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Sample records for caudwell xtreme everest

  1. Caudwell xtreme everest expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grocott, Michael P. W.; Martin, Daniel S.; Wilson, Mark H.; Mitchell, Kay; Dhillon, Sundeep; Mythen, Monty G.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Levett, Denny Z. H.; Ahuja, V.; Aref-Adib, G.; Burnham, R.; Chisholm, A.; Clarke, K.; Coates, D.; Coates, M.; Cook, D.; Cox, M.; Dhillon, S.; Dougall, C.; Doyle, P.; Duncan, P.; Edsell, M.; Edwards, L.; Evans, L.; Gardiner, P.; Grocott, M.; Gunning, P.; Hart, N.; Harrington, J.; Harvey, J.; Holloway, C.; Howard, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Imray, C.; Ince, C.; Jonas, M.; van der Kaaij, J.; Khosravi, M.; Kolfschoten, N.; Levett, D.; Luery, H.; Luks, A.; Martin, D.; McMorrow, R.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Montgomery, H.; Morgan, G.; Morgan, J.; Murray, A.; Mythen, M.; Newman, S.; O'Dwyer, M.; Pate, J.; Plant, T.; Pun, M.; Richards, P.; Richardson, A.; Rodway, G.; Simpson, J.; Stroud, C.; Stroud, M.; Stygal, J.; Symons, B.; Szawarski, P.; van Tulleken, A.; van Tulleken, C.; Vercueil, A.; Wandrag, L.; Wilson, M.; Windsor, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) expedition involved the detailed study of 222 subjects ascending to 5300 m or higher during the first half of 2007. Following baseline measurements at sea level, 198 trekker-subjects trekked to Everest Base Camp (EBC) following an identical ascent profile. An

  2. Caudwell Xtreme Everest: A prospective study of the effects of environmental hypoxia on cognitive functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstadina Griva

    Full Text Available The neuropsychological consequences of exposure to environmental hypobaric hypoxia (EHH remain unclear. We thus investigated them in a large group of healthy volunteers who trekked to Mount Everest base camp (5,300 m.A neuropsychological (NP test battery assessing memory, language, attention, and executive function was administered to 198 participants (age 44.5±13.7 years; 60% male. These were studied at baseline (sea level, 3,500 m (Namche Bazaar, 5,300 m (Everest Base Camp and on return to 1,300 m (Kathmandu (attrition rate 23.7%. A comparable control group (n = 25; age 44.5±14.1 years; 60% male for comparison with trekkers was tested at/or near sea level over an equivalent timeframe so as to account for learning effects associated with repeat testing. The Reliable Change Index (RCI was used to calculate changes in cognition and neuropsychological function during and after exposure to EHH relative to controls.Overall, attention, verbal ability and executive function declined in those exposed to EHH when the performance of the control group was taken into account (RCI .05 to -.95 with decline persisting at descent. Memory and psychomotor function showed decline at highest ascent only (RCI -.08 to -.56. However, there was inter-individual variability in response: whilst NP performance declined in most, this improved in some trekkers. Cognitive decline was greater amongst older people (r = .42; p < .0001, but was otherwise not consistently associated with socio-demographic, mood, or physiological variables.After correcting for learning effects, attention, verbal abilities and executive functioning declined with exposure to EHH. There was considerable individual variability in the response of brain function to sustained hypoxia with some participants not showing any effects of hypoxia. This might have implications for those facing sustained hypoxia as a result of any disease.

  3. Closed and open breathing circuit function in healthy volunteers during exercise at Mount Everest base camp (5300 m)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McMorrow, R. C. N.; Windsor, J. S.; Hart, N. D.; Richards, P.; Rodway, G. W.; Ahuja, V. Y.; O'Dwyer, M. J.; Mythen, M. G.; Grocott, M. P. W.; Ahuja, V.; Aref-Adib, G.; Burnham, R.; Chisholm, A.; Clarke, K.; Coates, D.; Coates, M.; Cook, D.; Cox, M.; Dhillon, S.; Dougall, C.; Doyle, P.; Duncan, P.; Edsell, M.; Edwards, L.; Evans, L.; Gardiner, P.; Grocott, M.; Gunning, P.; Hart, N.; Harrington, J.; Harvey, J.; Holloway, C.; Howard, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Imray, C.; Ince, C.; Jonas, M.; van der Kaaij, J.; Khosravi, M.; Kolfschoten, N.; Levett, D.; Luery, H.; Luks, A.; Martin, D.; McMorrow, R.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Montgomery, H.; Morgan, G.; Morgan, J.; Murray, A.; Mythen, M.; Newman, S.; O'Dwyer, M.; Pate, J.; Plant, T.; Pun, M.; Richardson, A.; Rodway, G.; Simpson, J.; Stroud, C.; Stroud, M.; Stygal, J.; Symons, B.; Szawarski, P.; van Tulleken, A.; van Tulleken, C.; Vercueil, A.; Wandrag, L.; Wilson, M.; Windsor, J.; Basnyat, B.; Clarke, C.; Horn-Bein, T.; Milledge, J.; West, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a randomised, controlled, crossover trial of the Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) closed circuit breathing system vs an open circuit and ambient air control in six healthy, hypoxic volunteers at rest and exercise at Everest Base Camp, at 5300 m. Compared with control, arterial oxygen

  4. Does hypoxia play a role in the development of sarcopenia in humans? Mechanistic insights from the Caudwell Xtreme Everest Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesl Wandrag

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The putative role of GLP-1 and nitrite as mediators of the effects of hypoxia on FFM is an intriguing finding. If confirmed, nutritional and pharmacological interventions targeting these pathways may offer new avenues for prevention and treatment of sarcopenia.

  5. Design and conduct of Caudwell Xtreme Everest: an observational cohort study of variation in human adaptation to progressive environmental hypoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levett, Denny Z. H.; Martin, Daniel S.; Wilson, Mark H.; Mitchell, Kay; Dhillon, Sundeep; Rigat, Fabio; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Mythen, Monty G.; Grocott, Michael P. W.; Ahuja, V.; Aref-Adib, G.; Burnham, R.; Chisholm, A.; Clarke, K.; Coates, D.; Coates, M.; Cook, D.; Cox, M.; Dhillon, S.; Dougall, C.; Doyle, P.; Duncan, P.; Edsell, M.; Edwards, L.; Evans, L.; Gardiner, P.; Grocott, M.; Gunning, P.; Hart, N.; Harrington, J.; Harvey, J.; Holloway, C.; Howard, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Imray, C.; Ince, C.; Jonas, M.; van der Kaaij, J.; Khosravi, M.; Kolfschoten, N.; Levett, D.; Luery, H.; Luks, A.; Martin, D.; McMorrow, R.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Montgomery, H.; Morgan, G.; Morgan, J.; Murray, A.; Mythen, M.; Newman, S.; O'Dwyer, M.; Pate, J.; Plant, T.; Pun, M.; Richards, P.; Richardson, A.; Rodway, G.; Simpson, J.; Stroud, C.; Stroud, M.; Stygal, J.; Symons, B.; Szawarski, P.; van Tulleken, A.; van Tulleken, C.; Vercueil, A.; Wandrag, L.; Wilson, M.; Windsor, J.; Basnyat, B.; Clarke, C.; Hornbein, T.; Milledge, J.; West, J.

    2010-01-01

    The physiological responses to hypoxaemia and cellular hypoxia are poorly understood, and inter-individual differences in performance at altitude and outcome in critical illness remain unexplained. We propose a model for exploring adaptation to hypoxia in the critically ill: the study of healthy

  6. The effect of high-altitude on human skeletal muscle energetics: P-MRS results from the Caudwell Xtreme Everest expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, Lindsay M.; Murray, Andrew J.; Tyler, Damian J.; Kemp, Graham J.; Holloway, Cameron J.; Robbins, Peter A.; Neubauer, Stefan; Levett, Denny; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Grocott, Mike P.; Clarke, Kieran; Ahuja, V.; Aref-Adib, G.; Burnham, R.; Chisholm, A.; Clarke, K.; Coates, D.; Coates, M.; Cook, D.; Cox, M.; Dhillon, S.; Dougall, C.; Doyle, P.; Duncan, P.; Edsell, M.; Edwards, L.; Evans, L.; Gardiner, P.; Grocott, M.; Gunning, P.; Hart, N.; Harrington, J.; Harvey, J.; Holloway, C.; Howard, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Imray, C.; Ince, C.; Jonas, M.; van der Kaaij, J.; Khosravi, M.; Kolfschoten, N.; Levett, D.; Luery, H.; Luks, A.; Martin, D.; McMorrow, R.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Montgomery, H.; Morgan, G.; Morgan, J.; Murray, A.; Mythen, M.; Newman, S.; O'Dwyer, M.; Pate, J.; Plant, T.; Pun, M.; Richards, P.; Richardson, A.; Rodway, G.; Simpson, J.; Stroud, C.; Stroud, M.; Stygal, J.; Symons, B.; Szawarski, P.; van Tulleken, A.; van Tulleken, C.; Vercueil, A.; Wandrag, L.; Wilson, M.; Windsor, J.; Basnyat, B.; Clarke, C.; Hornbein, T.; Milledge, J.; West, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many disease states are associated with regional or systemic hypoxia. The study of healthy individuals exposed to high-altitude hypoxia offers a way to explore hypoxic adaptation without the confounding effects of disease and therapeutic interventions. Using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and

  7. The Effect of High-Altitude on Human Skeletal Muscle Energetics: 31P-MRS Results from the Caudwell Xtreme Everest Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsay M.; Murray, Andrew J.; Tyler, Damian J.; Kemp, Graham J.; Holloway, Cameron J.; Robbins, Peter A.; Neubauer, Stefan; Levett, Denny; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Grocott, Mike P.; Clarke, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Many disease states are associated with regional or systemic hypoxia. The study of healthy individuals exposed to high-altitude hypoxia offers a way to explore hypoxic adaptation without the confounding effects of disease and therapeutic interventions. Using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging, we investigated skeletal muscle energetics and morphology after exposure to hypobaric hypoxia in seven altitude-naïve subjects (trekkers) and seven experienced climbers. The trekkers ascended to 5300 m while the climbers ascended above 7950 m. Before the study, climbers had better mitochondrial function (evidenced by shorter phosphocreatine recovery halftime) than trekkers: 16±1 vs. 22±2 s (mean ± SE, p<0.01). Climbers had higher resting [Pi] than trekkers before the expedition and resting [Pi] was raised across both groups on their return (PRE: 2.6±0.2 vs. POST: 3.0±0.2 mM, p<0.05). There was significant muscle atrophy post-CXE (PRE: 4.7±0.2 vs. POST: 4.5±0.2 cm2, p<0.05), yet exercising metabolites were unchanged. These results suggest that, in response to high altitude hypoxia, skeletal muscle function is maintained in humans, despite significant atrophy. PMID:20502713

  8. Everest

    CERN Multimedia

    Bonington,C

    1978-01-01

    Chris Bonington, est né à Hampstead et a fait des études à University Collège School à Londres et au Royal Military Academy à Sundhorst. Il est un alpiniste mondialement connu qui a fait un grand nombre de premiers ascensions, comme celle de la face sud-ouest de l'Everest avec une équipe de 70 hommes en septembre 1975

  9. Design and conduct of Xtreme Everest 2: An observational cohort study of Sherpa and lowlander responses to graduated hypobaric hypoxia [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/57m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Gilbert-Kawai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxygen availability falls with ascent to altitude and also as a consequence of critical illness. Because cellular sequelae and adaptive processes may be shared in both circumstances, high altitude exposure (‘physiological hypoxia’ assists in the exploration of the response to pathological hypoxia. We therefore studied the response of healthy participants to progressive hypobaric hypoxia at altitude. The primary objective of the study was to identify differences between high altitude inhabitants (Sherpas and lowland comparators. Methods: We performed an observational cohort study of human responses to progressive hypobaric hypoxia (during ascent and subsequent normoxia (following descent comparing Sherpas with lowlanders. Studies were conducted in London (35m, Kathmandu (1300m, Namche Bazaar (3500m and Everest Base Camp (5300m. Of 180 healthy volunteers departing from Kathmandu, 64 were Sherpas and 116 were lowlanders. Physiological, biochemical, genetic and epigenetic data were collected. Core studies focused on nitric oxide metabolism, microcirculatory blood flow and exercise performance. Additional studies performed in nested subgroups examined mitochondrial and metabolic function, and ventilatory and cardiac variables. Of the 180 healthy participants who left Kathmandu, 178 (99% completed the planned trek. Overall, more than 90% of planned testing was completed. Forty-four study protocols were successfully completed at altitudes up to and including 5300m. A subgroup of identical twins (all lowlanders was also studied in detail. Conclusion: This programme of study (Xtreme Everest 2 will provide a rich dataset relating to human adaptation to hypoxia, and the responses seen on re-exposure to normoxia. It is the largest comprehensive high altitude study of Sherpas yet performed. Translational data generated from this study will be of relevance to diseases in which oxygenation is a major factor.

  10. Closed and open breathing circuit function in healthy volunteers during exercise at Mount Everest base camp (5300 m).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, R C N; Windsor, J S; Hart, N D; Richards, P; Rodway, G W; Ahuja, V Y; O'Dwyer, M J; Mythen, M G; Grocott, M P W

    2012-08-01

    We present a randomised, controlled, crossover trial of the Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) closed circuit breathing system vs an open circuit and ambient air control in six healthy, hypoxic volunteers at rest and exercise at Everest Base Camp, at 5300 m. Compared with control, arterial oxygen saturations were improved at rest with both circuits. There was no difference in the magnitude of this improvement as both circuits restored median (IQR [range]) saturation from 75%, (69.5-78.9 [68-80]%) to > 99.8% (p = 0.028). During exercise, the CXE closed circuit improved median (IQR [range]) saturation from a baseline of 70.8% (63.8-74.5 [57-76]%) to 98.8% (96.5-100 [95-100]%) vs the open circuit improvement to 87.5%, (84.1-88.6 [82-89]%; p = 0.028). These data demonstrate the inverse relationship between supply and demand with open circuits and suggest that ambulatory closed circuits may offer twin advantages of supplying higher inspired oxygen concentrations and/or economy of gas use for exercising hypoxic adults. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Closed and open breathing circuit function in healthy volunteers during exercise at Mount Everest base camp (5300 m).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMorrow, R C N

    2012-08-01

    We present a randomised, controlled, crossover trial of the Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) closed circuit breathing system vs an open circuit and ambient air control in six healthy, hypoxic volunteers at rest and exercise at Everest Base Camp, at 5300 m. Compared with control, arterial oxygen saturations were improved at rest with both circuits. There was no difference in the magnitude of this improvement as both circuits restored median (IQR [range]) saturation from 75%, (69.5-78.9 [68-80]%) to > 99.8% (p = 0.028). During exercise, the CXE closed circuit improved median (IQR [range]) saturation from a baseline of 70.8% (63.8-74.5 [57-76]%) to 98.8% (96.5-100 [95-100]%) vs the open circuit improvement to 87.5%, (84.1-88.6 [82-89]%; p = 0.028). These data demonstrate the inverse relationship between supply and demand with open circuits and suggest that ambulatory closed circuits may offer twin advantages of supplying higher inspired oxygen concentrations and\\/or economy of gas use for exercising hypoxic adults.

  12. XtremeD – a new neutron diffractometer for high pressures and magnetic fields at ILL developed by Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Velamazán, J Alberto; Campo, Javier; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Juan; Noguera, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Neutron diffraction has unique capabilities for scientific research under extreme conditions, mainly in two large areas: crystallography/geosciences and magnetism/solid-state physics. The growing interest in these fields is attested by the quantity and quality of publications, by the number of experiments proposed at the different neutron sources and by the new instrumentation projects under development all around the world. Therefore, the Spanish scientific community and the ILL are considering the construction of a CRG 'eXtreme conditions Diffractometer (XtremeD)' for both single crystals and powders, operating at high pressures (up to 50 GPa) and high magnetic fields (up to 15 Tesla). At the present time we are working on the finalization of the technical project, and the construction phase is expected to start in 2011. The scientific areas in which the projected instrument can make significant contributions and the main technical characteristics of the project are discussed in this paper.

  13. Quaternary glaciation of Mount Everest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lewis A.; Robinson, Ruth; Benn, Douglas I.; Finkel, Robert C.; Davis, Nicole K.; Yi, Chaolu; Putkonen, Jaakko; Li, Dewen; Murray, Andrew S.

    2009-07-01

    The Quaternary glacial history of the Rongbuk valley on the northern slopes of Mount Everest is examined using field mapping, geomorphic and sedimentological methods, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) dating. Six major sets of moraines are present representing significant glacier advances or still-stands. These date to >330 ka (Tingri moraine), >41 ka (Dzakar moraine), 24-27 ka (Jilong moraine), 14-17 ka (Rongbuk moraine), 8-2 ka (Samdupo moraines) and ˜1.6 ka (Xarlungnama moraine), and each is assigned to a distinct glacial stage named after the moraine. The Samdupo glacial stage is subdivided into Samdupo I (6.8-7.7 ka) and Samdupo II (˜2.4 ka). Comparison with OSL and TCN defined ages on moraines on the southern slopes of Mount Everest in the Khumbu Himal show that glaciations across the Everest massif were broadly synchronous. However, unlike the Khumbu Himal, no early Holocene glacier advance is recognized in the Rongbuk valley. This suggests that the Khumbu Himal may have received increased monsoon precipitation in the early Holocene to help increase positive glacier mass balances, while the Rongbuk valley was too sheltered to receive monsoon moisture during this time and glaciers could not advance. Comparison of equilibrium-line altitude depressions for glacial stages across Mount Everest reveals asymmetric patterns of glacier retreat that likely reflects greater glacier sensitivity to climate change on the northern slopes, possibly due to precipitation starvation.

  14. Griffith Pugh, pioneer Everest physiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael P; Milledge, James S

    2002-01-01

    Lewis Griffith Cresswell Evans Pugh (1909-1994), best known as the physiologist on the successful 1953 British Everest Expedition, inspired a generation of scientists in the field of altitude medicine and physiology in the decades after World War II. This paper details his early life, his introduction to exercise physiology during the war, and his crucially important work in preparation for the Everest expedition on Cho Oyu in 1952. Pugh's other great contribution to altitude physiology was as scientific leader of the 1960-1961 Himalayan Scientific and Mountaineering Expedition (the Silver Hut), and the origins and results of this important expedition are discussed. He had a major and continuing interest in the physiology of cold, especially in real-life situations in Antarctica, exposure to cold wet conditions on hills in Britain, and in long distance swimming. He also extended his interest to Olympic athletes at moderate altitude (Mexico City) and to heat stress in athletes. Pugh's strength as a physiologist was his readiness to move from laboratory to fieldwork with ease and his rigor in applying the highest standards in both situations. He led by example in both his willingness to act as a subject for experiments and in his attention to detail. He was not an establishment figure; he was critical of authority and well known for his eccentricity, but he inspired great loyalty in those who worked with him.

  15. The challenging optics of XtremeD – a neutron diffractometer for high pressures and magnetic fields at ILL developed by Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Velamazán, J Alberto; Noguera, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish community of neutron scatterers and the ILL are considering the construction of a CRG e xtreme conditions Diffractometer (XtremeD)for both single crystals and powders, operating at high pressures (up to 50 GPa) and high magnetic fields (up to 15 Tesla). High pressure studies require reduced sample volumes. This makes the focusing optics a crucial part of the instrument, in order to have increased flux and to avoid the scattering from the sample environment. The different solutions at different levels of the instrument, which are being studied, will be discussed in this paper.

  16. From early wireless to Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A

    1998-01-01

    Medical information has been transmitted using wireless technologies for almost 80 years. A "wired wireless" electronic stethoscope was developed by the U.S. Army Signal Corps in the early 1920's, for potential use in ship-to-shore transmission of cardiac sounds. [Winters SR. Diagnosis by wireless. Scientific American June 11, 1921, p. 465] Today, wireless is used in a wide range of medical applications and at sites from transoceanic air flights to offshore oil platforms to Mt. Everest. 'Wireless LANs' are often used in medical environments. Typically, nurses and physicians in a hospital or clinic use hand-held "wireless thin client" pen computers that exchange patient information and images with the hospital server. Numerous companies, such as Fujitsu (article below) and Cruise Technologies (www.cruisetech.com) manufacture handheld pen-entry computers. One company, LXE, integrates radio-frequency (RF) enhanced hand-held computers specifically designed for production use within a wireless LAN (www.lxe.com). Other companies (Proxim, Symbol, and others) supply the wireless RF LAN infrastructure for the enterprise. Unfortunately, there have been problems with widespread deployment of wireless LANs. Perhaps the biggest impediment has been the lack of standards. Although an international standard (IEEE 802.11) was adopted in 1997, most wireless LAN products still are not compatible with the equipment of competing companies. A problem with the current standard for LAN adapters is that throughput is limited to 3 Mbps--compared to at least 10 Mbps, and often 100 Mbps, in a hard-wired Ethernet LAN. An II Mbps standard is due out in the next year or so, but it will be at least 2 years before standards-compliant products are available. This story profiles some of the ways that wireless is being used to overcome gaps in terrestrial and within-enterprise communication.

  17. Lakpa Norbu 2, Why Won't Climb Everest

    OpenAIRE

    Loomis, Molly

    2012-01-01

    .wav and .mp3 versions of audio file Lakpa Norbu Sherpa explains why as the only son in his family, they won’t allow him to climb Mount Everest. These recordings were made on a trek in the spring of 2011 up to Mount Everest Base Camp. The recordings span a wide variety of topics from making and drinking chang to the work of Mount Everest's 'ice fall doctors'.

  18. Mechanical ventilation in mass casualty scenarios. Augmenting staff: project XTREME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Michael E; Bogdan, Gregory M

    2008-02-01

    Disaster preparedness typically includes plans that address the need for surge capacity to manage mass-casualty events. A major concern of disaster preparedness in respiratory therapy focuses on responding to a sudden increase in the volume of patients who require mechanical ventilation. Plans for such disasters must include contingencies to address surge capacity in ventilator inventories and the respiratory therapy staff who will manage the ventilators. Tactics to address these situations include efforts to lower demand by transferring patients to other institutions as well as efforts to augment staffing levels. Staff can be augmented by mobilization of deployable teams of volunteers from outside the region and through exploitation of local resources. The latter includes strategies to recruit local respiratory therapists who are currently in either non-clinical or non-hospital-based positions and policies that optimize existing respiratory therapy resources within an institution by canceling elective surgeries, altering shift structure, and postponing vacations. An alternative approach would employ non-respiratory-therapy staff to assist in the management of patients with respiratory failure. Project XTREME (Cross-Training Respiratory Extenders for Medical Emergencies) is a cross-training program developed to facilitate training of non-respiratory-therapy health professionals to assist in the management of patients who require mechanical ventilation. It includes an interactive digital video disc as well as a competency validation laboratory and is designed to be performed at the time of an emergency. Pilot testing of the program suggests it is effective.

  19. Altitude retinopathy on Mount Everest, 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, F K; Harris, D J; Reynolds, R D

    1992-05-01

    The authors studied prospectively the incidence of and risk factors for high altitude retinal hemorrhages among 14 members of the 1989 American Everest Expedition. All subjects had comprehensive eye examinations and fundus photography performed at sea level before the expedition and again at the Mt. Everest Base Camp after 6 weeks of exposure to altitudes between 5300 and 8200 meters. Asymptomatic intraretinal hemorrhages were found in five eyes of four climbers. An additional eye of one of these climbers had a central retinal vein occlusion with vitreous hemorrhage, which reduced visual acuity to counting fingers. Higher baseline intraocular pressure and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were found to be significant risk factors for development of altitude retinopathy.

  20. Mount Everest snow plume: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. W. K.

    2004-11-01

    A plume of snow blowing from the summit of Mount Everest is one of the most iconic images of the world's highest mountain. Its presence provides evidence of the strong jet stream winds that can buffet the mountain. In January 2004, astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) observed a 15 to 20 km long snow plume emanating from the summit of Mount Everest. Remarkably little is known about these plumes and the role that they play in the redistribution of snow in the high Himalaya. In this paper we use a variety of meteorological datasets to show that the observed plume was the combination of high winds associated with the East Asian Jet Stream (EAJS) and a heavy snowfall that had occurred over the Himalaya during the preceding week. A simple model of a blown snow plume is shown to be consistent with the observations made from the ISS.

  1. Performance assessment of a dynamic current allocator for the JET eXtreme Shape Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varano, G.; Ambrosino, G.; Tommasi, G.De; Galeani, S.; Pironti, A.; Zaccarian, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a recently proposed dynamic allocation technique that can be effectively adopted to handle the current saturations of the Poloidal Field coils with the eXtreme Shape Controller. The proposed approach allows to automatically relax the plasma shape regulation when the reference shape requires current levels out of the available ranges, finding in real-time an optimal trade-off between shape control precision and currents saturation avoidance. In this paper the results attained during preliminary analysis are presented, showing the advantage arising from the use of the dynamic allocator, versus the bare use of the eXtreme Shape Controller.

  2. Using the Everest Team Simulation to Teach Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Elizabeth; Wright, April L.

    2015-01-01

    This resource review focuses on "Leadership and Team Simulation: Everest V2" released by Harvard Business Publishing. The review describes the simulation's story line of a commercial team expedition climbing to the summit of Mount Everest along with the simulation's architecture and key features. Building on Wright and Gilmore's (2012)…

  3. The Ascent of Olympus - An Everest Anniversary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C. S.

    Olympus Mons, at 21,183 m above the Mars gravitational equipotential, stands just under 2.5 times the height of Mount Everest. Symbolically, as the highest construct in the Solar System, it is the most important feature to be climbed. Despite its powerful symbolism, the mountain presents one of the most tedious long distance expeditions on Mars - a ~300 km journey up a near constant 5 degree slope. Only at the beginning and the end of the expedition do the scarp and caldera cliffs present impressive climbs. In almost all respects Olympus presents environmental challenges much worse than Everest, apart from the lack of fatal storms, perhaps the only environmental factor in which Olympus is an improvement. Similarly to Everest, Olympus presents scien- tific questions of immense interest. In this mini-review I compare Olympus and Everest as exploratory and scientific challenges.

  4. The impact of global warming on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G W K; Semple, John L

    2009-01-01

    Global warming impacts a wide range of human activities and ecosystems. One unanticipated consequence of the warming is an increase in barometric pressure throughout the troposphere. Mount Everest's extreme height and resulting low barometric pressure places humans near its summit in an extreme state of hypoxia. Here we quantify the degree with which this warming is increasing the barometric pressure near Everest's summit and argue that it is of such a magnitude as to make the mountain, over time, easier to climb.

  5. Final report : Phase III targeted investigation, Everest, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), formerly operated grain storage facilities at two different locations at Everest, Kansas (Figure 1.1). One facility (referred to in this report as the Everest facility) was at the western edge of the city. The second facility (referred to in this report as Everest East) was about 0.5 mi northeast of the town. The CCC/USDA operated these facilities from the early 1950s until the early 1970s, at a time when commercial fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the CCC/USDA and private industry for the preservation of grain in storage. In 1997 the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) sampled several domestic drinking water and non-drinking water wells in the Everest area as part of the CCC/USDA Private Well Sampling Program. All of the sampled wells were outside the Everest city limits. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was identified at a single domestic drinking water well (the Nigh well, DW06; Figure 1.1) approximately 3/8 mi northwest of the former Everest CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Subsequent KDHE investigations suggested that the contamination in DW06 could be linked to the former use of grain fumigants at the CCC/USDA facility. For this reason, the CCC/USDA is conducting a phased environmental study to determine the source and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination at Everest and to identify potential remedial options. The studies are being performed by the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Two phases of investigation were completed previously; this report presents the findings of the targeted Phase III investigation at Everest.

  6. Architecture and Design in eXtreme Programming; Introducing "Developer Stories"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rolf Njor; Møller, Thomas; Sönder, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces a new practice to eXtreme Programming (XP): Developer stories. The goal of these stories and their creation process is to incorporate architectural planning to XP thus ensuring a viable architecture. By conducting a small development project using XP, we find that establis......This article introduces a new practice to eXtreme Programming (XP): Developer stories. The goal of these stories and their creation process is to incorporate architectural planning to XP thus ensuring a viable architecture. By conducting a small development project using XP, we find...... that establishing a viable architecture might be problematic. Arguing that architectural quality criteria in XP are traceable to traditional criteria, and by pointing to related work regarding incremental continous design, requirements management and large-scale refactorings, we find support for this claim. We...

  7. Space radar image of Mount Everest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    These are two comparison images of Mount Everest and its surroundings, along the border of Nepal and Tibet. The peak of Mount Everest, the highest elevation on Earth at 8,848 meters (29,028 feet), can be seen near the center of each image. The image at the top was acquired through thick cloud cover by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The image on the bottom is an optical photograph taken by the Endeavour crew under clear conditions during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR on October 10, 1994. Both images show an area approximately 70 kilometers by 38 kilometers (43 miles by 24 miles) that is centered at 28.0 degrees north latitude and 86.9 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Radar illumination is from the top of the frame. The optical photograph has been geometrically adjusted to better match the area shown in the radar image. Many features of the Himalayan terrain are visible in both images. Snow covered areas appear white in the optical photograph while the same areas appear bright blue in the radar image. The radar image was taken in early spring and shows deep snow cover, while the optical photograph was taken in late summer and shows minimum snow cover. The curving and branching features seen in both images are glaciers. The two wavelengths and multiple polarizations of the SIR-C radar are sensitive to characteristics of the glacier surfaces that are not detected by conventional photography, such as the ice roughness, water content and stratification. For this reason, the glaciers show a variety of colors in the radar image (blue, purple, red

  8. George Ingle Finch and the Mount Everest expedition of 1922: breaching the 8000-m barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway, George W

    2007-01-01

    Alpinist and scientist George Ingle Finch was invited on the 1921 British Mount Everest Reconnaissance, but events conspired to keep him away from Everest until the 1922 British expedition to the mountain. Very little is known in the English-speaking world about the 1925 German language book Der Kampf um den Everest, written by Finch and covering the Everest attempts of the 1920s, as it was never published in English. Additionally, very little has been published from Finch's personal diaries of the 1922 Everest climb. The object of this work is to utilize translated sections of Der Kampf um den Everest and passages from Finch's 1922 Everest diaries to create some sense of George Finch's personal perspective of the 1922 Everest attempt. This historic climb was the first mountaineering expedition to breach the 8000-m barrier when two separate parties, one climbing with supplementary oxygen and the other without, established new terrestrial altitude records.

  9. Mount Everest (Chomolungma, Goddess Mother of the World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Mt. Everest is the highest (29,035 feet, 8850 meters) mountain in the world. This detailed look at Mt. Everest and Lhotse is part of a more extensive photograph of the central Himalaya taken in October 1993 that is one of the best views of the mountain captured by astronauts to date. It shows the North and South Faces of Everest in shadow with the Kangshung Face in morning light. Other major peaks in the immediate area are Nuptse and Bei Peak (Changtse). The picture was taken looking slightly obliquely when the spacecraft was north of Everest. Everest holds a powerful fascination for climbers and trekkers from around the world. The paths for typical North and South climbing routes are sketched on this image. Much of the regional context can be seen in the complete photograph, which shows Mt. Everest and other large peaks to the northwest. More information on the photograph STS058-101-12 can be found at the Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. An unannotated version can also be downloaded. The digital images shown have been reduced to a spatial resolution equivalent to 48 m / pixel; a high-resolution digital image of the same photograph would be at 12 meters per pixel. A new interactive tutorial, Find Mt. Everest From Space, is now available on the Web. The presentation was created by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, from astronaut training materials developed by William R. Muehlberger (University of Texas, Austin), who has instructed astronauts in geology since the Apollo missions. While circling the globe every 90 minutes, astronauts have only seconds to find key peaks in the Himalayas. These photographs are used to train their eyes so they can rapidly find and photograph Everest when they pass over. The tutorial features astronaut photographs of the Himalayas, interactive graphics that illustrate key geographic features for locating Mt. Everest, and. information on the geology of the region. The lesson concludes with a

  10. Mortality on Mount Everest, 1921-2006: descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Paul G; Zheng, Hui; Windsor, Jeremy S; Sutherland, Andrew I; Imray, Christopher H; Moore, G W K; Semple, John L; Roach, Robert C; Salisbury, Richard A

    2008-12-11

    To examine patterns of mortality among climbers on Mount Everest over an 86 year period. Descriptive study. Climbing expeditions to Mount Everest, 1921-2006. 14,138 mountaineers; 8030 climbers and 6108 sherpas. Circumstances of deaths. The mortality rate among mountaineers above base camp was 1.3%. Deaths could be classified as involving trauma (objective hazards or falls, n=113), as non-traumatic (high altitude illness, hypothermia, or sudden death, n=52), or as a disappearance (body never found, n=27). During the spring climbing seasons from 1982 to 2006, 82.3% of deaths of climbers occurred during an attempt at reaching the summit. The death rate during all descents via standard routes was higher for climbers than for sherpas (2.7% (43/1585) v 0.4% (5/1231), PMount Everest. Profound fatigue and late times in reaching the summit are early features associated with subsequent death.

  11. The HIX galaxy survey II: HI kinematics of HI eXtreme galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-01-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected HI content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these HI eXtreme (HIX) galaxies to be so HI-rich. We model the HI kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed HIX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model Dark Sage. We find that (1...

  12. Climbing Mount Everest: on our way to the summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamian, Judith

    2003-01-01

    The key to climbing Mount Everest is not one individual striving for the peak. Teamwork, leadership, and meticulous planning are what take climbers to the summit. They are key, as well, to solving the problems of human resources in the healthcare system.

  13. Physicians on Mount Everest. A clinical account of the 1981 American Medical Research Expedition to Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnquist, F H

    1983-10-01

    The American Medical Research Expedition to Everest had a wide variety of medical problems, ranging from leech bites to high-altitude pulmonary edema. Preventive measures, however, such as careful attention to ingesting only pure water and food at the lower elevations and adequate personal hydration, nutrition and rest at extremely high altitude minimized the morbidity suffered by the group. Prophylactic administration of doxycycline was effective in reducing the severity of diarrheal illness in the group. Every member of the expedition suffered upper respiratory tract infections and many other infections, some of which were resistant to all therapy until the patient moved down from high altitude. Despite careful acclimatization, several cases of acute mountain sickness occurred and required descent to a lower altitude for treatment. Frostbite was avoided entirely.

  14. Cognitive performance deficits in a simulated climb of Mount Everest: Operation Everest II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R S; Dunlap, W P; Banderet, L E; Smith, M G; Houston, C S

    1989-02-01

    Cognitive function at simulated altitude was investigated in a repeated-measures, within-subject study of performance by seven volunteers in a hypobaric chamber, in which atmospheric pressure was systematically lowered over a period of 40 d to finally reach a pressure equivalent to 8,845 m, the approximate height of Mount Everest. The portable cognitive test battery used, Automated Performance Test System (APTS), was specifically designed for field research under adverse environmental conditions as evidenced by compact computer design; automated test administrations, data storage, and retrieval; psychometric properties of stability and reliability; and factorial richness. Significant impairments of cognitive function were seen for three of the five tests in the battery; on two tests, grammatical reasoning and pattern comparison, every subject showed a substantial decrement. The results are discussed in terms of the impact of altitude on specific aspects of cognitive function and the importance of having sensitive and reliable instruments to monitor such effects.

  15. Mount Everest 1924 di Jalu Kurek [Mount Everest 1924 by Jalu Kurek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gurgul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the non-fiction novel by Jalu Kurek Mount Everest 1924 published in 1933. We argue against the point of view expressed by critics who claimed that this book has to be seen only as a kind of “intermezzo” in the writer’s career. The book’s various aspects are connected with contemporary market trends, formal experiments, specific topics (the passion for climbing and the position taken in the discussion about the future of Alpinism and ideological contexts (the fundamental aporias of modernism: faith in progress and in the post-Nietzschean new man versus existential anxiety of an attentive observer of the world. All this makes it an important element of the artistic journey of this Cracovian poet and prose writer.

  16. Medication Use Among Mount Everest Climbers: Practice and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luks, Andrew M; Grissom, Colin; Freer, Luanne; Hackett, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Luks, Andrew M., Colin Grissom, Luanne Freer, and Peter Hackett. Medication use among mount Everest climbers: practice and attitudes. High Alt Med Biol. 17:315-322, 2016.-The lay public, media, and medical experts have expressed concern about the ethics of climbers using medications to improve performance and increase the odds of summit success while climbing at high altitude, but the true incidence of this practice remains unclear. We conducted an anonymous survey of climbers who have attempted to climb Mt. Everest to gather information about medication use and attitudes toward medication and supplemental oxygen use while climbing the mountain. One hundred eighty-seven individuals completed the survey, providing information about medication and oxygen use for 262 expeditions to Mt. Everest between 1963 and 2015, the majority of which occurred after the year 2000. The majority of respondents were male (82%) and from English-speaking countries (75%). Medications were used on 43% of climbs, with acetazolamide being the most commonly used medication. Reported use of dexamethasone, nifedipine, sildenafil, or tadalafil was uncommon as was use of multiple medications at the same time. The majority of respondents indicated that it was acceptable for climbers to use medications and supplemental oxygen to prevent altitude illness while climbing Mt. Everest. Opinions were more mixed regarding whether summiting without the use of medications or oxygen carried the same value as reaching the summit using those interventions. Our data suggest that less than one-half of Mt. Everest climbers use medications during their expedition, with the primary medication used being acetazolamide, for prevention of altitude illness. Given the limitations of the study design and preliminary nature of these data, further research is warranted to further clarify these issues.

  17. EVEREST: Creating a Virtual Research Environment for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, H.

    2017-12-01

    There is an increasing trend towards researchers working together using common resources whilst being geographically dispersed. The EVER-EST project is developing a range of both generic and domain specific technologies, tailored to the needs of Earth Science (ES) communities, to create a virtual research environment (VRE) that supports this type of dynamic collaborative research. The EVER-EST VRE provides a suite of services to overcome the existing barriers to sharing of Earth Science data and information allowing researchers to discover, access, share and process heterogeneous data, algorithms, results and experiences within and across their communities, and with other domains beyond the Earth Sciences. Researchers will be able to seamlessly manage both the data and the scientific methods applied in their observations and modelling that lead to results that need to be attributable, validated and shared both within their communities and more widely in the form of scholarly communications.To ensure that the EVER-EST VRE meets the specific needs of the Earth Science domain, it is being developed and validated in consultation with four pre-selected virtual research communities (VRC) that include ocean observing, natural hazards, land monitoring and volcanic risk management. The requirements of these individual VRCs for data, software, best practice and community interaction are used to customise the VRE platform This user-centric approach allows the EVER-EST infrastructure to be assessed in terms of its capability to satisfy the heterogeneous needs of Earth Science communities for more effective collaboration, greater efficiency and increasingly innovative research. EVER-EST is a three year project funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no 674907.

  18. Tracking Change in rapid and eXtreme Development: A Challenge to SCM-tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2001-01-01

    more that managerial rigour. In the cost/benefit equation the balance may tip in favour of not using any SCM tool or only using a fraction of its potential. We think SCM has something to offer such projects, and present some proposals that may allow SCM tools to better suit the characteristics of fast......Software configuration management (SCM) has proved to be an invaluable part of developing and maintaining high quality software. The benefits are not for free however: SCM tool operations often divert your attention from your development task, sometimes you have to endure a long waiting time while...... the tool does its job, change descriptions must be memorised until your next check-in, etc. This kind of overhead and disruption does not fit well with fast-paced development processes like rapid prototyping, explorative programming, and eXtreme Programming that favour creativity, speed, and communication...

  19. EVER-EST: a virtual research environment for Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Fulvio; Albani, Mirko; Glaves, Helen

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing requirement for researchers to work collaboratively using common resources whilst being geographically dispersed. By creating a virtual research environment (VRE) using a service oriented architecture (SOA) tailored to the needs of Earth Science (ES) communities, the EVEREST project will provide a range of both generic and domain specific data management services to support a dynamic approach to collaborative research. EVER-EST will provide the means to overcome existing barriers to sharing of Earth Science data and information allowing research teams to discover, access, share and process heterogeneous data, algorithms, results and experiences within and across their communities, including those domains beyond Earth Science. Researchers will be able to seamlessly manage both the data involved in their computationally intensive disciplines and the scientific methods applied in their observations and modelling, which lead to the specific results that need to be attributable, validated and shared both within the community and more widely e.g. in the form of scholarly communications. Central to the EVEREST approach is the concept of the Research Object (RO) , which provides a semantically rich mechanism to aggregate related resources about a scientific investigation so that they can be shared together using a single unique identifier. Although several e-laboratories are incorporating the research object concept in their infrastructure, the EVER-EST VRE will be the first infrastructure to leverage the concept of Research Objects and their application in observational rather than experimental disciplines. Development of the EVEREST VRE will leverage the results of several previous projects which have produced state-of-the-art technologies for scientific data management and curation as well those which have developed models, techniques and tools for the preservation of scientific methods and their implementation in computational forms such as

  20. Phenytoin and acute mountain sickness on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohns, R N; Colpitts, M; Clement, T; Karuza, A; Blackett, W B; Foutch, R; Larson, E

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one climbers who were members of the American Ultima Thule Everest Expedition participated in a double-blind, randomized clinical trial of phenytoin prophylaxis for acute mountain sickness during the approach to the northeast ridge of Mount Everest. The study was carried out between Beijing and base camp at 16,800 feet. Time spent ascending from Beijing to base camp averaged 13 days. High-altitude symptom questionnaires were filled out beginning in Lhasa at 11,800 feet and in Xigatse at 12,000 feet, in Xegar at 14,000 feet, and at base camp. Computer analysis of the questionnaire answers performed by an impartial analyst revealed that climbers who took phenytoin were less likely to have headaches at base camp. No other statistically significant differences were observed, but the power of the sample size was low.

  1. [Chemical characteristics of fresh snow in Mount Everest Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Qin, D; Ren, J; Kang, S; Wang, X; Huang, C

    2001-03-01

    The chemistry of fresh snow samples collected in August and September, 1998 from Mount Everest was studied and compared with other fresh snow samples collected in different seasons in this region. The results indicated that major species in precipitation were very low in late summer in Mount Everest region and may be representative of the background of precipitation chemistry of remote regions in the wold. Chemical Characteristics of fresh snow in different seasons had distinct differences and they may reflect different moist source and climatic status. The precipitation in August and September was mainly come from Indian summer monsoon and in April and May it was influenced deeply by the dust of semi-arid and arid regions in central Asia. This indicates the precipitation in this region is climatic sensitively.

  2. EVEREST: a virtual research environment for the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, H. M.; Marelli, F.; Albani, M.

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing requirement for researchers to work collaboratively using common resources whilst being geographically dispersed. By creating a virtual research environment (VRE) using a service oriented architecture (SOA) tailored to the needs of Earth Science (ES) communities, the EVEREST project will provide a range of both generic and domain specific data management services to support a dynamic approach to collaborative research. EVER-EST will provide the means to overcome existing barriers to sharing of Earth Science data and information allowing research teams to discover, access, share and process heterogeneous data, algorithms, results and experiences within and across their communities, including those domains beyond Earth Science. Data providers will be also able to monitor user experiences and collect feedback through the VRE, improving their capacity to adapt to the changing requirements of their end-users. The EVER-EST e-infrastructure will be validated by four virtual research communities (VRC) covering different multidisciplinary ES domains: including ocean monitoring, selected natural hazards (flooding, ground instability and extreme weather events), land monitoring and risk management (volcanoes and seismicity). Each of the VRC represents a different collaborative use case for the VRE according to its own specific requirements for data, software, best practice and community engagement. The diverse use cases will demonstrate how the VRE can be used for a range of activities from straight forward data/software sharing to investigating ways to improve cooperative working. Development of the EVEREST VRE will leverage on the results of several previous projects which have produced state-of-the-art technologies for scientific data management and curation as well those initiatives which have developed models, techniques and tools for the preservation of scientific methods and their implementation in computational forms such as scientific workflows.

  3. The ascent of Mount Everest following laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmig, Jason W; Tabin, Geoff

    2003-01-01

    To report the visual experiences of climbers with prior laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia at extreme altitudes, including the summit of Mount Everest. We measured the visual acuity of 12 LASIK eyes of 6 Mount Everest climbers at base camp (17,600 ft). Results are reported on their subjective visual experiences, as all climbers ascended above 26,000 feet and four reached the 29,035-foot summit. Five of the six climbers reported no visual changes up to 26,400 feet. Three climbers noted no problems and perfect vision with their LASIK eyes on the summit of Mount Everest. One reported mild blurring with ascent above altitudes of 16,000 feet that improved with descent, or a prolonged stay at altitude. Two climbers reported blurred vision at 27,000 and 28,500 feet, respectively, which improved with descent. Laser in situ keratomileusis may be a good choice for patients involved in high altitude activities. Patients achieving extreme altitudes of 26,000 feet and above should be aware of possible fluctuation of vision.

  4. Arterial blood gases and oxygen content in climbers on Mount Everest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grocott, Michael P. W.; Martin, Daniel S.; Levett, Denny Z. H.; McMorrow, Roger; Windsor, Jeremy; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Ahuja, V.; Aref-Adib, G.; Burnham, R.; Chisholm, A.; Clarke, K.; Coates, D.; Coates, M.; Cook, D.; Cox, M.; Dhillon, S.; Dougall, C.; Doyle, P.; Duncan, P.; Edsell, M.; Edwards, L.; Evans, L.; Gardiner, P.; Grocott, M.; Gunning, P.; Hart, N.; Harrington, J.; Harvey, J.; Holloway, C.; Howard, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Imray, C.; Ince, C.; Jonas, M.; van der Kaaij, J.; Khosravi, M.; Kolfschoten, N.; Levett, D.; Luery, H.; Luks, A.; Martin, D.; McMorrow, R.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Montgomery, H.; Morgan, G.; Morgan, J.; Murray, A.; Mythen, M.; Newman, S.; O'Dwyer, M.; Pate, J.; Plant, T.; Pun, M.; Richards, P.; Richardson, A.; Rodway, G.; Simpson, J.; Stroud, C.; Stroud, M.; Stygal, J.; Symons, B.; Szawarski, P.; van Tulleken, A.; van Tulleken, C.; Vercueil, A.; Wandrag, L.; Wilson, M.; Windsor, J.; Basnyat, B.; Clarke, C.; Hornbein, T.; Milledge, J.; West, J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The level of environmental hypobaric hypoxia that affects climbers at the summit of Mount Everest (8848 m [29,029 ft]) is close to the limit of tolerance by humans. We performed direct field measurements of arterial blood gases in climbers breathing ambient air on Mount Everest. METHODS:

  5. Performance, Mood, and Anxiety During a Climb of Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinen, Heikki M; Tuomisto, Martti T

    2017-12-01

    Karinen, Heikki M., and Martti T. Tuomisto. Performance, mood, and anxiety during a climb of Mount Everest. High Alt Med Biol. 18:400-410, 2017. Various studies have shown the deleterious effects of high-altitude hypoxia on visual, motor, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional function and also in intelligence tests, reaction time, speech comprehension, hand steadiness, visual contrast discrimination, and word association tests. Because optimal cognitive abilities may be crucial for mountain climbers' safety, this study was intended to evaluate the changes in cognitive performance, mood, and anxiety during an Everest expedition lasting almost 3 months. A set of physiological (Lake Louise score, oxygen saturation), cognitive (Colorado perceptual speed [CPS] test, number comparison [NC] test), and emotional measurements (Profile of Mood States, anxiety responses, psychological inflexibility) were collected from nine climbers on a partly unsupported Mount Everest expedition at various time points during the course of the expedition at Everest Base Camp (EBC). For confidence intervals we used 95% simultaneous Bonferroni corrected interval (BCI) for the differences. During this expedition, the estimates of trait anxiety decreased 13% toward the end of expedition after successful summiting (p = 0.004). Simultaneously, fatigue appeared to diminish and the CPS speed results improved 13%. Most expedition members suffered mild symptoms of acute mountain sickness during the first days in the EBC, but this did not affect the speed or the number of mistakes made in the CPS or NC tests. In CPS test the differences between pretest and the physically most demanding period (EBC4, BCI: 0.01, 4.43) and between EBC1 and EBC4 (BCI: 0.57, 4.99), between EBC2 and EBC4 (BCI: 0.45, 4.88), and between EBC3 and EBC4 (BCI: 1.12, 5.55) were significant, showing ever improving results during the expedition. The most important finding in this study was that well-motivated and trained, self

  6. Appetite at "high altitude" [Operation Everest III (Comex-'97)]: a simulated ascent of Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Westerterp, K R; Rubbens, M; Verwegen, C R; Richelet, J P; Gardette, B

    1999-07-01

    We hypothesized that progressive loss of body mass during high-altitude sojourns is largely caused by decreased food intake, possibly due to hypobaric hypoxia. Therefore we assessed the effect of long-term hypobaric hypoxia per se on appetite in eight men who were exposed to a 31-day simulated stay at several altitudes up to the peak of Mt. Everest (8,848 m). Palatable food was provided ad libitum, and stresses such as cold exposure and exercise were avoided. At each altitude, body mass, energy, and macronutrient intake were measured; attitude toward eating and appetite profiles during and between meals were assessed by using questionnaires. Body mass reduction of an average of 5 +/- 2 kg was mainly due to a reduction in energy intake of 4.2 +/- 2 MJ/day (P < 0.01). At 5,000- and 6,000-m altitudes, subjects had hardly any acute mountain sickness symptoms and meal size reductions (P < 0.01) were related to a more rapid increase in satiety (P < 0.01). Meal frequency was increased from 4 +/- 1 to 7 +/- 1 eating occasions per day (P < 0. 01). At 7,000 m, when acute mountain sickness symptoms were present, uncoupling between hunger and desire to eat occurred and prevented a food intake necessary to meet energy balance requirements. On recovery, body mass was restored up to 63% after 4 days; this suggests physiological fluid retention with the return to sea level. We conclude that exposure to hypobaric hypoxia per se appears to be associated with a change in the attitude toward eating and with a decreased appetite and food intake.

  7. Ferrum metabolism after permanence at extreme altitude on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ballarín, E; Arregui, R

    1994-05-01

    High altitude has always intrigued physiologists because of the remarkable ability of man to adapt to the hostile environment. Despite numerous studies examining the physiological alterations occurring during exercise after exposure to hypoxia and the adaptative effects of sustained residence at altitude, several issues remain unresolved. The aim of investigation of the Spanish Medical Research Expedition to Mount Everest in 1992 was an extensive study on the physiological adaptations to the hypobaric environment at extreme altitude. We are presenting advance results the gasometry, acid-base parameters and ferrum metabolism.

  8. [Dr Alexander M. Kellas and the first Mount Everest expedition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, A

    1997-03-20

    In 1921 the government of Tibet gave permission for a British party to attempt Mount Everest from the northern Tibetan side. Little was known about the physiological and medical problems associated with ascents to extreme altitudes. The person who knew most about these topics was Dr. Alexander Kellas, lecturer in medical chemistry at the Middlesex Hospital Medical School. He had made a number of expeditions to the Sikkim Himal and the Tibetan border before the first world war, and had become increasingly interested in the problems caused by altitude. He was invited to join the Everest expedition but died on the approach march at Kampa Dzong on the Tibetan plateau, within sight of the mountain. Before he went on the expedition Kellas wrote an article entitled A consideration of the possibility of ascending Mt. Everest. This paper was never published, but the manuscript exists in the archives of the Royal Geographical Society and the Alpine Club in London. As Kellas saw it, the main issue was whether sufficient adaptation could occur to allow a climber to ascend from a camp at about 7,700 m to the summit (8,848 m) in one day without supplementary oxygen. His conclusion was that this was possible and, in fact, the first such ascent by Habeler and Messner in 1978 started from a camp at 7,900 m. Kellas calculated the pressure on the summit to be 251 mmHg, a more accurate figure than estimates based on the "Standard Atmosphere" Kellas estimated maximum oxygen uptake at the summit to be 970 ml/min, and the current value is thought to be about 1,070 ml/min. His estimates of the climbing rate near the summit closely parallels the rate of Habeler and Messner. Kellas had a talent for asking the right questions. He applied his considerable knowledge of physiology to the topic of high altitude, and his suggestions and recommendations were of consistently high quality. He deserves to be better known, both for his geographical surveys and for his pioneer work on high altitude

  9. Boundary layer effects above a Himalayan valley near Mount Everest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fanglin; Ma, Yaoming; Li, Maoshan; Ma, Weiqiang; Tian, Hui; Metzger, Stefan

    2007-04-01

    Periodical Wind Profiler and Radio Acoustic Sounding System observations have been commenced at the Himalayas' northern slope nearby Mount Everest in September 2005. Primarily data sets obtained 25 km remote from the glacier edge are utilized for a preliminary discussion of planetary boundary layer circulation resembling high alpine mountainous regions. Substantial findings include the detection of two wind shears and the phenomenon of glacier wind at a distance of 25 km from the glaciers. The latter lead to a reversed compensatory flow in a vertical scale of up to 2000 m above ground level, pointing at supra regional impact.

  10. The HIX galaxy survey II: HI kinematics of HI eXtreme galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-02-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected HI content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these HI eXtreme (HIX) galaxies to be so HI-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed HIX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in HIX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of HIX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) HIX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most HIX galaxies live in higher-spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that HIX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the HIX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of HIX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) through the large program C 2705.

  11. EVEREST: a virtual research environment for the Earth SciencesEVEREST: a virtual research environment for the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Fulvio; Glaves, Helen; Albani, Mirko

    2017-04-01

    Advances in technologies and measuring techniques in the Earth science and Earth observation domains have resulted in huge amounts of data about our Planet having been acquired. By making this data readily discoverable and accessible, and providing researchers with the necessary processing power, tools, and technologies to work collaboratively and share the results with their peers, will create new opportunities and innovative approaches for cross-disciplinary research. The EVER-EST project aims to support these advancements in scientific research by developing a generic Virtual Research Environment (VRE) which is tailored to the needs of the Earth Science domain. It will provide scientists with the means to manage, share and preserve the data and methodologies applied in their research, and lead to results that are validated, attributable and can be shared within and beyond their often geographically dispersed communities e.g. in the form of scholarly communications. The EVER-EST VRE is being implemented as a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that is based on loosely coupled services which can be differentiated as being either generic or specific to the requirements of the Earth Science domain. Central to the EVEREST approach is the concept of the Research Object (RO) which provides a semantically rich mechanism to aggregate related resources about a scientific investigation so that they can be shared together using a single unique identifier. Although the concept of Research Objects has previously been validated by other experimental disciplines this application in the Earth Sciences represents its first implementation in observational research. The EVER-EST e-infrastructure will be validated by four virtual research communities (VRC) covering different multidisciplinary Earth Science domains: including ocean monitoring, selected natural hazards (flooding, ground instability and extreme weather events), land monitoring and risk management (volcanoes and

  12. Transient neurological disorders during a simulated ascent of Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchy, Emmanuel; Larmignat, Philippe; Boussuges, Alain; Le Roux, Geneviève; Charniot, Jean-Christophe; Dumas, Jean-Luc; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2002-12-01

    Transient neurological disorders are often observed at high altitude but are poorly documented under field conditions. The mechanism usually invoked is a hypocapnic vasoconstriction due to severe hypoxic hyperventilation. During a simulated ascent of Mount Everest in a hypobaric chamber by eight volunteer alpinists (Operation Everest III, Comex '97), three subjects presented neurological symptoms. We report here on the clinical observations and testing to detect mechanisms in addition to hypocapnic vasoconstriction. The experiment was designed to investigate factors limiting physiological performance at altitude and the pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness. A retrospective analysis was made comparing the three cases of transient neurological disorder at high altitude (TNDHA) with the five subjects who had no neurological symptoms. Analysis of clinical and blood parameters showed no difference between cases and controls. The cases showed no neurological sequelae following the experiment and were normal on cardiac imaging. However, one case had a history of migraine in his youth, leading us to hypothesize that segmental vasoconstriction was a factor. In another case, gas bubbles were detected in the pulmonary artery by transthoracic echocardiography when he was symptomatic, suggesting that gas emboli may have played a role. All three cases shared a possible triggering factor in that each experienced hyperventilation alternating with straining against a closed glottis shortly before the onset of symptoms. Mechanisms other than hypocapnic vasoconstriction in hypoxia may be causal factors of TNDHA. The existence of triggering factors and evidence of a possible embolic mechanism should be further explored.

  13. Secondary prevention of HAPE in a Mount Everest summiteer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunin-Bell, Ola; Boyle, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Climbers who have suffered a previous episode of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) are at significantly increased risk of developing it again on return to high altitude. In spite of the high mortality associated with HAPE, some climbers are willing to take this risk in order to summit the tallest mountains in the world. This is a case report of a climber who suffered an episode of HAPE partway up Mount Everest. He was determined to complete his summit attempt that same climbing season, which would involve a return to extreme altitude less than 3 weeks following recovery. Based on experimental evidence suggesting that sildenafil, salmeterol, and acetazolamide may have therapeutic value for both the prevention and treatment of HAPE, he used these medications for secondary prevention. He was able to successfully reach the summit of Mount Everest and return to base camp without any evidence of recurrence of pulmonary edema. This provides clinical evidence that medication can be used to increase the safety margin for HAPE-susceptible individuals traveling to extremely high altitudes.

  14. Red cell function at extreme altitude on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, R M; Samaja, M; West, J B

    1984-01-01

    As part of the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest in 1981, we measured hemoglobin concentration, red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), Po2 at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated (P50), and acid-base status in expedition members at various altitudes. All measurements were made in expedition laboratories and, with the exception of samples from the South Col of Mt. Everest (8,050 m), within 2 h of blood collection. In vivo conditions were estimated from direct measurements of arterial blood gases and pH or inferred from base excess and alveolar PCO2. As expected, increased 2,3-DPG was associated with slightly increased P50, when expressed at pH 7.4. Because of respiratory alkalosis, however, the subjects' in vivo P50 at 6,300 m (27.6 Torr) was slightly less than at sea level (28.1 Torr). The estimated in vivo P50 was progressively lower at 8,050 m (24.9 Torr) and on the summit at 8,848 m (19.4 Torr in one subject). Our data suggest that, at extreme altitude, the blood O2 equilibrium curve shifts progressively leftward because of respiratory alkalosis. This left shift protects arterial O2 saturation at extreme altitude.

  15. Pulmonary gas exchange on the summit of Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J B; Hackett, P H; Maret, K H; Milledge, J S; Peters, R M; Pizzo, C J; Winslow, R M

    1983-09-01

    Pulmonary gas exchange was studied on members of the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest at altitudes of 8,050 m (barometric pressure 284 Torr), 8,400 m (267 Torr) and 8,848 m (summit of Mt. Everest, 253 Torr). Thirty-four valid alveolar gas samples were taken using a special automatic sampler including 4 samples on the summit. Venous blood was collected from two subjects at an altitude of 8,050 m on the morning after their successful summit climb. Alveolar CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) fell approximately linearly with decreasing barometric pressure to a value of 7.5 Torr on the summit. For a respiratory exchange ratio of 0.85, this gave an alveolar O2 partial pressure (PO2) of 35 Torr. In two subjects who reached the summit, the mean base excess at 8,050 m was -7.2 meq/l, and assuming the same value on the previous day, the arterial pH on the summit was over 7.7. Arterial PO2 was calculated from changes along the pulmonary capillary to be 28 Torr. In spite of the severe arterial hypoxemia, high pH, and extremely low PCO2, subjects on the summit were able to perform simple tasks. The results allow us to construct for the first time an integrated picture of human gas exchange at the highest point on earth.

  16. EVEREST: automatic identification and classification of protein domains in all protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linial Nathan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins are comprised of one or several building blocks, known as domains. Such domains can be classified into families according to their evolutionary origin. Whereas sequencing technologies have advanced immensely in recent years, there are no matching computational methodologies for large-scale determination of protein domains and their boundaries. We provide and rigorously evaluate a novel set of domain families that is automatically generated from sequence data. Our domain family identification process, called EVEREST (EVolutionary Ensembles of REcurrent SegmenTs, begins by constructing a library of protein segments that emerge in an all vs. all pairwise sequence comparison. It then proceeds to cluster these segments into putative domain families. The selection of the best putative families is done using machine learning techniques. A statistical model is then created for each of the chosen families. This procedure is then iterated: the aforementioned statistical models are used to scan all protein sequences, to recreate a library of segments and to cluster them again. Results Processing the Swiss-Prot section of the UniProt Knoledgebase, release 7.2, EVEREST defines 20,230 domains, covering 85% of the amino acids of the Swiss-Prot database. EVEREST annotates 11,852 proteins (6% of the database that are not annotated by Pfam A. In addition, in 43,086 proteins (20% of the database, EVEREST annotates a part of the protein that is not annotated by Pfam A. Performance tests show that EVEREST recovers 56% of Pfam A families and 63% of SCOP families with high accuracy, and suggests previously unknown domain families with at least 51% fidelity. EVEREST domains are often a combination of domains as defined by Pfam or SCOP and are frequently sub-domains of such domains. Conclusion The EVEREST process and its output domain families provide an exhaustive and validated view of the protein domain world that is automatically

  17. The H IX galaxy survey - II. H I kinematics of H I eXtreme galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-05-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected H I content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these H I eXtreme (H IX) galaxies to be so H I-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed H IX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in H IX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of H IX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) H IX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most H IX galaxies live in higher spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that H IX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the H IX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of H IX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array through the large program C 2705.

  18. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Everest, Kansas, in 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-21

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) began its environmental investigations at Everest, Kansas, in 2000. The work at Everest is implemented on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The results of the environmental investigations have been reported in detail (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The lateral extent of the carbon tetrachloride in groundwater over the years of investigation has been interpreted as shown in Figure 1.1 (2001-2002 data), Figure 1.2 (2006 data), Figure 1.3 (2008 data), and Figure 1.4 (2009 data). The pattern of groundwater flow and inferred contaminant migration has consistently been to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property (e.g., Figure 1.5 [2008 data] and Figure 1.6 [2009 data]). Both the monitoring data for carbon tetrachloride and the low groundwater flow rates estimated for the Everest aquifer unit (Argonne 2003, 2006a,b, 2008) indicate slow contaminant migration. On the basis of the accumulated findings, in March 2009 the CCC/USDA developed a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water. This current monitoring plan (Appendix A in the report of monitoring in 2009 [Argonne 2010]) was approved by the KDHE (2009a). Under this plan, the monitoring wells are sampled by the low-flow procedure, and sample preservation, shipping, and analysis activities are consistent with previous work at Everest. The annual sampling will continue until identified conditions at the site indicate a technical justification for a change. The first annual sampling event under the new monitoring plan took place in April 2009. The results of analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and water level measurements were consistent with previous observations (Figures 1.1-1.4). No carbon tetrachloride was detected in surface

  19. Human physiology at extreme altitudes on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J B

    1984-02-24

    Extreme altitude presents an enormous physiological challenge to the human body because of severe oxygen deprivation. The American Medical Research Expedition to Everest was specifically designed to study man under these conditions, and successfully obtained physiological data above 8000 meters, including a few measurements on the summit itself. The results show that man can tolerate the extreme hypoxia only by an enormous increase in ventilation, which results in an alveolar partial pressure of carbon dioxide of 7.5 torr on the summit and an arterial pH of over 7.7. Even so, the arterial partial pressure of oxygen is apparently less than 30 torr, and maximum oxygen uptake is about 1 liter per minute. Additional measurements of ventilation, blood physiology, and metabolic and psychometric changes clarified how man responds to this hostile environment.

  20. Airborne reconnaissance and Mount Everest: an historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    1994-10-01

    In 1933, aerial cameras had been developed that worked essentially as they do today. Aerial surveys were made, stereo plotters produced maps, and the science of photogrammetry was advancing. However, aircraft development had a long way to go before the SR-71 came along. Over the years, the general complexity of taking photographs from above increased by orders of magnitude. A 1933 British flight in two bi-wing aircraft over Mount Everest on an aerial survey mission is compared to a 1984 Space Shuttle flight dedicated to aerial, or more accurately, space photography. The comparison leads to the conclusion that in exploration, it is important that people involved must be given latitude to exercise self-initiative if we are to be successful in the exploration of the solar system and galaxy.

  1. Maximal exercise at extreme altitudes on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J B; Boyer, S J; Graber, D J; Hackett, P H; Maret, K H; Milledge, J S; Peters, R M; Pizzo, C J; Samaja, M; Sarnquist, F H

    1983-09-01

    Maximal exercise at extreme altitudes was studied during the course of the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest. Measurements were carried out at sea level [inspired O2 partial pressure (PO2) 147 Torr], 6,300 m during air breathing (inspired PO2 64 Torr), 6,300 m during 16% O2 breathing (inspired PO2 49 Torr), and 6,300 m during 14% O2 breathing (inspired PO2 43 Torr). The last PO2 is equivalent to that on the summit of Mt. Everest. All the 6,300 m studies were carried out in a warm well-equipped laboratory on well-acclimatized subjects. Maximal O2 uptake fell dramatically as the inspired PO2 was reduced to very low levels. However, two subjects were able to reach an O2 uptake of 1 l/min at the lowest inspired PO2. Arterial O2 saturations fell markedly and alveolar-arterial PO2 differences increased as the work rate was raised at high altitude, indicating diffusion limitation of O2 transfer. Maximal exercise ventilations exceeded 200 l/min at 6,300 m during air breathing but fell considerably at the lowest values of inspired PO2. Alveolar CO2 partial pressure was reduced to 7-8 Torr in one subject at the lowest inspired PO2, and the same value was obtained from alveolar gas samples taken by him at rest on the summit. The results help to explain how man can reach the highest point on earth while breathing ambient air.

  2. Weather And Death On Mount Everest: An Analysis Of The Into Thin Air Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. W. K.; Semple, John L.

    2006-04-01

    Scientific interest in Mount Everest has been largely focused on the physiology of hypoxia caused by the summit's low barometric pressure. Although weather is recognized as a significant risk for climbers on the mountain, it has not been extensively studied. In this paper, we reconstruct the meteorological conditions associated with the deadly outbreak of high-impact weather on Mount Everest that occurred in May 1996 and was the subject of the best-selling book Into Thin Air. The authors show that during this event, two jet streaks—an upper-level short-wave trough and an intrusion of stratospheric air into the upper troposphere—were present in the vicinity of Mount Everest. Meanwhile, in the lower troposphere, there was convergence of water vapor transport from both the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal into the region to the south of Mount Everest. The authors propose that the ageostrophic circulation associated with the upper-level features resulted in a region of large-scale ascent near Mount Everest that, in combination with the anomalous availability of moisture in the region, triggered convective activity. The resulting high-impact weather trapped over 20 climbers on Mount Everest's exposed upper slopes leading to the deaths of 8. These synoptic-scale characteristics provide some expectation of predicting life-threatening high-altitude storms in the Himalayas. In addition, the authors argue that the falling barometric pressure and the presence of ozone-rich stratospheric air that occurred near the summit of Mount Everest during this event could have shifted a coping climber from a state of brittle tolerance to physiological distress.

  3. In-situ observations of the April 2014 Mount Everest Avalanche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kent; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo; Pietro Verza, Gian; Semple, John

    2016-04-01

    Instrumental records indicate a warming of approximately 0.8oC has occurred in the Everest region since the 1980s that has resulted in a 100-300m rise in the height at which the ground is permanently frozen as well as a retreat and thinning of Everest's glaciers. This period of warming has coincided with Mount Everest becoming an increasingly important destination for both climbers and trekkers. For some time, there have been concerns that this warming and the resultant changes in the region's glaciers may be increasing the risks for both travellers to Mount Everest as well as the indigenous populations who support them. On April 18 2014, an avalanche caused by the collapse of a large serac swept down Mount Everest's Khumbu Ice Fall resulting in the deaths of 16 Sherpa. Although satellite imagery has been used to estimate the size of the serac, in-situ data on the avalanche itself has not been available. Here we show that this event was of a sufficient size as to result in the excitation of a 20 min long 'avalanche wind' that was observed at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid situated 12 km from Mount Everest. We use these observations to estimate that the winds at Everest Base Camp during this event were of hurricane strength. As a result of the destabilization of the region's glaciers due to the climate change, there are concerns that such events may become more frequent. These results provide the basis for a method to estimate the frequency and severity of avalanches in this region.

  4. First observations of surface ozone concentration from the summit region of Mount Everest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, John L.; Moore, G. W. K.

    2008-10-01

    The extreme height of Mount Everest is such that its summit region may periodically be in the lower stratosphere. In this regard it provides a unique location for observing the exchange of ozone between the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Here we report the first surface ozone measurements from the summit region of Mount Everest. Simultaneous measurements were recorded at different elevations on the north side from base camp (5676 m) to the summit (8848 m) during May 2005. The concentrations measured were as high as 70 ppb. Meteorological diagnostics suggest that the stratosphere as well as the long range transport of polluted tropospheric air masses from South East Asia are sources of the observed ozone. There is evidence that the source region for ozone in the vicinity of Mount Everest may vary with the onset of the summer monsoon.

  5. Weather and Death on Mount Everest: Is there a link between Storms and Human Physiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K.; Semple, J.

    2004-05-01

    Scientific interest in Mount Everest has been largely focused on the hypoxia caused by the summit's low barometric pressure. Although weather is recognized as a significant risk factor, it has not been extensively studied. Through the use of observations made at the mountain's South Col, elevation 7986m, and other datasets, we show that high impact weather events on Mount Everest, including the May 1996 storm in which 8 climbers perished, are often associated with continental-scale intrusions of stratospheric air into the upper-troposphere. The variability in wind speeds associated with these intrusions triggered convective activity that resulted in the high impact weather. In addition, the validation of existing meteorological data allows for useful insights into the possibility of forecasting these high impact weather events and their physiological impacts thereby mitigating deaths that occur on the exposed upper slopes of Mount Everest.

  6. Limiting factors to oxygen transport on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretelli, P

    1976-05-01

    The effect of a sudden increase of the inspired oxygen tension on the maximal aerobic performance was studied on 23 subjects acclimated to high altitude (5,350-8,848 m above sea level) in the course of a 4-mo expedition to Mt. Everest. Inhalation of 100% O2 at 390 mmHg or a rapid descent (20 min) by helicopter to 2,850 m (Pio2 = 117 mmHg) raised maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max) from an average 0.7 of the control sea-level value, respectively, to 0.92 and 0.97. The failure of acclimated subjects to increase markedly or even to resume the preexisting sea-level Vo2mxa while breathing O2 in the presence of a 40% increase of blood Hb concentration and of a limited reduction of maximal cardiac output (Qmax), is attributed to changes in the peripheral circulation. These may consist of a) a hindrance of O2 diffusion due to erythrocytes packing secondary to increased hematocrit (Hct up to 70%); b) a bypass of arterial blood from the high-resistance working areas of the body aimed at reducing the load on the heart caused by increased blood viscosity. A 11.6% increase above normal controls of Hb concentration still found in 13 subjects 25 days after leaving altitude does not increase significantly maximum O2 consumption.

  7. Cognition and metacognition at extreme altitudes on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T O; Dunlosky, J; White, D M; Steinberg, J; Townes, B D; Anderson, D

    1990-12-01

    The FACTRETRIEVAL2 test battery, which assesses both retrieval of general information from memory and metacognition about that retrieval, was administered to people before and after a recent expedition to Mount Everest and at extreme altitudes above 6,400 m (higher than any mountain in North America or Europe). The major findings were as follows: First, the same extreme altitudes already known to impair learning did not affect either accuracy or latency of retrieval, and this robustness of retrieval occurred for both recall and forced-choice recognition. Second, extreme altitude did affect metacognition: The climbers showed a decline in their feeling of knowing both while at extreme altitude and after returning to Kathmandu (i.e., both an effect and an aftereffect of extreme altitude). Third, extreme altitude had different effects than alcohol intoxication (previously assessed by Nelson. McSpadden, Fromme, & Marlatt, 1986). Alcohol intoxication affected retrieval without affecting metacognition, whereas extreme altitude affected metacognition without affecting retrieval; this different pattern for extreme altitude versus alcohol intoxication implies that (a) hypoxia does not always yield the same outcome as alcohol intoxication and (b) neither retrieval nor metacognition is strictly more sensitive than the other for detecting changes in independent variables.

  8. Recommendations for new monitoring wells at Everest, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2007-05-03

    On February 15, 2007, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) submitted Recommendations for Remedial Action at Everest, Kansas. Those Recommendations were accepted by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) in a letter to the CCC/USDA dated March 5, 2007. The approved Recommendations document outlines a plan for systematic groundwater sampling and monitoring at Everest to provide data necessary for the critical evaluation of remedial options - including a phytoremediation alternative - for restoration of the groundwater and protection of the surface waters of the intermittent creek at this site. Phase I of the KDHE-approved monitoring plan includes the following activities: (1) Groundwater sampling at existing monitoring wells, with analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and selected biodegradation parameters; (2) Sampling of surface waters along the intermittent creek for VOCs analyses; and (3) Periodic manual measurement and automated recording of groundwater and surface water levels in the vicinity of the intermittent creek. The locations selected for groundwater and surface water sampling and analyses under the approved monitoring program were determined in consultation with the KDHE. As a result of subsequent discussions among representatives of the KDHE, the CCC/USDA, and Argonne regarding the technical program at Everest, the CCC/USDA seeks KDHE approval for the installation of up to four new permanent monitoring wells along the upper reach of the intermittent creek west of the Nigh property, as shown in Figure 1. The proposed new well locations lie progressively downgradient in the anticipated direction of future groundwater and contaminant movement; all of the recommended points lie at least 2,000 ft upgradient, however, of the confirmed area of groundwater discharge to the creek identified near Highway 73. The proposed new wells will supplement the existing network of groundwater and surface

  9. Mount Everest and Makalu cold injury amputation: 40 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shawnda A; Gorjanc, Jurij; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2014-04-01

    Freezing cold injuries (frostbite) of the extremities are a common injury among alpinists participating in high altitude expeditions, particularly during inclement weather conditions. Anecdotally, a digit that has suffered frostbite may be at greater risk to future cold injuries. In this case study, we profile a 62-year-old elite alpinist who suffered multiple digit amputations on both his hands and foot after historic summit attempts on Makalu (8481 m) and Mt. Everest (8848 m) in 1974-1979. We describe the clinical treatment he received at that time, and follow up his case 40 years after the first incidence of frostbite utilizing a noninvasive evaluation of hand and foot function to a cold stress test, including rates of re-warming to both injured and non-injured digits. Finger rates of recovery to the cold stress test were not different (0.8 vs. 1.0°C·min(-1)) except one (injured, left middle finger, distal phalanx; 0.4°C·min(-1)). Toe recovery rates after cold-water immersion were identical between previously injured and non-injured toes (0.2°C·min(-1)). Thermocouple data indicate that this alpinist's previous frostbite injuries may not have significantly altered his digit rates of re-warming during passive recovery compared to his non-injured digits.

  10. Effects of age and gender on success and death of mountaineers on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Raymond B; Salisbury, Richard; Wang, Jane-Ling; Mao, Meng

    2007-10-22

    Increasing numbers of climbers are attempting Mount Everest, the highest mountain on Earth. We compiled interview data and computed the probabilities of summiting and of dying as a function of climber age and gender (2211 climbers, spring season) for the period of 1990-2005. Men and women had similar odds of summiting and of dying. However, climbers older than 40 years have reduced odds of summiting, and those older than 60 years have increased odds of dying, especially when descending from the summit. On Mount Everest, phenotypic selection appears blind to gender but favours young mountaineers.

  11. Final Phase II report : QuickSite(R) investigation, Everest, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Research)

    2003-11-01

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated grain storage facilities at two different locations at Everest, Kansas (Figure 1.1). One facility (referred to in this report as the Everest facility) was at the western edge of the city of Everest. The CCC/USDA operated this facility from 1950 until the early 1970s. The second facility (referred to in this report as Everest East) was about 0.5 mi northeast of the town. The CCC/USDA operated this facility from 1954 until the early 1970s. While these two former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities were in operation, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain. In 1997, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) sampled several domestic drinking water and nondrinking water wells in the Everest area. The KDHE sampling was part of the CCC/USDA Private Well Sampling Program, which was initiated to determine whether carbon tetrachloride was present in domestic wells near former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities in Kansas. All of the sampled domestic drinking water wells were located outside the Everest city boundaries. As a result of this sampling, carbon tetrachloride contamination was identified at a single domestic drinking water well (the Nigh well; DW06) approximately 3/8 mi northwest of the former Everest CCC/USDA grain storage facility. The CCC/USDA subsequently connected the Nigh residence to the Everest municipal water system. As a result of the detection of carbon tetrachloride in this well, the KDHE conducted preliminary investigations to further evaluate the existence of contamination and its potential effect on public health and the environment. The KDHE concluded that carbon tetrachloride in groundwater at Everest might, in part, be linked to historical use of carbon tetrachloride-based grain fumigants at the former CCC/USDA facilities. For

  12. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry of the Mount Everest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebelin, A.; Mulch, A.; Teyssier, C.; Jessup, M. J.; Law, R. D.; Brunel, M.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term climatic evolution and atmospheric circulation patterns are influenced to a first order by the topography of the largest mountain ranges. Reconstructing the Neogene elevation history of the Mount Everest region is of particular interest for understanding the tectonic history of the Himalaya-Tibet orogen as well as global scale atmospheric circulation and biotic changes through time. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry uses the isotopic lapse rate of precipitations preserved in the near-surface record. In the absence of surface deposits such as paleosols, volcanic ashes, or lacustrine limestone that record the stable isotopic composition of early to mid-Miocene water preserved in the highly erosive Himalayan range, we conduct stable-isotope paleoaltimetry based on the hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of hydrous minerals that crystallized in the South Tibetan detachment (STD) shear zone at ~17 Ma. For paleoaltimetry reconstruction we compare stable isotope records from the STD mylonitic footwall to age-equivalent oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) measured within pedogenic carbonate from Siwalik foreland paleosols that developed near Miocene sea level. The relative differences between meteoric water compositions in the foreland basin and the δ18Owater calculated from the hydrogen isotope composition of syntectonic minerals suggest that by ~17 Ma the central Himalaya was at an elevation similar to what it is today, and that a rain shadow likely existed at that time. Our results demonstrate the power of shear-zone based paleoaltimetry in eroded mountain belts, call for caution in interpreting basin-based stable isotope paleoaltimetry in the rain shadow of the mid-Miocene Himalayan range and suggest that strengthening of the South Asian monsoon may have occurred in early to mid-Miocene, earlier than previously thought.

  13. Ophthalmodynamometry for ICP prediction and pilot test on Mt. Everest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent development in non-invasive techniques to predict intracranial pressure (ICP termed venous ophthalmodynamometry (vODM has made measurements in absolute units possible. However, there has been little progress to show utility in the clinic or field. One important application would be to predict changes in actual ICP during adaptive responses to physiologic stress such as hypoxia. A causal relationship between raised intracranial pressure and acute mountain sickness (AMS is suspected. Several MRI studies report that modest physiologic increases in cerebral volume, from swelling, normally accompany subacute ascent to simulated high altitudes. Objectives 1 Validate and calibrate an advanced, portable vODM instrument on intensive patients with raised intracranial pressure and 2 make pilot, non-invasive ICP estimations of normal subjects at increasing altitudes. Methods The vODM was calibrated against actual ICP in 12 neurosurgical patients, most affected with acute hydrocephalus and monitored using ventriculostomy/pressure transducers. The operator was blinded to the transducer read-out. A clinical field test was then conducted on a variable data set of 42 volunteer trekkers and climbers scaling Mt. Everest, Nepal. Mean ICPs were estimated at several altitudes on the ascent both across and within subjects. Results Portable vODM measurements increased directly and linearly with ICP resulting in good predictability (r = 0.85. We also found that estimated ICP increases normally with altitude (10 ± 3 mm Hg; sea level to 20 ± 2 mm Hg; 6553 m and that AMS symptoms did not correlate with raised ICP. Conclusion vODM technology has potential to reliably estimate absolute ICP and is portable. Physiologic increases in ICP and mild-mod AMS are separate responses to high altitude, possibly reflecting swelling and vasoactive instability, respectively.

  14. Tensions in Gifted College Programs in China: The Case of "Mount Everest Plan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2016-01-01

    To date, no empirical study has focused upon understanding the tensions in gifted college programs in China. This qualitative inquiry examines the tensions the "Mount Everest Plan" programs face while initiating gifted education reform in China, how the gifted college students characterize these tensions, and what conditions they believe…

  15. Physical and medical characteristics of successful and unsuccessful summiteers of Mount Everest in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Colette; Freer, Luanne; Hung, Erick

    2006-01-01

    To describe physiological attributes (height, weight, sex, resting heart rate, etc.) of climbers attempting to summit Mt Everest and to investigate differences between successful and unsuccessful summiteers. One-hundred thirteen Everest climbers were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the spring 2003 climbing season. Climbers' previous high-altitude climbing experience and physical characteristics were recorded, as well as health before and during expedition, medication used, body weight before expedition and after summit attempt, and ultimate summit success or failure. The most common afflictions among climbers were cough, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, and the most common medications used were acetazolamide, aspirin, and antibiotics. Average postacclimatization, presummit "rest" altitude was 4571 m, and average weight carried 10.7 kg. Average body mass loss during expedition, regardless of success, was 7%. Oxygen use and existence of gastrointestinal disorders are strongly correlated with success in summiting Mt Everest. On the other hand, a history of acute mountain sickness before the attempt is correlated with failure in summiting Mt Everest. Several other factors were found to be marginally correlated with chance of success, but the power of the study was limited by a low postsummit attempt questionnaire return rate (34%).

  16. Real-time electrocardiogram transmission from Mount Everest during continued ascent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wei-Fong; Huang, Jyh-How; Kuo, Terry B J; Chang, Po-Lun; Chang, Wen-Chen; Chan, Kuo-Hung; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Wang, Shih-Hao; Su, Tzu-Yao; Chiang, Hsiu-chen; Chen, Jin-Jong

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of a real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) transmission via satellite phone from Mount Everest to determine a climber's suitability for continued ascent was examined. Four Taiwanese climbers were enrolled in the 2009 Mount Everest summit program. Physiological measurements were taken at base camp (5300 m), camp 2 (6400 m), camp 3 (7100 m), and camp 4 (7950 m) 1 hour after arrival and following a 10 minute rest period. A total of 3 out of 4 climbers were able to summit Mount Everest successfully. Overall, ECG and global positioning system (GPS) coordinates of climbers were transmitted in real-time via satellite phone successfully from base camp, camp 2, camp 3, and camp 4. At each camp, Resting Heart Rate (RHR) was transmitted and recorded: base camp (54-113 bpm), camp 2 (94-130 bpm), camp 3 (98-115 bpm), and camp 4 (93-111 bpm). Real-time ECG and GPS coordinate transmission via satellite phone is feasible for climbers on Mount Everest. Real-time RHR data can be used to evaluate a climber's physiological capacity to continue an ascent and to summit.

  17. Real-time electrocardiogram transmission from Mount Everest during continued ascent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Fong Kao

    Full Text Available The feasibility of a real-time electrocardiogram (ECG transmission via satellite phone from Mount Everest to determine a climber's suitability for continued ascent was examined. Four Taiwanese climbers were enrolled in the 2009 Mount Everest summit program. Physiological measurements were taken at base camp (5300 m, camp 2 (6400 m, camp 3 (7100 m, and camp 4 (7950 m 1 hour after arrival and following a 10 minute rest period. A total of 3 out of 4 climbers were able to summit Mount Everest successfully. Overall, ECG and global positioning system (GPS coordinates of climbers were transmitted in real-time via satellite phone successfully from base camp, camp 2, camp 3, and camp 4. At each camp, Resting Heart Rate (RHR was transmitted and recorded: base camp (54-113 bpm, camp 2 (94-130 bpm, camp 3 (98-115 bpm, and camp 4 (93-111 bpm. Real-time ECG and GPS coordinate transmission via satellite phone is feasible for climbers on Mount Everest. Real-time RHR data can be used to evaluate a climber's physiological capacity to continue an ascent and to summit.

  18. EVER-EST: European Virtual Environment for Research in Earth Science Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, H.; Albani, M.

    2016-12-01

    EVER-EST is an EC Horizon 2020 project having the goal to develop a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) providing a state-of-the-art solution to allow Earth Scientists to preserve their work and publications for reference and future reuse, and to share with others. The availability of such a solution, based on an innovative concept and state of art technology infrastructure, will considerably enhance the quality of how Earth Scientists work together within their own institution and also across other organizations, regions and countries. The concept of Research Objects (ROs), used in the Earth Sciences for the first time, will form the backbone of the EVER-EST VRE infrastructure. ROs will enhance the ability to preserve, re-use and share entire or individual parts of scientific workflows and all the resources related to a specific scientific investigation. These ROs will also potentially be used as part of the scholarly publication process. EVER-EST is building on technologies developed during almost 15 years of research on Earth Science data management infrastructures. The EVER-EST VRE Service Oriented Architecture is being meticulously designed to accommodate at best the requirements of a wide range of Earth Science communities and use cases: focus is put on common requirements and on minimising the level of complexity in the EVER-EST VRE to ensure future sustainability within the user communities beyond the end of the project. The EVER-EST VRE will be validated through its customisation and deployment by four Virtual Research Communities (VRCs) from different Earth Science disciplines and will support enhanced interaction between data providers and scientists in the Earth Science domain. User community will range from bio-marine researchers (Sea Monitoring use case), to common foreign and security policy institutions and stakeholders (Land Monitoring for Security use case), natural hazards forecasting systems (Natural Hazards use case), and disaster and risk

  19. The Late Cenozoic Climatic and Tectonic Evolution of the Mount Everest Region, Central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mary Hannah

    The collision of India and Eurasia constructed the Himalayan Mountains. Questions remain regarding how subsequent exhumation by climatic and tectonic processes shaped the landscape throughout the Late Cenozoic to create the complex architecture observed today. The Mount Everest region underwent tectonic denudation by extension and bestrides one of the world's most significant rain shadows. Also, glacial and fluvial processes eroded the Everest massif over shorter timescales. In this work, I review new bedrock and detrital thermochronological and geochronological data and both one- and two-dimensional thermal-mechanical modeling that provides insights on the age range and rates of tectonic and erosional processes in this region. A strand of the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS), a series of prominent normal-sense structures that dip to the north and strike along the Himalayan spine, is exposed in the Rongbuk valley near Everest. Using thermochronometric techniques, thermal-kinematic modeling, and published (U-Th)/Pb geochronology, I show exhumation rates were high ( 3-4 mm/a) from at least 20 to 13 Ma because of slip on the STDS. Subsequently, exhumation rates dropped drastically to ≤ 0.5 mm/a and remain low today. However, thermochronometric datasets and thermal-kinematic modeling results from Nepal south of Everest reveal a sharp transition in cooling ages and exhumation rates across a major knickpoint in the river profile, corresponding to the modern-day Himalayan rainfall transition. To the north of this transition, exhumation histories are similar to those in Tibet. Conversely, Everest. Integrated laser ablation U/Pb and (U-Th)/He dating of detrital zircon from fluvial and moraine sediments reveal sourcing from distinctive areas of the catchment. In general, the glacial advances eroded material from lower elevations, while the glacial outwash system carries material from higher elevations.

  20. Freezing and frostbite on mount everest: new insights into wind chill and freezing times at extreme altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G W K; Semple, J L

    2011-01-01

    Cold injury is an acknowledged risk factor for those who venture into high altitude regions. There is, however, little quantitative information on this risk that can be used to implement mitigation strategies. Here we provide the first characterization of the risk of cold injury near the summit of Mount Everest. This is accomplished through the application of a meteorological dataset that has been demonstrated to characterize conditions in the region as inputs to new parameterizations of wind chill equivalent temperature (WCT) and facial frostbite time (FFT). Throughout the year, the typical WCT near the summit of Everest is always Mount Everest and also allow for the possibility of using barometric pressure, an easily observed parameter, in real time to characterize this risk and to implement mitigation strategies. The results also provide additional confirmation as to the extreme environment experienced by those attempting to summit Mount Everest and other high mountains.

  1. Asymmetric exhumation of the Mount Everest region : implications for the tectono-topographic evolution of the Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Carrapa, B.; Robert, Xavier; DeCelles, P. G.; Orme, D. A.; Thomson, S. N.; Schoenbohm, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The tectonic and topographic history of the Himalaya-Tibet orogenic system remains controversial, with several competing models that predict different exhumation histories. Here, we present new low-temperature thermochronological data from the Mount Everest region, which, combined with thermal-kinematic landscape evolution modeling, indicate asymmetric exhumation of Mount Everest consistent with a scenario in which the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau was located > 100 km farther south du...

  2. A population approach to renal replacement therapy epidemiology: lessons from the EVEREST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Fergus J; Jager, Kitty J

    2014-08-01

    The marked variation that exists in renal replacement therapy (RRT) epidemiology between countries and within countries requires careful systematic examination if the root causes are to be understood. While individual patient-level studies are undoubtedly important, there is a complementary role for more population-level, area-based studies--an aetiological approach. The EVEREST Study adopted such an approach, bringing RRT incidence rates, survival and modality mix together with macroeconomic factors, general population factors and renal service organizational factors for up to 46 countries. This review considers the background to EVEREST, its key results and then the main methodological lessons and their potential application to ongoing work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  3. Mount Everest region as seen from the STS-66 orbiter Atlantis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    View of the Mount Everst region, Nepal and China. Low morning sun highlights Mount Everest (the highest mountain in the world at 8,848 meters), Cho Oyu (8,153 meters) to the northwest, and other peaks of 'The Roof of the World'. New snow seems to be confined to the highest peaks. Abundant details of glacier surfaces, including moraines, crevasse fields, and ice falls are displayed for study.

  4. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis during Everest Expedition: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Khanal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST is a rare but serious disorder that is associated with a poor clinical outcome. We report a 35-year-old man who had a severe headache and diplopia while climbing Mount Everest. His MR venography showed right transverse and right sigmoid sinus thrombosis. He improved on anticoagulant and symptomatic measures. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis at high altitude is discussed.

  5. High Concentrations of Ozone Air Pollution on Mount Everest: Health Implications for Sherpa Communities and Mountaineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, John L; Moore, G W Kent; Koutrakis, Petros; Wolfson, Jack M; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    Semple, John L., G.W. Kent Moore, Petros Koutrakis, Jack M. Wolfson, Paolo Cristofanelli, and Paolo Bonasoni. High concentrations of ozone air pollution on Mount Everest: health implications for Sherpa communities and mountaineers. High Alt Med Biol. 17:365-369, 2016.-Introduction: Populations in remote mountain regions are increasingly vulnerable to multiple climate mechanisms that influence levels of air pollution. Few studies have reported on climate-sensitive health outcomes unique to high altitude ecosystems. In this study, we report on the discovery of high-surface ozone concentrations and the potential impact on health outcomes on Mount Everest and the high Himalaya. Surface ozone measurements were collected during ascending transects in the Mount Everest region of Nepal with passive nitrite-coated Ogawa filter samplers to obtain 8-hour personal exposures (2860-5364 m asl). In addition, the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid, a GAW-WMO Global Station sited in the Khumbu Valley (5079 m asl), collected ozone mixing ratios with photometric gas analyzer. Surface ozone measurements increased with altitude with concentrations that exceed 100 ppb (8-hour exposure). Highest values were during the spring season and the result of diverse contributions: hemispheric background values, the descent of ozone-rich stratospheric air, and the transport of tropospheric pollutants occurring at different spatial scales. Multiple climate factors, including descending stratospheric ozone and imported anthropogenic air masses from the Indo-Gangetic Plain, contribute to ambient ozone exposure levels in the vicinity of Mount Everest that are similar to if not higher than those reported in industrialized cities.

  6. [Acute high altitude sickness--medical experiences from Mount Everest during the spring season 1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostrup, M

    1997-03-20

    In April-May 1996 a Norwegian expedition climbed Mount Everest from the Tibetan side, Eight out of the ten members reached the summit. The expedition did not experience any serious incidents but took part in the rescue and treatment of climbers from other expeditions. Eleven cases are reported. Four of these were fatal. Cerebral oedema and frostbite were the most common problems in addition to hypothermia and exhaustion. The author also discusses acute mountain sickness, including clinical features, treatment and prophylaxis.

  7. Use of a hypobaric chamber for pre-acclimatization before climbing Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richalet, J P; Bittel, J; Herry, J P; Savourey, G; Le Trong, J L; Auvert, J F; Janin, C

    1992-10-01

    Climbing Mount Everest needs an acclimatization period of 3 to 4 weeks between 3000 and 6000 m. In order to reduce this period of time spent in dangerous conditions, an experience of pre-acclimatization was performed with 5 elite alpinists (4 male, 1 female), aged 30 +/- 4 yrs (mean +/- SD), before their attempt to climb Mount Everest. Subjects first remained one week on Mont-Blanc (between 4350 and 4807 m), then spent a total of 38 hours in a hypobaric chamber (in 4 consecutive days) from 5000 to 8500 m standard altitude. Then, they flew to Kathmandu and reached 7800 m five days only after leaving the base camp. The pre-acclimatization period showed a 12% increase in hemoglobin concentration, and no change in ventilatory response to hypoxia. Arterial oxygen saturation at submaximal exercise in hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.115) increased from 75 +/- 4 to 82 +/- 3%, probably because of an efficient ventilatory acclimatization. On Mount Everest, the speed of ascent was very high (5600 m of altitude gain in 6 days), knowing that in conventional expeditions, 12 to 32 days are generally necessary to reach, safe, the same altitude. In conclusion, pre-acclimatization seems to have triggered efficient mechanisms which allowed climbers to save 1 to 3 weeks of time in mountain conditions.

  8. Microbial community structure in moraine lakes and glacial meltwaters, Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqin; Yao, Tandong; Jiao, Nianzhi; Kang, Shichang; Zeng, Yonghui; Huang, Sijun

    2006-12-01

    The bacterial diversity and abundance in two moraine lakes and two glacial meltwaters (5140, 5152, 5800 and 6350 m above sea level, respectively) in the remote Mount Everest region were examined through 16S rRNA gene clone library and flow cytometry approaches. In total, 247 clones were screened by RFLP and 60 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained, belonging to the following groups: Proteobacteria (8% alpha subdivision, 21% beta subdivision, and 1% gamma subdivision), Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides (CFB) (54%), Actinobacteria (4%), Planctomycetes (2%), Verrucomicrobia (2%), Fibrobacteres (1%) and Eukaryotic chroloplast (3%), respectively. The high dominance of CFB distinguished the Mount Everest waters from other mountain lakes. The highest bacterial abundance and diversity occurred in the open moraine lake at 5152 m, and the lowest in the glacial meltwater at 6350 m. Low temperature at high altitude is considered to be critical for component dominancy. At the same altitude, nutrient availability plays a role in regulating population structure. Our results also show that the bacteria in Mount Everest may be derived from different sources.

  9. Results of groundwater monitoring and vegetation sampling at Everest, Kansas, in 2009 .

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-05-13

    In April 2008, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) conducted groundwater sampling for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the existing network of monitoring points at Everest, Kansas (Argonne 2008). The objective of the 2008 investigation was to monitor the distribution of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater previously identified in CCC/USDA site characterization and groundwater sampling studies at Everest in 2000-2006 (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The work at Everest is being undertaken on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The findings of the 2008 investigation were as follows: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders demonstrated a consistent pattern of groundwater flow - and inferred contaminant migration - to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) The range of concentrations and the areal distribution of carbon tetrachloride identified in the groundwater at Everest in April 2008 were generally consistent with previous results. The results of the 2008 sampling (reflecting the period from 2006 to 2008) and the earlier investigations at Everest (representing the period from 2000 to 2006) show that no significant downgradient extension of the carbon tetrachloride plume occurred from 2000 to 2008. (3) The slow contaminant migration indicated by the monitoring data is qualitatively consistent with the low groundwater flow rates in the Everest aquifer unit estimated previously on the basis of site-specific hydraulic testing (Argonne 2006a,b). (4) The April 2008 and earlier sampling results demonstrate that the limits of the plume have been

  10. The physiologic cipher at altitude: telemedicine and real-time monitoring of climbers on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satava, R; Angood, P B; Harnett, B; Macedonia, C; Merrell, R

    2000-01-01

    Advanced wearable biosensors for vital-signs monitoring (physiologic cipher) are available to improve quality of healthcare in hospital, nursing home, and remote environments. The objective of this study was to determine reliability of vital-signs monitoring systems in extreme environments. Three climbers were monitored 24 hours while climbing through Khumbu Icefall. Data were transmitted to Everest Base Camp (elevation 17,800 feet) and retransmitted to Yale University via telemedicine. Main outcome measures (location, heart rate, skin temperature, core body temperature, and activity level) all correlated through time-stamped identification. Two of three location devices functioned 100% of the time, and one device failed after initial acquisition of location 75% of the time. Vital-signs monitors functioned from 95%-100% of the time, with the exception of one climber whose heart-rate monitor functioned 78% of the time. Due to architecture of automatic polling and data acquisition of biosensors, no climber was ever without a full set of data for more than 25 minutes. Climbers were monitored continuously in real-time from Mount Everest to Yale University for more than 45 minutes. Heart rate varied from 76 to 164 beats per minute, skin temperature varied from 5 to 10 degrees C, and core body temperature varied only 1-3 degrees C. No direct correlation was observed among heart rate, activity level, and body temperature, though numerous periods suggested intense and arduous activity. Field testing in the extreme environment of Mount Everest demonstrated an ability to track in real time both vital signs and position of climbers. However, these systems must be more reliable and robust. As technology transitions to commercial products, benefits of remote monitoring will become available for routine healthcare purposes.

  11. The 1996 Mount Everest tragedy: contemplation on group process and group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Lorraine; Nelson, Debra

    2003-07-01

    In May 1996, one of the most tragic Mt. Everest climbing seasons was about to unfold, and five climbers would perish in the "Death Zone" miles above the earth's surface. This article considers the events from a group dynamic and group process perspective in an attempt to understand what might have been happening to the group members. We summarize the events through the writings of two chroniclers. We then discuss creating the group, leadership, diversity and subgrouping, scapegoating, and multiple interpretations through an interpersonalist/psychodynamic framework.

  12. [Diet for the first expedition of Soviet climbers to Mount Everest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belakovskiĭ, M S; Voskoboĭnikov, V A; Guliaev, V N; Zakharenko, T S; Senkevich, Iu A

    1984-01-01

    Biomedical requirements for the diets to be used by the Soviet mountaineers during their Everest expedition have been determined, employing the experience of Soviet mountaineers who have ascended the highest summits in this country, dietary data accumulated by the mountaineers who have conquered the Himalaya Mountains and the Karakoram Range, as well as current concepts of human physiology and biochemistry in highlands. This paper presents the major nutritional parameters of the diets and the arrangement of meals. The Soviet mountaineers were on the whole happy with the diets and showed no disorders in the health state, gastrointestinal system or digestive function that can be of nutritional origin.

  13. The EVER-EST Virtual Research Environment for the European Volcano Supersites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, S.; Trasatti, E.; Rubbia, G.; Romaniello, V.; Marelli, F.

    2017-12-01

    EVER-EST (European Virtual Environment for Research - Earth Science Themes) is an European H2020 project (2015-2018) aimed at the creation of a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) for the Earth Sciences. The VRE is intended to enhance the ability to collaborate and share knowledge and experience among scientists. One of the innovations of the project is the exploitation of the "Research Object" concept (http://www.rohub.org). Research Objects encapsulate not only data and publications, but also algorithms, codes, results, and workflows that can be stored, shared and re-used. Four scientific communities are involved in the EVER-EST project: land monitoring, natural hazards, marine biology, and the GEO Geohazard Supersites community (http://www.earthobservations.org/gsnl.php). The latter is represented in the project by INGV and the University of Iceland, and has provided user requirements to tailor the VRE to the common needs of the worldwide Supersite communities. To develop and test the VRE we have defined user scenarios and created Research Objects embedding research activities and workflows on the Permanent Supersites Campi Flegrei, Mount Etna and Icelandic Volcanoes (http://vm1.everest.psnc.pl/supersites/). While these Supersites are test sites for the platform, during the last year of the project other Supersites may also be involved to demonstrate the added value of the collaborative environment in research activities aiming to support Disaster Risk Reduction. Using the VRE, scientists are able to collaborate with colleagues located in different parts of the world, in a simple and effective way. This includes being able to remotely access and share data, research results and ideas, to carry out training sessions and discussions, to compare different results and models, and to synthesize many different pieces of information in a single consensus product to be disseminated to end-users. In particular, a further need of the Supersite scientists, which can be

  14. Experimental physiology, Everest and oxygen: from the ghastly kitchens to the gasping lung

    OpenAIRE

    HEGGIE, VANESSA

    2012-01-01

    Often the truth value of a scientific claim is dependent on our faith that laboratory experiments can model nature. When the nature that you are modelling is something as large as the tallest terrestrial mountain on earth, and as mysterious (at least until 1953) as the reaction of the human body to the highest point on the earth's surface, mapping between laboratory and ?real world? is a tricky process. The so-called ?death zone? of Mount Everest is a liminal space; a change in weather could ...

  15. High-resolution 3D modelling and visualization of Mount Everest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Armin; Murai, Shunji

    In the year 1988, a new topographical map 1:50,000 of the Mount Everest region was published by the National Geographic Society. The full map content was derived from aerial images of scale 1:35,000, acquired in a 1984 photogrammetric flight. This highly acclaimed topographical map, produced with Swiss photogrammetric and cartographic know-how, serves until nowadays as an important work of reference. We took the analogue data (images, contours), converted them into digital form through scanning, and produced a texture-mapped 3D computer model. With a DTM of 10 m grid-size and natural texture pixel-size of 1 m this model is currently the best dataset available for an area of 25 by 25 km 2 around the summit of Mount Everest. This paper reports about the production procedure of the model and shows some high-resolution photorealistic visualization results. The dataset has been used in the meantime by cartographers and animation experts for the production of new map-related visualization products and is much sought after by scientists of various disciplines.

  16. Telescoping of isotherms beneath the South Tibetan Detachment System, Mount Everest Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, R. D.; Jessup, M. J.; Searle, M. P.; Francsis, M. K.; Waters, D. J.; Cottle, J. M.

    2011-11-01

    Petrologic and microstructural/crystal fabric data indicate that isotherms recorded in Greater Himalayan Series (GHS) schists and gneisses in the footwall to the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) have undergone extreme telescoping during penetrative flow associated with southward extrusion of the GHS. In the Rongbuk Valley, to the north of Mount Everest, we have made three vertical sampling traverses from the STDS down into the GHS and estimated temperatures associated with penetrative deformation using the opening angles of quartz c-axis fabrics measured on dynamically recrystallized grains. From north to south, the deformation temperature data indicate apparent thermal field gradients of 369, 385 and 420 °C per km for our three traverses, traced over a maximum vertical sampling distance of 0.5 km. Adopting a differential flow path model, simple geometric analysis using sections drawn parallel to the local transport direction indicates that detachment-parallel transport magnitudes of 25-170 km are needed to explain the extreme telescoping of isotherms in the immediate footwall to the STDS, depending on assumed original geothermal gradient, dip of detachment, etc. These particle transport estimates are similar to those previously calculated from barometry data of GHS rocks in the Everest region and are compatible with channel flow models for extrusion and exhumation of the GHS.

  17. Critical discussion on the "observed" water balances of five sub-basins in the Everest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, P.; Eeckman, J.; Nepal, S.; Delclaux, F.; Wagnon, P.; Brun, F.; Koirala, D.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrometeorological components of five Dudh Koshi River sub-basins on the Nepalese side of the Mount Everest have been monitored during four hydrological years (2013-2017), with altitudes ranging from 2000 m to Everest top, areas between 4.65 and 1207 km², and proportions of glaciated areas between nil and 45%. This data set is completed with glacier mass balance observations. The analysis of the observed data and the resulting water balances show large uncertainties of different types: aleatory, epistemic or semantic, following the classification proposed by Beven (2016). The discussion is illustrated using results from two modeling approaches, physical (ISBA, Noilhan and Planton, 1996) and conceptual (J2000, Krause, 2001), as well as large scale glacier mass balances obtained by the way of a recent remote sensing processing method. References: Beven, K., 2016. Facets of uncertainty: epistemic uncertainty, non-stationarity, likelihood, hypothesis testing, and communication. Hydrological Sciences Journal 61, 1652-1665. doi:10.1080/02626667.2015.1031761 Krause, P., 2001. Das hydrologische Modellsystem J2000: Beschreibung und Anwendung in groen Flueinzugsgebieten, Schriften des Forschungszentrum Jülich. Reihe Umwelt/Environment; Band 29. Noilhan, J., Planton, S., 1989. A single parametrization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Monthly Weather Review 536-549.

  18. Oxygen transport and cardiovascular function at extreme altitude: lessons from Operation Everest II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J. R.; Reeves, J. T.; Groves, B. M.; Wagner, P. D.; Alexander, J. K.; Hultgren, H. N.; Cymerman, A.; Houston, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Operation Everest II was designed to examine the physiological responses to gradual decompression simulating an ascent of Mt Everest (8,848 m) to an inspired PO2 of 43 mmHg. The principal studies conducted were cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular-skeletal and metabolic responses to exercise. Eight healthy males aged 21-31 years began the "ascent" and six successfully reached the "summit", where their resting arterial blood gases were PO2 = 30 mmHg and PCO2 = 11 mmHg, pH = 7.56. Their maximal oxygen uptake decreased from 3.98 +/- 0.2 L/min at sea level to 1.17 +/- 0.08 L/min at PIO2 43 mmHg. The principal factors responsible for oxygen transport from the atmosphere to tissues were (1) Alveolar ventilation--a four fold increase. (2) Diffusion from the alveolus to end capillary blood--unchanged. (3) Cardiac function (assessed by hemodynamics, echocardiography and electrocardiography)--normal--although maximum cardiac output and heart rate were reduced. (4) Oxygen extraction--maximal with PvO2 14.8 +/- 1 mmHg. With increasing altitude maximal blood and muscle lactate progressively declined although at any submaximal intensity blood and muscle lactate was higher at higher altitudes.

  19. Arterial blood gases and oxygen content in climbers on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocott, Michael P W; Martin, Daniel S; Levett, Denny Z H; McMorrow, Roger; Windsor, Jeremy; Montgomery, Hugh E

    2009-01-08

    The level of environmental hypobaric hypoxia that affects climbers at the summit of Mount Everest (8848 m [29,029 ft]) is close to the limit of tolerance by humans. We performed direct field measurements of arterial blood gases in climbers breathing ambient air on Mount Everest. We obtained samples of arterial blood from 10 climbers during their ascent to and descent from the summit of Mount Everest. The partial pressures of arterial oxygen (PaO(2)) and carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)), pH, and hemoglobin and lactate concentrations were measured. The arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), bicarbonate concentration, base excess, and alveolar-arterial oxygen difference were calculated. PaO(2) fell with increasing altitude, whereas SaO(2) was relatively stable. The hemoglobin concentration increased such that the oxygen content of arterial blood was maintained at or above sea-level values until the climbers reached an elevation of 7100 m (23,294 ft). In four samples taken at 8400 m (27,559 ft)--at which altitude the barometric pressure was 272 mm Hg (36.3 kPa)--the mean PaO(2) in subjects breathing ambient air was 24.6 mm Hg (3.28 kPa), with a range of 19.1 to 29.5 mm Hg (2.55 to 3.93 kPa). The mean PaCO(2) was 13.3 mm Hg (1.77 kPa), with a range of 10.3 to 15.7 mm Hg (1.37 to 2.09 kPa). At 8400 m, the mean arterial oxygen content was 26% lower than it was at 7100 m (145.8 ml per liter as compared with 197.1 ml per liter). The mean calculated alveolar-arterial oxygen difference was 5.4 mm Hg (0.72 kPa). The elevated alveolar-arterial oxygen difference that is seen in subjects who are in conditions of extreme hypoxia may represent a degree of subclinical high-altitude pulmonary edema or a functional limitation in pulmonary diffusion. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  20. Symptoms of infection and altitude illness among hikers in the Mount Everest region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, D R

    1995-02-01

    Symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) and infection were recorded daily in 283 hikers walking the Mount Everest base camp trek in the Nepal Himalaya. Some 57% of subjects developed AMS, and 87% experienced at least one symptom of infection during the study period. Coryza (75%), cough (42%), sore throat (39%), and diarrhea (36%) were especially prevalent. All symptoms of infection were more prevalent among those with AMS. The incidence of AMS was greater among those with more symptoms of infection (p = 0.00004), and the number of symptoms of infection experienced with positively correlated with AMS score (rs = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.33 to 0.52). These results suggest that symptoms of infection are common at high altitude and are associated with a higher incidence of AMS. People with infections should ascend at a slower rate at high altitude.

  1. Mountain sickness, retinal haemorrhages, and acclimatisation on Mount Everest in 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, C; Duff, J

    1976-08-28

    During the 1975 British Everest Expedition, which made the first ascent of the south-west face, observations were made in relation to mountain sickness and the appearance of retinal changes. Two Sherpas with cerebral oedema and one Briton with pulmonary oedema were treated. Retinal haemorrhages occurred in four out of six Britons who were newcomers to altitudes over 6000 m (19 685 ft) but in only two out of 14 Britons who had previously visited these altitudes. Intraocular pressures during ascent to 6000 m were within normal limits. The relevance of the ocular findings to acclimatisation in previous years was examined, the results supporting the hypothesis of a "carry-over" effect from previous visits to high altitude.

  2. High Himalayan meteorology: Weather at the South Col of Mount Everest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. W. K.; Semple, John L.

    2004-09-01

    Mount Everest is often referred to as the earth's `third' pole. As such it is relatively inaccessible and little is known about its meteorology. In 1998, a portable weather station was operated at the mountain's South Col, elevation 7,986 m. We believe that this represents the highest elevation at which continuous weather data has ever been collected and thus represents a valuable dataset with which to investigate the meteorology of the high Himalaya. In this paper, we compare the observations with reanalyses from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. We find that both reanalyses capture much of the synoptic-scale variability in the temperature and pressure at the South Col site, especially in the pre-monsoon season. Furthermore, we show that an observed weather event was the result of convection associated with a jet streak and an intrusion of stratospheric air into the upper-troposphere.

  3. Effects of altitude on atrial natriuretic peptide: the Bicentennial Mount Everest Expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunny, T J; van Gelder, J; Gordon, R D; Klemm, S A; Hamlet, S M; Finn, W L; Carney, G M; Brand-Maher, C

    1989-04-01

    1. Overnight recumbent atrial natriuretic peptide levels were significantly elevated in all ten subjects of the Australian Bicentennial Mount Everest Expedition during the first week at 5400 m, during acclimatization. 2. Twenty-four hour urine volume and urine sodium increased markedly at altitude. 3. Plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone levels decreased significantly at altitude. 4. No significant changes in plasma cortisol, plasma sodium or potassium, body temperature, systolic or diastolic blood pressure or heart rate were observed. 5. Although it was impossible to control or measure salt and water intake during the study, results suggest that atrial natriuretic peptide may be important in the reduction in renin and aldosterone levels and in the diuresis and natriuresis necessary to adapt to hypoxia at altitude.

  4. High-altitude mountaineering and brain function: neuropsychological testing of members of a Mount Everest expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, G W; Pajurkova, E M; Lee, R G

    1989-02-01

    Concern has been raised regarding the possibility that hypoxic conditions encountered during high-altitude mountaineering may have lasting harmful effects on the human brain. Members of an expedition to Mount Everest completed a series of neuropsychological tests before and after the expedition. Exposure to altitudes above 7,200 m was limited to a maximum of four consecutive nights, separated by rest periods at lower altitudes. No significant decline in performance was observed on any test. The subjects also completed a short series of tests at different altitudes during the expedition. No significant deterioration was observed at altitudes up to 7,500 m. There do not appear to be lasting harmful effects on brain function under these conditions.

  5. Vertical air mass exchange driven by the local circulation on the northern slope of Mount Everest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libo; Zou, Han; Ma, Shupo; Li, Peng; Zhu, Jinhuan; Huo, Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    To better understand vertical air mass exchange driven by local circulation in the Himalayas, the volume flux of air mass is estimated in the Rongbuk Valley on the northern slope of Mount Everest, based on a volume closure method and wind-profiler measurements during the HEST2006 campaign in June 2006. Vertical air mass exchange was found to be dominated by a strong downward mass transfer from the late morning to late night. The average vertical air volume flux was 0.09 m s-1, which could be equivalent to a daily ventilation of 30 times the enclosed valley volume. This vertical air mass exchange process was greatly affected by the evolution of the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM), with a strong downward transfer during the SASM break stage, and a weak transfer during the SASM active stage.

  6. Chemical characterization of biomass fuel particulate deposits and ashes in households of Mt. Everest region (NEPAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ielpo, Pierina; Fermo, Paola; Comite, Valeria; Mastroianni, Domenico; Viviano, Gaetano; Salerno, Franco; Tartari, Gianni

    2016-12-15

    During a sampling campaign, carried out during June 2012, inside some traditional households located in four villages (Phakding, Namche, Pangboche and Tukla) of Mt. Everest region in southern part of the central Himalaya (Nepal), particulate matter (PM) depositions and ashes have been collected. Moreover, outdoor PM depositions have also been analyzed. Chemical characterization of PM depositions and ashes for major ions, organic carbon, elemental carbon (EC), metal content and PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) allowed identifying, as major contributes to indoor PM, the following sources: biomass burning, cooking and chimney ashes. These sources significantly affect outdoor PM depositions: in-house biomass burning is the major source for outdoor EC and K + as well as biomass burning and cooking activities are the major sources for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mount Everest: a space analogue for speech monitoring of cognitive deficits and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip; Morey, Angie; Hochstadt, Jesse; Larson, Mara; Mather, Sandra

    2005-06-01

    In deep-space missions, the basal ganglia and hippocampus, subcortical structures of the brain that play critical roles in motor activity, cognition, and memory, will be vulnerable to damage from cosmic rays. These metabolically active structures are also sensitive to damage arising from the low oxygen content of air at extreme altitudes. We have, therefore, used Mount Everest as an analogue for deep space, where astronauts will be subject to danger and stress as well as neural damage. We can ethically obtain data because our climber-subjects already intend to climb Mt. Everest. We record speech and test cognitive and linguistic performance before, during, and after exposure to hypoxic conditions. From these data we have derived and validated computer-implemented acoustic voice measures that track slight as well as profound cognitive impairment. Vowel duration and speech motor sequencing errors increase as climbers ascend, reflecting degraded basal ganglia activity. These metrics detect deficits in language comprehension and the ability to change plans in changing circumstances. Preliminary analyses also reveal memory deficits reflecting hippocampal damage. Our speech metrics are unobtrusive and do not reveal the content of a verbal message; they could be derived automatically, allowing space crews to detect subtle motor and cognitive deficits and invoke countermeasures before performance is profoundly impaired. In future work we will be validating the voice metrics of stress in collaboration with the Dinges NSBRI laboratory study of task-induced stress. Our procedures can also be applied in general aviation and in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, and other neurological disorders.

  8. Scenario selection procedures in the framework of the CEC EVEREST project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.; Lidove, S.; Escalier Des Orres, P.; Martens, K.; Prij, J.

    1993-01-01

    In the framework of the EVEREST project directed by the Commission of the European Communities, five organization involved in waste management have harmonized their methodologies for selecting a final set of scenarios to be considered for sensitivity analysis studies associated with safety assessment of deep nuclear waste repositories. Three types of rock formation are being considered: clay, granite and salt. The systematic scenario approach in its different forms has been chosen by the regulatory authorities of most countries involved in the project. This approach recommends a detailed and well documented step by step procedure leading to a limited set of well characterized scenarios covering all aspects of the possible future events or combinations of events affecting the repository site. Following this general line, different logical schemes have been chosen and used by the parties involved in the project. The independent initiating event methodology (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion de Dechets Radioactifs and Institut de protection et de Surete Nucleaire, France) is based on the production of a limited list of about twenty independent initiating events with associated induced events and processes. The PROSA methodology (Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland; CEN/SCK, Belgium), which is based on a variant of the 'top-down' approach, starts from a comprehensive list of about 150 features, events and processes which can be associated with specific states of the barriers composing the system. The transport mechanism methodology approach (Gesellschaft fuer Reacktorsicherheit, Germany) is based on the selection of nuclide transport mechanisms combined with the entities which have an influence on these mechanisms. These schemes result in a final list of scenarios which are quite similar for the same site and rock formation. In the framework of EVEREST these scenarios are treated in a qualitative or semiquantitative manner or are analysed in detail with the associated

  9. Demo 94. Campana de vacío : hinchar un globo sin soplar y cocer un huevo en el Everest

    OpenAIRE

    Garro Martínez, Núria

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: a) Hinchar un globo sin soplar: Experimentar la relación entre el volumen y la presión de los gases. Demostrar que es posible hinchar un globo sin insuflar aire en su interior, reduciendo la presión (atmosférica). b) Cocer un huevo en el Everest: Comprobar la disminución del punto de ebullición del agua al reducir la presión (atmosférica)

  10. Relative dating of Quaternary moraines, Rongbuk valley, Mount Everest, Tibet: Implications for an ice sheet on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Douglas W.; Cheng, Kang Jian

    1991-07-01

    Relative-dating studies applied to high-altitude moraines (5000-5500 m) in the Rongbuk valley on the northern flank of Mt. Everest reveal strong contrasts in the weathering characteristics of the boulders exposed along moraine crests. These differences serve to define three intervals of major Pleistocene glaciation that, on the basis of the degree of weathering, are interpreted to extend back to at least the penultimate glaciation and probably encompass at least one still older glaciation. Either interpretation indicates that some of these moraines are considerably older than their previously assigned ages. The magnitude of equilibrium-line lowering during Neoglacial and late Pleistocene times is calculated to be ca. 50-100 and 350-450 m, respectively. The data described here are incompatible with the recently proposed model ( Kuhle, 1987) for large-scale ice-sheet development on the Tibetan Plateau. The reconstructed equilibrium-line lowering in the Everest region is only 30% of that cited in the ice-sheet model. Moreover, the flow patterns and geometry of the former Rongbuk glaciers are in opposition to those proposed by the model. Based on the data from the Everest region, it appears that valley glaciation, rather than ice-sheet growth, characterized the southern margin of the Tibetan Plateau during the middle and late Pleistocene glaciations.

  11. Impaired glucose regulation in a Sherpa indigenous population living in the Everest region of Nepal and in Kathmandu Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhamo, Sherpa Y; Supamai, Soonthornpun; Virasakdi, Chongsuvivatwong

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of impaired glucose regulation status in Sherpa adults living in the Everest area and in Kathmandu valley. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Chaurikharka village (Everest area) and Kathmandu city on 119 and 121 randomly selected individuals, aged 30-70 years. They were assessed on conventional risk factors for diabetes, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Based on the 2003 American Diabetes Association criteria, the prevalence in the Kathmandu city and Everest region of any impaired glucose regulation (IGR), isolated impaired fasting plasma glucose (isolated IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (isolated IGT), and combined isolated IFG and isolated IGT were 55.4% vs. 23.5%, 42.1% vs. 14.3%, 1.7% vs. 0.8%, 11.6 vs. 8.4%, respectively. Using the subjects with normal glucose tolerance as the referent group and after adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, calories, and waist circumference, the odds ratios for isolated IFG and combined isolated IFG and isolated IGT of living in the highland region were 0.19 (0.08-0.44) and 0.33 (0.09-1.18), respectively. Isolated IFG was more common among the lowland Sherpas. Unlike combined isolated IFG and isolated IGT, this isolated IFG difference could not be explained by the difference of conventional diabetes mellitus risk factors.

  12. Contribution of the EVER-EST project to the community of the Geohazard Supersites initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasatti, Elisa; Rubbia, Giuliana; Romaniello, Vito; Merucci, Luca; Corradini, Stefano; Spinetti, Claudia; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Borgstrom, Sven; Salvi, Stefano; Parks, Michelle; Dürig, Tobias; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2017-04-01

    The EVER-EST project (European Virtual Environment for Research - Earth Science Themes: a solution) is a H2020 project (2015-2018) aimed at the creation of a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) focused on the requirements of the Earth Science community. The VRE is intended to enhance the ability to collaborate, interoperate and share knowledge and experience between all relevant stakeholders, including researchers, monitoring teams and civil protection agencies. Among the innovations of the project is the exploitation of the "Research Object" concept (http://www.rohub.org), i.e. "digital objects that encapsulate essential information about experiments and investigations to facilitate their reusability, reproducibility and better understanding". Research Objects encapsulate not only data and publications, but also algorithms, codes, results, and workflows that can be stored, shared and re-used. The European subgroup of the GEO Geohazard Supersites community involved in the project (INGV, University of Iceland) has provided user requirements and user scenarios, as well as created Research Objects embedding research activities and workflows on the Permanent Supersites Campi Flegrei, Mount Etna and Icelandic Volcanoes. These Supersites play the role of test sites for the platform, but during the last year of the project other Supersites may also be involved, to demonstrate the added value of the collaborative environment in research activities aiming to support Disaster Risk Reduction. Using the VRE, the Supersite scientists should be able to collaborate with colleagues located in different parts of the world, in a simple and effective way. This includes being able to remotely access and share data, research results and ideas, to carry out training sessions and discussions, to compare different results and models, and to synthesize many different pieces of information in a single consensus product to be disseminated to end-users. A further need of the Supersite

  13. Classification of surface types using SIR-C/X-SAR, Mount Everest area, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Thomas P.; Painter, Thomas H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Shi, Jiancheng; Dozier, Jeff; Fielding, Eric

    1998-11-01

    Imaging radar is a promising tool for mapping snow and ice cover in alpine regions. It combines a high-resolution, day or night, all-weather imaging capability with sensitivity to hydrologic and climatic snow and ice parameters. We use the spaceborne imaging radar-C/X-band synthetic aperture radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) to map snow and glacial ice on the rugged north slope of Mount Everest. From interferometrically derived digital elevation data, we compute the terrain calibration factor and cosine of the local illumination angle. We then process and terrain-correct radar data sets acquired on April 16, 1994. In addition to the spectral data, we include surface slope to improve discrimination among several surface types. These data sets are then used in a decision tree to generate an image classification. This method is successful in identifying and mapping scree/talus, dry snow, dry snow-covered glacier, wet snow-covered glacier, and rock-covered glacier, as corroborated by comparison with existing surface cover maps and other ancillary information. Application of the classification scheme to data acquired on October 7 of the same year yields accurate results for most surface types but underreports the extent of dry snow cover.

  14. Increased soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels in peripheral blood from climbers on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Michel; Yaghi, Layale; Flajollet, Sébastien; Radanne-Krawice, Irène; Rouas-Freiss, Nathalie; Lugrin, Didier; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Carosella, Edgardo D; Moreau, Philippe

    2010-11-01

    Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is involved in maternal-fetal tolerance, transplant acceptance, and tumor escape from immunosurveillance, operating by inhibiting activity of T, antigen presenting cells (APC), and natural killer (NK) cells. HLA-G gene expression is modulated in vitro after hypoxic conditions, a situation evidenced during pregnancy and tumor progression. In extreme altitude, mountaineers are in hypoxic conditions that generate physiologic adaptative responses, some of them giving rise to pathologic signs. We performed measurements of plasma soluble HLA-G in six climbers before departure of the expedition and during their ascent to and descent from summit of Mount Everest, and in 3 Sherpas at 5300-6400 m. We found that HLA-G levels are upregulated during the ascent with a unique pattern in comparison with angiogenic/lymphangiogenic factors. Our data suggest that HLA-G has to be taken into account in the mechanisms participating in adaptation to high altitudes and reinforce hypoxia as an important factor in the regulation of HLA-G expression. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Angiogenic/lymphangiogenic factors and adaptation to extreme altitudes during an expedition to Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, M; Lugrin, D; Pagès, G

    2009-06-01

    To analyse the correlation between production of angiogenic [vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and interleukin 8 (IL-8)] and lymphangiogenic factors (VEGF-C and D) and adaptation to high altitude (>8000 m). Erythropoietin (EPO) served as a positive control. We analysed the percentage of oxygen saturation and the plasmatic contents of VEGF-A, C, D, IL-8 and EPO in seven mountaineers and four Sherpas during an expedition to Mount Everest. Acute mountain sickness was also evaluated using the Lake Louise score. Whereas VEGF-A, IL-8, VEGF-C and EPO were transiently up-regulated at 5000 m and decreased at the highest altitudes, VEGF-D remained elevated throughout the ascent. Sherpas had increased basal levels of VEGF-A, C, IL-8 and EPO and up-regulation of all the tested factors when they passed the altitude at which they lived. Our data suggest that expression of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors is up-regulated directly or indirectly by altitude-dependent hypoxia. Both factors could be involved in a mechanism of adaptation to high altitudes.

  16. A tale of two climbers: hypothermia, death, and survival on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G W Kent; Semple, John L

    2012-03-01

    Hypothermia is an acknowledged risk for those who venture into high altitude regions. There is however little quantitative information on this risk that can be used to implement mitigation strategies. Here we provide an analysis of the meteorological and hypothermic risk parameters, wind chill temperature, and facial frostbite time, during the spring 2006 Mount Everest climbing season. This season was marked by two high profile events where a solo climber was forced to spend the night in highly exposed conditions near the summit. One climber survived, while the other did not. Although this retrospective examination of two individual cases has admittedly a small sample size, and there are other factors that undoubtedly contributed to the difference in outcomes, we show that wind chill temperature and facial frostbite time experienced by the two climbers were dramatically different. In particular, the climber who did not survive experienced conditions that were approximately one standard deviation more severe that usual for that time of the year; while the climber who survived experienced conditions that were approximately one standard deviation less severe then usual. This suggests that the environmental conditions associated with hypothermia played an important role in the outcomes. This report confirms the importance of providing quantitative guidance to climbers as the risk of hypothermia on high mountains.

  17. Altitude ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in soils of Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Mei; Wang, Mu; Prosser, James I; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; He, Ji-Zheng

    2009-11-01

    To determine the abundance and distribution of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers in alpine and permafrost soils, 12 soils at altitudes of 4000-6550 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) were collected from the northern slope of the Mount Everest (Tibetan Plateau), where the permanent snow line is at 5800-6000 m a.s.l. Communities were characterized by real-time PCR and clone sequencing by targeting on amoA genes, which putatively encode ammonia monooxygenase subunit A. Archaeal amoA abundance was greater than bacterial amoA abundance in lower altitude soils (or=5700 m a.s.l.). Both archaeal and bacterial amoA abundance decreased abruptly in higher altitude soils. Communities shifted from a Nitrosospira amoA cluster 3a-dominated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community in lower altitude soils to communities dominated by a newly designated Nitrosospira ME and cluster 2-related groups and Nitrosomonas cluster 6 in higher altitude soils. All archaeal amoA sequences fell within soil and sediment clusters, and the proportions of the major archaeal amoA clusters changed between the lower altitude and the higher altitude soils. These findings imply that the shift in the relative abundance and community structure of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers may result from selection of organisms adapted to altitude-dependent environmental factors in elevated soils.

  18. Seasonal characteristic features of local circulation at a Himalayan valley near Mount Everest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lang; Ma, Yaoming

    2016-04-01

    For obtaining seasonal variation information of local circulation features and deeper understanding of wind system mechanism of the Rongbuk valley on the northern slope of Himalayas near by Mount Everest, Global Position System (GPS) radiosonde system was launched on June, 4-11, August, 20-26 and November, 22-28 in year 2014, which are considered to be the pre-monsoon, monsoon and non-monsoon periods respectively. Additionally, the wind profiler (WP) and radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) measurements were operated to observe the vertical structures of local wind system from May to August, 2014. Meanwhile, the surface wind data obtained from three different sites located at 4276m,5190m and 5830m above sea level in the Rongbuk valley are used to discuss the possible different glacier wind effect in different parts of Rongbuk Valley. Substantial findings include the existence of weak nighttime upslope flows during monsoon caused by the air temperature difference in the valley and the downward momentum transport from westerlies to surface wind during winter. During pre-monsoon, there are two circulations dominate the entire valley, e.g. mountain-valley wind system and glacier wind system, before about 16:00 Beijing Standard Time (BST).

  19. Changes in Imja Tsho in the Mount Everest region of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; McKinney, D. C.; Rounce, D. R.; Byers, A. C.

    2014-09-01

    Imja Tsho, located in the Sagarmatha (Everest) National Park of Nepal, is one of the most studied and rapidly growing lakes in the Himalayan range. Compared with previous studies, the results of our sonar bathymetric survey conducted in September of 2012 suggest that its maximum depth has increased from 90.5 to 116.3 ± 5.2 m since 2002, and that its estimated volume has grown from 35.8 ± 0.7 to 61.7 ± 3.7 million m3. Most of the expansion of the lake in recent years has taken place in the glacier terminus-lake interface on the eastern end of the lake, with the glacier receding at about 52 m yr-1 and the lake expanding in area by 0.04 km2 yr-1. A ground penetrating radar survey of the Imja-Lhotse Shar glacier just behind the glacier terminus shows that the ice is over 200 m thick in the center of the glacier. The volume of water that could be released from the lake in the event of a breach in the damming moraine on the western end of the lake has increased to 34.1 ± 1.08 million m3 from the 21 million m3 estimated in 2002.

  20. Present and former equilibrium-line altitudes near Mount Everest, Nepal and Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    New information on equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) of present and former glaciers in the Mount Everest area of eastern Nepal and southern Tibet has been derived from field mapping and interpretation of topographic maps and Landsat imagery. Present ELAs rise from south to north across the Himalayan Range from 5200 to 5800 m, as indicated by the altitudes of lowest cirque glaciers and highest lateral and medial moraines on valley glaciers. In contrast, ELAs during maximum late Pleistocene glaciation rose in altitude from 4300 to 5500 m across the range, as indicated by altitudes of lowest cirque floors and maximum extent of glacial deposits. Highest ELAs occurred on previously unrecognized ice caps that formerly covered extensive highland areas in Tibet north of the range crest. During four distinct Holocene glacial advances of subequal magnitude, ELAs were depressed about 30% as much as the late Pleistocene maximum depression. Depression of ELAs during the late Pleistocene glaciation was about twice as great south of the range crest (950 m) as north of it (400 m). Although the present northward decrease in precipitation causes ELAs to rise northward for 85 km at 7.1 m km-1, the gradient during maximum late Pleistocene glaciation was 11 m km-1. Such a great contrast in glacier response to climate change over a short distance is remarkable and probably reflects increased aridity on the Tibetan Plateau and increased climatic contrast across the Himalayan Range during glacial ages.

  1. Providing a non-deterministic representation of spatial variability of precipitation in the Everest region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eeckman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new representation of the effect of altitude on precipitation that represents spatial and temporal variability in precipitation in the Everest region. Exclusive observation data are used to infer a piecewise linear function for the relation between altitude and precipitation and significant seasonal variations are highlighted. An original ensemble approach is applied to provide non-deterministic water budgets for middle and high-mountain catchments. Physical processes at the soil–atmosphere interface are represented through the Interactions Soil–Biosphere–Atmosphere (ISBA surface scheme. Uncertainties associated with the model parametrization are limited by the integration of in situ measurements of soils and vegetation properties. Uncertainties associated with the representation of the orographic effect are shown to account for up to 16 % of annual total precipitation. Annual evapotranspiration is shown to represent 26 % ± 1 % of annual total precipitation for the mid-altitude catchment and 34% ± 3 % for the high-altitude catchment. Snowfall contribution is shown to be neglectable for the mid-altitude catchment, and it represents up to 44 % ± 8 % of total precipitation for the high-altitude catchment. These simulations on the local scale enhance current knowledge of the spatial variability in hydroclimatic processes in high- and mid-altitude mountain environments.

  2. ASTER measurement of supraglacial lakes in the Mount Everest region of the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, R.L.; Kargel, J.S.; Kieffer, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate an application of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images to detect and monitor supraglacial lakes on glaciers in the Mount Everest region in Tibet (Xizang) and Nepal. ASTER offers powerful capabilities to monitor supraglacial lakes in terms of (1) surface area, growth and disappearance (spatial resolution = 15 m), (2) turbidity (15 m resolution), and (3) temperature (90 m resolution). Preliminary results show an overall similarity of supraglacial lakes on three glaciers. Lakes have widely varying turbidity as indicated by color in visible/near-infrared bands 1-3, the largest lakes being bright blue (highly turbid), cold (near 0??C) and hydrautically connected with other lakes and supraglacial streams, while small lakes are mostly dark blue (relatively clear water), warmer (>4??C), and appear hydrautically isolated. High levels of turbidity in supraglacial lakes indicate high rates of meltwater input from streams or erosion of ice cliffs, and thus are an indirect measure relating to the activity and hydraulic integration of the lake with respect to other lakes and streams in the glacier.

  3. Effect of age on bone mineral density and micro architecture in the radius and tibia of horses: an Xtreme computed tomographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, A; Meier, D; Michel, S; Schmidlin, A; Held, L; Laib, A

    2008-01-25

    The effect of age on the bone mineral density and microarchitecture of the equine radius and tibia was investigated. Fifty-six bones from 15 horses aged four to 21 years were used. There were nine geldings and six mares, and none of the horses had any disease influencing bone properties. Xtreme computed tomography was used to evaluate a 9-mm segment of the diaphysis and metaphysis of each bone. The following variables were determined: length of the bone, circumference and diameter in the frontal and sagittal planes in the middle of the bone.Diaphysis: total volume, bone volume, bone volume ratio, slice area, bone area, marrow area, cortical and marrow thickness, bone mineral density, polar moment of inertia of the cortex.Metaphysis: total area, bone area, cortical bone area, cortical thickness, bone mineral density, bone mineral density in the cortex, bone mineral density in the trabecular region, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, polar moment of inertia of the metaphysis, polar moment of inertia of the cortex of the metaphysis. Bone density and microarchitecture were not affected by breed or gender. However, the microarchitecture varied with the age of the horse; the number of trabeculae decreased significantly and the distance between trabeculae increased significantly with increasing age. There were no significant differences between bones of the left and right limbs or between the radius and tibia. The variables investigated did not differ between geldings and mares. However, there were age-related changes in the microstructure of the bones. Further experimental studies are necessary to determine whether these changes reduce bone strength. Age-related changes in the bones were seen and may explain the higher incidence of fractures and fissures in older horses.

  4. Effect of age on bone mineral density and micro architecture in the radius and tibia of horses: An Xtreme computed tomographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidlin A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of age on the bone mineral density and microarchitecture of the equine radius and tibia was investigated. Fifty-six bones from 15 horses aged four to 21 years were used. There were nine geldings and six mares, and none of the horses had any disease influencing bone properties. Xtreme computed tomography was used to evaluate a 9-mm segment of the diaphysis and metaphysis of each bone. The following variables were determined: length of the bone, circumference and diameter in the frontal and sagittal planes in the middle of the bone. Diaphysis: total volume, bone volume, bone volume ratio, slice area, bone area, marrow area, cortical and marrow thickness, bone mineral density, polar moment of inertia of the cortex. Metaphysis: total area, bone area, cortical bone area, cortical thickness, bone mineral density, bone mineral density in the cortex, bone mineral density in the trabecular region, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, polar moment of inertia of the metaphysis, polar moment of inertia of the cortex of the metaphysis. Results Bone density and microarchitecture were not affected by breed or gender. However, the microarchitecture varied with the age of the horse; the number of trabeculae decreased significantly and the distance between trabeculae increased significantly with increasing age. There were no significant differences between bones of the left and right limbs or between the radius and tibia. Conclusion The variables investigated did not differ between geldings and mares. However, there were age-related changes in the microstructure of the bones. Further experimental studies are necessary to determine whether these changes reduce bone strength. Age-related changes in the bones were seen and may explain the higher incidence of fractures and fissures in older horses.

  5. Effect of age on bone mineral density and micro architecture in the radius and tibia of horses: An Xtreme computed tomographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, A; Meier, D; Michel, S; Schmidlin, A; Held, L; Laib, A

    2008-01-01

    Background The effect of age on the bone mineral density and microarchitecture of the equine radius and tibia was investigated. Fifty-six bones from 15 horses aged four to 21 years were used. There were nine geldings and six mares, and none of the horses had any disease influencing bone properties. Xtreme computed tomography was used to evaluate a 9-mm segment of the diaphysis and metaphysis of each bone. The following variables were determined: length of the bone, circumference and diameter in the frontal and sagittal planes in the middle of the bone. Diaphysis: total volume, bone volume, bone volume ratio, slice area, bone area, marrow area, cortical and marrow thickness, bone mineral density, polar moment of inertia of the cortex. Metaphysis: total area, bone area, cortical bone area, cortical thickness, bone mineral density, bone mineral density in the cortex, bone mineral density in the trabecular region, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, polar moment of inertia of the metaphysis, polar moment of inertia of the cortex of the metaphysis. Results Bone density and microarchitecture were not affected by breed or gender. However, the microarchitecture varied with the age of the horse; the number of trabeculae decreased significantly and the distance between trabeculae increased significantly with increasing age. There were no significant differences between bones of the left and right limbs or between the radius and tibia. Conclusion The variables investigated did not differ between geldings and mares. However, there were age-related changes in the microstructure of the bones. Further experimental studies are necessary to determine whether these changes reduce bone strength. Age-related changes in the bones were seen and may explain the higher incidence of fractures and fissures in older horses. PMID:18221526

  6. Glacier winds in the Rongbuk Valley, north of Mount Everest: 2. Their role in vertical exchange processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xuhui; Song, Yu; Zhu, Tong; Lin, Weili; Kang, Ling

    2007-06-01

    High ozone concentrations, combined with low humidity and strong, persistent glacier winds, were found at the surface of Rongbuk Valley, north of Mount Everest, with sharply increased ozone concentrations in their vertical profiles. Glacier winds and their roles in vertical exchange of the atmosphere were investigated numerically to understand the phenomena. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model was used to carry out numerical experiments (forward-in-time simulations) and footprint analysis (backward-in-time simulations). The meteorological data inputs for these experiments were derived from the Advanced Regional Prediction System. Results showed that glacier winds may lead to significant downward transport of 1.5-2 km during the daytime from the northern slopes of Mount Everest. Glacier winds could advance down through the valley, with strong upward motions shown as a rolling up in front of their leading edge. Combining with upslope winds at two sidewalls of the valley or up-valley winds of tributaries, the lifting flows produced strong mixing of the atmosphere to a depth of approximately 3 km. Three-dimensional footprints derived from the particle dispersion model for the observational site, Rongbuk Monastery, clearly show influence from the mountainside of Mount Everest and from the southern part of the valley. The vertical extension of influence was as much as 2-3 km. Good correlation was found between the influence height and the ozone concentration. All the simulation results strongly indicate that the glacier winds and their related vertical exchange processes "pump down" ozone-rich air from upper levels to the surface of the valley.

  7. Dr Arthur Wakefield on Mount Everest in 1922: "this has not been by any manner of means a picnic".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Ronald

    2003-08-01

    In 1922 Dr Arthur Wakefield, a general practitioner from Cumbria, reached the North Col of Mt Everest at 23,000 feet as a member of the first British team to attempt the summit. As well as being a climber, he provided medical care to his comrades, who included George Leigh Mallory and George Finch. Yet, in their accounts of the expedition, several climbers portrayed him as a nervous old man and a "complete passenger". However, his letters home and a small daily diary suggest he was a wise and caring physician. His motivation for joining this expedition at the age of 46 was somewhat different from that of his companions.

  8. Environmental conditions at the South Col of Mount Everest and their impact on hypoxia and hypothermia experienced by mountaineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kent; Semple, John; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo; Stocchi, Paolo

    2012-09-04

    Hypoxia and hypothermia are acknowledged risk factors for those who venture into high-altitude regions. There is, however, little in situ data that can be used to quantify these risks. Here, we use 7 months of continuous meteorological data collected at the South Col of Mount Everest (elevation 7,896 m above sea level) to provide the first in situ characterization of these risks near the summit of Mount Everest. This is accomplished through the analysis of barometric pressure, temperature and wind speed data collected by an automatic weather station installed at the South Col. These data were also used as inputs to parameterizations of wind chill equivalent temperature (WCT) and facial frostbite time (FFT). The meteorological data show clear evidence of seasonality, with evidence of pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon conditions. Low pressures, cold temperatures and high wind speeds characterize the pre- and post-monsoon periods with significant variability associated with the passage of large-scale weather systems. In contrast, the monsoon period is characterized by higher pressures, warmer temperatures and lower wind speeds with a pronounced reduction in variability. These environmental conditions are reflected in WCTs as low as -50°C and FFTs as short as 2 min during the pre- and post-monsoon periods. During the monsoon, the risk of cold injury is reduced with WCTs of order -20°C and FFTs longer than 60 min. The daily cycle in the various parameters is also investigated in order to assess the changes in conditions that would be experienced during a typical summit day. The post-monsoon period in particular shows a muted daily cycle in most parameters that is proposed to be the result of the random timing of large-scale weather systems. Our results provide the first in situ characterization of the risk of hypoxia and hypothermia on Mount Everest on daily, weekly and seasonal timescales, and provide additional confirmation as to the extreme environment

  9. The Disaster of 96: An educational way of explaining the physiological reactions produced as a consequence of exposure to low oxygen pressure at high altitude using the film Everest (2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán DOMÍNGUEZ VÍAS

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The 96 Mount Everest Disaster refers to the events that took place from May 10 to 11, 1996, when eight people caught in a storm were died, some during the ascent and, those who had already reached the Summit, while they descended. The film Everest (2015 faithfully reflects the previous symptoms that occurred during ascension, an important reason to understand the effects of altitude and low gas pressures on the human body. In this paper we address both problems, Everest can help students to understand and reflect on the challenges for body homeostasis that take place at great heights.

  10. Relationship of hypoxic ventilatory response to exercise performance on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, R B; Lahiri, S; Hackett, P H; Peters, R M; Milledge, J S; Pizzo, C J; Sarnquist, F H; Boyer, S J; Graber, D J; Maret, K H

    1984-06-01

    At very high altitude, exercise performance in the human sojourner may depend on a sufficient hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR). To study the relationship of HVR to exercise performance at high altitude, we studied HVR at sea level and 5,400 m and exercise ventilation at sea level, 5,400 m, and 6,300 m in nine members of the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest. The relationship of HVR between individuals was maintained when HVR was repeated after acclimatization to 5,400 m (P less than 0.05). There was a significant correlation in all subjects between HVR and ventilatory equivalent during exercise at sea level (r = 0.704, P less than 0.05). Subjects were then grouped into high (H) and low (L) HVR responders (ventilation increase to end-tidal PO2 of 40 Torr = 21.2 +/- 5.4 and 5.6 +/- 0.9 1 X min-1, respectively. At low and moderate levels of exercise, ventilation at sea level and after acclimatization to 6,300 m was higher in the high HVR group. At 6,300 m blood O2 saturation (Sao2%) decreased from rest to maximum exercise: H = 8.3 +/- 1.8%, L = 20.0 +/- 2.5% (P less than 0.01). HVR correlated inversely in all subjects with the decrease in Sao2 from rest to maximum exercise (P less than 0.05). Climbers with the highest HVR values reached and slept at higher altitudes. We conclude that the relative value of HVR in our group of climbers was not significantly altered after acclimatization; HVR predicts exercise ventilation at sea level and high altitude; the drop in Sao2% that occurs with exercise is inversely related to HVR; and sojourners with high HVR may perform better at extreme altitude.

  11. Glacial lake distribution in the Mount Everest region: Uncertainty of measurement and conditions of formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Thakuri, Sudeep; D'Agata, Carlo; Smiraglia, Claudio; Manfredi, Emanuela Chiara; Viviano, Gaetano; Tartari, Gianni

    2012-07-01

    This study provides a complete mapping (October 2008) of glacial lakes and debris-covered glaciers in the Mount Everest region. These types of analyses are essential in studies of the impact of recent climate change, and therefore the uncertainty of measurements is discussed with the aim of creating a reference study for use when glaciers and lakes are delineated using remote sensing imagery. Moreover, attention is focused on conditions related to the formation of lakes, which is the greatest evidence of the impact of climate change at high altitudes characterized by debris-covered glaciers. Regarding the formation process of supraglacial lakes, our findings confirm that the slope of the glacier where lakes are located is primarily responsible for the low flow velocity of this zone. Otherwise, this study is novel in its identification of a further boundary condition. The slope of the glacier upstream is able to influence both the low flow velocity and the high ablation rates at the glacier terminus. In fact, the imbalance between the two glacier zones generates the down-slope passage of debris, snow and ice. We found the slope of the glacier upstream to be inversely correlated with the relevant total surface of the lakes downstream. The multiple regression model developed in this study, considering the slopes of the two glacier areas distinctly, has been able to predict 90% of the supraglacial lake surfaces. Concerning the surfaces of lakes not directly connected with glaciers (unconnected glacial lakes), we found they are correlated with the dimensions of their drainage basin, whereas no correlation was found with the glacier cover in the basin. Considering that the evaporation/precipitation ratio at these altitudes is approximately 0.34, the evolution of these lakes appears to be a helpful sign for detecting the precipitation trend of these high-altitude regions.

  12. Twentieth century increase of atmospheric ammonia recorded in Mount Everest ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shichang; Mayewski, Paul A.; Qin, Dahe; Yan, Yuping; Zhang, Dongqi; Hou, Shugui; Ren, Jiawen

    2002-11-01

    An NH4+ record covering the period A.D. 1845-1997 was reconstructed using an 80.4 m ice core from East Rongbuk Glacier at an elevation of 6450 m on the northern slope of Mount Everest. Variations in NH4+ are characterized by a dramatic increase since the 1950s. The highest NH4+ concentrations occur in the 1980s. They are about twofold more than those in the first half of twentieth century. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis on the eight major ion (Na+, K+, Mg2+, NH4+, Ca2+, NO3-, SO42- and Cl-) series from this core indicates that NH4+ is loaded mainly on EOF3 (60% of NH4+ variance), suggesting that NH4+ has a unique signature. Instrumental sea level pressure (SLP) and regional temperatures are used to explore the relationship between NH4+ variations and both atmospheric circulation and natural source strength over Asia. Higher NH4+ concentrations are associated with an enhanced winter Mongolian High and a deepened summer Mongolian Low. A positive relationship also exists between NH4+ concentrations and regional temperature changes of the GIS Box 36 (Indian subcontinent), indicating that an increase in temperature may contribute to the strengthening of natural ammonia emissions (e.g., from plants and soils). A close positive correlation between NH4+ and acidic species (SO42- plus NO3-) concentrations suggests that a portion of the increase in NH4+ concentrations could be contributed by enhanced atmospheric acidification. Anthropogenic ammonia emissions from enhanced agricultural activities and energy consumption over Asia in concert with population increase since the 1950s appear also to be a significant factor in the dramatic increase of NH4+ concentrations during the last few decades.

  13. Sedimentological, geomorphological and dynamic context of debris-mantled glaciers, Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) region, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrey, Michael J.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Glasser, Neil F.; Reynolds, John M.; Richardson, Shaun J.; Clemmens, Samuel

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents the sediment, landform and dynamic context of four avalanche-fed valley glaciers (Khumbu, Imja, Lhotse and Chukhung) in the Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) region of Nepal. All four glaciers have a mantle of debris dominated by sandy boulder-gravel that suppresses melting to an increasing degree towards the snout, leading to a progressive reduction in the overall slope of their longitudinal profile. Prominent lateral-terminal moraine complexes, also comprising sandy bouldergravel, enclose the glaciers. These terminal moraines originally grew by accretion of multiple sedimentary facies of basal glacial and supraglacial origin, probably by folding and thrusting when the glaciers were more dynamic during the Little Ice Age. The four glaciers are in various stages of recession, and demonstrate a range of scenarios from down-wasting of the glacier tongue, through morainedammed lake development, to post-moraine-dam breaching. Khumbu Glacier is at the earliest stage of supraglacial pond formation and shows no sign yet of developing a major lake, although one is likely to develop behind its >250 m high composite terminal moraine. Imja Glacier terminates in a substantial body of water behind a partially ice-cored moraine dam (as determined from geophysical surveys), but morphologically appears unlikely to be an immediate threat. Chukhung Glacier already has a breached moraine and a connected debris fan, and therefore no longer poses a threat. Lhotse Glacier has an inclined, free-draining tongue that precludes hazardous lake development. From the data assembled, a conceptual model, applicable to other Himalayan glaciers, is proposed to explain the development of large, lateral-terminal moraine complexes and associated potentially hazardous moraine dams. - 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved .

  14. Conduit vessel blood flow during the trek to Mount Everest base camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Valerie; Nault, Patrice; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Forbes, Thomas L

    2011-12-01

    Hemodynamic changes in response to the hypoxic environment of high altitude are vascular bed-specific. The aim of the present study was to investigate diameter and blood flow changes in conduit vessels in response to hypobaric hypoxia. Eleven healthy subjects ascending Mount Everest to base camp participated in this study. Vessel diameter and blood velocity for brachial, carotid, common femoral, superficial femoral, and deep femoral arteries were measured by portable Doppler ultrasound. Blood flow was calculated from these values. Measurements were taken at sea level, at increasing altitudes on ascent to base camp (1310 m, 3470 m, 5330 m), and repeated on descent to lower altitude (1310 m). For all vessels except carotids, both vessel diameter and blood flow decreased between sea level and initial ascent to altitude, with subsequent persistence of these decreased values; there was no further significant change with continued ascent to higher altitude. Blood flow for all arteries (except carotids) increased significantly on descent to lower altitude, with an associated nonsignificant increase in velocity and decrease in diameter. This study showed that there is vasoconstriction of limb conduit vessels at altitude, which persists upon descent to lower altitude. Blood flow in these vessels also decreases with initial exposure to high altitude, yet increases when returning to lower altitude, reflecting variations in blood velocity. Carotid arteries responded differently to the stimulus of hypobaria than limb conduit vessels; there was no change in diameter seen on ascent or descent, but there was a progressive decrease in blood flow on ascent, with no change on subsequent descent. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Infiltration of meteoric water in the South Tibetan Detachment (Mount Everest, Himalaya): When and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gébelin, Aude; Jessup, Micah J.; Teyssier, Christian; Cosca, Michael A.; Law, Richard D.; Brunel, Maurice; Mulch, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The South Tibetan Detachment (STD) in the Himalayan orogen juxtaposes low-grade Tethyan Himalayan sequence sedimentary rocks over high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Himalayan crystalline core. We document infiltration of meteoric fluids into the STD footwall at 17-15 Ma, when recrystallized hydrous minerals equilibrated with low-δD (meteoric) water. Synkinematic biotite collected over 200 m of structural section in the STD mylonitic footwall (Rongbuk Valley, near Mount Everest) record high-temperature isotopic exchange with D-depleted water (δDwater = -150 ± 5‰) that infiltrated the ductile segment of the detachment most likely during mylonitic deformation, although later isotopic exchange cannot be definitively excluded. These minerals also reveal a uniform pattern of middle Miocene (15 Ma) 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages. The presence of low-δD meteoric water in the STD mylonitic footwall is further supported by hornblende and chlorite with very low δD values of -183‰ and -162‰, respectively. The δD values in the STD footwall suggest that surface-derived fluids were channeled down to the brittle-ductile transition. Migration of fluids from the Earth's surface to the active mylonitic detachment footwall may have been achieved by fluid flow along steep normal faults that developed during synconvergent extension of the upper Tethyan Himalayan plate. High heat flow helped sustain buoyancy-driven fluid convection over the timescale of detachment tectonics. Low δD values in synkinematic fluids are indicative of precipitation-derived fluids sourced at high elevation and document that the ground surface above this section of the STD had already attained similar-to-modern topographic elevations in the middle Miocene.

  16. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: Multi-centric results from EVEREST experience in large cohort of patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmetti, Giovanni Carlo, E-mail: giovanni.anselmetti@ircc.it [Interventional Radiology Unit, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Strada Provinciale No. 142, Km. 3, 95, 10060 Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Marcia, Stefano, E-mail: stemarcia@gmail.com [Radiology Unit, ASL8 Cagliari, SS. Trinità Hospital, Via Is Mirrionis 92, 09121 Cagliari (Italy); Saba, Luca, E-mail: lucasaba@tiscali.it [Radiology Unit, University of Cagliari, Policlinico Universitario, ss 554, Monserrato, 09127 Cagliari (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Unit, AORN Cardarelli, Via A. Cardarelli No. 9, 80131 Napoli (Italy); Bonaldi, Giuseppe, E-mail: bonaldi@mail.org [Neuroradiology Unit, Riuniti di Bergamo, Largo Barozzi, 124128 Bergamo (Italy); Carpeggiani, Paolo, E-mail: p.carpeggiani@ausl.mo.it [Neuroradiology Unit, Policlinico di Modena, Via Dal Pozzo 17, Modena (Italy); Marini, Stefano, E-mail: stemarini@gmail.com [Radiology Unit, University of Cagliari, San Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Via Ospedale 46, 09127 Cagliari (Italy); Manca, Antonio, E-mail: anto.manca@gmail.com [Interventional Radiology Unit, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Strada Provinciale No. 142, Km. 3, 95, 10060 Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Masala, Salvatore, E-mail: salva.masala@tiscali.it [Radiology Unit, Diagnostic Imaging Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate results and complications of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) performed in 6 different Italian Centres belonging to the European VErtebroplasty RESearch Team (E.VE.RES.T) in a large series of patients. Materials and methods: Follow-up was obtained in 4547 patients (3211 females and 1336 males; mean age 70.2 years) that underwent PV for a total of 13.437 treated vertebrae. Procedures were performed by using fluoroscopic guidance or combined CT-fluoroscopic guidance. All patients underwent PV in local anaesthesia except for second cervical vertebrae treated with a trans-oral approach that required general anaesthesia. Results: 4004 out of 4547 (88.0%) patients reported significant pain relief (difference > or = 2 point in pain evaluated with an 11-point visual analogue scale; p < 0.0001) within 48 h: an average of 7.7 ± 0.4 dropped to 1.8 ± 0.6 in the osteoporotic patients; 8.3 ± 0.4 to 2.4 ± 0.4 in metastases; 8.3 ± 0.4 to 1.7 ± 1.0 in myeloma; 6.2 ± 3.5 to 0.3 ± 0.2 in angioma and 7.4 ± 0.4 to 1.4 ± 0.9 in trauma. 430 osteoporotic patients (13%) were retreated for a subsequent fracture; in 302/430 patients (70.2%), the new fracture occurred in the contiguous vertebra. No major neurologic complications were reported and the most frequent minor complication was venous leakage (20.5%). Conclusions: This large series of patients confirms that percutaneous vertebroplasty is an effective and safe procedure in the treatment of vertebral fractures. Best results are obtained in the treatment of myeloma and trauma.

  17. Cardiac response to hypobaric hypoxia: persistent changes in cardiac mass, function, and energy metabolism after a trek to Mt. Everest Base Camp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holloway, Cameron J.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Murray, Andrew J.; Cochlin, Lowri E.; Codreanu, Ion; Hopwood, Naomi; Johnson, Andrew W.; Rider, Oliver J.; Levett, Denny Z. H.; Tyler, Damian J.; Francis, Jane M.; Neubauer, Stefan; Grocott, Michael P. W.; Clarke, Kieran; Grocott, Mike; Montgomery, Hugh; Levett, Denny; Martin, Daniel; Wilson, Mark; Windsor, Jeremy; Luery, Helen; Murray, Andrew; Stroud, Mike; Khosravi, Maryam; Wandrag, Liesl; Holloway, Cameron; Edwards, Lindsay; Ince, Can; Mythen, Monty; Jonas, Max; Imray, Chris; Newman, Stan; Stygal, Jan; Doyle, Patrick; Rodway, George; Howard, David; McMorrow, Roger; Ahuja, Vijay; Aref-Adib, Golnar; Burnham, Richard Dick; Chisholm, Amber; Coates, David; Cook, Debbie; Dhillon, Sundeep; Dougall, Christina; Duncan, Polly; Edsell, Mark; Evans, Lynn; Gardiner, Paul Bugs; Gunning, Paul; Hart, Nigel; Harrington, Jane; Harvey, John Jules; Hurlbut, Dan; van der Kaaij, Jildou; Kolfschoten, Nicoline Nikki; Luks, Andrew; Meale, Paula; Mitchell, Kay; Morgan, Gwen; Mythen, Michael Monty; O'Dwyer, Michael Mick; Pate, James Jim; Plant, Tracie; Pun, Matiram; Richards, Paul; Richardson, Alan; Simpson, Joanna Jo; Stroud, Callan; Vercueil, Andre; Cox, Mark; Morgan, Jonathan Jon; van Tulleken, Chris; van Tulleken, Alex; Szawarski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We postulated that changes in cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism may underlie the myocardial dysfunction caused by hypobaric hypoxia. Healthy volunteers (n=14) were studied immediately before, and within 4 d of return from, a 17-d trek to Mt. Everest Base Camp (5300 m). (31)P magnetic

  18. Beryllium-10 dating of Mount Everest moraines indicates a strong monsoon influence and glacial synchroneity throughout the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Robert C.; Owen, Lewis A.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Caffee, Marc W.

    2003-06-01

    Moraine successions in glaciated valleys south of Mount Everest provide evidence for at least eight glacial advances during the late Quaternary. Cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) surface exposure dating of moraine boulders defines the timing of each glacial advance and refines the previous glacial chronologies. The CRN data show that glaciation was most extensive during the early part of the last glacial (marine oxygen isotype stage [MIS] 3 and earlier), but limited during MIS 2 (the global Last Glacial Maximum) and the Holocene. A previously assumed Neoglacial advance is dated to 3.6 ± 0.3 ka and the CRN dates confirm a glacial advance ca. 1 ka. These results show that glaciations on the south side of Everest were not synchronous with the advance of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, yet glaciations within the Himalaya, the world's highest mountain belt, were synchronous during the late Quaternary. The existence of glacial advances during times of increased insolation suggests that enhanced moisture delivered by an active south Asian summer monsoon is largely responsible for glacial advances in this part of the Himalaya. These data allow us to quantify the importance of global climate change and monsoon influence on glaciation in the Himalaya.

  19. Final report : results of aquifer pumping and groundwater sampling at Everest, Kansas, in January-March 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-30

    On September 8-9, 2005, representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), and Argonne National Laboratory met at the KDHE's offices in Topeka to review the status of the CCC/USDA's environmental activities in Kansas. As a result of this meeting, the KDHE recommended several additional activities to augment the CCC/USDA's investigations at Everest, Kansas, and assist in the selection of remedial approaches to be evaluated as part of a Corrective Action Study (CAS) for this site. The requested actions included the following: (1) Construction of several additional interpretive cross sections illustrating the hydrogeologic setting along the apparent main plume migration pathway to the north-northwest of the former CCC/USDA facility, as well as in the vicinity of the Nigh property. (2) Installation of additional permanent monitoring wells, to better constrain the apparent western, northern, and northwestern margins of the existing groundwater plume. (3) Development of technical recommendations for a phased pumping study of the Everest aquifer unit in the area near and to the north of the Nigh property.

  20. Response of debris-covered glaciers in the Mount Everest region to recent warming, and implications for outburst flood hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, D. I.; Bolch, T.; Hands, K.; Gulley, J.; Luckman, A.; Nicholson, L. I.; Quincey, D.; Thompson, S.; Toumi, R.; Wiseman, S.

    2012-08-01

    In areas of high relief, many glaciers have extensive covers of supraglacial debris in their ablation zones, which alters both rates and spatial patterns of melting, with important consequences for glacier response to climate change. Wastage of debris-covered glaciers can be associated with the formation of large moraine-dammed lakes, posing risk of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs). In this paper, we use observations of glaciers in the Mount Everest region to present an integrated view of debris-covered glacier response to climate change, which helps provide a long-term perspective on evolving GLOF risks. In recent decades, debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region have been losing mass at a mean rate of ~ 0.32 m yr- 1, although in most cases there has been little or no change in terminus position. Mass loss occurs by 4 main processes: (1) melting of clean ice close to glacier ELAs; (2) melting beneath surface debris; (3) melting of ice cliffs and calving around the margins of supraglacial ponds; and (4) calving into deep proglacial lakes. Modelling of processes (1) and (2) shows that Everest-region glaciers typically have an inverted ablation gradient in their lower reaches, due to the effects of a down-glacier increase in debris thickness. Mass loss is therefore focused in the mid parts of glacier ablation zones, causing localised surface lowering and a reduction in downglacier surface gradient, which in turn reduce driving stress and glacier velocity, so the lower ablation zones of many glaciers are now stagnant. Model results also indicate that increased summer temperatures have raised the altitude of the rain-snow transition during the summer monsoon period, reducing snow accumulation and ice flux to lower elevations. As downwasting proceeds, formerly efficient supraglacial and englacial drainage networks are broken up, and supraglacial lakes form in hollows on the glacier surface. Ablation rates around supraglacial lakes are typically one or two

  1. Physicians on Mount Everest—A Clinical Account of the 1981 American Medical Research Expedition to Everest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnquist, Frank H.

    1983-01-01

    The American Medical Research Expedition to Everest had a wide variety of medical problems, ranging from leech bites to high-altitude pulmonary edema. Preventive measures, however, such as careful attention to ingesting only pure water and food at the lower elevations and adequate personal hydration, nutrition and rest at extremely high altitude minimized the morbidity suffered by the group. Prophylactic administration of doxycycline was effective in reducing the severity of diarrheal illness in the group. Every member of the expedition suffered upper respiratory tract infections and many other infections, some of which were resistant to all therapy until the patient moved down from high altitude. Despite careful acclimatization, several cases of acute mountain sickness occurred and required descent to a lower altitude for treatment. Frostbite was avoided entirely. Images PMID:6649596

  2. Plan for proposed aquifer hydraulic testing and groundwater sampling at Everest, Kansas, in January-February 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    On September 8-9, 2005, representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), and Argonne National Laboratory met at the KDHE's offices in Topeka to review the status of the CCC/USDA's environmental activities in Kansas. A key CCC/USDA goal for this meeting was to obtain KDHE input on the selection of possible remedial approaches to be examined as part of the Corrective Action Study (CAS) for this site. As a result of the September meeting, the KDHE recommended several additional activities for the Everest site, to further assist in selecting and evaluating remedial alternatives for the CAS. The requested actions included the following: (1) Construction of several additional interpretive cross sections to improve the depiction of the hydrogeologic characteristics affecting groundwater and contaminant movement along the apparent main plume migration pathway to the north-northwest of the former CCC/USDA facility, and in the vicinity of the Nigh property. (2) Identification of potential locations for several additional monitoring wells, to better constrain the apparent western and northwestern margins of the existing groundwater plume. (3) Development of technical recommendations for a stepwise pumping study of the Everest aquifer unit in the area near and to the north of the Nigh property. On October 21, 2005, Argonne issued a brief Cross Section Analysis (Argonne 2006a) addressing these concerns, on behalf of the CCC/USDA. This report includes the following: (1) Preliminary recommendations for the siting of three new monitoring wells, at locations identified by the KDHE. Argonne also suggested, however, that the installation and sampling of these wells be deferred until after completion of the CAS evaluation. (2) A proposed strategy for testing of the Everest aquifer unit near the Nigh property, involving initial test pumping of the former Nigh domestic

  3. Optic nerve sheath diameter, intracranial pressure and acute mountain sickness on Mount Everest: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, A I; Morris, D S; Owen, C G; Bron, A J; Roach, R C

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the association of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), as a correlate of intracranial pressure (ICP), with acute mountain sickness (AMS). Longitudinal cohort study of mountaineers from sea level to 6400 m. Mount Everest (North side). 13 mountaineers (10 men, 3 women; aged 23-52 years) on a British expedition to climb Mount Everest. ONSD was measured ultrasonically, 3 mm behind the globe using B scans recorded with an OTI-Scan 3D scanner (Ophthalmic Technologies, Canada). Serial binocular scans were recorded at sea level, and 2000, 3700, 5200 and 6400 m. All ONSDs were measured by a blinded observer. ONSD, AMS score (using the Lake Louise scoring system), heart rate, and oxygen saturation levels. All results were analysed by regression analysis with adjustment. ONSD was positively associated with increasing altitude above sea level (0.10 mm increase in ONSD per 1000 m, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.14 mm) and AMS score (0.12 mm per score, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.18 mm); further associations were found with resting heart rate (0.29 mm per 20 beats/min, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.41 mm) and oxygen saturations (0.20 mm per 10% decrease, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.29 mm). ONSD increases at high altitude, and this increase is associated with more severe symptoms of AMS. Given the linkage between ONSD and ICP, these results strongly suggest that intracranial pressure plays an important role in the pathophysiology of AMS.

  4. Evaluation of costs associated with tolvaptan-mediated length-of-stay reduction among heart failure patients with hyponatremia in the US, based on the EVEREST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiong, Jun R; Kim, Sonnie; Lin, Jay; Christian, Rudell; Dasta, Joseph F

    2012-01-01

    The Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) trial showed that tolvaptan use improved heart failure (HF) signs and symptoms without serious adverse events. To evaluate the potential cost savings associated with tolvaptan usage among hospitalized hyponatremic HF patients. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was used to estimate hospital cost and length of stay (LOS), for diagnosis-related group (DRG) hospitalizations of adult (age ≥18 years) HF patients with complications and comorbidities or major complications and comorbidities. EVEREST trial data for patients with hyponatremia were used to estimate tolvaptan-associated LOS reductions. A cost offset model was constructed to evaluate the impact of tolvaptan on hospital cost and LOS, with univariate and multivariate Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses. Tolvaptan use among hyponatremic EVEREST trial HF patients was associated with shorter hospital LOS than placebo patients (9.72 vs 11.44 days, respectively); 688,336 hospitalizations for HF DRGs were identified from the HCUP NIS database, with a mean LOS of 5.4 days and mean total hospital costs of $8415. Using an inpatient tolvaptan treatment duration of 4 days with a wholesale acquisition cost of $250 per day, the cost offset model estimated a LOS reduction among HF hospitalizations of 0.81 days and an estimated total cost saving of $265 per admission. Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analysis demonstrated that cost reduction associated with tolvaptan usage is consistent among variations of model variables. The estimated LOS reduction and cost savings projected by the cost offset model suggest a clinical and economic benefit to tolvaptan use in hyponatremic HF patients. The EVEREST trial data may not generalize well to the US population. Clinical trial patient profiles and relative LOS reductions may not be applicable to real-world patient

  5. Culturable bacteria in glacial meltwater at 6,350 m on the East Rongbuk Glacier, Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqin; Yao, Tandong; Jiao, Nianzhi; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Sijun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Kejuan; Liu, Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    Culturable bacteria in the glacial meltwater in the ablation zones of glacier at high altitude (6,350 m) on Mt Everest were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing. The obtained sequences revealed the presence of members of alpha, beta, and gamma-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, with the Actinobacteria dominant in the studied habitat. All 16S rRNA sequences were similar to previously determined sequences, ranging from 97 to 99% identical values. The strains isolated from meltwater were distinctly different from those recovered from a cryoconite hole and under glacier habitat. The majority of the isolates' nearest neighbors were from the permafrost, dust, soil, plant, and aqueous environments. The Biolog bioassay and growth test under different temperatures suggested that the culturable bacteria in glacial meltwater could be divided into three categories in terms of their survival strategies: Group I sensitive to temperature change but versatile in utilization of carbon substrates (capable of utilization of about 70% of the Biolog carbon substrates); Group II tolerant to variable temperature and less capable of carbon utilization (less than half of the Biolog carbon species can be used); Group III slow in growth and weak in carbon utilization (only a few Biolog carbon substrates can be used).

  6. Doppler study of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity and cerebral autoregulation during a simulated ascent of Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Minassian, A; Beydon, L; Ursino, M; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Richalet, J P

    2001-01-01

    To explore cerebral hemodynamics in 8 healthy volunteers in a hypobaric chamber up to the altitude of Mount Everest after a progressive stepwise decompression to 8,848 m. Physiological, clinical, and transcranial Doppler data were collected after at least 3 days at 5,000, 6,000, and 7,000 m and within 4 hours of reaching 8,000 m and returning to sea level. Three subjects were excluded at 8,000 and 8,848 m because of acute neurological deficits. Heart rate increased; mean arterial pressure remained stable; PaO2 and PaCO2 decreased with altitude; hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) increased; arterial O2 content decreased over 6,000 m; middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) increased only during acute exposure to 8,000 m; and the corresponding pulsatility (PI) and resistivity indices (RI) decreased over 5,000 m. PI and RI correlated with heart rate. The transient hyperemic response (THR) of MCAv to common carotid compression was depressed at 8,000 m. At 8,000 m, the increase in MCAv seemed to reflect the normal hemodynamic response to acute hypoxia. The decrease of THR at this altitude could be an indication of impaired cerebral autoregulation. The role of impaired cerebral autoregulation in the genesis of acute neurologic deficits, observed at 8,000 m and above in 3 subjects, remains speculative.

  7. Glacier winds in the Rongbuk Valley, north of Mount Everest: 1. Meteorological modeling with remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Zhu, Tong; Cai, Xuhui; Lin, Weili; Kang, Ling

    2007-06-01

    Persistent glacier winds blowing from noon to midnight in summer are present in the Rongbuk Valley, north of Mount Everest, with a maximum speed of 10 m s-1 and a vertical thickness as high as 1 km. These glacier winds may bring upper level atmosphere ozone to the surface, having a significant impact on the atmospheric environment. Such phenomena may be typical of the Tibetan Plateau, where most high mountains are covered by snow or glacier ice throughout the year. The Advanced Regional Prediction Model was used to simulate the down-valley flows, using realistic topography but neglecting synoptic winds. The modeling results agree well with the observations obtained in June 2002, revealing that the glacier winds are thermal flows primarily driven by the along-valley temperature gradient between the colder air over the glacier surface and the warmer air over surface areas covered by rock debris, which maintains air advection along the Rongbuk Valley. Downslope winds over the glacier slopes, especially from the western valley side, and the West Rongbuk Glacier, were forced by their inertia farther down into the valley and would intensify the glacier winds. The narrowing of the Rongbuk Valley could also speed up the glacier winds. Sensitivity tests showed that the detailed distribution of the Rongbuk Glacier, delineated by data from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus on Landsat 7, plays an important role in glacier winds development. The glacier winds could be much weaker in winter when the area is completely snow covered.

  8. Peak discharge estimates of glacial-lake outburst floods and ``normal'' climatic floods in the Mount Everest region, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenderelli, Daniel A.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2001-09-01

    Glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs) in the Mount Everest region of Nepal on 3 September 1977 and 4 August 1985 dramatically modified channels and valleys in the region by eroding, transporting, and depositing large quantities of sediment for tens of kilometers along their flood routes. Prior to this research, the GLOF discharges had not been determined and the hydrology of "normal" climatic floods (SHFFs: seasonal high flow floods) was not known. A one-dimensional step-backwater flow model was utilized, in conjunction with paleostage indicators, to estimate the peak discharges of the GLOFs and SHFFs and to reconstruct the hydrology and hydraulic conditions of the GLOFs at 10 reaches and SHFFs at 18 reaches. The most reliable GLOF and SHFF peak discharge estimates were upstream from constrictions where there was critical-depth control. The peak discharge of the 1977 GLOF at 8.6 km from the breached moraine was approximately 1900 m 3/s. At 7.1 km downstream from the breached moraine, the 1985 GLOF discharge was estimated at 2350 m 3/s. At 27 km downstream from the breached moraine, the 1985 GLOF attenuated to an estimated discharge of 1375 m 3/s. The peak discharges of SHFFs ranged from 7 to 205 m 3/s and were positively correlated with increasing drainage area. The GLOF discharges were 7 to 60 times greater than the SHFF discharges with the greatest ratios occurring near the breached moraines. The downstream decline in the ratio between the GLOF discharge and SHFF discharge is the result of the downstream attenuation of the GLOF and the increased discharge of the SHFF because of increased contributing drainage area and the increased effects of monsoonal precipitation at lower elevations.

  9. Quaternary fans and terraces in the Khumbu Himal south of Mount Everest: their characteristics, age and formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, P.L.; Owen, L.A.; Finkel, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Large fans and terraces are frequent in the Khumbu Himal within the high Himalayan valleys south of Mt. Everest. These features are composed of massive matrix- and clast-supported diamicts that were formed from both hyperconcentrated flows and coarse-grained debris flows. Cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) exposure ages for boulders on fans and terraces indicate that periods of fan and terrace formation occurred at c. 16, c. 12, c. 8, c. 4 and c. 1.5 ka, and are broadly coincident with the timing of glaciation in the region. The dating precision is insufficient to resolve whether the surfaces formed before, during or after the correlated glacial advance. However, the sedimentology, and morphostratigraphic and geomorphological relationships suggest that fan and terrace sedimentation in this part of the Himalaya primarily occurs during glacier retreat and is thus paraglacial in origin. Furthermore, modern glacial-lake outburst floods and their associated deposits are common in the Khumbu Himal as the result of glacial retreat during historical times. We therefore suggest that Late Quaternary and Holocene fan and terrace formation and sediment transfer are probably linked to temporal changes in discharge and sediment load caused by glacier oscillations responding to climate change. The timing of major sedimentation events in this region can be correlated with fans and terraces in other parts of the Himalaya, suggesting that major sedimentation throughout the Himalaya is synchronous and tied to regional climatic oscillations. Bedrock incision rates calculated from strath terrace ages average c. 3.9 mm a−1, suggesting that the overall rate of incision is set by regional uplift.

  10. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work.

  11. Co-seismic Displacement of the 25 April 2015 Nepal Ms8.1 Earthquake Effects on the China's Mount Everest Area Derived from GNSS Data Using the PPP Network Solution by UPD Ambiguity Fixed Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Co-seismic displacement of the GNSS stations in areas surrounding the earthquake are accurately obtained using UPD (uncalibrated phase delay ambiguity fixed technology without having to consider the effects of earthquake on the GNSS baseline calculating. During the 25 April 2015 Nepal Ms8.1 seismological GNSS data from the National Datum Engineering of China, the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and the Mount Everest GNSS stations are calculated using UPD ambiguity fixed technology, then co-seismic displacement field of the China's Mount Everest and surrounding areas are derived and analyzed. Firstly, the UPD of wide-lane and narrow lane are estimated using the uniform distribution National GNSS and the surrounding IGS stability stations away from the seismic zones. Secondly, the float carrier phase ambiguities from each GNSS station in the seismic zones are fixed using the UPD of wide-lane and narrow until all the GNSS station are completed. Then whole network GNSS station coordinates are just only estimated using the accurately phase observations without ambiguity form all the GNSS stations. The GNSS data from IGS stations are used to verify the precision of the above method. Finally, Co-seismic displacement field of the China's Mount Everest are derived and particularly analyzed. From 2005 to 2015 year the displacement of China's Mount Everest are showed. Meanwhlile, this paper provides a precise and reliable method to monitor earthquake.

  12. POP and PAH contamination in the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (Himalaya, Nepal): Long-range atmospheric transport, glacier shrinkage, or local impact of tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzella, Licia; Salerno, Franco; Freppaz, Michele; Roscioli, Claudio; Pisanello, Francesca; Poma, Giulia

    2016-02-15

    Due to their physico-chemical properties, POPs and PAHs are subjected to long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and may be deposited in remote areas. In this study, the contamination with DDx, PCBs, PBDEs, and PAHs was investigated in sediments and soils collected on the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (Himalaya, Nepal) in two different sampling campaigns (2008 and 2012). The results showed a limited contamination with POPs and PAHs in both soil and sediment samples. Therefore, the southern slopes of Mt. Everest can be considered a remote area in almost pristine condition. The LRAT mechanism confirmed its primary role in the transfer of contaminants to remote regions, while the gradual melting of glaciers, due to global warming, and the subsequent release of contaminants was suggested to be a secondary source of pollution of the lake sediments. In addition, the increase of tourism in this area during the last decades might have influenced the present concentrations of PAHs in the sediments and soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Isotopic signatures for natural versus anthropogenic Pb in high-altitude Mt. Everest ice cores during the past 800 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do [Korea Polar Research Institute, Songdo Techno Park, 7-50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Hou, Shugui [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Burn-Nunes, Laurie J. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Hong, Sungmin, E-mail: smhong@inha.ac.kr [Department of Ocean Sciences, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Barbante, Carlo [Department of Environmental Sciences, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30 123 Venice (Italy); Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes-CNR, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30 123 Venice (Italy); Boutron, Claude F. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (UMR Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS 5183 ), 54 rue Moliere, BP 96, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Unite de Formation et de Recherche ' Physique, Ingenierie, Terre, Environnement, Mecanique' , Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble ( Institut Universitaire de France ), 715 rue de la Houille Blanche, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rosman, Kevin J.R. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    A long-term record, extending back 800 years (1205 to 2002 AD), of the Pb isotopic composition ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) as well as Pb concentrations from high altitude Mt. Everest ice cores has the potential to identify sources and source regions affecting natural and anthropogenic Pb deposition in central Asia. The results show that the regional natural background Pb isotope signature ({approx} 1.20 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {approx} 2.50 for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) in the central Himalayas was dominated by mineral dust over the last {approx} 750 years from 1205 to 1960s, mostly originating from local sources with occasional contributions of long-range transported dust probably from Sahara desert and northwestern India. Since the 1970s, the Pb isotope ratios are characterized by a continuous decline toward less radiogenic ratios with the least mean ratios of 1.178 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and 2.471 for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb in the period 1990-1996. The depression of the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb values during the corresponding periods is most likely due to an increasing influence of less radiogenic Pb of anthropogenic origin mainly from leaded gasoline used in South Asia (India as well as possibly Bangladesh and Nepal). From 1997 to 2002, isotopic composition tends to show a shift to slightly more radiogenic signature. This is likely attributed to reducing Pb emissions from leaded gasoline in source regions, coinciding with the nationwide reduction of Pb in gasoline and subsequent phase-out of leaded gasoline in South Asia since 1997. An interesting feature is the relatively high levels of Pb concentrations and enrichment factors (EF) between 1997 and 2002. Although the reason for this feature remains uncertain, it would be probably linked with an increasing influence of anthropogenic Pb emitted from other sources such as fossil fuel combustion and non-ferrous metal production.

  14. Microscale spatial variability of snowpack: isotopic and chemical heterogeneity of a firn pack at Qomolangma (Mount Everest), central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqiao; Kang, Shichang; Cong, Zhiyuan

    For a better understanding of snow metamorphosing processes and more precise snow-ice-core interpretations, it is necessary to know the extent of microscale spatial variability of isotopic and chemical distributions in a snowpack. This work presents an investigation on the horizontal heterogeneity of the isotopic and chemical distributions in a firn pack on East Rongbuk Glacier at Qomolangma (Mount Everest), central Himalaya. One pit wall of 1.2 × 1.2 m2 at 6520 m a.s.l. was sampled at intervals of 10 cm in a matrix pattern with a total of 144 samples collected. All the samples were analyzed for δ18O and ionic concentrations. Small horizontal isotopic and large chemical heterogeneities were found. The averaged coefficient of variation (CV) of the twelve 10 cm thick layers for δ18O is 0.052, and in the whole snow thickness of 120 cm it is 0.016, which is in the range of analytic precision and thus indicates complete homogeneity. However, the ionic distribution shows considerable heterogeneity. The averaged CV values of the 10 cm thick layers for ionic concentrations vary in the range 0.628-1.477 depending on the ions. Based on these CV values, the heterogeneity sequence is: Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Na+ > Cl- > SO42- > PO43- > NO3- > NH4+. The averaged CV values for all the ions, except for NH4+, decrease with increasing snow thickness, although the decreasing rates and extents are different. However, the CV values of different ions are still large and in the range 0.183-1.116 when the snow thickness increases to 120 cm. The heterogeneity sequence becomes: K+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > NH4+ > Na+ > Cl- > PO43- > NO3- > SO42-. The CV average change with thickness is different for NH4+. From 20 to 100 cm it increases slightly with increasing thickness, but all the values are lower than the average of 10 cm thick layers.

  15. Future hydrological regimes and glacier cover in the Everest region: The case study of the upper Dudh Koshi basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncini, Andrea; Bocchiola, Daniele; Confortola, Gabriele; Minora, Umberto; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Shrestha, Dibas; Senese, Antonella; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2016-09-15

    Assessment of future water resources under climate change is required in the Himalayas, where hydrological cycle is poorly studied and little understood. This study focuses on the upper Dudh Koshi river of Nepal (151km(2), 4200-8848ma.s.l.) at the toe of Mt. Everest, nesting the debris covered Khumbu, and Khangri Nup glaciers (62km(2)). New data gathered during three years of field campaigns (2012-2014) were used to set up a glacio-hydrological model describing stream flows, snow and ice melt, ice cover thickness and glaciers' flow dynamics. The model was validated, and used to assess changes of the hydrological cycle until 2100. Climate projections are used from three Global Climate Models used in the recent IPCC AR5 under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Flow statistics are estimated for two reference decades 2045-2054, and 2090-2099, and compared against control run CR, 2012-2014. During CR we found a contribution of ice melt to stream flows of 55% yearly, with snow melt contributing for 19%. Future flows are predicted to increase in monsoon season, but to decrease yearly (-4% vs CR on average) at 2045-2054. At the end of century large reduction would occur in all seasons, i.e. -26% vs CR on average at 2090-2099. At half century yearly contribution of ice melt would be on average 45%, and snow melt 28%. At the end of century ice melt would be 31%, and snow contribution 39%. Glaciers in the area are projected to thin largely up to 6500ma.s.l. until 2100, reducing their volume by -50% or more, and their ice covered area by -30% or more. According to our results, in the future water resources in the upper Dudh Koshi would decrease, and depend largely upon snow melt and rainfall, so that adaptation measures to modified water availability will be required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimates of land surface heat fluxes of the Mt. Everest region over the Tibetan Plateau utilizing ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cunbo; Ma, Yaoming; Chen, Xuelong; Su, Zhongbo

    2016-02-01

    Regional land surface albedo, land surface temperature, net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux were derived in the Mt. Everest area utilizing topographical enhanced surface energy balance system (TESEBS) model and nine scenes of ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data under clear-sky and in-situ measurements at the QOMS station (the Qomolangma Station for Atmospheric Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences). The parameterization schemes for diffused and reflected downward shortwave radiation flux of the TESEBS model were improved by introducing the parameters sky-view factor (SVF) and terrain configuration factor (Ct). Then, a so-called C-correction method for land surface albedo was coupled into the TESEBS model to reduce the influences of topography. After topographical correction, the albedo of the dark tilted surface facing away from the Sun was compensated and albedo of the brightness surface facing the Sun was restrained. The downward shortwave radiation flux was broken down into three components including solar direct radiation flux, solar diffused radiation flux, and reflected solar radiation flux by surrounding terrain. The solar diffused radiation flux ranges from about 30 to 60 W/m2 at the satellite passing time on 6 January 2008. The reflected solar radiation flux changes from 0 to more than 100 W/m2 in the area covered by glaciers and snows. Thus, it is important to take the topographical effects into account in estimation of surface radiation balance in the mountainous area, especially in the glacier area. The retrieved land surface parameters, land surface radiation balance components, and the land surface energy balance components were evaluated by the field measurements in the QOMS station. The estimated results were very close to the in-situ observations with low mean bias errors, low root mean square errors and high correlation coefficients

  17. Final work plan : indoor air and ambient air sampling near the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Everest, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-05-24

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at the western edge of Everest, Kansas, from the early 1950s to the early 1970s. Sampling by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) in 1997 resulted in the detection of carbon tetrachloride in one domestic well (the Nigh well) northwest of the former facility. On behalf of the CCC/USDA, Argonne National Laboratory subsequently conducted a series of investigations to characterize the contamination (Argonne 2003, 2006a,b,c). Automatic, continuous monitoring of groundwater levels began in 2002 and is ongoing at six locations. The results have consistently indicated groundwater flow toward the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA property to the Nigh property, then west-southwest from the Nigh property to the intermittent creek. Sitewide periodic groundwater and surface water sampling with analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) began in 2008. Argonne's combined data indicate no significant downgradient extension of contamination since 2000. At present, the sampling is annual, as approved by the KDHE (2009) in response to a plan developed for the CCC/USDA (Argonne 2009). This document presents a plan for collecting indoor air samples in homes located along and adjacent to the defined extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination. The plan was requested by the KDHE. Ambient air samples to represent the conditions along this pathway will also be taken. The purpose of the proposed work is to satisfy KDHE requirements and to collect additional data for assessing the risk to human health due to the potential upward migration of carbon tetrachloride and its primary degradation product (chloroform) into homes located in close proximity to the former grain storage facility, as well as along and within 100 ft laterally from the currently defined plume emanating from the former Everest facility. Investigation of the indoor air

  18. D-dimer is not elevated in asymptomatic high altitude climbers after descent to 5340 m: the Mount Everest Deep Venous Thrombosis Study (Ev-DVT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafren, Ken; Feldman, Joanne; Becker, Robert J; Williams, Sarah R; Weiss, Eric A; Deloughery, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We performed this study to determine the prevalence of elevated D-dimer, a marker for deep venous thrombosis (DVT), in asymptomatic high altitude climbers. On-site personnel enrolled a convenience sample of climbers at Mt. Everest Base Camp (Nepal), elevation 5340 m (17,500 ft), during a single spring climbing season. Subjects were enrolled after descent to base camp from higher elevation. The subjects completed a questionnaire to evaluate their risk factors for DVT. We then performed a D-dimer test in asymptomatic individuals. If the D-dimer test was negative, DVT was considered ruled out. Ultrasound was available to perform lower-extremity compression ultrasounds to evaluate for DVT in case the D-dimer was positive. We enrolled 76 high altitude climbers. None had a positive D-dimer test. The absence of positive D-dimer tests suggests a low prevalence of DVT in asymptomatic high altitude climbers.

  19. The EVER-EST portal as support for the Sea Monitoring Virtual Research Community, through the sharing of resources, enabling dynamic collaboration and promoting community engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglini, Federica; Grande, Valentina; De Leo, Francesco; Mantovani, Simone; Ferraresi, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    EVER-EST offers a framework based on advanced services delivered both at the e-infrastructure and domain-specific level, with the objective of supporting each phase of the Earth Science Research and Information Lifecycle. It provides innovative e-research services to Earth Science user communities for communication, cross-validation and the sharing of knowledge and science outputs. The project follows a user-centric approach: real use cases taken from pre-selected Virtual Research Communities (VRC) covering different Earth Science research scenarios drive the implementation of the Virtual Research Environment (VRE) services and capabilities. The Sea Monitoring community is involved in the evaluation of the EVER-EST infrastructure. The community of potential users is wide and heterogeneous including both multi-disciplinary scientists and national/international agencies and authorities (e.g. MPAs directors, technicians from regional agencies like ARPA in Italy, the technicians working for the Ministry of the Environment) dealing with the adoption of a better way of measuring the quality of the environment. The scientific community has the main role of assessing the best criteria and indicators for defining the Good Environmental Status (GES) in their own sub regions, and implementing methods, protocols and tools for monitoring the GES descriptors. According to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), the environmental status of marine waters is defined by 11 descriptors, and forms a proposed set of 29 associated criteria and 56 different indicators. The objective of the Sea Monitoring VRC is to provide useful and applicable contributions to the evaluation of the descriptors: D1.Biodiversity, D2.Non-indigenous species and D6.Seafloor Integrity (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/marine/good-environmental-status/index_en.htm). The main challenges for the community members are: 1. discovery of existing data and products distributed among different infrastructures; 2

  20. Sildenafil increased exercise capacity during hypoxia at low altitudes and at Mount Everest base camp: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Hossein A; Reichenberger, Frank; Kohstall, Markus G; Mrosek, Eike H; Seeger, Timon; Olschewski, Horst; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich

    2004-08-03

    Alveolar hypoxia causes pulmonary hypertension and enhanced right ventricular afterload, which may impair exercise tolerance. The phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil has been reported to cause pulmonary vasodilatation. To investigate the effects of sildenafil on exercise capacity under conditions of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. University Hospital Giessen, Giessen, Germany, and the base camp on Mount Everest. 14 healthy mountaineers and trekkers. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure, cardiac output, and peripheral arterial oxygen saturation at rest and during assessment of maximum exercise capacity on cycle ergometry 1) while breathing a hypoxic gas mixture with 10% fraction of inspired oxygen at low altitude (Giessen) and 2) at high altitude (the Mount Everest base camp). Oral sildenafil, 50 mg, or placebo. At low altitude, acute hypoxia reduced arterial oxygen saturation to 72.0% (95% CI, 66.5% to 77.5%) at rest and 60.8% (CI, 56.0% to 64.5%) at maximum exercise capacity. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure increased from 30.5 mm Hg (CI, 26.0 to 35.0 mm Hg) at rest to 42.9 mm Hg (CI, 35.6 to 53.5 mm Hg) during exercise in participants taking placebo. Sildenafil, 50 mg, significantly increased arterial oxygen saturation during exercise (P = 0.005) and reduced systolic pulmonary artery pressure at rest (P < 0.001) and during exercise (P = 0.031). Of note, sildenafil increased maximum workload (172.5 W [CI, 147.5 to 200.0 W]) vs. 130.6 W [CI, 108.8 to 150.0 W]); P < 0.001) and maximum cardiac output (P < 0.001) compared with placebo. At high altitude, sildenafil had no effect on arterial oxygen saturation at rest and during exercise compared with placebo. However, sildenafil reduced systolic pulmonary artery pressure at rest (P = 0.003) and during exercise (P = 0.021) and increased maximum workload (P = 0.002) and cardiac output (P = 0.015). At high altitude, sildenafil exacerbated existing headache

  1. Recent increases in atmospheric concentrations of Bi, U, Cs, S and Ca from a 350-year Mount Everest ice core record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, Susan; Mayewski, Paul A.; Handley, Michael; Osterberg, Erich; Kang, Shichang; Sneed, Sharon; Hou, Shugui; Qin, Dahe

    2009-02-01

    High-resolution major and trace elements (Sr, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Bi, U, Tl, Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co) quantified in a Mount Everest ice core (6518 m above sea level) spanning the period 1650-2002 AD provides the first Asian record of trace element concentrations from the pre-industrial era, and the first continuous high-resolution Asian record from which natural baseline concentrations and subsequent changes due to anthropogenic activities can be examined. Modern concentrations of most elements remain within the pre-industrial range; however, Bi, U, and Cs concentrations and their enrichment factors (EF) have increased since the ˜1950s, and S and Ca concentrations and their EFs have increased since the late 1980s. A comparison of the Bi, U, Cs, S, and Ca data with other ice core records and production data indicates that the increase in atmospheric concentrations of trace elements is widespread, but that enrichment varies regionally. Likely sources for the recent enrichment of these elements include mining, metal smelting, oil and coal combustion, and end uses for Bi, and mining and refinement for U and Cs. The source of the synchronous enrichment of Ca and S is less certain, but may be related to land use and environmental change.

  2. Snow accumulation rate on Qomolangma (Mount Everest), Himalaya: synchroneity with sites across the Tibetan Plateau on 50-100 year timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, Susan; Hooke, Roger Leb.; Mayewski, Paul Andrew; Kang, Shichang; Hou, Shugui; Qin, Dahe

    Annual-layer thickness data, spanning AD 1534-2001, from an ice core from East Rongbuk Col on Qomolangma (Mount Everest, Himalaya) yield an age-depth profile that deviates systematically from a constant accumulation-rate analytical model. The profile clearly shows that the mean accumulation rate has changed every 50-100 years. A numerical model was developed to determine the magnitude of these multi-decadal-scale rates. The model was used to obtain a time series of annual accumulation. The mean annual accumulation rate decreased from ˜0.8 m ice equivalent in the 1500s to ˜0.3 m in the mid-1800s. From ˜1880 to ˜1970 the rate increased. However, it has decreased since ˜1970. Comparison with six other records from the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau shows that the changes in accumulation in East Rongbuk Col are broadly consistent with a regional pattern over much of the Plateau. This suggests that there may be an overarching mechanism controlling precipitation and mass balance over this area. However, a record from Dasuopu, only 125 km northwest of Qomolangma and 700 m higher than East Rongbuk Col, shows a maximum in accumulation during the 1800s, a time during which the East Rongbuk Col and Tibetan Plateau ice-core and tree-ring records show a minimum. This asynchroneity may be due to altitudinal or seasonal differences in monsoon versus westerly moisture sources or complex mountain meteorology.

  3. Limiting factors to oxygen transport on Mount Everest 30 years after: a critique of Paolo Cerretelli's contribution to the study of altitude physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Guido

    2003-10-01

    In 1976, Paolo Cerretelli published an article entitled "Limiting factors to oxygen transport on Mount Everest" in the Journal of Applied Physiology. The paper demonstrated the role of cardiovascular oxygen transport in limiting maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). In agreement with the predominant view of VO2max limitation at that time, however, its results were taken to mean that cardiovascular oxygen transport does not limit VO2max at altitude. So it was argued that the limiting factor could be in the periphery, and muscle blood flow was proposed as a possible candidate. Despite this suggestion, the conclusion generated a series of papers on muscle structural characteristics. These experiments demonstrated a loss of muscle oxidative capacity in chronic hypoxia, and thus provided an unambiguous refutation of the then widespread hypothesis that an increased muscle oxidative capacity is needed at altitude to compensate for the lack of oxygen. This analysis is followed by a short account of Cerretelli's more recent work, with a special attention to the subject of the so-called "lactate paradox".

  4. Relationships of personality traits with performance in reaction time, psychomotor ability, and mental efficiency during a 31-day simulated climb of Mount Everest in a hypobaric chamber'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolmont, B; Bouquet, C; Thullier, F

    2001-06-01

    Exposure to chronic hypoxia induces behavioral and mood disturbances and alterations in cognitive functions. We examined the relationships of personality traits, including trait-anxiety, with performance in binary visual reaction time, psychomotor ability, and mental efficiency, using the psychological database of the 'Everest-Comex 97' experiment, which consisted in a 31-day simulated climb in a hypobaric chamber from sea level to 8,848 m altitude. Analysis yielded a significant positive correlation between the climbers' mean reaction time at hypoxic conditions and preclimb scores on trait-anxiety (as assessed by Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and further significant negative correlations with both Factor A (reserved-outgoing) and Factor G (expedient-conscientious) of the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. In contrast, no significant correlation was found between the climbers' mean psychomotor performance and mental efficiency with personality traits, including anxiety. These findings agree with those of previous studies: (i) anxiety could mediate stimulus-response tasks but not more complex tasks requiring strategic processes, (ii) individuals with personality traits such as 'reserved' and 'expedient' could have slight advantages in processing information on stimulus-response tasks. Limitations in study design are also discussed.

  5. Effects of hypobaric hypoxia exposure at high altitude on left ventricular twist in healthy subjects: data from HIGHCARE study on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osculati, Giuseppe; Revera, Miriam; Branzi, Giovanna; Faini, Andrea; Malfatto, Gabriella; Bilo, Grzegorz; Giuliano, Andrea; Gregorini, Francesca; Ciambellotti, Francesca; Lombardi, Carolina; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Mancia, Giuseppe; Parati, Gianfranco

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies investigating the effect of hypoxia on left ventricle focused on its global function, an approach that may not detect a selective dysfunction of subendocardial layers that are most sensitive to an inadequate oxygen supply. In the HIGHCARE study, aimed at exploring the effects of high altitude hypoxia on multiple biological variables and their modulation by an angiotensin receptor blocker, we addressed the effects of hypobaric hypoxia on both systolic and diastolic left ventricular geometry and function, focusing on echocardiographic assessment of left ventricle twist to indirectly examine subendocardial left ventricular systolic function. In 39 healthy subjects, physiological and echocardiographic variables, including left ventricular twist and a simplified torsion-to-shortening ratio (sTSR), were recorded at sea level, at 3400 m, and at 5400 m altitude (Mount Everest base camp). Both left ventricular twist and sTSR were greater at 5400 m than at sea level (12.6° vs. 9.6° and 0.285 vs. 0.202, P < 0.05 for both), were linearly related to the reduction in arterial oxygen partial pressure (P < 0.01 for both), and were associated with significant changes in LV dimensions and contractility. No effects of angiotensin receptor blockade were observed on these variables throughout the study. Our study, for the first time, demonstrates an increase in left ventricular twist at high altitude in healthy subjects exposed to high altitude hypoxia, suggesting the occurrence of subendocardial systolic dysfunction in such condition. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cognitive performance during a simulated climb of Mount Everest: implications for brain function and central adaptive processes under chronic hypoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraini, J H; Bouquet, C; Joulia, F; Nicolas, M; Kriem, B

    1998-07-01

    High altitude is characterized by hypoxic environmental conditions and is well known to induce both physiological and psychological disturbances. In the present study, called ”Everest-Comex 97”, the authors investigated the effects of high altitude on the psychosensorimotor and reasoning processes of eight climbers participating in a simulated climb from sea level to 8,848 m over a 31-day period of confinement in a decompression chamber. Tests of visual reaction time, psychomotor ability, and number ordination were used. The climbers’ data were compared with data from a similar laboratory study at sea level in control subjects. Continued testing of the control subjects at sea level clearly led to learning effects and improvement of performance in psychomotor ability and number ordination. In the climbers, similar learning effects occurred up to an altitude of 5,500–6,500 m. With further increases in altitude, the climbers’ psychomotor performance and mental efficiency deteriorated progressively, leading to significant differences in psychomotor ability and mental efficiency between control subjects and climbers (9 and 13% respectively at 8,000 m and 17.5 and 16.5% respectively at 8,848 m). Three days (72 h) after the climbers had returned to sea level, their mental and psychomotor performances were still significantly lower than those of control subjects (by approximately 10%). In contrast, visual reaction time showed no significant changes in either climbers or control subjects. It is suggested that chronic hypoxic stress could alter selectively mental learning processes, i.e. explicit, rather than implicit (stimulus-response learning processes) memory and cortico-limbic rather than basal ganglia-sensorimotor system function.

  7. Atmospheric pollution for trace elements in the remote high-altitude atmosphere in central Asia as recorded in snow from Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) of the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do; Hou, Shugui; Hong, Sungmin; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Jiawen; Liu, Yapping; Rosman, Kevin J R; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F

    2008-10-01

    A series of 42 snow samples covering over a one-year period from the fall of 2004 to the summer of 2005 were collected from a 2.1-m snow pit at a high-altitude site on the northeastern slope of Mt. Everest. These samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Cd, Sb, Pb, and Bi in order to characterize the relative contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources to the fallout of these elements in central Himalayas. Our data were also considered in the context of monsoon versus non-monsoon seasons. The mean concentrations of the majority of the elements were determined to be at the pg g(-1) level with a strong variation in concentration with snow depth. While the mean concentrations of most of the elements were significantly higher during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season, considerable variability in the trace element inputs to the snow was observed during both periods. Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Bi displayed high crustal enrichment factors (EFc) in most samples, while Cr, Ni, Rb, and Pb show high EFc values in some of the samples. Our data indicate that anthropogenic inputs are potentially important for these elements in the remote high-altitude atmosphere in the central Himalayas. The relationship between the EFc of each element and the Al concentration indicates that a dominant input of anthropogenic trace elements occurs during both the monsoon and non-monsoon seasons, when crustal contribution is relatively minor. Finally, a comparison of the trace element fallout fluxes calculated in our samples with those recently obtained at Mont Blanc, Greenland, and Antarctica provides direct evidence for a geographical gradient of the atmospheric pollution with trace elements on a global scale.

  8. Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on symptoms of acute mountain sickness and basic physiological responses in a group of male adolescents during ascent to Mount Everest Base Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennis, Philip J; Mitchell, Kay; Gilbert-Kawai, Edward; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Wade, Angie; Feelisch, Martin; Grocott, Michael P; Martin, Daniel S

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, on acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms and physiological responses, in a group of young males trekking to Mount Everest Base Camp (EBC). Forty healthy male students (mean age (SD): 16 (1) yrs) trekked to EBC over 11 days. Following an overnight fast, each morning participants completed the Lake Louise AMS questionnaire and underwent a series of physiological tests: resting blood pressure as well as resting and exercising heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation. The exercise test consisted of a standardised 2-min stepping protocol and measurements were taken in the last 10 s. Participants in the intervention arm of the study consumed 140 ml of concentrated beetroot juice daily, containing approximately 10 mmol of nitrate, while those in the control arm consumed 140 ml of concentrated blackcurrant cordial with negligible nitrate content. Drinks were taken for the first seven days at high altitude (days 2-8), in two equal doses; one with breakfast, and one with the evening meal. Mixed modelling revealed no significant between-groups difference in the incidence of AMS (Odds Ratio - nitrate vs. 1.16 (95% CI: 0.59; 2.29)). Physiological changes occurring during ascent to high altitude generally were not significantly different between the two groups (Model Coef (95% CI) - average difference nitrate vs. systolic blood pressure, 0.16 (-4.47; 4.79); peripheral oxygen saturation, 0.28 (-0.85; 1.41); heart rate, -0.48 (-8.47; 7.50) (Model Coef (95% CI) - relative difference nitrate vs. ventilatory rate, 0.95 (0.82; 1.08)). Modelling revealed that diastolic blood pressure was 3.37 mmHg (0.24; 6.49) higher for participants in the beetroot juice, however this difference was no larger than that found at baseline and no interaction effect was observed. Supplementation with dietary nitrate did not significantly change symptoms

  9. The CDF II eXtremely fast tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, A.; Azzurri, P.; Cochran, E.; Dittmann, J.; Donati, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Fedorko, I.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; /Illinois U., Urbana

    2006-09-01

    The CDF II Extremely Fast Tracker is the trigger track processor which reconstructs charged particle tracks in the transverse plane of the CDF II central outer tracking chamber. The system is now being upgraded to perform a three dimensional track reconstruction. A review of the upgrade is presented here.

  10. Effects of inherited cores and magmatic overgrowths on zircon (U-Th)/He ages and age-eU trends from Greater Himalayan sequence rocks, Mount Everest region, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Devon A.; Reiners, Peter W.; Hourigan, Jeremy K.; Carrapa, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Previous constraints on the timing and rate of exhumation of the footwall of the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS) north of Mount Everest suggest rapid Miocene cooling from ˜ 700°C to 120°C between ˜14-17 Ma. However, 25 new single grain zircon He ages from leucogranites intruding Greater Himalayan Sequence rocks in the footwall of the STDS are between 9.9 and 15 Ma, with weighted mean ages between 10 and 12 Ma. Zircon grains exhibit a positive correlation between age and effective uranium (eU). Laser ablation zircon U-Pb geochronology, detailed SEM observations, and laser ablation depth-profiling of these zircons reveal low-eU 0.5-2.5 Ga inherited cores overgrown by high-eU 17-22 Ma rims. This intragranular zonation produces ages as much as 32% too young when a standard alpha-ejection correction assuming uniform eU distribution is applied. Modeling of the effects of varying rim thickness and rim eU concentration on the bulk grain eU and alpha-ejection correction suggests that zonation also exerts the primary control on the form of the age-eU correlation observed. Application of grain-specific zonation-dependent age corrections to our data yields zircon He ages between 14 and 17 Ma, in agreement with AFT and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Growth of magmatic rims followed by cooling to < 120°C within 1-6 million years supports rapid tectonic exhumation associated with slip along the STDS in the Miocene. This study highlights the importance of characterizing parent nuclide zonation in zircon He studies which seek to understand the timing of exhumation along exhumed crustal blocks.

  11. Finding Mount Everest and handling voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are randomized search heuristics that solve problems successfully in many cases. Their behavior is often described in terms of strategies to find a high location on Earth's surface. Unfortunately, many digital elevation models describing it contain void elements. These are elements not assigned an elevation. Therefore, we design and analyze simple EAs with different strategies to handle such partially defined functions. They are experimentally investigated on a dataset describing the elevation of Earth's surface. The largest value found by an EA within a certain runtime is measured, and the median over a few runs is computed and compared for the different EAs. For the dataset, the distribution of void elements seems to be neither random nor adversarial. They are so-called semirandomly distributed. To deepen our understanding of the behavior of the different EAs, they are theoretically considered on well-known pseudo-Boolean functions transferred to partially defined ones. These modifications are also performed in a semirandom way. The typical runtime until an optimum is found by an EA is analyzed, namely bounded from above and below, and compared for the different EAs. We figure out that for the random model it is a good strategy to assume that a void element has a worse function value than all previous elements. Whereas for the adversary model it is a good strategy to assume that a void element has the best function value of all previous elements.

  12. Higgs Discovery: Impact on Composite Dynamics Technicolor & eXtreme Compositeness Thinking Fast and Slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Francesco

    I discuss the impact of the discovery of a Higgs-like state on composite dynamics starting by critically examining the reasons in favour of either an elementary or composite nature of this state. Accepting the standard model interpretation I re-address the standard model vacuum stability within a Weyl-consistent computation. I will carefully examine the fundamental reasons why what has been discovered might not be the standard model Higgs. Dynamical electroweak breaking naturally addresses a number of the fundamental issues unsolved by the standard model interpretation. However this paradigm has been challenged by the discovery of a not-so-heavy Higgs-like state. I will therefore review the recent discovery1 that the standard model top-induced radiative corrections naturally reduce the intrinsic non-perturbative mass of the composite Higgs state towards the desired experimental value. Not only we have a natural and testable working framework but we have also suggested specic gauge theories that can realise, at the fundamental level, these minimal models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. These strongly coupled gauge theories are now being heavily investigated via first principle lattice simulations with encouraging results. The new findings show that the recent naive claims made about new strong dynamics at the electroweak scale being disfavoured by the discovery of a not-so-heavy composite Higgs are unwarranted. I will then introduce the more speculative idea of extreme compositeness according to which not only the Higgs sector of the standard model is composite but also quarks and leptons, and provide a toy example in the form of gauge-gauge duality.

  13. 78 FR 70209 - Airworthiness Directives; XtremeAir GmbH Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ...: Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), which is the Technical Agent ] for the Member States... translation: Version) A.03, dated October 25, 2013. The replacement required in paragraph (f)(2) or (f)(3) of... Bulletin SB-2013-008, Ausgabe (English translation: Version) A.03, dated October 25, 2013. (3) Unless the...

  14. OceanXtremes: Oceanographic Data-Intensive Anomaly Detection and Analysis Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Anomaly detection is a process of identifying items, events or observations, which do not conform to an expected pattern in a dataset or time series. Current and...

  15. Annual Report of Monitoring at Everest, Kansas, in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    In March 2009, the CCC/USDA developed a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water (Argonne 2009). Under this plan, approved by the KDHE (2009), monitoring wells are sampled by using the low-flow procedure (Puls and Barcelona 1996; Yeskis and Zavala 2002), and surface water samples are collected at five locations along the intermittent creek. Vegetation sampling is conducted as a secondary indicator of plume migration. As of 2015, the frequency of surface water sampling has been decreased to once yearly, per the approval of the KDHE (2015).

  16. Climbing Mount Everest: Combining Career and Family in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Linda

    2004-01-01

    For women outdoor educators, combining an outdoor career with family relationships appears contradictory. Long and/or irregular hours, residentials, and increasing work commitments are, for example, congruent with traditional notions of a career in the outdoors, yet they clash with social constructions of women's primary identities as partners,…

  17. Childhood asthma under the north face of Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangzong; Nafstad, P; Madsen, C; Bjertness, E

    2006-01-01

    We assessed prevalences of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema and their associations with environmental exposures among school children living in high altitude and rural Tibet. After watching an asthma symptom video, 2.8% of the children reported ever wheezing at rest and 1.4% ever severe wheezing. Residential dampness problems were the only environmental exposure that was clearly associated with children's symptoms (odds ratios 1.3 to 2.5), even if several other exposures were common. The low symptom prevalences are in accordance with the hypothesis that the western lifestyle in some way increases the risk of asthma.

  18. Operation Everest II. Altitude Decompression Sickness during Repeated Altitude Exposure,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Mayo, D.A. and Bancroft, R.W. Body fat , denitrogeration and decompression sickness in men exercising after abrupt exposure to altitude. Aerospace...Conkin, J., Waligora, J.M., Horrigan Jr., D.J. and Hadley Ill, A.T. Comparison of venous gas emboli and decompression sickness incidence in excercising

  19. Annual Report of Groundwater Monitoring at Everest, Kansas, in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In March 2009, the CCC/USDA developed a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water (Argonne 2009). Under this plan, approved by the KDHE (2009), monitoring wells are sampled by using the low-flow procedure, and surface water samples are collected at five locations along the intermittent creek. Vegetation sampling is conducted as a secondary indicator of plume migration. Results of annual sampling in 2009-2011 for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and water level measurements (Argonne 2010a, 2011a,b) were consistent with previous observations (Argonne 2003, 2006a,d, 2008). No carbon tetrachloride was detected in surface water of the intermittent creek or in tree branch samples collected at locations along the creek banks. This report presents the results of the fourth annual sampling event, conducted in 2012.

  20. 76 FR 80829 - Special Conditions: XtremeAir GmbH, XA42; Acrobatic Category Aerodynamic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... adequacy under Sec. 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues special... specific issues raised in the flight characteristics of an unlimited aerobatic airplane. Therefore, the FAA... positive and, at some points, neutral stability within its flight envelope. Its lateral and directional...

  1. 77 FR 17323 - Special Conditions: XtremeAir GmbH, XA42; Acrobatic Category Aerodynamic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' Special conditions, as defined in Sec. 11.19, are...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... some points, neutral stability within its flight envelope. Its lateral and directional axes are also...

  2. Wet deposition at the base of Mt Everest: Seasonal evolution of the chemistry and isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Delconte, Carlo A.; Sacchi, Elisa; Wilson, Alana M.; Williams, Mark W.; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Putero, Davide

    2016-12-01

    The chemistry of wet deposition was investigated during 2012-2014 at the Pyramid International Laboratory in the Upper Khumbu Valley, Nepal, at 5050 m a.s.l., within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme. The main hydro-chemical species and stable isotopes of the water molecule were determined for monsoon rain (July-September) and snow samples (October-June). To evaluate the synoptic-scale variability of air masses reaching the measurement site, 5 day back-trajectories were computed for the sampling period. Ion concentrations in precipitation during the monsoon were low suggesting that they represent global regional background concentrations. The associations between ions suggested that the principal sources of chemical species were marine aerosols, rock and soil dust, and fossil fuel combustion. Most chemical species exhibited a pattern during the monsoon, with maxima at the beginning and at the end of the season, partially correlated with the precipitation amount. Snow samples exhibited significantly higher concentrations of chemical species, compared to the monsoon rainfall observations. Particularly during 2013, elevated concentrations of NO3-, SO42- and NH4+ were measured in the first winter snow event, and in May at the end of the pre-monsoon season. The analysis of large-scale circulation and wind regimes as well as atmospheric composition observations in the region indicates the transport of polluted air masses from the Himalayan foothills and Indian sub-continent up to the Himalaya region. During the summer monsoon onset period, the greater values of pollutants can be attributed to air-mass transport from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) of the Indo-Gangetic plains. Isotopic data confirm that during the monsoon period, precipitation occurred from water vapor that originated from the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal; by contrast during the non-monsoon period, an isotopic signature of more continental origin appeared, indicating that the higher recorded NO3- and SO42- concentrations could be ascribed to a change in air circulation patterns. A comparison of recent monsoon deposition chemistry with data from the 1990's shows similar levels of contaminants in the rainfall. However, non-monsoon deposition can be significant, as it largely contributed to the ion wet deposition fluxes for all analyzed species in 2013.

  3. Right Hand Weakness and Headache During Ascent to Mount Everest: A Case of Cerebral Venous Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Kim, Soo Jeong; Kim, Hahn Young

    2017-05-01

    The increasing popularity of trekking in alpine regions has drawn attention to high altitude-associated health concerns. Here, we report a case of cerebral venous infarction as a consequence of a hypercoagulable state induced by secondary polycythemia as an adaptation to high altitude. When patients present focal neurological symptoms such as hemiparesis in addition to symptoms of acute mountain sickness or high-altitude cerebral edema such as headache, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness, cerebral venous infarction should be considered.

  4. Open access high throughput drug discovery in the public domain: a Mount Everest in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anuradha; McDonald, Peter R; Sittampalam, Sitta; Chaguturu, Rathnam

    2010-11-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) facilitates screening large numbers of compounds against a biochemical target of interest using validated biological or biophysical assays. In recent years, a significant number of drugs in clinical trails originated from HTS campaigns, validating HTS as a bona fide mechanism for hit finding. In the current drug discovery landscape, the pharmaceutical industry is embracing open innovation strategies with academia to maximize their research capabilities and to feed their drug discovery pipeline. The goals of academic research have therefore expanded from target identification and validation to probe discovery, chemical genomics, and compound library screening. This trend is reflected in the emergence of HTS centers in the public domain over the past decade, ranging in size from modestly equipped academic screening centers to well endowed Molecular Libraries Probe Centers Network (MLPCN) centers funded by the NIH Roadmap initiative. These centers facilitate a comprehensive approach to probe discovery in academia and utilize both classical and cutting-edge assay technologies for executing primary and secondary screening campaigns. The various facets of academic HTS centers as well as their implications on technology transfer and drug discovery are discussed, and a roadmap for successful drug discovery in the public domain is presented. New lead discovery against therapeutic targets, especially those involving the rare and neglected diseases, is indeed a Mount Everestonian size task, and requires diligent implementation of pharmaceutical industry's best practices for a successful outcome.

  5. X-treme CT analysis of cancellous bone at the rotator cuff insertion in human individuals with osteoporosis: superficial versus deep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Kirchhoff, Sonja; Sprecher, Christoph M; Ahrens, Philipp; Imhoff, Andreas B; Hinterwimmer, Stefan; Milz, Stefan; Braunstein, Volker

    2013-03-01

    Rotator cuff (RC) repair-especially in the elderly population-is problematic since the patients suffer to a high extent from bone mineral density loss at the reattachment site. Therefore, the study was primarily driven by the question whether it is possible to reach more or qualitatively better cancellous bone and thus a more stable postoperative result if anchors with greater length are used for RC repair and/or the conventional anchors are screwed deeper into the bone. In anatomical terms, the question is raised whether cancellous bone is of better quality close to or far off the RC enthesis. Axial HRqCT scans (X-tremeCT, Scanco Medical) of 36 human cadaveric humeral heads (75 ± 11 years) were performed to determine the ratio of bone volume to total volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Trab Th), number of trabecles (Trab N), trabecular separation (Trab Sp) as well as non-metric indices such as connectivity density (Conn Dens) and structure model index (SMI). Within the greater tuberosity (GT), 6 volumes of interest (VOI) (A1, B1, C1, A2, B2, C2), in the lesser tuberosity (LT) 2 VOIs (D1, D2) and one control VOI in the subchondral bone were set. The analyzed bone cylinder of each VOI was divided into a superficial and a deep portion. The parameters BV/TV, Trab N, Trab Th and Conn Dens in all volumes of the GT and LT revealed higher values in the superficial portion reaching different levels of significance (p significance for the non-metric parameter SMI in no volume of the GT/LT, although the higher values were found superficially. Our data show that cancellous bone presents with decreasing bone quality when analyzing increasingly deeper portions of the bone cylinders of the GT and LT starting at the articular surface. This information seems to be crucial for shoulder surgeons, especially when treating elderly patients. Our results clearly prove that screwing in anchors to a deeper extent will not improve stability, since the deeper bone stock is of worse quality.

  6. Use of Satellite and In Situ Reflectance Data for Lake Water Color Characterization in the Everest Himalayan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Matta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study applied remote sensing techniques to the study of water color in Himalayan glacial lakes as a proxy of suspended solid load. In situ measurements gathered in 5 lakes in October 2014 during satellite data acquisition enabled the characterization of water reflectance and clarity and supported image processing. Field data analysis led to a distinction between 3 water colors and a consequent lake water color classification on a regional scale from Landsat-8 data previously corrected for atmospheric and adjacency effects. Several morphometric parameters (lake size and shape, distance between lake and glacier were also computed for the lakes thus classified. The results showed spatial and temporal variations in lake water color, suggestive of relationships between glacier shrinkage and the presence of brighter and more turbid water. A finer-scale analysis of the spatial variability of water reflectance on Chola Lake (based on GeoEye-1 data captured on 18 October 2014 showed the contribution of water component absorption from the inflow. Overall, the findings support further research to monitor Himalayan lakes using both Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 (with its improved resolutions.

  7. Rekspring en die eKstreme sublieme | du Preez | Tydskrif vir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bungee jumping and the eXtreme sublime [Afrikaans] This article traces the relation between bungee jumping as eXtreme sport and the experience culture that we live in. It is argued that the sublime has been commodified to suit consumers' preferences and choices. The higher the bridge or drop the more enticing and ...

  8. Kas Eesti raamatupidajat oodatakse välismaal? / Taavi Alas ; kommenteerinud Ragnar Everest, Anne Jakobsson, Jane-Liina Liiv, Kaire Vahermets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Taavi

    2013-01-01

    Eesti Töötukassa EURES teenusejuht Marta Traks ning Talentor Estonia / In Re OÜ konsultant ja partner Marit Antik analüüsivad Eesti raamatupidaja võimalusi leida oma erialal tööd Soomes ja Rootsis

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Participant CF Climb CF Cycle for Life Great Strides Xtreme Hike Participate In addition to working ... FIND A CLINICAL TRIAL FIND A LOCAL CHAPTER Great Strides Participate in an Event Conference Livestreams Fundraising ...

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsor a Participant CF Climb CF Cycle for Life Great Strides Xtreme Hike Participate In addition to working for a cure, the CF Foundation supports programs and policies to improve the lives of ...

  11. Orange County Littoral Cell CRSMP Harbor Receiver Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Harbor reciever sites from Everest (2009) 'Harbor Area Management Plan, In-Harbor Beach Replenishment Strategy', Technical Report. Prepared for Harbor Resources...

  12. Orange County Littoral Cell CRSMP Wastewater and Power Plant Discharge Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Graphical depiction of wastewater and power plant discharge pipelines/outlets locations in Southern California.The shapefile was collected by Everest International...

  13. Orange County Littoral Cell CRSMP Wastewater and Power Plant Discharge Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Graphical depiction of wastewater and power plant discharge pipelines/outlets locations in Southern California.The shapefile was collected by Everest International...

  14. Schizophrenia-spectrum patients treated with long-acting injectable risperidone in real-life clinical settings: functional recovery in remitted versus stable, non-remitted patients (the EVeREST prospective observational cohort study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud-Baro, Elisabeth; Dassa, Daniel; De Vathaire, Florent; Garay, Ricardo P; Obeid, Joelle

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies showed functional improvement in stable patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone long-acting injection (LAI). We therefore re-investigated functional improvement with risperidone LAI in remitted patients, in comparison with stable patients. The study was conducted in real-life conditions because of the high heterogeneity of the patients' situations. This was a multi-centre, prospective observational cohort study involving adult schizophrenia-spectrum chronic patients who were previously treated with risperidone LAI for 6 months. Remission was evaluated using the consensus criteria proposed by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group (RSWG). The primary endpoint was global functioning (assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, GAF) after one year of treatment. Social functioning was a secondary outcome. The analysis included 1490 patients. Attrition rate was 9.1 % at the end of the study. 27.7 % of patients were in remission after one year of risperidone LAI treatment. The mean GAF rating score (62.5 ± 1.5) was higher than the cut-off previously used to identify patients with satisfactory functioning (60) and significantly higher than the mean GAF score in stable, non-remitted patients (48.3, p risperidone LAI, RSWG-remitted patients have a high level of global functioning, which is significantly higher than in stable, non-remitted patients. Social functioning was also higher in remitted patients as compared with stable, non-remitted patients.

  15. Food for high-altitude expeditions: Pugh got it right in 1954--a commentary on the report by L.G.C.E. Pugh: "Himalayan rations with special reference to the 1953 expedition to Mount Everest".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, E Wayne

    2004-01-01

    An examination of the nutritional recommendations at altitude by L.G.C.E. Pugh made in the early 1950s reveals that his approaches to feeding and hydration at altitude are still ascribed to today, 50 years later. We can forgive his one perhaps overstatement concerning the "craving" for carbohydrates at altitude if we simply acknowledge that he was generally correct about the benefits of carbohydrates for work at altitude. Pugh's emphasis on adequate energy intake and fluid intake at altitude is as sound today as it was in 1954.

  16. Inoculation of Malus genotypes with a set of Erwinia amylovora strains indicates a gene-for-gene relationship between the effector gene eop1 and both Malus floribunda 821 and Malus 'Evereste'

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow. et al., causal agent of fire blight disease in pome fruit trees, encodes a type three secretion system (T3SS) that functions to translocate effector proteins into plant cells that collectively function to suppress host defenses and ena...

  17. Prakash Adhikari 5, Origin of GK Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Loomis, Molly

    2012-01-01

    .wav and .mp3 versions of audio file Prakash gives the history of how the Gosikunde clinic came about. These recordings were made on a trek in the spring of 2011 up to Mount Everest Base Camp. The recordings span a wide variety of topics from making and drinking chang to the work of Mount Everest's 'ice fall doctors'.

  18. 76 FR 81496 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Everest 70% Water Flucarbazone-sodium Dispersible Granular Herbicide. WA060001 Manzate 200 DF Mancozeb.... Multipurpose Spray. 010807-00094 Clear Lemon 10 Alkyl*dimethylbenzyl Disinfectant. ammoniumchloride*(6 0%C14,30...

  19. Aktsiasoovitus: Tarkvaratootja GigaMedia (GIGM) / Joel Kukemelk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kukemelk, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Tarkvaralahenduste väljatöötamise ja nende litsentseerimisega ning Euroopa suuruselt neljandat online-mänguportaali Everest Poker omavasse ettevõtte GigaMedia (GIGM) aktsiatesse investeerimise ohtudest ning positiivsetest teguritest

  20. Earth sciences within the project Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesy and geophysics; Le scienze della Terra nel progetto Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesia e geofisica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poretti, Giorgio [Trieste, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Matematiche

    1997-05-01

    Earth Sciences started the Ev-K2-CNR project in 1987 with the comparison between the heights of Mt. Everest and K2. Several gravimetric campaigns followed in the most difficult areas of the Himalayas. In 1991 a GPS network was established in Nepal for the determination of the Earth crust movements in the area. In 1992 a precise measurement of mount Everest was performed with classical and satellite technologies. Mount K2 was remeasured in Summer 1996.

  1. Prakash Adhikari 6, Porters and IPPG

    OpenAIRE

    Loomis, Molly

    2012-01-01

    .wav and .mp3 versions of audio file Prakash describes porter’s working conditions and what led to the creation of International Porter Protection Agency which has worked to improve working conditions for porters. These recordings were made on a trek in the spring of 2011 up to Mount Everest Base Camp. The recordings span a wide variety of topics from making and drinking chang to the work of Mount Everest's 'ice fall doctors'.

  2. HEP meets ML award talk : XGBoost

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; CHEN, Tianqi

    2015-01-01

    Tianqi Chen and Tong He (team crowwork) have provided very early in the challenge to all participants XGBoost (for eXtreme Gradient Boosted). It is a parallelised software to train boost decision trees, which has been effectively used by many participants to the challenge. For this, they have won the "HEP meets ML" award which is the invitation to CERN happening today.

  3. Developer Stories: Improving Architecture in Agile Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Jensen, Rolf Njor; Platz, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Within the field of Software Engineering emergence of agile methods has been a hot topic since the late 90s. eXtreme Programming (XP) ([1]) was one of the first agile methods and is one of the most well-known. However research has pointed to weaknesses in XP regarding supporting development...

  4. The Ledger: Federal Reserve Bank of Boston's Economic Education Newsletter, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaily, Bob, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The spring 2001 issue of "The Ledger" looks at economics and sports from the bicycle boom to the failure of the Xtreme Football League (XFL) today. Articles include: "The XFL and the WWF: Win Some, Lose Some" (Robert Wedge); "Major Taylor, Colonel Pope, and the General Commotion over Bicycles" (Robert Jabaily); and…

  5. “Proyecto de factibilidad para la creación de una empresa dedicada a la planificación, organización, y ejecución de deportes extremos en Tonsupa, provincia de Esmeraldas”

    OpenAIRE

    Caiza Castro, Alexis Martin; Naranjo Aguirre, Mauricio Javier; Nicolalde Rodríguez, Esteban Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    People that practice extreme sports are expose to the risks related to situations like speed, height as well as physical effort. The present project "Implementation of Extreme sports" begins with two valued sport in the world: paintball and rapel. These sports can be well known in our country with the launch of XtremeAdventures in one of the most beautiful and visited beaches of Esmeraldas Province, Tonsupa. This is an strategic place for practicing these sports. A market st...

  6. Curiosity rover searching for life on mars

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, John

    2017-01-01

    Simple text and "out-of-this-world" photography introduce readers to NASA's Curiosity rover, and its mission to search for signs of past life on Mars. Important details include a history of rovers on Mars, planning and construction of Curiosity, its launch from Earth, landing on Mars, and the science experiments it carried out and their results. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. A&D Xtreme is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  7. Inserting Agility in System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Agile IT Acquisition, IT Box, Scrum Inserting Agility in System Development Matthew R. Kennedy and Lt Col Dan Ward, USAF With the fast-paced nature... Scrum is a process to manage a product, eXtreme Program- ming (XP) is an agile development methodology focused on software development as a whole. XP...249 A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University http://www.dau.mil Keywords: Agile , Systems Engineering, Information Technology (IT), DoD

  8. An Investigation of Team Effectiveness in Agile Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    Haraldsen, Lars Martin Riiser

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Agile teamwork has been widely used and accepted in today's industry of software development. The methods in agile teamwork claim to improve performance and predictability, and has during the past years become the target for an emerging area of research. The majority of the existing studies concerning agile teamwork mainly focus around eXtreme Programming (XP). Abstract This report is one of few that discuss teamwork in software development having the agile methodology Scrum in the...

  9. New horizons exploring jupiter, pluto, and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, John

    2017-01-01

    Simple text and "out-of-this-world" photography introduce readers to NASA's New Horizons space probe, and its mission to explore Jupiter, Pluto, and the mysterious objects of the Kuiper Belt. Important details include planning and construction of New Horizons, its launch from Earth, flybys of Jupiter and Pluto, and its continuing mission beyond our solar system. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. A&D Xtreme is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  10. Agile Methods in Air Force Sustainment: Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    methods (i.e., Scrum and Kanban ) 1 Hybrid methods (i.e., Scrum, Kanban -modified Feature Driven Design, Scalable Agile Framework, and DSDM) 1...Hybrid methods (i.e., Scrum, TSP, and PSP) 2 Kanban 2 I do not know 1 I prefer not to answer 0 Table 6: Respondent Characterization of Role on...development methods such as Scrum, Kanban , eXtreme Programming? Characterize Operations and Sustainment Planned Q8 9. Identify the depot level

  11. Material Characterization using Passive Multispectral Polarimetric Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    in the upper portion of Fig. 4b showing the “bare ground” elevation of Mount Hood in Oregon [27]. (a) RADAR - Mount Everest [32] (b) LiDAR - Mount Hood...of Modern Radar: Basic Principles. SciTech Publishing, 2010. 56 [32] Richardson, Annie. “ Mount Everest ”, 1996. URL http://southport.jpl.nasa.gov/ cdrom...instrument, its performance, and how it was used to collect data follows. 3.1.1 Instrument Description. The light source (Fig. 16a) is a mounted , collimated

  12. Characterisation of the responsive properties of two running-specific prosthetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, Lara; Ferreira, Suzanne; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Terblanche, Elmarie E

    2017-04-01

    The need for information regarding running-specific prosthetic properties has previously been voiced. Such information is necessary to assist in athletes' prostheses selection. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of two commercially available running-specific prostheses. The running-specific prostheses were tested (in an experimental setup) without the external interference of athlete performance variations. Four stiffness categories of each running-specific prosthetic model (Xtend ™ and Xtreme ™ ) were tested at seven alignment setups and three drop masses (28, 38 and 48 kg). Results for peak ground reaction force (GRF peak ), contact time ( t c ), flight time ( t f ), reactive strength index (RSI) and maximal compression (Δ L) were determined during controlled dropping of running-specific prostheses onto a force platform with different masses attached to the experimental setup. No statistically significant differences were found between the different setups of the running-specific prostheses. Statistically significant differences were found between the two models for all outcome variables (GRF peak , Xtend > Xtreme; t c , Xtreme > Xtend; t f , Xtreme > Xtend; RSI, Xtend > Xtreme; Δ L, Xtreme > Xtend; p prosthetic choice. Physiologically and metabolically, a short sprint event (i.e. 100 m) places different demands on the athlete than a long sprint event (i.e. 400 m), and the RSP should match these performance demands.

  13. Equal pay for women in science is achievable

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    x

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... Massive volcanic eruption seen on jovian moon. Astronomers have witnesseda spectacular eruption on Io, the fiery moon of Jupiter. NASA's New Horizons probe snapped pictures (right) of a volcanic plume 350 kilometres high — 40 times the height of Mount Everest — when the probe passed by Jupiter in ...

  14. Oxygen-Binding Characteristics of Hemoglobins from Hypoxia and Hypercapnia Tolerant African Mole Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Jarvis, Jennifer U. M; Fago, Angela

    2016-01-01

    to cancer, and the capability of tolerating more extreme levels of hypoxia (O2 tensions lower than on Mount Everest) and hypercapnia (10% CO2 concentrations) than other mammals. With the view of identifying possible cellular and molecular mechanisms that mitigate the constraints on the exchange and internal...

  15. 18.10 News 768-9 NIBS CS Colin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    x

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... fiery moon of Jupiter. NASA's New Horizons probe snapped pictures (right) of a volcanic plume 350 kilometres high — 40 times the height of Mount Everest — when the probe passed by Jupiter in February and March on its way to Pluto. Results from the fly-by were presented at the annual meeting of the ...

  16. Understanding Turnover Intentions and Behavior of Indian Information Systems Professionals: A Study of Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction and Social Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Vidya V.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the phenomenal growth projected for the Indian information technology (IT) industry, one of the biggest challenges it faces is the high rate of turnover in offshore supplier firms based in India (Everest Research Group 2011). According to recent estimates, turnover rates among Indian information systems (IS) professionals have been…

  17. How many days of walking/hiking in the Himalayas does ONE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The festive season is a time when people are at risk of overeating and weight gain. An active break during this time can help maintain energy balance. Objectives. To determine steps taken during a walk/hike to Everest Base Camp and back and compare estimated activityrelated energy expenditure to a typical ...

  18. 75 jaar van Tydskrif vir Letterkunde – 'n voorlopige verkenning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1933, in Duitsland aan bewind gekom en daarmee 'n reeks gebeure aan die gang gesit wat onafwendbaar op die Tweede Wêreldoorlog afgestuur het. In die toekoms lê die sluipmoord op Mohandas Gandhi; die atoombomme op Hiroshima en Nagasaki; die eerste bestyging van Berg Everest; die eerste ruimteomwenteling ...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 139 ... Vol 80, No 1 (2010), Genetic diversity within and among Southern African provenances of Uapaca kirkiana müell. Årg using morphological and .... Vol 80, No 1 (2010), Preliminary evaluation of effects of Mucuna pruriens DC var utilis. seed extracts on feeding of termites, Abstract. F Everest. Vol 76, No 1 ...

  20. The Effect of Men's Body Attitudes and Motivation for Gym Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudwell, Kim M; Keatley, David A

    2016-09-01

    Caudwell, KM and Keatley, DA. The effect of men's body attitudes and motivation for gym attendance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2550-2556, 2016-The current study integrates men's body attitudes with implicitly and explicitly measured motivation to investigate the role of these factors in predicting gym attendance. Male participants (N = 99) who regularly attended a gym were recruited to participate in an online questionnaire. Participants completed implicit and explicit measures of motivation, explicitly measured men's body attitudes, and reported the average number of gym visits per week. Attitudes related to body fat and explicitly measured autonomous motivation significantly predicted typical gym attendance. Implicitly measured motivation significantly and negatively predicted gym attendance. Results indicate some support for a dual-systems account of gym attendance. Men's body attitudes and autonomous motivation influences gym attendance; however, implicitly measured motivation showed antagonistic effects. Although individuals may explicitly state their autonomous motivation for gym attendance, attendance may also be influenced at the explicit level. Health and fitness professionals may improve gym attendance by focusing on people's reasons for attending a gym, facilitating autonomous motivation in clients, and minimizing the influence of controlled reasons for exercise.

  1. [Reimbursement. Case report: Medical implication as precondition for reimbursement by German health insurance on the example of HRpQCT diagnosis of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Endress, S; Nothaas, R

    2011-10-01

    The main condition that has to be met for reimbursement is the medical implication of the chosen method. This issue is discussed based on the case of a 72-year-old patient suffering from osteoporotic fractures of the spine. Drug treatment of osteoporosis was observed with a high-resolution peripheral CT (HR-pQCT/XtremeCT). A German court came to the conclusion that there is no added value of the procedure in comparison with the well-established DXA. Judges rejected the need for reimbursement in that particular case and ruled in favor of the insurance company, which had originally refused the refund. 

  2. FPGA Implementation of a Frame Synchronization Algorithm for Powerline Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tsakiris

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an FPGA implementation of a pilot–based time synchronization scheme employing orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for powerline communication channels. The functionality of the algorithm is analyzed and tested over a real powerline residential network. For this purpose, an appropriate transmitter circuit, implemented by an FPGA, and suitable coupling circuits are constructed. The system has been developed using VHDL language on Nallatech XtremeDSP development kits. The communication system operates in the baseband up to 30 MHz. Measurements of the algorithm's good performance in terms of the number of detected frames and timing offset error are taken and compared to simulations of existing algorithms.

  3. Post-processing of high-contrast observations of exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladysz S.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-processing of images delivered by the eXtreme Adaptive Optics (XAO instrumentation is a crucial step which can increase achievable contrast even by two orders of magnitude. In this communication I present a new class of algorithms for detection of extrasolar planets from a sequence of adaptive-optics-corrected images. In general, the methods discriminate between real sources and stellar PSF features based on statistics of recorded intensity. The methods are particularly useful in dealing with static speckles which are the greatest obstacle in detecting exoplanets.

  4. Impact of climate fluctuations on deposition of DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane in mountain glaciers: Evidence from ice core records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoping; Gong Ping; Zhang, Qianggong; Yao Tandong

    2010-01-01

    How do climate fluctuations affect DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) distribution in the global scale? In this study, the interactions between climate variations and depositions of DDT and HCH in ice cores from Mt. Everest (the Tibetan Plateau), Mt. Muztagata (the eastern Pamirs) and the Rocky Mountains were investigated. All data regarding DDT/HCH deposition were obtained from the published results. Concentrations of DDT and HCH in an ice core from Mt. Everest were associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Concentrations of DDT in an ice core from Mt. Muztagata were significantly correlated with the Siberia High pattern. Concentrations of HCH in an ice core from Snow Dome of the Rocky Mountains responded to the North Atlantic Oscillation. These associations suggested that there are some linkages between climate variations and the global distribution of persistent organic pollutants. - Our study approves the potential contribution of ice core records of POPs to transport mechanisms of POPs.

  5. Winston Spencer Churchill. Sus Enfermedades y la Medicina de su Época.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rueda González

    2008-03-01

    El robusto y rosagante niño Winston fue bautizado en solemne ceremonia el 27 de diciembre de 1874 en la Capilla del Palacio de Blenheim, por el capellán de los duques, el Reverendo Henry Williams Lule y de inmediato fue entregado a la niñera Mrs. Elizabeth Anne Everest, quien se constituyó en su segunda mamá. Everest era una mujer inteligente y bondadosa que supo manejar con profundo cariño y habilidad a Winston hasta su edad adulta. Falleció de una peritonitis a los 68 años, en 1895 cuando su niño consentido contaba apenas con 21 años.

  6. New Concepts in Digital Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lankes, R David

    2009-01-01

    Let us start with a simple scenario: a man asks a woman 'how high is Mount Everest?' The woman replies '29,029 feet'. Nothing could be simpler. Now let us suppose that rather than standing in a room, or sitting on a bus, the man is at his desk and the woman is 300 miles away with the conversation taking place using e-mail. Still simple? Certainly - it happens every day. So why all the bother about digital (virtual, electronic, chat, etc.) reference? If the man is a pilot flying over Mount Everest, the answer matters. If you are a lawyer going to court, the identity of the woman is very importa

  7. Erosion control and watershed management by Spacelab photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelbl, O.; Depury, P.

    1985-04-01

    The interpretability of false color Spacelab photographs for erosion control and water shed management was assessed using photos taken over Nepal and the Mount Everest Massif. The thematic interpretation was done by a geologist working in this region. Scale limitations, image reproduction, and filtering of the photographs are discussed. Results show that much information can be extracted using relatively simple means. Color infrared photography must be used since panchromatic imagery does not show enough detail.

  8. Dynamic Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwani, Pradeep

    Himalaya! The Abode of Snows! The name conjures visions of the world's tallest mountain range with its celebrated peaks—Mt. Everest, Kanchenchunga, Nanga Parbat,and more. Throughout history the mighty Himalaya have captured the imagination of young and old. How did they get there? What is their history? What secrets do they hide? What do they hold for the future? In this remarkable book, Professor Valdiya shares the answers to these questions and much more.

  9. The Prachanda Path and Oglaigh na hEireann: A Comparative Case Study of the Insurgencies in Nepal and Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    one of the most mountainous countries in the world . It has six of the world’s ten tallest peaks. Mount Everest (Sagarmatha in Nepalese, which means...roof of the world ”) is the tallest mountain in the world . 16Ibid., 9. 17Ibid., 85. 18Andrea Matles Savada, ed., Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies...to utilize an urban strategy and terrorism as their modus operandi to obtain their objectives. Half a world away, the Communist Party of Nepal

  10. Virtual reality simulation for the optimization of endovascular procedures: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rudarakanchana, Nung; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; Desender, Liesbeth; Cheshire, Nicholas JW

    2015-01-01

    Nung Rudarakanchana,1 Isabelle Van Herzeele,2 Liesbeth Desender,2 Nicholas JW Cheshire1 1Department of Surgery, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, BelgiumOn behalf of EVEREST (European Virtual reality Endovascular RESearch Team)Abstract: Endovascular technologies are rapidly evolving, often requiring coordination and cooperation between clinicians and technicians from diverse specialties. These multidisciplinary...

  11. Esiplaanil heli / Harri Slip

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Slip, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Kõrvaklapid hinnaga alla 200 €: AKG Y50BT, Audio-Technica, Beyerdynamic Custom Street, Bose SoundTrue around-ear II, Creative Aurvana Gold, Denon AH-MM200, Focal Spirit One S, Grado SR 80e, JBL Everest V300, Klipsch Reference On Ear, Panasonic RP-HD10, Philips SHB8850NC, Sennheiser HD 25, SMS Audio On-Ear Wired Sport, Sony MDR-100AAP

  12. Generation of advanced fire blight-resistant apple (Malus × domestica) selections of the fifth generation within 7 years of applying the early flowering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlathölter, Ina; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Broggini, Giovanni Antonio Lodovico; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Patocchi, Andrea

    2018-03-14

    The approach presented here can be applied to reduce the time needed to introduce traits from wild apples into null segregant advanced selections by one-fourth. Interesting traits like resistances to pathogens are often found within the wild apple gene pool. However, the long juvenile phase of apple seedlings hampers the rapid introduction of these traits into new cultivars. The rapid crop cycle breeding approach used in this paper is based on the overexpression of the birch (Betula pendula) MADS4 transcription factor in apple. Using the early flowering line T1190 and 'Evereste' as source of the fire blight resistance (Fb_E locus), we successfully established 18 advanced selections of the fifth generation in the greenhouse within 7 years. Fifteen individuals showed the habitus expected of a regular apple seedling, while three showed very short internodes. The null segregants possessing a regular habitus maintained the high level of fire blight resistance typical for 'Evereste'. Using SSR markers, we estimated the percentage of genetic drag from 'Evereste' still associated with Fb_E on linkage group 12 (LG12). Eight out of the 18 selections had only 4% of 'Evereste' genome left. Since genotypes carrying the apple scab resistance gene Rvi6 and the fire blight resistance QTL Fb_F7 were used as parents in the course of the experiments, these resistances were also identified in some of the null segregants. One seedling is particularly interesting as, beside Fb_E, it also carries Fb_F7 heterozygously and Rvi6 homozygously. If null segregants obtained using this method will be considered as not genetically modified in Europe, as is already the case in the USA, this genotype could be a very promising parent for breeding new fire blight and scab-resistant apple cultivars in European apple breeding programs.

  13. An Overview of Advanced Concepts for Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    Weekly Launches” -Inspect & Rebuild. •SSTO -LOx/LH2: ms < 10% -Advanced Structure /Tank. -Aerospike. -Sensitive Design Space. Reusable...Altitude [km] Circular Orbit Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Total Mechanical Energy Mount Everest Pegasus Near Space Dirigible LEO (400km) GEO...Tallest Structure Burj Khalifa (828m) York Univ. (7m) •Above atmosphere. •Above winds. •Minor ∆V benefit. •Multiple candidates. 1. Solid

  14. The mechanics of head-supported load carriage by Nepalese porters.

    OpenAIRE

    Bastien, Guillaume; Willems, Patrick; Schepens, Bénédicte; Heglund, Norman

    2016-01-01

    In the Everest valley of Nepal, because of the rugged mountain terrain, roads are nothing more than dirt paths and all material must be conveyed on foot. The Nepalese porters routinely carry head-supported loads, which often exceed their body mass, over long distances up and down the steep mountain footpaths. In Africa, women transport their loads economically thanks to an energy-saving gait adaptation. We hypothesized that the Nepalese porters may have developed a corresponding mechanism. To...

  15. Improving Scientific Research for the GEO Geohazard Supersites through a Virtual Research Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, S.; Trasatti, E.; Rubbia, G.; Romaniello, V.; Spinetti, C.; Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.

    2016-12-01

    The EU's H2020 EVER-EST Project is dedicated to the realization of a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) for Earth Science researchers, during 2015-2018. EVER-EST implements state-of-the-art technologies in the area of Earth Science data catalogues, data access/processing and long-term data preservation together with models, techniques and tools for the computational methods, such as scientific workflows. The VRE is designed with the aim of providing the Earth Science user community with an innovative virtual environment to enhance their ability to interoperate and share knowledge and experience, exploiting also the Research Object concept. The GEO Geohazard Supersites is one of the four Research Communities chosen to validate the e-infrastructure. EVER-EST will help the exploitation of the full potential of the GEO Geohazard Supersite and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) initiative demonstrating the use case in the Permanent Supersites of Mt Etna, Campi Flegrei-Vesuvius, and Icelandic volcanoes. Besides providing tools for active volcanoes monitoring and studies, we intend to demonstrate how a more organized and collaborative research environment, such as a VRE, can improve the quality of the scientific research on the Geohazard Supersites, addressing at the same time the problem of the slow uptake of scientific research findings in Disaster Risk Management. Presently, the full exploitation of the in situ and satellite data made available for each Supersite is delayed by the difficult access (especially for researchers in developing countries) to intensive processing and modeling capabilities. EVER-EST is designed to provide these means and also a friendly virtual environment for the easy transfer of scientific knowledge as soon as it is acquired, promoting collaboration among researchers located in distant regions of the world. A further benefit will be to increase the societal impact of the scientific advancements obtained in the Supersites, allowing a more uniform

  16. Mobile systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Kristiansen, Martin Lund; Kammersgaard, Marc N.

    2007-01-01

    Development of mobile software is Surrounded by much uncertainty. Immature software platforms on mobile clients, a highly competitive market calling for innovation, efficiency and effectiveness in the development life cycle, and lacking end-user adoption are just some of the realities facing...... development teams in the mobile software industry. By taking a process view on development of mobile systems we seek to explore the strengths and limitations of eXtreme Programming (XP) in the context of mobile software development. Following an experimental approach a mobile systems development project...... running for four months is conducted. Experiences from the project are used for analysis and discussion of the fit of XP in mobile systems development. First, requirements for mobile systems development projects are proposed. Second, these are analysed and compared to the prescribed principles suggested...

  17. Spectroscopic impurity survey in Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttenschoen, Birger; Burhenn, Rainer; Thomsen, Henning [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Biel, Wolfgang; Assmann, Jochen; Hollfeld, Klaus-Peter [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: the Wendelstein 7-X Team

    2016-07-01

    The High Efficiency eXtreme ultraviolet Overview Spectrometer (HEXOS) has been developed specifically for impurity identification and survey purposes on the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. This spectrometer system, consisting of four individual spectrometers, covers the wavelength range between λ=2.5 nm and λ=160 nm, observing the intense resonance lines of relevant Mg-, Na-, Be- and Li-like impurity ions as well as the high-Z W/Ta quasi-continua. During the first operation phase of W7-X, commissioning of HEXOS was finished by providing an in-situ wavelength calibration. The permanently acquired spectra are evaluated to monitor the overall impurity content in the plasma, and serve as an indicator for unintended plasma-wall contact possibly leading to machine damage. HEXOS results from the first operation phase of W7-X are presented and discussed with respect to future scientific exploitation of the available data.

  18. Hot Spots from Generated Defects in HMX Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Christian; Cummock, Nicholas; O'Grady, Caitlin; Gunduz, I. Emre; Son, Steven

    2017-06-01

    There are several hot spot initiation mechanisms that have been proposed. However, direct observation of shock or impact compression of these mechanisms at macroscopic scale in explosives is difficult. Phase contrast imaging (PCI) may be applied to these systems. Here, high-speed video was used to record optical spectrum and for x-ray Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) of shockwave interaction with low defect HMX crystals and crystals with engineered defects. Additionally, multiple crystals were arranged and observed under shock loading with PCI and optical high-speed video. Sample preparation techniques for generating voids and other engineered defects will be discussed. These methods include drilled holes and laser machined samples. Insight into hot spot mechanisms was obtained. Funding from ONR's PC@Xtreme MURI.

  19. Revision surgery for degenerative spinal deformity: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Pasquale; Tarantino, Roberto; Nigro, Lorenzo; Fragale, Maria; Bassani, Roberto; Delfini, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Management of spinal degenerative deformities always represents a challenge for the spinal surgeon. We report a case of revision surgery for adult scoliosis, focusing of most common errors in pre-surgical management and criteria for reoperation. We analyzed the spino-pelvic parameters on the standing whole-spine X-ray and the role of sagittal balance. To restore 45° of lumbar lordosis, we performed a L3 Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy (PSO), along with L2-L3 and L3-L4 eXtreme Lateral Interbody Fusion (XLIF). In cases of adult scoliosis, careful preoperative planning is necessary in an attempt to avoid difficult, expensive, and high-risk additional procedures.

  20. Novel Active Learning Experiences for Students to Identify Barriers to Independent Living for People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Polly; Burch, Lillian; Moore, Katherine; Hodges, Mary Sue

    2016-07-01

    This article describes interactive learning about independent living for people with disabilities and features the partnership of the College of Nursing and a Center for Independent Living (CIL). Using qualitative descriptive approach, students' written reflections were analyzed. Through "Xtreme Challenge," 82 undergraduate nursing students participated in aspects of independent living as well as identifying barriers. Students were engaged and learned to consider the person before the disability. Moreover, students valued the activity leaders' openness, which facilitated understanding the point of view of a person with disability. The value of partnership was evident as it allowed students to participate in active learning, which led to growth in the affective domain. Students became aware of potential education resources through the CIL. This article will guide educators in designing experiences that teach nursing care at the individual, family, and community level for people living with disabilities. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  1. Preclinical Biokinetic Modelling of Tc-99m Radiophamaceuticals Obtained from Semi-Automatic Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-Aragón, Luz G; Santos-Cuevas, Clara L; Ocampo-García, Blanca E; Chairez-Oria, Isaac; Diaz-Nieto, Lorenza; García-Quiroz, Janice

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a semi automatic image processing algorithm (AIPA) based on the simultaneous information provided by X-ray and radioisotopic images to determine the biokinetic models of Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals from quantification of image radiation activity in murine models. These radioisotopic images were obtained by a CCD (charge couple device) camera coupled to an ultrathin phosphorous screen in a preclinical multimodal imaging system (Xtreme, Bruker). The AIPA consisted of different image processing methods for background, scattering and attenuation correction on the activity quantification. A set of parametric identification algorithms was used to obtain the biokinetic models that characterize the interaction between different tissues and the radiopharmaceuticals considered in the study. The set of biokinetic models corresponded to the Tc-99m biodistribution observed in different ex vivo studies. This fact confirmed the contribution of the semi-automatic image processing technique developed in this study.

  2. Aprimorando a Gerência e o Desenvolvimento de Software com Metodologias Ágeis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Andreazza Sganderla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a melhoria da gerência e construção de software utilizando as metodologias ágeis eXtreme Programming e Scrum. São aplicadas as melhores práticas de ambas as metodologias em uma equipe de desenvolvimento de software, em um ambiente em que não havia nenhum processo bem definido de desenvolvimento de software. A escolha pelo uso das metodologias ágeis foi definida, pois atende ao dinamismo do cenário atual, requisitos voláteis, ambiente mais colaborativo e menos burocrático, tendo como objetivo principal o software em funcionamento e que realmente traga retorno ao cliente.

  3. Language Classification using N-grams Accelerated by FPGA-based Bloom Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, A; Gokhale, M

    2007-09-13

    N-Gram (n-character sequences in text documents) counting is a well-established technique used in classifying the language of text in a document. In this paper, n-gram processing is accelerated through the use of reconfigurable hardware on the XtremeData XD1000 system. Our design employs parallelism at multiple levels, with parallel Bloom Filters accessing on-chip RAM, parallel language classifiers, and parallel document processing. In contrast to another hardware implementation (HAIL algorithm) that uses off-chip SRAM for lookup, our highly scalable implementation uses only on-chip memory blocks. Our implementation of end-to-end language classification runs at 85x comparable software and 1.45x the competing hardware design.

  4. First experimental results with the Current Limit Avoidance System at the JET tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tommasi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Galeani, S. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Jachmich, S. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Koninklijke Militaire School - Ecole Royale Militaire, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Joffrin, E. [IRFM-CEA, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-paul-lez-Durance (France); Lennholm, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Lomas, P.J. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Neto, A.C. [Associazione EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, IST, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); McCullen, P. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Pironti, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Rimini, F.G. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Sips, A.C.C. [European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Varano, G.; Vitelli, R. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Zaccarian, L. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Universitè de Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2013-06-15

    The Current Limit Avoidance System (CLA) has been recently deployed at the JET tokamak to avoid current saturations in the poloidal field (PF) coils when the eXtreme Shape Controller is used to control the plasma shape. In order to cope with the current saturation limits, the CLA exploits the redundancy of the PF coils system to automatically obtain almost the same plasma shape using a different combination of currents in the PF coils. In the presence of disturbances it tries to avoid the current saturations by relaxing the constraints on the plasma shape control. The CLA system has been successfully implemented on the JET tokamak and fully commissioned in 2011. This paper presents the first experimental results achieved in 2011–2012 during the restart and the ITER-like wall campaigns at JET.

  5. Characterisation of a neutron diffraction detector prototype based on the Trench-MWPC technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, J. C.; Clergeau, J. F.; Cuccaro, S.; Guérard, B.; Mandaroux, N.; Marchal, J.; Pentenero, J.; Platz, M.; Van Esch, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Trench Multi-Wire-Proportional-Chamber is a new type of MWPC which has been designed to fulfill the requirements of the 2D curved neutron detector under development for the XtremeD neutron diffractometer, under construction at ILL. In this design, anode wires are mounted orthogonally to a stack of metallic cathode plates which are insulated from each other by ceramic spacers. A row of teeth is spark-eroded along the edge of the cathode plates so that anode wires appear to be stretched along trenches machined across a segmented cathode plane. This design was tested on a prototype detector module mounted in a vessel filled with a mixture of 3He-Ar-CO2 at 7 bar. The detector configuration as well as measurements performed on this prototype at ILL neutron test beam line are presented. Results show that the Trench-MWPC design provides uniform amplification gain across the detection area despite the absence of the top cathode wires used to balance the electric field in standard Cathode-Anode-Cathode MWPC configurations. The presence of cathode trench side-walls surrounding anode wires minimises the spread of neutron-induced charge across electrodes, allowing for detector operation at reduced amplification gain without compromising the signal to noise per electrode. Pulse-height spectra acquired under various neutron flux conditions demonstrated that the Trench-MWPC design minimises space-charge effects, thanks to its low amplification gain combined with the fast collection of ions by cathode trench side-walls surrounding anode wires. Measurements also showed that this space-charge effect reduction results in a high local count-rate of ~100 kHz at 10% count loss when irradiating the detector with a small 5 mm × 5 mm neutron beam.

  6. Sines and Cosines. Part 2 of 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines are introduced and demonstrated in this 'Project Mathematics' series video using both film footage and computer animation. This video deals primarily with the mathematical field of Trigonometry and explains how these laws were developed and their applications. One significant use is geographical and geological surveying. This includes both the triangulation method and the spirit leveling method. With these methods, it is shown how the height of the tallest mountain in the world, Mt. Everest, was determined.

  7. Note on the Text

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Since there is no complete modern edition of Shelley’s drama, I have used a variety of texts. For Prometheus Unbound, Tasso and The Cenci I have used The Poems of Shelley edited by Kelvin Everest and Geoffrey Matthews, but I have also noted the stage directions in BSMIX which comprises the intermediate fair copy of Prometheus Unbound which Shelley transcribed into three notebooks for safe-keeping. For Hellas I have used Shelley’s Poetry and Prose edited by Donald H. Reiman and Neil Fraistat (...

  8. Medical Problems Related to Altitude in: Human Performance Physiology and Environmental Medicine at Terrestrial Extremes. Chapter 14,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    high altitude. In A West , J.B., Lahiri, S. (eds.): High Altitude and Man, Washington, D.C.: American Physiological Society, 1984, pp. 179- 191. 17...52. 40. Monge, M.C. La Enfermedad de Los Andes. Sindromes Eritremicos. Ann. Fac. Med. (Peru) 11:1, 1928. 41. Moore, L..G., G.L. Harrison, R.E...York; Liss, 1978, 99 119-136. 65. West , J.B. Man on the Summit of Mount Everest. In West , J.B. and S. Lahiri (eds.): High Altitude and Man. Bethesda

  9. Thin Places

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Sandra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This inquiry into the three great quests of the twentieth century–the South Pole, Mount Everest, and the Moon–examines our motivations to venture into these sublime, yet life-taking places. The Thin Place was once the destination of the religious pilgrim seeking transcendence in an extreme environment. In our age, the Thin Place quest has morphed into a challenge to evolve beyond the confines of our own physiology; through human ingenuity and invention, we reach places not meant to accommod...

  10. Cine club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine club

    2016-01-01

    Wednesday 15 June 2016 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber North Face   Directed by Philipp Stölzl Germany / Austria / Switzerland, 2008, 126 minutes Based on a true story, North Face is an adventure film about a competition to climb the most dangerous rock face in the Alps. Set in 1936, as Nazi propaganda urges the nation's Alpinists to conquer the unclimbed north face of the Swiss massif - the Eiger - two reluctant German climbers begin their daring ascent.. Original version German; English subtitles Wednesday 22 June 2016 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Everest   Directed by Baltasar Kormakur UK / USA, 2015, 121 minutes On the morning of May 10, 1996, climbers from two commercial expeditions start their final ascent toward the summit of Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. With little warning, a violent storm strikes the mountain, engulfing the adventurers in one of the fiercest blizzards ever encountered by man. Challenged by the harshest conditions imaginable, the te...

  11. Inappropriate Dexamethasone Use by a Trekker in Nepal: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nicholas R; Garth, Rachel; Kelly, Nicola

    2017-12-01

    We present a case of inappropriate dexamethasone use in a trekker in the Everest region of Nepal. We aim to increase awareness among health professionals of the possible use of this medication by trekkers and promote knowledge of potential complications. In this case, a previously altitude-naive trekker was prescribed prophylactic dexamethasone by physicians in a Western travel clinic before high-altitude trekking in Nepal. There were no indications for prophylactic medication nor for the use of dexamethasone. The trekker reported that no discussion regarding risks and benefits, alternatives, side effects, contraindications, or dose tapering on completion of the course had occurred before travel. Side effects were temporary, but serious complications may have ensued if it not for timely interventions by doctors at the International Porter Protection Group rescue post. The events leading to inappropriate dexamethasone use in this case cannot be known for certain. However, it is clear that the trekker lacked the knowledge to use the medication safely. Although the efficacy of dexamethasone in the prevention of acute mountain sickness is undisputed, associated side effects and other limitations make acetazolamide the prophylactic drug of choice. Inappropriate use of dexamethasone can lead to severe complications, and such a case has been reported from Mount Everest. Clinicians prescribing dexamethasone must understand the indications and risks, and health professionals at altitude should be aware of its use by trekkers and the potential complications. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Peak heart rates at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    We have measured maximal heart rate during a graded maximal bicycle exercise test to exhaustion in five healthy climbers before and during an expedition to Mt. Everest. Maximal heart rates at sea level were 186 (177-204) beats/min(-1) at sea level and 170 (169-182) beats/min(-1) with acute hypoxia....... After 1, 4 and 6 weeks of acclimatization to 5400 m, maximal heart rates were 155 (135-182), 158 (144-182), and 155 (140-183) beats/min(-1), respectively. Heart rates of two of the climbers were measured during their attempt to reach the summit of Mt. Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen....... The peak heart rates at 8,750 m for the two climbers were 142 and 144 beats/min(-1), which were similar to their maximal heart rates during exhaustive bicycle exercise at 5,400 m, the values being 144 and 148 beats/min(-1), respectively. The peak heart rates at 8,750 m are in agreement with other field...

  13. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  14. El Volcán Chimborazo "El Coloso de los Andes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Izurieta Dario Felix

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Por muchos años se pensó que el Monte Everest localizado en Nepal podía ser considerado como el punto más alto del mundo en todo sentido; sin embargo, un estudio realizado por el Instituto Geográfico Militar del Ecuador (IGM con ayuda del Instituto Francés de Investigación para el Desarrollo (IRD, el cuál consistió en realizar nuevas mediciones considerando el centro de la Tierra como referencia, arrojaron que el volcán Chimborazo es el punto más alto del planeta superando al Everest por un margen de alrededor de dos kilómetros. Gracias a estos nuevos datos relevantes, el volcán Chimborazo ha hecho eco alrededor del mundo siendo un atractivo para científicos y curiosos en general interesados en saber un poco más sobre la geología y la biología del lugar.

  15. The effect of surface treatment of the interfacial surface on fatigue-related microtensile bond strength of milled zirconia to veneering porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Aaron B; Norling, Barry K; Teixeira, Erica C

    2012-07-01

    The success of zirconia-reinforced all-ceramic crowns depends on the formation of a stable bond between the zirconia core and the veneering porcelain. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of liner application and airborne particle abrasion of a postsintered Y-TZP core on the bond strength between the zirconia core and veneering porcelain with or without cyclic loading. Kavo Everest® Y-TZP blank disks were sintered and divided into three treatment groups: airborne particle abrasion, IPS e.max® Ceram Zirliner application, or no surface treatment. The disks were then veneered with IPS e.max® ZirPress veneering porcelain. Half the veneered disks from each group were cyclically loaded. This created six experimental groups: three surface treatment groups cyclically loaded and three not loaded. The disks were then sectioned into microbars for microtensile bond strength (MTBS) testing (40 specimens per group). Specimens were luted to a fixture mount and loaded to failure using a universal testing machine (MTS Insight). The maximum force was measured and bond strength computed. Data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (α= 0.05). Airborne particle abrasion significantly decreased MTBS values (p= 0.043), and ZirLiner application did not have a significant effect on MTBS values compared to control. Cyclic loading did not have a significant effect on MTBS values. The predominant failure mode in all groups was mixed. Airborne particle abrasion of the interfacial surface of the Everest® Y-TZP core significantly decreased the MTBS to ZirPress veneering porcelain when compared to no interfacial surface treatment. Application of ZirLiner to the interfacial surface of the Everest® Y-TZP core did not significantly increase or decrease the MTBS to ZirPress veneering porcelain, compared to the other surface treatments. Cyclic loading did not affect bond strengths in any of the groups, regardless of surface treatment. Neither cyclic loading nor

  16. Biokinetics and dosimetry of a hybrid formulation of 9mTc-BN and 99mTc-RGD2 starting from optic images in a murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo A, L. G.

    2015-01-01

    This work has the purpose of evaluate the biokinetics and absorbed dose of radiation of hybrid formulation 99m Tc-BN / 99m Tc-RGD 2 in a murine model by optical imaging techniques using the multimodal preclinical in vivo image system Xtreme. The used method were the 99m Tc-BN, 99m Tc-RGD 2 and 99m Tc-BN/ 99m Tc-RGD 2 formulas, with specific recognition for GRPr and the integrin s α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) respectively, was injected in the vein tail of three nude mousses with induce breast cancer tumors (cell line T-47-D), by the preclinical multimodal imaging system Xtreme (Bruker), optical images in different times was acquired (5, 10, 20 min, 2 and 24 h), using Images Processing Toolbox of MATLAB these images was transform from RGB format to gray scales and sectioned in five independent images corresponding to heart, kidneys, bladder and tumor areas. The intensity of each images was computed in counts per pixel, then those intensities was corrected for background, attenuation and scattering, using different factors for each phenomena previously calculated. Finally the activity values quantified vs time was fitted into a biokinetic model to obtain the disintegrations number and cumulate activities in each organ. With these data the radiation absorbed dose were calculated using MIRD methodology. Results: The number of disintegration and absorbed dose calculated in MBq h/MBq and mGy/MBq, of injected mouse with the 99m Tc-BN/ 99m Tc-RGD 2 formulation, was: 0.035 ± 0.65 E-02, 0.25 x 10 -5 ± 0.46 E-07; 0.393 ± 0.51 E-1, 2.85 E-05 ± 3.7 E-06; 0.306 ± 0.21 E-01, 2.11 E-05 ± 1.45 E-06 and 0.151 ± 0.19 E-01, 1.09 E-05 ± 1.42 E-06 , in heart, kidneys, bladder and tumor, respectively. The number of disintegration obtained in kidneys is comparable to those reported for Trinidad B. 2014 Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that using optical images and a code for image analyses development in MATLAB, could achieve comparable quantitative results as the conventional

  17. Biokinetics and dosimetry of a hybrid formulation of {sup 9{sup m}}Tc-BN and {sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} starting from optic images in a murine model; Biocinetica y dosimetria de una formulacion hibrida de {sup 99m}Tc-BN y {sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} a partir de imagenes opticas en un modelo murino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo A, L. G.

    2015-07-01

    This work has the purpose of evaluate the biokinetics and absorbed dose of radiation of hybrid formulation {sup 99m}Tc-BN /{sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} in a murine model by optical imaging techniques using the multimodal preclinical in vivo image system Xtreme. The used method were the {sup 99m}Tc-BN, {sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} and {sup 99m}Tc-BN/{sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} formulas, with specific recognition for GRPr and the integrin s α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) respectively, was injected in the vein tail of three nude mousses with induce breast cancer tumors (cell line T-47-D), by the preclinical multimodal imaging system Xtreme (Bruker), optical images in different times was acquired (5, 10, 20 min, 2 and 24 h), using Images Processing Toolbox of MATLAB these images was transform from RGB format to gray scales and sectioned in five independent images corresponding to heart, kidneys, bladder and tumor areas. The intensity of each images was computed in counts per pixel, then those intensities was corrected for background, attenuation and scattering, using different factors for each phenomena previously calculated. Finally the activity values quantified vs time was fitted into a biokinetic model to obtain the disintegrations number and cumulate activities in each organ. With these data the radiation absorbed dose were calculated using MIRD methodology. Results: The number of disintegration and absorbed dose calculated in MBq h/MBq and mGy/MBq, of injected mouse with the {sup 99m}Tc-BN/{sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} formulation, was: 0.035 ± 0.65 E-02, 0.25 x 10{sub -5} ± 0.46 E-07; 0.393 ± 0.51 E-1, 2.85 E-05 ± 3.7 E-06; 0.306 ± 0.21 E-01, 2.11 E-05 ± 1.45 E-06 and 0.151 ± 0.19 E-01, 1.09 E-05 ± 1.42 E-06 , in heart, kidneys, bladder and tumor, respectively. The number of disintegration obtained in kidneys is comparable to those reported for Trinidad B. 2014 Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that using optical images and a code for image analyses development in MATLAB, could

  18. High Impact Mechanical Loading Increases Bone Material Strength in Postmenopausal Women - a 3-Month Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundh, Daniel; Nilsson, Martin; Zoulakis, Michail; Pasco, Courtney; Yilmaz, Melis; Kazakia, Galateia J; Hellgren, Martin; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2018-03-26

    Bone adapts to loading in several ways, including redistributing bone mass, and altered geometry and microarchitecture. Due to previous methodological limitations, it is not known how the bone material strength is affected by mechanical loading in humans. The aim was to investigate the effect of 3-month unilateral high-impact exercise program on bone material properties and microarchitecture in healthy postmenopausal women. A total of 20, healthy and inactive, postmenopausal women (55.6 ± 2.3 years (mean ± standard deviation (SD))) were included and asked to perform an exercise program of daily one-legged jumps (with incremental number, from 3 × 10 to 4 × 20 jumps/day) during three months. All participants were asked to register their performed jumps in a structured daily diary. The participants chose one leg as intervention leg and the other leg was used as control. The operators were blinded to participant's choice of leg for intervention. The predefined primary outcome was change in bone material strength index (BMSi), measured at the mid tibia with a handheld reference probe indentation instrument (Osteoprobe®). Bone microstructure, geometry and density was measured with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (XtremeCT) at the ultradistal and at 14% of the tibia bone length (distal). Differences were analyzed by related samples Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall compliance to the jumping program was 93.6%. Relative to the control leg, BMSi of the intervention leg increased 7% or 0.89 SD (p = 0.046) but no differences were seen for any of the XtremeCT-derived bone parameters. In conclusion, a unilateral high-impact loading program increased BMSi in postmenopausal women rapidly without affecting bone microstructure, geometry or density, indicating that intense mechanical loading has the ability to rapidly improve bone material properties prior to changes in bone mass or structure. This article is protected by

  19. Landscapes of Mars A Visual Tour

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Gregory L

    2008-01-01

    Landscapes of Mars is essentially a picture book that provides a visual tour of Mars. All the major regions and topographical features will be shown and supplemented with chapter introductions and extended captions. In a way, think of it as a visual tourist guide. Other topics covered are Martian uplands on the order of the elevation of Mt. Everest, Giant volcanoes and a rift system, the Grand Canyon of Mars, craters and the absence of craters over large regions (erosion), and wind shadows around craters, sand dunes, and dust devils. The book includes discussions on the search for water (braided channels, seepage, sedimentary layering, etc.) as well as on the Viking mission search for life, Mars meteorite fossil bacteria controversy, and planetary protection in future missions. The book concludes with an exciting gallery of the best 3D images of Mars making the book a perfect tool for understanding Mars and its place in the solar system.

  20. Psychomotor skills learning under chronic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, C A; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Abraini, J H

    1999-09-29

    Psychomotor deficits are a prominent feature in subjects exposed to hypoxia. Eight subjects exposed to chronic hypoxia during a simulated climb to 8848 m (Everest-Comex 97) were investigated using both a simple psychomotor task (Purdue pegboard) and two complex psychomotor tasks including a recognition task of either a color stimulus (high semantic level) or an abstract sign (low semantic level). Exposure to hypoxic stress mainly produced psychomotor skills learning deficits compared to control study, with greater deficits in the complex psychomotor task. The pattern of results suggests disruptions of motor strategic process. Our data further suggest that the relative strength of implicit or automatic memory processes associated with semantic information processing may increase when disturbances occur in brain functions.

  1. Secrets to Successful Earth and Sky Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafreshi, Babak A.

    In the absolute silence of a desert night, surrounded by an arena of celestial beauties, a gentle breeze shifts the tiny grains of sand around me. There is a patchy glow of light visible all across the eastern horizon. It is gradually ascending over the sand dunes. The glow represents billions of stars in our home galaxy rising above the horizon of our planet. I have seen such dream-like starry scenes from many locations; from the boundless dark skies of the African Sahara when the summer Milky Way was arching over giant sandstones, to the shimmering beauty of the Grand Canyon under moonlight, and the transparent skies of the Himalayas when the bright stars of winter were rising above where the highest peak on Earth (Mt. Everest) meets the sky. These are forever-engraved moments in my memory. Astrophotography is not only about recording the celestial world. It can lead you to a life of adventure and discovery (Fig. 1).

  2. Streets? Where We're Going, We Don't Need Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    2017-12-01

    In 2007 Google Street View started as a project to provide 360-degree imagery along streets, but in the decade since has evolved into a platform through which to explore everywhere from the slope of everest, to the middle of the Amazon rainforest to under the ocean. As camera technology has evolved it has also become a tool for ground truthing maps, and provided scientific observations, storytelling and education. The Google Street View "special collects" team has undertaken increasingly more challenging projects across 80+ countries and every continent. All of which culminated in possibly the most ambitious collection yet, the capture of Street View on board the International Space Station. Learn about the preparation and obstacles behind this and other special collects. Explore these datasets through both Google Earth and Google Expeditions VR, an educational tool to take students on virtual field trips using 360 degree imagery.

  3. Rb-Sr ages of the biotite and muscovite of the Himalayas, eastern Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Kunio

    1981-01-01

    Rb-Sr ages of biotite from the southern flank of Mt. Everest, eastern Nepal, range from 14.1 to 1.3 m.y., the youngest biotite coexists with muscovite of 7.3 m.y. These different ages for different samples reflect the difference in cooling history related to the uplift of the Himalayas. The biotite ages decrease with increasing distance from the high mountain range, suggesting that the high range, i.e., the northern area, was uplifted earlier than the southern area. The relationship between the ages and altitutes of sampling sites indicates that the uplift rate of the northern area was 0.60 mm/yr. (author)

  4. Influence of Habitat Modifications on Habitat Composition and Anadromous Salmonid Populations in Fish Creek, Oregon, 1983-1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Gordon H.; Everest, Fred H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Hohler, David B. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)

    1990-05-01

    Modification of degraded habitats to increase populations of anadromous salmonids is a major focus of management agencies throughout the Pacific Northwest. Millions of dollars are spent annually on such efforts. Inherent in implementing habitat improvements is the need for quantitative evaluation of the biological and physical effects of such work. Reeves et al. (in press), however, noted that such evaluations are rare, making it difficult to assess the true results of habitat work. While it is not economically possible to thoroughly evaluate every habitat project, it is essential that intensive evaluations be done on selected representative projects. One such evaluation program has been underway since 1982 on Fish Creek, a tributary of the Clackamas River near Estacada, OR. Habitat modification has been done by the USDA Forest Service, Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest with funding provided in part by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The USDA Forest Service, Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit, Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), Corvallis, OR is charged with: (1) evaluating the biological and physical responses to habitat modifications on a basin scale; and (2) developing a cost-benefit analysis of the program. Preliminary results have been reported in a series of annual publications, Everest and Sedell 1983, 1984 and Everest et al. 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) report 1988 observations of biological and physical changes in habitat, salmonid populations, and smolt production in Fish Creek, and (2) examine preliminary trends in fish habitat and populations related to habitat improvement over the period 1983-1988. We have prefaced the trends in the latter objective as preliminary because we believe it could take a minimum of 10 years before the full biological and physical responses to habitat work are realized. We therefore urge caution in interpreting these preliminary results.

  5. An in vitro comparison of vertical marginal gaps of CAD/CAM titanium and conventional cast restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Philip L; Gratton, David G; Diaz-Arnold, Ana M; Holmes, David C

    2008-07-01

    To determine if there was a significant difference between the vertical marginal openings of cast restorations, computer-aided design, and computer-aided machining restorations. Ten working dies were created from a single master die and used to fabricate ten restorations in each of the following groups: computer-aided design/computer-assisted machining (CAD/CAM), WAX/CAM, and WAX/CAST. The CAD/CAM titanium restorations were fabricated using the scanning and crown design modules of the KaVo Everest system. The WAX/CAM titanium restorations were fabricated using the double scan technique with the KaVo Everest system. The WAX/CAST high noble copings were fabricated using the conventional lost wax casting technique. The restorations were seated on the master die, and high-resolution digital photographs were made of the marginal area on all four sides. The vertical marginal opening was then measured using a calibrated digital software program. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests were used to determine the presence of statistically significant differences. The vertical margin openings were CAD/CAM: 79.43 +/- 25.46 microm; WAX/CAM: 73.12 +/- 24.15 microm; WAX/CAST: 23.91 +/- 9.80 microm. There was a statistically significant difference between the WAX/CAST group and the remaining groups. There was no difference between the vertical marginal gaps of the CAD/CAM and WAX/CAM. The WAX/CAST technique resulted in smaller vertical marginal gaps than either CAD/CAM or WAX/CAM.

  6. Influence of the veneering process on the marginal fit of zirconia fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorst, P; Brinkmann, H; Dittmer, M P; Borchers, L; Stiesch, M

    2010-04-01

    Distortions in the marginal region during manufacture are detrimental to the long-term success of fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate changes in marginal fit because of the veneering process of four-unit FDPs made from different zirconia materials. Two groups of FDPs with 10 specimens each were machined from white body zirconia blanks (VITA In-Ceram YZ Cubes, KaVo Everest ZS-Blanks) by means of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing systems and subsequently sintered to their final density. The marginal and internal gaps of the frameworks were determined using a replica technique. Afterwards, frameworks were veneered with the recommended ceramics (VITA VM9, GC Initial Zr), and fitting accuracy was evaluated again. Statistical analyses were performed by Student's t-test with the level of significance chosen at 0.05. With one framework/veneering system (Everest ZS-Blanks/Initial Zr), both marginal gap (P = 0.019) and internal gap (P = 0.001) at the premolar retainer were significantly affected by the veneering process. The resulting distortions were directed towards the lumina of the retainers and the mean values of the measured gaps decreased by about 23.8 mum (marginal gap) and 27.3 mum (internal gap). For the other system (In-Ceram YZ Cubes/VM9), no distortions because of the veneering were found. The veneering of zirconia restorations may lead to significant changes in the marginal fit, while the combination of core and veneering material used influences the resulting distortions.

  7. Ceramic materials for porcelain veneers: part II. Effect of material, shade, and thickness on translucency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barizon, Karine T L; Bergeron, Cathia; Vargas, Marcos A; Qian, Fang; Cobb, Deborah S; Gratton, David G; Geraldeli, Saulo

    2014-10-01

    Information regarding the differences in translucency among new ceramic systems is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative translucency of the different types of ceramic systems indicated for porcelain veneers and to evaluate the effect of shade and thickness on translucency. Disk specimens 13 mm in diameter and 0.7-mm thick were fabricated for the following 9 materials (n=5): VITA VM9, IPS Empress Esthetic, VITA PM9, Vitablocks Mark II, Kavo Everest G-Blank, IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max CAD, IPS e.maxPress, and Lava Zirconia. VITA VM9 served as the positive control and Lava as the negative control. The disks were fabricated with the shade that corresponds to A1. For IPS e.maxPress, additional disks were made with different shades (BL2, BL4, A1, B1, O1, O2, V1, V2, V3), thickness (0.3 mm), and translucencies (high translucency, low translucency). Color coordinates (CIE L∗ a∗ b∗) were measured with a tristimulus colorimeter. The translucency parameter was calculated from the color difference of the material on a black versus a white background. One-way ANOVA, the post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference, and the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range tests were used to analyze the data (α=.05). Statistically significant differences in the translucency parameter were found among porcelains (PPM9, Empress Esthetic>Empress CAD>Mark II, Everest, e.max CAD>e.max Press>Lava. Significant differences also were noted when different shades and thickness were compared (Pceramic systems designed for porcelain veneers present varying degrees of translucency. The thickness and shade of lithium disilicate ceramic affect its translucency. Shade affects translucency parameter less than thickness. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Comparison of efficiency and cytotoxicity of different transfection reagents in transfecting RIP140-siRNA into Kupffer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Liu, Zuojin

    2015-12-01

    To compare the efficiency and cytotoxicity of different transfection reagents used in transfection of RIP140-siRNA into Kupffer cells to optimize the transfection conditions. Kupffer cells were transfected with RIP140-siRNA labeled with GFP as the reporter gene using lipofectamine 2000, Roche reagent (X-treme GENE siRNA Transfection Reagent) and puro screening lentivirus (1.0×10(8) TU/mL) as the transfection reagents. The transfection effect was observed under a fluorescent inverted microscope, and laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to analyze RIP140 expression in trasnfected Kupffer cells. Flow cytometry was performed to detect cell apoptosis, and CCK-8 test was used to evaluate the cell proliferation inhibition. RT-RCR and Western blotting were performed to detect the expressions of RIP140 mRNA and protein in the trasnfected cells. Puro screening lentivirus yielded the highest cell transfection efficiency, which exceeded 90%, followed by Roche reagent and then by lipofectamine 2000. Flow cytometry and CCK-8 test showed that the cytotoxicity was the mildest with Roche reagent, moderate with lentivirus, and severe with lipofectamine 2000. The cells trasnfected with lentivirus showed a significantly lower RIP140 expression than cells trasnfected with lipofectamine 2000 and Roche reagent (Ptransfection, as compared with the other two trasnfection reagents, can achieve good transfection efficiency with a relativelty low cytotoxicity, and allows for better controllability and stability of the trasnfectiion conditions.

  9. Distributed chemical computing using ChemStar: an open source java remote method invocation architecture applied to large scale molecular data from PubChem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, M; Krishnan, S; Pandey, Anil Kumar; Bender, Andreas; Tropsha, Alexander

    2008-04-01

    We present the application of a Java remote method invocation (RMI) based open source architecture to distributed chemical computing. This architecture was previously employed for distributed data harvesting of chemical information from the Internet via the Google application programming interface (API; ChemXtreme). Due to its open source character and its flexibility, the underlying server/client framework can be quickly adopted to virtually every computational task that can be parallelized. Here, we present the server/client communication framework as well as an application to distributed computing of chemical properties on a large scale (currently the size of PubChem; about 18 million compounds), using both the Marvin toolkit as well as the open source JOELib package. As an application, for this set of compounds, the agreement of log P and TPSA between the packages was compared. Outliers were found to be mostly non-druglike compounds and differences could usually be explained by differences in the underlying algorithms. ChemStar is the first open source distributed chemical computing environment built on Java RMI, which is also easily adaptable to user demands due to its "plug-in architecture". The complete source codes as well as calculated properties along with links to PubChem resources are available on the Internet via a graphical user interface at http://moltable.ncl.res.in/chemstar/.

  10. UAVs and Machine Learning Revolutionising Invasive Grass and Vegetation Surveys in Remote Arid Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sandino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of invasive grasses and vegetation in remote areas is challenging, costly, and on the ground sometimes dangerous. Satellite and manned aircraft surveys can assist but their use may be limited due to the ground sampling resolution or cloud cover. Straightforward and accurate surveillance methods are needed to quantify rates of grass invasion, offer appropriate vegetation tracking reports, and apply optimal control methods. This paper presents a pipeline process to detect and generate a pixel-wise segmentation of invasive grasses, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris and spinifex (Triodia sp. as examples. The process integrates unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs also commonly known as drones, high-resolution red, green, blue colour model (RGB cameras, and a data processing approach based on machine learning algorithms. The methods are illustrated with data acquired in Cape Range National Park, Western Australia (WA, Australia, orthorectified in Agisoft Photoscan Pro, and processed in Python programming language, scikit-learn, and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost libraries. In total, 342,626 samples were extracted from the obtained data set and labelled into six classes. Segmentation results provided an individual detection rate of 97% for buffel grass and 96% for spinifex, with a global multiclass pixel-wise detection rate of 97%. Obtained results were robust against illumination changes, object rotation, occlusion, background cluttering, and floral density variation.

  11. Application of Open Source Technologies for Oceanographic Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Gangl, M.; Quach, N. T.; Wilson, B. D.; Chang, G.; Armstrong, E. M.; Chin, T. M.; Greguska, F.

    2015-12-01

    NEXUS is a data-intensive analysis solution developed with a new approach for handling science data that enables large-scale data analysis by leveraging open source technologies such as Apache Cassandra, Apache Spark, Apache Solr, and Webification. NEXUS has been selected to provide on-the-fly time-series and histogram generation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission for Level 2 and Level 3 Active, Passive, and Active Passive products. It also provides an on-the-fly data subsetting capability. NEXUS is designed to scale horizontally, enabling it to handle massive amounts of data in parallel. It takes a new approach on managing time and geo-referenced array data by dividing data artifacts into chunks and stores them in an industry-standard, horizontally scaled NoSQL database. This approach enables the development of scalable data analysis services that can infuse and leverage the elastic computing infrastructure of the Cloud. It is equipped with a high-performance geospatial and indexed data search solution, coupled with a high-performance data Webification solution free from file I/O bottlenecks, as well as a high-performance, in-memory data analysis engine. In this talk, we will focus on the recently funded AIST 2014 project by using NEXUS as the core for oceanographic anomaly detection service and web portal. We call it, OceanXtremes

  12. Scientific data analysis on data-parallel platforms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, Craig D.; Bayer, Gregory W.; Choe, Yung Ryn; Roe, Diana C.

    2010-09-01

    As scientific computing users migrate to petaflop platforms that promise to generate multi-terabyte datasets, there is a growing need in the community to be able to embed sophisticated analysis algorithms in the computing platforms' storage systems. Data Warehouse Appliances (DWAs) are attractive for this work, due to their ability to store and process massive datasets efficiently. While DWAs have been utilized effectively in data-mining and informatics applications, they remain largely unproven in scientific workloads. In this paper we present our experiences in adapting two mesh analysis algorithms to function on five different DWA architectures: two Netezza database appliances, an XtremeData dbX database, a LexisNexis DAS, and multiple Hadoop MapReduce clusters. The main contribution of this work is insight into the differences between these DWAs from a user's perspective. In addition, we present performance measurements for ten DWA systems to help understand the impact of different architectural trade-offs in these systems.

  13. In vivo bone remodeling rates determination and compressive stiffness variations before, during 60 days bed rest and two years follow up: A micro-FE-analysis from HR-pQCT measurements of the berlin Bed Rest Study-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Zully; Belavy, Daniel; Baumann, Wolfgang W.; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2017-03-01

    Bed rest studies are used for simulation and study of physiological changes as observed in unloading/non-gravity environments. Amongst others, bone mass reduction, similar as occurring due to aging osteoporosis, combined with bio-fluids redistribution and muscle atrophy have been observed and analyzed. Advanced radiological methods of high resolution such as HR-pQCT (XtremeCT) allow 3D-visualizing in vivo bone remodeling processes occurring during absence/reduction of mechanical stimuli (0 to Induced bone micro-structure (e.g. trabecular number, cortical thickness, porosity) and density variations can be quantified. However, these parameters are average values of each sample and important information regarding bone mass distribution and within bone mechanical behaviour is lost. Finite element models with hexa-elements of identical size as the HR-pQCT measurements (0.082 mm×0.082 mm×0.082 mm, ca. 7E6 elements/sample) can be used for subject-specific in vivo stiffness calculation. This technique also allows quantifying if bone microstructural changes represent a risk of mechanical bone collapse (fracture).

  14. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bartl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe river discharge conditions on a greater time scale. Therefore one major task were the historical searches and the examination of the retrieved documents and the contained information. After analysing this information the development of the river course and the discharge conditions were discussed. Using the provided knowledge, in an other subproject, a historical hydraulic model was established. Its results then again were used here. A further purpose was the determining of flood frequency based on all pre-processed data. The obtained knowledge about historical changes was also used to get an idea about possible future variations under climate change conditions. Especially variations in the runoff characteristic of the Elbe river over the course of the year were analysed. It succeeded to obtain a much longer discharge time series which contain fewer errors and uncertainties. Hence an optimized regional hazard assessment was realised.

  15. Chemical complexity and star-formation in merging galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. A.; Heiderman, A.; Iono, D.; VIXENS Team

    2013-03-01

    When galaxies merge the resulting conditions are some of the most extreme found anywhere in nature. Large gas flows, shocks and active black holes all can affect the ISM. Nearby merging galaxies with strong starbursts are the only places where we can conduct detailed study of star formation in conditions that mimic those under which the majority of stars in the universe formed. Here we study molecular gas tracers in 8 galaxies selected from the VIRUS-P Investigation of the eXtreme ENvironments of Starbursts (VIXENS) survey. Each galaxy has also been observed using the integral field unit spectrograph VIRUS-P, allowing us to investigate the relation between the chemical state of the gas, star formation and total gas content. Full details can be found in Heiderman et al. (2011). Here we report on new results obtained from IRAM-30m/NRO-45m 3mm line surveys towards 14 positions in these 8 merging galaxies. We detect ≈ 25 different molecular transitions towards these objects, many which have never been observed in these galaxies before. Our measurements show that the mean fraction of dense gas increases in later-stage mergers (Fig. 1, left), as does the average optical depth of the gas. Molecular diagnostic diagrams (Fig. 1, right) show that molecular regions we probe are, in general, UV photon dominated. Triggered AGN activity, and/or cosmic ray ionisation (from SNe II in the starburst) are not yet energetically important in determining the state of the gas.

  16. Improved removal of sticky and light contaminants from wastepaper. Final report, April 1, 1995--December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, P.; Kelly, A.

    1998-03-01

    Work under this two-year cooperative agreement addresses improved removal of light and sticky contaminants from waste paper. Such contaminants occur in ever-increasing amounts, resulting from glues, labels, book bindings, packaging tapes, etc., all associated with the waste paper stream. Despite various cleaning steps in the paper mill recycling systems, residual contamination remains, causing big problems with the product quality and with paper machine and converting operations. Some grades cannot be recycled at all. Stickies are truly a barrier against increased paper recycling. The stickies problem was attacked in four project segments--three of those have yielded tangible results. One segment has been outstanding in its success; namely, the development of a centrifugal reverse cleaning system consisting of primary and secondary stages, which have unparalleled high efficiency in the removal of light and sticky contaminants. This cleaning system, consists of primary XTREME and secondary XX-Clone units. Another segment of this work, washing wax contaminated old corrugated wastepaper (OCC), also has resulted in the new Xtrax process which was released for sale.

  17. A Novel Method of Statistical Line Loss Estimation for Distribution Feeders Based on Feeder Cluster and Modified XGBoost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouxiang Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of losses of distribution feeders plays a crucial guiding role for the planning, design, and operation of a distribution system. This paper proposes a novel estimation method of statistical line loss of distribution feeders using the feeder cluster technique and modified eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost algorithm that is based on the characteristic data of feeders that are collected in the smart power distribution and utilization system. In order to enhance the applicability and accuracy of the estimation model, k-medoids algorithm with weighting distance for clustering distribution feeders is proposed. Meanwhile, a variable selection method for clustering distribution feeders is discussed, considering the correlation and validity of variables. This paper next modifies the XGBoost algorithm by adding a penalty function in consideration of the effect of the theoretical value to the loss function for the estimation of statistical line loss of distribution feeders. The validity of the proposed methodology is verified by 762 distribution feeders in the Shanghai distribution system. The results show that the XGBoost method has higher accuracy than decision tree, neural network, and random forests by comparison of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE, and Absolute Percentage Error (APE indexes. In particular, the theoretical value can significantly improve the reasonability of estimated results.

  18. Teorizando as Práticas dos Métodos Ágeis no Desenvolvimento de Software Visando ao Processo de Inovação das Empresas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolci, Décio Bittencourt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian IT executives are being challenged to play an active and important role in the innovation process within their organizations. The purpose of this study is to explore agile software development methods in facing this challenge. We deployed a practice theory framework, in particular that of Orlikowski, in order to analyze practices from seven agile methods – eXtreme Programming (XP, Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM, Scrum, Crystal, Agile Modeling (AM, Feature Driven Design (FDD and Adaptive Software Development (ASD. Results show practices grouped into five underlying factors – learning, iteractive, customer, human and technical; in addition, they explain the shift in focus of the agile development in reference to previous methods, centering on the individual and their actions in social relations in place of essentially technical issues. Findings suggest that agile software development methods have principles and practices better suitable to the innovation challenge than their predecessors do. Furthermore, their practices can aid the organization in the constitution of institutional properties useful to the process of business model innovation.

  19. Avances en las Mejoras de Procesos Software en las MiPyMEs Desarrolladoras de Software: Una Revisión Sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerzon E. Gómez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta la aplicación de un protocolo para revisiones sistemáticas de Ingeniería de Software. En este artículo el protocolo es utilizado como un modelo formal aplicado a la búsqueda de publicaciones relacionadas con las adaptaciones SPI llevadas a cabo en MiPyMEs desarrolladoras de software, en el período comprendido de 1995 a diciembre de 2013, centrán- dose en tendencias, países, y sectores que publican, así como en los modelos, metodologías, estándares y procesos de soporte del software del área de calidad. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que en la comunidad de Ingeniería de Software hay un interés creciente en este tema, por ejemplo, la mayoría de las inves-tigaciones realizadas surgen en el sector educativo. El modelo de procesos y la metodología más utilizada es CMMi y Xtreme Pro-graming, respectivamente. El estándar más utilizado es el ISO/ IEC 15504 y el proceso de soporte del software del ciclo de vida del software mayormente abordado es SQA.

  20. UAVs and Machine Learning Revolutionising Invasive Grass and Vegetation Surveys in Remote Arid Lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandino, Juan; Gonzalez, Felipe; Mengersen, Kerrie; Gaston, Kevin J

    2018-02-16

    The monitoring of invasive grasses and vegetation in remote areas is challenging, costly, and on the ground sometimes dangerous. Satellite and manned aircraft surveys can assist but their use may be limited due to the ground sampling resolution or cloud cover. Straightforward and accurate surveillance methods are needed to quantify rates of grass invasion, offer appropriate vegetation tracking reports, and apply optimal control methods. This paper presents a pipeline process to detect and generate a pixel-wise segmentation of invasive grasses, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and spinifex (Triodia sp.) as examples. The process integrates unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) also commonly known as drones, high-resolution red, green, blue colour model (RGB) cameras, and a data processing approach based on machine learning algorithms. The methods are illustrated with data acquired in Cape Range National Park, Western Australia (WA), Australia, orthorectified in Agisoft Photoscan Pro, and processed in Python programming language, scikit-learn, and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) libraries. In total, 342,626 samples were extracted from the obtained data set and labelled into six classes. Segmentation results provided an individual detection rate of 97% for buffel grass and 96% for spinifex, with a global multiclass pixel-wise detection rate of 97%. Obtained results were robust against illumination changes, object rotation, occlusion, background cluttering, and floral density variation.

  1. XSIM Final Report: Modelling the Past and Future of Identity Management for Scientific Collaborations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowles, Robert; Jackson, Craig; Welch, Von

    2016-08-31

    The eXtreme Science Identity Management (XSIM1) research project: collected and analyzed real world data on virtual organization (VO) identity management (IdM) representing the last 15+ years of collaborative DOE science; constructed a descriptive VO IdM model based on that data; used the model and existing trends to project the direction for IdM in the 2020 timeframe; and provided guidance to scientific collaborations and resource providers that are implementing or seeking to improve IdM functionality. XSIM conducted over 20 semi­structured interviews of representatives from scientific collaborations and resource providers, both in the US and Europe; the interviewees supported diverse set of scientific collaborations and disciplines. We developed a definition of “trust,” a key concept in IdM, to understand how varying trust models affect where IdM functions are performed. The model identifies how key IdM data elements are utilized in collaborative scientific workflows, and it has the flexibility to describe past, present and future trust relationships and IdM implementations. During the funding period, we gave more than two dozen presentations to socialize our work, encourage feedback, and improve the model; we also published four refereed papers. Additionally, we developed, presented, and received favorable feedback on three white papers providing practical advice to collaborations and/or resource providers.

  2. Una Plataforma Web para Gestionar los Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual Resultantes de la Investigación Universitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Schmal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el desarrollo de un modelo de procesos y una plataforma web para gestionar los derechos de propiedad industrial asociados a los resultados de los programas y proyectos de investigación que se ejecutan en la Universidad de Talca (Chile. El trabajo se inició con una investigación exploratoria seguida de la construcción de un modelo de procesos haciendo uso de la notación BPMN (Business Process Modeling Notation. Finalmente se procedió a desarrollar la plataforma web aplicando la metodología de desarrollo ágil de proyectos XP (eXtreme Programming. El resultado alcanzado -el modelo de procesos y la plataforma web-, han posibilitado la formalización de procesos, la definición de reglas, la identificación de roles por parte de los distintos actores involucrados, y están facilitando el monitoreo de las solicitudes de protección de los derechos de propiedad industrial en la Universidad.

  3. UAVs and Machine Learning Revolutionising Invasive Grass and Vegetation Surveys in Remote Arid Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The monitoring of invasive grasses and vegetation in remote areas is challenging, costly, and on the ground sometimes dangerous. Satellite and manned aircraft surveys can assist but their use may be limited due to the ground sampling resolution or cloud cover. Straightforward and accurate surveillance methods are needed to quantify rates of grass invasion, offer appropriate vegetation tracking reports, and apply optimal control methods. This paper presents a pipeline process to detect and generate a pixel-wise segmentation of invasive grasses, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and spinifex (Triodia sp.) as examples. The process integrates unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) also commonly known as drones, high-resolution red, green, blue colour model (RGB) cameras, and a data processing approach based on machine learning algorithms. The methods are illustrated with data acquired in Cape Range National Park, Western Australia (WA), Australia, orthorectified in Agisoft Photoscan Pro, and processed in Python programming language, scikit-learn, and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) libraries. In total, 342,626 samples were extracted from the obtained data set and labelled into six classes. Segmentation results provided an individual detection rate of 97% for buffel grass and 96% for spinifex, with a global multiclass pixel-wise detection rate of 97%. Obtained results were robust against illumination changes, object rotation, occlusion, background cluttering, and floral density variation. PMID:29462912

  4. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, S.; Schümberg, S.; Deutsch, M.

    2009-11-01

    The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe river discharge conditions on a greater time scale. Therefore one major task were the historical searches and the examination of the retrieved documents and the contained information. After analysing this information the development of the river course and the discharge conditions were discussed. Using the provided knowledge, in an other subproject, a historical hydraulic model was established. Its results then again were used here. A further purpose was the determining of flood frequency based on all pre-processed data. The obtained knowledge about historical changes was also used to get an idea about possible future variations under climate change conditions. Especially variations in the runoff characteristic of the Elbe river over the course of the year were analysed. It succeeded to obtain a much longer discharge time series which contain fewer errors and uncertainties. Hence an optimized regional hazard assessment was realised.

  5. Cavity simulator and controller for VUV free electron laser SIMCON 2.1, part II: functional blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Czarski, Tomasz; Koprek, Waldemar; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2006-02-01

    The paper describes integrated system of hardware controller and simulator of the resonant superconducting, narrowband niobium cavity, originally considered for the TTF and TESLA in DESY, Hamburg (now predicted for the VUV and X-Ray FEL). The controller bases on a programmable circuit Xilinx VirtexII V3000 embedded on a PCB XtremeDSP Development Kit by Nallatech. The FPGA circuit configuration was done in the VHDL language. The internal hardware multiplication components, present in Virtex II chips, were used, to improve the floating point calculation efficiency. The implementation was achieved of a device working in the real time, according to the demands of the LLRF control system for the TESLA Test Facility. The device under consideration will be referred to as superconducting cavity (SCCav) SIMCON throughout this work. The following components are described here in detail: functional layer, parameter programming, foundations of control of particular blocks and monitoring of the real time processes. This note is accompanied by the one describing the DOOCS interface for the described hardware system. The interface was prepared in DOOCS and in Windows. The hardware and software of SIMCON was tested in CHECIA. The results were presented. While giving all necessary technical details required to understand the work of the integrated hardware controller and simulator and to enable its practical copying, this document is a unity with other TESLA technical notes published by the same team on the subject. Modeling was omitted, as it is addressed in detail in the quoted references.

  6. Cavity simulator and controller for VUV free electron laser SIMCON 2.1, part III: I/O ports and measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Czarski, Tomasz; Koprek, Waldemar; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2006-02-01

    The paper describes integrated system of hardware controller and simulator of the resonant superconducting, narrowband niobium cavity, originally considered for the TTF and TESLA in DESY, Hamburg (now predicted for the VUV and X-Ray FEL). The controller bases on a programmable circuit Xilinx VirtexII V3000 embedded on a PCB XtremeDSP Development Kit by Nallatech. The FPGA circuit configuration was done in the VHDL language. The internal hardware multiplication components, present in Virtex II chips, were used, to improve the floating point calculation efficiency. The implementation was achieved of a device working in the real time, according to the demands of the LLRF control system for the TESLA Test Facility. The device under consideration will be referred to as superconducting cavity (SCCav) SIMCON throughout this work. The following components are described here in detail: functional layer, parameter programming, foundations of control of particular blocks and monitoring of the real time processes. This note is accompanied by the one describing the DOOCS interface for the described hardware system. The interface was prepared in DOOCS and in Windows. The hardware and software of SIMCON was tested in CHECIA. The results were presented. While giving all necessary technical details required to understand the work of the integrated hardware controller and simulator and to enable its practical copying, this document is a unity with other TESLA technical notes published by the same team on the subject. Modeling was omitted, as it is addressed in detail in the quoted references.

  7. Cavity simulator and controller for VUV free electron laser SIMCON 2.1, part I: algorithms and SIMCON system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Czarski, Tomasz; Koprek, Waldemar; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2006-02-01

    The paper describes integrated system of hardware controller and simulator of the resonant superconducting, narrowband niobium cavity, originally considered for the TTF and TESLA in DESY, Hamburg (now predicted for the VUV and X-Ray FEL). The controller bases on a programmable circuit Xilinx VirtexII V3000 embedded on a PCB XtremeDSP Development Kit by Nallatech. The FPGA circuit configuration was done in the VHDL language. The internal hardware multiplication components, present in Virtex II chips, were used, to improve the floating point calculation efficiency. The implementation was achieved of a device working in the real time, according to the demands of the LLRF control system for the TESLA Test Facility. The device under consideration will be referred to as superconducting cavity (SCCav) SIMCON throughout this work. The following components are described here in detail: functional layer, parameter programming, foundations of control of particular blocks and monitoring of the real time processes. This note is accompanied by the one describing the DOOCS interface for the described hardware system. The interface was prepared in DOOCS and in Windows. The hardware and software of SIMCON was tested in CHECIA. The results were presented. While giving all necessary technical details required to understand the work of the integrated hardware controller and simulator and to enable its practical copying, this document is a unity with other TESLA technical notes published by the same team on the subject. Modeling was omitted, as it is addressed in detail in the quoted references.

  8. DOOCS and MatLab control environment for SIMCON 2.1 FPGA based control system for TESLA FEL part III: readouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprek, Waldemar; Pucyk, Piotr; Czarski, Tomasz; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2006-02-01

    The note describes integrated system of hardware controller and simulator of the resonant superconducting, narrowband niobium cavity, originally considered for the TTF and TESLA in DESY, Hamburg (now predicted for the W V and X-Ray FEL). The controller bases on a programmable circuit Xilinx VirtexII V3000 embedded on a PCB XtremeDSP Development Kit by Nallatech. The FPGA circuit configuration was done in the VHDL language. The internal hardware multiplication components, present in Virtex II chips, were used, to improve the floating point calculation efficiency. The implementation was achieved of a device working in the real time, according to the demands of the LLRF control system for the TESLA Test Facility. The device under consideration will be referred to as superconducting cavity (SCCav) SIMCON throughout this work. This document is intended to be used by end users and operators. It describes step by step how to install SIMCON in specific configuration, how and what software to copy to computer. There is described set of basic Matlab functions for developers of control algorithms. This paper also contains brief description how to use Matlab function of one algorithm with its graphic user panels. This TESLA Report is in close relations with the following TESLA Reports published previously: 2005-05, 2005-02, 2004-10. Together, these Reports make a full SIMCON manual.

  9. DSP integrated, parameterized, FPGA based cavity simulator and controller for VUV-FEL. SIMCON ver.2.1. installation and configuration procedures - User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koprek, W.; Pucyk, P.; Czarski, T.; Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Electronic Systems

    2005-07-01

    The note describes integrated system of hardware controller and simulator of the resonant superconducting, narrowband niobium cavity, originally considered for the TTF and TESLA in DESY, Hamburg (now predicted for the VUV and X-Ray FEL). The controller bases on a programmable circuit Xilinx VirtexII V3000 embedded on a PCB XtremeDSP Development Kit by Nallatech. The FPGA circuit configuration was done in the VHDL language. The internal hardware multiplication components, present in Virtex II chips, were used, to improve the floating point calculation efficiency. The implementation was achieved of a device working in the real time, according to the demands of the LLRF control system for the TESLA Test Facility. The device under consideration will be referred to as superconducting cavity (SCCav) SIMCON throughout this work. This document is intended to be used by end users and operators. It describes step by step how to install SIMCON in specific configuration, how and what software to copy to computer. There is described set of basic Matlab functions for developers of control algorithms. This paper also contains brief description how to use Matlab function of one algorithm with its graphic user panels. (orig.)

  10. Aerial Mapping of Forests Affected by Pathogens Using UAVs, Hyperspectral Sensors, and Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandino, Juan; Pegg, Geoff; Gonzalez, Felipe; Smith, Grant

    2018-03-22

    The environmental and economic impacts of exotic fungal species on natural and plantation forests have been historically catastrophic. Recorded surveillance and control actions are challenging because they are costly, time-consuming, and hazardous in remote areas. Prolonged periods of testing and observation of site-based tests have limitations in verifying the rapid proliferation of exotic pathogens and deterioration rates in hosts. Recent remote sensing approaches have offered fast, broad-scale, and affordable surveys as well as additional indicators that can complement on-ground tests. This paper proposes a framework that consolidates site-based insights and remote sensing capabilities to detect and segment deteriorations by fungal pathogens in natural and plantation forests. This approach is illustrated with an experimentation case of myrtle rust ( Austropuccinia psidii ) on paperbark tea trees ( Melaleuca quinquenervia ) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The method integrates unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), hyperspectral image sensors, and data processing algorithms using machine learning. Imagery is acquired using a Headwall Nano-Hyperspec ® camera, orthorectified in Headwall SpectralView ® , and processed in Python programming language using eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL), and Scikit-learn third-party libraries. In total, 11,385 samples were extracted and labelled into five classes: two classes for deterioration status and three classes for background objects. Insights reveal individual detection rates of 95% for healthy trees, 97% for deteriorated trees, and a global multiclass detection rate of 97%. The methodology is versatile to be applied to additional datasets taken with different image sensors, and the processing of large datasets with freeware tools.

  11. Heavy ion linear accelerator for radiation damage studies of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsaev, Sergey V.; Mustapha, Brahim; Ostroumov, Peter N.; Nolen, Jerry; Barcikowski, Albert; Pellin, Michael; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2017-03-01

    A new eXtreme MATerial (XMAT) research facility is being proposed at Argonne National Laboratory to enable rapid in situ mesoscale bulk analysis of ion radiation damage in advanced materials and nuclear fuels. This facility combines a new heavy-ion accelerator with the existing high-energy X-ray analysis capability of the Argonne Advanced Photon Source. The heavy-ion accelerator and target complex will enable experimenters to emulate the environment of a nuclear reactor making possible the study of fission fragment damage in materials. Material scientists will be able to use the measured material parameters to validate computer simulation codes and extrapolate the response of the material in a nuclear reactor environment. Utilizing a new heavy-ion accelerator will provide the appropriate energies and intensities to study these effects with beam intensities which allow experiments to run over hours or days instead of years. The XMAT facility will use a CW heavy-ion accelerator capable of providing beams of any stable isotope with adjustable energy up to 1.2 MeV/u for U-238(50+) and 1.7 MeV for protons. This energy is crucial to the design since it well mimics fission fragments that provide the major portion of the damage in nuclear fuels. The energy also allows damage to be created far from the surface of the material allowing bulk radiation damage effects to be investigated. The XMAT ion linac includes an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, a normal-conducting radio-frequency quadrupole and four normal-conducting multi-gap quarter-wave resonators operating at 60.625 MHz. This paper presents the 3D multi-physics design and analysis of the accelerating structures and beam dynamics studies of the linac.

  12. Erosive effect of energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol on human enamel surface.An in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Beltrán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the erosive effect of energy drinks (ED alone and mixed with alcohol on the human enamel surface in vitro. Methods: Twenty non-erupted human third molars were vertically sectioned in half. Specimens were exposed to 5mL of ED plus 5mL of artificial saliva or 5mL of ED plus 5mL of artificial saliva plus 5mL of alcohol (Pisco. Exposure times were set at 30min and 60min. Erosive assessments were made using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The ED analyzed were Mr. Big, Kem Extreme, Red Bull, and Monster Energy. ED pH measurements were performed at 25°C and titration was done with NaOH 0.1mol/L. Results: The pH ranges were: ED alone 2.55 to 3.46, ED mixed with artificial saliva 2.60 to 3.55, ED mixed with Pisco 2.82 to 3.70, and ED mixed with both 2.92 to 3.86. The pH of Pisco was 6.13, and Pisco mixed with artificial saliva had a pH of 6.23. Titration showed a pH range from 3.5 to 5.7. SEM-EDS analysis showed that Mr. Big and Monster led to clear demineralization at 30 min and remineralization at 60m in. Pisco slightly decreased the erosive effect of these ED. Kem Xtreme and Red Bull led to no demineralization in the first hour. Conclusion: According to the pH, acidity and EDS analysis, the ED of the present study likely caused enamel erosion in human teeth surface dependent on exposure time.

  13. Exercise during growth and young adulthood is independently associated with cortical bone size and strength in old Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Martin; Sundh, Daniel; Ohlsson, Claes; Karlsson, Magnus; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between exercise during youth and increased areal bone mineral density at old age. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if exercise during growth was independently associated with greater cortical bone size and whole bone strength in weight-bearing bone in old men. The tibia and radius were measured using both peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) (XCT-2000; Stratec) at the diaphysis and high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT) (XtremeCT; Scanco) at the metaphysis to obtain cortical bone geometry and finite element-derived bone strength in distal tibia and radius, in 597 men, 79.9 ± 3.4 (mean ± SD) years old. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about previous and current physical activity. In order to determine whether level of exercise during growth and young adulthood or level of current physical activity were independently associated with bone parameters in both tibia and radius, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) analyses were used. Adjusting for covariates and current physical activity, we found that men in the group with the highest level of exercise early in life (regular exercise at a competitive level) had higher tibial cortical cross-sectional area (CSA; 6.3%, p strength (failure load: 7.5%, p exercise during growth and young adulthood. Subjects in the group with the highest level of current physical activity had smaller tibial endosteal circumference (EC; 3.6%, p = 0.012) at the diaphysis than subjects with a lower current physical activity, when adjusting for covariates and level of exercise during growth and young adulthood. These findings indicate that exercise during growth can increase the cortical bone size via periosteal expansion, whereas exercise at old age may decrease endosteal bone loss in weight-bearing bone in old men. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  14. EUV source development for high-volume chip manufacturing tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Uwe; Yoshioka, Masaki; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen; Ziener, Christian; Schriever, Guido; Schürmann, Max C.; Hergenhan, Guido; Borisov, Vladimir M.

    2007-03-01

    Xenon-fueled gas discharge produced plasma (DPP) sources were integrated into Micro Exposure Tools already in 2004. Operation of these tools in a research environment gave early learning for the development of EUV sources for Alpha and Beta-Tools. Further experiments with these sources were performed for basic understanding on EUV source technology and limits, especially the achievable power and reliability. The intermediate focus power of Alpha-Tool sources under development is measured to values above 10 W. Debris mitigation schemes were successfully integrated into the sources leading to reasonable collector mirror lifetimes with target of 10 billion pulses due to the effective debris flux reduction. Source collector mirrors, which withstand the radiation and temperature load of Xenon-fueled sources, have been developed in cooperation with MediaLario Technologies to support intermediate focus power well above 10 W. To fulfill the requirements for High Volume chip Manufacturing (HVM) applications, a new concept for HVM EUV sources with higher efficiency has been developed at XTREME technologies. The discharge produced plasma (DPP) source concept combines the use of rotating disk electrodes (RDE) with laser exited droplet targets. The source concept is called laser assisted droplet RDE source. The fuel of these sources has been selected to be Tin. The conversion efficiency achieved with the laser assisted droplet RDE source is 2-3x higher compared to Xenon. Very high pulse energies well above 200 mJ / 2π sr have been measured with first prototypes of the laser assisted droplet RDE source. If it is possible to maintain these high pulse energies at higher repetition rates a 10 kHz EUV source could deliver 2000 W / 2π sr. According to the first experimental data the new concept is expected to be scalable to an intermediate focus power on the 300 W level.

  15. Core Radial Electric Field and Transport in Wendelstein 7-X Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablant, Novimir

    2016-10-01

    Results from the investigation of core transport and the role of the radial electric field profile (Er) in the first operational phase of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator are presented. In stellarator plasmas, the details of the Er profile are expected to have a strong effect on both the particle and heat fluxes. Neoclassical particle fluxes are not intrinsically ambipolar, which leads to the formation of a radial electric field that enforces ambipolarity. The radial electric field is closely related to the perpendicular plasma flow (u⊥) through the force balance equation. This allows the radial electric field to be inferred from measurements of the perpendicular flow velocity from the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) and correlation reflectometry diagnostics. Large changes in the perpendicular rotation, on the order of Δu⊥ 5km /s (ΔEr 12kV / m), have been observed within a set of experiments where the heating power was stepped down from 2 MW to 0.6 MW . These experiments are examined in detail to explore the relationship between, heating power, response of the temperature and density profiles and the response of the radial electric field. Estimations of the core transport are based on power balance and utilize electron temperature (Te) profiles from the ECE and Thomson scattering, electron density profiles (ne) from interferometry and Thomson scattering, ion temperature (Ti) profiles from XICS, along with measurements of the total stored energy and radiated power. Also described are a set core impurity confinement experiments and results. Impurity confinement has been investigated through the injection of trace amount of argon impurity gas at the plasma edge in conjunction with measurements of the density of various ionization states of argon from the XICS and High Efficiency eXtreme-UV Overview Spectrometer (HEXOS) diagnostics. Finally the inferred Er and heat flux profiles are compared to initial neoclassical calculations using measured

  16. Development of the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) for predicting the impact of storms on high-energy, active-margin coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Maarten van Ormondt,; Erikson, Li H.; Jodi Eshleman,; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Peter Ruggiero,; Peter Adams,; Foxgrover, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) applies a predominantly deterministic framework to make detailed predictions (meter scale) of storm-induced coastal flooding, erosion, and cliff failures over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers). CoSMoS was developed for hindcast studies, operational applications (i.e., nowcasts and multiday forecasts), and future climate scenarios (i.e., sea-level rise + storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm hazards information that may be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. The prototype system, developed for the California coast, uses the global WAVEWATCH III wave model, the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry-based global tide model, and atmospheric-forcing data from either the US National Weather Service (operational mode) or Global Climate Models (future climate mode), to determine regional wave and water-level boundary conditions. These physical processes are dynamically downscaled using a series of nested Delft3D-WAVE (SWAN) and Delft3D-FLOW (FLOW) models and linked at the coast to tightly spaced XBeach (eXtreme Beach) cross-shore profile models and a Bayesian probabilistic cliff failure model. Hindcast testing demonstrates that, despite uncertainties in preexisting beach morphology over the ~500 km alongshore extent of the pilot study area, CoSMoS effectively identifies discrete sections of the coast (100s of meters) that are vulnerable to coastal hazards under a range of current and future oceanographic forcing conditions, and is therefore an effective tool for operational and future climate scenario planning.

  17. In vivo evaluation of biosensors volumetric bio-distribution for measurement of metabolic activity by X-ray correlation, fluorescence, Cerenkov image and radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez N, G. J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the in vivo volumetric distribution of three folate based biosensors by different imaging modalities (X-ray, fluorescence, Cerenkov luminescence and radioisotopic imaging) through the development of a tri dimensional (3D) image reconstruction algorithm. The preclinical and multimodal Xtreme imaging system, with a Multimodal Animal Rotation System (Mars), was used to acquire bidimensional (2D) images, which were processed to obtain the 3D reconstruction. Images of mice at different times (biosensor distribution) were simultaneously obtained from the four imaging modalities. The filtered backprojection and inverse Radon transformation were used as main image-processing techniques. In the first instance, the algorithm developed in Mat lab was able to reconstruct in the 3D form the skeleton of the mice under study. Subsequently, the algorithm was able to get the volumetric profiles of 99m Tc-Folate-Bombesin (radioisotopic image), 177 Lu-Folate-Bombesin (Cerenkov image), and FolateRSense 680 (fluorescence image) in the tumors and kidneys of the mice. No significant differences were detected between the volumetric quantifications using the standard measurement techniques and the quantifications obtained with the proposal made in this study, nor between the volumetric uptakes in the structures of interest. With the structures reconstructed in the 3D form, the fusion of anatomical (as the skeleton) and functional structures derived from the images of the biosensors uptake was achieved The imaging 3D reconstruction algorithm can be easily extrapolated to different 2D acquisition-type images. This characteristic flexibility of the algorithm developed in this study is an advantage in comparison to similar reconstruction methods. (Author)

  18. Cortical Matrix Mineral Density Measured Non-invasively in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women and a Woman with Vitamin D Dependent Rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cherie Y; Zebaze, Roger; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Seeman, Ego

    2018-02-28

    Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) may be due to reduced mineralized bone matrix volume, incomplete secondary mineralization or reduced primary mineralization. As bone biopsy is invasive, we hypothesized that non-invasive image acquisition at high resolution can accurately quantify matrix mineral density (MMD). Quantification of MMD was confined to voxels attenuation photons above 80% of that produced by fully mineralized bone matrix because attenuation at this level is due to variation in mineralization not porosity. To assess accuracy, 9 cadaveric distal radii were imaged at a voxel size of 82 microns using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT, XtremeCT, Scanco Medical AG, Switzerland) and compared with VivaCT 40 (µCT) at 19 microns voxel size. Associations between MMD and porosity were studied in 94 heathy vitamin D replete pre-menopausal, 77 post-menopausal women, and in a 27 year-old woman with vitamin-D Dependent Rickets (VDDR). Microstructure and MMD were quantified using StrAx (StraxCorp, Melbourne, Australia). MMD measured by HR-pQCT and µCT correlated (R = 0.87; p woman with VDDR, MMD was 5.6 SD lower, and porosity was 5.6 SD higher, than the respective trait means in premenopausal women. BMD was reduced (Z scores femoral neck - 4.3 SD, lumbar spine - 3.8 SD). Low radiation HR-pQCT may facilitate non-invasive quantification of bone's MMD and microstructure in health, disease and during treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo evaluation of biosensors volumetric bio-distribution for measurement of metabolic activity by X-ray correlation, fluorescence, Cerenkov image and radioisotope; Evaluacion in vivo de la biodistribucion volumetrica de biosensores para medicion de la actividad metabolica por correlacion de rayos X, fluorescencia, imagen Cerenkov y radioisotopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez N, G. J.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the in vivo volumetric distribution of three folate based biosensors by different imaging modalities (X-ray, fluorescence, Cerenkov luminescence and radioisotopic imaging) through the development of a tri dimensional (3D) image reconstruction algorithm. The preclinical and multimodal Xtreme imaging system, with a Multimodal Animal Rotation System (Mars), was used to acquire bidimensional (2D) images, which were processed to obtain the 3D reconstruction. Images of mice at different times (biosensor distribution) were simultaneously obtained from the four imaging modalities. The filtered backprojection and inverse Radon transformation were used as main image-processing techniques. In the first instance, the algorithm developed in Mat lab was able to reconstruct in the 3D form the skeleton of the mice under study. Subsequently, the algorithm was able to get the volumetric profiles of {sup 99m}Tc-Folate-Bombesin (radioisotopic image), {sup 177}Lu-Folate-Bombesin (Cerenkov image), and FolateRSense 680 (fluorescence image) in the tumors and kidneys of the mice. No significant differences were detected between the volumetric quantifications using the standard measurement techniques and the quantifications obtained with the proposal made in this study, nor between the volumetric uptakes in the structures of interest. With the structures reconstructed in the 3D form, the fusion of anatomical (as the skeleton) and functional structures derived from the images of the biosensors uptake was achieved The imaging 3D reconstruction algorithm can be easily extrapolated to different 2D acquisition-type images. This characteristic flexibility of the algorithm developed in this study is an advantage in comparison to similar reconstruction methods. (Author)

  20. Re-evaluating black carbon in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau: concentrations and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoliu; Yan, Fangping; Kang, Shichang; Chen, Pengfei; Han, Xiaowen; Hu, Zhaofu; Zhang, Guoshuai; Hong, Ye; Gao, Shaopeng; Qu, Bin; Zhu, Zhejing; Li, Jiwei; Chen, Bing; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-10-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the second most important warming component in the atmosphere after CO2. The BC in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau (HTP) has influenced the Indian monsoon and accelerated the retreat of glaciers, resulting in serious consequences for billions of Asian residents. Although a number of related studies have been conducted in this region, the BC concentrations and deposition rates remain poorly constrained. Because of the presence of arid environments and the potential influence of carbonates in mineral dust (MD), the reported BC concentrations in the HTP are overestimated. In addition, large discrepancies have been reported among the BC deposition derived from lake cores, ice cores, snow pits and models. Therefore, the actual BC concentration and deposition values in this sensitive region must be determined. A comparison between the BC concentrations in acid (HCl)-treated and untreated total suspected particle samples from the HTP showed that the BC concentrations previously reported for the Nam Co station (central part of the HTP) and the Everest station (northern slope of the central Himalayas) were overestimated by approximately 52 ± 35 and 39 ± 24 %, respectively, because of the influence of carbonates in MD. Additionally, the organic carbon (OC) levels were overestimated by approximately 22 ± 10 and 22 ± 12 % for the same reason. Based on previously reported values from the study region, we propose that the actual BC concentrations at the Nam Co and Everest stations are 61 and 154 ng m-3, respectively. Furthermore, a comprehensive comparison of the BC deposition rates obtained via different methods indicated that the deposition of BC in HTP lake cores was mainly related to river sediment transport from the lake basin as a result of climate change (e.g., increases in temperature and precipitation) and that relatively little BC deposition occurred via atmospheric deposition. Therefore, previously reported BC deposition rates from lake

  1. Repairability of CAD/CAM high-density PMMA- and composite-based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Annette; Stucki, Lukas; Hoffmann, Robin; Attin, Thomas; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to analyse the shear bond strength of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)- and composite-based polymer materials repaired with a conventional methacrylate-based composite after different surface pretreatments. Each 48 specimens was prepared from six different CAD/CAM polymer materials (Ambarino high-class, artBloc Temp, CAD-Temp, Lava Ultimate, Telio CAD, Everest C-Temp) and a conventional dimethacrylate-based composite (Filtek Supreme XTE, control) and aged by thermal cycling (5000 cycles, 5-55 °C). The surfaces were left untreated or were pretreated by mechanical roughening, aluminium oxide air abrasion or silica coating/silanization (each subgroup n = 12). The surfaces were further conditioned with an etch&rinse adhesive (OptiBond FL) before the repair composite (Filtek Supreme XTE) was adhered to the surface. After further thermal cycling, shear bond strength was tested, and failure modes were assessed. Shear bond strength was statistically analysed by two- and one-way ANOVAs and Weibull statistics, failure mode by chi(2) test (p ≤ 0.05). Shear bond strength was highest for silica coating/silanization > aluminium oxide air abrasion = mechanical roughening > no surface pretreatment. Independently of the repair pretreatment, highest bond strength values were observed in the control group and for the composite-based Everest C-Temp and Ambarino high-class, while PMMA-based materials (artBloc Temp, CAD-Temp and Telio CAD) presented significantly lowest values. For all materials, repair without any surface pretreatment resulted in adhesive failures only, which mostly were reduced when surface pretreatment was performed. Repair of CAD/CAM high-density polymers requires surface pretreatment prior to adhesive and composite application. However, four out of six of the tested CAD/CAM materials did not achieve the repair bond strength of a conventional dimethacrylate

  2. De-Trending K2 Exoplanet Targets for High Spacecraft Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Nicholas; Luger, Rodrigo; Barnes, Rory

    2018-01-01

    After the failure of two reaction wheels, the Kepler space telescope lost its fine pointing ability and entered a new phase of observation, K2. Targets observed by K2 have high motion relative to the detector and K2 light curves have higher noise than Kepler observations. Despite the increased noise, systematics removal pipelines such as K2SFF and EVEREST have enabled continued high-precision transiting planet science with the telescope, resulting in the detection of hundreds of new exoplanets. However, as the spacecraft begins to run out of fuel, sputtering will drive large and random variations in pointing that can prevent detection of exoplanets during the remaining 5 campaigns. In general, higher motion will spread the stellar point spread function (PSF) across more pixels during a campaign, which increases the number of degrees of freedom in the noise component and significantly reduces the de-trending power of traditional systematics removal methods. We use a model of the Kepler CCD combined with pixel-level information of a large number of stars across the detector to improve the performance of the EVEREST pipeline at high motion. We also consider the problem of increased crowding for static apertures in the high-motion regime and develop pixel response function (PRF)-fitting techniques to mitigate contamination and maximize the de-trending power. We assess the performance of our code by simulating sputtering events and assessing exoplanet detection efficiency with transit injection/recovery tests. We find that targets with roll amplitudes of up to 8 pixels, approximately 15 times K2 roll, can be de-trended within 2 to 3 factors of current K2 photometric precision for stars up to 14th magnitude. Achieved recovery precision allows detection of small planets around 11th and 12th magnitude stars. These methods can be applied to the light curves of K2 targets for existing and future campaigns to ensure that precision exoplanet science can still be performed

  3. Multiple Carrying Capacities from a management-oriented perspective to operationalize sustainable tourism in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Manfredi, Emanuela C; Caroli, Paolo; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni

    2013-10-15

    This article describes how the concept of Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) has shifted from a uni-dimensional approach to incorporating environmental, social and political aspects. This shift is demonstrated by a study of a large, internationally popular protected area used by trekkers, the Mt. Everest Region, where qualitative data collected from visitors was combined with environmental modeling using a participatory framework. Tourist satisfaction showed positive margins for further tourist industry expansion, but current environmental conditions limit growth and further development. Space and time dimensions were also considered. We observed that the limits on growth and further development can be manipulated, with a certain degree of flexibility, through investments and regulatory measures. We hypothesized that TCC can play an important role in the management of protected areas only if it is viewed as a systematic, strategic policy tool within a planning process rather than as a unique, intrinsic number that is not modifiable. We conclude that to translate the strategy into action using standard measures, further investigation is needed to balance the various TCC components as a part of a decision-making framework that includes the integration of different cultural approaches and policy needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sand-Strewn Summit of 'Husband Hill' on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Undulating bands of dark and light sand, sloping dunes, and scattered cobbles form an apron around a ridge of light-colored rock that stands in bold relief against distant plains, as viewed by NASA's 'Spirit' rover from the top of 'Husband Hill' on Mars. 'The view of the summit is spectacular where we are right now,' said geologist Larry Crumpler, with the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque. From here, Spirit is looking north-northeast en route to examining more of the local geology of the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater. A few days after taking this picture, Spirit investigated the small, sinuous drifts on the left, located north-northeast of the rover's position in this image. The last previous time Spirit examined a drift was on the rim of 'Bonneville Crater' almost 500 martian days, or sols, ago, in March 2004. The largest light-colored rock in the foreground is nicknamed 'Whittaker.' The cliff beyond it and slightly to the left is nicknamed 'Tenzing.' The highest rock on the ridge ahead has been dubbed 'Hillary.' Science team members selected the nicknames in honor of the earliest climbers to scale Mount Everest on Earth. This view covers approximately 50 degrees of the compass from left to right. It is a mosaic assembled from frames Spirit took with the panoramic camera on sol 603 (Sept. 13, 2005). It was taken through a blue (430-nanometer) filter and is presented as a cylindrical projection.

  5. Cardiovascular events and hospital resource utilization pre- and post-transcatheter mitral valve repair in high-surgical risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Lippmann, Steven J; Krucoff, Mitchell; Hernandez, Adrian F; Curtis, Lesley H; Foster, Elyse; Qasim, Atif; Wang, Andrew; Glower, Donald D; Feldman, Ted; Hammill, Bradley G

    2017-07-01

    MitraClip is an approved therapy for mitral regurgitation (MR); however, health care resource utilization pre- and post-MitraClip remains understudied. Patients with functional and degenerative MR at high surgical risk in the EVEREST II High-Risk Registry and REALISM Continued-Access Study were linked to Medicare data. Pre- and post-MitraClip all-cause death, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure (HF), and bleeding hospitalizations were identified. Inpatient costs, adjusted to 2010 US dollars, were calculated, and event rate ratios and cost ratios were estimated with multivariable modeling. Among 403 linked patients, the mean age was 80 years, 60% were male, mean baseline left ventricular ejection fraction was 49.6%, 83.3% were New York Heart Association class III/IV, 78.2% were MR grade 3+/4+, and 63.3% had functional MR. All-cause hospitalization decreased from 1,854 to 1,435/1,000 person-years (Pproviders seeking to reduce HF hospitalizations and associated Medicare costs may consider MitraClip among appropriate patients likely to survive 1 year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative, qualitative, and collaborative methods: approaching indigenous ecological knowledge heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Spoon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the use of quantitative, qualitative, and collaborative methods to document and operationalize Indigenous ecological knowledge, using case studies from the Nepalese Himalaya and Great Basin. Both case studies applied results to natural and cultural resource management and interpretation for the public. These approaches attempt to reposition the interview subjects to serve as active contributors to the research and its outcomes. I argue that the study of any body of Indigenous knowledge requires a context-specific methodology and mutually agreed upon processes and outcomes. In the Nepalese Himalaya, I utilized linked quantitative and qualitative methods to understand how tourism influenced Sherpa place-based spiritual concepts, species, and landscape knowledge inside Sagarmatha (Mount Everest National Park and Buffer Zone. In this method, Sherpa collaborated in the development of the research questions, the design, and in the review of results. The research in the Great Basin employed collaborative qualitative methods to document Numic (Southern Paiute and Western Shoshone ecological knowledge of federal lands within their ancestral territory and attempted to piece together fragmented and contested histories of place. In this method, Numic peoples collaborated on the development of research questions and design; however they also conducted most of the interviews. In both cases, I selected particular suites of methods depending on the context and created forums for the translation of this information to applied outcomes. The methods were also improved and innovated through praxis.

  7. New Frames for Old Masters. An overview of the British Library's Acetate Transfer programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Ryan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available After the second International Round Table on acetate microfilm, the British Library decided to top slice from its annual preservation budget, £200k every year for five years to address its cellulose acetate problem. We did this by instigating a programme of base transfer, transferring the frames from the old acetate masters onto new polyester stock. It proved to be quite a challenge and this paper reproduces largely the presentation given at CAMF, which was an overview of the background to the project and its progress. Twenty three million feet. Not a centipedes' picnic, but the amount of acetate microfilm the British Library has in its collections. A sobering statistic. But what does it really mean? Well, if we rolled it all out, it would be enough to stretch all the way from New York to Moscow. Or, for the more vertically minded, if we piled it all up, it would be taller than not just 1 Mount Everest, but 809. That represents a pretty huge problem whichever way you look at it and my first thought when it was handed to me was, 'where on earth do we start?'

  8. CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian IVANUS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has been a tremendous innovation, through which applications became available online, accessible through an Internet connection and using any computing device (computer, smartphone or tablet. According to one of the most recent studies conducted in 2012 by Everest Group and Cloud Connect, 57% of companies said they already use SaaS application (Software as a Service, and 38% reported using standard tools PaaS (Platform as a Service. However, in the most cases, the users of these solutions highlighted the fact that one of the main obstacles in the development of this technology is the fact that, in cloud, the application is not available without an Internet connection. The new challenge of the cloud system has become now the offline, specifically accessing SaaS applications without being connected to the Internet. This topic is directly related to user productivity within companies as productivity growth is one of the key promises of cloud computing system applications transformation. The aim of this paper is the presentation of some important aspects related to the offline cloud system and regulatory trends in the European Union (EU.

  9. Evaluation and modification of commercial infra-red transducers for leaf temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Bruce; Droter, Matt; Monje, Oscar; Tanner, Bertrand

    1998-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the leaf to air temperature gradient is crucial for the determination of stomatal conductance and other plant responses in both single leaves and in plant canopies. This gradient is often less than 1 ° C, which means that leaf temperature must be known to within about +/-0.1 ° C. This is a challenging task, but new, miniature infra-red transducers from Exergen Corporation (Newton, MA) and Everest Interscience (Tucson, AZ) can be modified and calibrated to achieve this accuracy. The sensors must be modified to add thermal mass and the Exergen sensor requires a measurement of sensor body temperature. Significant error is caused by the discharge of a capacitor in the standard Exergen sensor, but we tested it without the capacitor. The sensors respond rapidly to changes in target temperature, but require 2 to 10 minutes to respond to changes in sensor body temperature, which is often the largest source of error. A new, sensitive method for measuring field of view indicates substantial peripheral vision for both sensors and a wider field of view than specified by the manufacturers. Here we describe sensor output as a function of target and sensor body temperatures, and provide a generic (sensor independent) equation that can be used to achieve +/-0.2 C accuracy with Exergen sensors. The equation was developed and verified using two black body calibrators.

  10. Crescent-shaped Earth and Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon -- the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft -- was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA's Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles (11.66 million kilometers) from Earth. The Moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager. In the picture are eastern Asia, the western Pacific Ocean and part of the Arctic. Voyager 1 was directly above Mt. Everest (on the night side of the planet at 25 degrees north latitude) when the picture was taken. The photo was made from three images taken through color filters, then processed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab. Because the Earth is many times brighter than the Moon, the Moon was artificially brightened by a factor of three relative to the Earth by computer enhancement so that both bodies would show clearly in the print. Voyager 2 was launched Aug. 20, 1977, followed by Voyager 1 on Sept. 5, 1977, en route to encounters at Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980 and 1981. JPL manages the Voyager mission for NASA.

  11. Crescent Earth and Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon -- the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft -- was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA's Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles (11.66 million kilometers) from Earth. The Moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager. In the picture are eastern Asia, the western Pacific Ocean and part of the Arctic. Voyager 1 was directly above Mt. Everest (on the night side of the planet at 25 degrees north latitude) when the picture was taken. The photo was made from three images taken through color filters, then processed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab. Because the Earth is many times brighter than the Moon, the Moon was artificially brightened by a factor of three relative to the Earth by computer enhancement so that both bodies would show clearly in the print. Voyager 2 was launched Aug. 20, 1977, followed by Voyager 1 on Sept. 5, 1977, en route to encounters at Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980 and 1981. JPL manages the Voyager mission for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  12. Quantifying energy and mass transfer in crop canopies: sensors for measurement of temperature and air velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, B.; Monje, O.; Tanner, B.

    1996-01-01

    Here we report on the in situ performance of inexpensive, miniature sensors that have increased our ability to measure mass and energy fluxes from plant canopies in controlled environments: 1. Surface temperature. Canopy temperature measurements indicate changes in stomatal aperture and thus latent and sensible heat fluxes. Infrared transducers from two manufacturers (Exergen Corporation, Newton, MA; and Everest Interscience, Tucson, AZ, USA) have recently become available. Transducer accuracy matched that of a more expensive hand-held infrared thermometer. 2. Air velocity varies above and within plant canopies and is an important component in mass and energy transfer models. We tested commercially-available needle, heat-transfer anemometers (1 x 50 mm cylinder) that consist of a fine-wire thermocouple and a heater inside a hypodermic needle. The needle is heated and wind speed determined from the temperature rise above ambient. These sensors are particularly useful in measuring the low wind speeds found within plant canopies. 3. Accurate measurements of air temperature adjacent to plant leaves facilitates transport phenomena modeling. We quantified the effect of radiation and air velocity on temperature rise in thermocouples from 10 to 500 micrometers. At high radiation loads and low wind speeds, temperature errors were as large as 7 degrees C above air temperature.

  13. South Asian Aerosols: Observations and regional scale modeling perspectives from the Nepal Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, B.; Bonasoni, P.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Duchi, R.; Calzolari, F.; Landi, T.; Putero, D.; Fuzzi, S.; Decesari, S.; Vuillermoz, E.; Stocchi, P.; Verza, G.; Kulkarni, S.

    2012-12-01

    SHARE (Stations at High Altitude Research on the Environment) project is promoted by Ev-K2-CNR and funded by the Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) through the Italian National Research Council (CNR). Today SHARE monitoring stations span four continents around the globe. This paper will present the results from the SHARE-Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P) monitoring station located in the foothills of Mount Everest at an altitude of 5079 m.a.s.l. NCO-P is also one of the Global AtmosphericWatch stations of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO-GAW) and is the only currently operating GAW station in South Asia and the highest station of the UNEP ABC (Atmospheric Brown Clouds) project. Results obtained from the monitoring of aerosols and trace gases for multi years starting from 2006 will be presented. Seasonal distribution, composition, case studies and events related to high aerosol loadings will be discussed. A regional scale meteorological / chemical transport modeling projecthas been initiated to help put the measurements in perspective and provide decision support for policy makers. The paper will also describe themodeling framework,modeled case studiesillustrating sectoral and regional contribution to the aerosol loading over the Himalayan region will be presented.

  14. On the water hazards in the trans-boundary Kosi River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N. Sh.; Hu, G. Sh.; Deng, W.; Khanal, N.; Zhu, Y. H.; Han, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges River, which passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71 500 km2, the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8848 m of Mt Everest to 60 m of the Ganges Plain) and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacial lake outburst, debris flow, landslides, flooding, drought, soil erosion and sedimentation. This paper describes the characteristics of water hazards in the basin, based on the literature review and site investigation covering hydrology, meteorology, geology, geomorphology and socio-economics. Glacial lake outbursts are a huge threat to the local population in the region and they usually further trigger landslides and debris flows. Floods are usually a result of interaction between man-made hydraulic structures and the natural environment. Debris flows are widespread and occur in clusters. Droughts tend to last over long periods and affect vast areas. Rapid population increase, the decline of ecosystems and climate change could further exacerbate various hazards in the region. The paper has proposed a set of mitigating strategies and measures. It is an arduous challenge to implement them in practice. More investigations are needed to fill in the knowledge gaps.

  15. Virtual reality simulation for the optimization of endovascular procedures: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudarakanchana N

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nung Rudarakanchana,1 Isabelle Van Herzeele,2 Liesbeth Desender,2 Nicholas JW Cheshire1 1Department of Surgery, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, BelgiumOn behalf of EVEREST (European Virtual reality Endovascular RESearch TeamAbstract: Endovascular technologies are rapidly evolving, often requiring coordination and cooperation between clinicians and technicians from diverse specialties. These multidisciplinary interactions lead to challenges that are reflected in the high rate of errors occurring during endovascular procedures. Endovascular virtual reality (VR simulation has evolved from simple benchtop devices to full physic simulators with advanced haptics and dynamic imaging and physiological controls. The latest developments in this field include the use of fully immersive simulated hybrid angiosuites to train whole endovascular teams in crisis resource management and novel technologies that enable practitioners to build VR simulations based on patient-specific anatomy. As our understanding of the skills, both technical and nontechnical, required for optimal endovascular performance improves, the requisite tools for objective assessment of these skills are being developed and will further enable the use of VR simulation in the training and assessment of endovascular interventionalists and their entire teams. Simulation training that allows deliberate practice without danger to patients may be key to bridging the gap between new endovascular technology and improved patient outcomes.Keywords: virtual reality, simulation, endovascular, aneurysm

  16. Antioxidant activity of a novel synthetic hexa-peptide derived from an enzymatic hydrolysate of duck skin by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Cheong, Sun Hee; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kwon, Hyuck-Ju; Kang, Seo-Hee; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2013-12-01

    A peptide was synthesized on the basis of our previous study from solid phase peptide synthesis using ASP48S (Peptron Inc.) and identified by the reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Vydac Everest C18 column. The molecular mass of the peptide found to be 693.90 Da, and the amino acid sequences of the peptide was Trp-Tyr-Pro-Ala-Ala-Pro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antioxidant effects of the peptide by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer, and on t-BHP-induced liver cells damage in Chang cells. The antioxidative activity of the peptide was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, alkyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity using an ESR spectrometer. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of the peptide for hydroxyl, DPPH, alkyl, and superoxide radical scavenging activity were 45.2, 18.5, 31.5, and 33.4 μM, respectively. In addition, the peptide inhibited productions of cell death against t-BHP-induced liver cell damage in Chang cells. It was presumed to be peptide involved in regulating the apoptosis-related gene expression in the cell environment. The present results indicate that the peptide substantially contributes to antioxidative properties in liver cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation and modification of commercial infra-red transducers for leaf temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, B; Droter, M; Monje, O; Tanner, B

    1998-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the leaf to air temperature gradient is crucial for the determination of stomatal conductance and other plant responses in both single leaves and in plant canopies. This gradient is often less than 1 degree C, which means that leaf temperature must be known to within about +/- 0.1 degree C. This is a challenging task, but new, miniature infra-red transducers from Exergen Corporation (Newton, MA) and Everest Interscience (Tucson, AZ) can be modified and calibrated to achieve this accuracy. The sensors must be modified to add thermal mass and the Exergen sensor requires a measurement of sensor body temperature. Significant error is caused by the discharge of a capacitor in the standard Exergen sensor, but we tested it without the capacitor. The sensors respond rapidly to changes in target temperature, but require 2 to 10 minutes to respond to changes in sensor body temperature, which is often the largest source of error. A new, sensitive method for measuring field of view indicates substantial peripheral vision for both sensors and a wider field of view than specified by the manufacturers. Here we describe sensor output as a function of target and sensor body temperatures, and provide a generic (sensor independent) equation that can be used to achieve +/- 0.2 C accuracy with Exergen sensors. The equation was developed and verified using two black body calibrators.

  18. High altitude-related hypertensive crisis and acute kidney injury in an asymptomatic healthy individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Kawai, Edward; Martin, Daniel; Grocott, Michael; Levett, Denny

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude exposure causes a mild to moderate rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. This case report describes the first documented case of a hypertensive crisis at altitude, as well as the first report of the occurrence of acute kidney injury in the context of altitude-related hypertension. A healthy, previously normotensive 30-year old, embarked on a trek to Everest Base Camp (5300 m). During his 11-day ascent the subject developed increasingly worsening hypertension. In the absence of symptoms, the individual initially elected to remain at altitude as had previously been the plan. However, an increase in the severity of his hypertension to a peak of 223/119 mmHg resulted in a decision to descend. On descent he was found to have an acute kidney injury that subsequently resolved spontaneously. His blood pressure reverted to normal at sea level and subsequent investigations including a transthoracic echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, renal ultrasound, and urinary catecholamines were normal. This report challenges the view that transient rises in blood pressure at altitude are without immediate risk. We review the evidence that altitude induces hypertension and discuss the implications for the management of hypertension at altitude.

  19. Debris-covered glacier anomaly? Morphological factors controlling changes in the mass balance, surface area, terminus position, and snow line altitude of Himalayan glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni; Nuimura, Takayuki; Sunako, Sojiro; Sakai, Akiko; Fujita, Koji

    2017-08-01

    What are the main morphological factors that control the heterogeneous responses of debris-covered glaciers to climate change in the southern central Himalaya? A debate is open whether thinning rates on debris-covered glaciers are comparable to those of debris-free ones. Previous studies have adopted a deterministic approach, which is indispensable, but is also limiting in that only a few glaciers can be monitored. In this context, we propose a statistical analysis based on a wider glacier population as a complement to these deterministic studies. We analysed 28 glaciers situated on the southern slopes of Mt. Everest in the central southern Himalaya during the period 1992-2008. This study combined data compiled by three distinct studies for a common period and population of glaciers for use in a robust statistical analysis. Generally, surface gradient was the main morphological factor controlling the features and responses of the glaciers to climate change. In particular, the key points that emerged are as follows. 1) Reduced downstream surface gradient is responsible for increased glacier thinning. 2) The development of supraglacial ponds is a further controlling factor of glacier thinning: where supraglacial ponds develop, the glaciers register further surface lowering. 3) Debris coverage and thickness index were not found to be significantly responsible for the development of supraglacial ponds, changes in elevation, or shifts in snow line altitude.

  20. Expressing death risk as condensed life experience and death intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2013-08-01

    Some risk exposures, including many medical and surgical procedures, typically carry hazards of death that are difficult to convey and appreciate in absolute terms. I propose presenting the death risk as a condensed life experience (i.e., the equivalent amount of life T that would carry the same cumulative mortality hazard for a person of the same age and sex based on life tables). For example, if the risk of death during an elective 1-hour procedure is 0.01%, and same-age and same-sex people have a 0.01% death risk over 1 month, one can inform the patient that "this procedure carries the same death risk as living 1 month of normal life." Comparative standards from other risky activities or from a person with the same disease at the same stage and same predictive profile could also be used. A complementary metric that may be useful to consider is the death intensity. The death intensity λ is the hazard function that shows the fold-risk estimate of dying compared with the reference person. The death intensity can vary substantially for different phases of the event, operation, or procedure (e.g., intraoperative, early postoperative, late postoperative), and this variability may also be useful to convey. T will vary depending on the time window for which it is computed. I present examples for calculating T and λ using literature data on accidents, ascent to Mount Everest, and medical and surgical procedures.

  1. Solar UVB response of bioactives in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. L.): a comparison of protected and open-field cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josuttis, Melanie; Dietrich, Helmut; Treutter, Dieter; Will, Frank; Linnemannstöns, Ludger; Krüger, Erika

    2010-12-22

    Strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cvs. Everest, Elsanta) were grown in a tunnel covered with two films, which were distinguished in their ultraviolet transparency, as well as under open-field conditions. One applied film was not transparent for UVB radiation, and the second film transmitted 70% of UVB radiation. During the present study, the nutritional value and quality parameters of the fruits were evaluated. Strawberries were UV-unresponsive in view of the content of ascorbic acid and sum parameters like total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity measured with TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity), ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and total phenols. These parameters were mainly affected by sampling date and cultivar. However, HPLC analysis showed that individual phenolics were affected in the absence of UV radiation. The content of the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-glucoside and the flavonols quercetin 3-glucuronide and kaempferol 3-glucoside was decreased in the fruits grown under UV blocking film compared to open-field grown strawberries. By means of the UV transparent film the content of the mentioned flavonoids could be enhanced up to similar amounts like in open-field grown strawberries. All other phenolics were not consistently affected by UV radiation. This result was independent of cultivar.

  2. Rosuvastatin improves endothelial dysfunction in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nidhi; Krishan, Pawan; Syngle, Ashit

    2015-06-01

    Enhanced cardiovascular risk in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) provides a strong rationale for early therapeutical intervention. In view of the proven benefit of statins in atherosclerotic vascular disease, we aimed to investigate the effect of rosuvastatin on endothelial dysfunction (ED) and inflammatory disease activity in AS. In a single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study, 32 AS patients were randomized to receive 24 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg/day, n = 17) and placebo (n = 15) as an adjunct to existing stable antirheumatic drugs. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was assessed by AngioDefender™ (Everest Genomic Ann Arbor, USA). Inflammatory measures (BASDAI, BASFI, CRP and ESR) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6] and interleukin-1 [IL-1]) were measured at baseline and after treatment. Lipids and adhesion molecules (intracellular adhesion molecule [ICAM-1] and vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM-1]) were estimated at baseline and after treatment. At baseline, inflammatory measures, pro inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules were elevated among both groups. After treatment with rosuvastatin, FMD improved significantly (p pathways. Rosuvastatin can mediate modest but clinically apparent anti-inflammatory effects with modification of vascular risk factors in the context of high-grade autoimmune inflammation of AS.

  3. Extensive Microhemorrhages of the Cerebellar Peduncles After High-Altitude Cerebral Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler Hefti, Jacqueline; Hoigné-Perret, Philipp; Kottke, Raimund

    2017-06-01

    Pichler Hefti, Jacqueline, Philipp Hoigné-Perret, and Raimund Kottke. Extensive microhemorrhages of the cerebellar peduncles after high-altitude cerebral edema. High Alt Med Biol. 18:182-184, 2017.-Neuromagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of subjects who suffered from high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) typically shows cerebral microhemorrhages (MH) of the corpus callosum, in particular the splenium, and supratentorial white matter. This is a case report of a 43-year-old male, who suffered from unusually prolonged severe ataxia and amnesia after having been rescued during the ascent to Mount Everest at 6400 m. MRI of the brain 63 days after the incident showed the typical MH in the corpus callosum, but, in addition, extensive MH were found in the middle cerebellar peduncles. These infratentorial MH might reflect the pronounced atactic gait disorder. This case describes the first HACE-associated MH in the cerebellar peduncles in a high-altitude mountaineer indicating a potential vulnerability of infratentorial brain areas to hypobaric hypoxia.

  4. Comparative Field Tests of Pressurised Rover Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G. A.; Wood, N. B.; Clarke, J. D.; Piechochinski, S.; Bamsey, M.; Laing, J. H.

    The conceptual designs, interior layouts and operational performances of three pressurised rover prototypes - Aonia, ARES and Everest - were field tested during a recent simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. A human factors experiment, in which the same crew of three executed the same simulated science mission in each of the three vehicles, yielded comparative data on the capacity of each vehicle to safely and comfortably carry explorers away from the main base, enter and exit the vehicle in spacesuits, perform science tasks in the field, and manage geological and biological samples. As well as offering recommendations for design improvements for specific vehicles, the results suggest that a conventional Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) would not be suitable for analog field work; that a pressurised docking tunnel to the main habitat is essential; that better provisions for spacesuit storage are required; and that a crew consisting of one driver/navigator and two field science crew specialists may be optimal. From a field operations viewpoint, a recurring conflict between rover and habitat crews at the time of return to the habitat was observed. An analysis of these incidents leads to proposed refinements of operational protocols, specific crew training for rover returns and again points to the need for a pressurised docking tunnel. Sound field testing, circulating of results, and building the lessons learned into new vehicles is advocated as a way of producing ever higher fidelity rover analogues.

  5. The mechanics of head-supported load carriage by Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, G J; Willems, P A; Schepens, B; Heglund, N C

    2016-11-15

    In the Everest valley of Nepal, because of the rugged mountain terrain, roads are nothing more than dirt paths and all material must be conveyed on foot. The Nepalese porters routinely carry head-supported loads, which often exceed their body mass, over long distances up and down the steep mountain footpaths. In Africa, women transport their loads economically thanks to an energy-saving gait adaptation. We hypothesized that the Nepalese porters may have developed a corresponding mechanism. To investigate this proposition, we measured the mechanical work done during level walking in Nepalese porters while carrying different loads at several speeds. Our results show that the Nepalese porters do not use an equivalent mechanism as the African women to reduce work. In contrast, the Nepalese porters develop an equal amount of total mechanical work as Western control subjects while carrying loads of 0 to 120% of their body mass at all speeds measured (0.5-1.7 m s -1 ), making even more impressive their ability to carry loads without any apparent mechanically determined tricks. Nevertheless, our results show that the Nepalese porters have a higher efficiency, at least at slow speeds and high loads. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Spine surgery in Nepal: the 2015 earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterlin, Chester E

    2015-12-01

    At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally. Avalanches killed mountain climbers, Sherpa guides, and porters at Everest base camp (EBC). The death toll to date exceeds 8,600 with as many as 20,000 injured. Spinal Health International (SHI), a nonprofit volunteer organization, has been active in Nepal in past years and responded to requests by Nepali spine surgeons for assistance with traumatic spine injury victims following the earthquake. SHI volunteers were present during the 2(nd) major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on 12 May 2015. Past and current experiences in Nepal will be presented.

  7. Selection of the situations taken into account for the safety demonstration of a repository in deep geological formations - French regulatory guidance and IPSN modelling experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Greneche, D.

    1993-01-01

    A regulatory guidance has been recently set up in France for the safety assessment of radwaste deep geological disposal: the present paper deals with the methodology related to the safety demonstration of such a disposal, particularly the situations to be taken into account to address the potential evolution of the repository under natural or human induced events. This approach, based on a selection of events considered as reasonably envisageable, relies on a reference scenario characterized by a great stability of the geological formation and on hypothetical situations corresponding to the occurrence of random events of natural origin or of conventional nature. The implementation of this methodology within the framework of the IPSN (Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute, CEA) participation in the CEC EVEREST project is addressed. This programme consists in the evaluation of the sensitivity of the radiological consequences associated to deep radwaste disposal systems to the different elements of the performance assessment (scenario characteristics, phenomena, physico-chemical parameters) in three types of geological formations (granite, salt and clay).(author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Current treatments for acute heart failure: focus on serelaxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett RG

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert G BennettVA Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Acute heart failure remains an enormous health concern worldwide, and is a major cause of death and hospitalization. In spite of this, the treatment strategies for acute heart failure have remained largely unchanged for the past 2 decades. Several large randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have recently been conducted to attempt to improve the treatment and outcomes of acute decompensated heart failure. Some studies, including the EVEREST (tolvaptan and ASCEND (nesiritide showed efficacy at relieving early symptoms, but failed to improve long-term outcomes. Others, including PROTECT (rolofylline and ASTRONAUT (aliskiren showed little benefit in the relief of early symptoms or long-term outcomes. The recent RELAX-AHF studies using serelaxin, a recombinant form of relaxin, have shown considerable promise. Importantly, serelaxin improved congestion (dyspnea and other early targets of acute decompensated heart failure treatment, but also improved mortality at 180 days. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current treatment strategies for acute decompensated heart failure, and a discussion of the recent clinical trials, with an emphasis on the serelaxin studies.Keywords: acute heart failure, dyspnea, relaxin, serelaxin

  9. Parámetros fisiológicos en caninos pre y post competencia de Agility en Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernando Forero López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se llevó a cabo en la ciudad de Bogotá, ubicada a una altura media 2600 msnm, con temperatura promedio de 14°C. Se realizó un muestreo en el Polideportivo el Salitre y otro en el parque central de Modelia. El objetivo principal fue monitorear y estandarizar los cambios fisiológicos que se presentan en caninos atletas, como respuesta al ejercicio realizado en pruebas de Agility. Se muestrearon 15 caninos hembras de diferentes razas practicantes del Agility, de las escuelas Atalanta y X-treme Dog. El control se obtuvo de individuos en reposo, previo al ejercicio, inmediatamente a su llegada al área de investigación, donde se situaron las pistas para el entrenamiento, que incluía la toma de temperatura rectal, frecuencia de pulso, frecuencia respiratoria y de sangre arterial (arteria femoral. La muestra arterial se procesó con analizador sanguíneo portátil, obteniendo de hematocrito, hemoglobina, sodio, potasio, cloruro, nitrógeno uréico (BUN, glucosa, lactato, pH sanguíneo, presión de dióxido de carbono (PCO2, presión de oxígeno (PO2, bicarbonato, tensión de dióxido de carbono(TCO2, saturación de oxígeno (SO2, exceso de base (BE, anion gap y osmolalidad. Luego se inició el entrenamiento, simulando una competencia real, donde cada canino pasó cuatro veces por pista, y al final se monitorearon, siguiendo el procedimiento descrito para el control. Se compararon los resultados pre y post ejercicio, presentándose: aumento para temperatura, frecuencia respiratoria, pulso, pH, hematocrito, hemoglobina, sodio, cloro y osmolalidad (p<0,001; incremento en los valores de potasio, lactato y glucosa (p<0,01; ascenso para PO2, SO2 y BUN (p<0,05; descenso para PCO2, TCO2, BE y Anión Gap (p<0,001. Se concluye que los caninos deportistas en Bogotá presentan hipertermia, taquicardia, hipocapnia, alcalosis respiratoria acompañada de una acidosis metabólica compensatoria y hemoconcentración por una deshidratación clasificada

  10. Ionic debris measurement of three extreme ultraviolet sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporre, J.; Castaño, C. H.; Raju, R.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2009-08-01

    Generation of debris in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources is an inherent and real threat to the lifetime of collection optics. Debris measurement of these sources is useful to enable source suppliers to estimate collector lifetime. At the Center for Plasma Material Interactions (CPMI) at the University of Illinois, an Illinois calibrated spherical sector electrostatic energy analyzer (ICE) was built to measure the ion debris flux in absolute units. In addition to ion flux, the detector is also capable of identifying different ion species present in the plasma utilizing energy-to-charge ratio discrimination. The lifetime of the collector optics is calculated using the measured ion flux. In the current investigation we compare the measurement of ion debris production in three different EUV sources: the Energetiq EQ-10M, the AIXUV-100, and the XTREME XTS 13-35. In the EQ-10M source, three angular measurements are coupled with three variations in operating pressure to measure consequent effects on debris production. These measurements reveal four predominant ion species in the energetic debris analysis: C+, Si+, Xe+, and Xe2+. The amount of debris is reduced as pressure is increased. Various debris mitigation methods are implemented in the AIXUV-100 source and results reveal that four ion species are observed (Ar+, Xe+, Xe2+, and W+), though there does not seem to be a dominant species. The first mitigation technique, backstreaming argon toward the source, reduces the amount of Ar+, Xe2+, and W+, yet increases the amount of Xe+ The increase in Xe+ flux is explained based on charge exchange phenomena. The ICE machine was then attached 1.92 m away from the pinch of XTS 13-35 source, and placed at 25° away from the normal line. The comparison of results reveals that the XTS 13-35 and the EQ-10M sources produced comparable amounts of energetic ion flux per watt of EUV light produced. The AIXUV-100 source generated more ion debris flux per watt of EUV light than the

  11. The abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquim, Victor; Martines Souza, Beatriz; Foratori Junior, Gerson Aparecido; Wang, Linda; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the in vitro abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded bovine enamel samples in respect to erosive tooth wear. 72 bovine crowns were embedded, polished and subjected to the baseline profile analysis. The samples were then protected in 2/3 of the enamel surface and were randomly assigned to six groups (n= 12/group): G1: Oral-B 3D White, G2: Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White, G3: Sorriso Xtreme White 4D, G4: Colgate Luminous White, G5: Crest (conventional toothpaste), G6:erosion only (control). All samples were submitted to an erosive pH cycling (4 x 90 seconds in 0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, per day) and abrasive challenges (2 x 15 seconds, per day) for 7 days. After the first and the last daily cycles, the samples were subjected to abrasive challenges, using a toothbrushing machine, soft toothbrushes and slurry of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). Between the challenges, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva. The final profile was obtained and overlaid to the baseline profile for the calculation of the erosive tooth wear (μm). The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (Pwear (3.68±1.06 μm), similarly to G3 (3.17± 0.80 μm) and G4 (3.44± 1.29 μm). G3 and G4 performed similarly between them and compared with G5 (2.35± 1.44 μm). G2 (1.51± 0.95 μm) and G6 (0.85± 0.36 μm) showed the lowest enamel wear, which did not differ between them and from G5. Oral-B 3D White showed the highest abrasive potential while Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White showed the lowest abrasive potential on eroded enamel in vitro. This study showed that some commercial whitening toothpastes, especially those containing pyrophosphate associated with hydrated silica, enhanced enamel erosive wear.

  12. The Extreme Climate Index: a novel and multi-hazard index for extreme weather events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2017-04-01

    In this presentation we introduce the Extreme Climate Index (ECI): an objective, multi-hazard index capable of tracking changes in the frequency or magnitude of extreme weather events in African countries, thus indicating that a shift to a new climate regime is underway in a particular area. This index has been developed in the context of XCF (eXtreme Climate Facilities) project lead by ARC (African Risk Capacity, specialised agency of the African Union), and will be used in the payouts triggering mechanism of an insurance programme against risks related to the increase of frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events due to climate regimes' changes. The main hazards covered by ECI will be extreme dry, wet and heat events, with the possibility of adding region-specific risk events such as tropical cyclones for the most vulnerable areas. It will be based on data coming from consistent, sufficiently long, high quality historical records and will be standardized across broad geographical regions, so that extreme events occurring under different climatic regimes in Africa can be comparable. The first step to construct such an index is to define single hazard indicators. In this first study we focused on extreme dry/wet and heat events, using for their description respectively the well-known SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) and an index developed by us, called SHI (Standardized Heat-waves Index). The second step consists in the development of a computational strategy to combine these, and possibly other indices, so that the ECI can describe, by means of a single indicator, different types of climatic extremes. According to the methodology proposed in this paper, the ECI is defined by two statistical components: the ECI intensity, which indicates whether an event is extreme or not; the angular component, which represent the contribution of each hazard to the overall intensity of the index. The ECI can thus be used to identify "extremes" after defining a

  13. Sex-, Ethnic-, and Age-Specific Centile Curves for pQCT- and HR-pQCT-Derived Measures of Bone Structure and Strength in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Leigh; Macdonald, Heather M; Nettlefold, Lindsay A; McKay, Heather A

    2018-02-02

    There are presently no adolescent centile curves for bone parameters at the tibial midshaft using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) or at the distal radius and tibia using high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT). Thus, we aimed to develop sex-, ethnic-, site-, and age-specific centile curves for pQCT and HR-pQCT-derived bone outcomes for youth and young adults aged 10 to 21 years. We acquired pQCT scans (XCT3000 or XCT2000) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) and HR-pQCT scans (XtremeCT) at the distal radius (7% site) and tibia (8% site) in a convenience sample of participants in the mixed-longitudinal University of British Columbia Healthy Bones III Study. We scanned 778 10- to 21-year-olds annually for a maximum of 11 years using pQCT (413 girls, 56% Asian; 365 boys, 54% Asian; n = 3160 observations) and 349 10- to 21-year-olds annually for a maximum of 4 years using HR-pQCT (189 girls, 51% Asian; 165 boys, 50% Asian; n = 1090 observations). For pQCT, we report cortical bone mineral density (BMD), total bone cross-sectional area, and polar strength-strain index. For HR-pQCT, we report standard measures (total BMD, trabecular number, thickness, and bone volume fraction) and automated segmentation measures (total bone cross-sectional area, cortical BMD, porosity, and thickness). We applied finite element analysis to estimate failure load. We applied the lamda, mu, sigma (LMS) method using LMS ChartMaker Light (version 2.5, The Institute of Child Health, London, UK) to construct LMS tables and centile plots. We report sex- and age-specific centiles (3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 97th) for whites and Asians for pQCT bone parameters at the tibial midshaft and HR-pQCT bone parameters at the distal radius and tibia. These centile curves might be used by clinicians and scientists to interpret values or better understand trajectories of bone parameters in clinical populations, those from different geographic regions or of different ethnic origins. © 2018

  14. Validating tyrosinase homologue melA as a photoacoustic reporter gene for imaging Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paproski, Robert J.; Li, Yan; Barber, Quinn; Lewis, John D.; Campbell, Robert E.; Zemp, Roger

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pathogenic processes for infectious bacteria, appropriate research tools are required for replicating and characterizing infections. Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have primarily been used to image infections in animal models, but optical scattering in tissue significantly limits imaging depth and resolution. Photoacoustic imaging, which has improved depth-to-resolution ratio compared to conventional optical imaging, could be useful for visualizing melA-expressing bacteria since melA is a bacterial tyrosinase homologue which produces melanin. Escherichia coli-expressing melA was visibly dark in liquid culture. When melA-expressing bacteria in tubes were imaged with a VisualSonics Vevo LAZR system, the signal-to-noise ratio of a 9× dilution sample was 55, suggesting that ˜20 bacteria cells could be detected with our system. Multispectral (680, 700, 750, 800, 850, and 900 nm) analysis of the photoacoustic signal allowed unmixing of melA-expressing bacteria from blood. To compare photoacoustic reporter gene melA (using Vevo system) with luminescent and fluorescent reporter gene Nano-lantern (using Bruker Xtreme In-Vivo system), tubes of bacteria expressing melA or Nano-lantern were submerged 10 mm in 1% Intralipid, spaced between <1 and 20 mm apart from each other, and imaged with the appropriate imaging modality. Photoacoustic imaging could resolve the two tubes of melA-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were less than 1 mm from each other, while bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging could not resolve the two tubes of Nano-lantern-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were spaced 10 mm from each other. After injecting 100-μL of melA-expressing bacteria in the back flank of a chicken embryo, photoacoustic imaging allowed visualization of melA-expressing bacteria up to 10-mm deep into the embryo. Photoacoustic signal from melA could also be separated from deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin signal observed within the embryo and

  15. GENE TRANSFER ON Betta imbellis THROUGH TRANSFECTION METHOD WITH DIFFERENT DNA CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusrini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Big size betta (Giant have a high economic value compared to normal size betta, and over expression of growth hormone gene can produce giant fish.  As an initial step of giant transgenic betta productions, this study was conducted in order to obtain DNA plasmid concentration which provide higher hatching and survival rate of betta larvae.  Construction of PhGH pCcBA gene contains growth hormone gene of Siamese catfish (PhGH and it is controlled by the CCBA promoter. Betta imbellis broodstocks were spawned naturally, and embryos were collected 1-2 minutes after spawning time. One hundred embryos were dipped in 2 mL of transfectan X-treme gene which containp CcBA-PhGH construction genes (50 µg/mL, on room temperature for about 30 minutes. Treatments on this study were different transfectant : DNA plasmid ratiosnamely:A (0,75 µL: 0,25 µL; B (0,75 µL : 0,50 µL; C (0,75 µL: 0,75 µL, D as Control 1(without transfectant, 0,25 µL DNA; E.as Control 2(0,75 µL transfectant, without DNA, and Fas control 3 (without transfectant and without DNA. Every treatments was repeated three times.  Transfection embryos were hatched on a container (1L Volume. Study results showed that hatching rate and larvae survival rate  (4 days after hatching on treatment A were the same with the control, but slightly higher than B and C treatments. PCR analysis with DNA template showing that PhGH gene were found on embryos and larvae (pooled sample of treatment A, B and C. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis showing the existence of mRNA PhGH expression on embryos and larvae (pooled sample. Therefore, embryo transfection with transfectant ratio 0,75 µL and  DNA 0,25 µLshowing the best results.

  16. A Predictor Analysis Framework for Surface Radiation Budget Reprocessing Using Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Patricia Allison

    available for testing such that global calculations of the algorithm were tuned to accept information for a single temporal and spatial point and for one month of averaged data. The points were from each of four atmospherically distinct regions to include the Amazon Rainforest, Sahara Desert, Indian Ocean and Mt. Everest. The same design was used for all of the regions. Least squares multiple regression analysis of the results of the modified algorithm identified those parameters and parameter interactions that most significantly affected the output products. It was found that Cosine solar zenith angle was the strongest influence on the output data in all four regions. The interaction of Cosine Solar Zenith Angle and Cloud Fraction had the strongest influence on the output data in the Amazon, Sahara Desert and Mt. Everest Regions, while the interaction of Cloud Fraction and Cloudy Shortwave Radiance most significantly affected output data in the Indian Ocean region. Second order response models were built using the resulting regression coefficients. A Monte Carlo simulation of each model extended the probability distribution beyond the initial design trials to quantify variability in the modeled output data.

  17. Fatigue behavior in water of Y-TZP zirconia ceramics after abrasion with 30 µm silica-coated alumina particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Susanne S.; Cattani-Lorente, Maria; Vittecoq, Eric; de Mestral, François; Griggs, Jason A.; Wiskott, H.W. Anselm

    2011-01-01

    Objective The use of a 30 µm alumina–silica coated particle sand (CoJet™ Sand, 3M Espe), has shown to enhance the adhesion of resin cements to Y-TZP. The question is whether or not sandblasting 30 µm particles does negatively affect the fatigue limit (S–N curves) and the cumulative survival of Y-TZP ceramics. Method Four zirconia materials tested were: Zeno (ZW) (Wieland), Everest ZS (KV) (KaVo), Lava white (LV) and Lava colored (LVB) (3M Espe). Fatigue testing (S–N) was performed on 66 bar of 3 mm × 5 mm × 40 mm with beveled edges for each zirconia material provided by the manufacturers. One half of the specimens were CoJet sandblasted in the middle of the tensile side on a surface of 5 mm × 6 mm. Cyclic fatigue (N = 30/group) (sinusoidal loading/unloading at 10 Hz between 10% and 100% load) was performed in 3-point-bending in a water tank. Stress levels were lowered from the initial static value (average of N = 3) until surviving 1 million cycles. Fatigue limits were determined from trend lines. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was performed to determine the failure stress at the median percentile survival level for 1 million of cycles before and after sandblasting. The statistical analyses used the log-rank test. Characterization of the critical flaw was performed by SEM for the majority of the failed specimens. Results The fatigue limits “as received” (ctr) were: LV = 720 MPa, LVB = 600 MPa, KV = 560 MPa, ZW = 470 MPa. The fatigue limits “after CoJet sandblasting” were: LV = 840 MPa, LVB = 788 MPa, KV = 645 MPa, ZW = 540 MPa. The increase in fatigue limit after sandblasting was 15% for Zeno (ZW) and Everest (KV), 17% for Lava (LV) and 31% for Lava colored (LVB). The KM median survival stresses in MPa were: ZW(ctr) = 549 (543–555), ZW(s) = 587 (545–629), KV(ctr) = 593 (579–607), KV(s) = 676 (655–697), LVB(ctr) = 635 (578–692), LVB(s) = 809 (787–831), LV(ctr) = 743 (729–757), LV(s) = 908 (840–976). Log-rank tests were

  18. Modeling the GLOF Hazard Process Chain at Imja Lake in the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, J.; McKinney, D. C.; Rounce, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Hindu Kush-Himalaya region contains more glacial ice than any other non-polar region on earth. Many glacial lakes in Nepal are held in place by natural moraine dams, which are inherently unstable. Avalanches or landslides entering glacial lakes can cause tsunami-like waves that can overtop the moraines and trigger glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF). Mass loss at the Imja glacier is the highest in the Mount Everest region, and contributes to the expansion of Imja Tsho, a lake with several villages downstream. A GLOF from the lake might destroy both property and human life, making an understanding of flood triggering processes beneficial for both the downstream villages and other GLOF-prone areas globally. The process chain for an avalanche-induced GLOF was modeled numerically. The volume and velocity of debris from avalanches entering various future lake extents were calculated using RAMMS. Resulting waves and downstream flooding were simulated using BASEMENT to evaluate erosion at the terminal moraine. Wave characteristics in BASEMENT were validated with empirical equations to ensure the proper transfer of momentum from the avalanche to the lake. Moraine erosion was determined for two geomorphologic scenarios: a site-specific scenario using field samples, and a worst-case scenario based on past literature. Both cases resulted in no flooding outside the river channel at downstream villages. Worst-case scenario geomorphology resulted in increased channelization of the lake outlet and some moraine erosion but no catastrophic collapse. Site-specific data yielded similar results but with even less erosion and downstream discharge. While the models confirmed that Imja Tsho is unlikely to produce a catastrophic GLOF in the near future, they also highlight the importance of continued monitoring of the lake. Furthermore, the ease and flexibility of these methods allows for their adoption by a wide range of stakeholders for modeling other high-risk lakes.

  19. Drilling activity down but not out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, R.

    1983-09-01

    ''The drilling contractor and his customers are in trouble, but so is all basic industry. Steel production is down to about 50% of capacity, automobile sales are off drastically, and railroads are saying they must have help to continue to exist.'' That is a quote from the July 1958 issue of PETROLEUM ENGINEER International, but substitute ''airlines'' for ''railroads'' and the 25-year-old statement is just as true today as it was back then. There is a tendency today, however, to regard the current drilling slump as the worst ever, even for an industry that has traditionally had its peaks and valleys. Granted, the drop in drilling rig activity during 1982 was the steepest of all time. But it must be remembered that it came at the end of the greatest increase in the history of U.S. rig activity - a phenomenon that created what will go down in oilpatch lore as the Mount Everest of drilling peaks. But the downside should not be remembered as Death Valley because, even at its lowest point, rig activity in the U.S. since the end of 1981 has been higher than it was at any time during the 14-year period from 1962 to 1976. All that, of course, is small consolation for drilling contractors who are desperately trying to remain afloat until the tide turns again. Although they may be buoyed by the fact that history tells us the tide is sure to turn eventually, the bad news is that history does not tell us when.

  20. Lake surface area variations in the North-Eastern sector of Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal at the end of the 20th Century by comparison of historical maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele BRUCCOLERI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to investigate variations in the surface areas of lakes in the north-east sector of Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal at the end of the 20th century, through comparison of the Mount Everest maps based on a survey done in the early 1980s, and the official Map of Nepal based on a survey done at the beginning of the 1990s. The analysis of the changes occurring between the 1980s and the 1990s in the surface areas and distribution of lakes in the north-east sector of SNP reveals that lake areas substantially increased, by 15.4 (-5.5; +5.7% (median 12.5%, within hydrographic basins that included a certain amount of glacial cover. In fact, 96% of the lakes whose surface area increased are located in glacial basins. Conversely, the majority of the lakes without glacial cover in their catchment showed a reduction in surface area, and in many cases disappeared (83% of the lakes that disappeared were situated in basins without glaciers. This different behaviour of these two types of lakes, though observed over a short time span, would appear to be consistent with the consequences of temperature increases recorded from the beginning of 1980s on a global and local scale. The digital tool produced (Limnological Information System, LIS as part of this work is intended to provide a useful platform for extending the analysis to entire area of SNP, as well as for subsequent comparisons based on earlier maps or more recent satellite images.

  1. Development of melting system for Measurement of trace elements and ions in ice core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Lee, Khang Hyun; Hur, Soon Do; Soyol-Erene, Tseren-Ochir; Kim, Sun Mee; Chung, Ji Woong; Jun, Seong Joon [Korea Polar Research Institute, KIOST, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Min [Dept. of Ocean Sciences, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Hee [Dept. of Chemistry and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    We present a titanium (Ti) melting head divided into three zones as an improved melting system for decontaminating ice-core samples. This system was subjected to performance tests using short ice-core samples (4 × 4 cm{sup 2}, ⁓5 cm long). The procedural blanks (PBs) and detection limits of ionic species, with the exception of math formula, were comparable with published values, but for elements the experimental procedures should be refined to obtain valid Zn concentrations due to the PB of ⁓90.0 ± 16.2 ng/L. The improved melting system efficiently decontaminated the samples, as verified by the concentration profiles of elements and ions in the melted samples from the three melting-head zones. The recovery of trace elements in ice-core samples was ⁓70–120% at ⁓100 ng/L in artificial ice cores. Because of the memory effects between ice-core samples melted in series, the melting system should be rinsed at least 5–6 times (in a total volume of ⁓2.5 mL deionized water) after each melting procedure. Finally, as an application of this technique, trace elements were measured in ice-core samples recovered from the East Rongbuk Glacier, Mount Everest, (28°03′N, 86°96′E, 6518 m a.s.l.), and the concentrations of trace elements following mechanical chiseling and the melting method were compared.

  2. Testing the effect of the Himalayan mountains as a physical barrier to gene flow in Hippophae tibetana Schlect. (Elaeagnaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Qiong

    Full Text Available Hippophae tibetana is a small, dioecious wind-pollinated shrub endemic to the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau. It is one of the shrubs that occur at very high elevations (5250 m a.s.l.. The Himalayan mountains provides a significant geographical barrier to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, dividing the Himalayan area into two regions with Nepal to the south and Tibet to the north. There is no information on how the Himalayan mountains influence gene flow and population differentiation of alpine plants. In this study, we analyzed eight nuclear microsatellite markers and cpDNA trnT-trnF regions to test the role of the Himalayan mountains as a barrier to gene flow between populations of H. tibetana. We also examined the fine-scale genetic structure within a population of H. tibetana on the north slope of Mount (Mt. Everest. For microsatellite analyses, a total of 241 individuals were sampled from seven populations in our study area (4 from Nepal, 3 from Tibet, including 121 individuals that were spatially mapped within a 100 m × 100 m plot. To test for seed flow, the cpDNA trnT-trnF regions of 100 individuals from 6 populations (4 from Nepal, 2 from Tibet were also sequenced. Significant genetic differentiation was detected between the two regions by both microsatellite and cpDNA data analyses. These two datasets agree about southern and northern population differentiation, indicating that the Himalayan mountains represent a barrier to H. tibetana limiting gene flow between these two areas. At a fine scale, spatial autocorrelation analysis suggests significant genetic structure within a distance of less than 45 m, which may be attributed mainly to vegetative reproduction and habitat fragmentation, as well as limited gene flow.

  3. Drivers of archaeal ammonia-oxidizing communities in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna eZhalnina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA are highly abundant and play an important role in the nitrogen cycle. In addition, AOA have a significant impact on soil quality. AOA may cause nitrogen loss from soils, and the nitrate produced by AOA can lead to ground and surface water contamination, water eutrophication, and soil subsidence. The ammonia-oxidizing archaea discovered to date are classified in the phylum Thaumarchaeota. Only a few archaeal genomes are available in databases. As a result, AOA genes are not well annotated, and it is difficult to mine and identify archaeal genes within metagenomic libraries. Nevertheless, 16S rRNA and comparative analysis of ammonia monooxygenase sequences show that soils can vary greatly in the relative abundance of AOA. In some soils, AOA can comprise more than 10% of the total prokaryotic community. In other soils, AOA comprise less than 0.5% of the community. Many approaches have been used to measure the abundance and diversity of this group including DGGE, T-RFLP, q-PCR, and DNA sequencing. AOA have been studied across different soil types and various ecosystems from the Antarctic dry valleys to the tropical forests of South America to the soils near Mount Everest. Different studies have identified multiple soil factors that trigger the abundance of AOA. These factors include pH, concentration of available ammonia, organic matter content, moisture content, nitrogen content, clay content, as well as other triggers. Land use management appears to have a major effect on the abundance of AOA in soil, which may be the result of nitrogen fertilizer used in agricultural soils. This review summarizes the published results on this topic and suggests future work that will increase our understanding of how soil management and edaphoclimatic factors influence AOA.

  4. Effective Management of Trans boundary Landscapes - Geospatial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotru, R.; Rawal, R. S.; Mathur, P. K.; Chettri, N.; Chaudhari, S. A.; Uddin, K.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Singh, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity advocates the use of landscape and ecosystem approaches for managing biodiversity, in recognition of the need for increased regional cooperation. In this context, ICIMOD and regional partners have evolved Transboundary Landscape concept to address the issues of conservation and sustainable use of natural resources and systems (e.g., biodiversity, rangelands, farming systems, forests, wetlands, and watersheds, etc.). This concept defines the landscapes by ecosystems rather than political/administrative boundaries. The Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is extremely heterogeneous, with complex inter linkages of biomes and habitats as well as strong upstream-downstream linkages related to the provisioning of ecosystem services. Seven such transboundary landscapes, identified across west to east extent of HKH, have been considered for programmatic cooperation, include: Wakhan, Karakoram-Pamir, Kailash, Everest, Kangchenjunga, Brahmaputra-Salween, and Cherrapunjee- Chittagong. The approach is people centered and considers the cultural conservation as an essential first step towards resource conservation efforts in the region. Considering the multi-scale requirements of study, the geospatial technology has been effectively adopted towards: (i) understanding temporal changes in landscapes, (ii) long term ecological and social monitoring, (ii) identifying potential bio corridors, (iii) assessing landscape level vulnerability due to climatic and non-climatic drivers, and (iv) developing local plans on extractions of high value economic species supporting livelihoods, agroforestry system and ecotourism, etc. We present here our recent experiences across different landscapes on assessment of three decadal changes, vegetation type mapping, assessment of socio-ecological drivers, corridor assessment, ecosystem services assessment, models for optimal natural resource use systems and long term socio-ecological monitoring.

  5. Do the Himalaya Export Air Pollutants from the Ganges Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, A.; Fiore, A.; Horowitz, L.; Levy, H.

    2009-04-01

    The Ganges Basin in South Asia ranks close to Eastern China in both population and air pollutant emissions. During the winter-spring dry season it often experiences a similar "atmospheric brown cloud" haze layer of aerosols and trace gases. Global model results, however, have suggested that the Ganges Basin's contribution to long distance pollution transport is significantly less than that of Eastern China. The assumption is that, for much of the dry season, the Ganges Basin experiences a large-scale inversion that suppresses vertical mixing of pollutants into the jet stream aloft. Yet both observations at high-altitude stations (such as the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid station located at 5079 meters above sea level near Everest Base Camp) and vertically resolved satellite data show significant pollution levels at high altitudes over the Himalaya, which line the northern edge of the Ganges Basin. Using the WRF model at resolutions as high as 1 km, along with photography over the Himalaya, we present several mechanisms by which pollutants from the boundary layer over the Ganges Basin can be transported vertically by Himalaya meteorology to heights where they can mix into the jetstream and be exported long distances. These mechanisms are closely tied to the shape of the topography and operate at scales of less than a few kilometers while global model grid spacing typically exceeds 100 km. We attempt to sum up the total contribution to pollutant export by the entire Himalaya region, and discuss the implications for both air quality over the Ganges Basin and global atmospheric chemistry and climate.

  6. Effects of Absorbing Aerosols on Accelerated Melting of Snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K.; Kyu-Myong, Kim; Yasunari, Teppei; Gautam, Ritesh; Hsu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of absorbing aerosol on melting of snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau (HKHT) region are studied using in-situ, satellite observations, and GEOS-5 GCM. Based on atmospheric black carbon measurements from the Pyramid observation ( 5 km elevation) in Mt. Everest, we estimate that deposition of black carbon on snow surface will give rise to a reduction in snow surface albedo of 2- 5 %, and an increased annual runoff of 12-34% for a typical Tibetan glacier. Examination of satellite reflectivity and re-analysis data reveals signals of possible impacts of dust and black carbon in darkening the snow surface, and accelerating spring melting of snowpack in the HKHT, following a build-up of absorbing aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Results from GCM experiments show that 8-10% increase in the rate of melting of snowpack over the western Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau can be attributed to the elevated-heat-pump (EHP) feedback effect, initiated from the absorption of solar radiation by dust and black carbon accumulated to great height ( 5 km) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and Himalayas foothills in the pre-monsoon season (April-May). The accelerated melting of the snowpack is enabled by an EHP-induced atmosphere-land-snowpack positive feedback involving a) orographic forcing of the monsoon flow by the complex terrain, and thermal forcing of the HKHT region, leading to increased moisture, cloudiness and rainfall over the Himalayas foothills and northern India, b) warming of the upper troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau, and c) an snow albedo-temperature feedback initiated by a transfer of latent and sensible heat from a warmer atmosphere over the HKHT to the underlying snow surface. Results from ongoing modeling work to assess the relative roles of EHP vs. snow-darkening effects on accelerated melting of snowpack in HKHT region will also be discussed.

  7. Potential GLOF Hazards and Initiatives taken to minimize its Impacts on Downstream Communities and Infrastructures in Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, D.; Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.; Haritashya, U. K.; Karki, A.; Poudyal, S.

    2017-12-01

    With long-term temperature increases due to climate change, glacier lakes in several parts of the world are a fast-developing threat to infrastructure and downstream communities. There are more than 2000 glacier lakes in Nepal; while most pose no significant hazard to people, a comparative few are very dangerous, such as Tso Rolpa, Imja, Barun and Thulagi glacier lakes. The objectives of this study are to present 1) a review of prior glacier lake studies that have been carried out in the Nepal Himalaya; 2) recent research results, including bathymetric studies of the lakes; 3) a summary of possible infrastructure damages, especially multi-million-dollar hydropower projects, that are under threat of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs); 4) to present the outcome of the recently completed Imja lake lowering project, which is the highest altitude lake ever controlled by lowering the water level. This project is being undertaken as a response to a scientific ground-based bathymetric and geophysical survey funded by the United Nations Development Program and a satellite-based study of the long-term development of the lake (funded by NASA's SERVIR program, J. Kargel, PI). The objective of the Imja Lake GLOF mitigation project is to lower the water level by three meters to reduce the lake volume, increase the freeboard, and improve the safety of tourism, downstream communities, and the infrastructure of Nepal's Everest region. This GLOF mitigation step taken by Nepal's government to reduce the risk of an outburst flood is a good step to reduce the chances of a GLOF, and to reduce the magnitude of a disaster if a GLOF nonetheless occurs despite our best efforts. We will also present the prospects for the future of Imja Lake, including an outline of possible steps that could further reduce the hazards faced by downstream communities and infrastructure. Key words: Glacier Lakes; GLOF; Hydropower; Imja lake; lake lowering

  8. Failure of acute procedural success predicts adverse outcome after percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with MitraClip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Miriam; Tichelbäcker, Tobias; Bleckmann, Annalen; Hünlich, Mark; von der Ehe, Katrin; Beuthner, Bo Eric; Rüter, Karin; Beißbarth, Tim; Seipelt, Ralf; Schöndube, Friedrich; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Schillinger, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    MitraClip implantation is evolving as a potential alternative treatment to conventional surgery in high-risk patients with significant mitral regurgitation (MR). However, outcome predictors are under-investigated. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of midterm mortality and heart failure rehospitalisation after percutaneous mitral valve repair with MitraClip. A total of 150 consecutive patients were followed for a median of 463 days. Survival analyses were performed for baseline characteristics, risk scores and failure of acute procedural success (APS) defined as persisting MR grade 3+ or 4+. Univariate significant risk stratifiers were tested in multivariate analyses using a Cox proportional hazards model. Overall survival was 96% at 30 days, 79.5% at 12 months, and 62% at two years. Multivariate analysis identified APS failure (HR 2.13, p=0.02), NYHA Class IV at baseline (HR 2.11, p=0.01) and STS score ≥12 (HR 2.20, pfailure (HR 2.31, p=0.01) and NYHA Class IV at baseline (HR 1.89, p=0.03) as significant independent predictors of heart failure rehospitalisation. Furthermore, a post-procedural significant decrease in hospitalisation rate could only be observed after successful interventions (0.89±1.07 per year before vs. 0.54±0.96 after implantation, p=0.01). Patients with severely dilated and overloaded ventricles who did not meet EVEREST II eligibility criteria were at higher risk of APS failure. The failure of acute procedural success proved to have the most important impact on outcome after MitraClip implantation.

  9. Probing the TRAPPIST-1 System with K2, JWST, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Rodrigo; Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob; Agol, Eric; TRAPPIST-1 Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    I will discuss recent work I have done to characterize TRAPPIST-1, a nearby exoplanet system hosting seven terrestrial-size planets, three of which are in the habitable zone. In the first part of this talk, I will report on my efforts to constrain the orbital properties of the smallest and farthest out planet in the system, TRAPPIST-1h, from K2 data de-trended with my systematics correction pipeline, EVEREST. I will further discuss how the detection of TRAPPIST-1h with K2 confirmed the intricate resonant structure of the system, whose planets are all linked to their neighbors via three-body Laplace resonances. This is the longest known chain in any exoplanet system and holds important clues for the formation and migration of the TRAPPIST-1 planets. In the second part of this talk, I will discuss ongoing work to characterize the TRAPPIST-1 system via planet-planet occultations (PPOs), events during which one planet occults the disk of another, imparting a small photometric signal as its thermal or reflected light is blocked. Because of the extreme coplanarity of the system, PPOs should occur on average 1 - 2 times per day in TRAPPIST-1. I will discuss how the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will likely be able to detect PPOs in this system in the mid-infrared, and how these can be used to place exquisite constraints on the masses, eccentricities, and mutual inclinations of its planets. I will also show how photodynamical modeling of these events can eventually be used to reveal a planet's day/night temperature contrast, infer various atmospheric properties, and construct crude two-dimensional surface maps of alien worlds.

  10. FTIR measurements of OH in deformed quartz and feldspars of the South Tibetan Detachment, Greater Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, L.; Law, R. D.; Jessup, M. J.; Searle, M. P.; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    OH absorption bands due to water in deformed quartz and feldspar grains of mylonites from the low-angle Lhotse Detachment (of the South Tibetan Detachment System, Rongbuk Valley north of Mount Everest) have been measured by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. Previous microstructural studies have shown that these rocks deformed by dislocation creep at high temperature conditions in the middle crust (lower - middle amphibolite facies), and oxygen isotope studies suggest significant influx of meteoric water. OH absorption bands at 3400 cm-1 of quartz mylonites from the footwall of the Lhotse Detachment Fault are large, with the character of the molecular water band due to fluid inclusions in milky quartz. Mean water contents depend on structural position relative to the core of the Lhotse Detachment, from 1000 ppm (OH/106 Si) at 420 m below the fault to 11,350 (+/-1095) ppm near its center. The gradient in OH content shown by quartz grains implies influx of meteoric water along the Lhotse Detachment from the Tibetan Plateau ground surface to middle crustal depths, and significant fluid penetration into the extruding Himalayan slab by intergranular, permeable fluid flow processes. Feldspars of individual samples have comparable water contents to those of quartz and some are wetter. Large water contents of quartz and feldspar may have contributed to continued deformation and strain localization on the South Tibetan Detachment System. Dislocation creep in quartz is facilitated by water in laboratory experiments, and the water contents of the Lhotse fault rocks are similar to (and even larger than) water contents of quartz experimentally deformed during water weakening. Water contents of feldspars are comparable to those of plagioclase aggregates deformed experimentally by dislocation and diffusion creep under wet conditions.

  11. Fracture toughness of yttria-stabilized zirconia sintered in conventional and microwave ovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinis, Aristotelis; Aquilino, Steven A; Lund, Peter S; Gratton, David G; Stanford, Clark M; Diaz-Arnold, Ana M; Qian, Fang

    2013-03-01

    The fabrication of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) dental prosthetic substructures requires an extended sintering process (8 to 10 hours) in a conventional oven. Microwave sintering is a shorter process (2 hours) than conventional sintering. The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture toughness of 3 mol % Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 sintered in a conventional or microwave oven. Partially sintered ZrO2 specimens from 3 manufacturers, KaVo, Lava 3M, and Crystal HS were milled (KaVo Everest engine) and randomly divided into 2 groups: conventional sintering and microwave sintering (n=16 per group). The specimens were sintered according to the manufacturers' recommendations and stored in artificial saliva for 10 days. Fracture toughness was determined by using a 4-point bend test, and load to fracture was recorded. Mean fracture toughness for each material was calculated. A 2-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey HDS post hoc test was used to assess the significance of sintering and material effects on fracture toughness, including an interaction between the 2 factors (α=.05). The 2-way ANOVA suggested a significant main effect for ZrO2 manufacturer (P.05). The main effect of the sintering process (Conventional [5.30 MPa·m(1/2) ±1.00] or Microwave [5.36 MPa·m(1/2) ±0.92]) was not significant (P=.76), and there was no interaction between sintering and ZrO2 manufacturer (P=.91). Based on the results of this study, no statistically significant difference was observed in the fracture toughness of ZrO2 sintered in microwave or conventional ovens. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Arabinogalactan proteins: Immunolocalization in the developing ovary of a facultative apomict Fragaria x ananassa (Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczuk, Agata; Szczuka, Ewa

    2018-02-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins are present in the extracellular matrix and their occurrence is developmentally regulated. The studies were carried out to localise arabinogalactan proteins in ovary cells of Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (strawberry) during megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, and formation of the embryo. The research included studies of ovary histochemistry and immunofluorescence labelling of AGP epitopes was performed with antibodies JIM13, JIM15 and MAC207. The use of the immunogold labelling method allowed specific detection of AGP epitopes at the subcellular level. The localization of AGPs was studied in the cells of the ovary wall and elements building the developing ovule i.e. the integument, nucellus, archespore, megaspores, embryo sac, and embryo of a facultative apomict Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Mount Everest'. For the first time the presence of AGP epitopes at the stage of a multicellular archespore was described. The occurrence of AGPs in the functional megaspore walls is related to selection of a megaspore continuing development; during later stages of development, AGPs are also evident markers of the female gametophyte. The intense fluorescence indicates the presence of AGPs in the embryo sac wall as well as in the cytoplasm compartment of the egg apparatus and around the secondary nucleus of the central cell. The localization of AGPs in the ovule of F. x ananassa resembles the distribution of these proteins in amphimictic plants. Arabinogalactan proteins occur in similar parts of the ovule of amphimictic and apomictic plants. The results confirm the participation of AGPs in reproductive structures as a useful marker during development of female gametophyte. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of acute mountain sickness by acetazolamide in Nepali porters: a double-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Peter; Pahari, Anil K; Soon, Yuen; Subedi, Deepak; Bajracharya, Rajan; Gurung, Puncho; Lal, Barun K; Marahatta, Ramesh; Pradhan, Santosh; Rai, Dilip; Sharma, Shailendra

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy, tolerability, and practicality of acetazolamide for the prevention of acute mountain sickness (AMS) in Nepali trekking porters early in the trekking season. This study was a randomized, double-blind controlled trial with 400 male Nepali porters in the Mount Everest region of Nepal, trekking from Namche Bazaar (3440 m) to Lobuche (4930 m), the study endpoint. Participants were randomized to receive 250 mg acetazolamide daily or placebo, and AMS symptom scores (Lake Louise) were compared in highlanders vs lowlanders. Only 109 (27.2%) of the 400 porters completed the trial (28 highlanders, 81 lowlanders). The rest either dropped out (275/400 porters, 68.8%) or were excluded (16/400 porters, 4%). Acute mountain sickness occurred in 13 (11.9%) of 109 porters; all were lowlanders; 7 were taking acetazolamide, 6 taking placebo. Birthplace, acclimatization in the week before the trial, ascent rate, and rest days were the most important variables affecting the incidence of AMS. No highlanders, but 13 (16.1%) of 81 lowlanders had AMS (P = .016). Acclimatization in the pretrial week reduced AMS incidence (P = .013), as did a slower ascent rate (P = .0126), but rest days were the most potent prophylactic variable (P = .0001). Side effects were more frequent in porters taking acetazolamide than in the placebo group (P = .0001), but there were no serious side effects. Acetazolamide was tolerable, but impractical for the routine prevention of AMS in Nepali porters. A good trekking schedule and adequate acclimatization remain the most effective preventive measures. This study identified lowland porters as a high-risk group for developing AMS.

  14. The application of CAD / CAM technology in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susic, I.; Travar, M.; Susic, M.

    2017-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have found their application in the healthcare sector, including the frameworks of modern dentistry. CAD / CAM application in dentistry is the process by which is attained finished dental restoration through fine milling process of ready ceramic blocks. CAD / CAM is an acronym of english words Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) / Computer-Aided-Manufacture (CAM), respectively dental computer aided design and computer aided manufacture of inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges. CAD / CAM technology essentially allows you to create a two-dimensional and three-dimensional models and their materialization by numerical controlled machines. In order to operate more efficiently, reduce costs, increase user/patient satisfaction and ultimately achieve profits, many dental offices in the world have their attention focused on implementation of modern IT solutions in everyday practice. In addition to the specialized clinic management software, inventory control, etc., or hardware such as the use of lasers in cosmetic dentistry or intraoral scanning, recently the importance is given to the application of CAD / CAM technology in the field of prosthetic. After the removal of pathologically altered tooth structure, it is necessary to achieve restoration that will be most similar to the anatomy of a natural tooth. Applying CAD / CAM technology on applicable ceramic blocks it can be obtained very quick, but also very accurate restoration, in the forms of inlays, onlays, bridges and crowns. The paper presents the advantages of using this technology as well as satisfaction of the patients and dentists by using systems as: Cercon, Celay, Cerec, Lava, Everest, which represent imperative of modern dentistry in creating fixed dental restorations.

  15. Marginal accuracy of titanium copings fabricated by casting and CAD/CAM techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Siegbert; Komine, Futoshi; Gerds, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Advances in computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology purportedly enhance the marginal fit of dental restorations. However, little information is available on the marginal accuracy of restorations manufactured with various CAD/CAM systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the marginal accuracy and refinement time of titanium copings fabricated by 3 different CAD/CAM systems relative to standard casting techniques. Sixty-four stone die duplicates of a human maxillary central incisor, prepared for a metal-ceramic crown, with a uniform chamfer design, were divided into 4 groups (n=16). The specimens were restored with titanium copings using CAD/CAM systems Pro 50 (PRO), DCS (DCS), and Everest (EVE). A conventional titanium casting technique, Biotan (BIO), served as a control. Vertical and horizontal discrepancies between restoration margins and the preparations were each measured before and after manual refinement. This refinement was completed using a disclosing agent and by removing the internal positive defects of the copings. The marginal discrepancies of the copings were evaluated at 4 standard areas using 10 measurements, for a total of 160 measurements of each margin. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used for analyzing marginal accuracy. The coping refinement time was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Wilcoxon rank sum tests (alpha=.05). The marginal discrepancies (microm) ranged from 32.9 to 127.8 before and from 3.4 to 58.4 after the manual refinement of copings. Manual refinement significantly improved the marginal accuracy (P4.0 for EVE, and 4.0 for BIO (Kruskal-Wallis-test: P<.0001). Manual adjustment significantly improves the marginal accuracy of CAD/CAM system-fabricated titanium copings. The highest marginal accuracy was achieved with the DCS system, using a longer refinement time.

  16. Single crowns with CAD/CAM-fabricated copings from titanium: 6-year clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Jeremias; Beuer, Florian; Bensel, Tobias; Boeckler, Arne F

    2014-08-01

    Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) titanium ceramic restorations were developed with the potential for replacing expensive, high noble metal ceramic restorations. However, little information exists about the clinical performance of CAD/CAM titanium ceramic single crowns. The purpose of this study was to evaluate CAD/CAM titanium ceramic single crowns after 6 years in function. A total of 41 crowns were fabricated for 21 patients. The titanium copings were CAD/CAM milled (Everest CAD/CAM system), with an even thickness of 0.5 mm and veneered with low-fusing porcelain (Vita Titanium Porcelain) in the powder-build-up technique. All the crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate. The participants were recalled at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 months after cementation to document any mechanical and biologic complications and to measure the periodontal parameters, such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and the plaque index. The success and survival rates were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis. After 6 years of clinical service, 12 mechanical complications and 1 biologic complication were found, which resulted in a success rate of 67.8%. The cumulative survival rate of the crowns was 91.3% after 6 years. At the end of the follow-up period, the probing depth was 3.21 mm, the percentile of surface with bleeding on probing was 25, and the plaque index was 0.37. No secondary caries or decementation was detected during the 6-year observation period. The clinical performance of the CAD/CAM titanium-ceramic crowns after 6 years was poor because of veneering porcelain problems. Recent CAD software with tools to design proper copings might improve the clinical success. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prospective observation of CAD/CAM titanium ceramic single crowns: a three-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckler, Arne F; Lee, Heeje; Stadler, Anke; Setz, Jürgen M

    2009-11-01

    Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) titanium ceramic restorations were developed with the potential for replacing expensive, high noble metal ceramic restorations. However, there is a lack of information about the clinical performance of CAD/CAM titanium ceramic single crowns. The purpose of this study was to evaluate CAD/CAM titanium ceramic single crowns after 3 years in function. A total of 41 crowns were fabricated for 21 patients. The titanium copings were CAD/CAM milled (Everest CAD/CAM system) with an even thickness of 0.5 mm, and low-fusing veneering porcelain (Vita Titanium Porcelain) was added incrementally. The crowns were cemented using zinc phosphate cement after confirming that there were no mechanical and biological complications. The patients were recalled at 12, 24, and 36 months after cementation to examine the presence of any complications and measure periodontal parameters such as probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and plaque index (PI). The success and survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. The success rate of CAD/CAM titanium ceramic crowns with regard to mechanical complications was 82.3% (95% confidence interval: 71.2% to 95.1%). The cumulative survival rate of the crowns was 94.9% (95% confidence interval: 88.3% to 100%) after 3 years. No biological complications were observed. At the end of the follow up, PD was 2.93 mm, percentile of surface with BOP was 29.2, and PI was 0.31. The clinical performances of the CAD/CAM titanium ceramic crowns for 3 years were acceptable, with no biologic complications and a high cumulative survival rate.

  18. Prophylactic Acetaminophen or Ibuprofen Results in Equivalent Acute Mountain Sickness Incidence at High Altitude: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Nicholas C; Peterson, Alicia L; Pun, Matiram; Holck, Peter S; Starling, Jennifer; Basyal, Bikash; Freeman, Thomas F; Gehner, Jessica R; Keyes, Linda; Levin, Dana R; O'Leary, Catherine J; Stuart, Katherine E; Thapa, Ghan B; Tiwari, Aditya; Velgersdyk, Jared L; Zafren, Ken; Basnyat, Buddha

    2017-06-01

    Recent trials have demonstrated the usefulness of ibuprofen in the prevention of acute mountain sickness (AMS), yet the proposed anti-inflammatory mechanism remains unconfirmed. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were tested for AMS prevention. We hypothesized that a greater clinical effect would be seen from ibuprofen due to its anti-inflammatory effects compared with acetaminophen's mechanism of possible symptom reduction by predominantly mediating nociception in the brain. A double-blind, randomized trial was conducted testing acetaminophen vs ibuprofen for the prevention of AMS. A total of 332 non-Nepali participants were recruited at Pheriche (4371 m) and Dingboche (4410 m) on the Everest Base Camp trek. The participants were randomized to either acetaminophen 1000 mg or ibuprofen 600 mg 3 times a day until they reached Lobuche (4940 m), where they were reassessed. The primary outcome was AMS incidence measured by the Lake Louise Questionnaire score. Data from 225 participants who met inclusion criteria were analyzed. Twenty-five participants (22.1%) in the acetaminophen group and 18 (16.1%) in the ibuprofen group developed AMS (P = .235). The combined AMS incidence was 19.1% (43 participants), 14 percentage points lower than the expected AMS incidence of untreated trekkers in prior studies at this location, suggesting that both interventions reduced the incidence of AMS. We found little evidence of any difference between acetaminophen and ibuprofen groups in AMS incidence. This suggests that AMS prevention may be multifactorial, affected by anti-inflammatory inhibition of the arachidonic-acid pathway as well as other analgesic mechanisms that mediate nociception. Additional study is needed. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y su capacidad de agencia de autocuidado, Cartagena Pessoas com diabete mellitus tipo 2 e sua capacidade de agência de autocuidado, Cartagena Patients with Type 2 Mellitus Diabetes and their Self-Care Agency Capacity, Cartagena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleth Herrera Lían

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 se constituye en un problema de salud pública por las repercusiones bio-psicosociales, la presencia de complicaciones neurovasculares y metabólicas en la persona que la padece. Enfermería cumple un papel importante a través de la educación y la capacitación. Objetivo: Identificar la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado de las personas con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, inscritos en los programas de control de diabetes en 19 UPAS de Cartagena. Metodología: diseño descriptivo con abordaje cuantitativo, en una muestra de 225 adultos de ambos sexos, seleccionados en forma aleatoria. La capacidad de agencia de autocuidado se identificó con la escala de Valoración de las capacidades de autocuidado, desarrollada por Isenberg y Everest, traducida al español por Gallegos y adaptada por la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Para presentar los datos se utilizó la estadística descriptiva, los resultados se presentan en tablas y gráficas. Resultados: Predominó el sexo femenino (68,4 %; la unión libre (59,1 %; escolaridad (50,6 % con básica primaria; bajos ingresos económicos (menos de un salario mínimo mensual vigente, 34.7 %. Al valorar la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado, el 73.8 % de los pacientes obtuvo una calificación de muy buena (76-100 %, según escala. Al valorar los aspectos comprendidos en la escala se encontró que más del 50 % de las personas siempre sacan tiempo para ellos, piden explicación sobre su salud, examinan su cuerpo para ver si hay cambios y conservan un ambiente limpio. Conclusiones: El apoyo social recibido por los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y las prácticas de higiene personal y del entorno, el conocimiento y la adherencia a la dieta, permiten a los pacientes una buena capacidad de agencia de autocuidado.Contexto: A diabete mellitus tipo 2 se configura como um problema de saúde pública por conta das repercussões biopsicossociais e da presen

  20. Storage-Intensive Supercomputing Benchmark Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J; Dossa, D; Gokhale, M; Hysom, D; May, J; Pearce, R; Yoo, A

    2007-10-30

    : SuperMicro X7DBE Xeon Dual Socket Blackford Server Motherboard; 2 Intel Xeon Dual-Core 2.66 GHz processors; 1 GB DDR2 PC2-5300 RAM (2 x 512); 80GB Hard Drive (Seagate SATA II Barracuda). The Fusion board is presently capable of 4X in a PCIe slot. The image resampling benchmark was run on a dual Xeon workstation with NVIDIA graphics card (see Chapter 5 for full specification). An XtremeData Opteron+FPGA was used for the language classification application. We observed that these benchmarks are not uniformly I/O intensive. The only benchmark that showed greater that 50% of the time in I/O was the graph algorithm when it accessed data files over NFS. When local disk was used, the graph benchmark spent at most 40% of its time in I/O. The other benchmarks were CPU dominated. The image resampling benchmark and language classification showed order of magnitude speedup over software by using co-processor technology to offload the CPU-intensive kernels. Our experiments to date suggest that emerging hardware technologies offer significant benefit to boosting the performance of data-intensive algorithms. Using GPU and FPGA co-processors, we were able to improve performance by more than an order of magnitude on the benchmark algorithms, eliminating the processor bottleneck of CPU-bound tasks. Experiments with a prototype solid state nonvolative memory available today show 10X better throughput on random reads than disk, with a 2X speedup on a graph processing benchmark when compared to the use of local SATA disk.

  1. An Approach for High-precision Stand-alone Positioning in a Dynamic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halis Saka, M.; Metin Alkan, Reha; Ozpercin, Alişir

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an algorithm is developed for precise positioning in dynamic environment utilizing a single geodetic GNSS receiver using carrier phase data. In this method, users should start the measurement on a known point near the project area for a couple of seconds making use of a single dual-frequency geodetic-grade receiver. The technique employs iono-free carrier phase observations with precise products. The equation of the algorithm is given below; Sm(t(i+1))=SC(ti)+[ΦIF (t(i+1) )-ΦIF (ti)] where, Sm(t(i+1)) is the phase-range between satellites and the receiver, SC(ti) is the initial range computed from the initial known point coordinates and the satellite coordinates and ΦIF is the ionosphere-free phase measurement (in meters). Tropospheric path delays are modelled using the standard tropospheric model. To accomplish the process, an in-house program was coded and some functions were adopted from Easy-Suite available at http://kom.aau.dk/~borre/easy. In order to assess the performance of the introduced algorithm in a dynamic environment, a dataset from a kinematic test measurement was used. The data were collected from a kinematic test measurement in Istanbul, Turkey. In the test measurement, a geodetic dual-frequency GNSS receiver, Ashtech Z-Xtreme, was set up on a known point on the shore and a couple of epochs were recorded for initialization. The receiver was then moved to a vessel and data were collected for approximately 2.5 hours and the measurement was finalized on a known point on the shore. While the kinematic measurement on the vessel were carried out, another GNSS receiver was set up on a geodetic point with known coordinates on the shore and data were collected in static mode to calculate the reference trajectory of the vessel using differential technique. The coordinates of the vessel were calculated for each measurement epoch with the introduced method. With the purpose of obtaining more robust results, all coordinates were calculated

  2. Increasing risks related to landslides from degrading permafrost into new lakes in de-glaciating mountain ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, Wilfried; Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian

    2017-09-01

    While glacier volumes in most cold mountain ranges rapidly decrease due to continued global warming, degradation of permafrost at altitudes above and below glaciers is much slower. As a consequence, many still existing glacier and permafrost landscapes probably transform within decades into new landscapes of bare bedrock, loose debris, sparse vegetation, numerous new lakes and steep slopes with slowly degrading permafrost. These new landscapes are likely to persist for centuries if not millennia to come. During variable but mostly extended future time periods, such new landscapes will be characterized by pronounced disequilibria within their geo- and ecosystems. This especially involves long-term stability reduction of steep/icy mountain slopes as a slow and delayed reaction to stress redistribution following de-buttressing by vanishing glaciers and to changes in mechanical strength and hydraulic permeability caused by permafrost degradation. Thereby, the probability of far-reaching flood waves from large mass movements into lakes systematically increases with the formation of many new lakes and systems of lakes in close neighborhood to, or even directly at the foot of, so-affected slopes. Results of recent studies in the Swiss Alps are reviewed and complemented with examples from the Cordillera Blanca in Peru and the Mount Everest region in Nepal. Hot spots of future hazards from potential flood waves caused by large rock falls into new lakes can already now be recognized. To this end, integrated spatial information on glacier/permafrost evolution and lake formation can be used together with scenario-based models for rapid mass movements, impact waves and flood propagation. The resulting information must then be combined with exposure and vulnerability considerations related to settlements and infrastructure. This enables timely planning of risk reduction options. Such risk reduction options consist of two components: Mitigation of hazards, which in the present

  3. Quantifying the added value of convection-permitting climate simulations in complex terrain: a systematic evaluation of WRF over the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Ramchandra; Hasson, Shabeh ul; Gerlitz, Lars; Schickhoff, Udo; Scholten, Thomas; Böhner, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Mesoscale dynamical refinements of global climate models or atmospheric reanalysis have shown their potential to resolve intricate atmospheric processes, their land surface interactions, and subsequently, realistic distribution of climatic fields in complex terrains. Given that such potential is yet to be explored within the central Himalayan region of Nepal, we investigate the skill of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with different spatial resolutions in reproducing the spatial, seasonal, and diurnal characteristics of the near-surface air temperature and precipitation as well as the spatial shifts in the diurnal monsoonal precipitation peak over the Khumbu (Everest), Rolwaling, and adjacent southern areas. Therefore, the ERA-Interim (0.75°) reanalysis has been dynamically refined to 25, 5, and 1 km (D1, D2, and D3) for one complete hydrological year (October 2014-September 2015), using the one-way nested WRF model run with mild nudging and parameterized convection for the outer but explicitly resolved convection for the inner domains. Our results suggest that D3 realistically reproduces the monsoonal precipitation, as compared to its underestimation by D1 but overestimation by D2. All three resolutions, however, overestimate precipitation from the westerly disturbances, owing to simulating anomalously higher intensity of few intermittent events. Temperatures are generally reproduced well by all resolutions; however, winter and pre-monsoon seasons feature a high cold bias for high elevations while lower elevations show a simultaneous warm bias. Unlike higher resolutions, D1 fails to realistically reproduce the regional-scale nocturnal monsoonal peak precipitation observed in the Himalayan foothills and its diurnal shift towards high elevations, whereas D2 resolves these characteristics but exhibits a limited skill in reproducing such a peak on the river valley scale due to the limited representation of the narrow valleys at 5 km resolution

  4. Seasonal changes in surface albedo of Himalayan glaciers from MODIS data and links with the annual mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Brun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Few glaciological field data are available on glaciers in the Hindu Kush–Karakoram–Himalayan (HKH region, and remote sensing data are thus critical for glacier studies in this region. The main objectives of this study are to document, using satellite images, the seasonal changes of surface albedo for two Himalayan glaciers, Chhota Shigri Glacier (Himachal Pradesh, India and Mera Glacier (Everest region, Nepal, and to reconstruct the annual mass balance of these glaciers based on the albedo data. Albedo is retrieved from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS images, and evaluated using ground based measurements. At both sites, we find high coefficients of determination between annual minimum albedo averaged over the glacier (AMAAG and glacier-wide annual mass balance (Ba measured with the glaciological method (R2 = 0.75. At Chhota Shigri Glacier, the relation between AMAAG found at the end of the ablation season and Ba suggests that AMAAG can be used as a proxy for the maximum snow line altitude or equilibrium line altitude (ELA on winter-accumulation-type glaciers in the Himalayas. However, for the summer-accumulation-type Mera Glacier, our approach relied on the hypothesis that ELA information is preserved during the monsoon. At Mera Glacier, cloud obscuration and snow accumulation limits the detection of albedo during the monsoon, but snow redistribution and sublimation in the post-monsoon period allows for the calculation of AMAAG. Reconstructed Ba at Chhota Shigri Glacier agrees with mass balances previously reconstructed using a positive degree-day method. Reconstructed Ba at Mera Glacier is affected by heavy cloud cover during the monsoon, which systematically limited our ability to observe AMAAG at the end of the melting period. In addition, the relation between AMAAG and Ba is constrained over a shorter time period for Mera Glacier (6 years than for Chhota Shigri Glacier (11 years. Thus the mass balance reconstruction

  5. On the contribution of renewable energies for feeding a high altitude Smart Mini Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proietti, Stefania; Sdringola, Paolo; Castellani, Francesco; Astolfi, Davide; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Off-grid renewable power generation in a smart mini-grid perspective. • Direct measurements and CFD simulation for energy resources and consumption. • Detailed distribution of wind resource in the Khumbu Valley, Everest region, Nepal. • PV/wind system with storage device, for emergency and permanent scenarios. • Important wind contribution to the energy balance and positive environmental assessment. - Abstract: Governments around the world strive to achieve ambitious targets of incorporating considerable amounts of distributed renewable generation and combined heat and power, in response to the climate-change challenge and the need to enhance fuel diversity. The scientific interest is moving toward off-grid power generation systems, based on conventional and/or renewable sources, often coupled with storage devices, which distribute power through a local grid network. This approach, applied to increase electricity access especially in remote areas, is effective to reduce poverty, mitigate climate change and improve the resilience. In this framework, the paper presents the assessment of different renewable sources for power generation in Nepal, aimed to (i) optimize the energy fluxes, (ii) evaluate the long term energy balance by comparing productions and consumption, (iii) preliminary size a multiple input/output storage device on the basis of specific boundary conditions. The study is geographically set within the Khumbu Valley, in the central part of the Himalayan Range, East Region of Nepal, recently damaged by severe seismic events causing serious consequences on population and territory. The specific features of the reference context have been assessed from different points of view, focusing on climate data, energy consumption, and available resources. Wind potential in several spots around Namche Bazar region was estimated using CFD methods, and a customized micro wind turbine – projected by University of Perugia – has been

  6. Himalayan glaciers: understanding contrasting patterns of glacier behavior using multi-temporal satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviteanu, A.

    2014-12-01

    High rates of glacier retreat for the last decades are often reported, and believed to be induced by 20th century climate changes. However, regional glacier fluctuations are complex, and depend on a combination of climate and local topography. Furthermore, in ares such as the Hindu-Kush Himalaya, there are concerns about warming, decreasing monsoon precipitation and their impact on local glacier regimes. Currently, the challenge is in understanding the magnitude of feedbacks between large-scale climate forcing and small-scale glacier behavior. Spatio-temporal patterns of glacier distribution are still llimited in some areas of the high Hindu-Kush Himalaya, but multi-temporal satellite imagery has helped fill spatial and temporal gaps in regional glacier parameters in the last decade. Here I present a synopsis of the behavior of glaciers across the Himalaya, following a west to east gradient. In particular, I focus on spatial patterns of glacier parameters in the eastern Himalaya, which I investigate at multi-spatial scales using remote sensing data from declassified Corona, ASTER, Landsat ETM+, Quickbird and Worldview2 sensors. I also present the use of high-resolution imagery, including texture and thermal analysis for mapping glacier features at small scale, which are particularly useful in understanding surface trends of debris-covered glaciers, which are prevalent in the Himalaya. I compare and contrast spatial patterns of glacier area and élévation changes in the monsoon-influenced eastern Himalaya (the Everest region in the Nepal Himalaya and Sikkim in the Indian Himalaya) with other observations from the dry western Indian Himalaya (Ladakh and Lahul-Spiti), both field measurements and remote sensing-based. In the eastern Himalaya, results point to glacier area change of -0.24 % ± 0.08% per year from the 1960's to the 2006's, with a higher rate of retreat in the last decade (-0.43% /yr). Debris-covered glacier tongues show thinning trends of -30.8 m± 39 m

  7. Chemical evidences of the effects of global change in high elevation lakes in Central Himalaya, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartari, Gianni; Lami, Andrea; Rogora, Michela; Salerno, Franco

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the lakes integrate the pressure of their surrounding terrestrial environment and the climatic variability. Both the water column and sediments are capable to accumulate signals of global change, such as warming of the deep layers or mutation of diverse biological records (e.g., fossil diatoms) and the nutrient loads variability affecting the trophic state. Typically, the biological responses to climate change have been studied in several types of lakes, while documented changes in water chemistry are much rare. A long term study of 20 high altitude lakes located in central southern Himalaya (Mt Everest) conducted since the 90s has highlighted a general change in the chemical composition of the lake water: a substantial rise in the ionic content was observed, particularly pronounced in the case of sulphate. In a couple of these lakes, monitored on an annual basis, the sulphate concentrations increased over 4-fold. A change in the composition of atmospheric wet deposition, as well as a possible influence of decrease in seasonal snow cover duration, which could have exposed larger basin surfaces to alteration processes, were excluded. The chemical changes proved to be mainly related to the sulphide oxidation processes occurring in the bedrocks or the hydrographic basins. In particular, the oxidation processes, considered as the main factor causing the sulphate increase, occurred in subglacial environments characterized by higher glacier velocities causing higher glacier shrinkage. Associated to this mechanism, the exposure of fresh mineral surfaces to the atmosphere may have contributed also to increases in the alkalinity of lakes. Weakened monsoon of the past two decades may have partially contributed to the solute enrichment of the lakes through runoff waters. The almost synchronous response of the lakes studied, which differs in terms of the presence of glaciers in their basins, highlights the fact that the increasing ionic content of lake

  8. Climate Change and its Impacts on Tourism and Livelihood in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    K C, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Hindukush Himalayan region including Nepal, a country reliant on tourism, is particularly sensitive to climate change. However, there are considerable gaps in research regarding tourism, livelihood and climate change in Nepal. The present research assesses the impact of climate change on tourism and livelihood in the Manaslu Conservation Area (MCA) of Nepal. Seventy-six households were interviewed followed by three focus group discussions and five key informant interviews. The empirical data collected at the site are complemented by secondary scientific data on climate and tourism. Correlation, regression, descriptive and graphical analysis was carried out for the presentation and analysis of data. Local people perceived that temperature and rainfall have been increasing in the study site as a result of climate change. It was also verified by the observed scientific data of temperature and precipitation. Socioeconomic variables such as marital status, size of household, education and landholding status had positive effect on tourism participation while livestock-holding status and occupation of the household had negative effect on tourism participation. Number of visitors is increasing in MCA in recent years, and tourism participation is helping local people to earn more money and improve their living standard. Till the date, there is positive impact of climate change on tourism sector in the study area. But, unfavorable weather change phenomena, intense rainfall and snowfall, melting of snow, occurrence of hydrological and climatic hazards and increase in temperature may have adverse impact on the tourism and livelihood in the mountainous area. Such type of adverse impact of climate change and tourism is already experienced in the case of Annapurna region and Mt. Everest region as tourist were trapped and affected by unfavorable weather change phenomena. In response to gradually warming temperature and decreasing snowfall, there seems an urgent need for

  9. Intuitive ultrasonography for autonomous medical care in limited-resource environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Melton, Shannon L.; Ebert, Douglas; Hamilton, Douglas R.

    2011-05-01

    Management of health problems in limited resource environments, including spaceflight, faces challenges in both available equipment and personnel. The medical support for spaceflight outside Low Earth Orbit is still being defined; ultrasound (US) imaging is a candidate since trials on the International Space Station (ISS) prove that this highly informative modality performs very well in spaceflight. Considering existing estimates, authors find that US could be useful in most potential medical problems, as a powerful factor to mitigate risks and protect mission. Using outcome-oriented approach, an intuitive and adaptive US image catalog is being developed that can couple with just-in-time training methods already in use, to allow non-expert crew to autonomously acquire and interpret US data for research or diagnosis. The first objective of this work is to summarize the experience in providing imaging expertise from a central location in real time, enabling data collection by a minimally trained operator onsite. In previous investigations, just-in-time training was combined with real-time expert guidance to allow non-physician astronauts to perform over 80 h of complex US examinations on ISS, including abdominal, cardiovascular, ocular, musculoskeletal, dental/sinus, and thoracic exams. The analysis of these events shows that non-physician crew-members, after minimal training, can perform complex, quality US examinations. These training and guidance methods were also adapted for terrestrial use in professional sporting venues, the Olympic Games, and for austere locations including Mt. Everest. The second objective is to introduce a new imaging support system under development that is based on a digital catalog of existing sample images, complete with image recognition and acquisition logic and technique, and interactive multimedia reference tools, to guide and support autonomous acquisition, and possibly interpretation, of images without real-time link with a human

  10. Aerosol mass and black carbon concentrations, a two year record at NCO-P (5079 m, Southern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marinoni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol mass and the absorbing fraction are important variables, needed to constrain the role of atmospheric particles in the Earth radiation budget, both directly and indirectly through CCN activation. In particular, their monitoring in remote areas and mountain sites is essential for determining source regions, elucidating the mechanisms of long range transport of anthropogenic pollutants, and validating regional and global models. Since March 2006, aerosol mass and black carbon concentration have been monitored at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid, a permanent high-altitude research station located in the Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. below Mt. Everest. The first two-year averages of PM1 and PM1−10 mass were 1.94 μg m−3 and 1.88 μg m−3, with standard deviations of 3.90 μg m−3 and 4.45 μg m−3, respectively, while the black carbon concentration average is 160.5 ng m−3, with a standard deviation of 296.1 ng m−3. Both aerosol mass and black carbon show well defined annual cycles, with a maximum during the pre-monsoon season and a minimum during the monsoon. They also display a typical diurnal cycle during all the seasons, with the lowest particle concentration recorded during the night, and a considerable increase during the afternoon, revealing the major role played by thermal winds in influencing the behaviour of atmospheric compounds over the high Himalayas. The aerosol concentration is subject to high variability: in fact, as well as frequent "background conditions" (55% of the time when BC concentrations are mainly below 100 ng m−3, concentrations up to 5 μg m−3 are reached during some episodes (a few days every year in the pre-monsoon seasons. The variability of PM and BC is the result of both short-term changes due to thermal wind development in the valley, and long-range transport/synoptic circulation

  11. Asian Ice Core Array (AICA): Late Holocene Atmospheric Dust Reconstruction over Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigholm, B. O.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V. B.; Kang, S.; Aizen, E.; Kreutz, K. J.; Kaspari, S.; Fujita, K.; Takeuchi, N.; Wake, C. P.; Kurbatov, A.

    2010-12-01

    as well as consequences on regional socio-economics. Preliminary analysis suggests that atmospheric dust concentrations have generally declined at AICA sites in recent decades. Longer AICA records from the Himalayas (Everest) and central TP (Geladaindong) show generally opposite dust concentration trends over that last ~350 years and may be suggestive of regionally varying emission strength and/or atmospheric transport (e.g. westerly vs. monsoonal dominated circulation).

  12. Quantifying the added value of convection-permitting climate simulations in complex terrain: a systematic evaluation of WRF over the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale dynamical refinements of global climate models or atmospheric reanalysis have shown their potential to resolve intricate atmospheric processes, their land surface interactions, and subsequently, realistic distribution of climatic fields in complex terrains. Given that such potential is yet to be explored within the central Himalayan region of Nepal, we investigate the skill of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model with different spatial resolutions in reproducing the spatial, seasonal, and diurnal characteristics of the near-surface air temperature and precipitation as well as the spatial shifts in the diurnal monsoonal precipitation peak over the Khumbu (Everest, Rolwaling, and adjacent southern areas. Therefore, the ERA-Interim (0.75° reanalysis has been dynamically refined to 25, 5, and 1 km (D1, D2, and D3 for one complete hydrological year (October 2014–September 2015, using the one-way nested WRF model run with mild nudging and parameterized convection for the outer but explicitly resolved convection for the inner domains. Our results suggest that D3 realistically reproduces the monsoonal precipitation, as compared to its underestimation by D1 but overestimation by D2. All three resolutions, however, overestimate precipitation from the westerly disturbances, owing to simulating anomalously higher intensity of few intermittent events. Temperatures are generally reproduced well by all resolutions; however, winter and pre-monsoon seasons feature a high cold bias for high elevations while lower elevations show a simultaneous warm bias. Unlike higher resolutions, D1 fails to realistically reproduce the regional-scale nocturnal monsoonal peak precipitation observed in the Himalayan foothills and its diurnal shift towards high elevations, whereas D2 resolves these characteristics but exhibits a limited skill in reproducing such a peak on the river valley scale due to the limited representation of the narrow valleys at 5

  13. Black Carbon Concentrations from ~1850-1980 from a High-Resolution Ice Core from Geladandong, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M.; Kaspari, S.; Kang, S.; Grigholm, B. O.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil and bio-fuels, is estimated to be the second largest contributor to global warming behind CO2; when deposited on snow and ice BC reduces albedos, potentially enhancing surface melt and glacial retreat. The study of BC's past and present variability is imperative in order to better understand and estimate its potential impact on climate and water resources. This is especially important in the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau, a region that provides fresh water to over a billion people and where BC's climatic effects are estimated to be the largest (Flanner et al., 2007; Ramanathan and Carmichael, 2008). To more accurately constrain BC's past variability in this sensitive region, an ice core recovered in 2005 from Mt. Geladandong (5800 m a.s.l.) on the central Tibetan Plateau was analyzed for BC at high resolution using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Results indicate that 1) average BC concentrations at this location are higher than at other locations closer to BC sources and analyzed by the same method (Mt. Everest by Kaspari et al., 2011 and Muztagh Ata by Wang et al., in prep), and 2) BC exists in peak concentrations high enough (>10 μg/L) to cause a >1% reduction in surface albedo at the sampling location (Ming et al., 2009; Hadley et al., 2010). Potential causes of the higher BC concentrations at the Geladandong site include lower annual precipitation and the mechanical trapping and concentration of BC caused by surface melt and/or sublimation (Conway et al., 1996; Huang et al., 2011). Preliminary dating (Grigholm et al., in prep) has dated the top of the core to ~1980, suggesting that annual mass loss at the site has removed the upper portion of the record. This supports the findings of Kehrwald et al. (2008) who reported that glaciers below ~6050 m a.s.l. in the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau are losing mass annually. Presented here is the record of BC on the central Tibetan Plateau over the time

  14. 21st century Himalayan hydropower: Growing exposure to glacial lake outburst floods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    . Everest and Lulana regions of Nepal and Bhutan, respectively. Together with the dense, cascading sequence of hydropower stations along several river networks in these areas, the combination of GLOFs and artificial reservoirs in steep terrain may result in increasing threats to downstream communities. Hydropower stations are infrastructural investments with minimum design lives of several decades, and our results suggest that their planning should be orchestrated with projected changes in glacier response to future climate change. Our data underline the preponderance of glacial lakes in areas with high glacial retreat rates and a commensurate exposure of hydropower stations to GLOFs. To ensure sustainable water resources use at minimum risk implications for on-site downstream communities, potential changes in GLOF hazard should be taken seriously when planning hydropower stations in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya.

  15. 10-year record of atmospheric composition in the high Himalayas: source, transport and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasoni, Paolo; Laj, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Maione, Michela; Putero, Davide; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Gobbi, Gianpaolo; Sellegri, Karine; Verza, Gianpietro; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Arduini, Jgor

    2016-04-01

    South Asia represents a global "hot-spot" for air-quality and climate impacts. Since the end of the 20th Century, field experiments and satellite observations identified a thick layer of atmospheric pollutants extending from the Indian Ocean up to the atmosphere of the Himalayas. Since large amount of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) - like atmospheric aerosol (in particular, the light-absorbing aerosol) and ozone - characterize this region, severe implications were recognized for population health, ecosystem integrity as well as regional climate impacts, especially for what concerns hydrological cycle, monsoon regimes and cryosphere. Since 2006, the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid (NCO-P, 27.95N, 86.82 E, 5079 m a.s.l.), a global station of the WMO/GAW programme has been active in the eastern Nepal Himalaya, not far from the Mt. Everest. NCO-P is located away from large direct anthropogenic pollution sources. The closest major urban area is Kathmandu (200 km south-west from the measurement site). As being located along the Khumbu valley, the observations are representative of synoptic-scale and mountain thermal circulation, providing direct information about the vertical transport of pollutants/climate-altering compounds to the Himalayas and to the free troposphere. In the framework of international programmes (GAW/WMO, UNEP-ABC, AERONET) the following continuous measurement programmes have been carried out at NCO-P: surface ozone, aerosol size distribution (from 10 nm to 25 micron), total particle number, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, equivalent BC, PM1-PM10, AOD by sun-photometry, global solar radiation (SW and LW), meteorology. Long-term sampling programmes for the off-line determination of halogenated gases and aerosol chemistry have been also activated. The atmospheric observation records at NCO-P, now representing the longest time series available for the high Himalayas, provided the first direct evidences about the systematic

  16. Cincuenta años de circulación extracorpórea. La historia de la máquina corazón-pulmón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zalaquett Sepúlveda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Si bien 1953 fue el año del descubrimiento del ADN y de la conquista del Monte Everest, también lo fue de un gran invento tecnológico: la máquina corazón-pulmón, la que ofreció un tratamiento, y en muchos casos cura, a la mayoría de las enfermedades cardiovasculares. En efecto, el 6 de mayo de 1953 John Gibbon logró coronar con el éxito el trabajo de toda su vida al cerrar por primera vez una comunicación interauricular en una joven mujer utilizando una máquina corazón-pulmón de su invención. Sin embargo, previamente la cirugía exploró otros caminos para operar el corazón, como la hipotermia, la que consistía en bajar la temperatura del paciente introduciéndolo en una tina de agua fría para luego efectuar la corrección quirúrgica de una malformación del corazón, en el menor tiempo posible. Por otra parte, luego de su primer éxito, los 4 pacientes siguientes de Gibbon fallecieron, por lo que este abandonó todo intento ulterior, lo que fue seguido por un pesimismo generalizado sobre la circulación extracorpórea. Este fue revertido un año más tarde por Walton Lillehei con la introducción de la "circulación cruzada controlada" en la que un paciente, habitualmente un niño, era conectado a un "donante", habitualmente el padre o la madre, cuyo corazón y pulmón servían como un oxigenador para así efectuar la cirugía a corazón abierto del paciente. Finalmente, es el mismo Lillehei, quien un año más tarde introduce el oxigenador de burbujas, simple y de bajo costo, que abrió las puertas de la cirugía a corazón abierto a todos los cirujanos del mundo. Por esto, para muchos, Walton Lillehei es considerado el "Padre de la Cirugía a Corazón Abierto". Lillehei visitó Chile en 1963 y luego de operar en los pabellones del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad Católica fue nombrado Miembro Honorario de la Facultad de Medicina de dicha Universidad. Previamente, en 1957, Helmuth Jaeger había efectuado el primer cierre

  17. The Jalisco Seismic Telemetric Network (RESJAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Gonzalez-Ledezma, M.; Garcia-Puga, J.

    2001-12-01

    The region of Jalisco is one of the most active seismic regions in Mexico, the main tectonic units in this region are the Jalisco Block and the Rivera Plate. The greatest earthquake (M=8.2) occurred in Mexico in the Twenty-Century (1932) took place in the coast of Jalisco, this was followed by another one (Ms =7.8) fifteen days later. In 1995 an earthquake magnitude 8.0 took place in the coast of Jalisco, but its rupture area was only the southern half of the rupture area proposed for the 1932 earthquakes, these facts suggest the existence of an important seismic Gap in the north coast of Jalisco which includes the area of Bahía de Banderas. However, not only subduction earthquakes occurred in this region there are also large inland earthquakes, such as the December 27, 1568 and February 11, 1872 events. There are also three active volcanoes Sanganguey, Ceboruco and the most active volcano in Mexico, the Colima volcano. In spite of these facts and the risk associated to these processes, there were only one seismological permanent station in Chamela on the coast of Jalisco and an analog telemetric network (RESCO) located on the Colima Volcano and the south part of the Colima Rift Zone (CRZ). By these reasons, the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil de Jalisco (Jalisco Civil Defense) began a project to install a Digital Telemetric Network in the region in several phases, this project is carrying out jointly with SisVOc UdeG.; due to the size of the area and the topography of the region it is very difficult to get direct telemetric links, by these reasons the network is designed in cells with nodes, where the nodes are the different Campus of the University of Guadalajara located in the region, all Campus are linked by a computer network. First phase started in August 2001, it includes the installation of six stations, each station with a Kinemetrics Everest 24 bit datalogger, GPS time, and a Lennartz LE3Dlite 1Hz sensor, using KNI NMS to control and data acquisition

  18. Effect of Salt Stress on Morphological Traits of Lettuce Genotypes (Lactuca Sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam zare

    2017-02-01

    Romaine lettuce long green Teresa genotype, respectivly. Increasing salinity led to significant reduction (p≤0.01 in the plant length lettuce in all genotypes. Root and plant fresh weight lettuce genotypes were significantly (p≤0.01 influenced by different levels of salinity. The greatest amount in root and plant fresh weight lettuce genotypes were obtained in the control treatment and the lowest amount at the level of 4 dS/m. Root and plant dry weight lettuce genotypes were significantly (p≤0.01 influenced by the salinity. Root and plant dry weight decreased with increasing salinity. So that the greatest amount of root and plant dry weight lettuce genotypes were obtained in control treatment and the lowest amount at the level of 4 dS/m.. The results showed that root and plant length ,root fresh and dry weight, plant fresh and dry weight and leaf length and width reduced with increasing salinity. The clustering pattern the genotypes were grouped into 3 clusters based on their charachters at 4 dS/m salinity. The first cluster were placed in salt tolerant groups, while the other genotypes were clustered into moderately tolerant cluster. Romaine lettuce long green Teresa genotype was placed in salt-tolerant group and Lettuce Everest, Lettuce May Queen, Curly endive hair angel, Cabbage Milan Aubervilliers and Romaine lettuce long blonde Galaica were placed in salt-sensitive group.

  19. Addressing capability computing challenges of high-resolution global climate modelling at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaj, Valentine; Norman, Matthew; Evans, Katherine; Taylor, Mark; Worley, Patrick; Hack, James; Mayer, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    ,640 equivalent cores. Scientific applications, such as CESM, are also required to demonstrate a "computational readiness capability" to efficiently scale across and utilize 20% of the entire system. The 0,25 deg configuration of the spectral element dynamical core of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM-SE), the atmospheric component of CESM, has been demonstrated to scale efficiently across more than 5,000 nodes (80,000 CPU cores) on Titan. The tracer transport routines of CAM-SE have also been ported to take advantage of the hybrid many-core architecture of Titan using GPUs [see EGU2014-4233], yielding over 2X speedup when transporting over 100 tracers. The high throughput I/O in CESM, based on the Parallel IO Library (PIO), is being further augmented to support even higher resolutions and enhance resiliency. The application performance of the individual runs are archived in a database and routinely analyzed to identify and rectify performance degradation during the course of the experiments. The various resources available at the OLCF now support a scientific workflow to facilitate high-resolution climate modelling. A high-speed center-wide parallel file system, called ATLAS, capable of 1 TB/s, is available on Titan as well as on the clusters used for analysis (Rhea) and visualization (Lens/EVEREST). Long-term archive is facilitated by the HPSS storage system. The Earth System Grid (ESG), featuring search & discovery, is also used to deliver data. The end-to-end workflow allows OLCF users to efficiently share data and publish results in a timely manner.

  20. Critical analysis of the thermal inertia approach to map soil water content under sparse vegetation and changeable sky conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Corbari, Chiara; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Sobrino, José Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The paper reports a critical analysis of the thermal inertia approach to map surface soil water content on bare and sparsely vegetated soils by means of remotely sensed data. The study area is an experimental area located in Barrax (Spain). Field data were acquired within the Barrax 2011 research project. AHS airborne images including VIS/NIR and TIR bands were acquired both day and night time by the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) between the 11th and 13rd of June 2011. Images cover a corn pivot surrounded by bare soil, where a set of in situ data have been collected previously and simultaneously to overpasses. To validate remotely sensed estimations, a preliminary proximity sensing set up has been arranged, measuring spectra and surface temperatures on transects by means of ASD hand-held spectroradiometer and an Everest Interscience radiometric thermometer respectively. These data were collected on two transects: the first one on bare soil and the second from bare to sparsely vegetated soil; soil water content in both transects ranged approximately between field and saturation values. Furthermore thermal inertia was measured using a KD2Pro probe, and surface water content of soil was measured using FDR and TDR probes. This ground dataset was used: 1) to verify if the thermal inertia method can be applied to map water content also on soil covered by sparse vegetation, and 2) to quantify a correction factor of the downwelling shortwave radiation taking into account sky cloudiness effects on thermal inertia assessment. The experiment tests both Xue and Cracknell approximation to retrieve the thermal inertia from a dumped value of the phase difference and the three-temperature approach of Sobrino to estimate the phase difference spatial distribution. Both methods were then applied on the remotely sensed airborne images collected during the following days, in order to obtain the spatial distribution of the surface soil moisture on bare soils and

  1. Our Place in Space: Exploring the Earth-Moon System and Beyond with NASA's CINDI E/PO Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Where does space begin? How far is the Moon? How far is Mars? How does our dynamic star, the Sun, affect its family of planets? All of these questions relate to exploration of our Solar System, and are also part of the Education/Public Outreach (E/PO) Program for NASA’s CINDI project, a space weather mission of opportunity. The Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation has been flying aboard the US Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite in the upper atmosphere of the Earth since April 2008. The Earth’s ionosphere, the part of the atmosphere CINDI studies, is also in space. The CINDI E/PO program uses this fact in lessons designed to help students in middle schools and introductory astronomy classes develop a sense of their place in space. In the activity "How High is Space?" students’ start by building an 8-page scale model of the Earth’s atmosphere with 100 km/page. The peak of Mount Everest, commercial airplanes, and the tops of thunderheads all appear at the bottom of the first page of the model, with astronaut altitude -where space begins- at the top of the same sheet of paper. In "Where Would CINDI Be?" the idea of scale is further developed by modeling the Earth-Moon system to scale first in size, then in distance, using half of standard containers of play dough. With a lowest altitude of about 400 km, similar to that of the International Space Station and orbiting Space Shuttle, CINDI is close to the Earth when compared with the nearly thousand times greater distance to the Moon. Comparing and combining the atmosphere and Earth-Moon system models help reinforce ideas of scale and build student understanding of how far away the Moon actually is. These scale models have also been adapted for use in Family Science Nights, and to include the planet Mars. In this presentation, we will show how we use CINDI’s scale modeling activities and others from our broader space sciences E/PO program in formal and informal

  2. Effect of accelerated aging on the fracture toughness of zirconias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kosuke; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Hatano, Yasuo; Shinya, Akiyoshi; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2016-02-01

    Low temperature degradation (LTD) of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) is of concern. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of accelerated aging on the Vickers hardness and fracture toughness of a newly developed Y-TZP and 2 primary Y-TZPs. Two primary 3 mol% Y-TZP, Lava (LA), Everest Zirconium Soft (EV), and a new 3 mol% Y-TZP, ZirTough (NZ) were assessed. Specimens (n=30 each brand) of 10 × 10 × 3 mm were hydrothermally treated for accelerated aging to examine LTD. Five conditions were used (n = 5 per condition) as follows: control group (no aging); 5 hours at 134°C/0.2 MPa (5h-134°C); 100 hours at 134°C/0.2 MPa (100 h-134°C); 5 hours at 180°C/1.0 MPa (5 h-180°C); and 20 hours at 180°C/1.0 MPa (20 h-180°C). Fracture toughness was measured by using the indentation fracture (IF) method under a loading of 294 N and calculated from the obtained measurements. To observe differences in particle composition and fracture patterns, mirror-polished test specimens (n=5 each brand) were re-sintered at 1200°C for 1 hour as a thermal etching process, and a Vickers indenter was pressed into the test specimens according to the IF method. Test piece surfaces and cracks were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One-way ANOVA and the post- hoc (Scheffé test were used to examine) interlevel significant differences (α=.05). The Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were as follows: 1319 HV and 7.36 MPa · m(1/2) for LA, and 1371 HV and 6.76 MPa · m(1/2) for EV in no aging; 1334 HV and 7.02 MPa · m(1/2) for LA, and 1346 HV and 6.07 MPa · m(1/2) for EV in 5h-134°C. No significant differences were found between no aging and 5h-134°C for LA and EV for Vickers hardness and fracture toughness. Measurements could not be made for LA and EV for 100 h-134°C, 5h-180°C, or 20 h-180°C because of fractures in the surface layer. For NZ, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were as follows: 1261 HV and 15.60 MPa

  3. EDITORIAL: Extreme Ultraviolet Light Sources for Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, David

    2004-12-01

    filaments, for both Xe and Sn. The embodiment of electrical discharge plasmas and laser-produced plasmas into commercially available EUV sources, with EUV powers that project to suitable levels, is presented in the fifth paper by Uwe Stamm of XTREME Technologies in Göttingen. For discharge produced plasmas, thermal loading and electrode erosion are significant issues. Vladimir Borisov and his colleagues, at the Troitsk Institute outside Moscow, address these issues and provide novel ideas for the multiplexing of several discharge plasmas feeding a single optical system. Igor Fomenkov and his colleagues at Cymer in San Diego describe issues associated with a dense plasma focus pinch, including a comparison of operations with both positive and negative polarity. In the eighth paper, Malcolm McGeoch of Plex in Massachusetts provides a theoretical description of the vaporization and ionization of spherical tin droplets in discharge plasma. Together this cluster of papers provides a broad review of the current status of high power EUV plasma sources for semiconductor manufacturing. This very current topic, of intense interest worldwide, is considered further in a book [4] of collected papers to become available in mid-2005. Additionally, a special journal issue emphasizing coherent EUV sources, albeit at lower average powers, is soon to appear [5]. References [1] http://public.itrsr.net [2] Attwood D 2000 Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) www.coe.Berkeley.edu/AST/sxreuv [3] Moore G E 1965 Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits Electronics Magazine 114 Moore G E 1995 Lithography and the Future of Moore's Law SPIE 243 2 [4] Bakshi V ed 2005 EUV Sources for Lithography (Bellingham WA:SPIE) at press [5] IEEE J. Special Topics in Quantum Electronics, Short Wavelength and EUV Lasers 10 Dec 2004 at press

  4. Proceedings of the 6. conference days on radioprotection optimization in the nuclear, industrial and medical domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, Eric; Bernier, Marie-Odile; De Vita, Antoine; Pignot, Christine; Bardelay, Chantal; Godet, Jean-Luc; Perrin, Marie-Line; Saad, Nawal; Deboodt, Pascal P.A.; Faure, Sophie; Fusil, Laurence; Alvarez, Manuel; Tourneux, C.; Barbey, Pierre; Pigree, Gilbert; Lemarchand, Maxime; Buchaniec, Remi; Rocourt, Nathalie; Bouden, Helene; Lasselin, Stephanie; Moeneclaey, Ludivine; Rebullida, Delphine; Werquin, Marie Odile; Dubus, Francois; Ponsard, Samuel; Marques, Sophie; K-Zerho, R.; Vacher, F.; Vrammout, D.; Guillot, E.; Fucks, I.; Moukarzel, Marianne; Ryckx, Nick; Verdun, Francis R.; Lefaure, Christian; Balduyck, Sebastien; Cruz Suarez, Rodolfo; ); Bouvy, Christophe; Geets, Jean-Michel; Nactergal, Benoit; Davet, Laurent; Carlier, Pierre; Lereculey, Clement; Livolsi, Paul; PIN, Alain; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Le Faou, Yann; Courageot, Estelle; Gaillard-Lecanu, Emmanuelle; Kutschera, Reinald; Le Meur, Gaelle; Lantheaume, Noel; Schiedts, Dominique; Nouveau, Philippe; Walterscheid, Bertrand; Humbert, Edouard; Tranchant, Philippe; Dabat-Blondeau, Charlotte; Renard, Francois; Lucas, Jean-Yves; Fritioff, Karin; Svedberg, Torgny; Carlson, Marie; Hennigor, Staffan; Schieber, Caroline; Andresz, Sylvain; Roch, Patrice; Celier, David; Aubert, Bernard; Etard, Cecile; Bouette, Aurelien; Carette, M.F.; Haddad, S.; Khalil, A.; Foulquier, J.N.; Parrot, A.; Ceyrolle, C.; Bechard, Pascal; Clero, E.; Leuraud, K.; Laurier, D.; Couzinet, M.; LE GUEN, B.; Davesne, Estelle; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Grandeau, E.; Dumont, N.; Cattelotte, J.; Dine, Pierre Emmanuel; Guersen, Joel; Nwatsock, Joseph Francis; Boyer, Louis; Karmouche, K.; Moyon, J.B.; Cassagnes, L.; Garcier, J.M.; Lortal, B.; Caron, J.; Karst, M.; Rage, Estelle; Caer-Lorho, Sylvaine; Drubay, Damien; Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique; Laroche, Pierre; Sans, Philippe; Tournier, Helene; Zvorykin, Sonia

    2014-06-01

    This 6. ALARA conference was jointly organised by the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) and several professional associations (ABR, AFPPE, ARRAD, ATSR, RAMIP, SFPM, SFR). The conference was the occasion to review all aspects relative to the issues of radioprotection optimization and to its implementation to workers, patients and the public in the nuclear, industrial and medical domains. A particular attention must be given to the application of the ALARA principle in all sectors relevant to radioprotection, especially in a context characterized by: big dismantling works under preparation in the French nuclear park, an increased use of X-radiation in the medical domain - involving both patients and medical personnel, new knowledge concerning the health effects of ionizing radiations, and an evolution of European and international radioprotection safety standards. All these aspects were discussed during these conference days. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) together with their corresponding abstracts (in French) and dealing with: 1 - Review of the evolution of workers/patients exposure in France and comparison with international data (E. Vial); 2 - Status of low dose epidemiology (M.O. Bernier); 3 - Radioprotection optimization method at the MELOX plant (A. De Vita); 4 - Elaboration method for the annual dosimetric objective of the French nuclear park (C. Pignot); 5 - Optimisation principle in the new EURATOM Directive (N. Saad); 6 - Integrated management of radiological and non-radiological risks: the inevitable challenge (P. Deboodt); 7 - Radiological and conventional risks: the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) integrated approach (S. Faure); 8 - EVEREST (Evolving towards an entry into controlled areas in street clothes, M. Alvarez); 9 - Example of multi-risk management in the medical domain (C. Tourneux); 10 - Radioprotection optimisation in the research domain (P. Barbey); 11 - Child scanning dosimetry

  5. Glaciers of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    -glacier systems of the world including the Himalaya, Karakorum, Tien Shan and Altay mountain ranges. The glaciers are widely scattered and cover an area of about 59,425 km2. The mountain glaciers may be classified as maritime, subcontinental or extreme continental. In Afghanistan, more than 3,000 small glaciers occur in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains. Most glaciers occur on north-facing slopes shaded by mountain peaks and on east and southeast slopes that are shaded by monsoon clouds. The glaciers provide vital water resources to the region and cover an area of about 2,700 km2. Glaciers of northern Pakistan are some of the largest and longest mid-latitude glaciers on Earth. They are located in the Hindu Kush, Himalaya, and Karakoram mountains and cover an area of about 15,000 km2. Glaciers here are important for their role in providing water resources and their hazard potential. The glaciers in India are located in the Himalaya and cover about 8,500 km2. The Himalaya contains one of the largest reservoirs of snow and ice outside the polar regions. The glaciers are a major source of fresh water and supply meltwater to all the rivers in northern India, thereby affecting the quality of life of millions of people. In Nepal, the glaciers are located in the Himalaya as individual glaciers; the glacierized area covers about 5,324 km2. The region is the highest mountainous region on Earth and includes the Mt. Everest region. Glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya have a total area of about 1,317 km2. Many recent glacier studies are focused on glacier lakes that have the potential of generating dangerous glacier lake outburst floods. Research on the glaciers of the middle-latitude, high-mountain glaciers of Asia has also focused on the information contained in the ice cores from the glaciers. This information helps in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic records, and the computer modeling of global climate change.

  6. SRTM Data Release for Eurasia, Index Map and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The colored regions of this map show the extent of digital elevation data recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This release includes data for most of Europe and Asia plus numerous islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. SRTM flew on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000 and used an interferometric radar system to map the topography of Earth's landmass between latitudes 56 degrees south and 60 degrees north.The data were processed into geographic 'tiles,' each of which represents one by one degree of latitude and longitude. A degree of latitude measures 111 kilometers (69 miles) north-south, and a degree of longitude measures 111 kilometers or less east-west, decreasing away from the equator. The data are being released to the public on a continent-by-continent basis. This Eurasia segment includes 5,940 tiles, more than a third of the total data set. Previous releases covered North America and South America. Forthcoming releases will include Africa-Arabia and Australia plus an 'Islands' release for those islands not included in the continental releases. Together these data releases constitute the world's first high-resolution, near-global elevation model. The resolution of the publicly released data is three arcseconds (1/1,200 of a degree of latitude and longitude), which is about 90 meters (295 feet).European coverage in the current data release stretches eastward from the British Isles and the Iberian Peninsula in the west, across the Alps and Carpathian Mountains, as well as the Northern European Plain, to the Ural and Caucasus Mountains bordering Asia. The Asian coverage includes a great diversity of landforms, including the Tibetan Plateau, Tarin Basin, Mongolian Plateau, and the mountains surrounding Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake. Mt. Everest in the Himalayas, at 8,848 meters (29,029 feet) is the world's highest mountain. From India's Deccan Plateau, to Southeast Asia, coastal China, and Korea, various

  7. SRTM Data Release for Eurasia, Index Map and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The colored regions of this map show the extent of digital elevation data recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This release includes data for most of Europe and Asia plus numerous islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. SRTM flew on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000 and used an interferometric radar system to map the topography of Earth's landmass between latitudes 56 degrees south and 60 degrees north.The data were processed into geographic 'tiles,' each of which represents one by one degree of latitude and longitude. A degree of latitude measures 111 kilometers (69 miles) north-south, and a degree of longitude measures 111 kilometers or less east-west, decreasing away from the equator. The data are being released to the public on a continent-by-continent basis. This Eurasia segment includes 5,940 tiles, more than a third of the total data set. Previous releases covered North America and South America. Forthcoming releases will include Africa-Arabia and Australia plus an 'Islands' release for those islands not included in the continental releases. Together these data releases constitute the world's first high-resolution, near-global elevation model. The resolution of the publicly released data is three arcseconds (1/1,200 of a degree of latitude and longitude), which is about 90 meters (295 feet).European coverage in the current data release stretches eastward from the British Isles and the Iberian Peninsula in the west, across the Alps and Carpathian Mountains, as well as the Northern European Plain, to the Ural and Caucasus Mountains bordering Asia. The Asian coverage includes a great diversity of landforms, including the Tibetan Plateau, Tarin Basin, Mongolian Plateau, and the mountains surrounding Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake. Mt. Everest in the Himalayas, at 8,848 meters (29,029 feet) is the world's highest mountain. From India's Deccan Plateau, to Southeast Asia, coastal China, and Korea, various

  8. Reviews | Reseñas de libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasado y Memoria

    2014-12-01

    ; AGUADO, Ana; SANFELIU, Luz (eds., Caminos de democracia. Ciudadanías y culturas democráticas en el siglo XX, Granada, Comares Historia, 2014, 296 pp. / Alicia Mira Abad; DE LA GRANJA SAINZ, José Luis (coord., Indalecio Prieto. Socialismo, democracia y autonomía, Madrid, Biblioteca Nueva, 2013, 248 pp. / Manuel Redero San Román; EIROA SAN FRANCISCO, Matilde, Isabel de Palencia. Diplomacia, periodismo y militancia al servicio de la República, Málaga, Atenea. Estudios sobre la Mujer - Universidad de Málaga, 2014, 310 pp. / Mónica Moreno Seco; MONLLEÓ, Rosa; FORNAS, Alfredo; MADALL, Iván (eds., Biografies rescatades del silenci. Experiències de guerra i postguerra a Castelló, Castelló de la Plana, Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I, 2014, 283 pp. / José Miguel Santacreu Soler; MONLLEÓ, Rosa; OLIVER, David (eds., Vides truncades per la Guerra Civil a Castelló. Entre la repressió latent i la resistència quotidiana, Castelló de la Plana, Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I, 2014, 337 pp. / José Miguel Santacreu Soler; GARCÍA-ORELLÁN, Rosa, Carmen Facal. Buscando mis recuerdos, León, Everest, 2013, 304 pp. / Sara Hidalgo García; VILAR, Juan Bautista, La diócesis de Cartagena en el siglo XX. Una aproximación histórico-sociológica, Madrid, Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 2014, 153 pp. / Francisco Manuel Pastor Garrigues; RODRIGUEZ BRANCHAT, Rosa, La construcció d’un mite. Cultura i franquisme a Eivissa, 1936-1975, Catarroja, Editorial Afers, 2014, 186 pp. / José Miguel Santacreu Soler; CALVEIRO, Pilar, Política y/o violencia. Una aproximación a la guerrilla de los años setenta, Buenos Aires, Siglo XXI Editores, 2013, 160 pp. / María Florencia Reyes Santiago; REQUENA GALLEGO, Manuel, Diccionario Biográfico de los parlamentarios de Castilla-La Mancha, 1977-2007, Albacete, Altabán Ediciones, 2013, 448 pp. / Eduardo González Calleja.

  9. Final master work plan : environmental investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas, 2002 revision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J. C.; Environmental Research

    2003-01-23

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under which Argonne National Laboratory provides technical assistance for hazardous waste site characterization and remediation for the CCC/USDA. Carbon tetrachloride is the contaminant of primary concern at sites in Kansas where former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities were located. Argonne applies its QuickSite(reg sign) Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) approach to these former facilities. The QuickSite environmental site characterization methodology is Argonne's proprietary implementation of the ESC process (ASTM 1998). Argonne has used this approach at several former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas, including Agenda, Agra, Everest, and Frankfort. The Argonne ESC approach revolves around a multidisciplinary, team-oriented approach to problem solving. The basic features and steps of the QuickSite methodology are as follows: (1) A team of scientists with diverse expertise and strong field experience is required to make the process work. The Argonne team is composed of geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, hydrogeologists, chemists, biologists, engineers, computer scientists, health and safety personnel, and regulatory staff, as well as technical support staff. Most of the staff scientists are at the Ph.D. level; each has on average, more than 15 years of experience. The technical team works together throughout the process. In other words, the team that plans the program also implements the program in the field and writes the reports. More experienced scientists do not remain in the office while individuals with lesser degrees or experience carry out the field work. (2) The technical team reviews, evaluates, and interprets existing data for the site and the contaminants there to determine which data sets are technically valid and can be used in initially designing the field program. A basic

  10. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    (Kovel) So, what's the future going to look like for us? The office is putting together an initiative with the community, which we call the E3 Initiative. We're looking for a 10-year horizon for what's going to happen. Through the series of town hall meetings, which many of you participated in, we have produced a document on `Transforming Energy, the Environment and Science through simulations at the eXtreme Scale'; it can be found at http://www.science.doe.gov/ascr/ProgramDocuments/TownHall.pdf . We sometimes call it the Exascale initiative. Exascale computing is the gold-ring level of computing that seems just out of reach; but if we work hard and stretch, we just might be able to reach it. We envision that there will be a SciDAC-X, working at the extreme scale, with SciDAC teams that will perform and carry out science in the areas that will have a great societal impact, such as alternative fuels and transportation, combustion, climate, fusion science, high-energy physics, advanced fuel cycles, carbon management, and groundwater. We envision institutes for applied mathematics and computer science that probably will segue into algorithms because, at the extreme scale, we see the distinction between the applied math and the algorithm per se and its implementation in computer science as being inseparable. We envision an INCITE-X with multi-petaflop platforms, perhaps even exaflop computing resources. ESnet will be best in class - our 10-year plan calls for having 400 terabits per second capacity available in dual rings around the country, an enormously fast data communications network for moving large amounts of data. In looking at where we've been and where we are going, we can see that the gigaflops and teraflops era was a regime where we were following Moore's law through advances in clock speed. In the current regime, we're introducing massive parallelism, which I think is exemplified by Intel's announcement of their teraflop chip, where they envision more than a