be significant, as it largely contributed to the ion wet deposition fluxes for all analyzed species in 2013.

  12. Elemental composition in surface snow from the ultra-high elevation area of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A total of 14 surface snow (0-10 cm) samples were collected along the climbing route (6500-8844 m a.s.l.) on the northern slope of Mt. Qomolangma in May, 2005. Analysis of elemental concentrations in these samples showed that there are no clear trends for element variations with elevation due to redistribution of surface snow by strong winds during spring. In addition, local crustal aerosol inputs also have an influence on elemental composition of surface snow. Comparison between elemental concentration datasets of 2005 and 1997 indicated that data from 2005 were of higher quality. Elemental concentrations (especially for heavy metals) at Mt. Qomolangma are comparable with polar sites, and far lower than large cities. This indicates that anthropogenic activities and heavy metal pollution have little effect on the Mt. Qomolangma atmospheric environment, which can be representative of the background atmospheric environment.

  13. Research and Evaluation on Ecotourism Resources of Jilong Valley in Everest National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangDegang; LiQian

    2005-01-01

    Jitong is a place behind The Himalayas, which is almost isolated from the world. There is typical vertical ecosystem thanks to its special geological environment. So it is honored as ""the most abundant species gene warehouse in the Plateau Area""and ""the most beautiful valley in the world"". To exploit this valiey is necessary along with the construction of Jilong Port on the border of Sino-Nepal Based on the research on the spot, the ecological resources there are evaluated and an idea that regards hiking tourism as main form and ecotourism as the theme is put forward in this paper, which explores a way to develop the valley on the basis of sustainability.

  14. Calculating the Potato Radius of Asteroids using the Height of Mt. Everest

    CERN Document Server

    Caplan, M E

    2015-01-01

    At approximate radii of 200-300 km, asteroids transition from oblong `potato' shapes to spheres. This limit is known as the Potato Radius, and has been proposed as a classification for separating asteroids from dwarf planets. The Potato Radius can be calculated from first principles based on the elastic properties and gravity of the asteroid. Similarly, the tallest mountain that a planet can support is also known to be based on the elastic properties and gravity. In this work, a simple novel method of calculating the Potato Radius is presented using what is known about the maximum height of mountains and Newtonian gravity for a spherical body. This method does not assume any knowledge beyond high school level mechanics, and may be appropriate for students interested in applications of physics to astronomy.

  15. Organochlorine pesticides in fresh-fallen snow on East Rongbuk Glacier of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng; ZHU Tong; XU BaiQing; KANG ShiChang

    2007-01-01

    During a field campaign in April 2005, fresh-fallen snow samples were collected on the East Rongbuk Glacier of the Mt. Qomolangma at four altitudes (6500 m, 6300 m, 6100 m and 5900 m), to study the role of Mt. Qomolangma as "cold-traps" for Persistent Organic Pollutants. From these snow samples collected at the highest-altitude, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs):HCB,p, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDD were detected, with the concentrations in the ranges of 44-72 pg/L, 401-1560 pg/L, and 20-80 pg/L, respectively. The concentration of o, p'-DDT was around the method detection limit. Analysis of backward trajectories showed that the detected compounds came from the north of India, suggesting that DDTs detected in the snow were possibly originated from new emissions in this area. Relationships between the concentrations of OCPs in snow samples and the sampling altitudes were discussed. The altitudes had no obvious effect on HCB concentrations in the fresh-fallen snow, while increases in the concen- trations of p, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDD with increasing altitude were found, which was reversed compared to the trends observed in North America. Three factors likely resulted in this trend: (1) the properties of the target compounds; (2) the low temperatures at high altitudes; and (3) the location of the mountain sampling sites relative to their sources.

  16. Climate change on the southern slope of Mt.Qomolangma (Everest) Region in Nepal since 1971

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Wei; ZHANG Yili; GAO Jungang; YANG Xuchao; LIU Linshan; Narendra R.KHANAL

    2013-01-01

    Based on monthly mean,maximum,and minimum air temperature and monthly mean precipitation data from 10 meteorological stations on the southern slope of the Mt.Qomolangma region in Nepal between 1971 and 2009,the spatial and temporal characteristics of climatic change in this region were analyzed using climatic linear trend,Sen's Slope Estimates and Mann-Kendall Test analysis methods.This paper focuses only on the southern slope and attempts to compare the results with those from the northern slope to clarify the characteristics and trends of climatic change in the Mt.Qomolangma region.The results showed that:(1) between 1971 and 2009,the annual mean temperature in the study area was 20.0℃,the rising rate of annual mean temperature was 0.25℃/10a,and the temperature increases were highly influenced by the maximum temperature in this region.On the other hand,the temperature increases on the northern slope of Mt.Qomolangma region were highly influenced by the minimum temperature.In 1974 and 1992,the temperature rose noticeably in February and September in the southern region when the increment passed 0.9℃.(2) Precipitation had an asymmetric distribution; between 1971 and 2009,the annual precipitation was 1729.01 mm.In this region,precipitation showed an increasing trend of 4.27mm/a,but this was not statistically significant.In addition,the increase in rainfall was mainly concentrated in the period from April to October,including the entire monsoon period (from June to September) when precipitation accounts for about 78.9% of the annual total.(3) The influence of altitude on climate warming was not clear in the southern region,whereas the trend of climate warming was obvious on the northern slope of Mt.Qomolangma.The annual mean precipitation in the southern region was much higher than that of the northern slope of the Mt.Qomolangma region.This shows the barrier effect of the Himalayas as a whole and Mt.Qomolangma in particular.

  17. Organochlorine pesticides in fresh-fallen snow on East Rongbuk Glacier of Mt.Qomolangma (Everest)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    During a field campaign in April 2005,fresh-fallen snow samples were collected on the East Rongbuk Glacier of the Mt. Qomolangma at four altitudes (6500 m,6300 m,6100 m and 5900 m),to study the role of Mt. Qomolangma as "cold-traps" for Persistent Organic Pollutants. From these snow samples col-lected at the highest-altitude,organochlorine pesticides (OCPs):HCB,p,p′-DDT and p,p′-DDD were detected,with the concentrations in the ranges of 44―72 pg/L,401―1560 pg/L,and 20―80 pg/L,re-spectively. The concentration of o,p′-DDT was around the method detection limit. Analysis of backward trajectories showed that the detected compounds came from the north of India,suggesting that DDTs detected in the snow were possibly originated from new emissions in this area. Relationships between the concentrations of OCPs in snow samples and the sampling altitudes were discussed. The altitudes had no obvious effect on HCB concentrations in the fresh-fallen snow,while increases in the concen-trations of p,p′-DDT and p,p′-DDD with increasing altitude were found,which was reversed compared to the trends observed in North America. Three factors likely resulted in this trend: (1) the properties of the target compounds; (2) the low temperatures at high altitudes; and (3) the location of the mountain sampling sites relative to their sources.

  18. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, W.; T. Doko; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the gl...

  19. Open access high throughput drug discovery in the public domain: a Mount Everest in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anuradha; McDonald, Peter R; Sittampalam, Sitta; Chaguturu, Rathnam

    2010-11-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) facilitates screening large numbers of compounds against a biochemical target of interest using validated biological or biophysical assays. In recent years, a significant number of drugs in clinical trails originated from HTS campaigns, validating HTS as a bona fide mechanism for hit finding. In the current drug discovery landscape, the pharmaceutical industry is embracing open innovation strategies with academia to maximize their research capabilities and to feed their drug discovery pipeline. The goals of academic research have therefore expanded from target identification and validation to probe discovery, chemical genomics, and compound library screening. This trend is reflected in the emergence of HTS centers in the public domain over the past decade, ranging in size from modestly equipped academic screening centers to well endowed Molecular Libraries Probe Centers Network (MLPCN) centers funded by the NIH Roadmap initiative. These centers facilitate a comprehensive approach to probe discovery in academia and utilize both classical and cutting-edge assay technologies for executing primary and secondary screening campaigns. The various facets of academic HTS centers as well as their implications on technology transfer and drug discovery are discussed, and a roadmap for successful drug discovery in the public domain is presented. New lead discovery against therapeutic targets, especially those involving the rare and neglected diseases, is indeed a Mount Everestonian size task, and requires diligent implementation of pharmaceutical industry's best practices for a successful outcome.

  20. Use of Satellite and In Situ Reflectance Data for Lake Water Color Characterization in the Everest Himalayan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Matta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study applied remote sensing techniques to the study of water color in Himalayan glacial lakes as a proxy of suspended solid load. In situ measurements gathered in 5 lakes in October 2014 during satellite data acquisition enabled the characterization of water reflectance and clarity and supported image processing. Field data analysis led to a distinction between 3 water colors and a consequent lake water color classification on a regional scale from Landsat-8 data previously corrected for atmospheric and adjacency effects. Several morphometric parameters (lake size and shape, distance between lake and glacier were also computed for the lakes thus classified. The results showed spatial and temporal variations in lake water color, suggestive of relationships between glacier shrinkage and the presence of brighter and more turbid water. A finer-scale analysis of the spatial variability of water reflectance on Chola Lake (based on GeoEye-1 data captured on 18 October 2014 showed the contribution of water component absorption from the inflow. Overall, the findings support further research to monitor Himalayan lakes using both Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 (with its improved resolutions.

  1. Identification of glacier motion and potentially dangerous glacial lakes in the Mt. Everest region/Nepal using spaceborne imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bolch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Failures of glacial lake dams can cause outburst floods and represents a serious hazard. The potential danger of outburst floods depends on various factors like the lake's area and volume, glacier change, morphometry of the glacier and its surrounding moraines and valley, and glacier velocity. Remote sensing offers an efficient tool for displacement calculations and risk assessment of the identification of potentially dangerous glacial lakes (PDGLs and is especially helpful for remote mountainous areas. Not all important parameters can, however, be obtained using spaceborne imagery. Additional interpretation by an expert is required. ASTER data has a suitable accuracy to calculate surface velocity. Ikonos data offers more detail but requires more effort for rectification. All investigated debris-covered glacier tongues show areas with no or very slow movement rates. From 1962 to 2003 the number and area of glacial lakes increased, dominated by the occurrence and almost linear areal expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes, like the Imja Lake. Although the Imja Lake will probably still grow in the near future, the risk of an outburst flood (GLOF is considered not higher than for other glacial lakes in the area. Potentially dangerous lakes and areas of lake development are identified. There is a high probability of further lake development at Khumbu Glacier, but a low one at Lhotse Glacier.

  2. Obesity in Tibetans Aged 30–70 Living at Different Altitudes under the North and South Faces of Mt. Everest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhamo Y. Sherpa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors for chronic diseases in Tibetans may be modified due to hypobaric hypoxia. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of obesity at varying altitudes of 1,200, 2,900 and 3,700 meters above sea-level in Tibet and Nepal; to estimate the effect of altitude on body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. Three cross-sectional studies with simple random sampling were performed on 617 men and women. BMI, WC and WHtR decreased with increasing altitude. It is likely that the physical conditions such as low temperatures and low oxygen levels have a direct catabolic effect.

  3. Sports and Sub-culture of Homosexuality——Review on Sport,Sexualities and Queer Theory'by Jayne Caudwell%体育与同性恋亚文化——评述简·科德威尔的《体育、性与酷儿理论》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王润斌

    2009-01-01

    简·科德威尔主编的是学术界从同性恋亚文化角度研究体育活动的开山之作.酷儿理论在研究中的解释力、同性恋者的体育实践、酷儿化身体在体育中的身份认同是该研究开启的主要论域.开放的酷儿理论视角、独立的异性恋批判精神、实用的民族志研究方法构成了该研究的主要价值,也为体育与同性恋、体育与性别研究提供了崭新的学术范式与广阔的探讨空间.

  4. EPISODE: A N E XTREME P ROGRAMMING M ETHOD F OR I NNOVATIVE S OFTWARE B ASED O N S YSTEMS D ESIGN A ND I TS P RACTICAL S TUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Goto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In software development, the waterfall model is com monly used, especially for large-scale software systems. For smaller-scale software development, ag ile software development approaches such as extreme programming or scrum are used. Traditional software development methodologies are mainly targeted toward customer-centric development, and therefore, new software methodologies are often not well received in the industry. In this study, we propose a new software development methodology that is aim ed at developing innovative software using artificial intelligence (AI, idea creation, value engineering , and systems design. The name of our method is named as EPISODE (Extreme Programming method for Innovative SOftware based on systems DEsign. EPISO DE supports the efficient and creative development of open source software (OSS by small groups. More over we describe an evaluation of EPISODE in a class

  5. Clinical trials update from the European Society of Cardiology Congress in Vienna, 2007 : PROSPECT, EVEREST, ARISE, ALOFT, FINESSE, Prague-8, CARESS in MI and ACUITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Recio-Mayoral, A.; Kaski, J. -C.; McMurray, J. J. V.; Horowitz, J.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Remme, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    The Clinical Trials described in this article were presented at the Hotline and Clinical Trial Update Sessions of the European Society of Cardiology Congress held in September 2007 in Vienna, Austria. The sessions chosen for this article represent the scope of interest of Cardiovascular Drugs and Th

  6. Reconstruction of the Ice Age Glaciation in the Southern Slopes of Mt. Everest, Cho Oyu, Lhotse and Makalu (Himalaya) (Part 2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Kuhle

    2006-01-01

    @@ Editorial Note: The first section of this article was published in June 2006 (cf. pages 91~124 in No. 2, Vol. 3),and the publishing here is its sequel, which includes 22 Figures (i.e. Figures 9~30), two photos (Photo 1 and 2)and one table (i.e. Table 7). The figures before No.9 mentioned in the text of this part were published in previous issue, and please refer to them while reading. We sincerely apologize to you for any inconvenience this arrangement may have caused you.

  7. Understanding Tools and Practices for Distributed Pair Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schümmer, T.; Lukosch, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    When considering the principles for eXtreme Programming, distributed eXtreme Programming, especially distributed pair programming, is a paradox predetermined to failure. However, global software development as well as the outsourcing of software development are integral parts of software projects. H

  8. Orange County Littoral Cell CRSMP Wastewater and Power Plant Discharge Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Graphical depiction of wastewater and power plant discharge pipelines/outlets locations in Southern California.The shapefile was collected by Everest International...

  9. Orange County Littoral Cell CRSMP Harbor Receiver Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Harbor reciever sites from Everest (2009) 'Harbor Area Management Plan, In-Harbor Beach Replenishment Strategy', Technical Report. Prepared for Harbor Resources...

  10. Earth sciences within the project Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesy and geophysics; Le scienze della Terra nel progetto Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesia e geofisica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poretti, Giorgio [Trieste, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Matematiche

    1997-05-01

    Earth Sciences started the Ev-K2-CNR project in 1987 with the comparison between the heights of Mt. Everest and K2. Several gravimetric campaigns followed in the most difficult areas of the Himalayas. In 1991 a GPS network was established in Nepal for the determination of the Earth crust movements in the area. In 1992 a precise measurement of mount Everest was performed with classical and satellite technologies. Mount K2 was remeasured in Summer 1996.

  11. 珠穆朗玛峰国家自然保护区吉隆藏布峡谷生态资源考察与评价%Research and Evaluation on Ecotourism Resources of Jilong Valley in Everest National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德刚; 李倩

    2005-01-01

    Jilong is a place behind The Himalayas, which is almost isolated from the world. There is typical vertical ecosystem thanks to its special geological environment. So it is honored as "the most abundant species gene warehouse in the Plateau Area"and "the most beautiful valley in the world To exploit this valley is necessary along with the construction of Jilong Port on the border of Sino-Nepal.Based on the research on the spot, the ecological resources there are evaluated and an idea that regards hiking tourism as main form and ecotourism as the theme is put forward in this paper, which explores a way to develop the valley on the basis of sustainability.

  12. Single-order lamellar multilayer gratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der R.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in the soft x-ray (SXR) and eXtreme UltraViolet (XUV) spectral ranges is the ability to manipulate the incident radiation using optical elements. By patterning conventional multilayer mirrors with nanoscale structures, novel optical elements with a variety of optical properties can

  13. A Novel Approach for Collaborative Pair Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sanjay; Kathuria, Vanshi

    2010-01-01

    The majority of an engineer's time in the software industry is spent working with other programmers. Agile methods of software development like eXtreme Programming strongly rely upon practices like daily meetings and pair programming. Hence, the need to learn the skill of working collaboratively is of primary importance for software developers.…

  14. Visualizing Testsuites to Aid in Software Understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, B.; Van Deursen, A.; Moonen, L.; Zaidman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Agile software development methods such as eXtreme Programming have brought renewed attention to testing during the software development process, both as a quality assurance method and as a form of live documentation. It is for this reason that a software system’s testsuite is an ideal starting poin

  15. CADENCE为设计团体消除障碍广泛采用硬件辅助验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    全球电子设计创新领导者 Ca-dnce设计系统公司(NASDAQ:CDNS)日前宣布推出Cadence Incisive Design Team Xtreme Ⅲ Systems这是Incisive功能验证平台中的Incisive Xtreme系列加速器/仿真器的新一代产品。充分考虑设计工程师需求,xtreme Ⅲ Systems为精明的模拟设计师提供将硬件辅助验证的强大功能,速度与易用性相结合的系统。

  16. 75 FR 82026 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... G Donata Holding SE. G Miriam Schaeffer. G OPI Products Inc. 20110306 G Zensar Technologies, Ltd. G... Medical Edge Healthcare Group, P.A. 20110336 G Everest Re Group, Ltd. G Michael A. Miller. G Heartland... Laboratories, L.L.C. 20110252 G Energy XXI (Bermuda) Limited. G Exxon Mobil Corporation. G Mobile Eugene...

  17. Ship-Based UAV Measurements of Air-Sea Interaction in Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Processes in the Equatorial Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    SST sensor (Everest Sci.) SST, frontal processes Humidity/temperature (Vaisala) H/T profiles and bulk fluxes FLIR A325 LWIR camera SST, fronts, ocean...sample (color scale is not calibrated ). The ScanEagle is boxed. (c) Visible Whitecap (disrupts cool surface skin) 300 m 30 m (a) (b) Infrared

  18. TRAPPIST-1 photometry with K2

    OpenAIRE

    Luger, Rodrigo; Kruse, Ethan

    2017-01-01

    A static image of the github repository (https://github.com/rodluger/trappist1) used to detrend the K2 light curve of TRAPPIST-1 with the EVEREST pipeline. This code was used to confirm TRAPPIST-1h and detect its period of 18.77 d (https://arxiv.org/abs/1703.04166).

  19. 才下少林 又上西藏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Towering at an incredible 8, 850 meters, Everest has been quite the jaw-dropper for anyone who has ever had any admiration for any wonder of the world. Since the first ascent to the top in 1953, more than 550 climbers from some 20 countries have accomplished the summit.

  20. Hi-tech Flame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Modern science plays a crucial role in lighting the Olympic flame on the world’s highest mountain when the world saw live telecasts of the Olympic flame burning onthe top of Mount Qomolangma(Mount Everest) at 9:17 on the morning of May 8, few realized the years of work and high level of technology that had

  1. NOVA Spring 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Luann; Gregoire, Tanya; Ransick, Kristina; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lost on Everest"; (2) "Lost Tribes of Israel"; (3) "Crocodiles"; (4) "Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude"; (5) "Global Warming"; and (6) "Secrets of…

  2. Understanding Turnover Intentions and Behavior of Indian Information Systems Professionals: A Study of Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction and Social Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Vidya V.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the phenomenal growth projected for the Indian information technology (IT) industry, one of the biggest challenges it faces is the high rate of turnover in offshore supplier firms based in India (Everest Research Group 2011). According to recent estimates, turnover rates among Indian information systems (IS) professionals have been…

  3. Mary Boole and curve stitching: a look into heaven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Shelley

    2004-03-01

    Mary Everest Boole had a lifelong interest in the unconscious mind, the psychology of learning, and how these relate to the teaching of mathematics and science. She recommended many practical exercises and teaching aids, one of which was the technique of curve stitching, which she had invented while still a child herself.

  4. Boarding Team Communications Phase I: Product Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    United States USS United States Ship VHF Very High Frequency VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol WiFi Wireless Fidelity XP eXtreme...security. By demonstrating that they could not hack into our system, we assuaged the conventional wisdom that a wireless system cannot be made secure...128 MB RAM • 48 MB ROM (~17 MB accessible) • Expandable flash memory (SD/MMC slot) • 1250 MAh Lithium Ion battery • Built-in WiFi (wireless

  5. Support For Distributed Programming In Extreme Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dajda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic limitation emerging from practising eXtreme Programming methodology is theconstraint of close physical proximity between the members of the collaborating team including customer. This became the main idea behind research on XP supporting environmentfor geographically distributed teams. This work presents basic assumptions, elaborated architecture and selected implementation issues for the system of this type. Deliberations aresupplied with the initial results of the verification of its usability based on the users tests.

  6. Inserting Agility in System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Agile IT Acquisition, IT Box, Scrum Inserting Agility in System Development Matthew R. Kennedy and Lt Col Dan Ward, USAF With the fast-paced nature...1,700 individuals and 71 countries, found Scrum and eXtreme Programming to be the most widely followed method- ologies (VersionOne, 2007). Other...University http://www.dau.mil 259 Defense ARJ, July 2012, Vol. 19 No. 3 : 249–264 Scrum Scrum is a framework used for project management, which is

  7. An Investigation of Team Effectiveness in Agile Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    Haraldsen, Lars Martin Riiser

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Agile teamwork has been widely used and accepted in today's industry of software development. The methods in agile teamwork claim to improve performance and predictability, and has during the past years become the target for an emerging area of research. The majority of the existing studies concerning agile teamwork mainly focus around eXtreme Programming (XP). Abstract This report is one of few that discuss teamwork in software development having the agile methodology “Scr...

  8. The Effect of Men's Body Attitudes and Motivation for Gym Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudwell, Kim M; Keatley, David A

    2016-09-01

    Caudwell, KM and Keatley, DA. The effect of men's body attitudes and motivation for gym attendance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2550-2556, 2016-The current study integrates men's body attitudes with implicitly and explicitly measured motivation to investigate the role of these factors in predicting gym attendance. Male participants (N = 99) who regularly attended a gym were recruited to participate in an online questionnaire. Participants completed implicit and explicit measures of motivation, explicitly measured men's body attitudes, and reported the average number of gym visits per week. Attitudes related to body fat and explicitly measured autonomous motivation significantly predicted typical gym attendance. Implicitly measured motivation significantly and negatively predicted gym attendance. Results indicate some support for a dual-systems account of gym attendance. Men's body attitudes and autonomous motivation influences gym attendance; however, implicitly measured motivation showed antagonistic effects. Although individuals may explicitly state their autonomous motivation for gym attendance, attendance may also be influenced at the explicit level. Health and fitness professionals may improve gym attendance by focusing on people's reasons for attending a gym, facilitating autonomous motivation in clients, and minimizing the influence of controlled reasons for exercise.

  9. The Jordan Romero Case; A Biological Super Athlete or a Product of the Sport Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kipreos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many questions have arisen in regards to Jordan Romero’s climbing actions, in terms of ethics and legality. Although, he has already successfully climbed most of the highest summits, his last expedition to climb mountain Everest, has found strong opposition and criticism. Jordan’s decision to climb Everest, at the age of 13, comes into contradiction with the convention on Human Rights, the International Public Law, the climbing rules and regulations of Nepal, and the Law of U.S.A. What should also be put into reference is the fact that Romero’s pursuit violates the Article No. 1 in the Declaration of Tyrol 2002 (Mountaineering, which defines individual responsibility for the activities of the climber. This paper outlines the legal and ethical aspects of Jordan’s venture, taking into account the biological hazards.

  10. New Concepts in Digital Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lankes, R David

    2009-01-01

    Let us start with a simple scenario: a man asks a woman 'how high is Mount Everest?' The woman replies '29,029 feet'. Nothing could be simpler. Now let us suppose that rather than standing in a room, or sitting on a bus, the man is at his desk and the woman is 300 miles away with the conversation taking place using e-mail. Still simple? Certainly - it happens every day. So why all the bother about digital (virtual, electronic, chat, etc.) reference? If the man is a pilot flying over Mount Everest, the answer matters. If you are a lawyer going to court, the identity of the woman is very importa

  11. 免费工具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Kaspersky Anti-Virus6.0.1.360 Beta;天网防火墙个人版Athena 20063.0.0.1001;AntiVir Personal Edition 7;Daemon Tools 4.0.3;EVEREST 3.01.679 Beta;NJStar Communicator(南极星全球通)2.60……

  12. Esiplaanil heli / Harri Slip

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Slip, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Kõrvaklapid hinnaga alla 200 €: AKG Y50BT, Audio-Technica, Beyerdynamic Custom Street, Bose SoundTrue around-ear II, Creative Aurvana Gold, Denon AH-MM200, Focal Spirit One S, Grado SR 80e, JBL Everest V300, Klipsch Reference On Ear, Panasonic RP-HD10, Philips SHB8850NC, Sennheiser HD 25, SMS Audio On-Ear Wired Sport, Sony MDR-100AAP

  13. Corporate Social Necessity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HONG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Up until recently,Wang Shi was one of China's most respected role models and businessman.Wang,chairman of Vanke (万科),China's biggest property developer,has appeared in commercials for Ping An Insurance and Motorola,has scaled Mount Everest,and is often referred to as the godfather of China's real estate business.His blog is one of the most popular in China.But last month,Wang's blog got him in trouble.

  14. VEGETATION CHANGE IN THE MT.QOMOLANGMA NATURAL RESERVE FROM 1981 TO 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction On 18 May 1989,the Mt.Qomolangma (Everest)Natural Reserve(abbr.MQNR)in Tibet Autonomous Region formally came into existence and it was listed as World Network of Biosphere Reserves(WNBR)in May 2005.The MQNR is a comprehensive reserve,which mainly protects alpine ecosystems,plateau natural landscapes,geological remains and Tibetan historical and cultural heritages.

  15. Journey through Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Nepal is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of bio-diversity due to its unique geographical position and altitude variation. The elevation of the country ranges from 60 meters above sea level to the highest point on earth, Mt. Everest at8,848 meters, all within a distance of 150 kilometers resulting in climatic conditions from Sub-tropical to Arctic.

  16. UAS Observations of Polynya Wave Height and Surface Temperature During the September 2012 Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. C.; Palo, S. E.; Knuth, S. L.; Cassano, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    A 2012 campaign flew Aerosonde unmanned aerial systems (UASs) over the Terra Nova Bay polynya in Antarctica to study air-sea fluxes in this environment. Sea ice forms over the open water of the polynya and is pushed out from the coast by strong offshore winds, resulting in significant heat and moisture flux out of the area. The Aerosonde UAS payloads contained a number of instruments, including the Everest IR surface temperature sensor and the CULPIS LIDAR profilometer system, for the purpose of measuring these fluxes. Wave heights were extracted from the CULPIS data and compared to wind speed measurements collected onboard the Aerosonde and to wind speed measurements from AWS stations upwind. Wave height showed minimal correlation to the co-located UAS wind speed measurements, but high geographic predictability. High moisture flux out of polynyas often results in cloud formation, limiting the utility of satellite-based IR measurement of surface temperatures and ice extent. This study compares sea surface temperature measurements from the Everest instrument to the MODIS sea ice surface temperature data product. Surface temperature measurements from the Everest system show high agreement with concurrent MODIS data over a variety of ice surface conditions. The sample time of the UAV instrument relative to the time of the MODIS data provides an estimate of the time rate of change of the surface temperatures of different ice surface types (thin ice, thick ice, open water), which is related to air temperature.

  17. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    OpenAIRE

    Bartl, S; S. Schümberg; Deutsch, M

    2009-01-01

    The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe riv...

  18. Post-processing of high-contrast observations of exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladysz S.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-processing of images delivered by the eXtreme Adaptive Optics (XAO instrumentation is a crucial step which can increase achievable contrast even by two orders of magnitude. In this communication I present a new class of algorithms for detection of extrasolar planets from a sequence of adaptive-optics-corrected images. In general, the methods discriminate between real sources and stellar PSF features based on statistics of recorded intensity. The methods are particularly useful in dealing with static speckles which are the greatest obstacle in detecting exoplanets.

  19. 极限编程(XP)在工程质量监管系统中的应用%Applying Extreme Programming for Information Systems of Engineering Quality Monitoring and Controlling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏静清

    2006-01-01

    "极限编程"(eXtreme Programming,简称XP)是目前最流行的敏捷软件开发方法(Agile Software Development,ASD).通过XP在实际项目中的应用"实践",本文将对XP的理论和实践方法进行探讨,并衡量XP方法在项目中的应用效果,给出实际应用XP方法的一些建议.

  20. Continuous Integration, essential piece in the software development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Aranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous Integration is a practice proposed by eXtreme Programming, one of the most popular agile methodologies, which implementation involves automating one of the most heavy and complex task to predict the process of integration in software development. In this work it is described general aspects related to the practice of Continuous Integration in software development, so it is presented the feasibility of its application due the benefits it provides and the risks that can be mitigated with the use of it. It constitutes a theoretical basis for understanding and showing that this practice is an essential piece for software development.

  1. Web Browser/Server方式的GPS车辆管理系统的设计与实现%Design&Realization of GPS Vehicle Control&Supervision System with Web Browser/Server Liu Kaiyang Han Daofan Ma Aimin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳开洋; 韩道范; 马爱民

    2001-01-01

    文章介绍了在GSM移动通信网上实现的GPS车辆监控调度系统,用MapInfo公司最近推出的基于Internet/Intranet的地图应用服务器--MapXtreme 实现Web Browser/Server方式的系统运行机制,初步提出了当今比较新颖的Web GIS 思想及实际解决方案。

  2. 一种基于.NET的数据转换方法--从AutoCAD数据到Map Info%A Method of NET-based Data Conversion from AutoCAD to MapInfo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏峰远; 郭继发

    2006-01-01

    分析了Maplnfo和AutoCAD的DXF、DWG文件格式,论述了传统AutoCAD数据到 Maplnfo转换的方法,提出了AutoCAD数据向Maplnfo转换的原则,并提出利用MapXtreme 2004和AutoCAD ActiveX实现DWG文件向Maplnfo文件转换的方法.分析了实现的基础理论,论述了实现过程和数据丢失的补救方法.

  3. 基于多媒体计算机的MTV、卡拉OK制作系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵杰

    2011-01-01

    本文综合运用Sound Blaster X-Fi Xtreme Karaoke声卡及绘声绘影会所构建的计算机MTV、卡拉OK制作系统具有高效、低成本、易普及的优点.通过对系统硬件构成及选用、软件选择与具体使用方法、以及工作原理的详细阐述,使读者能够完全掌握该系统的原理、构建及使用方法.

  4. ABB推出针对极端应用环境的AC500XC系列PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    近日,ABB集团在华推出AC500-XC系列可编程控制器(PLC)产品。XC代表eXtreme Conditions(极端条件应用)。XC系列PLC让极端环境下的控制变得更轻松、更明显,也更简单直观,可以让用户有效节省在工程设计和操作中费用。

  5. Tracing the sources of particles in the East Rongbuk ice core from Mt. Qomolangma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU JianZhong; HOU ShuGui; CHEN FuKun; REN JiaWen; QIN DaHe

    2009-01-01

    Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic tracer was applied, for the first time, to identifying the sources of the particles in the East Rongbuk ice core from Mt. Qomalangma (Everest). The results show that the particles in the dirty layers originate mainly from local sources, while the particles in the non-dirty layers are consistent with the features of dust from the arid regions in northwestern India. The HYSPLIT model shows that the air trajectory goes first through northwestern India before reaching the drilling site of ice core when dust storms occur in northwestern India, confirming northwestern India as a possible source of dust in the East Rongbuk ice core.

  6. Co-operation on The Roof of the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria; AntoniaStroni

    1996-01-01

    A freezing wind sweeps through the narrow Tibetan valley,whistling over the sand,stones and dry grass,buffeting the grazing sheep and the low houses of the tiny village which nestles there at an altitude of 4,600 meters.High overhead white clouds scud across skies of an unimaginably intense cobalt blue.Towards the south,the glistening peak of Everest rises momentarily from amidst the bank of clouds which hover over the barren ochre slopes already in autumnal garb and heralding the onset of winter.The farmers have been busy gathering the

  7. Solar power on the top of the world : Possibilities to provide the school in Thade, in Nepal, with electricity from a solar cell system

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson Knutsson, Linnea

    2016-01-01

    Nepal, a country located between India and China, is one of the world’s least developed countries.  Access to electricity is a problem throughout Nepal. Both for the grid connected areas that suffer from power cuts up to 16 hours a day during the dry season, and for remote areas where lack of money, infrastructure or even the location itself set limits for the electrification. In the eastern part of Nepal, around 100 km south of Mount Everest is Thade, a small mountain village with about 200 ...

  8. 墨CM57710:10GbE聚合网络界面控制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Broadcom日前推出单芯片双端口10GbE聚合网络界面控制器(C-NIC)——BCM57710,以迎合大批量服务器的设计。基于之前两代成熟的NetXtreme II千兆以太网C-NIC技术,Broadcom此次成功发布业界首款10Gbps(千兆比特/每秒)速率的全功能、单芯片聚合网络界面控制器(C-NIC),这款产品不需要外部缓存的支持。

  9. QualitySpy: a framework for monitoring software development processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Jureczko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of highly iterative, agile processes creates increasing need for automated monitoring of the quality of software artifacts, which would be focused on short terms (in the case of eXtreme Programming process iteration can be limited to one week. This paper presents a framework that calculates software metrics and cooperates with development tools (e.g. source version control system and issue tracking system to describe current state of a software project with regard to its quality. The framework is designed to support high level of automation of data collection and to be useful for researchers as well as for industry. The framework is currently being developed hence the paper reports already implemented features as well as future plans. The first release is scheduled for July.

  10. Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on gap junctional intercellular communication and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The study on biological effect of electromagnetic fields has been paid close attention in recent years. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays an important role in the maintenance of cell proliferation and differentiation, and in the multistage process of carcinogenesis. A series of researches showed that xtremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields not only enhance the inhibition of GJIC induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, but also inhibit GJIC directly when the intensity is equal to or more than 0.4  mT, and that the mechanisms of GJIC inhibition by ELF magnetic fields are due to hyperphosphorylation of connexin 43, which is mediated by protein kinase C-activated signal transduction, and the internalization of connexin 43 from plasma membrane to cytoplasm.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE MOST USED AGILE METHODS (XP, LEAN, SCRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BODJE N’KAUH NATHAN-REGIS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of Agile Software Development technologies, the software community is expecting in a large impact on producing quality. The Agile Software Development ideas were presentedin the form of Agile Manifesto which consists of four values and twelve principles. Toyota System production, set also a series of principles and practices which has lead Toyota Motor Corporationcommonly known simply as Toyota (multinational automaker on the top of the car industry market by achieving a reputation for the production of very high quality vehicles in all countries around the world. The main question that each new technology must pass through with success is: How much it’s worth? This paper propose a model for determining the significance worth of quality into the most used agilemethods (eXtreme programming, Scrum, Lean inspired by the Toyota Production System(TPS.

  12. Modeling and measuring the transport and scattering of energetic debris in an extreme ultraviolet plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporre, John R.; Elg, Daniel T.; Kalathiparambil, Kishor K.; Ruzic, David N.

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical model for describing the propagation and scattering of energetic species in an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light lithography source is presented. An EUV light emitting XTREME XTS 13-35 Z-pinch plasma source is modeled with a focus on the effect of chamber pressure and buffer gas mass on energetic ion and neutral debris transport. The interactions of the energetic debris species, which is generated by the EUV light emitting plasma, with the buffer gas and chamber walls are considered as scattering events in the model, and the trajectories of the individual atomic species involved are traced using a Monte Carlo algorithm. This study aims to establish the means by which debris is transported to the intermediate focus with the intent to verify the various mitigation techniques currently employed to increase EUV lithography efficiency. The modeling is compared with an experimental investigation.

  13. First experimental results with the Current Limit Avoidance System at the JET tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tommasi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Galeani, S. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Jachmich, S. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Koninklijke Militaire School - Ecole Royale Militaire, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Joffrin, E. [IRFM-CEA, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-paul-lez-Durance (France); Lennholm, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Lomas, P.J. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Neto, A.C. [Associazione EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, IST, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); McCullen, P. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Pironti, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Rimini, F.G. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Sips, A.C.C. [European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Varano, G.; Vitelli, R. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Zaccarian, L. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Universitè de Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2013-06-15

    The Current Limit Avoidance System (CLA) has been recently deployed at the JET tokamak to avoid current saturations in the poloidal field (PF) coils when the eXtreme Shape Controller is used to control the plasma shape. In order to cope with the current saturation limits, the CLA exploits the redundancy of the PF coils system to automatically obtain almost the same plasma shape using a different combination of currents in the PF coils. In the presence of disturbances it tries to avoid the current saturations by relaxing the constraints on the plasma shape control. The CLA system has been successfully implemented on the JET tokamak and fully commissioned in 2011. This paper presents the first experimental results achieved in 2011–2012 during the restart and the ITER-like wall campaigns at JET.

  14. De-noising the galaxies in the Hubble XDF with EMPCA

    CERN Document Server

    Maturi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to model optical images of galaxies using Expectation Maximization Principal Components Analysis (EMPCA). The method relies on the data alone and does not assume any pre-established model or fitting formula. It preserves the statistical properties of the sample, minimizing possible biases. The precision of the reconstructions appears to be suited for photometric, morphological and weak lensing analysis, as well as the realization of mock astronomical images. Here, we put some emphasis on the latter because weak gravitational lensing is entering a new phase in which systematics are becoming the major source of uncertainty. Accurate simulations are necessary to perform a reliable calibration of the ellipticity measurements on which the final bias depends. As a test case, we process $7038$ galaxies observed with the ACS/WFC stacked images of the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) and measure the accuracy of the reconstructions in terms of their moments of brightness, which turn out to be compara...

  15. Note: A new angle-resolved proton energy spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y.; Su, L. N.; Liu, M.; Liu, B. C.; Shen, Z. W.; Fan, H. T.; Li, Y. T.; Chen, L. M.; Lu, X.; Ma, J. L.; Wang, W. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Wei, Z. Y. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, J. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2013-09-15

    In typical laser-driven proton acceleration experiments Thomson parabola proton spectrometers are used to measure the proton spectra with very small acceptance angle in specific directions. Stacks composed of CR-39 nuclear track detectors, imaging plates, or radiochromic films are used to measure the angular distributions of the proton beams, respectively. In this paper, a new proton spectrometer, which can measure the spectra and angular distributions simultaneously, has been designed. Proton acceleration experiments performed on the Xtreme light III laser system demonstrates that the spectrometer can give angle-resolved spectra with a large acceptance angle. This will be conductive to revealing the acceleration mechanisms, optimization, and applications of laser-driven proton beams.

  16. ABB推出针对极端应用环境的AC500XC系列PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    近日,全球500强ABB集团在华推出XC系列PLC产品AC500-XC代表eXtreme Conditions。XC系列PLC让极端环境下的控制变得更轻松、更明显,也更简单直观,可以让用户有效节省在工程设计和操作中的费用。该产品应用领域包括风电控制及保护系统、太阳能电站跟踪器及监控系统、

  17. Developer Stories: Improving Architecture in Agile Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Jensen, Rolf Njor; Platz, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Within the field of Software Engineering emergence of agile methods has been a hot topic since the late 90s. eXtreme Programming (XP) ([1]) was one of the first agile methods and is one of the most well-known. However research has pointed to weaknesses in XP regarding supporting development...... of viable architectures. To strengthen XP in this regard a new practice: Developer Stories ([2]) was introduced in 2006 - mainly based on a theoretical argumentation. This paper reports from extensive experimentation with, and elaboration of the new practice. Results from this experimentation shows...... that using Developer Stories increases the likelihood of developing a viable architecture through a series of deliberate choices, through creating disciplined and recurring activities that: 1) Facilitate sharing and embodying of knowledge about architectural issues, and 2) heighten visibility of refactorings...

  18. Aprimorando a Gerência e o Desenvolvimento de Software com Metodologias Ágeis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Andreazza Sganderla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a melhoria da gerência e construção de software utilizando as metodologias ágeis eXtreme Programming e Scrum. São aplicadas as melhores práticas de ambas as metodologias em uma equipe de desenvolvimento de software, em um ambiente em que não havia nenhum processo bem definido de desenvolvimento de software. A escolha pelo uso das metodologias ágeis foi definida, pois atende ao dinamismo do cenário atual, requisitos voláteis, ambiente mais colaborativo e menos burocrático, tendo como objetivo principal o software em funcionamento e que realmente traga retorno ao cliente.

  19. Charge state distribution and emission characteristics in a table top reflex discharge—Effect of ion confinement and electrons accelerated across the sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Deepak, E-mail: deepak.kumar@eli-beams.eu; Englesbe, Alexander; Parman, Matthew; Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Tabletop reflex discharges in a Penning geometry have many applications including ion sources and eXtreme Ultra-Violet (XUV) sources. The presence of primary electrons accelerated across the cathode sheaths is responsible for the distribution of ion charge states and of the unusually high XUV brightness of these plasmas. Absolutely calibrated space resolved XUV spectra from a table top reflex discharge operating with Al cathodes and Ne gas are presented. The spectra are analyzed with a new and complete model for ion charge distribution in similar reflex discharges. The plasma in the discharge was found to have a density of ∼10{sup 18 }m{sup −3} with a significant fraction >0.01 of fast primary electrons. The implications of the new model on the ion states achievable in a tabletop reflex plasma discharge are also discussed.

  20. Comparison of coronagraphs for high contrast imaging in the context of Extremely Large Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, P; Kasper, M; Cavarroc, C; Yaitskova, N; Fusco, T; Verinaud, C

    2008-01-01

    We compare coronagraph concepts and investigate their behavior and suitability for planet finder projects with Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs, 30-42 meters class telescopes). For this task, we analyze the impact of major error sources that occur in a coronagraphic telescope (central obscuration, secondary support, low-order segment aberrations, segment reflectivity variations, pointing errors) for phase, amplitude and interferometric type coronagraphs. This analysis is performed at two different levels of the detection process: under residual phase left uncorrected by an eXtreme Adaptive Optics system (XAO) for a large range of Strehl ratio and after a general and simple model of speckle calibration, assuming common phase aberrations between the XAO and the coronagraph (static phase aberrations of the instrument) and non-common phase aberrations downstream of the coronagraph (differential aberrations provided by the calibration unit). We derive critical parameters that each concept will have to cope with by...

  1. Mobile systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Kristiansen, Martin Lund; Kammersgaard, Marc N.

    2007-01-01

    Development of mobile software is Surrounded by much uncertainty. Immature software platforms on mobile clients, a highly competitive market calling for innovation, efficiency and effectiveness in the development life cycle, and lacking end-user adoption are just some of the realities facing...... development teams in the mobile software industry. By taking a process view on development of mobile systems we seek to explore the strengths and limitations of eXtreme Programming (XP) in the context of mobile software development. Following an experimental approach a mobile systems development project...... running for four months is conducted. Experiences from the project are used for analysis and discussion of the fit of XP in mobile systems development. First, requirements for mobile systems development projects are proposed. Second, these are analysed and compared to the prescribed principles suggested...

  2. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  3. Peak heart rates at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    We have measured maximal heart rate during a graded maximal bicycle exercise test to exhaustion in five healthy climbers before and during an expedition to Mt. Everest. Maximal heart rates at sea level were 186 (177-204) beats/min(-1) at sea level and 170 (169-182) beats/min(-1) with acute hypoxia....... After 1, 4 and 6 weeks of acclimatization to 5400 m, maximal heart rates were 155 (135-182), 158 (144-182), and 155 (140-183) beats/min(-1), respectively. Heart rates of two of the climbers were measured during their attempt to reach the summit of Mt. Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen....... The peak heart rates at 8,750 m for the two climbers were 142 and 144 beats/min(-1), which were similar to their maximal heart rates during exhaustive bicycle exercise at 5,400 m, the values being 144 and 148 beats/min(-1), respectively. The peak heart rates at 8,750 m are in agreement with other field...

  4. Joseph Barcroft's studies of high-altitude physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2013-10-15

    Joseph Barcroft (1872-1947) was an eminent British physiologist who made contributions to many areas. Some of his studies at high altitude and related topics are reviewed here. In a remarkable experiment he spent 6 days in a small sealed room while the oxygen concentration of the air gradually fell, simulating an ascent to an altitude of nearly 5,500 m. The study was prompted by earlier reports by J. S. Haldane that the lung secreted oxygen at high altitude. Barcroft tested this by having blood removed from an exposed radial artery during both rest and exercise. No evidence for oxygen secretion was found, and the combination of 6 days incarceration and the loss of an artery was heroic. To obtain more data, Barcroft organized an expedition to Cerro de Pasco, Peru, altitude 4,300 m, that included investigators from both Cambridge, UK and Harvard. Again oxygen secretion was ruled out. The protocol included neuropsychometric measurements, and Barcroft famously concluded that all dwellers at high altitude are persons of impaired physical and mental powers, an assertion that has been hotly debated. Another colorful experiment in a low-pressure chamber involved reducing the pressure below that at the summit of Mt. Everest but giving the subjects 100% oxygen to breathe while exercising as a climber would on Everest. The conclusion was that it would be possible to reach the summit while breathing 100% oxygen. Barcroft was exceptional for his self-experimentation under hazardous conditions.

  5. El Volcán Chimborazo "El Coloso de los Andes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Izurieta Dario Felix

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Por muchos años se pensó que el Monte Everest localizado en Nepal podía ser considerado como el punto más alto del mundo en todo sentido; sin embargo, un estudio realizado por el Instituto Geográfico Militar del Ecuador (IGM con ayuda del Instituto Francés de Investigación para el Desarrollo (IRD, el cuál consistió en realizar nuevas mediciones considerando el centro de la Tierra como referencia, arrojaron que el volcán Chimborazo es el punto más alto del planeta superando al Everest por un margen de alrededor de dos kilómetros. Gracias a estos nuevos datos relevantes, el volcán Chimborazo ha hecho eco alrededor del mundo siendo un atractivo para científicos y curiosos en general interesados en saber un poco más sobre la geología y la biología del lugar.

  6. Cine club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine club

    2016-01-01

    Wednesday 15 June 2016 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber North Face   Directed by Philipp Stölzl Germany / Austria / Switzerland, 2008, 126 minutes Based on a true story, North Face is an adventure film about a competition to climb the most dangerous rock face in the Alps. Set in 1936, as Nazi propaganda urges the nation's Alpinists to conquer the unclimbed north face of the Swiss massif - the Eiger - two reluctant German climbers begin their daring ascent.. Original version German; English subtitles Wednesday 22 June 2016 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Everest   Directed by Baltasar Kormakur UK / USA, 2015, 121 minutes On the morning of May 10, 1996, climbers from two commercial expeditions start their final ascent toward the summit of Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. With little warning, a violent storm strikes the mountain, engulfing the adventurers in one of the fiercest blizzards ever encountered by man. Challenged by the harshest conditions imaginable, the te...

  7. Career perspective: John B West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2012-11-07

    I have been fortunate to work in two areas of extreme physiology and medicine: very high altitude and the microgravity of spaceflight. My introduction to high altitude medicine was as a member of Sir Edmund Hillary's Silver Hut Expedition in 1960-1961 when a small group of physiologists spent the winter and spring at an altitude of 5,800 m just south of Mt. Everest. The physiological objective was to obtain a better understanding of the acclimatization process of lowlanders during exposure to a very high altitude for several months. As far as we knew, no one had ever spent so long at such a high altitude before. The success of this expedition prompted me to organize the 1981 American Medical Research Expedition to Everest where the scientific objective was to determine the physiological changes that allow humans to survive in the extreme hypoxia of the highest point on earth. There is good evidence that this altitude is very near the limit of human tolerance to oxygen deprivation. Much novel information was obtained including an extraordinary degree of hyperventilation which reduced the alveolar partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2) to about 8 mmHg (1.1 kPa) on the summit, and this in turn allowed the alveolar partial pressure of oxygen, PO2, to be maintained at a viable level of about 35 mmHg (4.7 kPa). The low Pco2 caused a severe degree of respiratory alkalosis with an arterial pH exceeding 7.7. These were the first physiological measurements to be made on the Everest summit, and essentially, none has been made since. The second extreme environment is microgravity. We carried out an extensive series of measurements on astronauts in the orbiting laboratory known as SpaceLab in the 1990s. Many aspects of pulmonary function are affected by gravity, so it was not surprising that many changes were found. However, overall gas exchange remained efficient. Some of the findings such as an anomalous behavior of inhaled helium and sulfur hexafluoride have still not

  8. Geoid of Nepal from airborne gravity survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Einarsson, Indriði

    2011-01-01

    An airborne gravity survey of Nepal was carried out December 2010 in a cooperation between DTU-Space, Nepal Survey Department, and NGA, USA. The entire country was flown with survey lines spaced 6 nm with a King Air aircraft, with a varying flight altitude from 4 to 10 km. The survey operations...... were a major challenge due to excessive jet streams at altitude as well as occasional excessive mountain waves. Despite the large 400 mGal+ range of gravity anomaly changes from the Indian plains to the Tibetan Plateau, results appear accurate to a few mGal, with proper evaluation from cross...... as well as recent GPS-heights of Mt. Everest. The new airborne data also provide an independent validation of GOCE gravity field results at the local ~100 km resolution scale....

  9. The comparative study of micro-tensile bond strength of different bonding system to zirconia in vitro%不同粘接系统下氧化锆陶瓷微拉伸粘接强度的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孟武; 孙迎春; 李永斌; 韦荣智

    2012-01-01

    目的:对比研究Everest ZH blank陶瓷在三种粘接系统下的微拉伸粘接强度.方法:分别用Variolink N,Panavia F,ResiCem粘接系统对经相同处理的Everest ZH blank陶瓷进行粘接处理,并在其上堆积4mm高度的树脂,后每组垂直于粘接面切割出1mm×1mm×8mm的试件各18个,每组再随机选取9个试件进行37℃水浴24h实验,剩余9个试件进行10000次冷热循环实验后行微拉伸粘接强度测试.电镜下观察界面破坏形式.结果:37℃24h后Panavia F和ResiCem组取得了较高的粘接强度(P <0.05),10000次冷热循环后,所有试件的微拉伸粘接强度都有所下降,但是Panavia F组的差异无统计学意义(P <0.05).结论:三组粘接系统都具有良好的粘接效果,但是Panavia F粘接系统更加稳定.%Objective: To evaluate the micro-tensile bond strength of three types bonding systems to Everest ZH blank ceramic.Method: The Everest ZH blank ceramics, which were treated with the same process, were coated with three kinds of bonding system which were Variolink N, Panavia F and ResiCem bonding system.4mm resin was deposited on each sample.Then specimens in each group were cut into 1mm×1mm×8mm.Then each group was subdivided into 2 subgroups (n = 9) in which the specimens were treated by 24-hour immersion in 37℃ water and thermocycling of 10000 cycles respectively.Microtensile bond strength was determined with a universal testing machine.Fracture mode analysis was performed using SEM.Result: The group of Panavia F and ResiCem achieved significantly higher bond strength after 24-hour immersion in 37℃ water (P<0.05).It was found that the micro-tensile bond strength in all groups decreased notably after 10000 thermocycling, but there was no significant difference in the group of Panavia F (P<0.05).Conclusion: Three bonding systems could achieve favorable bonding effect, moreover, the Panavia bonding system was more stable.

  10. Writing Travel in the Anthropocene: Disastrous Life at the End of the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graulund, Rune

    2016-01-01

    could have imagined just a century ago. Globalisation and increased mobility, whether it is that of the privileged few who can travel on holiday on jet airplanes, or that of the immigrant labourer seeking employment by crossing borders on foot, have meant millions (if not indeed billions) are constantly...... by a rapid increase in the mobility of people, goods and information, but primarily examine the impact of the Anthropocene on the notion of travel. For in a world in which the peak of Mount Everest is littered with toilet paper and the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is potentially twice the size of the US......, where do we locate travel? Specifically, the essay will examine the polar region as an indicator region of the impact of the Anthropocene by looking at a range of early 20th Century arctic travel writing texts and hold them in comparison to late 20th and early 21st Century versions....

  11. Landscapes of Mars A Visual Tour

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Gregory L

    2008-01-01

    Landscapes of Mars is essentially a picture book that provides a visual tour of Mars. All the major regions and topographical features will be shown and supplemented with chapter introductions and extended captions. In a way, think of it as a visual tourist guide. Other topics covered are Martian uplands on the order of the elevation of Mt. Everest, Giant volcanoes and a rift system, the Grand Canyon of Mars, craters and the absence of craters over large regions (erosion), and wind shadows around craters, sand dunes, and dust devils. The book includes discussions on the search for water (braided channels, seepage, sedimentary layering, etc.) as well as on the Viking mission search for life, Mars meteorite fossil bacteria controversy, and planetary protection in future missions. The book concludes with an exciting gallery of the best 3D images of Mars making the book a perfect tool for understanding Mars and its place in the solar system.

  12. Glacier variations and climate warming and drying in the central Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Jiawen; QIN Dahe; KANG Shichang; HOU Shugui; PU Jianchen; JING Zhefan

    2004-01-01

    Repeat measurements of glacier terminus positions show that glaciers in the central Himalayas have been in a continuous retreat situation in the past decades. The average retreat rate is 5.5-8.7 m/a in Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) since the 1960s and 6.4 m/a in Mt. Xixiabangma since the 1980s. In recent years, the retreat rate is increasing. Ice core studies revealed that the accumulation rate of glaciers has a fluctuating decrease trend in the last century with a rapid decrease in the 1960s and a relatively steady low value afterwards. Meteorological station record indicates that the annual mean temperature has a slow increase trend but summer temperature had a larger increase in the past 30 a. All these suggest that the glacier retreat results from precipitation decrease in combination with temperature increase, and hence glacier shrinkage in this region will speed up if the climatic warming and drying continues.

  13. Late calcific mitral stenosis after MitraClip procedure in a dialysis-dependent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Nicolas H; Lim, Scott; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2013-05-01

    The EVEREST II trial investigated the MitraClip (Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, CA) in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) undergoing surgical procedures. Although mitral stenosis was not reported in this cohort, this trial excluded patients receiving dialysis. We report a case of a 43-year-old HIV-positive, dialysis-dependent patient with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and severe MR, who was considered at high operative risk because of frailty. She was treated with a MitraClip as part of the REALISM high-risk registry. Her symptomatic MR improved but severe symptomatic mitral stenosis developed 28 months after the MitraClip procedure. At that point, she was felt to be a better operative candidate but required open mitral valve replacement. Pathologic examination demonstrated significant calcification of the leaflets around the MitraClip devices.

  14. Himalayas as seen from STS-66 shuttle Atlantis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    View is southeastward across China (Tibet), half of Nepal and India. The partly frozen lake near the center of the frame is Pei-Ku T'so ('Bos-tie Lake'). The central Himalaya stretches from Mount Everest on the left past Annapurna on the right. Large tributaries converge to form the Ganges River, flowing through the lowland basin south of the Himalaya. This photograph illustrates the rain shadow effect of the Himalaya Chain; wet, warm air from the Indian Ocean is driven against the mountains, lifted, and drained of water that forms ice caps, the abundant rivers, and forests of the foothills. In contrast the high plateau of Tibet is arid, composed largely of topographically-closed basins because stream flow is inadequate to form integrated drainage networks.

  15. Study on the heights of the highest mountains of Mars and the Earth and their difference%火星和地球上山峰最高高度及其差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈出新; 常震

    2015-01-01

    The radius of Mars is only half of that of Earth,while the height of Mount Olympus,the highest mountain on Mars,is more than twice of that of Everest on Earth.There are still some peaks on Mars which are much higher than Everest. To explain the appearance of mountains or protrusions disproportional to the scale of the planet,a stress model of a mountain was set up.It was found that the main factor that affects the highest mountains’height is gravitational acceleration.The smaller the planet, the smaller its surface gravitational acceleration,and the more prominent the protrusions on its surface. The depth of the deepest trench on Earth was also estimated using the same method;the result is close to reality.%火星的半径只有地球半径的一半多一点,而火星的最高峰奥林匹斯山比地球的最高峰珠穆朗玛峰的两倍还高,火星上还有不少比珠峰还要高得多的山峰。为解释这种与天体尺度不成比例的山峰或凸起的出现原因,建立了一个山峰的应力模型,发现影响山峰高度的主要因素是重力加速度。越是小的天体,它的表面重力加速度越小,表面的凸起就越显著。同一模型亦较好地估算出与实际相近的地球最深海沟的深度。

  16. Same ammo, different weapons: enzymatic extracts from two apple genotypes with contrasted susceptibilities to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) differentially convert phloridzin and phloretin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Matthieu; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Guyot, Sylvain; Dat, James F; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-01

    The necrogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora responsible for the fire blight disease causes cell death in apple tissues to enrich intercellular spaces with nutrients. Apple leaves contain large amounts of dihydrochalcones (DHCs), including phloridzin and its aglycone phloretin. Previous work showed an important decrease in the constitutive DHCs stock in infected leaves, probably caused by transformation reactions during the infection process. At least two flavonoid transformation pathways have been described so far: deglucosylation and oxidation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether DHCs are differentially converted in two apple genotypes displaying contrasted susceptibilities to the disease. Different analyses were performed: i) enzymatic activity assays in infected leaves, ii) identification/quantification of end-products obtained after in vitro enzymatic reactions with DHCs, iii) evaluation of the bactericidal activity of end-products. The results of the enzymatic assays showed that deglucosylation was dominant over oxidation in the susceptible genotype MM106 while the opposite was observed in the resistant genotype Evereste. These data were confirmed by LC-UV/Vis-MS analysis of in vitro reaction mixtures, especially because higher levels of o-quinoid oxidation products of phloretin were measured by using the enzymatic extracts of Evereste infected leaves. Their presence correlated well with a strong bactericidal activity of the reaction mixtures. Thus, our results suggest that a differential transformation of DHCs occur in apple genotypes with a potential involvement in the establishment of the susceptibility or the resistance to fire blight, through the release of glucose or of highly bactericidal compounds respectively.

  17. Reduced melt on debris-covered glaciers: investigations from Changri Nup Glacier, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Christian; Wagnon, Patrick; Shea, Joseph M.; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Kraaijenbrink, Philip; Shrestha, Dibas; Soruco, Alvaro; Arnaud, Yves; Brun, Fanny; Berthier, Etienne; Futi Sherpa, Sonam

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 25 % of the glacierized area in the Everest region is covered by debris, yet the surface mass balance of debris-covered portions of these glaciers has not been measured directly. In this study, ground-based measurements of surface elevation and ice depth are combined with terrestrial photogrammetry, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and satellite elevation models to derive the surface mass balance of the debris-covered tongue of Changri Nup Glacier, located in the Everest region. Over the debris-covered tongue, the mean elevation change between 2011 and 2015 is -0.93 m year-1 or -0.84 m water equivalent per year (w.e. a-1). The mean emergence velocity over this region, estimated from the total ice flux through a cross section immediately above the debris-covered zone, is +0.37 m w.e. a-1. The debris-covered portion of the glacier thus has an area-averaged mass balance of -1.21 ± 0.2 m w.e. a-1 between 5240 and 5525 m above sea level (m a.s.l.). Surface mass balances observed on nearby debris-free glaciers suggest that the ablation is strongly reduced (by ca. 1.8 m w.e. a-1) by the debris cover. The insulating effect of the debris cover has a larger effect on total mass loss than the enhanced ice ablation due to supraglacial ponds and exposed ice cliffs. This finding contradicts earlier geodetic studies and should be considered for modelling the future evolution of debris-covered glaciers.

  18. Influence of Habitat Modifications on Habitat Composition and Anadromous Salmonid Populations in Fish Creek, Oregon, 1983-1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Gordon H.; Everest, Fred H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Hohler, David B. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)

    1990-05-01

    Modification of degraded habitats to increase populations of anadromous salmonids is a major focus of management agencies throughout the Pacific Northwest. Millions of dollars are spent annually on such efforts. Inherent in implementing habitat improvements is the need for quantitative evaluation of the biological and physical effects of such work. Reeves et al. (in press), however, noted that such evaluations are rare, making it difficult to assess the true results of habitat work. While it is not economically possible to thoroughly evaluate every habitat project, it is essential that intensive evaluations be done on selected representative projects. One such evaluation program has been underway since 1982 on Fish Creek, a tributary of the Clackamas River near Estacada, OR. Habitat modification has been done by the USDA Forest Service, Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest with funding provided in part by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The USDA Forest Service, Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit, Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), Corvallis, OR is charged with: (1) evaluating the biological and physical responses to habitat modifications on a basin scale; and (2) developing a cost-benefit analysis of the program. Preliminary results have been reported in a series of annual publications, Everest and Sedell 1983, 1984 and Everest et al. 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) report 1988 observations of biological and physical changes in habitat, salmonid populations, and smolt production in Fish Creek, and (2) examine preliminary trends in fish habitat and populations related to habitat improvement over the period 1983-1988. We have prefaced the trends in the latter objective as preliminary because we believe it could take a minimum of 10 years before the full biological and physical responses to habitat work are realized. We therefore urge caution in interpreting these preliminary results.

  19. To localise or to be localised with WiFi in the Hubei museum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbree, E.; Zlatanova, S.; van Winden, K. B. A.; van der Laan, E. B.; Makri, A.; Taizhou, L.; Haojun, A.

    2013-11-01

    Indoor localisation is in demand for a variety of applications within the built environment. An overall solution based on a single technology has not yet been determined. The aim of this paper is to gain insight on Signal Strength monitoring by a special kind of WiFi Monitors in comparison to the commonly known fingerprinting method for the purpose of a 3D indoor navigation system. Ttwo different WiFi based localisation techniques are tested during the MSc Geomatics DaRen Syntheses Project in the Hubei Provincial Museum, China. The first method detects the beacon frames send by smartphones, laptops and other WiFi enabled devices in range using Libelium Meshlium Xtreme monitors. Their MAC addresses and the signal strength is measured by the Meshlium Xtreme and stored on an external database. We call this method WiFi monitoring. The second method a Wifi enabled device, like a smartphone, measures the signal strength of multiple Wifi Access Points in range to localise itself based on a previously created radio map. This method is known as WiFi fingerprinting. Both methods have some advantages and disadvantages. Advantages of the common way of WiFi fingerprinting are that the implementation costs are relatively low, because it is usually possible to use (a part of) the existing WiFi AP infrastructure. WiFi fingerprinting can reach a relatively high accuracy in the order of magnitude of meters. Finally, the location granularity can be adjusted to what is necessary for the purpose of the indoor localisation. This makes it employable for a wide range of purposes. The question remains how suitable these methods are for a 3D indoor navigation system for the Hubei provincial museum. One important aspect is the localisation-granularity necessary for the application. In a museum it is not necessary to know the exact X,Y position of a user (such high accuracy is unnecessary), more important is to know in which room the user is located so the information on exhibitions can be

  20. Biokinetics and dosimetry of a hybrid formulation of {sup 9{sup m}}Tc-BN and {sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} starting from optic images in a murine model; Biocinetica y dosimetria de una formulacion hibrida de {sup 99m}Tc-BN y {sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} a partir de imagenes opticas en un modelo murino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo A, L. G.

    2015-07-01

    This work has the purpose of evaluate the biokinetics and absorbed dose of radiation of hybrid formulation {sup 99m}Tc-BN /{sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} in a murine model by optical imaging techniques using the multimodal preclinical in vivo image system Xtreme. The used method were the {sup 99m}Tc-BN, {sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} and {sup 99m}Tc-BN/{sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} formulas, with specific recognition for GRPr and the integrin s α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) respectively, was injected in the vein tail of three nude mousses with induce breast cancer tumors (cell line T-47-D), by the preclinical multimodal imaging system Xtreme (Bruker), optical images in different times was acquired (5, 10, 20 min, 2 and 24 h), using Images Processing Toolbox of MATLAB these images was transform from RGB format to gray scales and sectioned in five independent images corresponding to heart, kidneys, bladder and tumor areas. The intensity of each images was computed in counts per pixel, then those intensities was corrected for background, attenuation and scattering, using different factors for each phenomena previously calculated. Finally the activity values quantified vs time was fitted into a biokinetic model to obtain the disintegrations number and cumulate activities in each organ. With these data the radiation absorbed dose were calculated using MIRD methodology. Results: The number of disintegration and absorbed dose calculated in MBq h/MBq and mGy/MBq, of injected mouse with the {sup 99m}Tc-BN/{sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} formulation, was: 0.035 ± 0.65 E-02, 0.25 x 10{sub -5} ± 0.46 E-07; 0.393 ± 0.51 E-1, 2.85 E-05 ± 3.7 E-06; 0.306 ± 0.21 E-01, 2.11 E-05 ± 1.45 E-06 and 0.151 ± 0.19 E-01, 1.09 E-05 ± 1.42 E-06 , in heart, kidneys, bladder and tumor, respectively. The number of disintegration obtained in kidneys is comparable to those reported for Trinidad B. 2014 Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that using optical images and a code for image analyses development in MATLAB, could

  1. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bartl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe river discharge conditions on a greater time scale. Therefore one major task were the historical searches and the examination of the retrieved documents and the contained information. After analysing this information the development of the river course and the discharge conditions were discussed. Using the provided knowledge, in an other subproject, a historical hydraulic model was established. Its results then again were used here. A further purpose was the determining of flood frequency based on all pre-processed data. The obtained knowledge about historical changes was also used to get an idea about possible future variations under climate change conditions. Especially variations in the runoff characteristic of the Elbe river over the course of the year were analysed. It succeeded to obtain a much longer discharge time series which contain fewer errors and uncertainties. Hence an optimized regional hazard assessment was realised.

  2. BCM57710:10GbE聚合网络界面控制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Broadcom日前推出单芯片双端口10GbE聚合网络界面控制器(C-NIC)--BCM57710,以迎合大批量服务器的设计.基于之前两代成熟的NetXtreme II千兆以太网C-NIC技术,Broodcom此次成功发布业界首款10Gbps(千兆比特/每秒)速率的全功能、单芯片聚合网络界面控制器(C-NIC),这款产品不需要外部缓存的支持.BCM57710丰富及完善了Broadcom以其市场领先的C-NIC、企业路由器和物理层设备为主的10GbE端到端解决方案的业务组合,使其OEM合作伙伴能够借助其提供的完整的10GbE网络架构解决方案增强下一代服务器的性能.

  3. The HIX galaxy survey I: Study of the most gas rich galaxies from HIPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Catinella, B.; Koribalski, B. S.; Brown, T. H.; Cortese, L.; Dénes, H.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.

    2017-01-01

    We present the H I eXtreme (HIX) galaxy survey targeting some of the most H I rich galaxies in the southern hemisphere. The 13 HIX galaxies have been selected to host the most massive H I discs at a given stellar luminosity. We compare these galaxies to a control sample of average galaxies detected in the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (Hipass, Barnes et al. 2001). As the control sample is matched in stellar luminosity, we find that the stellar properties of HIX galaxies are similar to the control sample. Furthermore, the specific star formation rate and optical morphology do not differ between HIX and control galaxies. We find, however, the HIX galaxies to be less efficient in forming stars. For the most H I massive galaxy in our sample (ESO075-G006, log M_{HI} [M⊙] = (10.8 ± 0.1)) the kinematic properties are the reason for inefficient star formation and H I excess. Examining the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) H I imaging and Wide Field Spectrograph (WIFES) optical spectra of ESO075-G006 reveals an undisturbed galaxy without evidence for recent major, violent accretion events. A tilted-ring fit to the H I disc together with the gas-phase oxygen abundance distribution supports the scenario that gas has been constantly accreted onto ESO075-G006 but the high specific angular momentum makes ESO075-G006 very inefficient in forming stars. Thus a massive H I disc has been built up.

  4. The XWS open access catalogue of extreme European windstorms from 1979–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Roberts

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The XWS (eXtreme WindStorms catalogue consists of storm tracks and model-generated maximum three-second wind-gust footprints for 50 of the most extreme winter windstorms to hit Europe over 1979–2012. The catalogue is intended to be a valuable resource for both academia and industries such as (reinsurance, for example allowing users to characterise extreme European storms, and validate climate and catastrophe models. Several storm severity indices were investigated to find which could best represent a list of known high loss (severe storms. The best performing index was Sft, which is a combination of storm area calculated from the storm footprint and maximum 925 hPa wind speed from the storm track. All the listed severe storms are included in the catalogue, and the remaining ones were selected using Sft. A comparison of the model footprint to station observations revealed that storms were generally well represented, although for some storms the highest gusts were underestimated due to the model not simulating strong enough pressure gradients. A new recalibration method was developed to estimate the true distribution of gusts at each grid point and correct for this underestimation. The recalibration model allows for storm-to-storm variation which is essential given that different storms have different degrees of model bias. The catalogue is available at http:///www.europeanwindstorms.org/.

  5. Improved removal of sticky and light contaminants from wastepaper. Final report, April 1, 1995--December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, P.; Kelly, A.

    1998-03-01

    Work under this two-year cooperative agreement addresses improved removal of light and sticky contaminants from waste paper. Such contaminants occur in ever-increasing amounts, resulting from glues, labels, book bindings, packaging tapes, etc., all associated with the waste paper stream. Despite various cleaning steps in the paper mill recycling systems, residual contamination remains, causing big problems with the product quality and with paper machine and converting operations. Some grades cannot be recycled at all. Stickies are truly a barrier against increased paper recycling. The stickies problem was attacked in four project segments--three of those have yielded tangible results. One segment has been outstanding in its success; namely, the development of a centrifugal reverse cleaning system consisting of primary and secondary stages, which have unparalleled high efficiency in the removal of light and sticky contaminants. This cleaning system, consists of primary XTREME and secondary XX-Clone units. Another segment of this work, washing wax contaminated old corrugated wastepaper (OCC), also has resulted in the new Xtrax process which was released for sale.

  6. Post-merger analytic templates for GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Nagar, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Following the new analytic description of the postmerger (ringdown) waveform of coalescing, nonprecessing, spinning, black hole binaries (BBHs) introduced in Phys.~Rev.~D~90, 024054 (2014), we propose an analytic, closed form, time-domain, representation of the $\\ell=m=2$ gravitational radiation mode emitted after merger. This expression is given as a function of the masses and dimensionless spins $(m_{1,2},\\chi_{1,2})$ of the two inspiralling objects, as well as of the mass $M_{\\rm BH}$ and (complex) frequency $\\sigma_{1}$ of the fundamental quasi-normal mode of the final black hole. It is obtained by first fitting the postmerger waveform part of several numerical relativity simulations of the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) catalog and then suitably interpolating over (symmetric) mass ratio and spins. It is demonstrated that this analytic expression reproduces rather accurately the post-merger waveform of other SXS datasets not used to build it and, notably, the dataset SXS:BBH:0305, corresponding to a ...

  7. Atmospheric Aerosol Attenuation Measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Valore, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides a nearly calorimetric measurement of the primary particle energy, since the fluorescence light produced is proportional to the energy dissipated by an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) in the atmosphere. The atmosphere therefore acts as a giant calorimeter, whose properties need to be well known during data taking. Aerosols play a key role in this scenario, since their effect on light transmission is highly variable even on a time scale of one hour, and the corresponding correction to EAS energy can range from a few percent to more than 40%. For this reason, hourly Vertical Aerosol Optical Depth (taer(h)) profiles are provided for each of the four FD stations. Starting from 2004, up to now 9 years of taer(h) profiles have been produced using data from the Central Laser Facility (CLF) and the eXtreme Laser Facility (XLF) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The two laser facilities, the techniques developed to measure taer(h) profiles using laser dat...

  8. Upgrade of the Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Hernandez, Carlos; Wiencke, Lawrence; Mayotte, Eric; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) explores the nature and origin of cosmic rays with energies above 1018 eV. It uses a hybrid technique that combines a Fluorescence Detector (FD) and a 3000 Km2 surface Detector (SD) array. Two laser test beam facilities are located near the center of the observatory. The Central Laser Facility (CLF) and the eXtreme Laser Facility (XLF) track the atmospheric conditions during FD's operations and perform additional functions. The CLF was upgraded substantially in 2013 with a solid state laser, new generation GPS, robotic beam calibration system, and better thermal and dust isolation. The upgrade also includes a back scatter Raman Lidar receiver, providing an independent measurement the aerosol optical depth (tau(z,t)). We describe the new features, capabilities, and applications of the updated instrument, including, tau(z,t) calculations for atmospheric monitoring using a data normalized method, laser energy calibration, and steered laser firing for arrival directions studies. We also present the first tau(z,t) results after the upgrade,using two using two independent techniques. One method uses the FD's measurements of the CLF's laser shots in bi-static configuration. The other uses the Raman LIDAR in back scattered configuration.

  9. Variability In Long-Wave Runup as a Function of Nearshore Bathymetric Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkin, Lauren McNeill [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Beaches and barrier islands are vulnerable to extreme storm events, such as hurricanes, that can cause severe erosion and overwash to the system. Having dunes and a wide beach in front of coastal infrastructure can provide protection during a storm, but the influence that nearshore bathymetric features have in protecting the beach and barrier island system is not completely understood. The spatial variation in nearshore features, such as sand bars and beach cusps, can alter nearshore hydrodynamics, including wave setup and runup. The influence of bathymetric features on long-wave runup can be used in evaluating the vulnerability of coastal regions to erosion and dune overtopping, evaluating the changing morphology, and implementing plans to protect infrastructure. In this thesis, long-wave runup variation due to changing bathymetric features as determined with the numerical model XBeach is quantified (eXtreme Beach behavior model). Wave heights are analyzed to determine the energy through the surfzone. XBeach assumes that coastal erosion at the land-sea interface is dominated by bound long-wave processes. Several hydrodynamic conditions are used to force the numerical model. The XBeach simulation results suggest that bathymetric irregularity induces significant changes in the extreme long-wave runup at the beach and the energy indicator through the surfzone.

  10. ELTs Adaptive Optics for Multi-Objects 3D Spectroscopy Key Parameters and Design Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Neichel, B; Fusco, T; Gendron, E; Puech, M; Rousset, G; Hammer, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last few years, new Adaptive Optics [AO] techniques have emerged to answer new astronomical challenges: Ground-Layer AO [GLAO] and Multi-Conjugate AO [MCAO] to access a wider Field of View [FoV], Multi-Object AO [MOAO] for the simultaneous observation of several faint galaxies, eXtreme AO [XAO] for the detection of faint companions. In this paper, we focus our study to one of these applications : high red-shift galaxy observations using MOAO techniques in the framework of Extremely Large Telescopes [ELTs]. We present the high-level specifications of a dedicated instrument. We choose to describe the scientific requirements with the following criteria : 40% of Ensquared Energy [EE] in H band (1.65um) and in an aperture size from 25 to 150 mas. Considering these specifications we investigate different AO solutions thanks to Fourier based simulations. Sky Coverage [SC] is computed for Natural and Laser Guide Stars [NGS, LGS] systems. We show that specifications are met for NGS-based systems at the cost of ...

  11. Energetics and phasing of nonprecessing spinning coalescing black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Nagar, Alessandro; Reisswig, Christian; Pollney, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We present an improved numerical relativity (NR) calibration of the new effective-one-body (EOB) model for coalescing non precessing spinning black hole binaries recently introduced by Damour and Nagar [Physical Review D 90, 044018 (2014)]. We do so by comparing the EOB predictions to both the phasing and the energetics provided by two independent sets of NR data covering mass ratios $1\\leq q \\leq 8$ and dimensionless spin range $-0.95\\leq \\chi\\leq +0.98$. One set of data is a subset of the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) catalog of public waveforms; the other set consists of new simulations obtained with the Llama code plus Cauchy Characteristic Evolution. We present the first systematic computation of the gauge-invariant relation between the binding energy and the total angular momentum, $E_{b}(j)$, for a large sample of, spin-aligned, SXS and Llama data. The EOB model presented here has only two calibration parameters, one entering the non spinning sector, as a 5PN effective correction to the interacti...

  12. Adoption of Pair Programming in the Academic Environment with Different Degree of Complexity in Students Perspective– An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Venkatesan,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Agile software development is a light weight process which is a solution for the heavy weight processes. EXtreme Programming is one of the Agile Methods. Pair Programming is one of best practice of eXtreme Programming. . It is a technique which concentrates not only on the software but also the developer who working on the software. Pair Programming is best suitable to produce efficient software. It accentuates the practice of two persons working together at a single computer terminal, to design, code and test computer programs. We studied the effects of pair programming in student context on knowledge transfer and enjoyment of work. We analyzed whether the taskcomplexity affects the effort differences between solo and pair programming. We conducted experiment to evaluate the efficiency of the knowledge transfer of the students when they adopt pair programming. The feedback from the student show the positive result that pair programming improves knowledge transfer and enjoyment of work. Through the experiment we also analyzed whether there is dependency between the task complexity and students capability. The result of this experiment shows that there is significant difference in the duration of task completion, the effort to perform the task correctly between solo and pair programming.

  13. Software Development Process Improvement Framework (SDPIF for Small Software Development Firms (SSDFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejhem Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the software development organizations all over the world are Small Software Development Firms (SSDFs. These firms have realized that it is necessary to organize and improve their software development and management activities. Traditional software process improvement (SPI models and standards are generally not possible to be implemented directly by SSDFs, as these firms are not capable of investing the cost of implementing these programs due to limited resources and strict deadlines to complete the projects. In addition, the existing regional SPI models which were developed for SSDFs are not suitable to be implemented by SSDFs all over the world. Furthermore, SSDFs also have ignored the software development practices to explain: how to do the improvement; as they only focus on: what to do for improvement. This paper presents a new software development process improvement framework (SDPIF for SSDFs based on eXtreme programming (XP as the software development method and Capability Maturity Model Integration version 1.2 for Development (CMMI-Dev1.2 as the SPI model.

  14. The Effects of Pair Programming on Learning Efficiency in Short Programming Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbaraya KUPPUSWAMI

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Pair programming is one of the important practices of a lightweight development methodology namely eXtreme Programming (XP. It emphasizes the practice of two persons working together at a single computer terminal, to design, code and test computer programs. The effects of pair programming on software development in industrial organizations were studied and it was found that pair programming increases the productivity by 15%. This evidence created an interest in amongst community of computer science educators to apply pair programming in educational settings. We have conducted an experiment with the students of computer science courses to compare the learning efficiency of students when they adopt pair programming with that of students using traditional method to do laboratory exercises of short duration. The learning efficiency was measured by evaluating design documents, completion time, and marks obtained in a written test that was conducted after every exercise. Our research confirms that the adoption of pair programming improves the design ability, reduces time taken to do a laboratory exercise and increases the knowledge and programming skill.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF STUDENT’S PERSONALITY ON PAIR PROGRAMMING TO ENHANCE THE LEARNING ACTIVITY IN THE ACADEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Venkatesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agile Software development is now a global phenomenon and is rapidly becoming organizations’ most preferred IT process. Extreme Programming (XP is one of the Agile Methods and Collaborative Pair Programming (CPP is one of the very important practices of eXtreme Programming. Agile focuses team work which is very important in the field of software development. The software industry has practiced CPP, where two programmers working side by side on one computer on the same problem with great success. Similar experiments have been conducted in academia and pair programming has been shown to be beneficial for both students and teaching staff in university courses. In this study, we conducted some set of experiments about the “human” aspect of the CPP; in particular the effects that personality attributes may have on pair programmer’s effectiveness as a pedagogical tool. A formal experiment has been conducted during 2012-13 odd semester at the PSG College of Technology, India to investigate the influence of personality differences among paired students using the five-factor model as a personality measurement framework. The aim of this research is to improve the implementation of CPP as a pedagogical tool to the academic setup through understanding the impact of the variation in the personality profile of paired students towards their academic performance.

  16. Avances en las Mejoras de Procesos Software en las MiPyMEs Desarrolladoras de Software: Una Revisión Sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerzon E. Gómez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta la aplicación de un protocolo para revisiones sistemáticas de Ingeniería de Software. En este artículo el protocolo es utilizado como un modelo formal aplicado a la búsqueda de publicaciones relacionadas con las adaptaciones SPI llevadas a cabo en MiPyMEs desarrolladoras de software, en el período comprendido de 1995 a diciembre de 2013, centrán- dose en tendencias, países, y sectores que publican, así como en los modelos, metodologías, estándares y procesos de soporte del software del área de calidad. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que en la comunidad de Ingeniería de Software hay un interés creciente en este tema, por ejemplo, la mayoría de las inves-tigaciones realizadas surgen en el sector educativo. El modelo de procesos y la metodología más utilizada es CMMi y Xtreme Pro-graming, respectivamente. El estándar más utilizado es el ISO/ IEC 15504 y el proceso de soporte del software del ciclo de vida del software mayormente abordado es SQA.

  17. Revisiting the comparison between the Shack-Hartmann and the pyramid wavefront sensors via the Fisher information matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantet, C; Meimon, S; Conan, J-M; Fusco, T

    2015-11-01

    Exoplanet direct imaging with large ground based telescopes requires eXtreme Adaptive Optics that couples high-order adaptive optics and coronagraphy. A key element of such systems is the high-order wavefront sensor. We study here several high-order wavefront sensing approaches, and more precisely compare their sensitivity to noise. Three techniques are considered: the classical Shack-Hartmann sensor, the pyramid sensor and the recently proposed LIFTed Shack-Hartmann sensor. They are compared in a unified framework based on precise diffractive models and on the Fisher information matrix, which conveys the information present in the data whatever the estimation method. The diagonal elements of the inverse of the Fisher information matrix, which we use as a figure of merit, are similar to noise propagation coefficients. With these diagonal elements, so called "Fisher coefficients", we show that the LIFTed Shack-Hartmann and pyramid sensors outperform the classical Shack-Hartmann sensor. In photon noise regime, the LIFTed Shack-Hartmann and modulated pyramid sensors obtain a similar overall noise propagation. The LIFTed Shack-Hartmann sensor however provides attractive noise properties on high orders.

  18. DSP integrated, parameterized, FPGA based cavity simulator and controller for VUV-FEL. SIMCON ver.2.1. installation and configuration procedures - User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koprek, W.; Pucyk, P.; Czarski, T.; Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Electronic Systems

    2005-07-01

    The note describes integrated system of hardware controller and simulator of the resonant superconducting, narrowband niobium cavity, originally considered for the TTF and TESLA in DESY, Hamburg (now predicted for the VUV and X-Ray FEL). The controller bases on a programmable circuit Xilinx VirtexII V3000 embedded on a PCB XtremeDSP Development Kit by Nallatech. The FPGA circuit configuration was done in the VHDL language. The internal hardware multiplication components, present in Virtex II chips, were used, to improve the floating point calculation efficiency. The implementation was achieved of a device working in the real time, according to the demands of the LLRF control system for the TESLA Test Facility. The device under consideration will be referred to as superconducting cavity (SCCav) SIMCON throughout this work. This document is intended to be used by end users and operators. It describes step by step how to install SIMCON in specific configuration, how and what software to copy to computer. There is described set of basic Matlab functions for developers of control algorithms. This paper also contains brief description how to use Matlab function of one algorithm with its graphic user panels. (orig.)

  19. Teorizando as Práticas dos Métodos Ágeis no Desenvolvimento de Software Visando ao Processo de Inovação das Empresas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolci, Décio Bittencourt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian IT executives are being challenged to play an active and important role in the innovation process within their organizations. The purpose of this study is to explore agile software development methods in facing this challenge. We deployed a practice theory framework, in particular that of Orlikowski, in order to analyze practices from seven agile methods – eXtreme Programming (XP, Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM, Scrum, Crystal, Agile Modeling (AM, Feature Driven Design (FDD and Adaptive Software Development (ASD. Results show practices grouped into five underlying factors – learning, iteractive, customer, human and technical; in addition, they explain the shift in focus of the agile development in reference to previous methods, centering on the individual and their actions in social relations in place of essentially technical issues. Findings suggest that agile software development methods have principles and practices better suitable to the innovation challenge than their predecessors do. Furthermore, their practices can aid the organization in the constitution of institutional properties useful to the process of business model innovation.

  20. The fate of a red nugget: In-situ star formation of satellites around a massive compact galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Morishita, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    To study the accretion phase for local massive galaxies, we search accreting satellites around a massive compact galaxy (M_*~3.9x10^10Msun), spectroscopically confirmed (z_spec-1.9213) in the eXtreme Deep Field, which has been originally reported in Szomoru et al. We detect 1369 satellite candidates within the projected virial radius (rvir~300 kpc) of the compact galaxy in the all-combined ACS image with 5sigma-limiting magnitude of mACS~30.6 ABmag, which corresponds to ~1.6x10^7M_sun at the redshift. The photometric redshift measured with 12 multi-band images confirms 34 satellites out of the candidates. Most of the satellites are found to have the rest-frame colors consistent with star forming galaxies. We investigate the relation between stellar mass and star formation rate (the star formation main sequence), and find the steeper slope at the low-mass end (<10^8M_sun), while more massive satellites are consistently on the sequence reported in previous studies. Within the uncertainties of star formation ...

  1. In vivo bone remodeling rates determination and compressive stiffness variations before, during 60 days bed rest and two years follow up: A micro-FE-analysis from HR-pQCT measurements of the berlin Bed Rest Study-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Zully; Belavy, Daniel; Baumann, Wolfgang W.; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2017-03-01

    Bed rest studies are used for simulation and study of physiological changes as observed in unloading/non-gravity environments. Amongst others, bone mass reduction, similar as occurring due to aging osteoporosis, combined with bio-fluids redistribution and muscle atrophy have been observed and analyzed. Advanced radiological methods of high resolution such as HR-pQCT (XtremeCT) allow 3D-visualizing in vivo bone remodeling processes occurring during absence/reduction of mechanical stimuli (0 to <1 g) as simulated by bed rest. Induced bone micro-structure (e.g. trabecular number, cortical thickness, porosity) and density variations can be quantified. However, these parameters are average values of each sample and important information regarding bone mass distribution and within bone mechanical behaviour is lost. Finite element models with hexa-elements of identical size as the HR-pQCT measurements (0.082 mm×0.082 mm×0.082 mm, ca. 7E6 elements/sample) can be used for subject-specific in vivo stiffness calculation. This technique also allows quantifying if bone microstructural changes represent a risk of mechanical bone collapse (fracture).

  2. Direct Imaging of Exoplanets, from very large to extremely large telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, M.

    2015-10-01

    Presently, dedicated instruments at 8-m class telescopes (SPHERE for the VLT, GPI for Gemini) are about to discover and explore self-luminous giant planets by direct imaging and spectroscopy. In a decade, the next generation of 30m-40m ground-based Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) have the potential to dramatically enlarge the discovery space towards older giant planets seen in the reflected light and ultimately even a small number of rocky planets. In order to fulfill the demanding contrast requirements of a part in a million to a part in a billion at separations of one tenth of an arcsecond, the seeing limited PSF contrast must gradually be improved by eXtreme Adaptive optics (XAO), non-common path aberration compensation, coronagraphy, and science image post-processing. None of these steps alone is sufficient to leap the enormous contrast. High-contrast imaging (HCI) from the ground encompasses all those disciplines which are to be considered in a system approach. The presentation will introduce the principle of HCI and present the current implementation in the SPHERE, ESO's imager for giant exoplanets at the VLT. It will then discuss requirements and necessary R&D to reach the ultimate goal, observing terrestrial Exoplanets with the next generation of instruments for the ELTs.

  3. Extending the laserspray ionization concept to produce highly charged ions at high vacuum on a time-of-flight mass analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpin, Sarah; Ren, Yue; Wang, Beixi; Lietz, Christopher B; Richards, Alicia L; Marshall, Darrell D; Inutan, Ellen D

    2011-07-15

    A new matrix compound, 2-nitrophloroglucinol, is reported which not only produces highly charged ions similar to electrospray ionization (ESI) under atmospheric pressure (AP) and intermediate pressure (IP) laserspray ionization (LSI) conditions but also the most highly charged ions so far observed for small proteins in mass spectrometry (MS) under high vacuum (HV) conditions. This new matrix extends the compounds that can successfully be employed as matrixes with LSI, as demonstrated on an LTQ Velos (Thermo) at AP, a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) time-of-flight (TOF) SYNAPT G2 (Waters) at IP, and MALDI-TOF Ultraflex, UltrafleXtreme, and Autoflex Speed (Bruker) mass spectrometers at HV. Measurements show that stable multiple charged molecular ions of proteins are formed under all pressure conditions indicating softer ionization than MALDI, which suffers a high degree of metastable fragmentation when multiply charged ions are produced. An important analytical advantage of this new LSI matrix are the potential for high sensitivity equivalent or better than AP-LSI and vacuum MALDI and the potential for enhanced mass selected fragmentation of the abundant highly charged protein ions. A second new LSI matrix, 4,6-dinitropyrogallol, produces abundant multiply charged ions at AP but not under HV conditions. The differences in these similar compounds ability to produce multiply charged ions under HV conditions is believed to be related to their relative ability to evaporate from charged matrix/analyte clusters.

  4. Scientific data analysis on data-parallel platforms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, Craig D.; Bayer, Gregory W.; Choe, Yung Ryn; Roe, Diana C.

    2010-09-01

    As scientific computing users migrate to petaflop platforms that promise to generate multi-terabyte datasets, there is a growing need in the community to be able to embed sophisticated analysis algorithms in the computing platforms' storage systems. Data Warehouse Appliances (DWAs) are attractive for this work, due to their ability to store and process massive datasets efficiently. While DWAs have been utilized effectively in data-mining and informatics applications, they remain largely unproven in scientific workloads. In this paper we present our experiences in adapting two mesh analysis algorithms to function on five different DWA architectures: two Netezza database appliances, an XtremeData dbX database, a LexisNexis DAS, and multiple Hadoop MapReduce clusters. The main contribution of this work is insight into the differences between these DWAs from a user's perspective. In addition, we present performance measurements for ten DWA systems to help understand the impact of different architectural trade-offs in these systems.

  5. Very metal-poor galaxies: ionized gas kinematics in nine objects

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, A V; Kniazev, A Y

    2010-01-01

    The study of ionized gas morphology and kinematics in nine eXtremely Metal-Deficient (XMD) galaxies with the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer on the SAO 6-m telescope is presented. Some of these very rare objects (with currently known range of O/H of 7.12 < 12+log(O/H) < 7.65, or Zo/35 < Z < Zo/10) are believed to be the best proxies of `young' low-mass galaxies in the high-redshift Universe. One of the main goals of this study is to look for possible evidence of star formation (SF) activity induced by external perturbations. Recent results from HI mapping of a small subsample of XMD star-forming galaxies provided confident evidence for the important role of interaction-induced SF. Our observations provide complementary or new information that the great majority of the studied XMD dwarfs have strongly disturbed gas morphology and kinematics or the presence of detached components. We approximate the observed velocity fields by simple models of a rotating tilted thin disc, which allow us the robu...

  6. Application of Open Source Technologies for Oceanographic Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Gangl, M.; Quach, N. T.; Wilson, B. D.; Chang, G.; Armstrong, E. M.; Chin, T. M.; Greguska, F.

    2015-12-01

    NEXUS is a data-intensive analysis solution developed with a new approach for handling science data that enables large-scale data analysis by leveraging open source technologies such as Apache Cassandra, Apache Spark, Apache Solr, and Webification. NEXUS has been selected to provide on-the-fly time-series and histogram generation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission for Level 2 and Level 3 Active, Passive, and Active Passive products. It also provides an on-the-fly data subsetting capability. NEXUS is designed to scale horizontally, enabling it to handle massive amounts of data in parallel. It takes a new approach on managing time and geo-referenced array data by dividing data artifacts into chunks and stores them in an industry-standard, horizontally scaled NoSQL database. This approach enables the development of scalable data analysis services that can infuse and leverage the elastic computing infrastructure of the Cloud. It is equipped with a high-performance geospatial and indexed data search solution, coupled with a high-performance data Webification solution free from file I/O bottlenecks, as well as a high-performance, in-memory data analysis engine. In this talk, we will focus on the recently funded AIST 2014 project by using NEXUS as the core for oceanographic anomaly detection service and web portal. We call it, OceanXtremes

  7. Double scanning method for computer aided design and computer aided manufacture all-ceramic restorations%氧化锆全瓷修复中二次扫描的初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亦洪; 冯海兰; 王海涛; 王琳; 聂宇光; 王涛

    2010-01-01

    Objective To introduce the double scanning for producing computer aided design and computer aided manufacture (CAD-CAM) zirconia crowns,and to compare Procera with Everest CAD-CAM system by observing clinical effects of the crowns.Methods Forty CAD-CAM zirconia crowns (10 crowns by Procera,and 30 crowns by Everest) were evaluated,and the examination criteria included:marginal fit,aesthetics,gingival health,retention,and fracture.All of the zirconia copings were produced using double scanning.Procera system and Everest system use contact scanner and optical scanner respectively. Results The observation time for the crowns ranged from 6 to 24 months.The resulm of clinic evaluation were acceptable in all restorations.Conclusions Double scanning could be used to produce complicated zirconia copings by CAD-CAM in order to get proper symmetrical porcelain length.It Wag easier to make complicated coping with contact scanuer than with optical scanner.%目的 观察二次扫描在制作计算机辅助设计与辅助制作(CAD-CAM)氧化锆全瓷冠中的临床效果,并对比不同扫描系统在此过程中的可操作性,以期为临床提供参考.方法 应用二次扫描完成氧化锆全瓷冠40件,其中Proeera全瓷冠10件(使用接触式扫描仪),Everest全瓷冠30件(使用光学扫描仪).利用二次扫描制作不同形态的基底冠.修复后1 d、3、6、12、24个月进行临床检查,内容包括边缘适合性、颜色、固位、折断或破损情况.结果 40件全瓷冠随访6~24个月,平均12个月.临床检查中40件全瓷冠的各项检查结果均为满意.结论 二次扫描可以完成复杂形态的CADCAM氧化锆基底冠的制作,保证氧化锆全瓷冠饰瓷厚度均匀适度.应用二次扫描时,光学扫描仪相比接触式扫描仪更适合于完成复杂形态的氧化锆基底冠.

  8. Seasonal and annual mass balances of Mera and Pokalde glaciers (Nepal Himalaya since 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wagnon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Everest region, Nepal, ground-based monitoring programs were started on the debris-free Mera Glacier (27.7° N, 86.9° E; 5.1 km2, 6420 to 4940 m a.s.l. in 2007 and on the small Pokalde Glacier (27.9° N, 86.8° E; 0.1 km2, 5690 to 5430 m a.s.l., ∼ 25 km North of Mera Glacier in 2009. These glaciers lie on the southern flank of the central Himalaya under the direct influence of the Indian monsoon and receive more than 80% of their annual precipitation in summer (June to September. Despite a large inter-annual variability with glacier-wide mass balances ranging from −0.77± 0.40 m w.e. in 2011–2012 (Equilibrium-line altitude (ELA at ∼ 6055 m a.s.l. to + 0.46 ± 0.40 m w.e. in 2010–2011 (ELA at ∼ 5340 m a.s.l., Mera Glacier has been shrinking at a moderate mass balance rate of −0.10± 0.40 m w.e. yr−1 since 2007. Ice fluxes measured at two distinct transverse cross sections at ∼ 5350 m a.s.l. and ∼ 5520 m a.s.l. confirm that the mean state of this glacier over the last one or two decades corresponds to a limited mass loss, in agreement with remotely-sensed region-wide mass balances of the Everest area. Seasonal mass balance measurements show that ablation and accumulation are concomitant in summer which in turn is the key season controlling the annual glacier-wide mass balance. Unexpectedly, ablation occurs at all elevations in winter due to wind erosion and sublimation, with remobilized snow likely being sublimated in the atmosphere. Between 2009 and 2012, the small Pokalde Glacier lost mass more rapidly than Mera Glacier with respective mean glacier-wide mass balances of −0.72 and −0.26 ± 0.40 m w.e. yr−1. Low-elevation glaciers, such as Pokalde Glacier, have been usually preferred for in-situ observations in Nepal and more generally in the Himalayas, which may explain why compilations of ground-based mass balances are biased toward negative values compared with the regional mean under the present-day climate.

  9. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR QUINOCETONE IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%喹烯酮在草鱼体内生理药动模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥宁; 刘永涛; 杨秋红; 艾晓辉

    2015-01-01

    为了预测喹烯酮在草鱼体内药物残留, 建立其在草鱼体内生理药动学模型.通过搜集大量文献获得鱼的生理解剖参数, 采用已有的喹烯酮试验数据拟合得到药物特异性参数.基于 acslXtreme 生理药动学软件,进行模型假设、血流图设计、质量平衡方程的建立和模型拟合.喹烯酮为小分子药物, 其分布服从血流限速型, 在肝脏代谢, 从肾脏消除.喹烯酮通过口服进入肠道, 然后经肝脏代谢进入血液循环, 因此设定 5 个房室, 即肝、肾、肌肉、肠和其他组织.经过一系列的计算和调试, 最终建立喹烯酮在草体内5室生理药动模型, 成功拟合连续饲喂药物 60d之后的药物残留消除曲线, 其中肝脏中的预测结果比肾脏和肌肉高, 与实测数据一致.因此, 喹烯酮在鱼体内生理药动模型具有一定的应用价值, 将是药物残留检测的新亮点.%An effective physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model can be used to analogize and extrapolate the in vivo drug concentrations in different administrations and environments, as well as in different species of animals, hence it has become more and more popular in the drug residual prediction in aquatic animals. In order to predict drug residues of quinocetone in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), we established the PB-PK model of quinocetone in this study. We obtained the physiological and anatomical parameters of fish from literatures, and estimated the drug-specific parameters of quinocetone by fitting the existing data. We used the physiological pharmacokinetic soft-ware, asclXtreme, to make the model assumptions, to design the blood flow chart, to generate the mass balance equa-tions and to complete the model fitting. Quinocetone was a small molecule drug, and itsin vivo disposition was blood flow-limited. It was metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidney. Quinocetone entered the intestine through oral administration and

  10. Engineering Annual Summary 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimolitsas, S

    1999-05-01

    Unlike most research and development laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is responsible for delivering production-ready designs. Unlike most industry, LLNL is responsible for R and D that must significantly increase the nation's security. This rare combination of production engineering expertise and national R and D agenda identifies LLNL as one of the few organizations today that conducts cutting-edge engineering on grand-scale problems, while facing enormous technical risk and undergoing diligent scrutiny of its budget, schedule, and performance. On the grand scale, cutting-edge technologies are emerging from our recent ventures into ''Xtreme Engineering{trademark}.'' Basically, we must integrate and extend technologies concurrently and then push them to their extreme, such as building very large structures but aligning them with extreme precision. As we extend these technologies, we push the boundaries of engineering capabilities at both poles: microscale and ultrascale. Today, in the ultrascale realm, we are building NIF, the world's largest laser, which demands one of the world's most complex operating systems with 9000 motors integrated through over 500 computers to control 60,000 points for every laser shot. On the other pole, we have fabricated the world's smallest surgical tools and the smallest instruments for detecting biological and chemical agents used by antiterrorists. Later in this Annual Summary, we highlight some of our recent innovations in the area of Xtreme Engineering, including large-scale computer simulations of massive structures such as major bridges to prepare retrofitting designs to withstand earthquakes. Another feature is our conceptual breakthrough in developing the world's fastest airplane, HyperSoar, which can reach anywhere in the planet in two hours at speeds of 6700 mph. In the last few years, Engineering has significantly pushed the technology in structural

  11. Textile technology for the vital signs monitoring in telemedicine and extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzo, Marco; Meriggi, Paolo; Rizzo, Francesco; Castiglioni, Paolo; Lombardi, Carolina; Ferratini, Maurizio; Parati, Gianfranco

    2010-05-01

    This paper illustrates two extensive applications of a smart garment we previously developed for the monitoring of ECG, respiration, and movement. In the first application, the device, named Maglietta Interattiva Computerizzata (MagIC), was used for the home monitoring of cardiac patients. The used platform included MagIC for signals collection, a touchscreen computer with a dedicated software for data handling, and a universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) dongle for data transmission, via email, to three cardiologists. Three patients daily-performed 3-min telemonitoring sessions for 30 days by using the platform. The whole system behaved correctly in 85 out of 90 sessions. In five instances, a second session was required due to UMTS traffic congestion. Only in three sessions, cardiologists asked the patient to repeat the acquisition because of poor signal quality. In the second application, MagIC was used to evaluate the effects of high-altitude hypoxia on sleep and 24 h daily life in 30 healthy subjects at 3500 and 5400 m above sea level on Mount Everest slopes. The use of MagIC garment was reported to be simple and requiring short instrumentation time even in the demanding expedition environment. The signal quality was adequate in 111 out of 115 recordings and 90% of the subjects found the vest comfortable.

  12. Recent change of the ice core accumulation rates on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Three ice cores recovered from the Himalayas (i.e. the East Rongbuk Glacier and the Far East Rongbuk Glacier at Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), and the Dasuopu Glacier at Xixiabangma) show a sharp decline in the accumulation rates since the 1950s, which is consistent with the precipitation fluctuation over India and the low northern latitude zone (5°-35°N). Correspondingly, an increasing trend is observed for the ice core accumulations from the central and northern Qingh ai-Tibetan Plateau (i.e. the Xiao Dongkemadi Glacier in the central Tanggula Mountains, the Guliya Ice Cap in the western Kunlun Mountains, and the Dunde Ice Cap in the Qilian Mountains) since the 1950s, which is consistent with the precipi tation fluctuation over the middle-high northern latitude zone (35°-70°N). However, the variation magnitude of the high-elevation ice core accumulations is more significant than that of precipitation at the low-eleva- tion places, suggesti ng its extra sensitivity of high-elevation areas to climatic change. The inter-d ecadal abrupt change of the African-Asian summer monsoon in the1960s may attribute to the recent ice core accumulation change during the recent decades.

  13. CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian IVANUS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has been a tremendous innovation, through which applications became available online, accessible through an Internet connection and using any computing device (computer, smartphone or tablet. According to one of the most recent studies conducted in 2012 by Everest Group and Cloud Connect, 57% of companies said they already use SaaS application (Software as a Service, and 38% reported using standard tools PaaS (Platform as a Service. However, in the most cases, the users of these solutions highlighted the fact that one of the main obstacles in the development of this technology is the fact that, in cloud, the application is not available without an Internet connection. The new challenge of the cloud system has become now the offline, specifically accessing SaaS applications without being connected to the Internet. This topic is directly related to user productivity within companies as productivity growth is one of the key promises of cloud computing system applications transformation. The aim of this paper is the presentation of some important aspects related to the offline cloud system and regulatory trends in the European Union (EU.

  14. Computational modelling of semiconducting X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, R F; Greenough, C S

    2002-01-01

    The design of high-performance semiconductor detectors is dominated by requirements on position and energy resolution and speed of operation. We investigate the contribution that three-dimensional transient device modelling can make to understanding these and the potential for its use in the design cycle. Simulations are performed using the EVEREST software to solve the drift-diffusion equations. Extra functionality has been added to allow the generation of electron-hole pairs by, for example, the absorption of an X-ray. Careful time integration can measure the time of arrival of the charge packet at the collecting well. By time integrating the current arriving in the collecting well the spatial distribution of charge can be determined. A simple analytic theory is developed and compared with simulations of a large pixel detector. Comparisons with simulations of a two pixel device show that the analytic approximation is reasonable if the X-ray is absorbed beyond 100 mu m from the well, but events closer show a...

  15. Virtual reality simulation for the optimization of endovascular procedures: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudarakanchana N

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nung Rudarakanchana,1 Isabelle Van Herzeele,2 Liesbeth Desender,2 Nicholas JW Cheshire1 1Department of Surgery, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, BelgiumOn behalf of EVEREST (European Virtual reality Endovascular RESearch TeamAbstract: Endovascular technologies are rapidly evolving, often requiring coordination and cooperation between clinicians and technicians from diverse specialties. These multidisciplinary interactions lead to challenges that are reflected in the high rate of errors occurring during endovascular procedures. Endovascular virtual reality (VR simulation has evolved from simple benchtop devices to full physic simulators with advanced haptics and dynamic imaging and physiological controls. The latest developments in this field include the use of fully immersive simulated hybrid angiosuites to train whole endovascular teams in crisis resource management and novel technologies that enable practitioners to build VR simulations based on patient-specific anatomy. As our understanding of the skills, both technical and nontechnical, required for optimal endovascular performance improves, the requisite tools for objective assessment of these skills are being developed and will further enable the use of VR simulation in the training and assessment of endovascular interventionalists and their entire teams. Simulation training that allows deliberate practice without danger to patients may be key to bridging the gap between new endovascular technology and improved patient outcomes.Keywords: virtual reality, simulation, endovascular, aneurysm

  16. Quantifying energy and mass transfer in crop canopies: sensors for measurement of temperature and air velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, B.; Monje, O.; Tanner, B.

    1996-01-01

    Here we report on the in situ performance of inexpensive, miniature sensors that have increased our ability to measure mass and energy fluxes from plant canopies in controlled environments: 1. Surface temperature. Canopy temperature measurements indicate changes in stomatal aperture and thus latent and sensible heat fluxes. Infrared transducers from two manufacturers (Exergen Corporation, Newton, MA; and Everest Interscience, Tucson, AZ, USA) have recently become available. Transducer accuracy matched that of a more expensive hand-held infrared thermometer. 2. Air velocity varies above and within plant canopies and is an important component in mass and energy transfer models. We tested commercially-available needle, heat-transfer anemometers (1 x 50 mm cylinder) that consist of a fine-wire thermocouple and a heater inside a hypodermic needle. The needle is heated and wind speed determined from the temperature rise above ambient. These sensors are particularly useful in measuring the low wind speeds found within plant canopies. 3. Accurate measurements of air temperature adjacent to plant leaves facilitates transport phenomena modeling. We quantified the effect of radiation and air velocity on temperature rise in thermocouples from 10 to 500 micrometers. At high radiation loads and low wind speeds, temperature errors were as large as 7 degrees C above air temperature.

  17. Widespread ground motion distribution caused by rupture directivity during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Guo, Yujia; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Masuda, Tetsu; Davuluri, Srinagesh; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2016-06-23

    The ground motion and damage caused by the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake can be characterized by their widespread distributions to the east. Evidence from strong ground motions, regional acceleration duration, and teleseismic waveforms indicate that rupture directivity contributed significantly to these distributions. This phenomenon has been thought to occur only if a strike-slip or dip-slip rupture propagates to a site in the along-strike or updip direction, respectively. However, even though the earthquake was a dip-slip faulting event and its source fault strike was nearly eastward, evidence for rupture directivity is found in the eastward direction. Here, we explore the reasons for this apparent inconsistency by performing a joint source inversion of seismic and geodetic datasets, and conducting ground motion simulations. The results indicate that the earthquake occurred on the underthrusting Indian lithosphere, with a low dip angle, and that the fault rupture propagated in the along-strike direction at a velocity just slightly below the S-wave velocity. This low dip angle and fast rupture velocity produced rupture directivity in the along-strike direction, which caused widespread ground motion distribution and significant damage extending far eastwards, from central Nepal to Mount Everest.

  18. Solar UVB response of bioactives in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. L.): a comparison of protected and open-field cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josuttis, Melanie; Dietrich, Helmut; Treutter, Dieter; Will, Frank; Linnemannstöns, Ludger; Krüger, Erika

    2010-12-22

    Strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cvs. Everest, Elsanta) were grown in a tunnel covered with two films, which were distinguished in their ultraviolet transparency, as well as under open-field conditions. One applied film was not transparent for UVB radiation, and the second film transmitted 70% of UVB radiation. During the present study, the nutritional value and quality parameters of the fruits were evaluated. Strawberries were UV-unresponsive in view of the content of ascorbic acid and sum parameters like total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity measured with TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity), ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and total phenols. These parameters were mainly affected by sampling date and cultivar. However, HPLC analysis showed that individual phenolics were affected in the absence of UV radiation. The content of the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-glucoside and the flavonols quercetin 3-glucuronide and kaempferol 3-glucoside was decreased in the fruits grown under UV blocking film compared to open-field grown strawberries. By means of the UV transparent film the content of the mentioned flavonoids could be enhanced up to similar amounts like in open-field grown strawberries. All other phenolics were not consistently affected by UV radiation. This result was independent of cultivar.

  19. Quantitative, qualitative, and collaborative methods: approaching indigenous ecological knowledge heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Spoon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the use of quantitative, qualitative, and collaborative methods to document and operationalize Indigenous ecological knowledge, using case studies from the Nepalese Himalaya and Great Basin. Both case studies applied results to natural and cultural resource management and interpretation for the public. These approaches attempt to reposition the interview subjects to serve as active contributors to the research and its outcomes. I argue that the study of any body of Indigenous knowledge requires a context-specific methodology and mutually agreed upon processes and outcomes. In the Nepalese Himalaya, I utilized linked quantitative and qualitative methods to understand how tourism influenced Sherpa place-based spiritual concepts, species, and landscape knowledge inside Sagarmatha (Mount Everest National Park and Buffer Zone. In this method, Sherpa collaborated in the development of the research questions, the design, and in the review of results. The research in the Great Basin employed collaborative qualitative methods to document Numic (Southern Paiute and Western Shoshone ecological knowledge of federal lands within their ancestral territory and attempted to piece together fragmented and contested histories of place. In this method, Numic peoples collaborated on the development of research questions and design; however they also conducted most of the interviews. In both cases, I selected particular suites of methods depending on the context and created forums for the translation of this information to applied outcomes. The methods were also improved and innovated through praxis.

  20. Antioxidant activity of a novel synthetic hexa-peptide derived from an enzymatic hydrolysate of duck skin by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Cheong, Sun Hee; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kwon, Hyuck-Ju; Kang, Seo-Hee; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2013-12-01

    A peptide was synthesized on the basis of our previous study from solid phase peptide synthesis using ASP48S (Peptron Inc.) and identified by the reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Vydac Everest C18 column. The molecular mass of the peptide found to be 693.90 Da, and the amino acid sequences of the peptide was Trp-Tyr-Pro-Ala-Ala-Pro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antioxidant effects of the peptide by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer, and on t-BHP-induced liver cells damage in Chang cells. The antioxidative activity of the peptide was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, alkyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity using an ESR spectrometer. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of the peptide for hydroxyl, DPPH, alkyl, and superoxide radical scavenging activity were 45.2, 18.5, 31.5, and 33.4 μM, respectively. In addition, the peptide inhibited productions of cell death against t-BHP-induced liver cell damage in Chang cells. It was presumed to be peptide involved in regulating the apoptosis-related gene expression in the cell environment. The present results indicate that the peptide substantially contributes to antioxidative properties in liver cells.

  1. Longest time series of glacier mass changes in the Himalaya based on stereo imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, T.; Pieczonka, T.; Benn, D. I.

    2010-12-01

    Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as declining water resources, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs) allow glacier mass balance to be calculated since the availability of stereo imagery. Here we present the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya and show the high value of early stereo spy imagery such as Corona (years 1962 and 1970) aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1) to calculate a time series of glacier changes south of Mt. Everest, Nepal. We reveal that the glaciers are significantly losing mass with an increasing rate since at least ~1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss is 0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a-1, however, not higher than the global average. The spatial patterns of surface lowering can be explained by variations in debris-cover thickness, glacier velocity, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

  2. Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the ER and the Dasuopu ice core drilling sites is only ∼125 km, the stable isotopic record (δ18O or δD of the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy while the Dasuopu core as a temperature proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that the different interpretations of the Dasuopu and Everest isotopic records may not be contradictive. The north–south and west–east seesaws of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM precipitation are primarily responsible for precipitation falling at the ER site, which results in a negative correlation between the ER δ18O or δD record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas, corresponding to the "amount effect". In addition to the ISM precipitation, non-summer monsoonal precipitation associated with winter westerlies also significantly contributes to precipitation falling at the Dasuopu site, which may cause a positive correlation between the Dasuopu stable isotopic record and temperature, in response to the "temperature effect". Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

  3. On the water hazards in the trans-boundary Kosi River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sh. Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges River, which passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71 500 km2, the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8848 m of Mt Everest to 60 m of the Ganges Plain and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacial lake outburst, debris flow, landslides, flooding, drought, soil erosion and sedimentation. This paper describes the characteristics of water hazards in the basin, based on the literature review and site investigation covering hydrology, meteorology, geology, geomorphology and socio-economics. Glacial lake outbursts are a huge threat to the local population in the region and they usually further trigger landslides and debris flows. Floods are usually a result of interaction between man-made hydraulic structures and the natural environment. Debris flows are widespread and occur in clusters. Droughts tend to last over long periods and affect vast areas. Rapid population increase, the decline of ecosystems and climate change could further exacerbate various hazards in the region. The paper has proposed a set of mitigating strategies and measures. It is an arduous challenge to implement them in practice. More investigations are needed to fill in the knowledge gaps.

  4. Multiple Carrying Capacities from a management-oriented perspective to operationalize sustainable tourism in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Manfredi, Emanuela C; Caroli, Paolo; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni

    2013-10-15

    This article describes how the concept of Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) has shifted from a uni-dimensional approach to incorporating environmental, social and political aspects. This shift is demonstrated by a study of a large, internationally popular protected area used by trekkers, the Mt. Everest Region, where qualitative data collected from visitors was combined with environmental modeling using a participatory framework. Tourist satisfaction showed positive margins for further tourist industry expansion, but current environmental conditions limit growth and further development. Space and time dimensions were also considered. We observed that the limits on growth and further development can be manipulated, with a certain degree of flexibility, through investments and regulatory measures. We hypothesized that TCC can play an important role in the management of protected areas only if it is viewed as a systematic, strategic policy tool within a planning process rather than as a unique, intrinsic number that is not modifiable. We conclude that to translate the strategy into action using standard measures, further investigation is needed to balance the various TCC components as a part of a decision-making framework that includes the integration of different cultural approaches and policy needs.

  5. Longest time series of glacier mass changes in the Himalaya based on stereo imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bolch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as declining water resources, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs. The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs allow glacier mass balance to be calculated since the availability of stereo imagery. Here we present the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya and show the high value of early stereo spy imagery such as Corona (years 1962 and 1970 aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1 to calculate a time series of glacier changes south of Mt. Everest, Nepal. We reveal that the glaciers are significantly losing mass with an increasing rate since at least ~1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss is 0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a−1, however, not higher than the global average. The spatial patterns of surface lowering can be explained by variations in debris-cover thickness, glacier velocity, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

  6. Understanding land use, livelihoods, and health transitions among Tibetan nomads: a case from Gangga Township, Dingri County, Tibetan Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianchu; Yang, Yong; Li, Zhuoqing; Tashi, Nyima; Sharma, Rita; Fang, Jing

    2008-06-01

    Tibetan nomads in the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China have experienced profound transitions in recent decades with important implications for land use, livelihoods, and health development. The change from being traditional nomads to agropastoralists engaged in permanent agriculture, a sedentary village life (known as "sedentarization"), has been associated with a remarkable change in diet and lifestyle, decline in spatial mobility, increase in food production, and emerging infectious and noncommunicable diseases. The overarching response of the government has been to emphasize infrastructure and technological solutions. The local adaptation strategies of Tibetan nomads through maintaining balanced mobile herding, reindeer husbandry, as well as off-farm labor and trade could address both the cause of environmental degradation and improve the well-being of local people. Drawing on transdisciplinary, preliminary field work in Gangga Township of Dingri County in the foothills of Mt. Everest, we identify pertinent linkages between land use and health, and spatial and temporal mismatch of livelihoods and health care services, in the transition to sedentary village life. We suggest emerging imperatives in Ecohealth to help restore Tibetan livelihoods in transition to a sedentary lifestyle.

  7. Instance-oriented delegation: A solution for providing security to Grid-based mobile agent middleware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Tian-chi; LI Shan-ping

    2005-01-01

    New challenges are introduced when people try to build a general-purpose mobile agent middleware in Grid environment. In this paper, an instance-oriented security mechanism is proposed to deal with possible security threats in such mobile agent systems. The current security support in Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) requires the users to delegate their privileges to certain hosts. This host-oriented solution is insecure and inflexible towards mobile agent applications because it cannot prevent delegation abuse and control well the diffusion of damage. Our proposed solution introduces security instance, which is an encapsulation of one set of authorizations and their validity specifications with respect to the agent's specific code segments, or even the states and requests. Applications can establish and configure their security framework flexibly on the same platform, through defining instances and operations according to their own logic. Mechanisms are provided to allow users delegating their identity to these instances instead of certain hosts. By adopting this instance-oriented security mechanism, a Grid-based general-purpose MA middleware, Everest, is developed to enhance Globus Toolkit's security support for mobile agent applications.

  8. Validating tyrosinase homologue melA as a photoacoustic reporter gene for imaging Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paproski, Robert J.; Li, Yan; Barber, Quinn; Lewis, John D.; Campbell, Robert E.; Zemp, Roger

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pathogenic processes for infectious bacteria, appropriate research tools are required for replicating and characterizing infections. Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have primarily been used to image infections in animal models, but optical scattering in tissue significantly limits imaging depth and resolution. Photoacoustic imaging, which has improved depth-to-resolution ratio compared to conventional optical imaging, could be useful for visualizing melA-expressing bacteria since melA is a bacterial tyrosinase homologue which produces melanin. Escherichia coli-expressing melA was visibly dark in liquid culture. When melA-expressing bacteria in tubes were imaged with a VisualSonics Vevo LAZR system, the signal-to-noise ratio of a 9× dilution sample was 55, suggesting that ˜20 bacteria cells could be detected with our system. Multispectral (680, 700, 750, 800, 850, and 900 nm) analysis of the photoacoustic signal allowed unmixing of melA-expressing bacteria from blood. To compare photoacoustic reporter gene melA (using Vevo system) with luminescent and fluorescent reporter gene Nano-lantern (using Bruker Xtreme In-Vivo system), tubes of bacteria expressing melA or Nano-lantern were submerged 10 mm in 1% Intralipid, spaced between bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging could not resolve the two tubes of Nano-lantern-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were spaced 10 mm from each other. After injecting 100-μL of melA-expressing bacteria in the back flank of a chicken embryo, photoacoustic imaging allowed visualization of melA-expressing bacteria up to 10-mm deep into the embryo. Photoacoustic signal from melA could also be separated from deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin signal observed within the embryo and chorioallantoic membrane. Our results suggest that melA is a useful photoacoustic reporter gene for visualizing bacteria, and further work incorporating photoacoustic reporters into infectious bacterial strains is warranted.

  9. Machine Learning Principles Can Improve Hip Fracture Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Christian; Eiken, Pia; Vestergaard, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Apply machine learning principles to predict hip fractures and estimate predictor importance in Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-scanned men and women. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data from two Danish regions between 1996 and 2006 were combined with national Danish patient data to comprise 4722 women and 717 men with 5 years of follow-up time (original cohort n = 6606 men and women). Twenty-four statistical models were built on 75% of data points through k-5, 5-repeat cross-validation, and then validated on the remaining 25% of data points to calculate area under the curve (AUC) and calibrate probability estimates. The best models were retrained with restricted predictor subsets to estimate the best subsets. For women, bootstrap aggregated flexible discriminant analysis ("bagFDA") performed best with a test AUC of 0.92 [0.89; 0.94] and well-calibrated probabilities following Naïve Bayes adjustments. A "bagFDA" model limited to 11 predictors (among them bone mineral densities (BMD), biochemical glucose measurements, general practitioner and dentist use) achieved a test AUC of 0.91 [0.88; 0.93]. For men, eXtreme Gradient Boosting ("xgbTree") performed best with a test AUC of 0.89 [0.82; 0.95], but with poor calibration in higher probabilities. A ten predictor subset (BMD, biochemical cholesterol and liver function tests, penicillin use and osteoarthritis diagnoses) achieved a test AUC of 0.86 [0.78; 0.94] using an "xgbTree" model. Machine learning can improve hip fracture prediction beyond logistic regression using ensemble models. Compiling data from international cohorts of longer follow-up and performing similar machine learning procedures has the potential to further improve discrimination and calibration.

  10. Erosive effect of energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol on human enamel surface.An in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Beltrán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the erosive effect of energy drinks (ED alone and mixed with alcohol on the human enamel surface in vitro. Methods: Twenty non-erupted human third molars were vertically sectioned in half. Specimens were exposed to 5mL of ED plus 5mL of artificial saliva or 5mL of ED plus 5mL of artificial saliva plus 5mL of alcohol (Pisco. Exposure times were set at 30min and 60min. Erosive assessments were made using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The ED analyzed were Mr. Big, Kem Extreme, Red Bull, and Monster Energy. ED pH measurements were performed at 25°C and titration was done with NaOH 0.1mol/L. Results: The pH ranges were: ED alone 2.55 to 3.46, ED mixed with artificial saliva 2.60 to 3.55, ED mixed with Pisco 2.82 to 3.70, and ED mixed with both 2.92 to 3.86. The pH of Pisco was 6.13, and Pisco mixed with artificial saliva had a pH of 6.23. Titration showed a pH range from 3.5 to 5.7. SEM-EDS analysis showed that Mr. Big and Monster led to clear demineralization at 30 min and remineralization at 60m in. Pisco slightly decreased the erosive effect of these ED. Kem Xtreme and Red Bull led to no demineralization in the first hour. Conclusion: According to the pH, acidity and EDS analysis, the ED of the present study likely caused enamel erosion in human teeth surface dependent on exposure time.

  11. XMS and NG1dF: extreme multiplex spectrographs for wide-field multi-object spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Content, Robert; Barden, Sam; Becerril, Santiago; Boehm, Armin; Clark, Paul; Costillo, Pedro; Dubbeldam, C. Mark; Farrell, Tony; Glazebrook, Karl; Haynes, Roger; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Miziarski, Stan; Nikoloudakis, Nikolaos; Prada, Luis Francisco; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Shanks, Tom; Sharples, Ray M.; Wagner, Karl

    2010-07-01

    Two feasibility studies for spectrographs that can deliver at least 4000 MOS slits over a 1° field at the prime focuses of the Anglo-Australian and Calar Alto Observatories have been completed. We describe the design and science case of the Calar Alto eXtreme Multiplex Spectrograph (XMS) for which an extended study, half way between feasibility study and phase-A, was made. The optical design is quite similar than in the AAO study for the Next Generation 1 degree Field (NG1dF) but the mechanical design of XMS is quite different and much more developed. In a single night, 25000 galaxy redshifts can be measured to z~0.7 and beyond for measuring the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale and many other science goals. This may provide a low-cost alternative to WFMOS for example and other large fibre spectrographs. The design features four cloned spectrographs which gives a smaller total weight and length than a unique spectrograph to makes it placable at prime focus. The clones use a transparent design including a grism in which all optics are about the size or smaller than the clone rectangular subfield so that they can be tightly packed with little gaps between subfields. Only low cost glasses are used; the variations in chromatic aberrations between bands are compensated by changing a box containing the grism and two adjacent lenses. Three bands cover the 420nm to 920nm wavelength range at 10A resolution while another cover the Calcium triplet at 3A. An optional box does imaging. We however also studied different innovative methods for acquisition without imaging. A special mask changing mechanism was also designed to compensate for the lack of space around the focal plane. Conceptual designs for larger projects (AAT 2º field, CFHT, VISTA) have also been done.

  12. A Short-term Wind Speed Prediction Model Using Phase-space Reconstructed Extreme Learning Machine%相空间重构的极端学习机短期风速预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武峰雨; 乐秀瑶; 南东亮

    2013-01-01

    A quick and accurate prediction of wind speed can effectively reduce or avoid the adverse effects of wind farms on power system, and can as well improve the competitiveness of the wind farm in the electricity market. In this paper, according to the chaotic characteristics of the wind speed, a short-term wind speed prediction model using phase-space reconstructed extreme learning machine (ELM) is put forward. The decision of the delay time and embedding dimension is used to reconstruct the sample space, which makes the new sample better reflect the change characteristics of wind speed. On this basis, the ELM is applied for short-term wind speed prediction. Compared with the traditional prediction model, this method has the advantages of fast learning speed and good generalization performance. Therefore, a new method is provided for wind speed prediction.%对风速进行快速、准确的预测,可以有效地减小或避免风电场对电力系统的不利影响,同时提高风电场在电力市场中的竞争能力.根据风速具有混沌特性,提出一种相空间重构的极端学习机(extreme learningmachine,ELM)的短期风速预测模型,通过确定延迟时间和嵌入维数,对样本空间进行重构,使新的样本更能反映风速变化特性,在此基础上运用ELM进行短期风速预测.与传统的预测模型相比,该方法具有学习速度快、泛化性能好等优点,为风速预测提供了新方法.

  13. Development of the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) for predicting the impact of storms on high-energy, active-margin coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Maarten van Ormondt,; Erikson, Li H.; Jodi Eshleman,; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Peter Ruggiero,; Peter Adams,; Foxgrover, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) applies a predominantly deterministic framework to make detailed predictions (meter scale) of storm-induced coastal flooding, erosion, and cliff failures over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers). CoSMoS was developed for hindcast studies, operational applications (i.e., nowcasts and multiday forecasts), and future climate scenarios (i.e., sea-level rise + storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm hazards information that may be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. The prototype system, developed for the California coast, uses the global WAVEWATCH III wave model, the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry-based global tide model, and atmospheric-forcing data from either the US National Weather Service (operational mode) or Global Climate Models (future climate mode), to determine regional wave and water-level boundary conditions. These physical processes are dynamically downscaled using a series of nested Delft3D-WAVE (SWAN) and Delft3D-FLOW (FLOW) models and linked at the coast to tightly spaced XBeach (eXtreme Beach) cross-shore profile models and a Bayesian probabilistic cliff failure model. Hindcast testing demonstrates that, despite uncertainties in preexisting beach morphology over the ~500 km alongshore extent of the pilot study area, CoSMoS effectively identifies discrete sections of the coast (100s of meters) that are vulnerable to coastal hazards under a range of current and future oceanographic forcing conditions, and is therefore an effective tool for operational and future climate scenario planning.

  14. Core Radial Electric Field and Transport in Wendelstein 7-X Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablant, Novimir

    2016-10-01

    Results from the investigation of core transport and the role of the radial electric field profile (Er) in the first operational phase of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator are presented. In stellarator plasmas, the details of the Er profile are expected to have a strong effect on both the particle and heat fluxes. Neoclassical particle fluxes are not intrinsically ambipolar, which leads to the formation of a radial electric field that enforces ambipolarity. The radial electric field is closely related to the perpendicular plasma flow (u⊥) through the force balance equation. This allows the radial electric field to be inferred from measurements of the perpendicular flow velocity from the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) and correlation reflectometry diagnostics. Large changes in the perpendicular rotation, on the order of Δu⊥ 5km /s (ΔEr 12kV / m), have been observed within a set of experiments where the heating power was stepped down from 2 MW to 0.6 MW . These experiments are examined in detail to explore the relationship between, heating power, response of the temperature and density profiles and the response of the radial electric field. Estimations of the core transport are based on power balance and utilize electron temperature (Te) profiles from the ECE and Thomson scattering, electron density profiles (ne) from interferometry and Thomson scattering, ion temperature (Ti) profiles from XICS, along with measurements of the total stored energy and radiated power. Also described are a set core impurity confinement experiments and results. Impurity confinement has been investigated through the injection of trace amount of argon impurity gas at the plasma edge in conjunction with measurements of the density of various ionization states of argon from the XICS and High Efficiency eXtreme-UV Overview Spectrometer (HEXOS) diagnostics. Finally the inferred Er and heat flux profiles are compared to initial neoclassical calculations using measured

  15. On-sky validation of an optimal LQG control with vibration mitigation: from the CANARY Multi-Object Adaptive Optics demonstrator to the Gemini Multi-Conjugated Adaptive Optics facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, Gaetano; Kulcsár, Caroline; Conan, Jean-Marc; Raynaud, Henri-François; Gendron, Éric; Basden, Alastair; Gratadour, Damien; Morris, Tim; Petit, Cyril; Meimon, Serge; Rousset, Gérard; Garrel, Vincent; Neichel, Benoit; van Dam, Marcos; Marin, Eduardo; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schirmer, Mischa; Rambold, William; Moreno, Cristian; Montes, Vanessa; Hardie, Kayla; Trujillo, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive optics provides real time correction of wavefront perturbations on ground-based telescopes and allow to reach the diffraction limit performances. Optimizing control and performance is a key issue for ever more demanding instruments on ever larger telescopes affected not only by atmospheric turbulence, but also by vibrations, windshake and tracking errors. Linear Quadratic Gaussian control achieves optimal correction when provided with a temporal model of the disturbance. We present in this paper the first on-sky results of a Kalman filter based LQG control with vibration mitigation on the CANARY instrument at the Nasmyth platform of the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (La Palma, Spain). The results demonstrate a clear improvement of performance for full LQG compared with standard integrator control, and assess the additional improvement brought by vibration filtering with a tip-tilt model identified from on-sky data (by 10 points of Strehl ratio), thus validating the strategy retained on the instrument SPHERE (eXtreme-AO system for extra-solar planets detection and characterization) at the VLT. The MOAO on-sky pathfinder CANARY features two AO configurations that have both been tested: single- conjugated AO and multi-object AO with NGS and NGS+ Rayleigh LGS, together with vibration mitigation on tip and tilt modes. We finally present the ongoing development done to commission such a control law on a regular Sodium laser Multi-Conjuagated Adaptive Optics (MCAO) system GeMS at the 8-m Gemini South Telescope. This implementation does not require new hardware and is already available in the real-time computer.

  16. In vitro and in vivo corrosion of the novel magnesium alloy Mg-La-Nd-Zr: influence of the measurement technique and in vivo implant location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenrath, J; Marten, A-K; Angrisani, N; Eifler, R; Weizbauer, A

    2015-08-01

    For the evaluation of new magnesium-based alloys, many different in vitro and in vivo methods are used. It was the aim of the current study to perform in vitro and in vivo corrosion studies of the new alloy Mg-La-Nd-Zr for its evaluation as a promising new degradable material and to compare commonly used evaluation methods. Die casted and subsequent extruded cylindrical pins (Ø1.5 mm; length 7 mm, [Formula: see text]) were implanted subcutaneously ([Formula: see text]), intramuscular ([Formula: see text]) and intramedullary ([Formula: see text]) in female Lewis rats with a postoperative follow up of 8 weeks; subsequent μ-computed tomographical analyses (XTremeCT and μCT80) were performed as well as weight analysis prior to and after implantation. Cubes (5 mm  ×  4 mm  ×  4 mm; surface area, 1.12 cm(2); [Formula: see text]) were used for in vitro corrosion (HBSS and RPMI 1640 + 10% FBS medium) and cytocompatibility studies (L929 cells). First of all it could be stated that implant location strongly influences the in vivo corrosion rate. In particular, intramedullary implanted pins corroded faster than pins in a subcutaneous or intramuscular environment. Considering the different evaluation methods, the calculated ex vivo μCT-based corrosion rates resulted in comparable values to the corrosion rates calculated by the weight loss method, especially after chromatic acid treatment of the explanted pins. The in vitro methods used tend to show similar corrosion rates compared to in vivo corrosion, especially when a RPMI medium was used, and therefore are suitable to predict corrosion trends prior to in vivo studies. Regarding cytocompatibility, the novel magnesium alloy Mg-La-Nd-Zr showed sufficient cell viability and therefore can be considered as a promising alloy for further applications.

  17. 3种全瓷系统冠边缘适合性的比较%A comparison of three-dimensional marginal adaptation among three all-ceramic crown systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 李江; 薛小琴; 陈振宇; 李小菊

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较临床常用3种全瓷系统(Kavo Everest、IPS e.max、In-Ceram alumina)冠的边缘适合性,为临床应用提供理论依据.方法:选取1颗无龋的离体前磨牙行牙体预备,其中(牙合)面预备2mm,颈部凹槽肩台,宽度为0.8mm,(牙合)聚合度为6°.双重印模法取模,每种系统分别制作10个冠修复体.然后采用双色硅橡胶印模法复制间隙模型,应用光学显微镜采集间隙图像及使用Auto CAD2006软件对其水平边缘间隙、垂直边缘间隙和绝对边缘间隙进行测量,将所得数据使用SPSS13.0软件包进行单因素方差分析.结果:3种全瓷系统制作的上颌前磨牙冠的水平边缘间隙的平均值在41.1~44.9μm,垂直边缘间隙的平均值在51.4~71.7μm,绝对边缘间隙的平均值在66.2~85.1μm.结论:本研究中,3种全瓷系统冠的绝对边缘间隙、垂直边缘间隙和水平边缘间隙均在临床可接受范围;然而,与In-Ceram alumina系统相比,IPS e.max和Kavo Everest系统制作的全瓷冠显示出较好的边缘适合性.%PURPOSE: This study was to compare the marginal adaptation of ingle crown made of 3 different allceramic systems (IPS e.max, In-Ceram alumina, Kavo Everest) in vitro using a light-body silicone supported by a heavybody silicone material. METHODS: The crowns were made for 1 extracted maxillary premolar prepared with a 0.8-ram chamfer margin and 6-degree tapered walls by milling. Ten crowns per system were fabricated. The horizontal marginal discrepancies, vertical marginal discrepancies and absolute marginal discrepancies were measured under an optical microscope at 39.2 magnification. The data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS 13.0 software package. RESULTS: The results showed the mean values for horizontal marginal discrepancies were between 41.1μm and 44.9μm, for vertical marginal discrepancies were between 51.4μm and 71.7μm, and for absolute marginal discrepancies were between 66.2

  18. Surface area changes of Himalayan ponds as a proxy of hydrological climate-driven fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Thakuri, Sudeep; Guyennon, Nicolas; Viviano, Gaetano; Tartari, Gianni

    2016-04-01

    (glacial lake outburst floods). Whereas the lake surface areas variations of these lakes are strictly connected with the ablation processes and glacier velocities, variation related to unconnected glacial lakes are possibly influenced by only the resulting glacier melting. This difference with the other lake types makes unconnected glacial lakes potential indicators of changes of the main water balance components of high-elevated lake basins as: precipitation, glacier melting, and evapotranspiration. An evaluable opportunity for a fine-scale investigation on climate-driven fluctuations in lake surface area is particularly evident on the south slopes of Mt. Everest (Nepal), which is one of the most heavily glacierized parts of Himalaya, at same time, the region that is most characterized by glacial lakes in the overall Hindu-Kush-Himalaya range, and in which a twenty years series of temperature and precipitation has been recently reconstructed for high-elevations (5000 m a.s.l.). This contribution examines the surface area changes of unconnected glacial ponds, i.e., that are not directly connected with glaciers, on the south side of Mt. Everest in the last fifty years as part of an effort to evaluate if they can be considered potential indicators useful to detect how the climate is changed at high-elevations of the Himalayan range.

  19. Quality analysis of salmon calcitonin in a polymeric bioadhesive pharmaceutical formulation: sample preparation optimization by DOE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Matthias; Van Dorpe, Sylvia; Mehuys, Els; Deforce, Dieter; DeSpiegeleer, Bart

    2010-12-01

    A sensitive and selective HPLC method for the assay and degradation of salmon calcitonin, a 32-amino acid peptide drug, formulated at low concentrations (400 ppm m/m) in a bioadhesive nasal powder containing polymers, was developed and validated. The sample preparation step was optimized using Plackett-Burman and Onion experimental designs. The response functions evaluated were calcitonin recovery and analytical stability. The best results were obtained by treating the sample with 0.45% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid at 60 degrees C for 40 min. These extraction conditions did not yield any observable degradation, while a maximum recovery for salmon calcitonin of 99.6% was obtained. The HPLC-UV/MS methods used a reversed-phase C(18) Vydac Everest column, with a gradient system based on aqueous acid and acetonitrile. UV detection, using trifluoroacetic acid in the mobile phase, was used for the assay of calcitonin and related degradants. Electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry, using formic acid in the mobile phase, was implemented for the confirmatory identification of degradation products. Validation results showed that the methodology was fit for the intended use, with accuracy of 97.4+/-4.3% for the assay and detection limits for degradants ranging between 0.5 and 2.4%. Pilot stability tests of the bioadhesive powder under different storage conditions showed a temperature-dependent decrease in salmon calcitonin assay value, with no equivalent increase in degradation products, explained by the chemical interaction between salmon calcitonin and the carbomer polymer.

  20. Structural and Thermochronological Constraints on the Coupling Between Exhumation, Denudation and Tectonics in the Himalaya: Insights From the Ama Drime Massif, Tibet- Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, M. J.; Cottle, J. M.; Newell, D. L.; Berger, A. L.; Spotila, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Focused denudation and mid-crustal flow are coupled in many active tectonic settings, including the Himalaya where exhumation of mid-crustal rocks is accommodated by thrust faults and low-angle detachment systems during crustal shortening. New structural data demonstrates that the most recently active tectonic feature in the Mt. Everest region is the Ama Drime Massif (ADM), a trans-Himalayan antiformal structure that protrudes ~ 70 km north from the crest of the Himalaya and displaces the South Tibetan Detachment system. Previous investigations interpreted the N-S striking shear zones and fault systems that bound either side of the ADM as the Main Central thrust. Our data show that these are 100-300 m thick normal-sense shear zones that are kinematically linked to young brittle faults that offset Quaternary deposits and record active E-W extension. Geochemical tracers in hot springs along the western shear zone indicate devolatilization of crustal rocks suggesting active metamorphism and/or melting beneath the ADM. Integration of high-to low-T thermochronometric methods, including U(-Th-)Pb, Apatite Fission Track and (U-Th)/He, yield important information regarding the timing and rate of exhumation of the ADM. These data reveal that rapid exhumation of material from the mid-crust during E-W extension began in the mid-Miocene and that a high rate of uplift / denudation persisted into the Pliocene. The southern end of the ADM is centered on the Arun River gorge, which previous geomorphological instigations defined as a prime candidate for climate-tectonic coupling. We combine our results with these exiting data to propose that active exhumation of deep crustal rocks of the ADM during E-W extension is coupled with denudation in the Arun River gorge. This model provides important quantitative constraints on the dynamic feedbacks between climate and tectonics in collisional orogens as well as the evolution of trans-Himalayan rivers and antiformal structures.

  1. Reflectance-Based Estimation of Soil Heat Fluxes in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, P. H.; Colaizzi, P. D.; O'Shaughnessy, S.; Ha, W.; Howell, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Soil heat flux (G) is one of the terms required for estimating evapotranspiration rates using an energy balance. Numerous reflectance-based models are available in the literature for estimating G fluxes. However, these models have shown wide variation in their performance. Therefore, operational ET remote sensing programs may require locally developed/calibrated models for accurately estimating G. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate reflectance-based empirical G models for the semi-arid Texas High Plains. Soil heat flux was measured at 0.15 hz interval and averaged every 15 minutes at five different locations within a 4.7 ha lysimeter field with Pullman clay loam soil during the 2010 summer growing season. The field was planted to soybean and managed under dryland conditions. In each location, G was measured at 8 cm depth with two Campbell Scientific HFT3 soil heat flux plates. Soil temperature was measured at 2 and 6 cm above the soil heat flux plates. Soil moisture was measured in the 2-8 cm layer using Acclima SDI-12 sensors. Hourly G fluxes at the surface were calculated by adding the measured G fluxes at 8 cm to the energy stored above the heat flux plates. A multispectral radiometer (MSR, CROPSCAN, Inc.) and hand-held thermometer (EVEREST Interscience Inc.) measured surface reflectance in red and near infrared bandwidths and surface temperature (ST), respectively, daily at 11:30 AM CST to be consistent with the Landsat 5 overpass time. Fraction crop cover (FC) was measured by digital photographs taken twice a week. A set of G models was developed for estimating hourly fluxes based on measured reflectance, net radiation, ST, NDVI, and FC,. Resulting models were compared for performance with existing models available in the literature. In this presentation, we will discuss our G models for the Texas High Plains and the statistical results.

  2. Light absorption characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in two remote stations of the southern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoliu; Yan, Fangping; Kang, Shichang; Chen, Pengfei; Hu, Zhaofu; Gao, Shaopeng; Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-10-01

    Light absorption characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols are key considerations in climate forcing research. However, in situ measurement data are limited, especially on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) - the Third Pole of the world. In this study, the mass absorption cross section (MAC) of elemental carbon (EC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) of total suspended particles at two high-altitude stations (Lulang station and Everest station) in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were investigated. The mean MACEC values at 632 nm were 6.85 ± 1.39 m2 g-1 and 6.49 ± 2.81 m2 g-1 at these two stations, both of which showed little seasonal variations and were slightly higher than those of EC of uncoated particles, indicating that the enhancement of MACEC by factors such as coating with organic aerosols was not significant. The mean MACWSOC values at 365 nm were 0.84 ± 0.40 m2 g-1 and 1.18 ± 0.64 m2 g-1 at the two stations. Obvious seasonal variations of high and low MACWSOC values appeared in winter and summer, respectively, mainly reflecting photobleaching of light absorption components of WSOC caused by fluctuations in sunlight intensity. Therefore, this phenomenon might also exists in other remote areas of the world. The relative contributions of radiative forcing of WSOC to EC were 6.03 ± 3.62% and 11.41 ± 7.08% at these two stations, with a higher ratio in winter. As a result, both the contribution of WSOC to radiative forcing of carbonaceous aerosols and its seasonal variation need to be considered in radiative forcing related study.

  3. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  4. The 2010 Pakistan floods: high-resolution simulations with the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterbo, Francesca; Parodi, Antonio; Molini, Luca; Provenzale, Antonello; von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Estimating current and future water resources in high mountain regions with complex orography is a difficult but crucial task. In particular, the French-Italian project PAPRIKA is focused on two specific regions in the Hindu-Kush -- Himalaya -- Karakorum (HKKH)region: the Shigar basin in Pakistan, at the feet of K2, and the Khumbu valley in Nepal, at the feet of Mount Everest. In this framework, we use the WRF model to simulate precipitation and meteorological conditions with high resolution in areas with extreme orographic slopes, comparing the model output with station and satellite data. Once validated the model, we shall run a set of three future time-slices at very high spatial resolution, in the periods 2046-2050, 2071-2075 and 2096-2100, nested in different climate change scenarios (EXtreme PREcipitation and Hydrological climate Scenario Simulations -EXPRESS-Hydro project). As a prelude to this study, here we discuss the simulation of specific, high-intensity rainfall events in this area. In this paper we focus on the 2010 Pakistan floods which began in late July 2010, producing heavy monsoon rains in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan regions of Pakistan and affecting the Indus River basin. Approximately one-fifth of Pakistan's total land area was underwater, with a death toll of about 2000 people. This event has been simulated with the WRF model (version 3.3.) in cloud-permitting mode (d01 14 km and d02 3.5 km): different convective closures and microphysics parameterization have been used. A deeper understanding of the processes responsible for this event has been gained through comparison with rainfall depth observations, radiosounding data and geostationary/polar satellite images.

  5. Seasonal variations in the sources of natural and anthropogenic lead deposited at the East Rongbuk Glacier in the high-altitude Himalayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn-Nunes, Laurie, E-mail: L.Nunes@curtin.edu.au [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia); Vallelonga, Paul [Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Lee, Khanghyun [Environmental Measurement and Analysis Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex, Kyungseo-dong, Seo-gu, Incheon 404-170 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sungmin [Department of Ocean Sciences, Inha University, 100 Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Burton, Graeme [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia); Hou, Shugui [Key Laboratory of Coast and Island development of Ministry of Education, School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Moy, Andrew [Department of the Environment, Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston 7050, Tasmania (Australia); Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 80, Hobart 7001, Tasmania (Australia); Edwards, Ross; Loss, Robert; Rosman, Kevin [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopic compositions and concentrations, and barium (Ba) and indium (In) concentrations have been analysed at sub-annual resolution in three sections from a < 110 m ice core dated to the 18th and 20th centuries, as well as snow pit samples dated to 2004/2005, recovered from the East Rongbuk Glacier in the high-altitude Himalayas. Ice core sections indicate that atmospheric chemistry prior to ∼ 1953 was controlled by mineral dust inputs, with no discernible volcanic or anthropogenic contributions. Eighteenth century monsoon ice core chemistry is indicative of dominant contributions from local Himalayan sources; non-monsoon ice core chemistry is linked to contributions from local (Himalayan), regional (Indian/Thar Desert) and long-range (North Africa, Central Asia) sources. Twentieth century monsoon and non-monsoon ice core data demonstrate similar seasonal sources of mineral dust, however with a transition to less-radiogenic isotopic signatures that suggests local and regional climate/environmental change. The snow pit record demonstrates natural and anthropogenic contributions during both seasons, with increased anthropogenic influence during non-monsoon times. Monsoon anthropogenic inputs are most likely sourced to South/South-East Asia and/or India, whereas non-monsoon anthropogenic inputs are most likely sourced to India and Central Asia. - Highlights: • Pb isotopes in ice and snow show seasonality in Mt Everest atmospheric chemistry. • Local (Himalayan) mineral dust inputs are present year round. • Regional and long-range mineral dust inputs are evident during non-monsoon times. • Snow samples indicate increased anthropogenic inputs during non-monsoon times. • Anthropogenic inputs are linked with Indian, South Asian and Central Asian sources.

  6. Why is it so difficult to measure big G?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, James

    2015-04-01

    The determination of the Newtonian constant of gravitation, big G, continues to be one of Nature's greatest challenges to the skills and cunning of experimental physicists. The reasons: Big G is small, scientists are human, and error budgets are flawed. In spite of the fact that on the scale of the Universe, big G's effects are so big as to single handedly hold everything together, on the scale of a single research laboratory, big G's effects are so small that they go unnoticed. And, it is this ``smallness'' that makes the determination of this (seemingly unrelated to the rest of physics) fundamental constant so difficult. Furthermore, because they are human, scientists want to get the ``right'' (read previously obtained) answer; and this goal can affect their otherwise good judgment. Finally, error budgets are fundamentally flawed because they cannot make allowances for error sources that have not been thought of. During its nearly 300 year measurement history, the accuracy with which G is known has barely increased by three orders of magnitude; during the past 30 years the progress, measured by agreement rather than claimed accuracy of individual measurements, has been essentially zero. Nevertheless, this Mount Everest of precision measurement continues to provide an experimental challenge upon which metrologists can hone their laboratory skills for generations to come. Finally, this presentation will be understandable and interesting for ``students of all ages.'' In this year of GR100, Einstein will be mentioned more than once, and my hope is that some of you who would not normally ``risk'' attending a talk outside of your own specialty or discipline will consider coming to this one.

  7. Records of anthropogenic antimony in the glacial snow from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Chen, Pengfei; Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Yajun; Gao, Tanguang; Guo, Junming; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a ubiquitous element in the environment that is potentially toxic at very low concentrations. In this study, surface snow/ice and snowpit samples were collected from four glaciers in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau in June 2015. The concentrations of Sb and other elements were measured in these samples. The results showed that the average concentration of Sb was approximately 2.58 pg g-1 with a range of 1.64-9.20 pg g-1. The average Sb concentration in the study area was comparable to that recorded in a Mt. Everest ice core and higher than that in Arctic and Antarctic snow/ice but much lower than that in Tien Shan and Alps ice cores. Sb presented different variations with other toxic elements (Pb and Cr) and a crustal element (Al) in the three snowpits, which indicated the impact of a different source or post-deposition processes. The enrichment factor of Sb was larger than 10, suggesting that anthropogenic sources provided important contributions to Sb deposition in the glaciers. The Sb in the glacial snow was mainly loaded in the fourth component in principal component analysis, exhibiting discrepancies with crustal elements (Fe and Ca) and other toxic metals (Pb). Backward trajectories revealed that the air mass arriving at the southeastern Tibetan Plateau mostly originated from the Bay of Bengal and the South Asia in June. Thus, pollutants from the South Asia could play an important role in Sb deposition in the studied region. The released Sb from glacier meltwater in the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas might pose a risk to the livelihoods and well-being of those in downstream regions.

  8. Design of the advanced commode-shower chair for spinal cord-injured individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malassigné, P; Nelson, A L; Cors, M W; Amerson, T L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this development project was to design a new commode-shower chair that can be safely used by individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) and their caregivers. The need for this new design was consumer-driven. Patients and caregivers identified the following fatal flaws in the commode-shower chairs used in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) centers: 1) risk for patient falls during transfers, propelling, and while leaning over for showering; 2) risk for pressure ulcers due to inadequate padding and seat positioning for lengthy bowel care regimes; 3) inadequate caregiver access to the perianal area of the patient to perform bowel care procedures; and, 4) wheel-related inability to properly position the chair directly over the toilet. The new, self-propelled chair addresses each of these concerns. Lockable, swing-away, pivoting armrests and improved, lever-activated brakes were designed to facilitate safe transfers. An innovative foot-lift was invented to facilitate washing of feet. Larger handrims were designed to aid in propulsion in wet environments. To prevent pressure ulcers, a chair frame and padding combination was designed to facilitate a seating position that optimally distributes body weight to prevent the development of pressure ulcers in the sacral and ischial areas. To address the common risk of heel ulcers, footrests, featuring edgeless, rounded heel cups, were designed. A new tubular chair frame, a new seat and smaller wheels were designed to enhance caregiver access and ensure proper chair positioning over the toilet. Following its successful clinical evaluation at the Milwaukee and Tampa VA Medical SCI Centers, the Advanced commode-shower chair is being patented by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The VA has partnered with Everest & Jennings, to make this chair available commercially.

  9. Atmospheric Modelling for Air Quality Study over the complex Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surapipith, Vanisa; Panday, Arnico; Mukherji, Aditi; Banmali Pradhan, Bidya; Blumer, Sandro

    2014-05-01

    An Atmospheric Modelling System has been set up at International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) for the assessment of Air Quality across the Himalaya mountain ranges. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.5 has been implemented over the regional domain, stretching across 4995 x 4455 km2 centred at Ichhyakamana , the ICIMOD newly setting-up mountain-peak station (1860 m) in central Nepal, and covering terrains from sea-level to the Everest (8848 m). Simulation is carried out for the winter time period, i.e. December 2012 to February 2013, when there was an intensive field campaign SusKat, where at least 7 super stations were collecting meteorology and chemical parameters on various sites. The very complex terrain requires a high horizontal resolution (1 × 1 km2), which is achieved by nesting the domain of interest, e.g. Kathmandu Valley, into 3 coarser ones (27, 9, 3 km resolution). Model validation is performed against the field data as well as satellite data, and the challenge of capturing the necessary atmospheric processes is discussed, before moving forward with the fully coupled chemistry module (WRF-Chem), having local and regional emission databases as input. The effort aims at finding a better understanding of the atmospheric processes and air quality impact on the mountain population, as well as the impact of the long-range transport, particularly of Black Carbon aerosol deposition, to the radiative budget over the Himalayan glaciers. The higher rate of snowcap melting, and shrinkage of permafrost as noticed by glaciologists is a concern. Better prediction will supply crucial information to form the proper mitigation and adaptation strategies for saving people lives across the Himalayas in the changing climate.

  10. 近60年来雪豹(Uncia uncia)研究的文献分析%Literature analysis on snow leopard research during last six decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦; 马鸣; 买尔旦·吐尔干

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis on the bibliographic record of scientific thesis on the snow leopard from international and domestic publications from 1950 -2010 and 1964 -2010 was conducted respectively. The philological principles and methods from different aspects such as year, author, institution and key word were used to investigate the distribution pattern, current status of snow leopard research thesis to reveal the current progress in this thematic research field worldwide. Results showed that the year 2008 was the most prosperous year with the highest record in the published literature both in China and overseas. The nations with relatively high output are China, Norway, the United States, India and Mongolia. China's specific research on the snow leopard was highly concentrated on the two major research teams as Xinjiang institute of Ecology and Geography and Beijing Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The hot topics of snow leopard research were those like conservation, ecology, human and wildlife conflict, biodiversity, endangered animal, gene, habitat, population density and food resource; the hot spots are such areas like the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, Al-tuntagh National Reserve, the Altay Mountain, Hengduan Mountain, Tashkurghan, the Mount Everest and the Tomur Peak Natural Reserve.%应用文献计量学的原理和方法,就外文1950-2010年,中文1964-2010年公开发表的雪豹生物学研究文献进行统计和分析.分别从雪豹研究文献的发文年代、作者、机构和

  11. Immunology presentation at the 1990 NASA/NSF Antarctica Biomedical Science Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Richard T.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of methodology used for determining human in vitro lymphocyte activation, proliferation and effector cell function was presented and results of previous manned space flight immunology studies from Apollo through Shuttle were reviewed. Until the Shuttle era, lymphocyte assays were not very sensitive and had such large variations among normal subjects that it was difficult to define a consistent effect of space flight. More sensitive assay, however, even with Shuttle missions as brief as 6 days indicate depressed T-cell proliferative responses are routinely observed following space flight. Using a slight modification of the Shuttle assay, five different human stress-immunology models have been studied over the last 6 years in our lab. These have included: academic examinations of medical students having blood drawn during major test periods on three separate groups of first year students and two hypoxia studies (at 25,000 feet in a 6 week chamber ascent to the equivalent of Mount Everest and twice on Pikes Peak at 14,000 feet). These studies are particularly pertinent to Antarctica, since the altitude equivalent of 11,000 feet at the South Pole may affect some of the variables that are being measured in immunology, physiology or cognitive studies. An extravehicular study was performed drawing blood from 35 individuals before and immediately following a chamber exposure study. Preliminary results from 30 Shuttle astronauts investigated immunophenotype analysis and the role of a novel monocyte population in modulating the previously observed suppressed in vitro immune function. The results of the Air Force Academy cadet stress study were also presented.

  12. Interfacial modulus mapping of layered dental ceramics using nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Andrew J; P'ng, Ken MY; Wilson, Rory M

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to test the modulus of elasticity (E) across the interfaces of yttria stabilized zirconia (YTZP) / veneer multilayers using nanoindentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS YTZP core material (KaVo-Everest, Germany) specimens were either coated with a liner (IPS e.max ZirLiner, Ivoclar-Vivadent) (Type-1) or left as-sintered (Type-2) and subsequently veneered with a pressable glass-ceramic (IPS e.max ZirPress, Ivoclar-Vivadent). A 5 µm (nominal tip diameter) spherical indenter was used with a UMIS CSIRO 2000 (ASI, Canberra, Australia) nanoindenter system to test E across the exposed and polished interfaces of both specimen types. The multiple point load – partial unload method was used for E determination. All materials used were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X – ray powder diffraction (XRD). E mappings of the areas tested were produced from the nanoindentation data. RESULTS A significantly (P<.05) lower E value between Type-1 and Type-2 specimens at a distance of 40 µm in the veneer material was associated with the liner. XRD and SEM characterization of the zirconia sample showed a fine grained bulk tetragonal phase. IPS e-max ZirPress and IPS e-max ZirLiner materials were characterized as amorphous. CONCLUSION The liner between the YTZP core and the heat pressed veneer may act as a weak link in this dental multilayer due to its significantly (P<.05) lower E. The present study has shown nanoindentation using spherical indentation and the multiple point load - partial unload method to be reliable predictors of E and useful evaluation tools for layered dental ceramic interfaces. PMID:28018566

  13. Citizen Science in the Himalaya: The Sherpa-Scientist Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, U. N.; Breashears, D.; Rowe, P.

    2015-12-01

    Since the non-profit educational group, Black Ice Himalaya, launched in 2011 our goal has been to involve local communities in our research expeditions, in the form of a Sherpa-Scientist Initiative (SSI). This goes beyond simply helping with gear carries to research sites. It involves training the local Sherpa in equipment set-up, data collection, and analysis processes, with the goal of turning over this task to local communities and villages in the future. As the terrain continues to change - with the growth and expansion of glacial lakes, along with accumulation of pollutants on snow at higher altitudes - this training program presents an excellent opportunity for long-term data collection in sensitive alpine regions. In association with GlacierWorks and Midwest ROV LLC, skill training has included gigapan high-resolution photography, installing (and downloading) multiple time lapse cameras to track hour-by-hour glacial lake changes; lake bathymetry mapping using side-scan sonar from an unmanned towed platform; installing and managing weather stations; collecting and analyzing data from ASD field spectrometers; and collecting/filtering snow samples to look for contaminants (pollutants) affecting snow melt from 4000 - 6000 meters. A field manual documenting this work and intended to raise awareness of glacial trekking hazards has been disseminated to the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and Sagarmatha (Everest) National Park. In 2016-17, in collaboration with Vanguard Diving and Exploration, OpenROV, and Midwest ROV LLC, efforts will include SCUBA diving into glacial lakes to collect scientific data, with continued Sherpa training on how to assemble and use portable remotely piloted submersibles to aid in the assessment of glacial lake hazards.

  14. Effective Management of Trans boundary Landscapes - Geospatial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotru, R.; Rawal, R. S.; Mathur, P. K.; Chettri, N.; Chaudhari, S. A.; Uddin, K.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Singh, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity advocates the use of landscape and ecosystem approaches for managing biodiversity, in recognition of the need for increased regional cooperation. In this context, ICIMOD and regional partners have evolved Transboundary Landscape concept to address the issues of conservation and sustainable use of natural resources and systems (e.g., biodiversity, rangelands, farming systems, forests, wetlands, and watersheds, etc.). This concept defines the landscapes by ecosystems rather than political/administrative boundaries. The Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is extremely heterogeneous, with complex inter linkages of biomes and habitats as well as strong upstream-downstream linkages related to the provisioning of ecosystem services. Seven such transboundary landscapes, identified across west to east extent of HKH, have been considered for programmatic cooperation, include: Wakhan, Karakoram-Pamir, Kailash, Everest, Kangchenjunga, Brahmaputra-Salween, and Cherrapunjee- Chittagong. The approach is people centered and considers the cultural conservation as an essential first step towards resource conservation efforts in the region. Considering the multi-scale requirements of study, the geospatial technology has been effectively adopted towards: (i) understanding temporal changes in landscapes, (ii) long term ecological and social monitoring, (ii) identifying potential bio corridors, (iii) assessing landscape level vulnerability due to climatic and non-climatic drivers, and (iv) developing local plans on extractions of high value economic species supporting livelihoods, agroforestry system and ecotourism, etc. We present here our recent experiences across different landscapes on assessment of three decadal changes, vegetation type mapping, assessment of socio-ecological drivers, corridor assessment, ecosystem services assessment, models for optimal natural resource use systems and long term socio-ecological monitoring.

  15. Drivers of archaeal ammonia-oxidizing communities in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna eZhalnina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA are highly abundant and play an important role in the nitrogen cycle. In addition, AOA have a significant impact on soil quality. AOA may cause nitrogen loss from soils, and the nitrate produced by AOA can lead to ground and surface water contamination, water eutrophication, and soil subsidence. The ammonia-oxidizing archaea discovered to date are classified in the phylum Thaumarchaeota. Only a few archaeal genomes are available in databases. As a result, AOA genes are not well annotated, and it is difficult to mine and identify archaeal genes within metagenomic libraries. Nevertheless, 16S rRNA and comparative analysis of ammonia monooxygenase sequences show that soils can vary greatly in the relative abundance of AOA. In some soils, AOA can comprise more than 10% of the total prokaryotic community. In other soils, AOA comprise less than 0.5% of the community. Many approaches have been used to measure the abundance and diversity of this group including DGGE, T-RFLP, q-PCR, and DNA sequencing. AOA have been studied across different soil types and various ecosystems from the Antarctic dry valleys to the tropical forests of South America to the soils near Mount Everest. Different studies have identified multiple soil factors that trigger the abundance of AOA. These factors include pH, concentration of available ammonia, organic matter content, moisture content, nitrogen content, clay content, as well as other triggers. Land use management appears to have a major effect on the abundance of AOA in soil, which may be the result of nitrogen fertilizer used in agricultural soils. This review summarizes the published results on this topic and suggests future work that will increase our understanding of how soil management and edaphoclimatic factors influence AOA.

  16. Effects of prolonged exposure to hypobaric hypoxia on oxidative stress, inflammation and gluco-insular regulation: the not-so-sweet price for good regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Siervo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The mechanisms by which low oxygen availability are associated with the development of insulin resistance remain obscure. We thus investigated the relationship between such gluco-insular derangements in response to sustained (hypobaric hypoxemia, and changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and counter-regulatory hormone responses. METHODS: After baseline testing in London (75 m, 24 subjects ascended from Kathmandu (1,300 m to Everest Base Camp (EBC;5,300 m over 13 days. Of these, 14 ascended higher, with 8 reaching the summit (8,848 m. Assessments were conducted at baseline, during ascent to EBC, and 1, 6 and 8 week(s thereafter. Changes in body weight and indices of gluco-insular control were measured (glucose, insulin, C-Peptide, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] along with biomarkers of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-HNE, inflammation (Interleukin-6 [IL-6] and counter-regulatory hormones (glucagon, adrenalin, noradrenalin. In addition, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 and venous blood lactate concentrations were determined. RESULTS: SpO2 fell significantly from 98.0% at sea level to 82.0% on arrival at 5,300 m. Whilst glucose levels remained stable, insulin and C-Peptide concentrations increased by >200% during the last 2 weeks. Increases in fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and glucagon correlated with increases in markers of oxidative stress (4-HNE and inflammation (IL-6. Lactate levels progressively increased during ascent and remained significantly elevated until week 8. Subjects lost on average 7.3 kg in body weight. CONCLUSIONS: Sustained hypoxemia is associated with insulin resistance, whose magnitude correlates with the degree of oxidative stress and inflammation. The role of 4-HNE and IL-6 as key players in modifying the association between sustained hypoxia and insulin resistance merits further investigation.

  17. Research Objects for Sharing and Exchanging Research Data and Methods in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Pérez, José Manuel; Palma, Raul

    2016-04-01

    Scientists in data-intensive disciplines increasingly call for models that go beyond the publication of datasets, allowing systematic capture of the lifecycle of scientific investigations and providing a single entry point for accessing information about (to name a few) the hypotheses investigated, the datasets used, the computations, observations and experiments carried out, their outcomes and provenance, the conclusions and findings that were derived, and even the scientists involved in a particular investigation. In this scenario, Research Objects provide a structured means to encapsulate such information and the associated methods involved, along with essential metadata and annotations aimed at both humans and computers. Research objects are therefore portable units of scientific knowledge that enable the sharing, preservation, scholarly communication, validation, and re-use of scientific outcomes. In this presentation we will focus on the application of the Research Object concept in observational disciplines and particularly Earth Science. We will present the main concepts behind research objects and discuss the challenges involved in the extension and adaptation of existing practices, modelling vocabularies, middleware and tools for these disciplines. By deploying research object technologies in Earth Science, we aim to enhance the portability of scientific materials and methods, the collaboration capabilities within and between teams of earth scientists, the quality and long-term preservation capabilities of the methods, and the means to communicate, validate and measure the impact of scientific outcomes. This work is being conducted in the context of the Horizon2020 EVER-EST project, the main objective of which is the development of a research object-centric virtual research environment for Earth Science communities.

  18. Detailed and Highly Accurate 3d Models of High Mountain Areas by the Macs-Himalaya Aerial Camera Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchle, J.; Hein, D.; Berger, R.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing in areas with extreme altitude differences is particularly challenging. In high mountain areas specifically, steep slopes result in reduced ground pixel resolution and degraded quality in the DEM. Exceptionally high brightness differences can in part no longer be imaged by the sensors. Nevertheless, detailed information about mountainous regions is highly relevant: time and again glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and debris avalanches claim dozens of victims. Glaciers are sensitive to climate change and must be carefully monitored. Very detailed and accurate 3D maps provide a basic tool for the analysis of natural hazards and the monitoring of glacier surfaces in high mountain areas. There is a gap here, because the desired accuracies are often not achieved. It is for this reason that the DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems has developed a new aerial camera, the MACS-Himalaya. The measuring unit comprises four camera modules with an overall aperture angle of 116° perpendicular to the direction of flight. A High Dynamic Range (HDR) mode was introduced so that within a scene, bright areas such as sun-flooded snow and dark areas such as shaded stone can be imaged. In 2014, a measuring survey was performed on the Nepalese side of the Himalayas. The remote sensing system was carried by a Stemme S10 motor glider. Amongst other targets, the Seti Valley, Kali-Gandaki Valley and the Mt. Everest/Khumbu Region were imaged at heights up to 9,200 m. Products such as dense point clouds, DSMs and true orthomosaics with a ground pixel resolution of up to 15 cm were produced. Special challenges and gaps in the investigation of high mountain areas, approaches for resolution of these problems, the camera system and the state of evaluation are presented with examples.

  19. Personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y su capacidad de agencia de autocuidado, Cartagena Pessoas com diabete mellitus tipo 2 e sua capacidade de agência de autocuidado, Cartagena Patients with Type 2 Mellitus Diabetes and their Self-Care Agency Capacity, Cartagena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleth Herrera Lían

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 se constituye en un problema de salud pública por las repercusiones bio-psicosociales, la presencia de complicaciones neurovasculares y metabólicas en la persona que la padece. Enfermería cumple un papel importante a través de la educación y la capacitación. Objetivo: Identificar la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado de las personas con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, inscritos en los programas de control de diabetes en 19 UPAS de Cartagena. Metodología: diseño descriptivo con abordaje cuantitativo, en una muestra de 225 adultos de ambos sexos, seleccionados en forma aleatoria. La capacidad de agencia de autocuidado se identificó con la escala de Valoración de las capacidades de autocuidado, desarrollada por Isenberg y Everest, traducida al español por Gallegos y adaptada por la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Para presentar los datos se utilizó la estadística descriptiva, los resultados se presentan en tablas y gráficas. Resultados: Predominó el sexo femenino (68,4 %; la unión libre (59,1 %; escolaridad (50,6 % con básica primaria; bajos ingresos económicos (menos de un salario mínimo mensual vigente, 34.7 %. Al valorar la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado, el 73.8 % de los pacientes obtuvo una calificación de muy buena (76-100 %, según escala. Al valorar los aspectos comprendidos en la escala se encontró que más del 50 % de las personas siempre sacan tiempo para ellos, piden explicación sobre su salud, examinan su cuerpo para ver si hay cambios y conservan un ambiente limpio. Conclusiones: El apoyo social recibido por los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y las prácticas de higiene personal y del entorno, el conocimiento y la adherencia a la dieta, permiten a los pacientes una buena capacidad de agencia de autocuidado.Contexto: A diabete mellitus tipo 2 se configura como um problema de saúde pública por conta das repercussões biopsicossociais e da presen

  20. GENE TRANSFER ON Betta imbellis THROUGH TRANSFECTION METHOD WITH DIFFERENT DNA CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusrini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Big size betta (Giant have a high economic value compared to normal size betta, and over expression of growth hormone gene can produce giant fish.  As an initial step of giant transgenic betta productions, this study was conducted in order to obtain DNA plasmid concentration which provide higher hatching and survival rate of betta larvae.  Construction of PhGH pCcBA gene contains growth hormone gene of Siamese catfish (PhGH and it is controlled by the CCBA promoter. Betta imbellis broodstocks were spawned naturally, and embryos were collected 1-2 minutes after spawning time. One hundred embryos were dipped in 2 mL of transfectan X-treme gene which containp CcBA-PhGH construction genes (50 µg/mL, on room temperature for about 30 minutes. Treatments on this study were different transfectant : DNA plasmid ratiosnamely:A (0,75 µL: 0,25 µL; B (0,75 µL : 0,50 µL; C (0,75 µL: 0,75 µL, D as Control 1(without transfectant, 0,25 µL DNA; E.as Control 2(0,75 µL transfectant, without DNA, and Fas control 3 (without transfectant and without DNA. Every treatments was repeated three times.  Transfection embryos were hatched on a container (1L Volume. Study results showed that hatching rate and larvae survival rate  (4 days after hatching on treatment A were the same with the control, but slightly higher than B and C treatments. PCR analysis with DNA template showing that PhGH gene were found on embryos and larvae (pooled sample of treatment A, B and C. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis showing the existence of mRNA PhGH expression on embryos and larvae (pooled sample. Therefore, embryo transfection with transfectant ratio 0,75 µL and  DNA 0,25 µLshowing the best results.

  1. Local topological analysis at the distal radius by HR-pQCT: Application to in vivo bone microarchitecture and fracture assessment in the OFELY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pialat, J B; Vilayphiou, N; Boutroy, S; Gouttenoire, P J; Sornay-Rendu, E; Chapurlat, R; Peyrin, F

    2012-09-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is an in-vivo technique used to analyze the distal radius and tibia. It provides a voxel size of 82μm. In addition to providing the usual microarchitecture parameters, local topological analysis (LTA) depicting rod- and plate-like trabeculae may improve prediction of bone fragility. Thirty-three women with prevalent wrist fractures from the OFELY cohort were compared with age-matched controls. Bone microarchitecture, including the structural model index (SMI), was assessed by HR-pQCT, and micro-finite element analysis (μFE) was computed on trabecular bone images of the distal radius (XtremeCT, Scanco Medical AG). A new LTA method was applied to label each bone voxel as a rod, plate or node. Then the bone volume fraction (BV/TV*), the rod, plate and node ratios over bone volume (RV/BV*, PV/BV*, NV/BV*) or total volume (RV/TV*, PV/TV*, NV/TV*) and the rod to plate ratio (RV/PV*) were calculated. Associations between LTA parameters and wrist fractures were computed in a conditional logistic regression model. Multivariate models were tested to predict the μFE-derived trabecular bone stiffness. RV/TV* (OR=4.41 [1.05-18.62]) and BV/TV* (OR=6.45 [1.06-39.3]), were significantly associated with prevalent wrist fracture, after adjustment for ultra distal radius aBMD. Multivariate linear models including PV/TV* or BV/TV*+RV/PV* predicted trabecular stiffness with the same magnitude as those including SMI. Conversion from plates into rods was significantly associated with bone fragility, with a negative correlation between RV/PV* and trabecular bone stiffness (r=-0.63, p<0.0001). We conclude that our local topological analysis is feasible for a voxel size of 82μm. After further validation, it may improve bone fragility description.

  2. Parámetros fisiológicos en caninos pre y post competencia de Agility en Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernando Forero López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se llevó a cabo en la ciudad de Bogotá, ubicada a una altura media 2600 msnm, con temperatura promedio de 14°C. Se realizó un muestreo en el Polideportivo el Salitre y otro en el parque central de Modelia. El objetivo principal fue monitorear y estandarizar los cambios fisiológicos que se presentan en caninos atletas, como respuesta al ejercicio realizado en pruebas de Agility. Se muestrearon 15 caninos hembras de diferentes razas practicantes del Agility, de las escuelas Atalanta y X-treme Dog. El control se obtuvo de individuos en reposo, previo al ejercicio, inmediatamente a su llegada al área de investigación, donde se situaron las pistas para el entrenamiento, que incluía la toma de temperatura rectal, frecuencia de pulso, frecuencia respiratoria y de sangre arterial (arteria femoral. La muestra arterial se procesó con analizador sanguíneo portátil, obteniendo de hematocrito, hemoglobina, sodio, potasio, cloruro, nitrógeno uréico (BUN, glucosa, lactato, pH sanguíneo, presión de dióxido de carbono (PCO2, presión de oxígeno (PO2, bicarbonato, tensión de dióxido de carbono(TCO2, saturación de oxígeno (SO2, exceso de base (BE, anion gap y osmolalidad. Luego se inició el entrenamiento, simulando una competencia real, donde cada canino pasó cuatro veces por pista, y al final se monitorearon, siguiendo el procedimiento descrito para el control. Se compararon los resultados pre y post ejercicio, presentándose: aumento para temperatura, frecuencia respiratoria, pulso, pH, hematocrito, hemoglobina, sodio, cloro y osmolalidad (p<0,001; incremento en los valores de potasio, lactato y glucosa (p<0,01; ascenso para PO2, SO2 y BUN (p<0,05; descenso para PCO2, TCO2, BE y Anión Gap (p<0,001. Se concluye que los caninos deportistas en Bogotá presentan hipertermia, taquicardia, hipocapnia, alcalosis respiratoria acompañada de una acidosis metabólica compensatoria y hemoconcentración por una deshidratación clasificada

  3. Validating tyrosinase homologue melA as a photoacoustic reporter gene for imaging Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paproski, Robert J; Li, Yan; Barber, Quinn; Lewis, John D; Campbell, Robert E; Zemp, Roger

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pathogenic processes for infectious bacteria, appropriate research tools are required for replicating and characterizing infections. Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have primarily been used to image infections in animal models, but optical scattering in tissue significantly limits imaging depth and resolution. Photoacoustic imaging, which has improved depth-to-resolution ratio compared to conventional optical imaging, could be useful for visualizing melA-expressing bacteria since melA is a bacterial tyrosinase homologue which produces melanin. Escherichia coli-expressing melA was visibly dark in liquid culture. When melA-expressing bacteria in tubes were imaged with a VisualSonics Vevo LAZR system, the signal-to-noise ratio of a 9×dilution sample was 55, suggesting that ∼20 bacteria cells could be detected with our system. Multispectral (680, 700, 750, 800, 850, and 900 nm) analysis of the photoacoustic signal allowed unmixing of melA-expressing bacteria from blood. To compare photoacoustic reporter gene melA (using Vevo system) with luminescent and fluorescent reporter gene Nano-lantern (using Bruker Xtreme In-Vivo system), tubes of bacteria expressing melA or Nano-lantern were submerged 10 mm in 1% Intralipid, spaced between Photoacoustic imaging could resolve the two tubes of melA-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were less than 1 mm from each other, while bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging could not resolve the two tubes of Nano-lantern-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were spaced 10 mm from each other. After injecting 100-μL of melA-expressing bacteria in the back flank of a chicken embryo, photoacoustic imaging allowed visualization of melA-expressing bacteria up to 10-mm deep into the embryo. Photoacoustic signal from melA could also be separated from deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin signal observed within the embryo and chorioallantoic membrane. Our results suggest that melA is a useful photoacoustic reporter gene

  4. The Preservation of "Non-Biological" Environments in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Eugene

    Nature preservation will be a central element of the exploration of the Solar System, whether this emphasis is initially planned for or not. Exploration of extraterrestrial environments will generate images and scientific information that will excite the imagination of the general public throughout the world and be supportive of more funding for exploration. However, damage to the environments visited, once made public, will likely generate a backlash against exploration programs that could inhibit exploration or even bring it completely to an end. The exploration in the nineteenth century of the western United States, with landscapes aesthetically very different from those found in Europe but very similar to those existing on the Moon and on Mars, provides an excellent indication of what will happen in off-planet exploration. Nearly every place painted by a major artist or photographed by a photographer on a geological survey during that time period is today a national park or national monument. If extraterrestrial environments are not protected, the major space societies that are currently enthusiastically supportive of space agencies around the world could become political opponents, much as the Sierra Club evolved into a serious and effective critic of the U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service in the United States. At a minimum, space agencies must be protective of the historical landing sites on the Moon, avoid strip mining on the Moon that may draw criticism, and protect major features on Mars from damage, such as the Cydonian Face on Mars, Valles Marineris, the grand canyon of Mars, and Olympus Mons, a mountain three times as tall as Mount Everest. A good first step might be to establish a world-heritage-style site to protect the visible side of the Moon. Although extraterrestrial sites may initially be labeled "non-biological," caution must be taken to be protective of possible extraterrestrial life, active or dormant, even in the most unlikely

  5. Carbonaceous aerosols on the south edge of the Tibetan Plateau: concentrations, seasonality and sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Cong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To quantitatively evaluate the effect of carbonaceous aerosols on the south edge of the Tibetan Plateau, aerosol samples were collected weekly from August 2009 to July 2010 at Mt. Everest (Qomolangma Station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, briefly QOMS, 28.36° N, 86.95° E, 4276 m a.s.l.. The samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC and major ions. The average concentrations of OC, EC and WSOC were 1.43, 0.25 and 0.77 μg m−3, respectively. The concentration levels of OC and EC at QOMS are comparable to those at high elevation sites on the southern slopes of the Himalayas (Langtang and NCO-P, but three to six times lower than those at Manora Peak, India and Godavari, Nepal. Sulfate was the most abundant anion species followed by nitrate, accounting for 25 and 12% of total ionic mass, respectively. Ca2+ was the most abundant cation species (annual average of 0.88 μg m−3. The various aerosol compositions showed distinctive seasonality. The dust loading, represented by Ca2+ concentration, was relatively constant throughout the year. While OC, EC and other ionic species (NH4+, K+, NO3−, and SO42− exhibited a pronounced peak in the pre-monsoon period and a minimum in the monsoon season. Similar seasonal trends of aerosol composition were also reported previously from the southern slope of the Himalayas, such as Langtang and NCO-P. This phenomenon indicates that both slopes of Himalayas share a common atmospheric environment regime. The strong correlation of OC and EC in QOMS aerosols with K+ and levoglucosan indicates that they were mainly originated from biomass burning. The active fire spots observed by MODIS and their backward trajectories further demonstrate that in pre-monsoon season, agricultural and forest fires in the northern India and Nepal were most likely sources of carbonaceous aerosol at QOMS. In addition to large-scale atmospheric

  6. Intuitive ultrasonography for autonomous medical care in limited-resource environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Melton, Shannon L.; Ebert, Douglas; Hamilton, Douglas R.

    2011-05-01

    Management of health problems in limited resource environments, including spaceflight, faces challenges in both available equipment and personnel. The medical support for spaceflight outside Low Earth Orbit is still being defined; ultrasound (US) imaging is a candidate since trials on the International Space Station (ISS) prove that this highly informative modality performs very well in spaceflight. Considering existing estimates, authors find that US could be useful in most potential medical problems, as a powerful factor to mitigate risks and protect mission. Using outcome-oriented approach, an intuitive and adaptive US image catalog is being developed that can couple with just-in-time training methods already in use, to allow non-expert crew to autonomously acquire and interpret US data for research or diagnosis. The first objective of this work is to summarize the experience in providing imaging expertise from a central location in real time, enabling data collection by a minimally trained operator onsite. In previous investigations, just-in-time training was combined with real-time expert guidance to allow non-physician astronauts to perform over 80 h of complex US examinations on ISS, including abdominal, cardiovascular, ocular, musculoskeletal, dental/sinus, and thoracic exams. The analysis of these events shows that non-physician crew-members, after minimal training, can perform complex, quality US examinations. These training and guidance methods were also adapted for terrestrial use in professional sporting venues, the Olympic Games, and for austere locations including Mt. Everest. The second objective is to introduce a new imaging support system under development that is based on a digital catalog of existing sample images, complete with image recognition and acquisition logic and technique, and interactive multimedia reference tools, to guide and support autonomous acquisition, and possibly interpretation, of images without real-time link with a human

  7. Aerosol mass and black carbon concentrations, two year-round observations at NCO-P (5079 m, Southern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marinoni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol mass and the absorbing fraction are important variables, needed to constrain the role of atmospheric particles in the Earth radiation budget, both directly and indirectly through CCN activation. In particular, their monitoring in remote areas and mountain sites is essential for determining source regions, elucidating the mechanisms of long range transport of anthropogenic pollutants, and validating regional and global models. Since March 2006, aerosol mass and black carbon concentration have been monitored at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid, a permanent high-altitude research station located in the Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. below Mt. Everest. The first two-year averages of PM1 and PM1-10 mass were 1.94 μg m−3 and 1.88 μg m−3, with standard deviations of 3.90 μg m−3 and 4.45 μg m−3, respectively, while the black carbon concentration average is 160.5 ng m−3, with a standard deviation of 296.1 ng m−3. Both aerosol mass and black carbon show well defined annual cycles, with a maximum during the pre-monsoon season and a minimum during the monsoon. They also display a typical diurnal cycle during all the seasons, with the lowest particle concentration recorded during the night, and a considerable increase during the afternoon, revealing the major role played by thermal winds in influencing the behaviour of atmospheric compounds over the high Himalayas. The aerosol concentration is subject to high variability: in fact, as well as frequent "background conditions" (55% of the time when BC concentrations are mainly below 100 ng m−3, concentrations up to 5 μg m−3 are reached during some episodes (a few days every year in the pre-monsoon seasons. The variability of PM and BC is the result of both short-term changes due to thermal wind development in the valley, and long-range transport/synoptic circulation. At

  8. Aerosol mass and black carbon concentrations, a two year record at NCO-P (5079 m, Southern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marinoni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol mass and the absorbing fraction are important variables, needed to constrain the role of atmospheric particles in the Earth radiation budget, both directly and indirectly through CCN activation. In particular, their monitoring in remote areas and mountain sites is essential for determining source regions, elucidating the mechanisms of long range transport of anthropogenic pollutants, and validating regional and global models. Since March 2006, aerosol mass and black carbon concentration have been monitored at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid, a permanent high-altitude research station located in the Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. below Mt. Everest. The first two-year averages of PM1 and PM1−10 mass were 1.94 μg m−3 and 1.88 μg m−3, with standard deviations of 3.90 μg m−3 and 4.45 μg m−3, respectively, while the black carbon concentration average is 160.5 ng m−3, with a standard deviation of 296.1 ng m−3. Both aerosol mass and black carbon show well defined annual cycles, with a maximum during the pre-monsoon season and a minimum during the monsoon. They also display a typical diurnal cycle during all the seasons, with the lowest particle concentration recorded during the night, and a considerable increase during the afternoon, revealing the major role played by thermal winds in influencing the behaviour of atmospheric compounds over the high Himalayas. The aerosol concentration is subject to high variability: in fact, as well as frequent "background conditions" (55% of the time when BC concentrations are mainly below 100 ng m−3, concentrations up to 5 μg m−3 are reached during some episodes (a few days every year in the pre-monsoon seasons. The variability of PM and BC is the result of both short-term changes due to thermal wind development in the valley, and long-range transport/synoptic circulation

  9. The long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols from South Asia to Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kang, Shichang; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    High levels of carbonaceous aerosol exist over South Asia, the area adjacent to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Little is known about if they can be transported across the Himalayas, and as far inland as the Tibetan Plateau. To resolve such scientific questions, aerosol samples were collected weekly from August 2009 to July 2010 at Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research(QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.). In the laboratory, major ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, levoglucosan, water-soluble organic carbon, and organic acids were analyzed. The concentration levels of OC and EC at QOMS are comparable to those at high-elevation sites on the southern slopes of the Himalayas (Langtang and NCO-P), but 3 to 6 times lower than those at Manora Peak, India, and Godavari, Nepal. Sulfate was the most abundant anion species followed by nitrate. The dust loading, represented by Ca2+ concentration, was relatively constant throughout the year. OC, EC and other ionic species (NH+4 , K+, NO- and SO2-) exhibited a pronounced peak in the pre-monsoon period and a minimum in the monsoon season, being similar to the seasonal trends of aerosol compo-sition reported previously from the southern slope of the Himalayas. The strong correlation of OC and EC in QOMS aerosols with K+ and levoglucosan indicates that they mainly originated from biomass burning. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds (malonic acid/ succinic acid, maleic acid/fumaric acid) further support this finding. The fire spots observed by MODIS and backward air-mass trajectories further demonstrate that in pre-monsoon season, agricultural and forest fires in northern India and Nepal were most likely sources of carbonaceous aerosol at QOMS. In addition to large-scale atmospheric circulation, the unique mountain/valley breeze system can also have an important effect on air-pollutant transport.With the consideration of the darkening force of

  10. Himalayan glaciers: understanding contrasting patterns of glacier behavior using multi-temporal satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviteanu, A.

    2014-12-01

    High rates of glacier retreat for the last decades are often reported, and believed to be induced by 20th century climate changes. However, regional glacier fluctuations are complex, and depend on a combination of climate and local topography. Furthermore, in ares such as the Hindu-Kush Himalaya, there are concerns about warming, decreasing monsoon precipitation and their impact on local glacier regimes. Currently, the challenge is in understanding the magnitude of feedbacks between large-scale climate forcing and small-scale glacier behavior. Spatio-temporal patterns of glacier distribution are still llimited in some areas of the high Hindu-Kush Himalaya, but multi-temporal satellite imagery has helped fill spatial and temporal gaps in regional glacier parameters in the last decade. Here I present a synopsis of the behavior of glaciers across the Himalaya, following a west to east gradient. In particular, I focus on spatial patterns of glacier parameters in the eastern Himalaya, which I investigate at multi-spatial scales using remote sensing data from declassified Corona, ASTER, Landsat ETM+, Quickbird and Worldview2 sensors. I also present the use of high-resolution imagery, including texture and thermal analysis for mapping glacier features at small scale, which are particularly useful in understanding surface trends of debris-covered glaciers, which are prevalent in the Himalaya. I compare and contrast spatial patterns of glacier area and élévation changes in the monsoon-influenced eastern Himalaya (the Everest region in the Nepal Himalaya and Sikkim in the Indian Himalaya) with other observations from the dry western Indian Himalaya (Ladakh and Lahul-Spiti), both field measurements and remote sensing-based. In the eastern Himalaya, results point to glacier area change of -0.24 % ± 0.08% per year from the 1960's to the 2006's, with a higher rate of retreat in the last decade (-0.43% /yr). Debris-covered glacier tongues show thinning trends of -30.8 m± 39 m

  11. XS-1 on ramp with B-29 mothership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    XS-1 on the ramp with the B-29 mothership in 1949. This is the second XS-1 built; it later was converted into the X-1E. Unlike the XS-1-1, which was flown by the Air Force, the XS-1-2 was flown mostly by Bell and NACA pilots. It gathered much more research data than the more famous XS-1-1, known as 'Glamorous Glennis.' The first of the rocket-powered research aircraft, the X-1 (originally designated the XS-1), was a bullet-shaped airplane that was built by the Bell Aircraft Company for the US Air Force and the NACA. The mission of the X-1 was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' The first of the three X-1s was glide-tested at Pinecastle Army Air Field, FL, in early 1946. The first powered flight of the X-1 was made on Dec. 9, 1946, at Edwards Air Force Base with Chalmers Goodlin, a Bell test pilot, at the controls. On Oct. 14, 1947, with USAF Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager as pilot, the aircraft flew faster than the speed of sound for the first time. Captain Yeager ignited the four-chambered XLR-11 rocket engines after the B-29 air-launched it from under the bomb bay of a B-29 at 21,000 feet. The 6,000-pound thrust ethyl alcohol/liquid oxygen burning rockets, built by Reaction Motors, Inc., pushed the aircraft up to a speed of 700 miles per hour in level flight. Captain Yeager was also the pilot when the X-1 reached its maximum speed, 957 miles per hour. Another USAF pilot. Lt. Col. Frank Everest, Jr., was credited with taking the X-1 to its maximum altitude of 71,902 feet. Eighteen pilots in all flew the X-1s. The number three plane was destroyed in a fire before ever making any powered flights. A single-place monoplane, the X-1 was 30 feet, 11 inches long; 10 feet, 10 inches high; and had a wingspan of 29 feet. It weighed 6,784 pounds and carried 6,250 pounds of fuel. It had a flush cockpit with a side entrance and no ejection seat.

  12. Chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 at the high-altitude Himalayan station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P (5079 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Laj

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We report chemical composition data for PM10 and PM1 from the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P, the world's highest aerosol observatory, located at 5079 m a.s.l. at the foothills of Mt. Everest. Despite its high altitude, the average PM10 mass apportioned by the chemical analyses is of the order of 6 μg m−3 (i.e., 10 μg/scm, with almost a half of this mass accounted for by organic matter, elemental carbon (EC and inorganic ions, the rest being mineral dust. Organic matter, in particular, accounted for by 2.0 μg m−3 (i.e., 3.6 μg/scm on a yearly basis, and it is by far the major PM10 component beside mineral oxides. Non-negligible concentrations of EC were also observed (0.36 μg/scm, confirming that optically-active aerosol produced from combustion sources can be efficiently transported up the altitudes of Himalayan glaciers. The concentrations of carbonaceous and ionic aerosols follow a common time trend with a maximum in the premonsoon season, a minimum during the monsoon and a slow "ramp-up" period in the postmonsoon and dry seasons, which is the same phenomenology observed for other Nepalese Himalayan sites in previous studies. Such seasonal cycle can be explained by the seasonal variations of dry and moist convection and of wet scavenging processes characterizing the climate of north Indian subcontinent. We document the effect of orographic transport of carbonaceous and sulphate particles upslope the Himalayas, showing that the valley breeze circulation, which is almost permanently active during the out-of-monsoon season, greatly impacts the chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 in the high Himalayas and provides an efficient mechanism for bringing anthropogenic optically-active aerosols into the Asian upper troposphere (>5000 m a.s.l.. The concentrations of mineral dust are impacted to a smaller extent by valley breezes and follow a unique seasonal cycle which suggest multiple source areas in central and south-west Asia. Our

  13. Chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 at the high-altitude Himalayan station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P (5079 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cozic

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We report chemical composition data for PM10 and PM1 from the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P, the world's highest aerosol observatory, located at 5079 m a.s.l. at the foothills of Mt. Everest. Despite its high altitude, the average PM10 mass apportioned by the chemical analyses is of the order of 6 μg m−3 (i.e., 10 μg/scm, with almost a half of this mass accounted for by organic matter, elemental carbon (EC and inorganic ions, the rest being mineral dust. Organic matter, in particular, accounted for by 2.0 μg m−3 (i.e., 3.6 μg/scm on a yearly basis, and it is by far the major PM10 component beside mineral oxides. Non-negligible concentrations of EC were also observed (0.36 μg/scm, confirming that light-absorbing aerosol produced from combustion sources can be efficiently transported up the altitudes of Himalayan glaciers. The concentrations of carbonaceous and ionic aerosols follow a common time trend with a maximum in the premonsoon season, a minimum during the monsoon and a slow recovery during the postmonsoon and dry seasons, which is the same phenomenology observed for other Nepalese Himalayan sites in previous studies. Such seasonal cycle can be explained by the seasonal variations of dry and moist convection and of wet scavenging processes characterizing the climate of north Indian subcontinent. We document the effect of orographic transport of carbonaceous and sulphate particles upslope the Himalayas, showing that the valley breeze circulation, which is almost permanently active during the out-of-monsoon season, greatly impacts the chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 in the high Himalayas and provides an efficient mechanism for bringing anthropogenic aerosols into the Asian upper troposphere (>5000 m a.s.l.. The concentrations of mineral dust are impacted to a smaller extent by valley breezes and follow a unique seasonal cycle which suggest multiple source areas in central and south-west Asia. Our findings, based on

  14. Significance of QRS duration and left bundle branch block in development and course of congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria L. A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with severe chronic heart failure (CHF often have such intraventricular conduction disturbances as left bundle branch block which show morphological and QRS-duration changes on ECG and result in evident intra- and interventricular dyssinchrony. Delayed left ventricular activation via interventricular septum results in evident asynchrony at the beginning of left and right ventricular contration. Diagnostic significance of ECG data increases in presence of CHF clinical signs, especially echocardiographic signs of myocardial dysfunction. EVEREST study analyzed the influence of QRS duration on number of hospital admissions and mortality in patients with CHF. The study included 2962 patients, 1614 of them had normal QRS duration – less than 120 ms, 1321 patients had increased QRS duration – more than 120 ms. 678 deaths occurred during followup period, 307 (18.7% of them were from group with normal QRS duration and 371 (28.1% – from group with increased QRS interval. Mortality rate due to cardiovascular causes was more significant in patients with increased QRS. In 3 months of follow-up the mortality rate was 21.1% in patients with increased QRS and 14.6% in patients with normal QRS. In 9.9 months of follow-up the rates were 41.6% and 32.4%, respectively. Different international studies showed that isolated right ventricular pacing resulted in prolongation of QRS complex and contributed to CHF progression. 2010 patients were randomized in MOST-study which aimed to compare dual chamber pacing and right ventricular pacing. Reduction of CHF symptoms was noted in the course of study in patients who underwent dual chamber pacing, while M.O. Sweeney et al. analyzed the results of treatment of 1339 patients with initially normal QRS duration. However the authors revealed a higher rate in group of right ventricular pacing which proved the higher rates of hospital admission for CHF and more frequent rates for atrial fibrillation occurrence

  15. Asian Ice Core Array (AICA): Late Holocene Atmospheric Dust Reconstruction over Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigholm, B. O.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V. B.; Kang, S.; Aizen, E.; Kreutz, K. J.; Kaspari, S.; Fujita, K.; Takeuchi, N.; Wake, C. P.; Kurbatov, A.

    2010-12-01

    as well as consequences on regional socio-economics. Preliminary analysis suggests that atmospheric dust concentrations have generally declined at AICA sites in recent decades. Longer AICA records from the Himalayas (Everest) and central TP (Geladaindong) show generally opposite dust concentration trends over that last ~350 years and may be suggestive of regionally varying emission strength and/or atmospheric transport (e.g. westerly vs. monsoonal dominated circulation).

  16. An Approach for High-precision Stand-alone Positioning in a Dynamic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halis Saka, M.; Metin Alkan, Reha; Ozpercin, Alişir

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an algorithm is developed for precise positioning in dynamic environment utilizing a single geodetic GNSS receiver using carrier phase data. In this method, users should start the measurement on a known point near the project area for a couple of seconds making use of a single dual-frequency geodetic-grade receiver. The technique employs iono-free carrier phase observations with precise products. The equation of the algorithm is given below; Sm(t(i+1))=SC(ti)+[ΦIF (t(i+1) )-ΦIF (ti)] where, Sm(t(i+1)) is the phase-range between satellites and the receiver, SC(ti) is the initial range computed from the initial known point coordinates and the satellite coordinates and ΦIF is the ionosphere-free phase measurement (in meters). Tropospheric path delays are modelled using the standard tropospheric model. To accomplish the process, an in-house program was coded and some functions were adopted from Easy-Suite available at http://kom.aau.dk/~borre/easy. In order to assess the performance of the introduced algorithm in a dynamic environment, a dataset from a kinematic test measurement was used. The data were collected from a kinematic test measurement in Istanbul, Turkey. In the test measurement, a geodetic dual-frequency GNSS receiver, Ashtech Z-Xtreme, was set up on a known point on the shore and a couple of epochs were recorded for initialization. The receiver was then moved to a vessel and data were collected for approximately 2.5 hours and the measurement was finalized on a known point on the shore. While the kinematic measurement on the vessel were carried out, another GNSS receiver was set up on a geodetic point with known coordinates on the shore and data were collected in static mode to calculate the reference trajectory of the vessel using differential technique. The coordinates of the vessel were calculated for each measurement epoch with the introduced method. With the purpose of obtaining more robust results, all coordinates were calculated

  17. Storage-Intensive Supercomputing Benchmark Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J; Dossa, D; Gokhale, M; Hysom, D; May, J; Pearce, R; Yoo, A

    2007-10-30

    : SuperMicro X7DBE Xeon Dual Socket Blackford Server Motherboard; 2 Intel Xeon Dual-Core 2.66 GHz processors; 1 GB DDR2 PC2-5300 RAM (2 x 512); 80GB Hard Drive (Seagate SATA II Barracuda). The Fusion board is presently capable of 4X in a PCIe slot. The image resampling benchmark was run on a dual Xeon workstation with NVIDIA graphics card (see Chapter 5 for full specification). An XtremeData Opteron+FPGA was used for the language classification application. We observed that these benchmarks are not uniformly I/O intensive. The only benchmark that showed greater that 50% of the time in I/O was the graph algorithm when it accessed data files over NFS. When local disk was used, the graph benchmark spent at most 40% of its time in I/O. The other benchmarks were CPU dominated. The image resampling benchmark and language classification showed order of magnitude speedup over software by using co-processor technology to offload the CPU-intensive kernels. Our experiments to date suggest that emerging hardware technologies offer significant benefit to boosting the performance of data-intensive algorithms. Using GPU and FPGA co-processors, we were able to improve performance by more than an order of magnitude on the benchmark algorithms, eliminating the processor bottleneck of CPU-bound tasks. Experiments with a prototype solid state nonvolative memory available today show 10X better throughput on random reads than disk, with a 2X speedup on a graph processing benchmark when compared to the use of local SATA disk.

  18. Measurement of galaxy clustering at z ∼ 7.2 and the evolution of galaxy bias from 3.8 < z < 8 in the XDF, GOODS-S, and GOODS-N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone-Nugent, R. L.; Wyithe, J. S. B. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3010 (Australia); Trenti, M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bouwens, R. J.; Labbe, I. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Carollo, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Su, J. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Stiavelli, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van Dokkum, P. G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) samples observed during reionization (z ≳ 6) with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 are reaching sizes sufficient to characterize their clustering properties. Using a combined catalog from the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field and CANDELS surveys, containing N = 743 LBG candidates at z ≥ 6.5 at a mean redshift of z-bar =7.2, we detect a clear clustering signal in the angular correlation function (ACF) at ≳ 4σ, corresponding to a real-space correlation length r{sub 0}=6.7{sub −1.0}{sup +0.9}h{sup −1}cMpc. The derived galaxy bias b=8.6{sub −1.0}{sup +0.9} is that of dark matter halos of M=10{sup 11.1{sub −}{sub 0}{sub .}{sub 3}{sup +{sup 0{sup .{sup 2}}}}} M{sub ⊙} at z = 7.2, and highlights that galaxies below the current detection limit (M{sub AB} ∼ –17.7) are expected in lower-mass halos (M ∼ 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10.5} M{sub ⊙} ). We compute the ACF of LBGs at z ∼ 3.8 – z ∼ 5.9 in the same surveys. A trend of increasing bias is found from z-bar =3.8 (b ∼ 3.0) to z-bar =7.2 (b ∼ 8.6), broadly consistent with galaxies at fixed luminosity being hosted in dark matter halos of similar mass at 4 ≲ z ≲ 6, followed by a slight rise in halo masses at z ≳ 7 (∼2σ confidence). Separating the data at the median luminosity of the z-bar =7.2 sample (M {sub UV} = –19.4) shows higher clustering at z-bar =5.9 for bright galaxies (r{sub 0}=5.5{sub −1.6}{sup +1.4}h{sup −1}cMpc, b=6.2{sub −1.5}{sup +1.2}) compared to faint galaxies (r{sub 0}=1.9{sub −1.0}{sup +1.1}h{sup −1}cMpc, b=2.7{sub −1.2}{sup +1.2}) implying a constant mass-to-light ratio (dlogM/dlogL)∼1.2{sub −0.8}{sup +1.8}. A similar trend is present in the z-bar =7.2 sample with larger uncertainty. Finally, our bias measurements allow us to investigate the fraction of dark matter halos hosting UV-bright galaxies (the duty cycle, ε{sub DC}). At z-bar =7.2 values near unity are preferred, which may be explained by the shortened halo

  19. Fast estimation of Colles' fracture load of the distal section of the radius by homogenized finite element analysis based on HR-pQCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hadi S; Dünki, Andreas; Fabech, Jonas; Stauber, Martin; Vilayphiou, Nicolas; Pahr, Dieter; Pretterklieber, Michael; Wandel, Jasmin; Rietbergen, Bert van; Zysset, Philippe K

    2017-01-07

    Fractures of the distal section of the radius (Colles' fractures) occur earlier in life than other osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, they can be interpreted as a warning signal for later, more deleterious fractures of vertebral bodies or the femoral neck. In the past decade, the advent of HR-pQCT allowed a detailed architectural analysis of the distal radius and an automated but time-consuming estimation of its strength with linear micro-finite element (μFE) analysis. Recently, a second generation of HR-pQCT scanner (XtremeCT II, SCANCO Medical, Switzerland) with a resolution beyond 61 μm became available for even more refined biomechanical investigations in vivo. This raises the question how biomechanical outcome variables compare between the original (LR) and the new (HR) scanner resolution. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to validate experimentally a patient-specific homogenized finite element (hFE) analysis of the distal section of the human radius for the fast prediction of Colles' fracture load based on the last generation HR-pQCT. Fourteen pairs of fresh frozen forearms (mean age = 77.5±9) were scanned intact using the high (61 μm) and the low (82 μm) resolution protocols that correspond to the new and original HR-pQCT systems. From each forearm, the 20mm most distal section of the radius were dissected out, scanned with μCT at 16.4 μm and tested experimentally under compression up to failure for assessment of stiffness and ultimate load. Linear and nonlinear hFE models together with linear micro finite element (μFE) models were then generated based on the μCT and HR-pQCT reconstructions to predict the aforementioned mechanical properties of 24 sections. Precision errors of the short term reproducibility of the FE analyses were measured based on the repeated scans of 12 sections. The calculated failure loads correlated strongly with those measured in the experiments: accounting for donor as a random factor, the nonlinear hFE provided a

  20. Atmospheric aerosol brown carbon in the high Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Elena; Decesari, Stefano; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Facchini, M. Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol can reach very high concentrations in the planetary boundary layer in South-East Asia ("brown clouds"), affecting atmospheric transparency and generating spatial gradients of temperature over land with a possible impact on atmospheric dynamics and monsoon circulation. Besides black carbon (BC), an important light-absorbing component of anthropogenic aerosols is the organic carbon component known as 'brown carbon' (BrC). In this research, we provided first measurements of atmospheric aerosol BrC in the high Himalayas during different seasons. Aerosol sampling was conducted at the GAW-WMO Global station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (NCO-P) located in the high Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. in the foothills of Mt. Everest. PM10 aerosol samples were collected from July 2013 to November 2014. The sampling strategy was set up in order to discriminate the daytime valley breeze bringing polluted air masses up to the observatory and free tropospheric air during nighttime. Water-soluble BrC (WS-BrC) and methanol-soluble BrC (MeS-BrC) were extracted and analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer equipped with a 50 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell. In the polluted air masses, the highest levels of the BrC light absorption coefficient at 365 nm (babs365) were observed during the pre-monsoon season (1.83±1.46 Mm-1 for WS-BrC and 2.86±2.49 Mm-1 for MeS-BrC) and the lowest during the monsoon season (0.21±0.22 Mm-1 for WS-BrC and 0.32±0.29 Mm-1 for MeS-BrC). The pre-monsoon season is the most frequently influenced by a strong atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) transport to NCO-P due to increased convection and mixing layer height over South Asia combined with the highest up-valley wind speed and the increase of the emissions from open fires due to the agricultural practice along the Himalayas foothills and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In contrast, the monsoon season is characterized by a weakened valley wind regime and an

  1. Provenance of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Mélange and the Location of the India-Asia Suture, Southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, K.; Kapp, P. A.; Orme, D. A.; Laskowski, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone (IYSZ) is the boundary between rocks of Indian and Asian affinity. From north to south in southern Tibet, it exposes the preserved Asian forearc, ophiolitic rocks, tectonic mélanges, and Tethyan Himalayan strata of Indian affinity. The mélange has long been considered the accretionary prism corresponding to the ophiolite to the north which obducted onto the Indian margin prior to India-Asia collision. An outstanding issue is whether the ophiolitic rocks and mélanges were (1) obducted onto the northern margin of India or (2) associated with the Cordilleran-style southern margin of Asia, prior to India - Asia collision. Resolving this issue is fundamental to understanding the precollisional tectonic framework of the Neo-Tethyan realm, interpreting the timing of initial continental collision from detrital records, and locating the suture. We conducted geologic mapping and U/Pb detrital zircon provenance studies of the blocks and matrix of the mélanges and of Tethyan Himalayan units to the south at two localities: near Lhatse, which is ~140 km north of Mt. Everest and near Lopu Kangri, ~300 km along strike to the west. Near Lhatse the mélange is composed of a mudstone matrix with blocks of basalt, chert, mudstone, metabasite, limestone, and sandstone. The majority of the blocks are deep-water facies or consistent with oceanic crust, supporting the interpretation that the mélange is an accretionary complex formed by oceanic subduction. A south-dipping fault ~9 km north of Lhatse separates the mélange to the north from a continuous sequence of sandstone, shale, and minor limestone to the south. Previous work along strike suggests that this sequence, which has been previously identified as Tethyan affinity, contains Asian affinity detrital zircon populations. Near Lopu Kangri, the mélange is similar to that exposed in Lhatse. Over a distance of ~10 km to the southwest, blocks gradually increase in size to encompass ~2 km x ~10 km

  2. 10-year record of atmospheric composition in the high Himalayas: source, transport and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasoni, Paolo; Laj, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Maione, Michela; Putero, Davide; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Gobbi, Gianpaolo; Sellegri, Karine; Verza, Gianpietro; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Arduini, Jgor

    2016-04-01

    South Asia represents a global "hot-spot" for air-quality and climate impacts. Since the end of the 20th Century, field experiments and satellite observations identified a thick layer of atmospheric pollutants extending from the Indian Ocean up to the atmosphere of the Himalayas. Since large amount of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) - like atmospheric aerosol (in particular, the light-absorbing aerosol) and ozone - characterize this region, severe implications were recognized for population health, ecosystem integrity as well as regional climate impacts, especially for what concerns hydrological cycle, monsoon regimes and cryosphere. Since 2006, the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid (NCO-P, 27.95N, 86.82 E, 5079 m a.s.l.), a global station of the WMO/GAW programme has been active in the eastern Nepal Himalaya, not far from the Mt. Everest. NCO-P is located away from large direct anthropogenic pollution sources. The closest major urban area is Kathmandu (200 km south-west from the measurement site). As being located along the Khumbu valley, the observations are representative of synoptic-scale and mountain thermal circulation, providing direct information about the vertical transport of pollutants/climate-altering compounds to the Himalayas and to the free troposphere. In the framework of international programmes (GAW/WMO, UNEP-ABC, AERONET) the following continuous measurement programmes have been carried out at NCO-P: surface ozone, aerosol size distribution (from 10 nm to 25 micron), total particle number, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, equivalent BC, PM1-PM10, AOD by sun-photometry, global solar radiation (SW and LW), meteorology. Long-term sampling programmes for the off-line determination of halogenated gases and aerosol chemistry have been also activated. The atmospheric observation records at NCO-P, now representing the longest time series available for the high Himalayas, provided the first direct evidences about the systematic

  3. Final master work plan : environmental investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas, 2002 revision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J. C.; Environmental Research

    2003-01-23

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under which Argonne National Laboratory provides technical assistance for hazardous waste site characterization and remediation for the CCC/USDA. Carbon tetrachloride is the contaminant of primary concern at sites in Kansas where former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities were located. Argonne applies its QuickSite(reg sign) Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) approach to these former facilities. The QuickSite environmental site characterization methodology is Argonne's proprietary implementation of the ESC process (ASTM 1998). Argonne has used this approach at several former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas, including Agenda, Agra, Everest, and Frankfort. The Argonne ESC approach revolves around a multidisciplinary, team-oriented approach to problem solving. The basic features and steps of the QuickSite methodology are as follows: (1) A team of scientists with diverse expertise and strong field experience is required to make the process work. The Argonne team is composed of geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, hydrogeologists, chemists, biologists, engineers, computer scientists, health and safety personnel, and regulatory staff, as well as technical support staff. Most of the staff scientists are at the Ph.D. level; each has on average, more than 15 years of experience. The technical team works together throughout the process. In other words, the team that plans the program also implements the program in the field and writes the reports. More experienced scientists do not remain in the office while individuals with lesser degrees or experience carry out the field work. (2) The technical team reviews, evaluates, and interprets existing data for the site and the contaminants there to determine which data sets are technically valid and can be used in initially designing the field program. A basic

  4. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Himalaya in the Kangra reentrant where the great Kangra earthquake of 1905 was located. (ii) The Aravalli Delhi Mobile Belt (ADMB) and its margin faults extend to the Western Himalayan front via Delhi where it interacts with the Delhi-Lahore ridge and further north with the Himalayan front causing seismic activity. (iii) The Shahjahanpur and Faizabad ridges strike the Himalayan front in Central Nepal that do not show any enhanced seismicity which may be due to their being parts of the Bundelkhand craton as simple basement highs. (iv) The west and the east Patna faults are parts of transcontinental lineaments, such as Narmada-Son lineament. (v) The Munghyr-Saharsa ridge is fault controlled and interacts with the Himalayan front in the Eastern Nepal where Bihar-Nepal earthquakes of 1934 has been reported. Some of these faults/lineaments of the Indian continent find reflection in seismogenic lineaments of Himalaya like Everest, Arun, Kanchenjunga lineaments. A set of NW-SE oriented gravity highs along the Himalayan front and the Ganga and the Indus basins represents the folding of the basement due to compression as anticlines caused by collision of the Indian and the Asian plates. This study has also delineated several depressions like Saharanpur, Patna, and Purnia depressions.

  5. Our Place in Space: Exploring the Earth-Moon System and Beyond with NASA's CINDI E/PO Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Where does space begin? How far is the Moon? How far is Mars? How does our dynamic star, the Sun, affect its family of planets? All of these questions relate to exploration of our Solar System, and are also part of the Education/Public Outreach (E/PO) Program for NASA’s CINDI project, a space weather mission of opportunity. The Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation has been flying aboard the US Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite in the upper atmosphere of the Earth since April 2008. The Earth’s ionosphere, the part of the atmosphere CINDI studies, is also in space. The CINDI E/PO program uses this fact in lessons designed to help students in middle schools and introductory astronomy classes develop a sense of their place in space. In the activity "How High is Space?" students’ start by building an 8-page scale model of the Earth’s atmosphere with 100 km/page. The peak of Mount Everest, commercial airplanes, and the tops of thunderheads all appear at the bottom of the first page of the model, with astronaut altitude -where space begins- at the top of the same sheet of paper. In "Where Would CINDI Be?" the idea of scale is further developed by modeling the Earth-Moon system to scale first in size, then in distance, using half of standard containers of play dough. With a lowest altitude of about 400 km, similar to that of the International Space Station and orbiting Space Shuttle, CINDI is close to the Earth when compared with the nearly thousand times greater distance to the Moon. Comparing and combining the atmosphere and Earth-Moon system models help reinforce ideas of scale and build student understanding of how far away the Moon actually is. These scale models have also been adapted for use in Family Science Nights, and to include the planet Mars. In this presentation, we will show how we use CINDI’s scale modeling activities and others from our broader space sciences E/PO program in formal and informal

  6. Addressing capability computing challenges of high-resolution global climate modelling at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaj, Valentine; Norman, Matthew; Evans, Katherine; Taylor, Mark; Worley, Patrick; Hack, James; Mayer, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    ,640 equivalent cores. Scientific applications, such as CESM, are also required to demonstrate a "computational readiness capability" to efficiently scale across and utilize 20% of the entire system. The 0,25 deg configuration of the spectral element dynamical core of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM-SE), the atmospheric component of CESM, has been demonstrated to scale efficiently across more than 5,000 nodes (80,000 CPU cores) on Titan. The tracer transport routines of CAM-SE have also been ported to take advantage of the hybrid many-core architecture of Titan using GPUs [see EGU2014-4233], yielding over 2X speedup when transporting over 100 tracers. The high throughput I/O in CESM, based on the Parallel IO Library (PIO), is being further augmented to support even higher resolutions and enhance resiliency. The application performance of the individual runs are archived in a database and routinely analyzed to identify and rectify performance degradation during the course of the experiments. The various resources available at the OLCF now support a scientific workflow to facilitate high-resolution climate modelling. A high-speed center-wide parallel file system, called ATLAS, capable of 1 TB/s, is available on Titan as well as on the clusters used for analysis (Rhea) and visualization (Lens/EVEREST). Long-term archive is facilitated by the HPSS storage system. The Earth System Grid (ESG), featuring search & discovery, is also used to deliver data. The end-to-end workflow allows OLCF users to efficiently share data and publish results in a timely manner.

  7. 21st century Himalayan hydropower: Growing exposure to glacial lake outburst floods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    . Everest and Lulana regions of Nepal and Bhutan, respectively. Together with the dense, cascading sequence of hydropower stations along several river networks in these areas, the combination of GLOFs and artificial reservoirs in steep terrain may result in increasing threats to downstream communities. Hydropower stations are infrastructural investments with minimum design lives of several decades, and our results suggest that their planning should be orchestrated with projected changes in glacier response to future climate change. Our data underline the preponderance of glacial lakes in areas with high glacial retreat rates and a commensurate exposure of hydropower stations to GLOFs. To ensure sustainable water resources use at minimum risk implications for on-site downstream communities, potential changes in GLOF hazard should be taken seriously when planning hydropower stations in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya.

  8. Critical analysis of the thermal inertia approach to map soil water content under sparse vegetation and changeable sky conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Corbari, Chiara; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Sobrino, José Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The paper reports a critical analysis of the thermal inertia approach to map surface soil water content on bare and sparsely vegetated soils by means of remotely sensed data. The study area is an experimental area located in Barrax (Spain). Field data were acquired within the Barrax 2011 research project. AHS airborne images including VIS/NIR and TIR bands were acquired both day and night time by the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) between the 11th and 13rd of June 2011. Images cover a corn pivot surrounded by bare soil, where a set of in situ data have been collected previously and simultaneously to overpasses. To validate remotely sensed estimations, a preliminary proximity sensing set up has been arranged, measuring spectra and surface temperatures on transects by means of ASD hand-held spectroradiometer and an Everest Interscience radiometric thermometer respectively. These data were collected on two transects: the first one on bare soil and the second from bare to sparsely vegetated soil; soil water content in both transects ranged approximately between field and saturation values. Furthermore thermal inertia was measured using a KD2Pro probe, and surface water content of soil was measured using FDR and TDR probes. This ground dataset was used: 1) to verify if the thermal inertia method can be applied to map water content also on soil covered by sparse vegetation, and 2) to quantify a correction factor of the downwelling shortwave radiation taking into account sky cloudiness effects on thermal inertia assessment. The experiment tests both Xue and Cracknell approximation to retrieve the thermal inertia from a dumped value of the phase difference and the three-temperature approach of Sobrino to estimate the phase difference spatial distribution. Both methods were then applied on the remotely sensed airborne images collected during the following days, in order to obtain the spatial distribution of the surface soil moisture on bare soils and

  9. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas is located at the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and it acts as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols, e.g. from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at the three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sites over the southern (Pokhara station and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal and northern (Qomolangma (Mt. Everest station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS_CAS in Tibet, China slopes of the Himalayas. While observations at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere, Pokhara is an urban site with much higher aerosol load due to the influence of local anthropogenic activities. The annual mean of aerosol optical depth (AOD during the investigated period was 0.06 at QOMS_CAS, 0.04 at EVK2-CNR and 0.51 at Pokhara, respectively. Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large scale atmospheric circulation. Vegetation fires, peaking during April in the Himalayan region and northern India, contribute to a growing fine mode AOD at 500 nm at the three stations. Dust transported to these sites results in an increase of coarse mode AOD during the monsoon season at the three sites. Meanwhile, coarse mode AOD at EVK2-CNR is higher than QOMS_CAS from July to September, indicating the Himalayas blocks the coarse particles carried by the southwest winds. The precipitation scavenging effect is obvious at Pokhara, which can significantly reduce the aerosol load during the monsoon season. Unlike the seasonal variations, diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local topography. In general, precipitation can lead to a decrease of the aerosol load and the average particle size at each station. AOD changes in a short time with the emission rate near

  10. Progress in the field of heart failure in 2011%2011年心力衰竭新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢永昕; 苏冠华

    2012-01-01

    本文综述了2011年心力衰竭领域的最新临床试验及其进展,包括SHIFT、CARVIVA-HF、EMPHASIS-HF、CUPID、TARGET、SMART-AV、EVERESTⅡ、CADUCEUS、Late-TIMI、CELLWAVE、REPAIR-AMI和CHAMPION等研究.在药物治疗领域,伊伐布雷定可能有助于逆转慢性心力衰竭患者的左室重构、改善其生活质量;依普利酮能够减少新发心房颤动或心房扑动;新型正性肌力药Omecamtiv mecarbil、Mydicar显示出初步的有效性和安全性.在器械治疗领域,通过超声心动图斑点示踪技术和QLV测量电学不同步指导左室电极植入有助于提高心脏再同步化治疗(CRT)的应答率,经皮导管MitraClip系统疗法正逐步成为不能耐受手术或对CRT治疗无效的严重二尖瓣反流患者的一种替代治疗手段.在细胞治疗领域,缺血性心力衰竭患者干细胞治疗的疗效结果不一,尚无定论.慢性心力衰竭患者的远程监测系统尚处于早期探索阶段.%This article reviewed the progress and key trials relevant to the treatment of heart failure ( HF) presented in 2011, including SHIFT, CARVIVA-HF, EMPHASIS-HF, CUPID, TARGET, SMART-AV, EVEREST Ⅱ , CADUCEUS, Late-TIMI, CELLWAVE, REPAIR-AMI and CHAMPION studies. In the field of medication therapy, studies showed that ivabradine may cause favourable left ventricular remodelling and improve quality of life in patients with chronic HF. Eplerenone reduced the incidence of new onset atrial fibrillation or flutter in patients with mild HF. Novel inotropes such as Omecamtiv mecarbil and Mydicar offered the promise of a safe and effective treatment for HF. Improvement of left ventricular lead placement of a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device by speckle tracking echocardiography and QLV measurement was associated with an enhanced response, and catheter-based treatment with the MitraClip system has been proposed as an additional therapeutic option in patients with severe mitral regurgitation who was

  11. Quartz fabric-based deformation thermometry: examples of its application, relationships to petrology-based PT paths, and potential problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Richard; Waters, Dave; Morgan, Sven; Stahr, Don; Francsis, Matthew; Ashley, Kyle; Kronenberg, Andreas; Thomas, Jay; Mazza, Sarah; Heaverlo, Nicholas

    2013-04-01

    metamorphism. b) Footwall to the South Tibetan Detachment in the Mount Everest area where deformation is demonstrably related to the exhumation stage of a petrologically well-constrained PT path. c) Hanging wall to the Main Central Thrust in the Sutlej Valley of NW India where deformation temperatures inferred from fabric opening angles are closely similar to temperatures of metamorphism indicated by garnet-biotite and oxygen isotope-based thermometry. d) Moine, Ben Hope and Naver thrust sheets of NW Scotland where structurally upwards-increasing deformation temperatures are compared with temperatures indicated by garnet-biotite thermometry. e) Mylonitic quartzites in footwall to Moine thrust at the Stack of Glencoul where hydrolytic weakening may have played an important role in deformation/recrystallization and associated fabric development. f) Thrust sheets in the Appalachians of Vermont that display a complex PTt history due to thrust sheet loading. Kruhl, J.H. 1998. Reply: Prism- and basal-plane parallel subgrain boundaries in quartz: a microstructural geothermobarometer. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 16, 142-146.

  12. Star Formation in Henize 206

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    from that explosion impacted a cloud of nearby hydrogen gas, compressed it, and started a new generation of star formation. The death of one star led to the birth of many new stars. This is particularly evident in the MIPS inset, where the 24-micron emission peaks correspond to newly formed stars. The ultraviolet and visible-light photons from the new stars are absorbed by surrounding dust and re-radiated at longer infrared wavelengths, where it is detected by Spitzer. This emission nebula was cataloged by Karl Henize (HEN-eyes) while spending 1948-1951 in South Africa doing research for his Ph.D. dissertation at the University of Michigan. Henize later became a NASA astronaut and, at age 59, became the oldest rookie to fly on the Space Shuttle during an eight-day flight of the Challenger in 1985. He died just short of his 67th birthday in 1993 while attempting to climb the north face of Mount Everest, the world's highest peak.

  13. EDITORIAL: Extreme Ultraviolet Light Sources for Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, David

    2004-12-01

    filaments, for both Xe and Sn. The embodiment of electrical discharge plasmas and laser-produced plasmas into commercially available EUV sources, with EUV powers that project to suitable levels, is presented in the fifth paper by Uwe Stamm of XTREME Technologies in Göttingen. For discharge produced plasmas, thermal loading and electrode erosion are significant issues. Vladimir Borisov and his colleagues, at the Troitsk Institute outside Moscow, address these issues and provide novel ideas for the multiplexing of several discharge plasmas feeding a single optical system. Igor Fomenkov and his colleagues at Cymer in San Diego describe issues associated with a dense plasma focus pinch, including a comparison of operations with both positive and negative polarity. In the eighth paper, Malcolm McGeoch of Plex in Massachusetts provides a theoretical description of the vaporization and ionization of spherical tin droplets in discharge plasma. Together this cluster of papers provides a broad review of the current status of high power EUV plasma sources for semiconductor manufacturing. This very current topic, of intense interest worldwide, is considered further in a book [4] of collected papers to become available in mid-2005. Additionally, a special journal issue emphasizing coherent EUV sources, albeit at lower average powers, is soon to appear [5]. References [1] http://public.itrsr.net [2] Attwood D 2000 Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) www.coe.Berkeley.edu/AST/sxreuv [3] Moore G E 1965 Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits Electronics Magazine 114 Moore G E 1995 Lithography and the Future of Moore's Law SPIE 243 2 [4] Bakshi V ed 2005 EUV Sources for Lithography (Bellingham WA:SPIE) at press [5] IEEE J. Special Topics in Quantum Electronics, Short Wavelength and EUV Lasers 10 Dec 2004 at press

  14. miR-155对含SH2区域的肌醇5’磷酸酶1转录后调控在急性髓系白血病发病机制中作用的初步研究%Preliminary study of role of post-transcription regulation on SH2 domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 1 gene expression by miR-155 in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛华; 赵松颖; 王静; 范丽霞; 化罗明; 罗建民

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨miR-155对人类含SH2区域的肌醇5’磷酸酶1(SHIP1)的转录后调控在急性髓系白血病(AML)发病机制中的作用.方法 应用反转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)法检测30例AML患者miR-155、SHIP1的mRNA表达水平,选取同年龄健康人骨髓为对照组.人白血病U937细胞转染miR-155类似物后,RT-PCR法检测转染细胞中miR-155、SHIP1的mRNA表达水平.Western blot法检测转染后细胞SHIP1、AKT、pAKT蛋白水平.流式细胞术检测转染后细胞凋亡的变化.结果 30例AML患者中,15例AML-M4及AML-M5患者SHIP1蛋白水平较非AML-M4及AML-M5患者明显降低,而miR-155表达水平相应升高(均P< 0.05).U937细胞转染miR-155后,SHIP1蛋白水平较转染阴性对照组降低(P<0.05),而p-AKT水平较转染阴性对照组明显升高,转染后细胞凋亡明显受抑(P<0.05).结论 miR-155可对SHIP1进行转录后调控,miR-155可能通过降低SHIP1活性而激活PI3K-AKT途径,抑制白血病细胞的凋亡,从而促进AML的发生.%Objective To investigate the role of microRNA-155 (miR-155) on post-transcription regulation of SH2 domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) gene expression in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression of miR-155 and SHIP1 mRNA in the AML patients and controls.miR-155 mimics was transfected into U937cells (U937m) by using X-treme GENE siRNA transfection reagent.Cells without transfection (U937c) and cells with negative transfection (U937mc) were used as controls.RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of miR-155 and SHIP1 mRNA in these cells.The expression of SHIP1,TAKT and pAKT were detected by Western blot in U937 cells.Apoptosis was studied by flow cytometry (FCM).Results The average level of SHIP1 protein content in 15 samples of patients with AML-M4 or AML-M5 from 30 AML patients was significantly lower compared with that of

  15. Final master work plan : environmental investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas, 2002 revision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J. C.; Environmental Research

    2003-01-23

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under which Argonne National Laboratory provides technical assistance for hazardous waste site characterization and remediation for the CCC/USDA. Carbon tetrachloride is the contaminant of primary concern at sites in Kansas where former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities were located. Argonne applies its QuickSite(reg sign) Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) approach to these former facilities. The QuickSite environmental site characterization methodology is Argonne's proprietary implementation of the ESC process (ASTM 1998). Argonne has used this approach at several former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas, including Agenda, Agra, Everest, and Frankfort. The Argonne ESC approach revolves around a multidisciplinary, team-oriented approach to problem solving. The basic features and steps of the QuickSite methodology are as follows: (1) A team of scientists with diverse expertise and strong field experience is required to make the process work. The Argonne team is composed of geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, hydrogeologists, chemists, biologists, engineers, computer scientists, health and safety personnel, and regulatory staff, as well as technical support staff. Most of the staff scientists are at the Ph.D. level; each has on average, more than 15 years of experience. The technical team works together throughout the process. In other words, the team that plans the program also implements the program in the field and writes the reports. More experienced scientists do not remain in the office while individuals with lesser degrees or experience carry out the field work. (2) The technical team reviews, evaluates, and interprets existing data for the site and the contaminants there to determine which data sets are technically valid and can be used in initially designing the field program. A basic

  16. Atmospheric Brown Clouds in the Himalayas: first two years of continuous observations at the Nepal-Climate Observatory at Pyramid (5079 m)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasoni, P.; Laj, P.; Marinoni, A.; Sprenger, M.; Angelini, F.; Arduini, J.; Bonafè, U.; Calzolari, F.; Colombo, T.; Decesari, S.; di Biagio, C.; di Sarra, A. G.; Evangelisti, F.; Duchi, R.; Facchini, M. C.; Fuzzi, S.; Gobbi, G. P.; Maione, M.; Panday, A.; Roccato, F.; Sellegri, K.; Venzac, H.; Verza, G. P.; Villani, P.; Vuillermoz, E.; Cristofanelli, P.

    2010-02-01

    South Asia is strongly influenced by the so-called Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC), a wide polluted layer extending from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas during the winter and pre-monsoon seasons (November to April). This thick, grey-brown haze blanket substantially interacts with the incoming solar radiation, causing a cooling of the Earth's surface and a warming of the atmosphere, thus influencing the monsoon system and climate. In this area, the Himalayan region, particularly sensitive to climate change, offers a unique opportunity to detect global change processes and to analyse the influence of anthropogenic pollution on background atmospheric conditions through continuous monitoring activities. This paper provides a detailed description of the atmospheric conditions characterizing the high Himalayas, thanks to continuous observations begun in March 2006 at the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid (NCO-P) located at 5079 m a.s.l. on the southern foothills of Mt. Everest, in the framework of ABC-UNEP and SHARE-Ev-K2-CNR projects. Besides giving an overview of the measurement site and experimental activities, the work presents an in-depth characterization of meteorological conditions and air-mass circulation at NCO-P during the first two years of activity (March 2006-February 2008). The mean values of atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind speed recorded at the site were: 551 hPa, -3.0 °C, 4.7 m s-1, respectively. The highest seasonal values of temperature (1.7 °C) and relative humidity (94%) were registered during the monsoon season, which was also characterized by thick clouds present in about 80% of the afternoon hours and by a frequency of cloud-free sky less than 10%. The lowest temperature and relative humidity values were registered during winter, -6.3 °C and 22%, respectively, the season being characterised by mainly cloud-free sky conditions and rare thick clouds. The summer monsoon influenced the rain precipitation (seasonal mean 237 mm), while

  17. Atmospheric Brown Clouds in the Himalayas: first two years of continuous observations at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (5079 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bonasoni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed description of the atmospheric conditions characterizing the high Himalayas, thanks to continuous observations begun in March 2006 at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P located at 5079 m a.s.l. on the southern foothills of Mt. Everest, in the framework of ABC-UNEP and SHARE-Ev-K2-CNR projects. The work presents a characterization of meteorological conditions and air-mass circulation at NCO-P during the first two years of activity. The mean values of atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind speed recorded at the site were: 551 hPa, −3.0 °C, 4.7 m s−1, respectively. The highest seasonal values of temperature (1.7 °C and relative humidity (94% were registered during the monsoon season, which was also characterized by thick clouds, present in about 80% of the afternoon hours, and by a frequency of cloud-free sky of less than 10%. The lowest temperature and relative humidity seasonal values were registered during winter, −6.3 °C and 22%, respectively, the season being characterised by mainly cloud-free sky conditions and rare thick clouds. The summer monsoon influenced rain precipitation (seasonal mean: 237 mm, while wind was dominated by flows from the bottom of the valley (S–SW and upper mountain (N–NE.

    The atmospheric composition at NCO-P has been studied thanks to measurements of black carbon (BC, aerosol scattering coefficient, PM1, coarse particles and ozone. The annual behaviour of the measured parameters shows the highest seasonal values during the pre-monsoon (BC: 316.9 ng m−3, PM1: 3.9 μg m−3, scattering coefficient: 11.9 Mm−1, coarse particles: 0.37 cm−3 and O3: 60.9 ppbv, while the lowest concentrations occurred during the monsoon (BC: 49.6 ng m−3, PM1: 0.6 μg m−3, scattering coefficient: 2.2 Mm−1, and O3: 38.9 ppbv

  18. Atmospheric Brown Clouds in the Himalayas: first two years of continuous observations at the Nepal-Climate Observatory at Pyramid (5079 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bonasoni

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is strongly influenced by the so-called Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC, a wide polluted layer extending from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas during the winter and pre-monsoon seasons (November to April. This thick, grey-brown haze blanket substantially interacts with the incoming solar radiation, causing a cooling of the Earth's surface and a warming of the atmosphere, thus influencing the monsoon system and climate. In this area, the Himalayan region, particularly sensitive to climate change, offers a unique opportunity to detect global change processes and to analyse the influence of anthropogenic pollution on background atmospheric conditions through continuous monitoring activities.

    This paper provides a detailed description of the atmospheric conditions characterizing the high Himalayas, thanks to continuous observations begun in March 2006 at the Nepal Climate Observatory – Pyramid (NCO-P located at 5079 m a.s.l. on the southern foothills of Mt. Everest, in the framework of ABC-UNEP and SHARE-Ev-K2-CNR projects. Besides giving an overview of the measurement site and experimental activities, the work presents an in-depth characterization of meteorological conditions and air-mass circulation at NCO-P during the first two years of activity (March 2006–February 2008. The mean values of atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind speed recorded at the site were: 551 hPa, −3.0 °C, 4.7 m s−1, respectively. The highest seasonal values of temperature (1.7 °C and relative humidity (94% were registered during the monsoon season, which was also characterized by thick clouds present in about 80% of the afternoon hours and by a frequency of cloud-free sky less than 10%. The lowest temperature and relative humidity values were registered during winter, −6.3 °C and 22%, respectively, the season being characterised by mainly cloud-free sky conditions and rare thick clouds. The summer monsoon influenced

  19. SRTM Data Release for Eurasia, Index Map and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The colored regions of this map show the extent of digital elevation data recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This release includes data for most of Europe and Asia plus numerous islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. SRTM flew on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000 and used an interferometric radar system to map the topography of Earth's landmass between latitudes 56 degrees south and 60 degrees north.The data were processed into geographic 'tiles,' each of which represents one by one degree of latitude and longitude. A degree of latitude measures 111 kilometers (69 miles) north-south, and a degree of longitude measures 111 kilometers or less east-west, decreasing away from the equator. The data are being released to the public on a continent-by-continent basis. This Eurasia segment includes 5,940 tiles, more than a third of the total data set. Previous releases covered North America and South America. Forthcoming releases will include Africa-Arabia and Australia plus an 'Islands' release for those islands not included in the continental releases. Together these data releases constitute the world's first high-resolution, near-global elevation model. The resolution of the publicly released data is three arcseconds (1/1,200 of a degree of latitude and longitude), which is about 90 meters (295 feet).European coverage in the current data release stretches eastward from the British Isles and the Iberian Peninsula in the west, across the Alps and Carpathian Mountains, as well as the Northern European Plain, to the Ural and Caucasus Mountains bordering Asia. The Asian coverage includes a great diversity of landforms, including the Tibetan Plateau, Tarin Basin, Mongolian Plateau, and the mountains surrounding Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake. Mt. Everest in the Himalayas, at 8,848 meters (29,029 feet) is the world's highest mountain. From India's Deccan Plateau, to Southeast Asia, coastal China, and Korea, various

  20. Glaciers of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    -glacier systems of the world including the Himalaya, Karakorum, Tien Shan and Altay mountain ranges. The glaciers are widely scattered and cover an area of about 59,425 km2. The mountain glaciers may be classified as maritime, subcontinental or extreme continental. In Afghanistan, more than 3,000 small glaciers occur in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains. Most glaciers occur on north-facing slopes shaded by mountain peaks and on east and southeast slopes that are shaded by monsoon clouds. The glaciers provide vital water resources to the region and cover an area of about 2,700 km2. Glaciers of northern Pakistan are some of the largest and longest mid-latitude glaciers on Earth. They are located in the Hindu Kush, Himalaya, and Karakoram mountains and cover an area of about 15,000 km2. Glaciers here are important for their role in providing water resources and their hazard potential. The glaciers in India are located in the Himalaya and cover about 8,500 km2. The Himalaya contains one of the largest reservoirs of snow and ice outside the polar regions. The glaciers are a major source of fresh water and supply meltwater to all the rivers in northern India, thereby affecting the quality of life of millions of people. In Nepal, the glaciers are located in the Himalaya as individual glaciers; the glacierized area covers about 5,324 km2. The region is the highest mountainous region on Earth and includes the Mt. Everest region. Glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya have a total area of about 1,317 km2. Many recent glacier studies are focused on glacier lakes that have the potential of generating dangerous glacier lake outburst floods. Research on the glaciers of the middle-latitude, high-mountain glaciers of Asia has also focused on the information contained in the ice cores from the glaciers. This information helps in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic records, and the computer modeling of global climate change.

  1. Out-of-Sequence Thrust in the Higher Himalaya- a Review & Possible Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Koyi, H. A.; Talbot, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    : evidences from fission track dating. Earth Planetary Science Letters 179, 437-451. Mukherjee, S. 2007. Geodynamics, deformation and mathematical analysis of metamorphic belts of the NW Himalaya. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. pp. 1-267. Searle, M.P., 1999. Extensional and compressional faults in the Everest-Lhotse massif, Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal. Journal of Geological Society, London, 156, 227-240. Swapp, S.M., Hollister, L.S., 1991. Inverted metamorphism within the Tibetan slab of Bhutan: evidence for a tectonically transported heat source. Canadian Mineralogist 29, 1019-1041. Vannay, J-C., Hodges, K.V., 1996. Tectonomorphic evolution of the Himalayan metamorphic core between the Annapurna and Dhaulagiri, central Nepal. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 14, 635-656. Wobus, C., Heimsath, A., Whipple, K., Hodges, K., 2005. Active out-of-sequence thrust faulting in the central Nepalese Himalaya. Nature 434, 1008-1011. Yin, A., Dubey, C.S., Kelty, T.K., Gehrels, G.E., Chou, C.Y., Grove, M., Lovera, O., 2006. Structural evolution of the Arunachal Himalaya and implications for asymmetric development Himalayan orogen. Current Science 90, 195-206.

  2. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    (Kovel) So, what's the future going to look like for us? The office is putting together an initiative with the community, which we call the E3 Initiative. We're looking for a 10-year horizon for what's going to happen. Through the series of town hall meetings, which many of you participated in, we have produced a document on `Transforming Energy, the Environment and Science through simulations at the eXtreme Scale'; it can be found at http://www.science.doe.gov/ascr/ProgramDocuments/TownHall.pdf . We sometimes call it the Exascale initiative. Exascale computing is the gold-ring level of computing that seems just out of reach; but if we work hard and stretch, we just might be able to reach it. We envision that there will be a SciDAC-X, working at the extreme scale, with SciDAC teams that will perform and carry out science in the areas that will have a great societal impact, such as alternative fuels and transportation, combustion, climate, fusion science, high-energy physics, advanced fuel cycles, carbon management, and groundwater. We envision institutes for applied mathematics and computer science that probably will segue into algorithms because, at the extreme scale, we see the distinction between the applied math and the algorithm per se and its implementation in computer science as being inseparable. We envision an INCITE-X with multi-petaflop platforms, perhaps even exaflop computing resources. ESnet will be best in class - our 10-year plan calls for having 400 terabits per second capacity available in dual rings around the country, an enormously fast data communications network for moving large amounts of data. In looking at where we've been and where we are going, we can see that the gigaflops and teraflops era was a regime where we were following Moore's law through advances in clock speed. In the current regime, we're introducing massive parallelism, which I think is exemplified by Intel's announcement of their teraflop chip, where they envision more than a