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Sample records for caudate lobe hepatocellular

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Microwave Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Caudate Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Jian-Ping; Yu, Jie; Cheng, Zhi-Gang; Han, Zhi-Yu; Liu, Fang-Yi; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Liang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Treatment for liver tumors in the caudate lobe is challenging because of their location and complex anatomy. This study was intended to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and tolerability of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the caudate lobe. From December 2011 to May 2015, a total of 20 patients (mean age: 62 ± 11 y) with HCC in the caudate lobe were enrolled in this study. Patient characteristics and tumor features were analyzed. The epigastric approach, intercostal approach and the combination were used in 4, 14 and 2 patients, respectively. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) guidance and temperature monitoring were applied as ancillary techniques. Ethanol injection was performed for tumors adjacent to the inferior vena cava or hepatic hilum. Contrast images were performed to evaluate treatment response after ablation. Technical success, technique efficacy, local tumor progression and complications were documented. Technique efficacy was achieved in 18 patients (18/20, 90%). Two patients received (125)I brachytherapy as palliative therapy for residual tumors that could not be ablated technically after the first ablation. Technical success was achieved in 16 patients (16/20, 80%). In 2 patients, ablation was completed after two sessions. CEUS was applied in 5 patients and temperature monitoring in 2 patients. Eight patients received an ethanol injection during ablation. Eleven patients achieved a minimum 5-mm safety margins. Local tumor progression was detected in 3 patients (16.7%, 3/18) during a median follow-up of 18.4 mo (range: 3-45 mo). Tumors in these 3 patients were all larger than 2.0 cm. No major or minor complications were observed. In conclusion, ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation combined with CEUS, temperature monitoring, and ethanol injection is a tolerable and relatively effective treatment for HCC in the caudate lobe. PMID:27126238

  2. Treating and Downstaging Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Caudate Lobe with Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Saad M. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Kulik, Laura [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Hepatology (United States); Baker, Talia [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Ryu, Robert K. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Mulcahy, Mary F. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center (United States); Abecassis, Michael [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J., E-mail: r-lewandowski@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the technical feasibility, safety, efficacy, and potential to downstage patients to within transplantation criteria when treating patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of the caudate lobe using Y90 radioembolization. Methods: During a 4-year period, 8 of 291 patients treated with radioembolization for unresectable HCC had disease involving the caudate lobe. All patients were followed for treatment-related clinical/biochemical toxicities, serum tumor marker response, and treatment response. Imaging response was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) classification schemes. Pathologic response was reported as percent necrosis at explantation. Results: Caudate lobe radioembolization was successfully performed in all eight patients. All patients presented with both cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Half were United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) stage T3 (n = 4, 50%). Fatigue was reported in half of the patients (n = 4, 50%). One (13%) grade 3/4 bilirubin toxicity was reported. One patient (13%) showed complete tumor response by WHO criteria, and three patients (38%) showed complete response using EASL guidelines. Serum AFP decreased by more than 50% in most patients (n = 6, 75%). Four patients (50%) were UNOS downstaged from T3 to T2, three of who underwent transplantation. One specimen showed histopathologic evidence of 100% complete necrosis, and two specimens demonstrated greater than 50% necrosis. Conclusions: Radioembolization with yttrium-90 appears to be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment option for patients with unresectable caudate lobe HCC. It has the potential to downstage patients to transplantation.

  3. Chemoembolization of Extrahepatic Collateral Arteries for Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Caudate Lobe of the Liver

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    Woo, Sungmin; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail: angiointervention@gmail.com; Chung, Jin Wook; Jung, Hyun-Seok; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Jae, Hwan Jun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, and Clinical Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety in performing chemoembolization of extrahepatic collateral arteries (EHC) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located in the caudate lobe.MethodsBetween January 2006 and November 2013, chemoembolization via EHC was performed in 35 patients with 35 caudate HCCs. Preprocedural and follow-up CT or MR scans, angiographic images, and medical records were reviewed retrospectively in consensus. Chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between tumor characteristics and type of EHC and that between tumor response and the characteristics of the tumor and chemoembolization.ResultsIn 31 (88.6 %) patients, EHCs supplying the caudate HCC originated from the right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA). The remaining four HCCs were supplied by the gastroduodenal artery, dorsal pancreatic artery, and right and left gastric arteries. Superselective catheterization of tumor-feeding vessels from the EHC was achieved in 27 patients (77.1 %). There were no major complications. Individual tumor response supplied by the EHC at follow-up contrast-enhanced CT were as follows: complete response (n = 18), partial response (n = 9), stable disease (n = 3), and progressive disease (n = 3). Non-RIPA EHCs were significantly more common in patients who had previously received chemoembolization via the RIPA (50 %) than those who had not (6.5 %; P = 0.01). There was no significant predictive factor associated with tumor response.ConclusionsHCC in the caudate lobe can be supplied by several EHCs. Chemoembolization via these arteries can be performed safely and effectively.

  4. PORTAL SUPPLY TO CAUDATE LOBE AND QUADRATE LOBE OF LIVER

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    Maheswari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The precise knowledge of intra hepatic branching pattern of portal vein to caudate lobe and quadrate lobe is important for Gastroenterologist during hepatic segmental and subsegmental resection. The study was done in 47 adult human liver specimens. In this study methods like Manual dissection and Contrast study were used. During this study the portal branches to caudate l obe, Quadrate lobe and accessory branches to segment IV in addition to its branches were observed. The results were compared with previous studies

  5. Demonstration of caudate lobe bile ducts using 3D-CT cholangiography

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    Shinohara, Yasushi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    The aim of this study is to make precise analysis of bile ducts of the caudate, lobe using 3D-CT cholangiography. Seventy obstructive jaundiced patients without lesions at the hilar duct level were included in this study. According to Kumon`s study, I divided the caudate lobe into three areas: spiegel lobe (sp), caudate process portion (cp) and paracaval portion (pc), and set the range for these three areas in cholangio CT. In 70 cases, 191 caudate branches were detected and those draining areas and confluence patterns were analysed. 3D-CT cholangiography could be obtained from randomized angles. In set up the 8 angles from 0deg to 330deg in sagittal plane to demonstrate intrahepatic bile ducts and investigate the suitable angles for detecting caudate lobe branches in each drainaing area. Suitable angles for detecting the branches of Sp group (104 branches) were 180deg, 210deg, 150deg and 330deg (detectabilities were 89.4%, 61.5%, 51.0% and 47.1% respectively). Suitable angles for detecting the branches of Pc group (80 branches) were 180deg, 210deg, 150deg, 330deg and 0deg (detectabilities were 91.3%, 65.0%, 57.5%, 48.8% and 41.3% respectively). Suitable angles for detecting the branches of Cp group (67 branches) were 210deg, 180deg, 330deg, 150deg and 0deg (detectabilities were 80.1%, 73.1%, 50.7%, 49.3% and 47.8% respectively). The images from 150deg, 180deg, 210deg were necessary to demonstrate the caudate lobe branches in 3D-CT cholangiography. (author).

  6. Caudate atrophy and impaired frontostriatal connections are linked to executive dysfunction in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Jeffrey D; Moore, Stephanie; Cramer, Steven C.; Jack J Lin

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that executive dysfunction, common in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), is associated with an abnormal frontostriatal network. Structural and diffusion tensor MR scans, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) targeting cognitive flexibility, and the Trail Making Test B examining parallel sequencing were obtained from 9 patients with left TLE and 17 healthy controls. The five major findings were: (1) Caudate volume is reduced on the left side in TLE. (2) The atrophy...

  7. Different approaches to caudate lobectomy with "curettage and aspiration" technique using a special instrument PMOD: A Report of 76 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-You Peng; Cheng-Hong Peng; Jiang-Tao Li; Yi-Ping Mou; Ying-Bin Liu; Yu-Lian Wu; He-Qing Fang; Li-Ping Cao; Li Chen; Xiu-Jun Cai

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study different approaches to caudate lobectomy with "curettage and aspiration" technique using Peng's multifunctional operative dissector (PMOD). The surgical procedure of isolated complete caudate lobectomy was specially discussed.METHODS: In 76 cases of various types of caudate lobectomy, three approaches were used including left side approach, right side approach, and anterior approach.Among the 76 cases, isolated complete caudate lobectomy was carried out in 6 cases with transhepatic anterior approach. The surgical procedure consisted of mobilization of the total liver, ligation and separation of the short hepatic veins, splitting the liver parenchyma through the Cantlie's plane, ligation and division of the caudate portal triads from the hilum, dissection of the root of major hepatic veins,detachment of the caudate lobe from liver parenchyma.RESULTS: The mean operative time was 285±51 min,the mean blood loss was 1 600 mi. No severe complications were observed. Among the 6 cases receiving isolated complete caudate lobectomy with transhepatic anterior approach, one case died 17 months after operation due to disease recurrence and liver failure, the other 5 cases have been alive without recurrence, with one longest survival of 49 months.CONCLUSION: The choice of approach is essential to the success of caudate lobectomy. As PMOD and "curettage and aspiration" technique can delineate intrahepatic or extrahepatic vessels clearly, caudate lobe resection has become safer, easier and faster.

  8. A case of hepatic angiomyolipoma difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiro Takahara; Yasuhiro Miyake; Kazuyuki Matsumoto; Daisuke Kawai; Eisuke Kaji; Tatsuya Toyokawa; Morihito Nakatsu; Masaharu Ando; Mamoru Hirohata

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of hepatic angiomyolipoma with uncommon clinical features. A 56-year-old man presented with a hepatic tumor in the caudate lobe. The tumor was hypoechoic on ultrasonography, showed early-phase hyperattenuation on enhanced computed tomography and did not absorb iron on superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Hepatocellular carcinoma was highly suspected, and the patient underwent hepatic resection. Histologically, the tumor was mainly composed of smooth muscle cells and contained small amounts of adipose cells and blood vessels. On immunohistochemical staining, the smooth muscle cells were positive for a melanocytic cell-specific monoclonal antibody. In cases with uncommon features of angiomyolipoma, it is quite difficult to distinguish angiomyolipoma from hepatocellular carcinoma.

  9. Hypertrophic osteopathy associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in a dog

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    Randall, Victoria D.; Souza, Carlos; Vanderhart, Daniel; Boston, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female dog diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma and hypertrophic osteopathy was negative for additional lesions on computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen. Resection of the affected liver lobe resulted in resolution of clinical signs. This is the first case of hypertrophic osteopathy secondary to hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Aggression and Quantitative MRI Measures of Caudate in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hoptman, Matthew J.; Volavka, Jan; Czobor, Pál; Gerig, Guido; Chakos, Miranda; Blocher, Joseph; Citrome, Leslie L; Sheitman, Brain; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Bilder, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Caudate dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia. However, little is known about the relationship between aggression and caudate volumes. Forty-nine patients received magnetic resonance imaging scanning in a double-blind treatment study in which aggression was measured. Caudate volumes were computed using a semiautomated method. The authors measured aggression with the Overt Aggression Scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Larger caudate volumes were associated with greater le...

  11. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 Histone Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285,SRX9...98283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 All antigens Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998283...,SRX998285 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 Histone Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285,SRX9...98283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 Histone Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998283,SRX9...98285 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 Histone Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285,SRX9...98283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 All antigens Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285...,SRX998283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 All antigens Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285...,SRX998283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 All antigens Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285...,SRX998283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  19. Microinjection of limonene into caudate nucleus inhibits IMC of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Guo; Xin Yi Zhu; Yi Quan Wei; De Zhi Yang

    2000-01-01

    AIM We have discovered that Limonene modulates interdigestive myoelectrical complexes (IMCs) ofgastrointestinal tract in rats. In this research we will elucidate weather limonene affects acetylcholine M-receptor in caudate nucleus.METHODS Changes of IMCs were studied after limonene and/or atropine were microinjected into caudatenucleus. IMCs were recorded by a RM-6200 four-channel recorder and then delivered to Maclab and PowerMacintosh.RESULTS The active phases of IMCs occupied about 40% of total cycle in average. After microinjection oflimonene into caudate nucleus, the active phases were significantly shortened, while the cycle time of IMCswere not changed significantly. The inhibitory effects of limonene were abolished by pretreatment withatropine, whilst the atropine has no effect on IMCs.CONCLUSION It is suggested that limonene inhabits the gastrointestinal IMCs by affecting M-receptor incaudate nucleus.

  20. Bicavitary effusion secondary to liver lobe torsion in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Z

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zaheda Khan,1 Kathryn Gates,2 Stephen A Simpson,31Emergency and Critical Care, Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, 2Emergency and Critical Care, Advanced Critical Care, Emergency and Specialty Services, Culver City, CA 3Emergency and Critical Care, Southern California Veterinary Specialty Hospital, Irvine, CA, USA Abstract: We described the diagnosis and successful treatment of pleural and peritoneal effusion secondary to liver lobe torsion in a dog. A 12-year-old female spayed Borzoi dog was referred for heart failure. Emergency room thoracic and abdominal ultrasound showed a large volume of pleural effusion with mild peritoneal effusion and an abdominal mass. Pleural fluid analysis classified the effusion as exudative. A complete ultrasound revealed mild peritoneal effusion and decreased blood flow to the right liver lobe. Other causes of bicavitary effusion were ruled out based on blood work, ultrasound, echocardiogram, and computed tomography. The patient was taken to surgery and diagnosed with caudate liver lobe torsion and had a liver lobectomy. At the 2-week postoperative recheck, the patient was doing well and there was complete resolution of the pleural effusion. Liver lobe torsion is a rare occurrence in dogs and can be difficult to diagnose. Clinical signs are nonspecific for liver lobe torsion and patients may present in respiratory distress with significant pleural fluid accumulation. When assessing patients with pleural and peritoneal effusion, liver lobe torsion should be considered as a differential diagnosis.Keywords: pleural effusion, peritoneal effusion, hepatic torsion

  1. Hepatocellular calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Claus; Frifelt, J J

    1987-01-01

    Autopsy of a twenty year old girl dying from complications of renal and cardiac failure demonstrated severe hepatocellular calcification, a rare finding. The pathogenesis is thought to be a combination of dystrophic calcification caused by severe centrilobular necrosis and metastatic calcification...

  2. Task-related functional connectivity of the caudate mediates the association between trait mindfulness and implicit learning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Chelsea M; You, Xiaozhen; Seaman, Kendra L; Vaidya, Chandan J; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating evidence shows a positive relationship between mindfulness and explicit cognitive functioning, i.e., that which occurs with conscious intent and awareness. However, recent evidence suggests that there may be a negative relationship between mindfulness and implicit types of learning, or those that occur without conscious awareness or intent. Here we examined the neural mechanisms underlying the recently reported negative relationship between dispositional mindfulness and implicit probabilistic sequence learning in both younger and older adults. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship is mediated by communication, or functional connectivity, of brain regions once traditionally considered to be central to dissociable learning systems: the caudate, medial temporal lobe (MTL), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). We first replicated the negative relationship between mindfulness and implicit learning in a sample of healthy older adults (60-90 years old) who completed three event-related runs of an implicit sequence learning task. Then, using a seed-based connectivity approach, we identified task-related connectivity associated with individual differences in both learning and mindfulness. The main finding was that caudate-MTL connectivity (bilaterally) was positively correlated with learning and negatively correlated with mindfulness. Further, the strength of task-related connectivity between these regions mediated the negative relationship between mindfulness and learning. This pattern of results was limited to the older adults. Thus, at least in healthy older adults, the functional communication between two interactive learning-relevant systems can account for the relationship between mindfulness and implicit probabilistic sequence learning. PMID:27121302

  3. Main Bile Duct Stricture Occurring After Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical course of main bile duct stricture at the hepatic hilum after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among 446 consecutive patients with HCC treated by TACE, main bile duct stricture developed in 18 (4.0%). All imaging and laboratory data, treatment course, and outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had 1 to 2 tumors measuring 10 to 100 mm in diameter (mean ± SD 24.5 ± 5.4 mm) near the hepatic hilum fed by the caudate arterial branch (A1) and/or medial segmental artery (A4) of the liver. During the TACE procedure that caused bile duct injury, A1 was embolized in 8, A4 was embolized in 5, and both were embolized in 5 patients. Nine patients (50.0%) had a history of TACE in either A1 or A4. Iodized oil accumulation in the bile duct wall was seen in all patients on computed tomography obtained 1 week later. Bile duct dilatation caused by main bile duct stricture developed in both lobes (n = 9), in the right lobe (n = 3), in the left lobe (n = 4), in segment (S) 2 (n = 1), and in S3 (n = 1). Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase increased in 13 patients. Biloma requiring drainage developed in 2 patients; jaundice developed in 4 patients; and metallic stents were placed in 3 patients. Complications after additional TACE sessions, including biloma (n = 3) and/or jaundice (n = 5), occurred in 7 patients and were treated by additional intervention, including metallic stent placement in 2 patients. After initial TACE of A1 and/or A4, 8 patients (44.4%), including 5 with uncontrollable jaundice or cholangitis, died at 37.9 ± 34.9 months after TACE, and 10 (55.6%) have survived for 38.4 ± 37.9 months. Selective TACE of A1 and/or A4 carries a risk of main bile duct stricture at the hepatic hilum. Biloma and jaundice are serious complications associated with bile duct strictures.

  4. Segmentation and volumetric analysis of the caudate nucleus in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: A quantitative volumetric analysis of caudate nucleus can provide valuable information in early diagnosis and prognosis of patients with Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Purpose of the study is to estimate the volume of segmented caudate nucleus from MR images and to correlate the variation in the segmented volume with respect to the total brain volume. We have also tried to evaluate the caudate nucleus atrophy with the age related atrophy of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a group of Alzheimer's disease patients. Methods: 3D fast low angle shot (3D FLASH) brain MR images of 15 AD patients, 15 normal volunteers and 15 patients who had normally diagnosed MR images were included in the study. Brain tissue and caudate nuclei were segmented using the statistical parametric mapping package and a semi-automatic tool, respectively and the volumes were estimated. Volume of segmented caudate nucleus is correlated with respect to the total brain volume. Further, the caudate nucleus atrophy is estimated with the age related atrophy of WM, GM and CSF in a group of AD patients. Results: Significant reduction in the caudate volume of AD patients was observed compared to that of the normal volunteers. Statistical analysis also showed significant variation in the volume of GM and CSF of AD patients. Among the patients who had normal appearing brain, 33% showed significant changes in the caudate volume. We hypothesize that these changes can be considered as an indication of early AD. Conclusion: The method of volumetric analysis of brain structures is simple and effective way of early diagnosis of neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease. We have illustrated this with the observed changes in the volume of caudate nucleus in a group of patients. A detailed study with more subjects will be useful in correlating these results for early diagnosis of AD

  5. Cryotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Tahany; Thorlund, Kristian; Gluud, Christian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignant cancer of the liver. Evidence for the role of cryotherapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma is controversial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to evaluate the potential benefits and harms of cryotherapy for...... the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS until June 2009. We identified further studies by...... hepatocellular carcinoma. Randomised clinical trials with low-risk of bias may help in defining the role of cryotherapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma....

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J T; Macdonald, G A

    2000-05-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) appears to be declining in Taiwan and potentially in other high-prevalence areas as a consequence of vaccination for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, there is evidence that the incidence of HCC is increasing in North America and Europe. This appears to be related to the increasing prevalence and duration of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in these countries. There is also growing evidence to support an increase in the risk of HCC in patients with HCV who are coinfected with occult HBV (patients who have lost HBV surface antigen but still have detectable HBV DNA either in blood or liver). Occult HBV infection in patients with HCV may be more common than previously thought, and HCC that occurs in this setting appears to have a worse prognosis. There is continuing interest in the effect of interferon therapy on the incidence of HCC in patients with HCV. Several studies from Japan have shown a benefit in patients without cirrhosis, although there are a number of potentially confounding variables that may partly explain these results. Prospective randomized studies are needed to investigate this important question. The molecular biology of HCC and the events of malignant transformation in the liver continue to be areas of intense study. Recently, there has been considerable interest in telomeres, the repeat units on the ends of chromosomes, and the enzyme that maintains these, telomerase. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and can be used to determine the number of divisions a cell has undergone. Eventually they reach a critical length, with further loss resulting in cellular senescence. Telomerase restores telomere length and may help malignant cells escape senescence. Nearly all HCCs have telomerase activity and assessments of telomeres and telomerase may be clinically useful. PMID:17023886

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, K

    2000-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in many countries as a result of an increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection since World War II. The epidemiology of HCC varies with the global region. There have been conflicting observations from different parts of the world concerning the frequency of HCC in patients who in the distant past had post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. The genetic basis of hepatocarcinogenesis is still poorly understood. In hepatitis B virus (HVB) associated HCC, codon 249 mutation in the p 53 gene seems more related to exposure to aflatoxin B1 than to hepatocarcinogenesis itself. HCC that occurs in children in high HBV endemic regions could be associated with germ-line mutations, but little information is available; not much is known about chemical hepatocarcinogens in the environment other than aflatoxins. The X gene of HBV seems to play an important role in HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. There are preliminary observations on the molecular mechanism of HCV-associated HCC, such as HCV core protein inducing HCC in transgenic mice and the NS3 genome transforming NIH 3T3 cells. Pathological distinction between preneoplastic and very early transformed lesions still depends on classical morphology, and a more genetically oriented differential diagnosis is required. Clinical diagnosis based on modern imaging has improved greatly, but is still unsatisfactory in the differential diagnosis of preneoplastic and early transformed nodules, because the vasculature changes that occur within the nodule are not accurately discerned with the current imaging. Use of sensitive des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA II) assay, and lectin affinity chromatography separating HCC specific subspecies of AFP molecules with a more practical biochemical technique will further improve diagnosis. Early diagnosis and transplantation are the best treatment at the moment, but transplantation is not widely available because of the donor shortage. Despite

  8. Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Somi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide(1, with over four hundred thousand new cases and almost as many deaths each year(2. The incidence ranges from <10 cases per 100,000 population in North America and Western Europe to 50-150 cases per 100,000 population in parts of Africa and Asia where HCC is responsible for a large proportion of cancer deaths. Studies from the USA, UK, mainland Europe and Australia have shown a rising incidence of HCC(3-6, which probably relates to the increasing prevalence of hepatitis B and C due to immigration(7. Improved care for individuals with cirrhosis has resulted in prolonged and a relatively greater opportunity for malignant changes to develop. HCC is a disease of multifactorial etiology; the development of a carcinoma in a given individual is a multi-step process and the result of an accumulation of risks. It is estimated that persistent infection with hepatotrophic viruses account for well over 80% of the world's liver cancer(8. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major cause of death in cirrhotic patients in Europe(9,10,11. Once cirrhosis is present, up to 20% of patients will develop HCC over 10 years(12. Genetic alterations are fundamental to the development of HCC by resulting in uncontrolled cellular proliferation and de-differentiation. Without treatment, the prognosis is dismal, with only a few months survival(13. Several surgical and non-surgical therapeutic modalities have been used for the treatment of HCC. Surgical resection, liver transplantation and local ablation therapies demonstrate potentially curative treatment options that should always be considered when the tumor is restricted to liver.EpidemiologyThe incidence of HCC varies widely by geographic location. The distribution of HCC also differs among ethnic groups and regions within the same country(14. High incidence regions (more than 15 cases per 100,000 populations per year include sub

  9. Intraperitoneal seeding from hepatocellular carcinoma following percutaneous ethanol ablation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurl, S; Farin, P; Rytkonen, H; Soimakallio, S

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of intraperitoneal seeding in a 36-year-old woman with a large primary hepatocellular carcinoma located superfically in the left lobe of the otherwise normal liver. The patient was treated with percutaneous ethanol ablation therapy. Eight months after the treatment computed tomography and ultrasonography (US) revealed an intraperitoneal seeding that was confirmed with US-guided percutaneous biopsy. PMID:9107646

  10. Measurement of caudate nucleus area - a more accurate measurement for Huntington's disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudate nucleus atrophy occurs in Huntington's disease and methods of measuring this have been described using axial CT, but these are indirect and lack sensitivity. We measured caudate nucleus area (blind to the subjects' clinical state) in 30 subjects with or at risk of Huntington's disease, and in 100 normal age matched controls. Fifteen subjects with established symptomatic Huntington's disease, 3 with early symptoms, and 3 presymptomatic subjects (2 showing a high probability for the Huntington's disease gene on genetic testing, and one who has since developed symptoms) were correctly identified. Three normal (gene negative) family members were also correctly identified. Outcome is awaited in 6. CT caudate area measurement is simple and reproducible and we have found it to be a useful confirmatory test for Huntington's disease. (orig.)

  11. Separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate caudate head and tail encoding flexible and stable value memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung F Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons are thought to be critical for reward value-based learning by modifying synaptic transmissions in the striatum. Yet, different regions of the striatum seem to guide different kinds of learning. Do dopamine neurons contribute to the regional differences of the striatum in learning? As a first step to answer this question, we examined whether the head and tail of the caudate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca mulatta receive inputs from the same or different dopamine neurons. We chose these caudate regions because we previously showed that caudate head neurons learn values of visual objects quickly and flexibly, whereas caudate tail neurons learn object values slowly but retain them stably. Here we confirmed the functional difference by recording single neuronal activity while the monkey performed the flexible and stable value tasks, and then injected retrograde tracers in the functional domains of caudate head and tail. The projecting dopaminergic neurons were identified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. We found that two groups of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta project largely separately to the caudate head and tail. These groups of dopamine neurons were mostly separated topographically: head-projecting neurons were located in the rostral-ventral-medial region, while tail-projecting neurons were located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral regions of the substantia nigra. Furthermore, they showed different morphological features: tail-projecting neurons were larger and less circular than head-projecting neurons. Our data raise the possibility that different groups of dopamine neurons selectively guide learning of flexible (short-term and stable (long-term memories of object values.

  12. Pleural effusion and azygos lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufang, K.F.R.; Buelo, W.

    1981-11-01

    In patients with azygos lobe a right-sided hemopneumothorax can mimic upper mediastinal widening if in recumbent position the fluid can gather in the azygos lobe recess. The right lateral decubitus view with the horizontal beam will show fluid levels in the azygos region thus giving the correct diagnosis.

  13. Pleural effusion and azygos lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with azygos lobe a right-sided hemopneumothorax can mimic upper mediastinal widening if in recumbent position the fluid can gather in the azygos lobe recess. The right lateral decubitus view with the horizontal beam will show fluid levels in the azygos region thus giving the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Sodium glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid affect iron metabolism in the rat caudate putamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wang; Peng Guan; Fei Li; Yujian Fu; Xianglin Duan; Yanzhong Chang

    2010-01-01

    Glutamic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) influence iron content in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, although the mechanisms of action remain unclear. The present study measured iron content and changes in divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and hephaestin expression in the substantia nigra and caudate putamen, and explored the effects of GABA and glutamic acid on iron metabolism, Results demonstrated that iron content and DMT1 non iron response element [DMT1 (-IRE)] expression were significantly greater but hephaestin expression was significantly lower in the caudate putamen of the monosodium glutamate group compared with the control group. No significant difference in iron content was detected between the GABA and control groups. DMT1(-IRE) expression was significantly reduced, but hephaestin expression was significantly increased in the GABA group compared with the control group. In addition, there was no significant difference in tyrosine hydroxylase expression between monosodium glutamate and GABA groups and the control group. These results suggested that glutamate affected iron metabolism in the caudate putamen by increasing DMT1(-IRE) and decreasing hephaestin expression. In addition, GABA decreased DMT1(-IRE) expression in the caudate putamen.

  15. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans;

    2010-01-01

    that hippocampal and caudate volumes were decreased in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. We found no ventricular enlargement, differences in global volume or significant associations between tissue volume and duration of untreated illness or psychopathology. The hippocampal volume reductions appeared...

  16. Somatostatin regulates dopamine release in rat striatal slices and cat caudate nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of somatostatin on the release of tritiated dopamine (DA) formed continuously from tritiated tyrosine were studied in vitro in superfused striatal slices and in vivo in both caudate nuclei and both substantiae nigrae of halothane-anesthetized cats using a push-pull cannula technique. Somatostatin (3 X 10(-10) to 3 X 10(-7) M) increased the spontaneous tritiated dopamine release from rat striatal slices. This effect was dose dependent and was completely prevented by tetrodotoxin (5 X 10(-7) M). When applied for 30 min in one cat caudate nucleus, somatostatin (10(-7) M) immediately increased the local release of tritiated DA, while a gradual inhibition of the tritiated amine's efflux was observed in the contralateral caudate nucleus. No changes in tritiated dopamine were seen in either substantia nigra during or after the peptide's application in the caudate nucleus. These results suggest that somatostatin in the striatum may play a role in the local and the distal control of dopamine release from the terminals of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons

  17. Budd-Chiari syndrome as an initial presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălăceanu, Lavinia Alice; Diaconu, Camelia Cristina; Aron, Gheorghiţa

    2014-06-01

    We report the case of a 84-year-old admitted with symptoms of congestive heart failure. Ultrasonography revealed a hyperechoic nodule in the left lobe of the liver, with a peripheral hypoechoic rim, multiple irregular hypoechoic nodules in both hepatic lobes, portal vein, inferior vena cava, and right atrium thrombosis. On ultrasonographic and alpha-fetoprotein criteria the case was interpreted as hepatocellular carcinoma with Budd-Chiari syndrome. The particularity of the case is the initial presentation of the hepatocellular carcinoma as Budd-Chiari syndrome. The inferior vena cava and right atrium thrombosis, as a cause of secondary Budd-Chiari syndrome in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma, has been rarely reported.

  18. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. ...

  19. Occipital lobe infarctions are different

    OpenAIRE

    Naess, Halvor; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrikke; Thomassen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Objectives We hypothesized that occipital lobe infarctions differ from infarctions in other locations as to etiology, risk factors and prognosis among young adults. Methods Location, etiology, risk factors and long-term outcome were evaluated among all young adults 15–49 years suffering from cerebral infarction in Hordaland County, Norway between 1988 and 1997. Results The following variables were more frequent among patients with occipital lobe infarction compared with patients with infarcti...

  20. Shape Abnormalities of the Caudate Nucleus Correlate with Poorer Gait and Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macfarlane, Matthew D; Looi, Jeffrey C L; Walterfang, Mark;

    2015-01-01

    found to correlate with poorer performance on measures of gait and balance. This study aimed to determine whether striatal volume and shape changes were correlated with gait dysfunction. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging scans and clinical gait/balance data (scores from the Short Physical Performance...... published method and volumes calculated. The relationships between volume and physical performance on the SPPB were investigated with shape analysis using the spherical harmonic shape description toolkit. RESULTS: There was no correlation between the severity of WMHs and striatal volumes. Caudate nuclei...... volume correlated with performance on the SPPB at baseline but not at follow-up, with subsequent shape analysis showing left caudate changes occurred in areas corresponding to inputs of the dorsolateral prefrontal, premotor, and motor cortex. There was no correlation between putamen volumes...

  1. The visual corticostriatal loop through the tail of the caudate: Circuitry and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Seger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although high level visual cortex projects to a specific region of the striatum, the tail of the caudate, and participates in corticostriatal loops, the function of this visual corticostriatal system is not well understood. This article first reviews what is known about the anatomy of the visual corticostriatal loop across mammals, including rodents, cats, monkeys, and humans. Like other corticostriatal systems, the visual corticostriatal system includes both closed loop components (recurrent projections that return to the originating cortical location and open loop components (projections that terminate in other neural regions. The article then reviews what previous empircal research has shown about the function of the tail of the caudate. The article finally addresses the possible functions of the closed and open loop connections of the visual loop in the context of theories and computational models of corticostriatal function.

  2. Amygdala modulation of hippocampal-dependent and caudate nucleus-dependent memory processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Packard, M G; L. Cahill; McGaugh, J L

    1994-01-01

    These experiments investigated the effects, on memory, of injections of d-amphetamine (10 micrograms/0.5 microliter) administered into the amygdala, hippocampus, or caudate nucleus immediately after training in cued or spatial water-maze tasks. In experiment 1, rats received an eight-trial training session on one of the two tasks followed by injections of d-amphetamine or saline. Retention was tested 24 hr later. On the spatial task, intrahippocampal, but not intracaudate, injections of d-amp...

  3. Reduced Caudate and Nucleus Accumbens Response to Rewards in Unmedicated Subjects with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Holmes, Avram J.; Dillon, Daniel G.; Goetz, Elena L.; Birk, Jeffrey L.; Bogdan, Ryan; Dougherty, Darin D.; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Rauch, Scott L.; Fava, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by impaired reward processing, possibly due to dysfunction in the basal ganglia. However, few neuroimaging studies of depression have distinguished between anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward processing. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a task that dissociates anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward processing, the authors tested the hypothesis that MDD participants would show reduced reward-related responses in basal ganglia structures. Method A monetary incentive delay task was presented to 30 unmedicated MDD subjects and 31 healthy comparison subjects during fMRI scanning. Whole-brain analyses focused on neural responses to reward-predicting cues and rewarding outcomes (i.e., monetary gains). Secondary analyses focused on the relationship between anhedonic symptoms and basal ganglia volumes. Results Relative to comparison subjects, MDD participants showed significantly weaker responses to gains in the left nucleus accumbens and bilateral caudate. Group differences in these regions were specific to rewarding outcomes and did not generalize to neutral or negative outcomes, although relatively reduced responses to monetary penalties in MDD emerged in other caudate regions. By contrast, evidence for group differences during reward anticipation was weaker, although MDD subjects showed reduced activation to reward cues in a small sector of the left posterior putamen. Among MDD subjects, anhedonic symptoms and depression severity were associated with reduced bilateral caudate volume. Conclusions These results indicate that basal ganglia dysfunction in MDD may affect the consummatory phase of reward processing. Additionally, morphometric results suggest that anhedonia in MDD is related to caudate volume. PMID:19411368

  4. Activity of Caudate Nucleus Neurons in a Visual Fixation Paradigm in Behaving Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Nagypál; Péter Gombkötő; Balázs Barkóczi; György Benedek; Attila Nagy

    2015-01-01

    Beside its motor functions, the caudate nucleus (CN), the main input structure of the basal ganglia, is also sensitive to various sensory modalities. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of visual stimulation on the CN by using a behaving, head-restrained, eye movement-controlled feline model developed recently for this purpose. Extracellular multielectrode recordings were made from the CN of two cats in a visual fixation paradigm applying static and dynamic stimuli. T...

  5. Impaired Verbal Learning Is Associated with Larger Caudate Volumes in Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Juuhl-Langseth

    Full Text Available Both brain structural abnormalities and neurocognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia. We have previously reported enlargements in subcortical brain structure volumes and impairment of neurocognitive functioning as measured by the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB in early onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOS. To our knowledge, no previous study has investigated whether neurocognitive performance and volumetric abnormalities in subcortical brain structures are related in EOS.Twenty-four patients with EOS and 33 healthy controls (HC were included in the study. Relationships between the caudate nucleus, the lateral and fourth ventricles volumes and neurocognitive performance were investigated with multivariate linear regression analyses. Intracranial volume, age, antipsychotic medication and IQ were included as independent predictor-variables.The caudate volume was negatively correlated with verbal learning performance uniquely in the EOS group (r=-.454, p=.034. There were comparable positive correlations between the lateral ventricular volume and the processing speed, attention and reasoning and problem solving domains for both the EOS patients and the healthy controls. Antipsychotic medication was related to ventricular enlargements, but did not affect the brain structure-function relationship.Enlargement of the caudate volume was related to poorer verbal learning performance in patients with EOS. Despite a 32% enlargement of the lateral ventricles in the EOS group, associations to processing speed, attention and reasoning and problem solving were similar for both the EOS and the HC groups.

  6. Ultrastructural Changes of Caudate Nucleus in Mice Chronically Treated with Manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Virginia; Hernández-Fonseca, Juan Pablo; Bonilla, Ernesto; Medina-Leendertz, Shirley; Mora, Marylu; Mosquera, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and induces functional and structural alterations during the intoxication by this metal. Therefore, the effects of chronic administration of Mn in the caudate nucleus of mice were evaluated by electron microscopy. Male albino mice were injected intraperitoneally with MnCl2 (5 mg/kg/d) 5 d per week during 9 weeks. The control group received only 0.9% of NaCl solution. The caudate nuclei were extracted and subsequently processed to be observed on a conventional transmission electron microscope at 2, 4, 6, and 9 weeks after treatment. A high percentage of vacuolated and swollen mitochondria were found throughout all the analyzed periods. Myelin disarrangement and ultrastructural alterations related to edema were observed increased in Mn-treated mice at week 9. Granular degeneration of myelin at week 9 accompanied with deposition of electron dense granules in the neuropil was also observed. Edema in neuropil and glial cells was detected from week 2 to week 9 accompanied by swollen mitochondria. Neuronal bodies, synaptic terminals, and perivascular cells were found swollen. Decreased electron density in postsynaptic areas and decreased and dispersed synaptic vesicles in presynaptic areas were noted in Mn-treated animals. Some neurons from Mn-treated mice showed cisternae dilation of the Golgi apparatus. These results suggest that Mn-treatment produces structural alterations in the caudate nucleus that could be responsible for some of the neurotoxic effects of this metal. PMID:25569534

  7. A Java Interface for Roche Lobe Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, D. A.; Leahy, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    A JAVA interface for calculating various properties of the Roche lobe has been created. The geometry of the Roche lobe is important for studying interacting binary stars, particularly those with compact objects which have a companion which fills the Roche lobe. There is no known analytic solution to the Roche lobe problem. Here the geometry of the Roche lobe is calculated numerically to high accuracy and made available to the user for arbitrary input mass ratio, q.

  8. CT findings of exophytic hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Cho, June Sik; Kim, Hyung Lyul; Lee, Chung Keun; Kim, Dae Hong; Rhee, Byung Chull [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    We retrospectively evaluated the characteristic computed tomographic(CT) findings in nine patients with exohepatic hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) pathologically prove by surgery(n=2) or percutaneous needle biopsy(n=7). The CT findings of exphepatic HCC were correlated with clinical findings and compared with those of usual HCC. Lesions were in the left lobe(n=7) and right lobe(n=2) of the liver. All lesions showed a well-marginated hypodense mass with capsular enhancement on enhanced CT scan. The patterns of capsular enhancement were complete in five and partial in four case. The portal vein thrombosis was seen only in one case. There was no difference between exohepatic HCC and usual HCC in clinical findings such as increased {alpha}-fetoprotein({alpha}-FP), positive hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg), and underlying liver cirrhosis. In conclusion, the CT findings of exohepatic HCC were a well-defined hyperdense mass with complete or partial capsular enhancement and these findings may be useful in differentiation from the tumors of adjacent organs.

  9. Occipital lobe infarctions are different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvor Naess

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Halvor Naess, Ulrikke Waje-Andreassen, Lars ThomassenDepartment of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, NorwayObjectives: We hypothesized that occipital lobe infarctions differ from infarctions in other locations as to etiology, risk factors and prognosis among young adults.Methods: Location, etiology, risk factors and long-term outcome were evaluated among all young adults 15–49 years suffering from cerebral infarction in Hordaland County, Norway between 1988 and 1997.Results: The following variables were more frequent among patients with occipital lobe infarction compared with patients with infarctions located elsewhere: younger age (P < 0.001, female sex (P = 0.016, prothrombotic state (P = 0.005 and lack of hypertension (P = 0.001. There was no difference as to long-term mortality or recurrence of cerebral infarction. Conclusion: Occipital lobe infarctions differ from infarctions in other locations among young adults. This may have important etiologic and therapeutical implications that need further studies.Keywords: cerebral infarction, occipital lobe, young adults

  10. Higher landing accuracy in expert pilots is associated with lower activity in the caudate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheen M Adamson

    Full Text Available The most common lethal accidents in General Aviation are caused by improperly executed landing approaches in which a pilot descends below the minimum safe altitude without proper visual references. To understand how expertise might reduce such erroneous decision-making, we examined relevant neural processes in pilots performing a simulated landing approach inside a functional MRI scanner. Pilots (aged 20-66 were asked to "fly" a series of simulated "cockpit view" instrument landing scenarios in an MRI scanner. The scenarios were either high risk (heavy fog-legally unsafe to land or low risk (medium fog-legally safe to land. Pilots with one of two levels of expertise participated: Moderate Expertise (Instrument Flight Rules pilots, n = 8 or High Expertise (Certified Instrument Flight Instructors or Air-Transport Pilots, n = 12. High Expertise pilots were more accurate than Moderate Expertise pilots in making a "land" versus "do not land" decision (CFII: d' = 3.62 ± 2.52; IFR: d' = 0.98 ± 1.04; p<.01. Brain activity in bilateral caudate nucleus was examined for main effects of expertise during a "land" versus "do not land" decision with the no-decision control condition modeled as baseline. In making landing decisions, High Expertise pilots showed lower activation in the bilateral caudate nucleus (0.97 ± 0.80 compared to Moderate Expertise pilots (1.91 ± 1.16 (p<.05. These findings provide evidence for increased "neural efficiency" in High Expertise pilots relative to Moderate Expertise pilots. During an instrument approach the pilot is engaged in detailed examination of flight instruments while monitoring certain visual references for making landing decisions. The caudate nucleus regulates saccade eye control of gaze, the brain area where the "expertise" effect was observed. These data provide evidence that performing "real world" aviation tasks in an fMRI provide objective data regarding the relative expertise of pilots and brain regions

  11. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Newsome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes. Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate. Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results

  12. Endocrine abnormalities in human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy secrete ACTH at higher rates and in greater amounts than normal subjects. Temporal lobectomy restores ACTH secretion to normal amounts and rates. The ACTH secretion in temporal lobe epilepsy is independent of anticonvulsant drug effect and seizure frequency. Electrical stimulation of medial temporal lobe structures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy affected ACTH secretion in a manner consistent with the hypothesis that ACTH secretion is regulated by ...

  13. Brain SPECT imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs and by localization of an epileptogenic focus. A brain SPECT study of two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using 99mTc-HMPAO, was used to demonstrate a perfusion abnormality in the temporal lobe, while brain CT and MRI were non-contributory. The electroencephalogram, though abnormal, did not localize the diseased area. The potential role of the SPECT study in diagnosis and localization of temporal lobe epilepsy is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Tumor suppressor and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juliette Martin; Jean-Frangois Dufour

    2008-01-01

    A few signaling pathways are driving the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Each of these pathways possesses negative regulators. These enzymes, which normally suppress unchecked cell proliferation, are circumvented in the oncogenic process, either the over-activity of oncogenes is sufficient to annihilate the activity of tumor suppressors or tumor suppressors have been rendered ineffective. The loss of several key tumor suppressors has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we systematically review the evidence implicating tumor suppressors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  15. Lung metastasis of fatty hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplant: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepeoğlu, Merih; Özdemir, B Handan; Ok Atılgan, Alev; Akdur, Aydıncan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma with prominent fatty change is rare, and to date only a few cases have been reported. In this article, we present a 57-yearold woman who underwent a liver transplant for hepatocellular carcinoma. Ten months after liver transplant, she presented with a persistent cough. Computed tomography of the chest was performed, revealing a solid lung mass that measured 1 × 0.9 cm in the right inferior lobe. Right inferior lobectomy was performed, and the final diagnosis was noted as hepatocellular carcinoma with prominent fatty change. Fatty change was extensive in the tumor; therefore, lipoid pneumonia was the first condition that was considered in the differential diagnosis during examination of the lobectomy material. For the differential diagnosis, the immunohistochemistry panel was studied to show the hepatocellular nature of the tumor. Although metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma to the lungs is expected, hepatocellular carcinoma with prominent fatty change can cause diagnostic difficulties, such as lipoid pneumonia, especially in small lung biopsies. PMID:24635803

  16. Distally lobed integuments in some Angiosperm ovules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heel, van W.A.

    1970-01-01

    In this treatise ‘De l’Ovule’ Warming (1878) remarked that although the borders of the integuments grow uniformly, very rarely a division into lobes can be observed. He mentioned Symplocarpus foetida (inner integument four-lobed), Lagarosiphon schweinfurthii (outer integument four- or five-lobed) an

  17. Short-term hypoxia/reoxygenation activates the angiogenic pathway in rat caudate putamen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F Molina; A Rus; Ma Peinado; ML del Moral

    2013-06-01

    In response to hypoxia, tissues have to implement numerous mechanisms to enhance oxygen delivery, including the activation of angiogenesis. This work investigates the angiogenic response of the hypoxic caudate putamen after several recovery times. Adult Wistar rats were submitted to acute hypoxia and analysed after 0 h, 24 h and 5 days of reoxygenation. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alfa (HIF-1) and angiogenesis-related genes including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), adrenomedullin (ADM) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-1) was determined by both RT-PCR and ELISA. For vessel labelling, lectin location and expression were analysed using histochemical and image processing techniques (fractal dimension). Expression of Hif-1, Vegf, Adm and Tgf- 1 mRNA rose immediately after hypoxia and this increase persisted in some cases after 5 days post-hypoxia. While VEGF and TGF-1 protein levels increased parallel to mRNA expression, ADM remained unaltered. The quantification of the striatal vessel network showed a significant augmentation at 24 h of reoxygenation. These results reveal that not only short-term hypoxia, but also the subsequent reoxygenation period, up-regulate the angiogenic pathway in the rat caudate putamen as a neuroprotective mechanism to hypoxia that seeks to maintain a proper blood supply to the hypoxic tissue, thereby minimizing the adverse effects of oxygen deprivation.

  18. Dispositional mindfulness co-varies with smaller amygdala and caudate volumes in community adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne A Taren

    Full Text Available Mindfulness, a psychological process reflecting attention and awareness to what is happening in the present moment, has been associated with increased well-being and decreased depression and anxiety in both healthy and patient populations. However, little research has explored underlying neural pathways. Recent work suggests that mindfulness (and mindfulness training interventions may foster neuroplastic changes in cortico-limbic circuits responsible for stress and emotion regulation. Building on this work, we hypothesized that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness would be associated with decreased grey matter volume in the amgydala. In the present study, a self-report measure of dispositional mindfulness and structural MRI images were obtained from 155 healthy community adults. Volumetric analyses showed that higher dispositional mindfulness is associated with decreased grey matter volume in the right amygdala, and exploratory analyses revealed that higher dispositional mindfulness is also associated with decreased grey matter volume in the left caudate. Moreover, secondary analyses indicate that these amygdala and caudate volume associations persist after controlling for relevant demographic and individual difference factors (i.e., age, total grey matter volume, neuroticism, depression. Such volumetric differences may help explain why mindful individuals have reduced stress reactivity, and suggest new candidate structural neurobiological pathways linking mindfulness with mental and physical health outcomes.

  19. Beyond cytoarchitectonics: the internal and external connectivity structure of the caudate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja A Kotz

    Full Text Available While there is ample evidence on the functional and connectional differentiation of the caudate nucleus (CN, less is known about its potential microstructural subdivisions. However, this latter aspect is critical to the local information processing capabilities of the tissue. We applied diffusion MRI, a non-invasive in vivo method that has great potential for the exploration of the brain structure-behavior relationship, in order to characterize the local fiber structure in gray matter of the CN. We report novel evidence of a functionally meaningful structural tri-partition along the anterior-posterior axis of this region. The connectivity of the CN subregions is in line with connectivity evidence from earlier invasive studies in animal models. In addition, histological validation using polarized light imaging (PLI confirms these results, corroborating the notion that cortico-subcortico-cortical loops involve microstructurally differentiated regions in the caudate nucleus. Methodologically speaking, the comparison with advanced analysis of diffusion MRI shows that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI yields a simplified view of the CN fiber architecture which is refined by advanced high angular resolution imaging methods.

  20. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C. Nickels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome.

  1. Occipital lobe infarctions are different

    OpenAIRE

    Halvor Naess; Ulrikke Waje-Andreassen; Lars Thomassen

    2007-01-01

    Halvor Naess, Ulrikke Waje-Andreassen, Lars ThomassenDepartment of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, NorwayObjectives: We hypothesized that occipital lobe infarctions differ from infarctions in other locations as to etiology, risk factors and prognosis among young adults.Methods: Location, etiology, risk factors and long-term outcome were evaluated among all young adults 15–49 years suffering from cerebral infarction in Hordaland County, Norw...

  2. Immunology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdeva, Meenakshi; Chawla, Yogesh K.; Arora, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primarily a malignancy of the liver, advancing from a damaged, cirrhotic liver to HCC. Globally, HCC is the sixth most prevalent cancer and the third-most prevalent reason for neoplastic disease-related deaths. A diverse array of infiltrating immunocytes regulates the development and progression of HCC, as is the case in many other cancers. An understanding of the various immune components during HCC becomes necessary so that novel therapeutic strategies can ...

  3. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Because of its frequency and grave prognosis, preventing hepatocellular carcinoma is an urgent priority. Prevention should be possible because environmental carcinogens-chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections, dietary exposure to aflatoxins, and iron overload-cause the great majority of these tumors. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection accounts for 55% of global hepatocellular carcinomas and 80% of those in the high-incidence Asia Pacific and sub-Saharan African regions. In these regions the infection that becomes chronic is predominantly acquired very early in life. A safe and effective vaccine against this virus is available and its universal inclusion in the immunization of infants has already resulted in a marked reduction of chronic infection and a 70% decrease in the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in those immunized. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in industrialized countries. The infection is mainly acquired in adulthood and, until a vaccine becomes available, prevention will consist mainly of identifying, counselling, and treating chronically infected individuals, preventing spread of the virus by the use of safe injection practices (particularly in intravenous drug abusers), and screening all donated blood for the presence of the virus. 4.5 billion of the world.s population are exposed to dietary aflatoxins. Prevention involves treating susceptible crops to prevent fungal contamination, and handling the foodstuffs in such a way as to prevent contamination during storage. Iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis can be prevented by repeated venesection and in African dietary iron overload by fermenting the home-brewed beer in iron-free containers. PMID:20526004

  4. Detection of caudate nucleus atrophy in Huntington disease using N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine and SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the generally available technique of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl iodine-123 rho-iodoamphetamine (IMP), the authors detected caudate nucleus atrophy in Huntington disease similar to previous reports using PET with FDG. A caudate nucleus ratio was defined comparing the intercaudate separation to the width of the brain on transaxial cross sections of IMP SPECT brain scans. For six Huntington patients the average ratio (29.0%, SD 2.7%) was significantly higher than 12 normal controls (19.1%, SD 3.5%) and 13 other neurologic patients (19.3%, SD 2.2%). Above a cutoff value (26.1%) two SD greater than the normal mean, caudate nucleus atrophy should be suspected

  5. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the anterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus in schizophrenia patients versus healthy controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lutfi Incesu; Meral Baydin; Kerim Aslan; Baris Diren; Huseyin Sahin; Omer Boke; Senol Dane

    2011-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) permits the assessment of cerebral neurometabolites, such as N-acetylaspartate, choline, and creatine, in vivo and has been used to study schizophrenia. The present study used 1H-MRS to compare the spectroscopy change of N-acetylaspartate, creatine, and choline metabolite levels in the anterior cingulate and caudate nucleus of both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, as well as between the left and right cerebral hemispheres in the schizophrenia patients. Results showed that N-acetylaspartate and creatine metabolite levels in the left anterior cingulate gyrus were significantly lower in the schizophrenia patients than in the healthy controls, indicating hypometabolism. In addition, choline concentration in the left caudate nucleus of schizophrenia patients was significantly lower than in the right caudate nucleus, indicating that it is necessary to study the cerebral lateralization of 1H-MRS in schizophrenia patients.

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma in situs inversus totalis-a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuingaren Sareo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year old male presented with persistent discomfort and pain upper abdomen (epigastrium more on left side associated with fever on and off, along with fatigue and loss of appetite for the last four months. Physical examination revealed mass on left hypochondrium extending to epigastrium with mild distension of the abdomen. Imaging studies of the patient showed dextrocardia on chest x-ray  postero-anterior (PA view, thoracic and abdominal CT scan showed situs inversus totalis with multiple SOL (space occupying lesion in right lobe of liver with largest measuring 8x6 cm2 in the 4th segment. USG-guided FNAC of the mass showed features of hepatocellular carcinoma. Thereupon, hepatocellular carcinoma in situs inversus totalis was diagosed to this patient and was clinically staged as T3aN0M0. He was given sorafenib 400 mg orally twice daily with an advice to come for regular assessment every 4 week.Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, situs inversus totalis, case report

  7. Semantic memory retrieval circuit: role of pre-SMA, caudate, and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John; Maguire, Mandy J; Motes, Michael; Mudar, Raksha Anand; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Womack, Kyle B; Kraut, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    We propose that pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA)-thalamic interactions govern processes fundamental to semantic retrieval of an integrated object memory. At the onset of semantic retrieval, pre-SMA initiates electrical interactions between multiple cortical regions associated with semantic memory subsystems encodings as indexed by an increase in theta-band EEG power. This starts between 100-150 ms after stimulus presentation and is sustained throughout the task. We posit that this activity represents initiation of the object memory search, which continues in searching for an object memory. When the correct memory is retrieved, there is a high beta-band EEG power increase, which reflects communication between pre-SMA and thalamus, designates the end of the search process and resultant in object retrieval from multiple semantic memory subsystems. This high beta signal is also detected in cortical regions. This circuit is modulated by the caudate nuclei to facilitate correct and suppress incorrect target memories.

  8. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans;

    2010-01-01

    reductions appeared to be influenced by a history of substance abuse. Exploratory analyses indicated reduced volume of the nucleus accumbens in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. LIMITATIONS: This study was not a priori designed to test for differences between schizophrenia patients with or without...... a false discovery rate correction (p < 0.05) to control for multiple comparisons. We derived and analyzed estimates of brain structure volumes. We grouped patients as those with (n = 9) or without (n = 29) any lifetime substance abuse to examine the possible effects of substance abuse. RESULTS: We...... found that hippocampal and caudate volumes were decreased in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. We found no ventricular enlargement, differences in global volume or significant associations between tissue volume and duration of untreated illness or psychopathology. The hippocampal volume...

  9. Greater widespread functional connectivity of the caudate in older adults who practice kripalu yoga and vipassana meditation than in controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eGard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in understanding how contemplative practices affect brain functional organization. However, most studies have restricted their exploration to predefined networks. Furthermore, scientific comparisons of different contemplative traditions are largely lacking.Here we explored differences in whole brain resting state functional connectivity between experienced yoga practitioners, experienced meditators and matched controls. Analyses were repeated in an independent sample of experienced meditators and matched controls.Analyses utilizing Network Based Statistics (NBS; Zalesky et al., 2010 revealed difference components for yoga practitioners > controls and meditators > controls in which the right caudate was a central node. Follow up analyses revealed that yoga practitioners and meditators had significantly greater degree centrality in the caudate than controls. This greater degree centrality was not driven by single connections but by greater connectivity between the caudate and numerous brain regions. Findings of greater caudate connectivity in meditators than in controls was replicated in an independent dataset.These findings suggest that yoga and meditation practitioners have stronger functional connectivity within basal ganglia cortico-thalamic feedback loops than non-practitioners. Although we could not provide evidence for its mechanistic role, this greater connectivity might be related to the often reported effects of meditation and yoga on behavioral flexibility, mental health and well-being.

  10. Caudate asymmetry is related to attentional impulsivity and an objective measure of ADHD-like attentional problems in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Linh C; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Young, Jacob S; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2016-01-01

    Case-control studies comparing ADHD with typically developing individuals suggest that anatomical asymmetry of the caudate nucleus is a marker of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is no consensus on whether the asymmetry favors the right or left caudate nucleus in ADHD, or whether the asymmetry is increased or decreased in ADHD. The current study aimed to clarify this relationship by applying a dimensional approach to assessing ADHD symptoms that, instead of relying on clinical classification, utilizes the natural behavioral continuum of traits related to ADHD. Structural T1-weighted MRI was collected from 71 adults between 18 and 35 years and analyzed for caudate asymmetry. ADHD-like attentional symptoms were assessed with an objective measure of attentional problems, the ADHD score from the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Impulsivity, a core feature in ADHD, was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a self-report measure that assesses attentional, non-planning, and motor features of impulsivity. We found that larger right relative to left caudate volumes correlated with both higher attentional impulsiveness and worse ADHD scores on the TOVA. Higher attentional impulsiveness also correlated with worse ADHD scores, establishing coherence between the objective measure and the self-report measure of attentional problems. These results suggest that a differential passage of information through frontal-striatal networks may produce instability leading to attentional problems. The findings also demonstrate the utility of a dimensional approach to understanding structural correlates of ADHD symptoms.

  11. Anomalous Feeding of the Left Upper Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Christopher; Itagaki, Shinobu; Lajam, Fouad; Flores, Raja M

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with massive hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiography revealed an anomalous vessel arising from the abdominal aorta, coursing anteriorly and through the diaphragm, and feeding the left upper lobe. At operation the vessel was found to anastomose to the left upper lobe lingula, which contained multiple vascular abnormalities and arteriovenous fistulas. The vessel was ligated, and the affected portion of the left upper lobe was resected. Anomalous systemic arterial supply of an upper lobe is an especially rare form of a Pryce type 1 abnormality. Recognition of these unusual anatomic variants is crucial to successful treatment and avoidance of adverse events.

  12. Cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro, M; Serrano, M L; Allende, I; Ratón, J A; Acebo, E; Diaz-Perez, J L

    2009-12-01

    Cutaneous metastases are an unusual finding that may present as the first sign of an internal neoplasia. A case of cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma, which may often involve other organs but very rarely metastases to the skin, is reported.

  13. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and the most common one in Africa and Asia. Over the last decade, a rising incidence of up to 10-15/100,000 per population has been seen in the Western world, with an estimate of 250,000 deaths and more than a million worldwide per year. By the year 2010, the World Health Organization expects that HCC will be the leading cause of cancer mortality surpassing lung cancer. This increasing incidence is most likely related to an increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (HC) and B (HB) virus infections and other diseases inducing chronic inflammation (Befeler and Di Bisceglie 2002; Llovet et al. 2003).

  14. Genetics of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Teufel; Frank Staib; Stephan Kanzler; Arndt Weinmann; Henning Schulze-Bergkamen; Peter R Galle

    2007-01-01

    The completely assembled human genome has made it possible for modern medicine to step into an era rich in genetic information and high-throughput genomic analysis. These novel and readily available genetic resources and analytical tools may be the key to unravel the molecular basis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, since an efficient treatment for this disease is lacking, further understanding of the genetic background of HCC will be crucial in order to develop new therapies aimed at selected targets. We report on the current status and recent developments in HCC genetics. Special emphasis is given to the genetics and regulation of major signalling pathways involved in HCC such as p53, Wntsignalling, TGFβ, Ras, and Rb pathways. Furthermore, we describe the influence of chromosomal aberrations as well as of DNA methylation. Finally, we report on the rapidly developing field of genomic expression profiling in HCC, mainly by microarray analysis.

  15. Excitation of type II anterior caudate neurons by stimulation of dopamine D3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercey, M F; Hyslop, D K; Hoffmann, W E

    1997-07-11

    Previous studies have demonstrated that both direct- and indirect-acting dopamine (DA) receptor agonists excite type II neurons in the anterior caudate (CN) by stimulation of DA receptors belonging to the D2 receptor subfamily (D2, D3, D4 receptor subtypes). In the present study, pramipexole, a D3-preferring DA agonist effective in treating Parkinson's disease, excited type II anterior CN neurons. As with other direct-acting agonists, excitation of the CN neurons occurred only at doses above those that silenced DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC). Although more potent than pramipexole in inhibiting SNPC cells, PNU-91356A, a D2-preferring agonist, did not excite type II CN cells. The D3-preferring antagonist (+)-AJ76 was weaker than haloperidol, a D2-preferring antagonist, in reversing the effects of amphetamine on firing rates in dopaminergic neurons in both the SNPC and the CN. However, in relationship to its potency in the SNPC, (+)-AJ76 was more potent than haloperidol in the CN. PNU-101387, a selective D4 antagonist, did not alter amphetamine-induced stimulation of type II CN neurons. We conclude that DA agonists may excite type II anterior CN neurons via D3 receptor activation. The stimulation of these neurons may contribute to the anti-parkinsonian effects of pramipexole. PMID:9262154

  16. Current update on combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Maximin

    2014-01-01

    Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma tends to present with an more aggressive behavior and a poorer prognosis than either hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma. An accurate preoperative diagnosis and aggressive treatment planning can play crucial roles in appropriate patient management.

  17. The frontal lobes and inhibitory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuropsychological studies using traditional tasks of inhibitory functions, such as the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and the Go/No-Go Task have revealed that the frontal lobe is responsible for several types of inhibitory functions. However, the detailed psychological nature of the inhibitory functions and the precise location of their critical foci within the frontal lobe remain to be investigated. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides spatial and temporal resolution that allowed us to illuminate at least 4 frontal regions involved in inhibitory functions: the dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and rostral parts of the frontal lobe and the presupplementary motor area (preSMA). The ventrolateral part of the frontal lobe in the right hemisphere was activated during response inhibition. The preSMA in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition of proactive interference immediately after the dimension changes of the WCST. The rostral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition long after the dimension changes. The dorsolateral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated at the dimension changes in the first time, but not in the second time. These findings provide clues to our understanding of functional differentiation of inhibitory functions and their localization in the frontal lobe. (author)

  18. Repeated methamphetamine administration differentially alters fos expression in caudate-putamen patch and matrix compartments and nucleus accumbens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub P Jedynak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The repeated administration of psychostimulant drugs produces a persistent and long-lasting increase ("sensitization" in their psychomotor effects, which is thought to be due to changes in the neural circuitry that mediate these behaviors. One index of neuronal activation used to identify brain regions altered by repeated exposure to drugs involves their ability to induce immediate early genes, such as c-fos. Numerous reports have demonstrated that past drug experience alters the ability of drugs to induce c-fos in the striatum, but very few have examined Fos protein expression in the two major compartments in the striatum--the so-called patch/striosome and matrix. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the effects of pretreatment with methamphetamine on the ability of a subsequent methamphetamine challenge to induce Fos protein expression in the patch and matrix compartments of the dorsolateral and dorsomedial caudate-putamen and in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens. Animals pretreated with methamphetamine developed robust psychomotor sensitization. A methamphetamine challenge increased the number of Fos-positive cells in all areas of the dorsal and ventral striatum. However, methamphetamine challenge induced Fos expression in more cells in the patch than in the matrix compartment in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial caudate-putamen. Furthermore, past experience with methamphetamine increased the number of methamphetamine-induced Fos positive cells in the patch compartment of the dorsal caudate putamen, but not in the matrix or in the core or shell of the nucleus accumbens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that drug-induced alterations in the patch compartment of the dorsal caudate-putamen may preferentially contribute to some of the enduring changes in brain activity and behavior produced by repeated treatment with methamphetamine.

  19. The functional connectivity of the human caudate: An application of meta-analytic connectivity modeling with behavioral filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jennifer L.; Laird, Angela R.; Glahn, David C.; Blangero, John; Sanghera, Manjit K.; Pessoa, Luiz; Fox, P. Mickle; Uecker, Angela; Friehs, Gerhard; Young, Keith A.; Griffin, Jennifer L.; LOVALLO, WILLIAM R.; Fox, Peter T

    2011-01-01

    Meta-analysis based techniques are emerging as powerful, robust tools for developing models of connectivity in functional neuroimaging. Here, we apply meta-analytic connectivity modeling to the human caudate to 1) develop a model of functional connectivity, 2) determine if meta-analytic methods are sufficiently sensitive to detect behavioral domain specificity within region-specific functional connectivity networks, and 3) compare meta-analytic driven segmentation to structural connectivity p...

  20. Dopamine and glutamate release in the dorsolateral caudate putamen following withdrawal from cocaine self-administration in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele, Amanda; Pacchioni, Alejandra M.; See, Ronald E.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that cocaine addiction may involve progressive neuroadaptive changes in the dorsolateral caudate putamen (dlCPu). While cocaine seeking following abstinence from chronic self-administration requires intact dlCPu function, in vivo neurotransmitter release in the dlCPu has not been investigated. The current study measured dlCPu dopamine (DA) and glutamate (GLU) release during drug seeking following limited or extended abstinence, as well as in response to a cocaine priming inj...

  1. Emphysema lung lobe volume reduction: effects on the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew S.; Kim, Hyun J.; Abtin, Fereidoun G.; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Pais, Richard; Da Costa, Irene G.; Ordookhani, Arash; Chong, Daniel; Ni, Chiayi; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Strange, Charlie [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States); Tashkin, Donald P. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    To investigate volumetric and density changes in the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes following volume reduction of an emphysematous target lobe. The study included 289 subjects with heterogeneous emphysema, who underwent bronchoscopic volume reduction of the most diseased lobe with endobronchial valves and 132 untreated controls. Lobar volume and low-attenuation relative area (RA) changes post-procedure were measured from computed tomography images. Regression analysis (Spearman's rho) was performed to test the association between change in the target lobe volume and changes in volume and density variables in the other lobes. The target lobe volume at full inspiration in the treatment group had a mean reduction of -0.45 L (SE = 0.034, P < 0.0001), and was associated with volume increases in the ipsilateral lobe (rho = -0.68, P < 0.0001) and contralateral lung (rho = -0.16, P = 0.006), and overall reductions in expiratory RA (rho = 0.31, P < 0.0001) and residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) (rho = 0.13, P = 0.03). When the volume of an emphysematous target lobe is reduced, the volume is redistributed primarily to the ipsilateral lobe, with an overall reduction. Image-based changes in lobar volumes and densities indicate that target lobe volume reduction is associated with statistically significant overall reductions in air trapping, consistent with expansion of the healthier lung. (orig.)

  2. Encoding of both positive and negative reward prediction errors by neurons of the primate lateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Wael F; Eskandar, Emad N

    2011-12-01

    Learning can be motivated by unanticipated success or unexpected failure. The former encourages us to repeat an action or activity, whereas the latter leads us to find an alternative strategy. Understanding the neural representation of these unexpected events is therefore critical to elucidate learning-related circuits. We examined the activity of neurons in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and caudate nucleus of monkeys as they performed a trial-and-error learning task. Unexpected outcomes were widely represented in both structures, and neurons driven by unexpectedly negative outcomes were as frequent as those activated by unexpectedly positive outcomes. Moreover, both positive and negative reward prediction errors (RPEs) were represented primarily by increases in firing rate, unlike the manner in which dopamine neurons have been observed to reflect these values. Interestingly, positive RPEs tended to appear with shorter latency than negative RPEs, perhaps reflecting the mechanism of their generation. Last, in the PFC but not the caudate, trial-by-trial variations in outcome-related activity were linked to the animals' subsequent behavioral decisions. More broadly, the robustness of RPE signaling by these neurons suggests that actor-critic models of reinforcement learning in which the PFC and particularly the caudate are considered primarily to be "actors" rather than "critics," should be reconsidered to include a prominent evaluative role for these structures. PMID:22159094

  3. Resting-state functional connectivity bias of middle temporal gyrus and caudate with altered gray matter volume in major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqiong Ma

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have indicated that the structure deficits and resting-state functional connectivity (FC imbalances in cortico-limbic circuitry might underline the pathophysiology of MDD. Using structure and functional MRI, our aim is to investigate gray matter abnormalities in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD and treatment-responsive depression (TSD, and test whether the altered gray matter is associated with altered FC. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the regions with gray matter abnormality and FC analysis was further conducted between each gray matter abnormal region and the remaining voxels in the brain. Using one-way analysis of variance, we found significant gray matter abnormalities in the right middle temporal cortex (MTG and bilateral caudate among the TRD, TSD and healthy controls. For the FC of the right MTG, we found that both the patients with TRD and TSD showed altered connectivity mainly in the default-mode network (DMN. For the FC of the right caudate, both patient groups showed altered connectivity in the frontal regions. Our results revealed the gray matter reduction of right MTG and bilateral caudate, and disrupted functional connection to widely distributed circuitry in DMN and frontal regions, respectively. These results suggest that the abnormal DMN and reward circuit activity might be biomarkers of depression trait.

  4. Immunology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primarily a malignancyof the liver, advancing from a damaged, cirrhoticliver to HCC. Globally, HCC is the sixth most prevalentcancer and the third-most prevalent reason for neoplasticdisease-related deaths. A diverse array ofinfiltrating immunocytes regulates the developmentand progression of HCC, as is the case in many othercancers. An understanding of the various immunecomponents during HCC becomes necessary so thatnovel therapeutic strategies can be designed to combatthe disease. A dysregulated immune system (includingchanges in the number and/or function of immunecells, cytokine levels, and the expression of inhibitoryreceptors or their ligands) plays a key role in thedevelopment of HCC. Alterations in either the innateor adaptive arm of the immune system and cross-talkbetween them make the immune system tolerant totumors, leading to disease progression. In this review,we have discussed the status and roles of variousimmune effector cells (e.g. , dendritic cells, natural killercells, macrophages, and T cells), their cytokine profile,and the chemokine-receptor axis in promoting orimpeding HCC.

  5. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  6. Possible Relic Lobes in Giant Radio Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Godambe, S; Saikia, D J; Wiita, P J

    2009-01-01

    We present low-frequency observations with the GMRT of three giant radio sources (J0139+3957, J0200+4049 and J0807+7400) with relaxed diffuse lobes which show no hotspots and no evidence of jets. The largest of these three, J0200+4049, exhibits a depression in the centre of the western lobe, while J0139+3957 and J0807+7400 have been suggested earlier by Klein et al. and Lara et al. respectively to be relic radio sources. We estimate the spectral ages of the lobes. All three sources have compact radio cores. Although the radio cores suggest that the sources are currently active, we suggest that the lobes in these sources could be due to an earlier cycle of activity.

  7. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, H.; Isselbacher, K.J. (Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Charlestown, MA (United States)); Yakicier, C.; Marcais, C.; Ozturk, M. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Lyon (France)); Kew, M. (Univ. of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)); Volkmann, M. (Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)); Zentgraf, H. (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1994-01-18

    The authors studied 80 hepatocellular carcinomas from three continents for p53 gene (TP53) mutations and hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences. p53 mutations were frequent in tumors from Mozambique but not in tumors from South Africa, China, and Germany. Independent of geographic origin, most tumors were positive for HBV sequences. X gene coding sequences of HBV were detected in 78% of tumors, whereas viral sequences in the surface antigen- and core antigen-encoding regions were present in less than 35% of tumors. These observations indicate that hepatocellular carcinomas are genetically heterogeneous. Mozambican-types of hepatocellular carcinomas are characterized by a high incidence of p53 mutations related to aflatoxins. In other tumors, the rarity of p53 mutations combined with the frequent presence of viral X gene coding sequences suggests a possible interference of HBV with the wild-type p53 function.

  8. Imaging memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: predicting the effects of temporal lobe resection

    OpenAIRE

    Bonelli, S. B.; Powell, R. H. W.; Yogarajah, M.; Samson, R. S.; Symms, M.R.; Thompson, P J; Koepp, M J.; Duncan, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate the functional anatomy of cognitive processes. In patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, evaluation of preoperative verbal and visual memory function is important as anterior temporal lobe resections may result in material specific memory impairment, typically verbal memory decline following left and visual memory decline after right anterior temporal lobe resection. This study aimed to investigate reorganization of memory functi...

  9. Spontaneous regression of a large hepatocellular carcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alqutub, Adel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of untreated advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is grim with a median survival of less than 6 months. Spontaneous regression of HCC has been defined as the disappearance of the hepatic lesions in the absence of any specific therapy. The spontaneous regression of a very large HCC is very rare and limited data is available in the English literature. We describe spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma in a 65-year-old male who presented to our clinic with vague abdominal pain and weight loss of two months duration. He was found to have multiple hepatic lesions with elevation of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP level to 6,500 µg/L (normal <20 µg/L. Computed tomography revealed advanced HCC replacing almost 80% of the right hepatic lobe. Without any intervention the patient showed gradual improvement over a period of few months. Follow-up CT scan revealed disappearance of hepatic lesions with progressive decline of AFP levels to normal. Various mechanisms have been postulated to explain this rare phenomenon, but the exact mechanism remains a mystery.

  10. Immunological perspectives of temporal lobe seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Lehtimäki, Kai; Kai, Lehtimäki; Palmio, Johanna; Johanna, Palmio; Alapirtti, Tiina; Tiina, Alapirtti; Peltola, Jukka; Jukka, Peltola

    2013-10-15

    The temporal lobes are affected in many different neurological disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases, viral and immunological encephalitides, and epilepsy. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggests a different inflammatory response to seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in comparison to those with extra-TLE (XTLE). Proinflammatory cytokines and several autoantibodies have been shown to be associated with TLE compared to other epilepsy types suggesting the specific role and structure of the temporal lobe. Abundant experience suggests that activation of both innate and adaptive immunity is associated with epilepsy, particularly refractory focal epilepsy. Limbic encephalitis often triggers temporal lobe seizures, and a proportion of these disorders are immune-mediated. Histological evidence shows activation of specific inflammatory pathways in resected temporal lobes of epileptic patients, and certain epileptic disorders have shown increased incidence in patients with autoimmune diseases. Rapid activation of proinflammatory cytokines is observed after single seizures, but there is also evidence of chronic overproduction of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in patients with TLE, suggesting a neuromodulatory role of inflammation in epilepsy. In this review we summarize current data on the presence and the role of immunological factors in temporal lobe seizures, and their possible involvement in epileptogenesis. PMID:23998423

  11. New Insights in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.D.M. Witjes (Carlijn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer mortality. HCC is one of the few cancers with well-defined major risk factors. Worldwide, in 80% of the cases HCC develops in cirrhotic livers, and cirrhosis is the stronges

  12. Combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma with sarcomatoid transformation: radiologic–pathologic correlation of a case

    OpenAIRE

    Pua, Uei; Low, Su-Chong; Tan, Yu-Meng; Lim, Kiat-Hon

    2009-01-01

    A 71-year-old man presented to our hospital with 3-week history of fever in the background of loss of both weight and appetite over the past 3 months. He was found to have a large 10-cm mass in the right lobe of the liver on a triple-phase computed tomographic scan. The tumor showed a distinct fatty component, with areas of arterial enhancement and venous washout suggestive of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), another component showing progressive and late enhancement suggestive of cholangiocar...

  13. Fornax A's Western Radio Lobe Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jason J.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Kraft, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the western radio lobe of Fornax A based on an XMM-Newton observation. We find little evidence for the inverse-Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background as reported previously. The spectra in the energy range of 0.5-5 keV are well fitted by a thermal plus power law model for every spectral region we extracted. With a fixed photon index of 1.68, the X-ray flux density at 1 keV from the power law fit was measured to be cool gas extends from the central galaxy in the direction of the radio lobe of Fornax A. Spectral fits give a temperature of kT=0.76 keV over the radio lobe and kT=0.32 keV for the cool filament. The thermal emission from the radio lobe region is best explained as emission from a thin shell of shocked gas swept up by the rapidly expanding lobe. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 0754568 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  14. MRI in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in temporal lobe epilepsy and correlated them with clinical variables, such as age, illness duration, past history, and the frequency of seizure. Cerebral MRI was performed in 45 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy of unknown etiology, using a 0.5 T and/or a 1.5 T MRI systems. The temporal lobe was seen as high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and/or proton density-weighted images in 6 patients, although it was missed on CT and T1-weighted images. The high intensity area seemed to reflect sclerosis of the temporal lobe. This finding was significantly associated with partial seizure. Of these patients, 3 had a history of febrile convulsions. Ten patients had slight dilatation of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. They were significantly old at the time of onset and examination, as compared with those without dilatation. Furthermore, 6 patients with unilateral dilatation were significantly younger than the other 4 with bilateral dilatation. Nine patients had small multiple high signal areas in white matter, mainly in the parietal lobe, which suggested vascular origin. These patients were significantly old at the time of onset and examination, as compared with those having no such findings. In depicting high signal intensity areas, a 1.5 T MRI system was not always superior to a 0.5 T MRI system. Proton density-weighted images were better than T2-weighted images in some patients. (N.K.)

  15. Effect of lobe profile on the load capacity of 2-lobe journal bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislaw; STRZELECKI

    2001-01-01

    The rotors of turbogenerators operate in 2-lobe journal bearings. These bearings can bedesigned with the same or different profile of upper and bottom lobe, e.g. the upper lobe has cylin-drical and bottom one the offset profile. Shaping the bearing profile this way allows the variation ofstatic and dynamic characteristics of bearing. The static characteristics consist among others theload capacity of bearing which is very important parameter. The paper introduces the results ofcalculations of load capacity of 2-lobe journal bearing characterised by different profiles of upperand bottom lobe. The laminar, adiabatic oil flow in the bearing lubricating gap, parallel orientationof journal and bearing axis as well as the static equilibrium position of journal have been assumed.

  16. Cyclooxygenases in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melchiorre Cervello; Giuseppe Montalto

    2006-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies demonstrate that treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce the incidence and mortality of certain malignancies, especially gastrointestinal cancer. The cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes are well-known targets of NSAIDs. However, conventional NSAIDs nonselectively inhibit both the constitutive form COX-1, and the inducible form COX-2. Recent evidence indicates that COX-2 is an important molecular target for anticancer therapies. Its expression is undetectable in most normal tissues, and is highly induced by proinflammatory cytokines, mitogens, tumor promoters and growth factors. It is now well-established that COX-2 is chronically overexpressed in many premalignant, malignant, and metastastic cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Overexpression of COX-2 in patients with HCC is generally higher in welldifferentiated HCCs compared with less-differentiated HCCs or histologically normal liver, suggesting that COX-2 may be involved in the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, and increased expression of COX-2 in noncancerous liver tissue has been significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival in patients with HCC.In tumors, overexpression of COX-2 leads to an increase in prostaglandin (PG) levels, which affect many mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis, such as angiogenesis, inhibition of apoptosis, stimulation of cell growth as well as the invasiveness and metastatic potential of tumor ceils. The availability of novel agents that selectively inhibit COX-2 (COXIB), has contributed to shedding light on the role of this molecule. Experimental studies on animal models of liver cancer have shown that NSAIDs, including both selective and non-selective COX-2 inhibitors, exert chemopreventive as well as therapeutic effects. However, the key mechanism by which COX-2 inhibitors affect HCC cell growth is as yet not fully understood. Increasing evidence suggests the involvement of molecular targets other

  17. Lung lobe collapse: pathophysiology and radiologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographic changes caused by collapse of lung lobes in pulmonary disease, pneumothorax, and pleural effusion depend on the lobar recoiling force and local pleural pressure. Differences in the tendency of normal lung lobes or regions to collapse depend on the relative surface-to-volume ratio, determined by shape and size of the region or lobe. This ratio affects the physiologic parameters of pulmonary interdependence, compliance, and collateral air flow. Pulmonary surfactant increases compliance, particularly at low volumes, maintains alveolar stability, and assists in maintaining capillary patency and preventing pulmonary edema. Its loss due to lung injury increases collapsing forces. In the presence of pneumothorax or pleural effusion, diseases that cause lobar collapse produce localized air or fluid entrapment that is a diagnostic sign of the presence of the underlying pulmonary disease

  18. Proteomics in Discovery of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Biomarkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discover new proteomic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was used to discover biomarkers for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic liver disease. A population of 50 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 33 patients with chronic liver disease was studied. Results: Twelve proteomic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma were detected in this study. Three proteomic biomarkers were highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and nine proteomic biomarkers were highly expressed in chronic liver disease. The most valuable proteomic biomarker with m/z=11498 had no similar diagnostic value as α-fetoprotein. Conclusion:Some of the twelve proteomic biomarkers may become new biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  19. Further evidence for the role of the caudate nucleus in programming motor and nonmotor behavior in Java monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoed-de Vries, M C; Cools, A R

    1985-01-01

    This study describes the short-term effects of intracaudate microinjections of carbachol in temporarily isolated and restrained Java monkeys. The monkeys were found to display a series of motor disturbances including blepharoptosis, facial twitches, tongue protrusions, ear flattening, torticollis, and compulsive alternations of rapid flexions and extensions of the extremities. In general, carbachol was found to produce consistent effects as far as it concerns its ability to elicit motor disturbances. Three of the five tested monkeys had previously received another series of carbachol injections when they were freely moving and living in a stabilized social group. Accordingly, the present study enabled us to compare the effectiveness of threshold doses of carbachol in the same monkey in two distinct situations. We concluded first, that motor disturbances and disturbances in social communication were closely coupled in relation to the involvement of a particular cholinoceptive substrate within the caudate nucleus of Java monkeys. Second, the motor disturbances under study appeared to require a larger degree of dysfunctioning of this substrate than did subtle disturbances in the social communication of these monkeys. And, finally, stress inherent to restraint increased the susceptibility of the cholinoceptive substrate within the caudate nucleus. The clinical impact of our findings is discussed in view of differences between the premorbid and manifest phases of Parkinson's disease.

  20. DNA methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iris Tischoff; Andrea Tannapfel

    2008-01-01

    As for many other tumors, development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) must be understood as a multistep process with accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in regulatory genes, leading to activation of oncogenes and inactivation or loss of tumor suppressor genes (TSG). In the last decades, in addition to genetic alterations, epigenetic inactivation of (tumor suppressor) genes by promoter hypermethylation has been recognized as an important and alternative mechanism in tumorigenesis. In HCC, aberrant methylation of promoter sequences occurs not only in advanced tumors, it has been also observed in premalignant conditions just as chronic viral hepatitis B or C and cirrhotic liver. This review discusses the epigenetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma focusing DNA methylation.

  1. [Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Ryosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Shiina, Shuichiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Three tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are available in Japan: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II (PIVKA-II), and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3). Although AFP has drawbacks in its specificity, it is widely utilized in treatment evaluation and prognosis prediction. PIVKA-II is a unique marker that does not correlate with AFP value and can predict microvascular invasion. AFP-L3 is a highly specific marker and strong predictor of poor prognosis. These three markers are indispensable in every aspect of clinical practice of hepatocellular carcinoma including surveillance, diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction.

  2. Centrifugal acceleration in the magnetotail lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Combined Cluster EFW and EDI measurements have shown that cold ion outflow in the magnetospheric lobes dominates the hydrogen ion outflow from the Earth's atmosphere. The ions have too low kinetic energy to be measurable with particle instruments, at least for the typical spacecraft potential of a sunlit spacecraft in the tenuous lobe plasmas outside a few RE. The measurement technique yields both density and bulk velocity, which can be combined with magnetic field measurements to estimate the centrifugal acceleration experienced by these particles. We present a quantitative estimate of the centrifugal acceleration, and the velocity change with distance which we would expect due to centrifugal acceleration. It is found that the centrifugal acceleration is on average outward with an average value of about of 5 m s−2. This is small, but acting during long transport times and over long distances the cumulative effect is significant, while still consistent with the relatively low velocities estimated using the combination of EFW and EDI data. The centrifugal acceleration should accelerate any oxygen ions in the lobes to energies observable by particle spectrometers. The data set also put constraints on the effectiveness of any other acceleration mechanisms acting in the lobes, where the total velocity increase between 5 and 19 RE geocentric distance is less than 5 km s−1.

  3. VATS right upper lobe bronchial sleeve resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianli

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to discuss video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) sleeve bronchial lobectomy when handling the locally advanced central lung cancer (involving the trachea and/or main bronchus). Methods A 2.5 cm × 1.0 cm mass was found in the right upper lobe. Bronchoscopy demonstrated the tumor obstructing the right upper lobe bronchus and involved the right main bronchus and bronchus intermedius. Interrupted sutures were chosen for bronchial anastomosis. Bronchial membrane was sutured first, and then circumference end-to-end anastomoses were carried out using 3-0 absorbable sutures. Results There were no complications and the patient was discharged 8 days postoperatively. Conclusions The third intercostal space of the anterior axillary line was suggested for right upper lobe bronchial sleeve resection. This incision can reduce the distance and angle between the anastomosis to the incision, and facilitate anastomosis. This approach can also prevent operator from fatigue for keeping one posture for a long time. Clearance of the mediastinal lymph nodes before cutting the bronchus was helpful for exposing the right main bronchus, the upper lobe bronchus and bronchus intermedius satisfied. And this option would avoid pulling bronchial anastomosis during mediastinal lymph nodes clearance. Interrupted suture was safe and effective for VATS bronchial anastomosis. PMID:27621889

  4. Profiling cytokines in temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common types of partial epilepsy. Because about 30% of the TLE patients poorly respond to medication, identification of new drug targets to treat TLE is imperative. This requires detailed knowledge of the pathophysiology of TLE . The aim of this thesis

  5. Gene mutations in hepatocellular adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raft, Marie B; Jørgensen, Ernö N; Vainer, Ben

    2015-01-01

    is associated with bi-allelic mutations in the TCF1 gene and morphologically has marked steatosis. β-catenin activating HCA has increased activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and is associated with possible malignant transformation. Inflammatory HCA is characterized by an oncogene-induced inflammation due....... This review offers an overview of the reported gene mutations associated with hepatocellular adenomas together with a discussion of the diagnostic and prognostic value....

  6. Radiologic evaluation of right middle lobe collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many pathogenetic factors for collapse of right middle lobe; profuse peribronchial clustering of lymph nodes about the right middle lobe bronchus, poor drainage of the bronchus because of its acute angle of take-off from the intermediate bronchus, and the isolation of this small lobe from the right upper and lower lobes, and thus from the aerating effects of collateral ventilation. Retrospectively we reviewed 36 cases of right of right middle lobe collapse of which causes were confirmed by histopathologic or bronchographic findings during the recent 6 years from March 1983 to February 1988 at Inje College Pusan Paik Hospital, and obtained the following results: 1. Male to female ratio was 1:1:4,and peak incidence (64%) was in the fifth and sixth decades with the mean age of 51.1 years. 2. Bronchiectasis was the most common cause (30.6%), and the others were chronic bronchitis (25.0%), pulmonary tuberculosis (19.4%), lung cancer (16.7%), and non-specific inflammatory disease (8.3%). This suggests benign disease is 5 times more common cause of right middle lobe collapse than lung cancer. 3. Among the plain chest radiolograph findings, obliteration of right cardiac border and triangular radiopaque density were the most frequent findings(77.8% in each) and the next was downward and anterior displacement of minor and major fissures (55.6%) 4. Bronchography was done in 11 cases; bronchiectasis was found in 8 cases and chronic bronchitis in 3 cases. Right middle lobe bronchus was obstructed in 2 cases of chronic bronchitis. 5. Chest CT scan was performed in 4 cases of lung cancer, 2 of non-specific inflammatory disease, and 1 of pulmonary tuberculosis: all of lung cancer revealed hilar mass, budged or lobulated fissures, in homogenous density, and mediastinal lymph node enlargement, and all benign disease showed homogenous density and flat to concave fissures. Right middle lobar bronchus narrowing was seen in 5 cases and its obstruction in 2 cases

  7. Galaxies with Supermassive Binary Black Holes: (III) The Roche Lobes and Jiang-Yeh Lobe in a Core System

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, Li-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional equi-potential surfaces of a galactic system with supermassive binary black holes are discussed herein. The conditions of topological transitions for the important surfaces, i.e. Roche Lobes and Jiang-Yeh Lobe, are studied in this paper. In addition, the mathematical properties of the Jacobi surfaces are investigated analytically. Finally, a numerical procedure for determining the regions of the Roche Lobes and Jiang-Yeh Lobe is suggested.

  8. Post-transcriptional regulation of dopamine D1 receptor expression in caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón, Krishna E; Catuzzi, Jennifer E; Cote, Samantha R; Sonaike, Adenike; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V

    2015-07-01

    The dopamine D1 receptor is centrally involved in mediating the effects of cocaine and is essential for cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Changes in D1 receptor expression have been reported in various models of cocaine addiction; however, the mechanisms that mediate these changes in D1 receptor expression are not well understood. Using preadolescent drd1a-EGFP mice and a binge cocaine treatment protocol we demonstrate that the D1 receptor is post-transcriptionally regulated in the caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized animal. While cocaine-sensitized mice express high levels of steady-state D1 receptor mRNA, the expression of D1 receptor protein is not elevated. We determined that the post-transcriptional regulation of D1 receptor mRNA is rapidly attenuated and D1 receptor protein levels increase within 30 min when the sensitized mice are challenged with cocaine. The rapid increase in D1 receptor protein levels requires de novo protein synthesis and correlates with the cocaine-induced hyperlocomotor activity in the cocaine-sensitized mice. The increase in D1 receptor protein levels in the caudate-putamen inversely correlated with the levels of microRNA 142-3p and 382, both of which regulate D1 receptor protein expression. The levels of these two microRNAs decreased significantly within 5 min of cocaine challenge in sensitized mice. The results provide novel insights into the previously unknown rapid kinetics of D1 receptor protein expression which occurs in a time scale that is comparable to the expression of immediate early genes. Furthermore, the results suggest a potential novel role for inherently labile microRNAs in regulating the rapid expression of D1 receptor protein in cocaine-sensitized animals. PMID:25900179

  9. Criminal Responsibility of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Mustafa Talip; Ozcan, Halil; Sahingoz, Sadik; Ogul, Hayri

    2015-10-01

    Neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms might be detected due to damage of frontal lobes as detected in damages of many brain regions. Frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) occurs as a result of damage in prefrontal region due to various causes. Symptoms due to prefrontal region damage, varies according to the size and location of the lesion. In most of the cases; executive dysfunctions, attention deficits, inconsistencies in social life, impulse control problems, obsessive behaviors and violence behaviors are common clinical signs. Behavioral symptoms seen in FLS can be confused with personality disorders and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. FLS is a neuropsychiatric disorder rarely assessed in forensic psychiatry and in terms of detection of criminal responsibility. In this case report, criminal responsibility in FLS was assessed through a FLS case in which an offense of "threat" was committed and investigated in terms of criminal responsibility.

  10. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  11. Criminal Responsibility of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Mustafa Talip; Ozcan, Halil; Sahingoz, Sadik; Ogul, Hayri

    2015-10-01

    Neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms might be detected due to damage of frontal lobes as detected in damages of many brain regions. Frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) occurs as a result of damage in prefrontal region due to various causes. Symptoms due to prefrontal region damage, varies according to the size and location of the lesion. In most of the cases; executive dysfunctions, attention deficits, inconsistencies in social life, impulse control problems, obsessive behaviors and violence behaviors are common clinical signs. Behavioral symptoms seen in FLS can be confused with personality disorders and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. FLS is a neuropsychiatric disorder rarely assessed in forensic psychiatry and in terms of detection of criminal responsibility. In this case report, criminal responsibility in FLS was assessed through a FLS case in which an offense of "threat" was committed and investigated in terms of criminal responsibility. PMID:26644774

  12. Cephalic aura after frontal lobe resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jehi, Lara; Alkawadri, Rafeed; Wang, Zhong I; Enatsu, Rei; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Burgess, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate a cephalic aura extensive cortical areas need to be excited. We report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed in the right frontal region, and the latter involved much more widespread areas than the former on MEG sensors. The peculiar seizure onset pattern may indicate that surgical modification of the epileptic network was related to the appearance of cephalic aura. We hypothesize that generation of cephalic aura may be associated with more extensive cortical involvement of epileptic activity than that of interictal activity, in at least a subset of cases.

  13. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Nejati; Majid Nejati

    2012-01-01

    Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont ...

  14. Perirhinal cortex and temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eBiagini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The perirhinal cortex – which is interconnected with several limbic structures and is intimately involved in learning and memory - plays major roles in pathological processes such as the kindling phenomenon of epileptogenesis and the spread of limbic seizures. Both features may be relevant to the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that represents the most refractory adult form of epilepsy with up to 30% of patients not achieving adequate seizure control. Compared to other limbic structures such as the hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex, the perirhinal area remains understudied and, in particular, detailed information on its dysfunctional characteristics remains scarce; this lack of information may be due to the fact that the perirhinal cortex is not grossly damaged in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and in models mimicking this epileptic disorder. However, we have recently identified in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats the presence of selective losses of interneuron subtypes along with increased synaptic excitability. In this review we: (i highlight the fundamental electrophysiological properties of perirhinal cortex neurons; (ii briefly stress the mechanisms underlying epileptiform synchronization in perirhinal cortex networks following epileptogenic pharmacological manipulations; and (iii focus on the changes in neuronal excitability and cytoarchitecture of the perirhinal cortex occurring in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Overall, these data indicate that perirhinal cortex networks are hyperexcitable in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and that this condition is associated with a selective cellular damage that is characterized by an age-dependent sensitivity of interneurons to precipitating injuries, such as status epilepticus.

  15. Functional neuroanatomy of the insular lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Stephani, C.; Fernandez-Baca Vaca, G.; Maciunas, R.; Koubeissi, M.; Lüders, H.

    2010-01-01

    The insula is the fifth lobe of the brain and it is the least known. Hidden under the temporal, frontal and parietal opercula, as well as under dense arterial and venous vessels, its accessibility is particularly restricted. Functional data on this region in humans, therefore, are scarce and the existing evidence makes conclusions on its functional and somatotopic organization difficult. 5 patients with intractable epilepsy underwent an invasive presurgical evaluation with implantation of dia...

  16. MRI findings of temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI findings were analyzed retrospectively in 46 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in which the side of epileptogenic focus had been confirmed by EEG studies. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained by the use of a 1.0 or 1.5 T superconducting-type MRI machine with a coronal scan perpendicular to the axis of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle. Additional axial and sagittal scans were performed in some cases. The area of the hippocampal body was measured quantitatively using a computerized image-analysis system in 26 cases in which the hippocampus had been visualized with enough contrast on T1-weighted coronal images. Abnormal findings were observed in 31/46 (67%) cases. Hippocampal (HC) and temporal lobe (TL) atrophy were observed in 18/46 (39%) and 23/46 (50%) cases respectively, and the side of the atrophy corresponded with the side of the epileptogenic focus, as confirmed by EEG studies, with specificities of 89% and 74% respectively. A quantitative measurement of the area of the hippocampal body showed unilateral hippocampal atrophy more than 10% in 18/25 (69%) cases (10-25%: 10 cases, 25-50%: 7 cases, 50%2 abnormality was observed in only 4 cases. Structural lesions were observed in 4 cases including an arachnoid cyst, an astrocytoma in amygdala, the Dandy-Walker syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis, using the more efficient imaging qualities than the CT scan. From these observations, it is apparant that superconducting MRI is extremely useful in the diagnosis of the epileptogenic topography of temporal lobe epilepsy. Particularly, hippocampal atrophy was found to correspond with the side of the epileptogenic focus on EEG with a high specificity; its quantitative evaluation could be one of the most important standards in detecting the operative indications for temporal lobe epilepsy. (author)

  17. Video electroencephalogram telemetry in temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanti Mani

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most commonly encountered medically refractory epilepsy. It is also the substrate of refractory epilepsy that gives the most gratifying results in any epilepsy surgery program, with a minimum use of resources. Correlation of clinical behavior and the ictal patterns during ictal behavior is mandatory for success at epilepsy surgery. Video electroencephalogram (EEG) telemetry achieves this goal and hence plays a pivotal role in pre-surgical assessment. The ro...

  18. Occipital lobe infarction and positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, Koichi; Nagata, Ken; Shishido, Fumio (Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan))

    1990-08-01

    Even though the PET study revealed a total infarct in the territory of the left PCA in our 3 cases of pure alesia, it is still obscure which part of the left occipital lobe is most closely associated with the occurrence of the pure alexia. In order to elucidate the intralobar localization of the pure alexia, it is needed to have an ideal case who shows an pure alexia due to the localized lesion within the left occipital lobe. Furthermore, high-resolution PET scanner will circumvent the problem in detecting the metabolism and blood flow in the corpus callosum which plays an important role in the pathogenesis. We have shown that the occlusion of the right PCA also produced a left unilateral agnosia which is one of the common neurological signs in the right MCA infarction. To tell whether the responsible lesion for the unilateral spatial agnosia differs between the PCA occlusion and the MCA occlusion, the correlation study should be carried out in a greater number of the subjects. Two distinctive neuropsychological manifestations, cerebral color blidness and prosopagnosia, have been considered to be produced by the bilateral occipital lesion. The PET studies disclosed reduction of blood flow and oxygen metabolism in both occipital lobes in our particular patient who exibited cerebral color blindness and posopagnosia. (author).

  19. Oncogenic viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ari, Ziv; Weitzman, Ella; Safran, Michal

    2015-05-01

    About 80% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections especially in the setting of established cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis, making HCC prevention a major goal of antiviral therapy. HCC tumors are highly complex and heterogeneous resulting from the aberrant function of multiple molecular pathways. The roles of HCV or HBV in promoting HCC development are still either directly or indirectly are still speculative, but the evidence for both effects is compelling. In patients with chronic hepatitis viral infection, cirrhosis is not a prerequisite for tumorigenesis.

  20. Transhemangioma Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established treatment modality in the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Safe trajectory of the RFA probe is crucial in decreasing collateral tissue damage and unwarranted probe transgression. As a percutaneous technique, however, the trajectory of the needle is sometimes constrained by the available imaging plane. The presence of a hemangioma beside an HCC is uncommon but poses the question of safety related to probe transgression. We hereby describe a case of transhemangioma ablation of a dome HCC.

  1. Transhemangioma Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Uei, E-mail: druei@yahoo.com [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2012-12-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established treatment modality in the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Safe trajectory of the RFA probe is crucial in decreasing collateral tissue damage and unwarranted probe transgression. As a percutaneous technique, however, the trajectory of the needle is sometimes constrained by the available imaging plane. The presence of a hemangioma beside an HCC is uncommon but poses the question of safety related to probe transgression. We hereby describe a case of transhemangioma ablation of a dome HCC.

  2. Hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex volumetric MRI measurements in discrimination between Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Elshafey

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Semi-automated MR volumetric measurements can be used to determine atrophy in hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex which aided in discrimination of healthy elderly control subjects from subjects with AD and MCI and predict clinical decline of MCI leading to increase the efficiency of clinical treatments, delay institutionalization and improve cognition and behavioral symptoms.

  3. Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. IV. Demonstration of a multiplicity of binding sites in rat caudate membranes for the cocaine analog [125I]RTI-55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, R B; Cadet, J L; Akunne, H C; Silverthorn, M L; Baumann, M H; Carroll, F I; Rice, K C; de Costa, B R; Partilla, J S; Wang, J B

    1994-07-01

    The drug 3 beta-[4'-iodophenyl]tropan-2 beta-carboxylic acid methyl ester (RTI-55) is a cocaine congener with high affinity for the dopamine transporter (Kd < 1 nM). The present study characterized [125I]RTI-55 binding to membranes prepared from rat, monkey and human caudates and COS cells transiently expressing the cloned rat dopamine (DA) transporter. Using the method of binding surface analysis, two binding sites were resolved in rat caudate: a high-capacity binding site (site 1, Bmax = 11,900 fmol/mg of protein) and a low-capacity site (site 2, Bmax = 846 fmol/mg of protein). The Kd (or Ki) values of selected drugs at the two sites were as follows: (Ki for high-capacity site and Ki for low-capacity site, respectively): RTI-55 (0.76 and 0.21 nM), 1-[2-diphenyl-methoxy)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (0.79 and 358 nM), mazindol (37.6 and 631 nM), 2 beta-carbomethoxy-3 beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (45.0 and 540 nM) and cocaine (341 and 129 nM). Nisoxetine, a selective noradrenergic uptake blocker, had low affinity for both sites. Serotonergic uptake blockers had a high degree of selectivity and high affinity for the low-capacity binding site (Ki of citalopram = 0.38 nM; Ki of paroxetine = 0.033 nM). The i.c.v. administration of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine to rats pretreated with nomifensine (to protect dopaminergic and noradrenergic nerve terminals) selectively decreased the Bmax of site 2, strongly supporting the idea that site 2 is a binding site on the serotonin (5-HT) transporter. This serotonergic lesion also increased the affinity of [125I]RTI-55 for the DA transporter by 10-fold. The ligand selectivity of the caudate 5-HT transporter was different from the [I125]RTI-55 binding site on the 5-HT transporter present in membranes prepared from whole rat brain minus caudate. The [125I]RTI-55 binding to the DA transporter was further resolved into two components, termed sites 1a and 1b, by using human and monkey (Macaca mulatta) caudate membranes but not the

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy. Usefulness for the etiological diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With improvement in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, the ability to identify lesions responsible for temporal lobe epilepsy has increased. MR imaging has also enabled the in vivo diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis. Brain tumors are responsible for 2-4% of epilepsies in adult population and 10-20% of medically intractable epilepsy. The sensitivity of MR imaging in the diagnosis of tumors and other lesions of the temporal lobe (vascular malformations, etc.) is around 90%. Both hippocampal sclerosis and other temporal lobe lesions are amenable to surgical therapy with excellent postsurgical seizure outcome. In this article, we characterize and underline distinguishing features of the different pathological entities. We also suggest an approach to reviewing the MR images of an epileptic patient. (author)

  5. Sustained lobe reconnection in Saturn's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Jackman, C. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hospodarsky, G.; Kurth, W. S.; Hansen, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    The degree to which solar wind driving may affect Saturn's magnetosphere is not yet fully understood. We present observations that suggest that under some conditions the solar wind does govern the character of the plasma sheet in Saturn's outer magnetosphere. On 16 September 2006, the Cassini spacecraft, at a radial distance of 37 Rs near local midnight, observed a sunward flowing ion population for ~5 h, which was accompanied by enhanced Saturn Kilometric Radiation emissions. We interpret this beam as the outflow from a long-lasting episode of Dungey-type reconnection, i.e., reconnection of previously open flux containing magnetosheath material. The beam occurred in the middle of a several-day interval of SKR activity and enhanced lobe magnetic field strength, apparently caused by the arrival of a solar wind compression region with significantly higher than average dynamic pressure. The arrival of the high-pressure solar wind also marked a change in the composition of the plasma-sheet plasma, from water-group-dominated material clearly of inner-magnetosphere origin to material dominated by light-ion composition, consistent with captured magnetosheath plasma. This event suggests that under the influence of prolonged high solar wind dynamic pressure, the tail plasma sheet, which normally consists of inner-magnetospheric plasma, is eroded away by ongoing reconnection that then involves open lobe field lines. This process removes open magnetic flux from the lobes and creates a more Earth-like, Dungey-style outer plasma sheet dominantly of solar wind origin. This behavior is potentially a recurrent phenomenon driven by repeating high-pressure streams (corotating interaction regions) in the solar wind, which also drive geomagnetic storms at Earth.

  6. Transcriptomic characterization of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Elana P.; Freije, Catherine A.; Farber, Benjamin A.; Lalazar, Gadi; Darcy, David G.; Honeyman, Joshua N.; Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel; Dill, Brian D.; Molina, Henrik; Umesh K Bhanot; La Quaglia, Michael P.; Rosenberg, Brad R.; Simon, Sanford M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) is a rare pediatric liver cancer. A deletion of ∼400 kb in one copy of chromosome 19 results in a chimeric protein, an activated protein kinase A. No other deletions, amplifications, mutations, or structural variants were found. This strongly implicates the chimera as the driving mutation. This paper examines gene expression in FLHCC. The results establish FLHCC as a single disease distinct from other cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. ...

  7. Contemporary management of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tefera Kassahun, Woubet

    2016-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a malignant liver tumor which is thought to be a variant of conventional hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It accounts for a small proportion of HCC cases and occurs in a distinctly different group of patients which are young and usually not in the setting of chronic liver disease. The diagnosis of FL-HCC requires the integration of clinical information, imaging studies, and histology. In terms of the treatment options, the only potentially cur...

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Face Recognition Memory and the Volume of Medial Temporal Lobe Structures in Healthy Young Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E. Mackay

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous new methodology was applied to the study of structure function relationships in the living human brain. Face recognition memory (FRM and other cognitive measures were made in 29 healthy young male subjects (mean age = 21.7 years and related to volumetric measurements of their cerebral hemispheres and of structures in their medial temporal lobes, obtained using the Cavalieri method in combination with high resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Greatest proportional variability in volumes was found for the lateral ventricles (57% for the cerebral hemispheres (8% in the mean volumes of the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, temporal pole and temporal lobe on the right and left sides of the brain. The volumes of the right and left parahippocampal gyrus, temporal pole, temporal lobe, and left hippocampus were, prior to application of the Bonferroni correction to take account of 12 multiple comparisons, significantly correlated with the volume of the corresponding hemisphere (p < 0.05. The volumes of all structures were highly correlated (p < 0.0002 for all comparisons between the two cerebral hemispheres. There were no positive relationships between structure volumes and FRM score. However, the volume of the right amygdala was, prior to application of the Bonferroni correction to take account of 38~multiple comparisons, found to be significantly smaller in the five most consistent high scorers compared to the five most consistent low scorers (t = 2.77, p = 0.025. The implications for possible relationships between healthy medial temporal lobe structures and memory are discussed.

  9. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging. PMID:27005339

  10. Alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma shows a rising incidence worldwide, and the largest burden of disease in Western countries derives from patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cirrhosis, the latter being the premier premalignant factor for HCC. The present chapter addresses key issues including the epidemiology of alcohol-associated HCC, and its link to other coexisting non-alcoholic liver diseases, and additional host and environmental risk factors including the underlying genetics. Also discussed are molecular mechanisms of alcohol-associated liver cancer evolution involving the mediators of alcohol toxicity and carcinogenicity, acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species, as well as the recently described mutagenic adducts which these mediators form with DNA. Specifically, interference of alcohol with retinoids and cofactors of transmethylation processes are outlined. Information presented in this chapter illustrates that the development of HCC in the context of ALD is multifaceted and suggests several molecular targets for prevention and markers for the screening of risk groups. PMID:25427904

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma and industrial epidemics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alain Braillon; Gérard Dubois

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, the burden of the non viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually underestimated. Clearly industrial goods, tobacco, alcohol and processed foods are the agents of new epidemics in modern times which far outscore the burden of infectious agents on morbidity and mortality. Smoking, a dose-related contributing factor for HCC, receives too little attention in clinical practice. In France, tobacco, hepatitis B and C virus and alcohol are the main risk factors for HCC mortality (33%, 31% and 26%, respectively). In developing countries, where tobacco consumption is dramatically increasing, this epidemic may soon surpass hepatitis B. Obesity and diabetes are the contributing factors too. The role of industrial processed foods in the increase of the prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be ignored.

  12. [Hepatocellular Carcinoma: therapeutic options 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiß, Michael; Bettinger, Dominik; Neeff, Hannes P; Brunner, Thomas B; Thimme, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common neoplasm, is rising and the prognosis is poor. Many factors have to be taken into account when deciding on the best mode of therapy, like tumor size and number, liver function, sequelae of portal hypertension or other comorbidities. These factors are reflected in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification. Resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and liver transplantation can be seen as curative therapies for the early and localized HCC. For the intermediate state of the HCC, there are other therapeutic modalities in therapy available: transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT, rarer occasions), off label: stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). At the moment, Sorafenib is the only option in treating advanced stages of HCC. Alternative treatment strategies, like e.g. immunological therapies, are being investigated. PMID:26182255

  13. Types of submarine fan lobes: Models and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, G.; Moiola, R.J. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Different lobe models imply significantly different reservoir geometries; thus, one must apply the proper lobe model to ancient fan sequences. Braided suprafan lobes are characterized by stacked channel sand bodies with good lateral and vertical communication, and they constitute excellent reservoir facies. Depositional lobes, composed of sheet-like sand bodies with good lateral and moderate vertical communication, exhibit properties of good reservoir facies. Fanlobes, which refer to meandering channels and associated levee facies of large mud-rich submarine fans such as the Mississippi fan, are characterized by offset stacked sand bodies with poor lateral and vertical communication .These lenticular sands have the potential to be moderately good reservoir facies. Ponded lobes, which represent mud-rich slump facies of slope environments, comprise poor reservoir facies because of low sand content and poor sand-body connectivity. Furthermore, the presence of contorted mud layers in ponded lobes is expected to hinder fluid flow. External mounded reflections in seismic profiles often are interpreted as lobes; however, there are no definite seismic criteria to delineate mud-rich lobes from sand-rich lobes.

  14. Planck revealed bulk motion of Centaurus A lobes

    CERN Document Server

    De Paolis, F; Nucita, A A; Ingrosso, G; Kashin, A L; Khachatryan, H G; Mirzoyan, S; Yegorian, G; Jetzer, Ph; Qadir, A; Vetrugno, D

    2015-01-01

    Planck data towards the active galaxy Centaurus A are analyzed in the 70, 100 and 143 GHz bands. We find a temperature asymmetry of the northern radio lobe with respect to the southern one that clearly extends at least up to 5 degrees from the Cen A center and diminishes towards the outer regions of the lobes. That transparent parameter - the temperature asymmetry - thus has to carry a principal information, i.e. indication on the line-of-sight bulk motion of the lobes, while the increase of that asymmetry at smaller radii reveals the differential dynamics of the lobes as expected at ejections from the center.

  15. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  16. MR imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging examinations of 31 patients undergoing temporal lobe resection for refractory partial epilepsy were reviewed retrospectively for the presence of signal abnormalities as well as atrophy. High-signal abnormalities were present in only two of the described 31 patients (6.5%). Pathologically, these represented mesial temporal sclerosis and a hamartoma. Of the remaining 29 cases, 13 showed pathologically varying degrees of mesial temporal sclerosis and gliosis and 16 were pathologically normal. Atrophy, as determined by gross asymmetry, sulcal and temporal horn enlargement, and computer volume measurements, was observed in 23 of 31 patients, correlating with the clinically affected side in 20 and the contralateral side in three. In this series, in contrast to others reported, focal MR signal abnormalities were not detected in the vast majority of patients with mesial temporal sclerosis

  17. Computational Studies of Lobed Forced Mixer Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Hu; S.C.M.Yu; 等

    1998-01-01

    Full Navier-Stokes Analyses have been conducted for the flows behind the trailing edge of a lobed forced mixer,The governing equations are derived from the time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations and discretized in the finite-difference form.A simple two-layer eddy viscosity model has also been used to account for the turbulence.Computed results are compared with some of the velocity measurements using a laser-Doppler anemomter(Yu and Yip (1997),In General,good agreement can be obtained in the streamwise mean velocity distribution but the decay of the streamwise circulation is underpredicted.Some suggestions to the discrepancy are proposed.

  18. Monocarboxylate transporters in temporal lobe epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Fredrik; Eid, Tore; Bergersen, Linda H

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder that affects approximately 1 % of the general population, making it one of the most common disorders of the central nervous system. Furthermore, up to 40 % of all patients with epilepsy cannot control their seizures with current medications. More...... efficacious treatments for medication refractory epilepsy are therefore needed. A better understanding of the mechanisms that cause this disorder is likely to facilitate the discovery of such treatments. Impairment in cerebral energy metabolism has been proposed as a possible causative factor...... in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which is one of the most common types of medication-refractory epilepsies in adults. In this review, we will discuss some of the current hypotheses regarding the possible causal relationship between brain energy metabolism and TLE. Emphasis will be placed...

  19. The initial cooling of pahoehoe flow lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; Denlinger, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new thermal model for the initial cooling of pahoehoe lava flows. The accurate modeling of this initial cooling is important for understanding the formation of the distinctive surface textures on pahoehoe lava flows as well as being the first step in modeling such key pahoehoe emplacement processes as lava flow inflation and lava tube formation. This model is constructed from the physical phenomena observed to control the initial cooling of pahoehoe flows and is not an empirical fit to field data. We find that the only significant processes are (a) heat loss by thermal radiation, (b) heat loss by atmospheric convection, (c) heat transport within the flow by conduction with temperature and porosity-dependent thermal properties, and (d) the release of latent heat during crystallization. The numerical model is better able to reproduce field measurements made in Hawai'i between 1989 and 1993 than other published thermal models. By adjusting one parameter at a time, the effect of each of the input parameters on the cooling rate was determined. We show that: (a) the surfaces of porous flows cool more quickly than the surfaces of dense flows, (b) the surface cooling is very sensitive to the efficiency of atmospheric convective cooling, and (c) changes in the glass forming tendency of the lava may have observable petrographic and thermal signatures. These model results provide a quantitative explanation for the recently observed relationship between the surface cooling rate of pahoehoe lobes and the porosity of those lobes (Jones 1992, 1993). The predicted sensitivity of cooling to atmospheric convection suggests a simple field experiment for verification, and the model provides a tool to begin studies of the dynamic crystallization of real lavas. Future versions of the model can also be made applicable to extraterrestrial, submarine, silicic, and pyroclastic flows.

  20. Advances in hepatocellular carcinoma: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fauzia; Z; Khan; Ryan; B; Perumpail; Robert; J; Wong; Aijaz; Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus has been associated with the rise in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD). Two-thirds of the obese and diabetic populations are estimated to develop NAFLD. Currently, NAFLD is the most common etiology for chronic liver disease globally. The clinical spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis, an accumulation of fat greater than 5% of liver weight, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH), a more aggressive form with necroinflammation and fibrosis. Among the patients who develop NASH, up to 20% may advance to cirrhosis and are at risk for complications of end-stage liver disease. One of the major complications observed in patients with NASH-related cirrhosis is hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), which has emerged as the sixth most common cancer and second leading etiology of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The incidence of HCC in the United States alone has tripled over the last three decades. In addition, emerging data are suggesting that a small proportion of patients with NAFLD may be at higher risk for HCC in the absence of cirrhosis - implicating obesity and diabetes mellitus as potential risk factors for HCC.

  1. Morphometric and volumetric study of caudate and putamen nuclei in normal individuals by MRI: Effect of normal aging, gender and hemispheric differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine age, gender, and hemispheric differences in the volume of the human neostriatum (striatum) nucleus in healthy humans. This study was performed on 120 normal human subjects (60 males, 60 females, right-handed) 15–65 years old, divided into two groups: young (<40 yrs) and old (=≥40 yrs). Sectional brain images were obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), analyzed and processed using the Image-J software, and the striatum volume was calculated using the Cavalieri’s principle, retrospectively. The analyses revealed bilateral age-related shrinkage of the putamen in both genders and the putamen and caudate nucleus were significantly smaller in older than in younger subjects (P-value <0.001). The age-related shrinkage of the caudate and putamen nucleus in men and women was about 5%, 5% and 4%, 4%, respectively, and there were statistically significant volume differences between males and females (P-value <0.05). In both genders, a significant rightward asymmetry was observed in the caudate and putamen nucleus (3.89%, 4.21% in men and 4.51%, 3.32% in women). Bilateral age-related shrinkage and rightward asymmetry of the striate nucleus was found in healthy adults and there were significant volume differences between men and women. Obtained results provide useful baseline data on age and gender-related changes of the volume of the striatum

  2. Temporal lobe lesions and psychosis in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, R; Zigmond, A S

    2010-01-01

    Lesions in the temporal lobe are associated with psychiatric manifestations in multiple sclerosis. The authors describe this case of a young man with multiple sclerosis who presented with first-episode psychosis and had acute lesions in the temporal lobe. He was successfully treated with olanzapine and β-interferon.

  3. Luteolin inhibits behavioral sensitization by blocking methamphetamine-induced MAPK pathway activation in the caudate putamen in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinglin Yan

    Full Text Available GOAL: To investigate the effect of luteolin on methamphetamine (MA-induced behavioral sensitization and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal transduction pathway activation in mice. METHODS: Mice received a single dose of MA to induce hyperactivity or repeated intermittent intraperitoneal injections of MA to establish an MA-induced behavioral sensitization mouse model. The effect of luteolin on the development and expression of MA-induced hyperactivity and behavioral sensitization was examined. The expression and activity of ΔFosB and the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2, phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (pJNK, and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (pp38 in the caudate putamen (CPu were measured by western blot. RESULTS: Luteolin significantly decreased hyperactivity as well as the development and expression of MA-induced behavioral sensitization in mice. ΔFosB, pERK1/2, and pJNK levels in the CPu were higher in MA-treated mice than in control mice, whereas the pp38 level did not change. Injection of luteolin inhibited the MA-induced increase in ΔFosB, pERK1/2, and pJNK levels, but did not affect the pp38 level. CONCLUSIONS: Luteolin inhibits MA-induced hyperactivity and behavioral sensitization in mice through the ERK1/2/ΔFosB pathway. Furthermore, the JNK signaling pathway might be involved in MA-induced neurodegeneration in the CPu, and luteolin inhibits this process.

  4. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  5. Complete response of hepatocellular carcinoma treated with traditional herbal medicine:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Hong Zhu; Jian Hao; Xue Yang; Xiao-Dong Wang; Chang Liu; Xiong-Zhi Wu

    2016-01-01

    本文报道了一例单纯中药治愈弥漫性肝癌的病案。患者于2011年6月因肝区疼痛就诊,强化CT检查示肝脏多发占位,弥漫整个肝右叶,最大占位结节直径达5cm,考虑肝癌。患者自发病以来未进行任何西医抗肿瘤治疗,于2011年6月至2014年8月单纯接受中药治疗。2014年11月18日末次随访,患者一般状况良好,肿瘤病灶消失,恢复正常生活。%We reported a detailed clinical course of complete response of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) with traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) treatment in the present study. In June 2011, a 47-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for multiple mass lesions in liver. Abdominal contrast-enhanced CT revealed multiple low density nodules with heterogeneous enhancement in his right lobe of the liver and the largest nodule diameter was about 5 cm. The clinical diagnosis was hepatocellular carcinoma (diffuse-type). Resection was not performed considering the patient’s poor physical condition. He received THM therapy as an alternative. One months later, CT showed that the majority lesions of the right liver lobe shrank. In November 2014, CT showed that the liver lesions completely disappeared and had no evidence of tumor recurrence. Our case provides additional evidence to show that TCM treatment is effective for patients with HCC, and it can achieve complete remission, long disease-free survival and provide patients with good quality of life.

  6. Surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tony CY Pang; Vincent WT Lam

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second mostcommon cause of death from cancer worldwide.Standard potentially curative treatments are eitherresection or transplantation. The aim of this paper isto provide an overview of the surgical managementof HCC, as well as highlight current issues in hepaticresection and transplantation. In summary, due to therelationship between HCC and chronic liver disease,the management of HCC depends both on tumourrelatedand hepatic function-related considerations. Assuch, HCC is currently managed largely through nonsurgicalmeans as the criteria, in relation to the aboveconsiderations, for surgical management is still largelyrestrictive. For early stage tumours, both resectionand transplantation offer fairly good survival outcomes(5 years overall survival of around 50%). Selectiontherefore would depend on the level of hepatic functionderangement, organ availability and local expertise.Patients with intermediate stage cancers have limitedoptions, with resection being the only potential forcure. Otherwise, locoregional therapy with transarterialchemoembolization or radiofrequency ablation are viableoptions. Current issues in resection and transplantationare also briefly discussed such as laparoscopic resection,ablation vs resection, anatomical vs non-anatomicalresection, transplantation vs resection, living donor livertransplantation and salvage liver transplantation.

  7. Challenges of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagrande, Stefano; Inghilesi, Andrea L; Aburas, Sami; Taliani, Gian G; Nardi, Cosimo; Marra, Fabio

    2016-09-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly. Although surveillance by imaging, clinical and biochemical parameters is routinely performed, a lot of patients suffering from cirrhosis have an advanced stage HCC at the first diagnosis. Advanced stage HCC includes heterogeneous groups of patients with different clinical condition and radiological features and sorafenib is the only approved treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Since the introduction of sorafenib in clinical practice, several phase III clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority over sorafenib in the frontline setting. Loco-regional therapies have also been tested as first line treatment, but their role in advanced HCC is still matter of debate. No single agent or combination therapies have been shown to impact outcomes after sorafenib failure. Therefore this review will focus on the range of experimental therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC and highlights the successes and failures of these treatments as well as areas for future development. Specifics such as dose limiting toxicity and safety profile in patients with liver dysfunction related to the underlying chronic liver disease should be considered when developing therapies in HCC. Finally, robust validated and reproducible surrogate end-points as well as predictive biomarkers should be defined in future randomized trials. PMID:27678348

  8. Targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, F; Bronte, G; Cusenza, S; Fiorentino, E; Rolfo, C; Cicero, G; Bronte, E; Di Marco, V; Firenze, A; Angarano, G; Fontana, T; Russo, A

    2014-01-01

    The onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to the development of non-neoplastic liver disease, such as viral infections and cirrhosis. Even though patients with chronic liver diseases undergo clinical surveillance for early diagnosis of HCC, this cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stage. In this case locoregional treatment is not possible and systemic therapies are the best way to control it. Until now sorafenib, a Raf and multi-kinase inhibitor has been the best, choice to treat HCC systemically. It showed a survival benefit in multicenter phase III trials. However the proper patient setting to treat is not well defined, since the results in Child-Pugh B patients are conflicting. To date various new target drugs are under developed and other biological treatments normally indicated in other malignancies are under investigation also for HCC. These strategies aim to target the different biological pathways implicated in HCC development and progression. The target drugs studied in HCC include anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The most important challenge is represented by the best integration of these drugs with standard treatments to achieve improvement in overall survival and quality of life.

  9. Metallothionein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng-Wen Huang; Lian-Yue Yang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of metallothioneins(MTs), which were recently thought to have closerelationship with tumors, in human hepatocellularcarcinoma.METHODS: Histological specimens of 35 cases of primaryhuman hepatocellular carcinoma with para-neoplasticliver tissue and 5 cases of normal liver were stainedfor MTs with monoclonal mouse anti-MTs serum (Eg)by the immunohistochemical ABC technique. RESULTS: MTs were stained in the 35 cases of HCC,including 6 cases negative (17.1 %), 23 weaklypositive (65.7 %), and 6 strongly positive(17.1%).But MTs were stained strongly positive in all the fivecases of normal liver and 35 cases of para-neoplasticliver tissue. The differences of MTs expression betweenHCC and normal liver tissue or para-neoplastic livertissue were highly significant (P<0.01). The rate ofMTs expression in HCC grade I was 100 percent,higher than that in grade Ⅱ(81%) and grade Ⅲand Ⅳ (78 %). But the differences were notsignificant (P>0.05). No obvious correlationsbetween MTs expression in HCC and tumor size,clinical stage or serum alpha fetoproteinconcentration were found (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Decrease of MTs expression in HCC mayplay a role in carcinogenesis of HCC. MTs are stainedheterogenously in HCC. We can choose the anticanceragents according to the MTs concentraiton in HCC, whichmay improve the results of chemotherapy for HCC.

  10. Interventional treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Song Guan; Yuan Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent primary malignant tumors in the world. Hepatic resection and liver transplantation are considered optimal for potential treatment of HCC. However, only 20%of HCCs can be surgically treated. And most of surgically-noneligible patients have to receive interventional managements including local ablation and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). In this paper, we review the interventional treatments of HCC. DATA SOURCES:A literature search of PubMed database was conducted and research articles were reviewed. RESULTS: Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) is usually applied to small HCC for a complete necrosis. Radiofrequency ablation, an alternative to PEI, also causes tumor necrosis and needs fewer times of ablation. Other methods such as acetic acid injection, laser, microwave, etc have enriched local ablation for HCC. High intensity focus ultrasound (HIFU) is thought to be promising. TACE, another common modality, can improve the survival rate of patients with HCC. The newly developed embolic agents and adjuvant rAd-p53 gene therapy are well reported. CONCLUSIONS:Surgically-noneligible HCC can be treated with interventional procedures. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. However, it is still pressing to develop ablative methods as well as new embolic agents for a better prognosis of HCC.

  11. Diagnosis and operative management of bile duct calculus in hepatic caudate lobe%肝尾叶胆管结石的诊断及手术治疗体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 徐宗珍; 胡宗泽; 张清泉; 刘竟芳; 王兴国; 腾木俭; 田虎; 李兆亭; 孙好贞; 李军

    2004-01-01

    尾叶胆管结石是肝内结石高发区域之一,但由于其部位隐蔽,术前影像学漏诊率高,术中往往被遗漏,是导致术后残石再手术的原因之一。本文就肝尾叶胆管结石67例的诊治体会报道如下。

  12. 结肠癌肝尾状叶转移病人肝切除的预后%Outcome after hepatic resection of solitary liver metastasis from colorectal cancer in the caudate lobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saiura A; Yamamoto J; Koga R; 宋继勇; 邹一平

    2010-01-01

    @@ 肝尾状叶孤立转移病人的预后仍不是很明确.该研究分析了结肠癌肝尾状叶孤立转移灶切除病人的预后.作者回顾了114例可能治愈的结肠癌孤立肝转移灶肝切除病人的资料.

  13. Synchronous gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs;

    2009-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare tumours that are divided into four subtypes depending on tumour characteristics. Patients with NECs are known to have an increased risk of synchronous and metachronous cancers mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract. A case...... of synchronous gastric NEC and hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with several other precancerous lesions is presented. The patient had anaemia, and a gastric tumour and two duodenal polyps were identified on upper endoscopy. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed several lesions in the liver. The lesions were...... invisible on B-mode sonography and real-time sonography fused with CT was used to identify and biopsy one of the lesions. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma. A literature search showed that only one case of a hepatocellular carcinoma synchronous with a gastric NEC has been reported previously. TRIAL...

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew MC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael C Kew Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron

  15. Submarine fan lobe models: Implications for reservoir properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, G.; Moiola, R.J. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1990-09-01

    A multitude of submarine fan lobe models, advocating widely different reservoir properties, has been introduced into the sedimentologic literature. Four of these models are compared to show their differences in reservoir properties. Braided suprafan lobes are characterized by stacked sand bodies with good lateral and vertical communication, and they constitute excellent reservoir facies. The unchanneled depositional lobes, composed of sheetlike sand bodies with good lateral and moderate vertical communication, exhibit properties of good reservoir facies. Fanlobes, which refer to meandering channels and associated levee facies of large mud-rich submarine fans such as the Mississippi Fan in the Gulf of Mexico, are characterized by offset stacked sand bodies with poor lateral and vertical communication. These lenticular sands have the potential to be moderately good reservoir facies. Ponded lobes, which represent mud-rich slump facies of slope environments, comprise poor reservoir facies because of poor sand content and poor sand-body connectivity caused by chaotic bedding. Furthermore, the presence of slumped mud layers in ponded lobes is expected to hinder fluid flow. Because different lobe models vary significantly from one another in terms of reservoir properties, caution must be exercised to apply the proper lobe model to ancient fan sequences in hydrocarbon exploration and production.

  16. Dust Temperatures in the Galactic Center Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla-Garcia, Luis G.; Morris, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The Galactic Center Lobe (GCL), located toward positive latitudes above the Galactic center and extending to a distance of ~150 pc, is apparently a bubble of hot gas that is manifested at all wavelengths from radio to X-rays. In mid- to far-infrared dust emission, the GCL shows several superposed, elongated structures oriented perpendicular to the Galactic plane. Among them are the dust ridge centered on AFGL5376 and another defining the Double Helix Nebula (DHN). Using temperature maps constructed from a combination of archival WISE and SPITZER data, we have found that these features exhibit dramatic spatial variations in their dust temperatures, with the DHN and the AFGL5376 ridge being much warmer, and therefore substantially brighter in the 20 - 25 µm range, than several other linear features. Furthermore, the cooler linear structures tend to have rather constant dust temperatures, in sharp contrast to the highly variable emission within the warmer features. We will summarize the implications of these results for the nature of the dust heating sources. The candidate heating mechanisms are direct photon heating by stars in the central cluster, thermal heating by exposure to a hot coronal gas, and the impact of ions driven by magnetosonic waves or shocks.

  17. Extrahippocampal Desynchronization in Nonlesional Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Pastor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is traditionally associated with both hypersynchronous activity in the form of interictal epileptic discharges and hippocampal sclerosis, recent findings suggest that desynchronization also plays a central role in the dynamics of this pathology. The objective of this work is to show the imbalance existing between mesial activities in patients suffering from mesial TLE, with normal mesial structures. Foramen ovale recordings from six patients with mesial TLE and one with lateral TLE were analyzed through a cluster analysis and synchronization matrices. None of the patients present findings in the MRI presurgical evaluation. Numerical analysis was carried out in three different situations: awake and sleep interictal and also during the preictal stage. High levels of desynchronization ipsilateral to the epileptic side were present in mesial TLE patients. Low levels of desynchronization were present in the lateral TLE patient during the interictal stage and almost zero in the preictal stage. Implications of these findings in relation with seizure spreading are discussed.

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Therapy and prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hubert E Blum

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. The major etiologies and risk factors for the development of HCC are well defined and some of the multiple steps involved in hepatocarcinogenesis have been elucidated in recent years. Despite these scientific advances and the implementation of measures for the early detection of HCC in patients at risk, patient survival has not improved during the last three decades. This is due to the advanced stage of the disease at the time of clinical presentation and limited therapeutic options. The therapeutic options fall into five main categories: surgical interventions including tumor resection and liver transplantation, percutaneous interventions including ethanol injection and radiofrequency thermal ablation, transarterial interventions including embolization and chemoembolization, radiation therapy and drugs as well as gene and immune therapies. These therapeutic strategies have been evaluated in part in randomized controlled clinical trials that are the basis for therapeutic recommendations. Though surgery, percutaneous and transarterial interventions are effective in patients with limited disease (1-3 lesions, <5 cm in diameter) and compensated underlying liver disease (cirrhosis Child A), at the time of diagnosis more than 80% patients present with multicentric HCC and advanced liver disease or comorbidities that restrict the therapeutic measures to best supportive care. In order to reduce the morbidity and mortality of HCC, early diagnosis and the development of novel systemic therapies for advanced disease, including drugs, gene and immune therapies as well as primary HCC prevention are of paramount importance. Furthermore, secondary HCC prevention after successful therapeutic interventions needs to be improved in order to make an impact on the survival of patients with HCC. New technologies, including gene expression profiling and proteomic analyses, should allow to further

  19. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s', RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s', showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  20. Newer markers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Jorge A; Lok, Anna S F

    2004-11-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing worldwide; the overall survival of patients with HCC is grim because most patients are diagnosed late, when curative treatment is not possible. Cirrhosis is the strongest risk factor for the development of HCC. HCC surveillance with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography has been recommended for persons with cirrhosis. However, AFP level is insensitive for the early detection of HCC, and ultrasonography is expensive and operator dependent. Clearly, there is a need for novel strategies for the early detection of HCC. The ideal biomarker assay for HCC would be sensitive, specific, noninvasive, reproducible, inexpensive, and acceptable to patients. The Early Detection Research Network of the National Cancer Institute has proposed 5 phases for biomarker validation: preclinical exploratory studies, clinical assay development for disease, retrospective longitudinal study to detect preclinical disease, prospective screening study, and cancer control studies. Several biomarkers, such as des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP, human hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1, are promising, but none of these markers has been validated for clinical use. Limitations of the current literature include inadequate sample size, heterogeneity in biomarker assay methods and result reporting, limited analysis of demographics and cause of liver disease as covariates in the expression of these markers, and a scarcity of longitudinal studies evaluating the ability of biomarkers to detect preclinical disease. There is an urgent need for novel biomarkers for the detection of early HCC; the National Cancer Institute proposal provides a framework for future validation studies. PMID:15508074

  1. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatmentoption for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis,thermal ablation techniques provide a valid nonsurgicaltreatment alternative, thanks to their minimalinvasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile,proven efficacy in local disease control, virtuallyunlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Differentenergy sources are currently employed in clinics asphysical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgicalthermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency(RF) currents are the most used, whilemicrowave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasinglypopular. Starting from the 90s', RF ablation (RFA) rapidlybecame the standard of care in ablation, especially inthe treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFAexhibits substantial performance limitations in thetreatment of large lesions and/or tumors located nearmajor heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the FarEastern clinical practice in the 80s', showing promisingresults but also severe limitations in the controllabilityof the emitted field and in the high amount of poweremployed for the ablation of large tumors, resultingin a poor coagulative performance and a relativelyhigh complication rate, nowadays shows better resultsboth in terms of treatment controllability and of overallcoagulative performance, thanks to the improvementof technology. In this review we provide an extensiveand detailed overview of the key physical and technicalaspects of MWA and of the currently available systems,and we want to discuss the most relevant published dataon MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinicalresults and to the type and rate of complications, both inabsolute terms and in comparison with RFA.

  2. Primary prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S Z

    1995-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major cancers in China. Accordingly, the mortality rates in 1990 (per 100,000) were 20.10 in certain cities and 24.32 in certain counties. More than 90% of HCC cases and 70% of controls were infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 10-50). In the same group of patients, 8-27% of those with HCC and 0-11% of the healthy controls were also infected with hepatitis C (HCV) (OR = 2.11-17.29). There appears to be some correlation between HBV markers and the OR. The government requires that 85% of infants be immunized with HBV vaccine. In 1992, there were 3 million infants inoculated with HB vaccines. Aflatoxins have been found as contaminants in food, particularly in corn, peanut oil, soya sauce and fermented soya beans. The intake of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by people of ten different villages correlated with HCC mortality rates (r = 0.55; P aflatoxins. These adducts are higher in hyperendemic HCC areas and cases. Most people have now changed their staple food and eat rice instead of corn. Six large epidemiological studies have confirmed that people who drink pond-ditch water experience higher HCC mortality rates than people who drink deep-well water. Recent research has found that the blue-green algal toxin microcystin (MCYST) was a contaminant of pond-ditch water. MCYST is a strong promoter of HCC and will induce severe intrahepatic haemorrhages and liver necrosis. More than 80% of people in Qidong County have already changed their sources of water from pond-ditches to deep wells. Therefore, a combined strategy of the prevention of hepatitis, control of crops and control of drinking water is advocated for the primary prevention of HCC in China.

  3. Controllable yawning expressed as focal seizures of frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasade, Vibhangini S; Balki, Indranil; Bowyer, Susan M; Gaddam, Shaila; Mohammadi-Nejad, Ali-Reza; Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Zillgitt, Andrew; Spanaki-Varelas, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Excessive yawning was described in some neurological conditions as part of periictal or ictal manifestations of epilepsy, most commonly temporal lobe. We present the first case of controllable yawning as a primary seizure semiology with dominant frontal lobe involvement in a 20-year-old man. Video electroencephalography recorded 8 yawning episodes accompanied with right arm movement correlating with rhythmic diffuse theta range activity with left hemispheric predominance. Magnetoencephalography coherence source imaging was consistent with persistent neuronal networks with areas of high coherence reliably present over the left lateral orbitofrontal region. Epileptogenic areas may have widespread networks involving the dominant frontal lobe in unique symptomatogenic areas. PMID:27668178

  4. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  5. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Kwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  6. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Sarah; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  7. Decreased frontal lobe function in people with Internet addiction disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Shunke Zhou; Fatema Esmail; Lingjiang Li; Zhifeng Kou; Weihui Li; Xueping Gao; Zhiyuan Wang; Changlian Tan; Yan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In our previous studies, we showed that frontal lobe and brainstem functions were abnormal in on-line game addicts. In this study, 14 students with Internet addiction disorder and 14 matched healthy controls underwent proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure cerebral function. Results demonstrated that the ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine decreased, but the ratio of cho-line-containing compounds to creatine increased in the bilateral frontal lobe white matter in people with Internet addiction disorder. However, these ratios were mostly unaltered in the brainstem, suggesting that frontal lobe function decreases in people with Internet addiction disorder.

  8. Concomitant lung metastasis in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Yang; Jun-Hua Lu; Chuan Lin; Song Shi; Ting-Hao Chen; Rong-Hua Zhao; Yi Wang; Meng-Chao Wu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the clinical features and prognostic factors of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients presenting with lung metastasis at initial diagnosis.METHODS:Between 2001 and 2010,we recruited 76consecutive HCC patients initially presenting with lung metastasis,without co-existing metastasis from other sites.These patients were divided into three groups:untreated group (n =22),single treatment group (n =19),and combined treatment group (n =35).RESULTS:Metastasis of bilateral lung lobes was common and noted in 35 patients (46.1%),and most of patients (59/76,77.6%) presented with multiple lung metastatic nodules.Nineteen patients (25.0%)received single-method treatment,including hepatectomy in 4,transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in 6,radiotherapy in 5,and oral sorafenib in 4.Thirty-five patients (46.1%) received combined treatment modalities.The overall median survival of the all patients was 8.7 ± 0.6 mo; 4.1 ± 0.3,6.3 ± 2.5 and 18.6 ± 3.9 mo,respectively in the untreated group,single treatment group and combined treatment group,respectively,with a significant difference (log-rank test,P < 0.001).Multivariate analysis revealed that Child-Pugh score,the absence or presence of portal vein tumor thrombus,and treatment modality were three independent prognostic factors affecting survival of patients with advanced HCC and concomitant lung metastasis.CONCLUSION:Combined treatment modalities tend to result in a better survival as compared with the conservative treatment or single treatment modality for HCC patients initially presenting with lung metastasis.

  9. Clinical implications of basic research in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Torbenson, Michael S; Roberts, Lewis R

    2016-03-01

    A 58-year old Caucasian female has compensated hepatitis C related cirrhosis. Her surveillance ultrasound showed hypodense liver nodules and subsequent triple phase CT scan showed five tumor nodules with diameters ranging from 3-5cms involving both hepatic lobes. The nodules showed characteristic radiologic findings on the CT scan and she was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on non-invasive criteria. There was also associated right portal vein tumor thrombosis. Her functional capacity at diagnosis was slightly limited, but she was capable of performing all activities of daily living and self-care. Her laboratory tests at diagnosis were as follows: sodium 129mmol/L, potassium 3.6mmol/L, blood urea nitrogen 22mg/dL, creatinine 1.0mg/dL, albumin 2.9g/dl, bilirubin 1.8mg/dl, alanine aminotransferase 87U/L, aspartate aminotransferase 68U/L, alkaline phosphatase 139U/L, white blood cell 3.5x10(9)/L, hemoglobin 10.4, platelet count 73x10(9)/L, international normalized ratio 1.9 and alpha-fetoprotein 5200ng/ml. An upper endoscopy was negative for esophageal or gastric varices. Based on the tumor burden, presence of macrovascular invasion, ECOG performance status of 1 and Child-Pugh class A she was classified to have BCLC stage C HCC. She was started on sorafenib therapy at 400mg oral twice daily but unfortunately this had to be discontinued since she experienced severe diarrhea and skin rash. She now returns for follow-up and requests information on the available therapeutic options. This particular case scenario is not uncommon and does raise several clinically relevant questions: This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of HCC management and also examines the clinical implications of recent basic research in HCC. PMID:26450813

  10. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct in liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Yasunori Sato; Kenichi Harada; Norihide Yoneda; Teruyuki Ueda; Atsushi Kawashima; Akishi Ooi; Yasuni Nakanuma

    2011-01-01

    A case of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) arising in a patient with hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is reported.A 76-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with recurrent HCC.Laboratory data showed that levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were elevated.He died of progressive hepatic failure.At autopsy, in addition to HCCs, an intraductal papillary proliferation of malignant cholangiocytes with fibrovascular cores was found in the dilated large bile ducts in the left lobe, and this papillary carcinoma was associated with an invasive mucinous carcinoma (invasive IPNB).Interestingly, extensive intraductal spread of the cholangiocarcinoma was found from the reactive bile ductular level to the interlobular bile ducts and septal bile ducts and to the large bile ducts in the left lobe.Neural cell adhesion molecule, a hepatic progenitor cell marker, was detected in IPNB cells.It seems possible in this case that hepatic progenitor cells located in reactive bile ductules in liver cirrhosis may have been responsible for the development of the cholangiocarcinoma and HCC, and that the former could have spread in the intrahepatic bile ducts and eventually formed grossly visible IPNB.

  11. Genotype phenotype classification of hepatocellular adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paulette Bioulac-Sage; Jean Frédéric Blanc; Sandra Rebouissou; Charles Balabaud; Jessica Zucman-Rossi

    2007-01-01

    Studies that compare tumor genotype with phenotype have provided the basis of a new histological/molecular classification of hepatocellular adenomas. Based on two molecular criteria (presence of a TCF1/HNF1α or β-catenin mutation), and an additional histological criterion (presence or absence of an inflammatory infiltrate), subgroups of hepatocellular adenoma can be defined and distinguished from focal nodular hyperplasia. Analysis of 96 hepatocellular adenomas performed by a French collaborative network showed that they can be divided into four broad subgroups: the first one is defined by the presence of mutations in TCF1 gene inactivating the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1α); the second by the presence of β-catenin activating mutations; the category without mutations of HNF1α or β-catenin is further divided into 2 subgroups depending on the presence or absence of inflammation. Therefore, the approach to the diagnosis of problematic benign hepatocytic nodules may be entering a new era directed by new molecular information. It is hoped that immunohistological tools will improve significantly diagnosis of liver biopsy in our ability to distinguish hepatocellular adenoma from focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), and to delineate clinically meaningful entities within each group to define the best clinical management. The optimal care of patients with a liver nodule will benefit from the recent knowledge coming from molecular biology and the combined expertise of hepatologists, pathologists, radiologists, and surgeons.

  12. Hepatocellular carcinoma: risk groups, surveillance and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, S. van

    2016-01-01

    The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has changed in the past few decades. Although the majority of HCC cases develops in East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, HCC has become an increasing problem in Western countries such as the Netherlands. Surveillance for HCC is controversial because of limit

  13. Hyperkalaemia after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoevena, BH; Haagsma, EB; Appeltans, BMG; Slooff, MJH; de Jong, KP

    2002-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation of liver tumours is a useful therapy for otherwise unresectable tumours. The complication rate is said to be low. In this case report we describe hyperkalaemia after radiofrequency ablation of a hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with end-stage renal insufficiency. (C) 200

  14. Liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, Wojciech G.; Soyama, Akihiko; Slooff, Maarten J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplantation has a definitive place in the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a cirrhotic liver. Patients with a tumor load within the Milan criteria have excellent survival comparable to survival in patients with benign indications. When tumor load exceeds the Mil

  15. Asymmetric Gray Matter Volume Changes Associated with Epilepsy Duration and Seizure Frequency in Temporal-Lobe-Epilepsy Patients with Favorable Surgical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Sik; Koo, Dae Lim; Joo, Eun Yeon; Kim, Sung Tae; Seo, Dae Won

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study aimed to estimate the changes in gray matter volume (GMV) and their hemispheric difference in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methodology, and to determine whether GMV changes are correlated with clinical features. Methods VBM analysis of brain MRI using statistical parametric mapping 8 (SPM8) was performed for 30 left MTLE (LMTLE) and 30 right MTLE (RMTLE) patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We also analyzed the correlations between GMV changes and clinical features of MTLE patients. Results In SPM8-based analyses, MTLE patients showed significant GMV reductions in the hippocampus ipsilateral to the epileptic focus, bilateral thalamus, and contralateral putamen in LMTLE patients. The GMV reductions were more extensive in the ipsilateral hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, uncus, insula, inferior temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, cerebellum, and paracentral lobule in RMTLE patients. These patients also exhibited notable reductions of GMV in the contralateral hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, and inferior frontal gyrus. We observed that GMV reduction was positively correlated with several clinical features (epilepsy duration and seizure frequency in RMTLE, and history of febrile seizure in LMTLE) and negatively correlated with seizure onset age in both the RMTLE and LMTLE groups. Conclusions Our study revealed GMV decreases in the hippocampus and extrahippocampal regions. Furthermore, the GMV reduction was more extensive in the RMTLE group than in the LMTLE group, since it included the contralateral hemisphere in the former. This difference in the GMV reduction patterns between LMTLE and RMTLE may be related to a longer epilepsy duration and higher seizure frequency in the latter.

  16. Detecting hepatic nodules and identifying feeding arteries of hepatocellular carcinoma:efifcacy of cone-beam computed tomography in transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiro Ushijima; Tsuyoshi Tajima; Akihiro Nishie; Yoshiki Asayama; Kousei Ishigami; Masakazu Hirakawa; Daisuke Kakihara; Daisuke Okamoto; Hiroshi Honda

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) to detect hapatocelular carcinoma (HCC) nodules and their feeding arteries.Methods: Twenty-four patients with HCCs who underwent TACE using CBCT in addition to conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were enroled. After both conventional DSA and CBCT through the hepatic artery were acquired, TACE were performed. The nodules were deifned as an HCC when dense accumulation of iodized oil was found within the nodule on CT obtained 2 weeks after the TACE. The number of detected nodules and identiifed feeding arteries, and their correlations with anatomical locations were assessed.Results: A total of 39 HCC nodules (tumor diameter, 7-40 mm; mean, 17.4 ± 7.9 mm) were detected. Thirty-one nodules were detected by DSA alone but 8 nodules were additionaly detected by adding CBCT to DSA. There were 53 feeding arteries associated with the 39 HCC nodules. Among these arteries, 21 were identiifed by DSA alone; however, 47 were identiifed by combining CBCT with DSA. Additional feeding arteries, especialy for the nodules located at the right and caudate lobes, were identiifed by CBCT. On the other hand, there was no difference in detection of nodules between the anatomical locations by CBCT.Conclusion: The use of CBCT in addition to DSA offers potential for increasing the number of detected nodules, and the number of their feeding arteries at the right and caudate lobes. CBCT might improve the quality of TACE procedure for HCC than DSA alone.

  17. Cognitive impairments in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahgol Tavakoli

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings indicated that WMS-III and WAIS-R can differentiate patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy from normal subjects. However, the obtained cognitive profile could not differentiate between the right and the left TLE.

  18. Expression of liver fatty acid binding protein in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo-Jin; Ferrell, Linda D; Gill, Ryan M

    2016-04-01

    Loss of expression of liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) by immunohistochemistry has been shown to be characteristic of a subset of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) in which HNF1A is inactivated. Transformation to hepatocellular carcinoma is thought to be a very rare phenomenon in the HNF1A-inactivated variant of HCA. However, we recently observed 2 cases at our institution, 1 definite hepatocellular carcinoma and 1 possible hepatocellular carcinoma, with loss of LFABP staining, raising the possibility that LFABP down-regulation may be associated with hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Our aim was to evaluate hepatocellular carcinomas arising in various backgrounds and with varying degrees of differentiation for loss of LFABP staining. Twenty total cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were examined. Thirteen cases arose in a background of cirrhosis due to hepatitis C (n = 8) or steatohepatitis (n = 5); 7 cases arose in a noncirrhotic background, with 2 cases arising within HNF1A-inactivated variant HCA and 2 cases arising within inflammatory variant HCA. Complete loss of expression of LFABP was seen in 6 of 20 cases, including 2 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising within HNF1A-inactivated variant HCA. Thus, loss of staining for LFABP appears to be common in hepatocellular carcinoma and may be seen in well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, LFABP loss should not be interpreted as evidence for hepatocellular adenoma over carcinoma, when other features support a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. The findings raise consideration for a role of HNF1A inactivation in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, particularly in less differentiated tumors. PMID:26997447

  19. Mirror Focus in a Patient with Intractable Occipital Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiyoung; Shin, Hae kyung; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Choi, Su Jung; Joo, Eun Yeon; Hong, Seung Bong; Hong, Seung Chul; Seo, Dae-Won

    2014-01-01

    Mirror focus is one of the evidence of progression in epilepsy, and also has practical points for curative resective epilepsy surgery. The mirror foci are related to the kindling phenomena that occur through interhemispheric callosal or commissural connections. A mirror focus means the secondary epileptogenic foci develop in the contralateral hemispheric homotopic area. Thus mirror foci are mostly reported in patients with temporal or frontal lobe epilepsy, but not in occipital lobe epilepsy....

  20. Spontaneous pneumothorax in a patient with an azygos lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Sadikot, R. T.; Cowen, M E; Arnold, A G

    1997-01-01

    The association between a spontaneous pneumothorax and an azygos lobe is surprisingly rare. A case is reported in which surgical management was difficult; it is suggested that thoracotomy is preferable to video- assisted thoracoscopic surgery in this situation. It is possible that the presence of an azygos lobe might protect against the subsequent development of a spontaneous pneumothorax, and the possible mechanism of this is discussed. 






  1. Impact of Modal Parameters on Milling Process Chatter Stability Lobes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongqun; LIU Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Modals of the machine/tool and machine/part system are the principal factors affecting the stability of a milling process. Based on the modeling of chatter stability of milling process, the influence of modal parameters on chatter stability lobes independently or jointly has been analyzed by simulation. Peak-to-valley specific value, lobe coefficient and the corresponding calculation formula have been put forward. General laws and steps of modal simplification for multimodality system have been summarized.

  2. A volumetric study of parietal lobe subregions in Turner syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Wendy E.; Kesler, Shelli R.; Eliez, Stephan; Warsofsky, Ilana S.; Haberecht, Michael; Reiss, Allan L.

    2004-01-01

    Turner syndrome, a genetic disorder that results from the complete or partial absence of an X chromosome in females, has been associated with specific impairment in visuospatial cognition. Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between parietal lobe abnormalities and visuospatial deficits in Turner syndrome. We used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to measure parietal lobe subdivisions in 14 participants with Turner syndrome (mean age 13 years 5 months, SD 5 years) and 14...

  3. The neurobiology of cognitive disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Brian; Lin, Jack J.; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and especially memory disruption is a major complicating feature of the epilepsies. In this review we begin with a focus on the problem of memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy. We start with a brief overview of the early development of knowledge regarding the anatomic substrates of memory disorder in temporal lobe epilepsy, followed by discussion of the refinement of that knowledge over time as informed by the outcomes of epilepsy surgery (anterior temporal lobecto...

  4. Pulmonary Lobe Segmentation in CT Examinations Using Implicit Surface Fitting

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Jiantao; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph Ken; Fuhrman, Carl; Knollmann, Friedrich; Klym, Amy; Gur, David

    2009-01-01

    Lobe identification in computed tomography (CT) examinations is often an important consideration during the diagnostic process as well as during treatment planning because of their relative independence of each other in terms of anatomy and function. In this study, we present a new automated scheme for segmenting lung lobes depicted on three-dimensional CT examinations. The unique characteristic of this scheme is the representation of fissures in the form of implicit functions using Radial Ba...

  5. Topographic and Stochastic Influences on Pahoehoe Lava Lobe Emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher W.; Glaze, Lori S.; James, Mike R.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed understanding of pahoehoe emplacement is necessary for developing accurate models of flow field development, assessing hazards, and interpreting the significance of lava morphology on Earth and other planetary surfaces. Active pahoehoe lobes on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, were examined on 21-26 February 2006 using oblique time-series stereo-photogrammetry and differential global positioning system (DGPS) measurements. During this time, the local discharge rate for peripheral lava lobes was generally constant at 0.0061 +/- 0.0019 m3/s, but the areal coverage rate of the lobes exhibited a periodic increase every 4.13 +/- 0.64 minutes. This periodicity is attributed to the time required for the pressure within the liquid lava core to exceed the cooling induced strength of its margins. The pahoehoe flow advanced through a series of down slope and cross-slope breakouts, which began as approximately 0.2 m-thick units (i.e., toes) that coalesced and inflated to become approximately meter-thick lobes. The lobes were thickest above the lowest points of the initial topography and above shallow to reverse facing slopes, defined relative to the local flow direction. The flow path was typically controlled by high-standing topography, with the zone directly adjacent to the final lobe margin having an average relief that was a few centimeters higher than the lava inundated region. This suggests that toe-scale topography can, at least temporarily, exert strong controls on pahoehoe flow paths by impeding the lateral spreading of the lobe. Observed cycles of enhanced areal spreading and inflated lobe morphology are also explored using a model that considers the statistical likelihood of sequential breakouts from active flow margins and the effects of topographic barriers.

  6. File list: His.Liv.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Hepatocellular [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: Unc.Liv.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Hepatocellular [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. Identifying the magnetotail lobes with Cluster magnetometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, J. C.; Jackman, C. M.; Freeman, M. P.; Forsyth, C.; Rae, I. J.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a novel method for identifying times when a spacecraft is in Earth's magnetotail lobes solely using magnetometer data. We propose that lobe intervals can be well identified as times when the magnetic field is strong and relatively invariant, defined using thresholds in the magnitude of BX and the standard deviation σ of the magnetic field magnitude. Using data from the Cluster spacecraft at downtail distances greater than 8 RE during 2001-2009, we find that thresholds of 30 nT and 3.5 nT, respectively, optimize agreement with a previous, independently derived lobe identification method that used both magnetic and plasma data over the same interval. Specifically, our method has a moderately high accuracy (66%) and a low probability of false detection (11%) in comparison to the other method. Furthermore, our method identifies the lobe on many other occasions when the previous method was unable to make any identification and yields longer continuous intervals in the lobe than the previous method, with intervals at the 90th percentile being triple the length. Our method also allows for analyses of the lobes outside the time span of the previous method.

  2. Near-death experiences and the temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Willoughby B; Bootzin, Richard R

    2004-04-01

    Many studies in humans suggest that altered temporal lobe functioning, especially functioning in the right temporal lobe, is involved in mystical and religious experiences. We investigated temporal lobe functioning in individuals who reported having transcendental "near-death experiences" during life-threatening events. These individuals were found to have more temporal lobe epileptiform electroencephalographic activity than control subjects and also reported significantly more temporal lobe epileptic symptoms. Contrary to predictions, epileptiform activity was nearly completely lateralized to the left hemisphere. The near-death experience was not associated with dysfunctional stress reactions such as dissociation, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse, but rather was associated with positive coping styles. Additional analyses revealed that near-death experiencers had altered sleep patterns, specifically, a shorter duration of sleep and delayed REM sleep relative to the control group. These results suggest that altered temporal lobe functioning may be involved in the near-death experience and that individuals who have had such experiences are physiologically distinct from the general population.

  3. Medical image of the week: right middle lobe syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristan EA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 73 year-old woman, a lifetime non-smoker, presented to the pulmonary clinic with chronic dyspnea on exertion and cough. Physical exam was unremarkable and pulmonary function testing showed normal spirometry. A chest radiograph revealed calcified mediastinal adenopathy and increased density in the right middle lobe region (Figure 1. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed significant narrowing of the right middle lobe bronchus with partial atelectasis and prominent calcified mediastinal lymphadenopathy (Figure 2. Bronchoscopy showed no endobronchial lesions but there was evidence of extrinsic compression surrounding the right middle lobe orifice. An endobronchial biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomas. Bronchoscopy cultures and cytology were negative and this was presumed to be from a previous infection with histoplasmosis given the patient’s long-term residence in an endemic area. Given chronic narrowing of right middle lobe bronchus with persistent atelectasis of the right middle lobe, the patient was diagnosed with right middle lobe syndrome. ...

  4. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON DISCHARGES OF PAINREACTION NEURONS IN CAUDATE NUCLEUS AND PARAFACICULAR NUCLEUS IN RATS WITH CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Gui-rong; BAI Yan; JIN Chun-yu; DONG Hong-sheng; LI Li-qiu

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To study the bidirectional adjustment effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the electrical activities of neurons in caudate nucleus (CN) and parafascicular nucleus (PFN) in rats with acute cerebral hemorrhage (ACH). Methods: ① 32 male Wistar rats were evenly randomized into normal, EA+normal, model and model+EA groups for observing the effect of EA on pain reaction; ② another 40 male Wistar rats were equally randomized into control, saline, model and EA groups for comparing the effects of EA on discharges of pain-reaction neurons in CN and PFN. ACH model was established by intracerebral injection of the rat's own arterial blood sample (30μL) into CN and PFN. Pain reaction was tested by using tail-flicking (TF) reflex induced by radiation-heat irradiation. Extra-cellular discharges of neurons of CN and PFN were recorded by using glass micropipettes. EA (1 V, 15 Hz and duration of 10 min) was applied to"Baihui"(百会 GV 20) and "Taiyang"(太阳 EX-HN 5). Frequency of discharges of CN and PFN neurons was calculated before and after intracerebral injection of blood sample, heat nociceptive stimulation and EA respectively. Results: Compared with control group and pre-EA in the same group, TF latency (TFL) values of normal rats increased significantly; compared with pre-injection of blood, TFL of model group also increased pronouncedly (P<0.01). In comparison with model group, TFL values of EA group decreased significantly (P<0.01), indicating that EA of GV 20 and EX-HN 5 could suppress ACH induced increase of TFL. In ACH rats, the latency of pain-excitement response of discharges of CN and PFN neurons increased significantly, while the net increase values of pain-excitement response decreased significantly in model group (P<0.05~0.01), the duration of pain-inhibitory response and the net decrease values of discharges of CN and PFN neurons increased clearly. Comparison between model and EA groups showed that the latency values of the pain

  5. Gadolinium chloride and salvia miltiorrhiza compound ameliorate reperfusion injury in hepatocellular mitochondria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Hai Zhang; Jin-Sheng Wang; Yong Zhou; Jian-Yi Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of gadolinium chloride (GaCl3)and salvia miltiorrhiza compound (SMCo) on ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury in hepatocellular mitochondria.METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly to divided into control group, GaCl3 group, SMCo group and GaCl3 + SMCo group (n=15 each). GaCl3 (7 rmg@kg-1) was injected into tail vein on d 1 and d 2 in contrast group. SMCo ( 2 ml@kg-1) was injected into muscle on d 1 and d 2 in SMCo group. GaCl3+SMCo group received both GaCl3 (iv) and SMCo (im) injection. Control group received saline injection only. On d 3, all the rats were subjected to 2 h ischemia in the middle and left lobes of the liver, followed by reperfusion for 2 h, 6 h and 18 h respectively. The level of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in hepatocellular mitochondria was measured. Pathological changes in hepatic tissue and in hepatocellular mitochondria were determined with optical microscope and electronic microscope, respectively.RESULTS: Remarkablly pathohistological and biochemical changes were detected after 6 h of I/R. Compared with control, the level of ALT was decreased in GaCl3, SMCo and GaCl3+SMCo treated groups (1 314.0±278.7 vs809.4±196.1,716.6±242.8 and 837.2±190.6 IU@L-1, respectively. P<0.05).Similarly, the level of MDA was decreased in GaCl3, SMCo and GaCl3+SMCo treated groups (293.1±±51.1 vs 190.8±55.5,214.3±32.9 and 221.0±47.3 nmol@g-1, respectively, P<0.05).Accordingly, in control group, swelling, degeneration, focal necrosis, infilt-ation of leucocyte were found in reperfused tissue under an optical microscope, and mitochondda swelling, rupture and even breakdown were seen under an electronic microscope.These pathohistological and ultrastructural damages caused by I/R were greatly attenuated in GaCl3, SMCo and GaCl3+SMCo treated groups. However, there was no additive effect observed when GaCl3 and SMCo were used together.CONCLUSION: Both GaCl3 and SMCo can alleviate the I/Rinjury in

  6. Identification of Driver Genes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Exome Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Sean P Cleary; Jeck, William R.; Zhao, Xiaobei; Chen, Kui; Selitsky, Sara R.; Savich, Gleb L.; Tan, Ting-Xu; Wu, Michael C.; Getz, Gad; Lawrence, Michael S.; Joel S Parker; Li, Jinyu; Powers, Scott; Kim, Hyeja; Fischer, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Genetic alterations in specific driver genes lead to disruption of cellular pathways and are critical events in the instigation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. As a prerequisite for individualized cancer treatment, we sought to characterize the landscape of recurrent somatic mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma. We performed whole exome sequencing on 87 hepatocellular carcinomas and matched normal adjacent tissues to anaverage coverage of 59x. The overall mutation rate was rough...

  7. Altered CB1 receptor coupling to G-proteins in the post-mortem caudate nucleus and cerebellum of alcoholic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdozain, Amaia M; Rubio, Marina; Meana, J Javier; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Callado, Luis F

    2015-11-01

    Biochemical, pharmacological and genetic evidence suggests the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the state of CB1 receptors in post-mortem caudate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum of alcoholic subjects.CB1 protein levels were measured by Western blot, CB1 receptor density and affinity by [(3)H]WIN55,212-2 saturation assays and CB1 functionality by [(35)S]GTPγS binding assays. Experiments were performed in samples from 24 subjects classified as non-suicidal alcoholics (n = 6), suicidal alcoholics (n = 6), non-alcoholic suicide victims (n = 6) and control subjects (n = 6).Alcoholic subjects presented hyperfunctional CB1 receptors in the caudate nucleus resulting in a higher maximal effect in both alcoholic groups compared to the non-alcoholic groups (p CB1 protein expression in either region. In the hippocampus of alcoholic subjects, no changes were observed either in the functionality, density or protein levels.Our data support an association between endocannabinoid system activity and alcoholism. The modifications reported here could be either a consequence of high lifetime ethanol consumption or a vulnerability factor to develop alcohol addiction.

  8. A Heuristic Image Search Algorithm for Active Shape Model Segmentation of the Caudate Nucleus and Hippocampus in Brain MR Images of Children with FASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Eicher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging provides a non-invasive means to study the neural correlates of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD - the most common form of preventable mental retardation worldwide. One approach aims to detect brain abnormalities through an assessment of volume and shape of two sub-cortical structures, the caudate nucleus and hippocampus. We present a method for automatically segmenting these structures from high-resolution MR images captured as part of an ongoing study into the neural correlates of FASD. Our method incorporates an Active Shape Model, which is used to learn shape variation from manually segmented training data. A modified discrete Geometrically Deformable Model is used to generate point correspondence between training models. An ASM is then created from the landmark points. Experiments were conducted on the image search phase of ASM segmentation, in order to find the technique best suited to segmentation of the hippocampus and caudate nucleus. Various popular image search techniques were tested, including an edge detection method and a method based on grey profile Mahalanobis distance measurement. A novel heuristic image search method was also developed and tested. This heuristic method improves image segmentation by taking advantage of characteristics specific to the target data, such as a relatively homogeneous tissue colour in target structures. Results show that ASMs that use the heuristic image search technique produce the most accurate segmentations. An ASM constructed using this technique will enable researchers to quickly, reliably, and automatically segment test data for use in the FASD study.

  9. Evaluation of S-values and dose distributions for 90Y, 131I, 166Ho, and 188Re in seven lobes of the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Rats have been widely used in radionuclide therapy research for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This has created the need to assess rat liver absorbed radiation dose. In most dose estimation studies, the rat liver is considered as a homogeneous integrated target organ with a tissue composition assumed to be similar to that of human liver tissue. However, the rat liver is composed of several lobes having different anatomical and chemical characteristics. To assess the overall impact on rat liver dose calculation, the authors use a new voxel-based rat model with identified suborgan regions of the liver. Methods: The liver in the original cryosectional color images was manually segmented into seven individual lobes and subsequently integrated into a voxel-based computational rat model. Photon and electron particle transport was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate absorbed fractions and S-values for 90Y, 131I, 166Ho, and 188Re for the seven liver lobes. The effect of chemical composition on organ-specific absorbed dose was investigated by changing the chemical composition of the voxel filling liver material. Radionuclide-specific absorbed doses at the voxel level were further assessed for a small spherical hepatic tumor. Results: The self-absorbed dose for different liver lobes varied depending on their respective masses. A maximum difference of 3.5% was observed for the liver self-absorbed fraction between rat and human tissues for photon energies below 100 keV. 166Ho and 188Re produce a uniformly distributed high dose in the tumor and relatively low absorbed dose for surrounding tissues. Conclusions: The authors evaluated rat liver radiation doses from various radionuclides used in HCC treatments using a realistic computational rat model. This work contributes to a better understanding of all aspects influencing radiation transport in organ-specific radiation dose evaluation for preclinical therapy studies, from tissue

  10. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shrimati; Sharma, Nitika; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of increasing mortality in elderly hemophilia population. Majority of the patients treated with virus non-inactivated factor concentrates prepared from large plasma pools prior to 1985 have been found to be infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major risk factor for HCC. A PubMed search of articles published until February 2015 was performed utilizing the keywords hemophilia, malignancy, neoplasm, cancer, mortality, ageing hemophilia, epidemiology, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cancer and the relevant articles were included. Contradictory reports are available in literature on the incidence of cancers in general in hemophilia population. Almost all the studies where the incidence of HCC or mortality due to HCC have been analyzed in hemophilia population show that a vast majority of these patients are HCV infected. The incidence of HCC though higher in hemophilic population is related to the higher incidence of HCV infection and not due to the hemophilia phenotype.

  11. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma in extrahepatic bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seok Tae; Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Cha, In Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Woon Hyuck; Lee, Chang Hong [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Obstructive jaundice due to hepatocellular carcinoma in an extrahepatic bile duct, without a mass lesion in the liver parenchyma, is extremely rare. We experienced two cases of primary hepatocellular carcinoma arising from an extrahepatic bile duct: one in a 53-year-old man whose {alpha} -fetoprotein value was 800 ng/ml, and another in a 39-year-old woman, in whom the mass lesion was found to be attached to an extrahepatic bile duct. These tumors had a well-marginated sausage-like shape on CT and US, and the contrast media passed freely along their margins on both PTC and ERCP. Recurrences of these tumors were observed in the extrahepatic bile duct 6 and 2 months after surgery, respectively.

  12. Welcome to Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kaseb AO

    2015-01-01

    Ahmed O Kaseb Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops as a consequence of underlying chronic liver disease, most commonly cirrhosis. Therefore, HCC management draws on the expertise of a wide range of medical specialists. Currently, novel therapeutic modalities for HCC are investigated within the framework of a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, there is a critical nee...

  13. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma by immunization*

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The evidence for an association between the carrier state of hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cell cancer) is now sufficiently strong to justify the use of a vaccine against this infection as a means of preventing this cancer. Effective vaccines are available and have been tested in feasibility studies, and their use in field trials to test their effectiveness against the long-term risk of developing this cancer is now possible. At the present time, only limited...

  14. Imaging appearance of treated hepatocellular carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Agnello, F; SALVAGGIO, G; G. Cabibbo(); Maida, M; Lagalla, R.; Midiri, M; Brancatelli, G

    2013-01-01

    Surgical resection and imaging guided treatments play a crucial role in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although the primary end point of treatment of HCC is survival, radiological response could be a surrogate end point of survival, and has a key role in HCC decision-making process. However, radiological assessment of HCC treatment efficacy is often controversial. There are few doubts on the evaluation of surgical resection; in fact, all known tumor sites should be removed....

  15. Targeting cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    MISHRA, LOPA

    2014-01-01

    Aiwu Ruth He,1 Daniel C Smith,1 Lopa Mishra2 1Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The poor outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is attributed to recurrence of the disease after curative treatment and the resistance of HCC cells to conventional chemotherapy, which may be explained partly by the fun...

  16. Welcome to Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kaseb AO

    2015-01-01

    Ahmed O Kaseb Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops as a consequence of underlying chronic liver disease, most commonly cirrhosis. Therefore, HCC management draws on the expertise of a wide range of medical specialists. Currently, novel therapeutic modalities for HCC are investigated within the framework of a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, there is a critical...

  17. Mapping of potential neurogenic niche in the human temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Barreto Nogueira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ are known neurogenic niches in adult mammals. Nonetheless, the existence of neurogenic niches in adult humans is controversial. We hypothesized that mapping neurogenic niches in the human temporal lobe could clarify this issue. Neurogenic niches and neurogenesis were investigated in 28 temporal lobes via immunostaining for nestin and doublecortin (DCX, respectively. Nestin was observed in a continuous layer formed by the SVZ, the subpial zone of the medial temporal lobe and the SGZ, terminating in the subiculum. In the subiculum, remarkable DCX expression was observed through the principal efferent pathway of the hippocampus to the fimbria. A possible explanation for the results is that the SVZ, the subpial zone of the medial temporal lobe and the SGZ form a unit containing neural stem cells that differentiate into neurons in the subiculum. Curiously, the area previously identified as the human rostral migratory stream may in truth be the fornix, which contains axons that originate in the subiculum. This study suggests that neurogenesis may occur in an orchestrated manner in a broad area of the human temporal lobe.

  18. Tail Lobe Revisited: Magnetic Field Modeling Based on Plasma Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, S. B. P.; Tsyganenko, N. A.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma data from the ISEE-1 and -2 spacecraft during 1977-1980 have been used to determine the distribution of data points in the magnetotail in the range of distances -20 magnetic field data for the records in the tail lobe were then used to model the tail lobe magnetic field dependence on the solar wind dynamic pressure, on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and on the Dst index. The tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be dependent on the square root of the dynamic pressure based on the balance between the total magnetic pressure in the tail lobes and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. The IMF dependent terms, added to the pressure term, were sought in many different forms while the Dst dependence of the tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be linear. The field shows a strong dependence on the square root of the dynamic pressure and the different IMF dependent terms all constitute a significant contribution to the total field. However, the dependence on the Dst index turned out to be very weak at those down-tail distances. The results of this study are intended to be used for parameterizing future versions of the data-based models of the global magnetospheric magnetic field.

  19. Giant lipoma arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Ying-Che

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms but they are found very rarely in the deep lobe of parotid gland. Surgical intervention in these tumors is challenging because of the proximity of the facial nerve, and thus knowledge of the anatomy and meticulous surgical technique are essential. Case presentation A 71-year-old female presented with a large asymptomatic mass, which had occupied the left facial area for over the past fifteen years, and she requested surgical excision for a cosmetically better facial appearance. The computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined giant lipoma arising from the left deep parotid gland. The lipoma was successfully enucleated after full exposure and mobilization of the overlying facial nerve branches. The surgical specimen measured 9 × 6 cm in size, and histopathology revealed fibrolipoma. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery, with a satisfying facial contour and intact facial nerve function. Conclusion Giant lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely rare. The high-resolution CT scan provides an accurate and cost-effective preoperative investigative method. Surgical management of deep lobe lipoma should be performed by experienced surgeons due to the need for meticulous dissection of the facial nerve branches. Superficial parotidectomy before deep lobe lipoma removal may be unnecessary in selected cases because preservation of the superficial lobe may contribute to a better aesthetic and functional result.

  20. Quantifying interictal metabolic activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of patients with complex partial seizures of unilateral temporal lobe origin have interictal temporal hypometabolism on [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) studies. Often, this hypometabolism extends to ipsilateral extratemporal sites. The use of accurately quantified metabolic data has been limited by the absence of an equally reliable method of anatomical analysis of PET images. We developed a standardized method for visual placement of anatomically configured regions of interest on FDG PET studies, which is particularly adapted to the widespread, asymmetric, and often severe interictal metabolic alterations of temporal lobe epilepsy. This method was applied by a single investigator, who was blind to the identity of subjects, to 10 normal control and 25 interictal temporal lobe epilepsy studies. All subjects had normal brain anatomical volumes on structural neuroimaging studies. The results demonstrate ipsilateral thalamic and temporal lobe involvement in the interictal hypometabolism of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Ipsilateral frontal, parietal, and basal ganglial metabolism is also reduced, although not as markedly as is temporal and thalamic metabolism

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma arising from hepatocellular adenoma in a hepatitis B virus-associated cirrhotic liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J.M. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.J., E-mail: lucia@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.H. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, C.K.; Ha, S.Y. [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a rare, benign proliferation of hepatocytes that occurs mostly in a normal liver and in extreme rare cases, occurs in a cirrhotic liver. Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) arising within HCA through malignant transformation is rare. The specific incidence and mechanism of malignant transformation has not been established, but the long term use of oral contraceptives is considered a causative agent. We report a case of HCC arising from HCA detected in a hepatitis B-related cirrhotic liver with serial radiologic images.

  2. Genetic Variation in the Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase Val108/158Met Is Linked to the Caudate and Posterior Cingulate Cortex Volume in Healthy Subjects: Voxel-Based Morphometry Analysis of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Watanabe

    Full Text Available The effect of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism on brain morphology has been investigated but remains controversial. We hypothesized that a comparison between Val/Val and Val/Met individuals, which may represent the most different combinations concerning the effects of the COMT genotype, may reveal new findings. We investigated the brain morphology using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in 27 Val/Val and 22 Val/Met individuals. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that the volumes of the bilateral caudate and posterior cingulate cortex were significantly smaller in Val/Val individuals than in Val/Met individuals [right caudate: false discovery rate (FDR-corrected p = 0.048; left caudate: FDR-corrected p = 0.048; and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex: FDR-corrected p = 0.048]. This study demonstrates that interacting functional variants of COMT affect gray matter regional volumes in healthy subjects.

  3. Binary Evolution: Roche Lobe Overflow and Blue Stragglers

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    One of the principal mechanisms that is responsible for the origin of blue stragglers is mass transfer that takes place while one of the binary companions overfills its Roche lobe. In this Chapter, we overview the theoretical understanding of mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow: classification, how both the donor and of the accretor respond to the mass transfer on different timescales (adiabatic response, equilibrium response, superadiabatic response, time-dependent response) for different types of their envelopes (convective and radiative). These responses, as well as the assumption on how liberal the process is, are discussed in terms of the stability of the ensuing mass transfer. The predictions of the theory of mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow are then briefly compared with the observed mass-transferring systems with both degenerate and non-degenerate donors. We conclude with the discussion which cases of mass transfer and which primordial binaries could be responsible for blue stragglers formation...

  4. Late bilateral temporal lobe necrosis after conventional radiotherapy. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Michio; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Kagami, Hiroshi; Murase, Ikurou; Nakatsukasa, Masashi [Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    A 63-year-old woman presented with radionecrosis in the bilateral temporal lobes manifesting as dementia about 30 years after undergoing conventional radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed edema and cystic lesions in both temporal lobes. The mass in the left temporal lobe was excised. MR imaging 12 days after surgery showed reduced edema. Her dementia had improved. Radionecrosis usually occurs between several months and a few years after radiotherapy. The incidence of radionecrosis is estimated as 5%, but may be higher with longer follow-up periods. Clinical reports have suggested that larger total doses of radiation are associated with earlier onset of delayed necrosis and the fractional dose is the most significant factor causing cerebral radionecrosis. Radionecrosis can occur long after conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery using a linac-based system or a gamma knife unit. (author)

  5. Usefulness of PET in non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of PET in patients with refractory non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy. Material and methods. We present three patients with features of temporal lobe epilepsy refractory to medication, where high definition MRI was normal. Results. These patients had PET hypometabolism in the temporal areas related to clinical and neurophysiological findings. Two of these patients were implanted with subdural grids to confirm the diagnosis and the third was operated directly based on the findings of PET. Encourage the presentation of the importance in recent years is acquiring the PET. Conclusion. In those patients in clinical neurophysiology and epilepsy with suspected temporal lobe, but in the MRI images show no structural lesions, PET can play an important role defining the diagnosis. (authors)

  6. Unusual ictal foreign language automatisms in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Naing Ko; Lee, Sang Kun

    2014-12-01

    The distinct brain regions could be specifically involved in different languages and the differences in brain activation depending on the language proficiency and on the age of language acquisition. Speech disturbances are observed in the majority of temporal lobe complex motor seizures. Ictal verbalization had significant lateralization value: 90% of patients with this manifestation had seizure focus in the non-dominant temporal lobe. Although, ictal speech automatisms are usually uttered in the patient's native language, ictal speech foreign language automatisms are unusual presentations of non-dominent temporal lobe epilepsy. The release of isolated foreign language area could be possible depending on the pattern of ictal spreading of non-dominant hemisphere. Most of the case reports in ictal speech foreign language automatisms were men. In this case report, we observed ictal foreign language automatisms in middle age Korean woman.

  7. Extratemporal abnormalities of brain parenchyma in young adults with temporal lobe epilepsy: A diffusion tensor imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To examine extratemporal abnormalities of the cerebral parenchyma in young adult temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and methods: The study comprised 20 adults with unilateral TLE and 20 controls. The fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), parallel eigenvalue (λ∥), and perpendicular eigenvalue (λ⊥) were calculated in the regions of interest (ROIs) using a 3 T MRI system. ROIs included the anterior/posterior limb of the internal capsule (AIC/PIC), external capsule (EC), head of caudate nucleus (HCN), lenticular nucleus (LN), thalamus (TL), and genu/body/splenium of the corpus callosum (GCC/BCC/SCC). Results: Compared to controls, TLE patients showed lower FA in all ROIs; higher ADC in bilateral ECs, HCNs, TLs, and BCC; lower λ∥ in the ipsilateral LN and bilateral AICs, TL, and GCC; and higher λ⊥ in all ROIs except the bilateral PICs. In TLE patients, the ipsilateral TL had decreased FA compared with the contralateral TL. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between the ADC of the GCC and the age at onset of epilepsy; the λ∥ of the ipsilateral PIC and age at onset of epilepsy; the λ⊥ of the contralateral AIC and duration of epilepsy, respectively; and a positive correlation between the ADC of the GCC and the duration of epilepsy and the λ⊥ of the GCC and the duration of epilepsy, respectively. Conclusion: The study revealed bilateral extratemporal abnormalities in young adult TLE patients compared with controls. In addition, TLE patients with younger age at onset or longer duration of epilepsy may have more serious extratemporal changes

  8. [A Case of Wilson's Disease with Psoriasis Vulgaris, Complicated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Successfully Treated with Sorafenib].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tamotsu; Chubachi, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    A 55-year-old man had been diagnosed with Wilson's disease and was treated with D-penicillamine 36 years earlier. He also had a 20-year history of psoriasis vulgaris and cyclosporine treatment. In 2012, a he presented with a hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)that was removed via partial hepatic resection. In 2014, multiple HCC and a portal vein tumor thrombus were found in his posterior lobe. Sorafenib treatment was initiated. Cyclosporine treatment was continued. Three months later, abdominal enhanced CT revealed marked tumor reduction and shrinkage of the portal vein tumor thrombus. The therapeutic effect of sorafenib continued for 6 months. We did not observe deterioration in his psoriasis vulgaris and Wilson's disease for 9 months after sorafenib initiation.

  9. Radiosurgery in the Management of Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñagarícano, José; Serletis, Demitre

    2015-09-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) describes recurrent seizure activity originating from the depths of the temporal lobe. MTLE patients who fail two trials of medication now require testing for surgical candidacy at an epilepsy center. For these individuals, temporal lobectomy offers the greatest likelihood for seizure-freedom (up to 80-90%); unfortunately, this procedure remains largely underutilized. Moreover, for select patients unable to tolerate open surgery, novel techniques are emerging for selective ablation of the mesial temporal structures, including stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We present here a review of SRS as a potential therapy for MTLE, when open surgery is not an option. PMID:26390538

  10. [A Case of Musicophilia with Right Predominant Temporal Lobe Atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old woman exhibiting musicophilia with right predominant temporal lobe atrophy happened to visit our clinic. She had no musical background, but beginning two years ago, she acquired a strong preference for especially popular music and sometimes sang at home. She did not exhibit obvious semantic aphasia or facial agnosia, and showed only mild behavioral changes including apathy. Her musicophilia can be explained as an instance of stereotypical behavior. Her right temporal lobe atrophy may have caused changes in her emotional and reward systems, resulting in her music specific behaviors. PMID:26560960

  11. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Rolston

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy continue to have seizures despite medical therapy. For these patients, one recourse is surgical resection of the mesial temporal lobe, with its attendant risks. Noninvasive treatment with Gamma Knife radiosurgery is under active investigation as a possible alternative to open surgery. Accumulated evidence from multiple studies shows radiosurgery to be comparable in outcomes to surgical resection. A definitive randomized, controlled trial, the Radiosurgery or Open Surgery for Epilepsy (ROSE trial, is currently underway, and further investigation of this promising treatment is crucial in our advancement of alternative therapies to treat refractory epilepsy.

  12. Transarterial (chemo)embolisation for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveri, Roberto S; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gluud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) results in more than 600,000 deaths per year. Transarterial embolisation (TAE) and transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) have become standard loco-regional treatments for unresectable HCC.......Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) results in more than 600,000 deaths per year. Transarterial embolisation (TAE) and transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) have become standard loco-regional treatments for unresectable HCC....

  13. [A comparison of the effects of single and chronic microinjections of GABA and picrotoxin into the caudate nucleus on the conditioned reflexes of dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimovskiĭ, A F

    1990-01-01

    The effects on Pavlovian alimentary conditioned reflexes realization of two methods of intrastriatal microinjections--acute (separate) and long-term (chronic) one--are compared in experiments on dogs. Bilateral acute administration and the first week of chronic injection of 45 mcg of GABA into the caudate nuclei produced in dogs a manifest improvement of parameters of the conditioned differentiation inhibition, but only in the next period of chronic treatment an improvement of the positive Pavlovian alimentary conditioned reflex was obtained. The both ways of picrotoxin treatment impaired conditioned behaviour, and this effect was observed after the end of injection. No withdrawal effects were recorded. The data obtained give ground for discussion of the role of striatal GABAergic system in the positive modulation of adaptive alimentary behaviour. The application of novel psychopharmacological method in experimental and clinical fields of investigation is discussed.

  14. Quantitative detection of common deletion of mitochondrial DNA in hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular nodular hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Yong Shao; Hong-Yi Gao; Yu-Hong Li; Yu Zhang; You-Yong Lu; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the deletion of mitochondiral DNA in hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular nodular hyperplasia and its significance in the development of cancer.METHODS: Deleted mtDNA (CD-mtDNA) and wild type mtDNA (WT-mtDNA) were quantitatively analyzed by using real-time PCR in 27 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC)and corresponding noncancerous liver tissues and 27hepatocellular nodular hyperplasiae (HNH).RESULTS: A novel CD (4 981 bp) was detected in 85%(23/27) and 83%(22/27) of HCC and HNH tumor tissues,respectively, which were significantly higher than that in paired noncancerous liver tissues (57%, 15/27) (P<0.05).The CD/WT-mtDNA ratio in HCC tumors was 0.00092(median, interquartile range, 0.0001202-0.00105), which was significantly higher than that in paired noncancerous liver tissues (median, 0.000, quartile range, 0-0) (P=0.002,Mann-Whitney Test), and was 25 of times of that in HNH tissues (median, 0.0000374, quartile range, 0-0.0004225)(P=0.002, Mann-Whitney test).CONCLUSION: CD-mtDNA mutation plays an important role in the development and progression of HCC.

  15. Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma with rapid growth after spontaneous regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoki Nakajima; Michihisa Moriguchi; Tadashi Watanabe; Masao Noda; Nobuaki Fuji; Masahito Minami; Yoshito Itoh; Takeshi Okanoue

    2004-01-01

    We report an 80-year-old man who presented with spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). He complained of sudden right flank pain and low-grade fever.The level of protein induced by vitamin K antagonist (PIVKA)-Ⅱ was 1 137 mAU/mL. A computed tomography scan in November 2000 demonstrated a low-density mass located in liver S4 with marginal enhancement and a cystic mass of 68 mmx55 mm in liver S6, with slightly high density content and without marginal enhancement. Angiography revealed that the tumor in S4 with a size of 25 mm×20 mm was a typical hypervascular HCC, and transarterial chemoembolization was performed. However, the tumor in S6 was hypovascular and atypical of HCC, and thus no therapy was given. In December 2000, the cystic mass regressed spontaneously to 57 mmx44 mm, and aspiration cytology revealed bloody fluid, and the mass was diagnosed cytologically as class Ⅰ.The tumor in S4 was treated successfully with a 5 mm margin of safety around it. The PⅣKA-Ⅱ level normalized in February2001. In July 2001, the tumor regressed further but presented with an enhanced area at the posterior margin. In November2001, the enhanced area extended, and a biopsy revealed well-differentiated HCC, although the previous tumor in S4 disappeared. Angiography demonstrated two tumor stains, one was in S6, which was previously hypovascular,and the other was in S8. Subsequently, the PⅣKA-Ⅱ level started to rise with the doubling time of 2-3 wk, and the tumor grew rapidly despite repeated transarterial embolization with gel foam. In February 2003, the patient died of bleeding into the peritoneal cavity from the tumor that occupied almost the entire right lobe. Considering the acute onset of the symptoms, we speculate that local ischemia possibly due to rapid tumor growth, resulted in intratumoral bleeding and/or hemorrhagic necrosis, and finally spontaneous regression of the initial tumor in S6.

  16. radio embolization of yttrium 90 glass microspheres in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer that typically occurs in the setting of cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis virus infections. HCC is considered currently as global problem; its incidence is expected to increase dramatically by the next few decades. More than 90 % of the accidentally diagnosed patients have non resectable tumor. Portal vein thrombosis, diffuse multifocal liver infiltration and large tumor burden are considered to be a great obstacle in front of the modern lines of treatment, even with Child A liver cirrhosis. Transarterial intrahepatic application of Yttrium-90 glass microspheres may allow effective local ablative treatment of patients with intrahepatic advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with or without portal vein thrombosis. The aim of this open-label phase II study was to validate evidence on the safety and efficacy of this treatment in an European cohort of patients with locally advanced HCC such as (large tumor burden, multifocal distribution, portal vein thrombosis). And to assess the response rate according to different approved response assessment guidelines (WHO, RECIST and EASL). Patients and Methods Starting from November 2006 till March 2009, one hundred and eight advanced unresectable HCC patients with and without portal vein thrombosis were included in this prospective study. Yttrium-90 microspheres radiotherapy was performed in a lobar fashion through the right or left hepatic artery. In bilobar disease, right and left liver lobe were treated with 4-6 weeks intervals in between. Response rate was assessed according to different international response assessment criteria (WHO, RECIST and EASL) with sequential computed tomography scans till the last clinical visit or death. The safety of this technique was assessed according to the Common Toxicity Criteria version 3

  17. Multimodal imaging of orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma using small animal PET, bioluminescence and contrast enhanced CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular imaging with small-animal PET and bioluminescence imaging has been used as an important tool in cancer research. One of the disadvantages of these imaging modalities is the lack of anatomic information. To obtain fusion images with both molecular and anatomical information, small-animal PET and bioluminescence images fused with contrast enhance CT image in orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model. We retrovially transfected dual gene (HSV1-tk and firefly luciferase) to morris hepatoma cells. The expression of HSV1-tk and luciferase was checked by optical imager and in vitro radiolabeled FIAU uptake, respectively and also checked by RT-PCR analysis. MCA-TL cells (5X105/ 0.05 ml) mixed with matrigel (1: 10) injected into left lobe of liver in nude mice. 124I-FIAU-PET, bioluminescence and contrast enhanced CT images were obtained in the orthotopic HCC model and digital whole body autoradiography (DWBA) was performed. Small animal PET image was obtained at 2 h post injection of 124I-FIAU and contrast enhanced CT image was obtained at 3 h post injection of Fenestra LC (0.3 ml). MCA-TL cells showed more specific 124I-FIAU uptake and higher luminescent activity than parental cells. The orthotopic HCC was detected by 124I-FIAU PET, contrast enhanced CT, and BLI and confirmed by DWBA. Registered image in orthotopic HCC t models showed a good correlation of images from both PET and CT. Contrast enhanced CT image delineated margin of HCC. Multimodal imaging with 124I-FIAU PET, bioluminescence and contrast enhanced CT allows a precise and improved detection of tumor in orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model. Multimodal imaging is potentially useful for monitoring progression of hepatic metastasis and for the evaluation of cancer treatments

  18. Lymphoepitelioma-like hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report and a review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonia Nemolato; Daniela Fanni; Antonio Giuseppe Naccarato; Alberto Ravarino; Generoso Bevilacqua; Gavino Faa

    2008-01-01

    Lymphoepitelioma is a particular form of undifferentiat-ed carcinoma, characterized by a prominent lymphoid stroma, originally described in the nasopharynx. Lym-phoid strorna-rich carcinomas arising in other organs have been termed lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC). In the liver, primary LELCs are very rare, and the majority has been identified as cholangiocarcino-mas. Here a rare case of lymphoepithelioma-like hepa-tocellular carcinoma (HCC) is described. A 47-year old woman presented with abdominal pain. Ultrasonogra-phy revealed a liver nodule, 2.2 cm in diameter, local-ized in the right lobe, adjacent to the gallbladder. Viralmarkers for hepatic B virus (HBV), hepatic C virus (HCV)and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were negative. The nod-ule was hypoechogenic. The patient underwent sur-gery, with resection of the nodule. Histology showedhepatocellular carcinoma, characterized by a promi-nent lymphoid infiltrate. At immunocytochemistry,tumor cells were reactive for Hep Par1 and glypican 3.Immunophenotyping of tumor infiltrating lymphooltesevidenced the predominance of CD8+ cytotoxic sup-pressor T cells. The postoperative clinical outcome was favorable and the patient was recurrence-free 15 mo after resection. This case, to the best of our knowl-edge, is the first reported non EBV and non cirrhosis-associated lymphoepithelioma-like hepatocellular carci-noma. The association between the lack of EBV infec-tion, the absence of cirrhosis, a "cytotoxic profile" of the inflammatory infiltrate and a good prognosis couldidentify a variant of lymphoepithelioma-like HCC with a favorable clinical outcome.

  19. Human Herpesvirus-6 in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain samples obtained from surgical resections in 8 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE and 7 patients with neocortical epilepsy (NE were quantitatively analyzed for HHV-6 in a study at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD.

  20. Treatment of Superior Lobe Central Lung Cancer with Lung Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulun YANG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Patients suffering from lung cancer often have poor quality of life after pneumonectomy. It has clinical significances to preserve maximum lobes of the “healthy” lung. The aim of this study is to report the applications of lung replantation in treatment of superior lobe central lung cancer. Methods Three lung cancer cases were included and analysed. The bronchus and margin of lower lung lobe were encroached by cancer. Pulmonary artery was invaded and surrounded by metastatic lymph node. Complete pneumonectomy, antegrade perfusion and retroperfusion with low-potassium dextran (LPD solution in vitro were performed. The retainable lower pulmonary lobe was selected from the isolated lung and superior pulmonary vein was replaced with inferior pulmonary veins. The bronchus and pulmonary artery were inosculated by turns. Results The operative cumulative time ranged from 220 min to 250 min. The isolated time of lobus inferior pulmonary ranged from 120 min to 150 min. The chest tube was pulled out after chest X-ray confirmed the reimplant lung full re-expansion. The patients were followed up for 4 months to 8 months and accomplished adjuvant chemotherapy for 3 or 4 periodicities. The patients had a sound quality of life. Conclusion Lung replantation removing the extensive tumor tissue and retaining the maximum pulmonary normal tissue is an useful method for treatment of lung cancer.

  1. Calcium Imaging of Pheromone Responses in the Insect Antennal Lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Susy M.; Wang, Jing W.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium imaging is a powerful technique that permits the visual monitoring of neural responses to pheromones and other odors in large ensembles of neurons. Here, we describe a method that permits the monitoring of Drosophila antennal lobe responses to odors using the genetically encoded calcium monitor GCaMP.

  2. Reversible antisocial behavior in ventromedial prefrontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon, Agnès; Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Laguitton, Virginie; Chauvel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Frontal lobe dysfunction is known to be associated with impairment in social behavior. We investigated the link between severe pharmacoresistant frontal lobe epilepsy and antisocial trait. We studied four patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving the prefrontal cortex, presenting abnormal interictal social behavior. Noninvasive investigations (video-EEG, PET, MRI) and intracerebral recording (stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG)) were performed as part of a presurgical assessment. Comprehensive psychiatric and cognitive evaluation was performed pre- and postoperatively for frontal lobe epilepsy, with at least 7years of follow-up. All patients shared a characteristic epilepsy pattern: (1) chronic severe prefrontal epilepsy with daily seizures and (2) an epileptogenic zone as defined by intracerebral recording involving the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial PFC, and the posterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex, with early propagation to contralateral prefrontal and ipsilateral medial temporal structures. All patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV) of antisocial personality disorder, which proved to be reversible following seizure control. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving a prefrontal network is associated with antisocial personality. We hypothesize that the occurrence of frequent seizures in this region over a prolonged period produces functional damage leading to impaired prefrontal control of social behavior. This functional damage is reversible since successful epilepsy surgery markedly improved antisocial behavior in these patients. The results are in line with previous reports of impairment of social and moral behavior following ventromedial frontal lobe injury.

  3. Arousal Enhanced Memory Retention Is Eliminated Following Temporal Lobe Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahs, Fredrik; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with…

  4. The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L; Binney, Richard J; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-03-01

    Wernicke's aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory-verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke's aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke's aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke's aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate-inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke's aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke's aphasia group displayed an 'over-activation' in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke's aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions. PMID:24519979

  5. Grooves on the occipital lobe of Indian brains.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisaria, K K

    1984-01-01

    The existence of a groove on the occipital lobe formed by the dural venous sinus or ridge has only rarely been described in the past. As observed in this study such grooves are either unilateral or bilateral and their incidence is very high in Indian brains.

  6. Vortex structures downstream a lobed nozzle/mixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Hu; Toshio Kobayashi

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the evolutions of unsteady vortex structures downstream a lobed mixer/nozzle. A novel dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system was used to measure all 3-components of vorticity distributions to revealed both the large-scale streamwise vortices produced by the lobed mixer/nozzle and the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex structures generated due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities simultaneously and quantitatively for the first time. The instantaneous and the ensemble-averaged vorticity distributions displayed quite different aspects about the evolutions of the unsteady vortex structures. While the ensemble-averaged vorticity distributions indicated the overall effect of the special geometry of the lobed nozzle/mixer on the enhanced mixing process, the instantaneous vorticity distributions elucidated many details about how the enhanced mixing process was conducted. In addition to quantitatively confirming conjectures of previous studies, further insight about the formation, evolution and interaction characteristics of the unsteady vortex structures downstream of the lobed mixer/nozzle were also uncovered quantitatively in the present study.

  7. Human Herpesvirus-6 in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-01-01

    Brain samples obtained from surgical resections in 8 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and 7 patients with neocortical epilepsy (NE) were quantitatively analyzed for HHV-6 in a study at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD.

  8. Coupled Shape Modeling of the Medial Temporal Lobe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Larsen, Rasmus; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller;

    Here we investigate how regions in the Medial Temporal Lobe(MTL) in a dataset consisting of 13 di®erent people changes us- ing a Principal Component Analysis(PCA). The regions investigated are the Temporopolar, Parahippocampal, Entorhinal, Hippocampal, Perirhi- nal and Amygdalar regions. The MTL is...

  9. Memory, Metamemory and Their Dissociation in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Charlotte E.; Andres, Pilar; Broks, Paul; Noad, Rupert; Sadler, Martin; Coker, Debbie; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2010-01-01

    Patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) present with memory difficulties. The aim of the current study was to determine to what extent these difficulties could be related to a metamemory impairment. Fifteen patients with TLE and 15 matched healthy controls carried out a paired-associates learning task. Memory recall was measured at intervals of…

  10. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  11. Torsion of right middle lobe after a right upper lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tung-Ying

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lobar torsion after lung resection is a quite rare complication. A 50-year-old woman presented typical features on chest radiographs and CT(computed tomography scan of lobar torsion after a right upper lobectomy. After emergency lobectomy of right middle lobe, the patient recovered well and discharged 10 days after the second operation.

  12. The incidence of thyroid papillary cancer in contralateral lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedabdolhosein Masoumi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is usually associated an excellent prognosis and greater than 90% survival rate at 10 years. Papillary thyroid cancer may be diagnosed with histological examination in patients who underwent lobectomy. The necessity of performing a completion thyroidectomy (CT is still a controversial issue. This study investigated the rate of contrary PTC in patients, who had completion thyroidectomy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical and pathologic data of 82 patients with PTC. These patients underwent thyroid lobectomy, followed by completion thyroidectomy during 1997-2007. Results:  Thirty tree patients (40% had PTC in the contrary lobe. There were no significant differences between patients with or without contrary disease with sex, age, primary tumor size or time to completion thyroidectomy. The presence of lymph node metastases and multifocality of cancer in the ipsilateral lobe increased risk of residual disease in contrary lobe. The postoperative complication were infrequent and included: 6 (3.7% patients with transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, 2 (2.5% patients with permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy palsy, 9 (11% patients with transient hypocalcemia and 1 (1.2% patient with permanent hypoparathyroidism also there were hematoma in 5 (6% patients that in 2 patients required re-exploration. Conclusion: The prevalence of residual disease in the contra lateral lobe of patients with PTC is significant. We believe that a completion thyroidectomy should be considered for PTC treatment. Completion thyroidectomy can be done safely with acceptable morbidity.    

  13. The auroral and ionospheric flow signatures of dual lobe reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Imber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the first substantial evidence for the occurrence of dual lobe reconnection from ionospheric flows and auroral signatures. The process of dual lobe reconnection refers to an interplanetary magnetic field line reconnecting with lobe field lines in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Two bursts of sunward plasma flow across the noon portion of the open/closed field line boundary (OCB, indicating magnetic flux closure at the dayside, were observed in SuperDARN radar data during a period of strongly northward IMF. The OCB is identified from spacecraft, radar backscatter, and auroral observations. In order for dual lobe reconnection to take place, we estimate that the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle must be within ±10° of zero (North. The total flux crossing the OCB during each burst is small (1.8% and 0.6% of the flux contained within the polar cap for the two flows. A brightening of the noon portion of the northern auroral oval was observed as the clock angle passed through zero, and is thought to be due to enhanced precipitating particle fluxes due to the occurrence of reconnection at two locations along the field line. The number of solar wind protons captured by the flux closure process was estimated to be ~2.5×1030 (4 tonnes by mass, sufficient to populate the cold, dense plasma sheet observed following this interval.

  14. Aflatoxins as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Michael C

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxins, metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are frequent contaminants of a number of staple foods, particularly maize and ground nuts, in subsistence farming communities in tropical and sub-tropical climates in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Asia and parts of South America. Contamination of foods occurs during growth and as a result of storage in deficient or inappropriate facilities. These toxins pose serious public health hazards, including the causation of hepatocellular carcinoma by aflatoxin B1. Exposure begins in utero and is life-long. The innocuous parent molecule of the fungus is converted by members of the cytochrome p450 family into mutagenic and carcinogenic intermediates. Aflatoxin-B1 is converted into aflatoxin B1-8,9 exo-epoxide, which is in turn converted into 8,9-dihydroxy-8-(N7) guanyl-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B1 adduct. This adduct is metabolized into aflatoxin B1 formaminopyrimidine adduct. These adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic. In addition, an arginine to serine mutation at codon 249 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is produced, abrogating the function of the tumor suppressor gene, and contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Aflatoxin B1 acts synergistically with hepatitis B virus in causing hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of interactions between the two carcinogens may be responsible for this action, including integration of hepatitis B virus x gene and its consequences, as well as interference with nucleotide excision repair, activation of p21waf1/cip1, generation of DNA mutations, and altered methylation of genes. But much remains to be learnt about the precise pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma as well as the interaction between the toxin and hepatitis B virus in causing the tumor.

  15. Innovative surgical approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memeo, Riccardo; de'Angelis, Nicola; de Blasi, Vito; Cherkaoui, Zineb; Brunetti, Oronzo; Longo, Vito; Piardi, Tullio; Sommacale, Daniele; Marescaux, Jacques; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with an increasing diffusion in Europe and the United States. The management of such a cancer is continuously progressing and the objective of this paper is to evaluate innovation in the surgical treatment of HCC. In this review, we will analyze the modern concept of preoperative management, the role of laparoscopic and robotic surgery, the intrao-perative use of three dimensional models and augme-nted reality, as well as the potential application of fluore-scence. PMID:27168871

  16. Non-viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wojciech; Blonski; David; S; Kotlyar; Kimberly; A; Forde

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and represents an international public health concern as one of the most deadly cancers worldwide.The main etiology of HCC is chronic infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses.However,there are other important factors that contribute to the international burden of HCC.Among these are obesity,diabetes,non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and dietary exposures.Emerging evidence suggests that the etiology of many cases of HCC is in fac...

  17. Epigenetics of hepatocellular carcinoma: a new horizon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-ren; SHI Ying-hong; PENG Yuan-fei; FAN Jia

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic changes refer to stable alterations in gene expression with no underlying modifications in the genetic sequence itself.It has become clear that not only gene variations but also epigenetic modifications may contribute to varied diseases,including cancer.This review will provide an overview of how epigenetic factors,including genomic DNA methylation,histone modifications,and miRNA regulation,contribute to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) dissemination,invasion,and metastasis.Additionally,the reversal of dysregulated epigenetic changes has emerged as a potential strategy for the treatment of HCC,and we will summarize the latest epigenetic therapies for HCC.

  18. Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Omata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV, a hepatotropic virus, is a single stranded-positive RNA virus of ~9,600 nt. length belonging to the Flaviviridae family. HCV infection causes acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. It has been reported that HCV-coding proteins interact with host-cell factors that are involved in cell cycle regulation, transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Severe inflammation and advanced liver fibrosis in the liver background are also associated with the incidence of HCV-related HCC. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in HCV-related liver diseases.

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma: From diagnosis to treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth mostprevalent malignancy worldwide and is a rising causeof cancer related mortality. Risk factors for HCC arewell documented and effective surveillance and earlydiagnosis allow for curative therapies. The majority ofHCC appears to be caused by cirrhosis from chronichepatitis B and hepatitis C virus. Preventive strategiesinclude vaccination programs and anti-viral treatments.Surveillance with ultrasonography detects early stagedisease and improves survival rates. Many treatmentoptions exist for individuals with HCC and are determinedby stage of presentation. Liver transplantation is offeredto patients who are within the Milan criteria and arenot candidates for hepatic resection. In patients withadvanced stage disease, sorafenib shows some survivalbenefit.

  20. Pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma and splenic metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-Lin Yan; Yao-Dong Wang; Zhi-De Lai; Yi-Feng Tian; Hong-Biao Chen; Fu-Nan Qiu; Song-Qiang Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Only a few cases of pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma (P-HCC) have been reported in the literature. The common sites of extrahepatic metastases in patients with HCC are the lungs, regional lymph nodes,kidney, bone marrow and adrenals. Metastasis to spleen is mostly via hematogenous metastasis, direct metastasis to spleen was very rare. We report a case of P-HCC presenting as a left upper abdominal lesions which involved the spleen that was actually a P-HCC with splenic metastasis. This case is unique as P-HCC directly involved the spleen which is not via hematogenous metastasis.

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology, risk factors and pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignant cancer of the liver in the world. Given that the burden of chronic liver disease is expected to rise owing to increasing rates of alcoholism, hepatitis B and C prevalence and obesity-related fatty liver disease, it is expected that the incidence of HCC will also increase in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes the international epidemiology, the risk factors and the pathogenesis of HCC, including the roles of viral hepatitis, toxins, such as alcohol and aflatoxin, and insulin resistance.

  2. Excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 in temporal lobe and hippocampus in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarac, Sinan; Afzal, Shoaib; Broholm, Helle;

    2009-01-01

    extra-cellular clearance of glutamate by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT-1 to EAAT-5). EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 are mainly expressed on astroglial cells for the reuptake of glutamate from the extra-cellular space. We have studied the expression of EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 in the hippocampus and temporal lobe...

  3. Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Blood Supply from Parasitized Omental Artery: Angiographic Appearance And Chemoembolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Gao; Ren-jie Yang; Jia-hong Dong

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To analyze angiographic appearance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with blood supply from parasitized omental artery (POA),and evaluate the technical feasibility,safety and therapeutic efficacy of chemoembolization via the POAs.Methods:A total of 1,221 HCC patients who had undergone chemoembolization procedures were evaluated retrospectively.The evaluated indexes included the incidence rate of POAs,success rate of superselective catheterization,post-reaction after chemoembolization,and the cumulative survival rates.Results:Totally 1,221 HCC patients had undergone 3,639 chemoembolization procedures,and 32 patients with POAs were enrolled,with 97 POAs found in 76 angiography procedures,giving an incidence rate of 2.09%.POA was observed mostly at the right lobe and left medial lobe except the segment Ⅱ,and 62 POAs underwent superselective catheterization with microcatheter,giving a success rate of 63.9%.The angiographic appearance was:(1) hypertrophic POAs participating in tumor staining (n=28); (2) stiff and distorted POA (n=11),displaced due to tumor's oppression (n=8); and (3) defective tumor staining close to either gastrocolic omentum distribution or liver capsule (n=7).In 19 patients,chemoembolization via POAs was performed successfully (A group),while the remaining 13 patients failed (B group).Except 1 acute edema pancreatitis case,no serious complication was recorded.The cumulative survival rates of 6-,12-,18-and 24-month were 78.9%,47.4%,31.6% and 21.1% respectively for A group; correspondingly,61.5%,30.g%,15.4% and 7.7%% for B group,in which 2 patients died of ruptured HCC.Conclusion:Chemoembolization with microcatheter via POAs is a relatively safe,feasible and valuable method.

  4. Hepatocellular Tumors: Immunohistochemical Analyses for Classification and Prognostication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Regina Cheuk-Lam Lo; Irene Oi-Lin Ng

    2011-01-01

    Following the classification of hepatocellular nodules by the International Working Party in 1995 and further elaboration by the International Consensus Group for Hepatocellular Neoplasia in 2009,entities under the spectrum of hepatocellular nodules have been better characterized.Research work hence has been done to answer questions such as distinguishing high-grade dysplastic nodules from early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC),delineating the tumor cell origin of HCC,identifying its prognostic markers,and subtyping hepatocellular adenomas.As a result,a copious amount of data at immunohistochemical and molecular levels has emerged.A panel of immunohistochemical markers including glypican-3,heat shock protein 70 and glutamine synthetase has been found to be of use in the diagnosis of small,well differentiated hepatocellular tumors and particularly of HCC.The use of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP),β-catenin,glutamine synthetase,serum amyloid protein and C-reactive protein is found to be helpful in the subtyping of hepatocellular adenomas.The role of tissue biomarkers for prognostication in HCC and the use of biomarkers in subclassifying HCC based on tumor cell origin are also discussed.

  5. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma and metabolic syndrome:An update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rubayat; Rahman; Ghassan; M; Hammoud; Ashraf; A; Al-mashhrawi; Khulood; T; Ahmed; Jamal; A; Ibdah

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma has increased dramatically by 80% over the past two decades in the United States. Numerous basic science and clinical studies have documented a strong association between hepatocellular carcinoma and the metabolic syndrome. These studies have documented that, in most patients, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, which may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma through the cirrhotic process. However, minority of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis.This review summarizes the current literature of the link between hepatocellular carcinoma and metabolic syndrome with special emphasis on various components of the metabolic syndrome including risk of association with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia,and hypertension. Current understanding of pathophysiology, clinical features, treatments, outcomes,and surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma in the background of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is reviewed. With the current epidemic of metabolic syndrome, the number of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing.Subsequently, it is expected that the incidence and prevalence of HCC will also increase. It is very important for the scientific community to shed more light on the pathogenesis of HCC with metabolic syndrome,both with and without cirrhosis. At the same time it is also important to quantify the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with the metabolic syndrome in a prospective setting and develop surveillance recommendations for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  6. Physiological Modeling of Responses to Upper Versus Lower Lobe Lung Volume Reduction in Homogeneous Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    EdwardIngenito; ArschangValipour; MordechaiKramer; FranzStanzel; RalfEberhardt

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: In clinical trials, homogeneous emphysema patients have responded well to upper lobe volume reduction but not lower lobe volume reduction. Materials/Methods: To understand the physiological basis for this observation, a computer model was developed to simulate the effects of upper and lower lobe lung volume reduction on RV/TLC and lung recoil in homogeneous emphysema. Results: Patients with homogeneous emphysema received either upper or lower lobe volume reduction therap...

  7. A case report: right upper lobectomy with middle lobe preservation after right lower lobectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Igai, Hitoshi; Kamiyoshihara, Mitsuhiro; Kawatani, Natsuko; Ibe, Takashi; Shimizu, Kimihiro

    2015-01-01

    Few reports have described right upper and lower lobectomy with preservation of the middle lobe because of the risk of middle lobe torsion or emphysematous change. Herein we describe a successful result following lobectomy with preservation of the middle lobe for metachronous pulmonary metastasis originating from colon cancer in the right upper lobe after initial right lower lobectomy. A 69-year-old man who had undergone right lower lobectomy for pulmonary metastasis originating from colon ca...

  8. Transfer of bcl-xs plasmid is effective in preventing and inhibiting rat hepatocellular carcinoma induced by N-nitrosomorpholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, M; Iishi, H; Tatsuta, M

    2001-08-01

    To examine the effect of the bcl-xs gene on the sequence from hepatic precancerous lesions, foci and neoplastic nodules, to hepatocellular carcinomas, Sprague-Dawley rats were given water containing 175 mg/l N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM) for 8 weeks. At weeks 1, 4 and 7, the left lobe of the rat liver was exposed and injected with the bcl-xs plasmid (pCR3.1-rat bcl-xs cDNA) or pCR3.1 encapsulated in cationic empty liposomes each at a dose of 80 microg plasmid/kg body weight. One minute later, low-field-strength, long-duration electric pulses were applied to the left lobe using a pincette electrode with circular poles 1 cm in diameter. The in vivo electroporation procedure significantly increased the transfer of the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) plasmid via empty liposomes. Thus, CAT mRNA was expressed not only at the sites of electrode contact but at sites 0.5-1.0 cm away from the electrode, and expression also increased with increasing doses of plasmid, meaning that in vivo electroporation enabled the expression of plasmid DNA throughout an extensive area of the rat liver. By week 11, the neoplastic nodules were significantly fewer and smaller in the bcl-xs group than in the pCR3.1 group at the two sites, one with and the other without electrode contact. No hepatocellular carcinomas were found in the rats that had received the bcl-xs plasmid, whereas these tumors were observed in 30% of the rats given pCR3.1. Moreover, overexpression of the bcl-xs protein was detected, and apoptotic activity was significantly increased in the neoplastic nodules, foci and hepatocytes adjacent to the hepatic lesions. These results indicate that the bcl-xs plasmid inhibits the occurrence and growth of rat hepatocellular carcinoma and may thus be effective for the prevention and treatment of human liver tumors.

  9. Physiological Modeling of Responses to Upper vs Lower Lobe Lung Volume Reduction in Homogeneous Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arschang eValipour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: In clinical trials, homogeneous emphysema patients have responded well to upper lobe volume reduction but not lower lobe volume reduction. Materials/Methods: To understand the physiological basis for this observation, a computer model was developed to simulate the effects of upper and lower lobe lung volume reduction on RV/TLC and lung recoil in homogeneous emphysema.Results: Patients with homogeneous emphysema received either upper or lower lobe volume reduction therapy based on findings of radionucleotide scintigraphy scanning. CT analysis of lobar volumes showed that patients undergoing upper (n=18; -265 mL/site and lower lobe treatment (n=11; -217 mL/site experienced similar reductions in lung volume. However, only upper lobe treatment improved FEV1 (+11.1±14.7% vs -4.4±15.8% and RV/TLC (-5.4± 8.1% vs -2.4±8.6%. Model simulations provided an unexpected explanation for this response. Increases in transpulmonary pressure subsequent to volume reduction increased RV/TLC in upper lobe alveoli, while caudal shifts in airway closure decreased RV/TLC in lower lobe alveoli. Upper lobe treatment, which eliminates apical alveoli with high RV/TLC values, lowers the average RV/TLC of the lung. Conversely, lower lobe treatment, which eliminates caudal alveoli with low RV/TLC values, has less effect. Conclusions: Lower lobe treatment in homogeneous emphysema is uniformly less effective than upper lobe treatment.

  10. The Structural Plasticity of White Matter Networks Following Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogarajah, Mahinda; Focke, Niels K.; Bonelli, Silvia B.; Thompson, Pamela; Vollmar, Christian; McEvoy, Andrew W.; Alexander, Daniel C.; Symms, Mark R.; Koepp, Matthias J.; Duncan, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior temporal lobe resection is an effective treatment for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. The structural consequences of such surgery in the white matter, and how these relate to language function after surgery remain unknown. We carried out a longitudinal study with diffusion tensor imaging in 26 left and 20 right temporal lobe epilepsy…

  11. Seismic definition of fan lobe types of Mississippi Fan, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, P.; Buffler, R.T.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed seismic stratigraphic studies in the upper and middle Mississippi Fan identified 12 fan lobes. Three different types of fan lobes are present. The type 1 fan lobe consists of two seismic sequences. At the base of the lower sequence are mounded reflectors that change upward to hummocky reflectors. The upper sequence has stacked high-amplitude reflectors flanked on either side by low-amplitude, laterally continuous reflectors. These type 1 fan lobes are interpreted as mass transport deposits overlain by a single channel with extensive overbank deposits. The type 2 fan lobe has seismic and geologic facies similar to the upper sequence of type 1. Both type 1 and type 2 fan lobes have a single channel that is sinuous in the middle fan. The type 3 fan lobe is characterized by several stacked high-amplitude reflectors, flanked by laterally continuous low-amplitude reflectors. These represent a bifurcating channel system showing several episodes of deposition and abandonment. Most of the sediments in the Mississippi Fan were deposited in type 2 or the upper sequence of type 1 fan lobes. Sediments in the lower sequence of the type 1 lobe are areally and volumetrically limited. Of the 12 fan lobes, 7 are type 1, 4 are type 2, and 1 is type 3. Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 96 drilling penetrated only the modern lobe, which is a type 2 fan lobe.

  12. Immunization With AFP + GM CSF Plasmid Prime and AFP Adenoviral Vector Boost in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Hepatoma; Liver Cancer, Adult; Liver Cell Carcinoma; Liver Cell Carcinoma, Adult; Cancer of Liver; Cancer of the Liver; Cancer, Hepatocellular; Hepatic Cancer; Hepatic Neoplasms; Hepatocellular Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neoplasms, Hepatic; Neoplasms, Liver

  13. Brain potentials implicate temporal lobe abnormalities in criminal psychopaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehl, Kent A; Bates, Alan T; Laurens, Kristin R; Hare, Robert D; Liddle, Peter F

    2006-08-01

    Psychopathy is associated with abnormalities in attention and orienting. However, few studies have examined the neural systems underlying these processes. To address this issue, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while 80 incarcerated men, classified as psychopathic or nonpsychopathic via the Hare Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (R. D. Hare, 1991, 2003), completed an auditory oddball task. Consistent with hypotheses, processing of targets elicited larger frontocentral negativities (N550) in psychopaths than in nonpsychopaths. Psychopaths also showed an enlarged N2 and reduced P3 during target detection. Similar ERP modulations have been reported in patients with amygdala and temporal lobe damage. The data are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that psychopathy may be related to dysfunction of the paralimbic system--a system that includes parts of the temporal and frontal lobes. PMID:16866585

  14. Somnambulism Due to Temporal Lobe Epilepsy - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Somnambulism (sleep walking is a disorder of arousal that falls under the parasomnia group. It is more common in children than in adults. (1. The onset of sleep walking in adult life is most unusual and suggests the presence of secondary causes rather than a primary sleep disorder (1. We report a 30-year-old male who presented with repeated episodes of sleep waling possibly due to nocturnal temporal lobe epilepsy.

  15. Psychosis and temporal lobe epilepsy-role of electroconvulsive therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Naomi Mifflen; Gadit, Amin

    2012-01-01

    A 49-year-old female presented for admission with features of being withdrawn, inability to comprehend questions, auditory hallucinations and disorganised thoughts. She also had a previous diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy. She did not respond well to psychotropic medications. During her sleep deprived EEG, she had a brief episode of seizures. Following this, she showed improvement in psychosis for a day or so. Based on this finding, it was decided to initiate a course of electroconvulsive ...

  16. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral vie...

  17. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2009-01-01

    Many tests of specific ‘executive functions’ show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matche...

  18. Benign occipital lobe seizures: Natural progression and atypical evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Prithika Chary; Bhuvaneshwari Rajendran

    2013-01-01

    Benign occipital seizure syndromes are benign childhood epilepsy syndromes and are mainly of two types, Panayiotopoulos syndrome, an autonomic epilepsy and idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut (ICOE-G) including the idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy. Although both these types are categorized as occipital seizures, they are distinct in presentation and management. They can also be tricky to diagnose as visual symptoms may not always be the presenting feature and i...

  19. The lateralising significance of hypergraphia in temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, JKA; Robertson, MM; Trimble, MR

    1982-01-01

    Six patients with hypergraphia and epilepsy are presented and their clinical features compared with other patients reported in the literature. It is suggested that hypergraphia occurs more frequently in patients with right-sided non-dominant temporal lobe lesions, in contrast for example to the schizophreniform presentation of left-sided lesions. Other features of psychopathology possibly associated with non-dominant lesions, including elation, hypereligiosity and déjà vu experiences, are als...

  20. Functional Connectivity Homogeneity Correlates with Duration of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Haneef, Zulfi; Chiang, Sharon; Yeh, Hsiang J.; Engel, Jerome; Stern, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often is associated with progressive changes to seizures, memory, and mood during its clinical course. However, the cerebral changes related to this progression are not well understood. Because the changes may be related to changes in brain networks, we used functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to determine whether brain network parameters relate to the duration of TLE. Graph theory based analysis of the sites of reported regions of TLE abnormality, was performed o...

  1. Temporal lobe necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) shows a high frequency of skull base erosion and intracranial spread. This tumour is usually treated with radiation therapy. The medial and inferior portions of both temporal lobes are included within the radiation portals. These areas are therefore potential sites of radiation-induced necrosis. It is important to recognize this complication and separate it from intracranial tumour recurrence because the treatments of these entities are different. (authors)

  2. Decision making, the frontal lobes and foraging behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Kolling, Nils Stephen; Rushworth, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to understand the function of the frontal lobes during different types of decisions thusfar mostly neglected in cognitive neuroscience. Namely, I sought to understand how decisions are made when comparisons are not about a simple set of concrete options presented, but rather require a comparison with one specific encounter and a sense of the value of the current environment (Chapter 2-3). Additionally, I wanted to understand how decisions between concrete options ca...

  3. Hepatic protection and anticancer activity of curcuma: a potential chemopreventive strategy against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Shi, Xue; Zhang, Jingwen; Zhang, Xiang; Martin, Robert C G

    2014-02-01

    Malignant transformation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs through repetitive liver injury in a context of inflammation and oxidative DNA damage. A spectrum of natural sesquiterpenoids from curcuma oil has displayed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The aim of the study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and anti-HCC effects of curcuma oil in vivo and in vitro. Mice were pretreated with curcuma oil (100 mg/kg) for 3 days, then treated with Concanavalin A (30 mg/kg). The hepatic tissue was evaluated for histology, CD4+ cell, interferon-γ, apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine and MnSOD. C57L/J mice were treated with curcuma oil and 107 Hepa1-6 cells directly inoculated into liver lobes. The effects of curcuma oil on cell growth and cell death were evaluated. In addition, MnSOD, HSP60, catalase, NF-κB and caspase-3 were also investigated in the Hepa1-6 cells treated with curcuma oil. Pretreatment with curcuma oil significantly attenuates inflammation and oxidative damage by Concanavalin A. Treatment with curcuma oil can decrease the incidence of HCC. Curcuma oil inhibits cell growth and induces cell death in Hepa1-6 cells. Curcuma protected mice with hepatic injury from inflammatory and oxidative stress. Curcuma oil can inhibit hepatoma cell growth in vivo and in vitro.

  4. Bulbar Paralysis and Facial Paralysis due to Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Liu, Shixin; Liu, Bailong; Liu, Bin; Guo, Liang; Wang, Xu; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Shuo; Dong, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Skull-base metastasis (SBM) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely rare, and multiple cranial nerve paralysis due to SBM from HCC is also rare. We report a case of bulbar and facial paralysis due to SBM from HCC. A 46-year-old Chinese man presented with a hepatic right lobe lesion that was detected during a routine physical examination. After several failed attempts to treat the primary tumor and bone metastases, neurological examination revealed left VII, IX, X, and XI cranial nerve paralysis. Computed tomography of the skull base subsequently revealed a large mass that had destroyed the left occipital and temporal bones and invaded the adjacent structure. After radiotherapy (27 Gy, 9 fractions), the patient experienced relief from his pain, and the cranial nerve dysfunction regressed. However, the patient ultimately died, due to the tumor's progression. Radiotherapy is usually the best option to relieve pain and achieve regression of cranial nerve dysfunction in cases of SBM from HCC, although early treatment is needed to achieve optimal outcomes. The present case helps expand our understanding regarding this rare metastatic pathway and indicates that improved awareness of SBM in clinical practice can help facilitate timely and appropriate treatment.

  5. The secondary lobe as anatomic landmark for different pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present the spectrum of pathological findings in the pulmonary parenchyma, based on the knowledge of the secondary lobe and its components. The evaluation was made using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and compared with the histopathological findings. By definition, the secondary lobe is the small portion of pulmonary tissue separated by septa of connective tissue and supplied by 2-5 or more terminal bronchioles according to their central or peripheral location. Different disorders may become evident as a consequence of : 1) Bronchiolar obstruction (transient or definitive); 2) Intra-alveolar or wall involvement; 3) Involvement of the support tissue; 4) Involvement of the vascular or lymphatic structures. The etiology may be idiopathic, infectious, due to inhalation, neoplastic, allergic, due to collagen diseases, secondary to drug administration and/or post-transplantation. The evaluation of the secondary lobe components, with fine section HRCT, is the dynamic method of choice for the characterisation of pulmonary diseases, and allows to perform earlier and more precise differential diagnoses, when correlated with the clinical findings. The addition of sections during expiration to the routine study is paramount to underscore perfusion disturbances, which may remain undiagnosed during deep inspiration. The goal of this study is to review some of these disorders in which HRCT may be very useful and to correlate our observations with the histopathological findings. (author)

  6. The evolution of Sf. Gheorghe (Danube asymmetric deltaic lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred VESPREMEANU-STROE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wave asymmetric Sf. Gheorghe lobe is the only active in the Danube delta where river mouth bar (and the associated barrier islands and spits continuously deployed a cyclic development for almost two millennia. During first stage, the Sf. Gheorghe distributary had a small discharge (with an order of magnitude lower than present which after that experienced a rapid increase in consequence of the successive avulsions of Împuţita (southern distributary of Sulina arm and Dunavăţ distributaries. Our morphological analyses together with the newly obtained chronology, revealed the multiple ridgesets structure of Sf. Gheorghe deltaic lobe. In fact, all ridgesets (10 follow a common morphodynamic pattern characterized by the cyclic succession of three stages: i subaqueous mouth bar development, ii barrier island emergence, iii barrier spit phase with several secondary spits derived from an updrift trunk ridge. The size of each ridgeset increased exponentially with every new cycle due to the constant lengthening of the coastline as the downdrift side of the lobe advances seaward through a series of progressively larger similar quadrilaterals, yielding to a constant enlargment of the delta front size. 

  7. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of specific 'executive functions' show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matched on fluid intelligence, no further frontal deficit remains. For these tasks too, deficits are unrelated to lesion location within the frontal lobe. A second group of tasks, including tests of both cognitive (e.g. Hotel, Proverbs) and social (Faux Pas) function, shows a different pattern. Deficits are not fully explained by fluid intelligence and the data suggest association with lesions in the right anterior frontal cortex. Understanding of frontal lobe deficits may be clarified by separating reduced fluid intelligence, important in most or all tasks, from other more specific impairments and their associated regions of damage.

  8. The Centaurus A Northern Middle Lobe as a Buoyant Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Saxton, C J; Bicknell, G V; Saxton, Curtis J.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Bicknell, Geoffrey V.

    2001-01-01

    We model the northern middle radio lobe of Centaurus A (NGC 5128) as a buoyant bubble of plasma deposited by an intermittently active jet. The extent of the rise of the bubble and its morphology imply that the ratio of its density to that of the surrounding ISM is less than 10^{-2}, consistent with our knowledge of extragalactic jets and minimal entrainment into the precursor radio lobe. Using the morphology of the lobe to date the beginning of its rise through the atmosphere of Centaurus A, we conclude that the bubble has been rising for approximately 140Myr. This time scale is consistent with that proposed by Quillen et al. (1993) for the settling of post-merger gas into the presently observed large scale disk in NGC 5128, suggesting a strong connection between the delayed re-establishment of radio emission and the merger of NGC 5128 with a small gas-rich galaxy. This suggests a connection, for radio galaxies in general, between mergers and the delayed onset of radio emission. In our model, the elongated X-...

  9. Hepatocellular transport proteins and their role in liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carmen Stanca; Diana Jung; Peter J. Meier; Gerd A. Kullak-Ublick

    2001-01-01

    @@MOLECULAR PHYSIOLLGY OF HEPATOCELLULAR TRANSPORT PROTEINS Basolaferal transport systems Na+-dependent bile salt uptake Uptake of bile salts into the liver was first isolated perfused rat liver[1],isolated hepatocyte cultures and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles [2,4].

  10. BRAIN METASTASIS FROM HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA: A RARE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kh. Bekyashev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma ranks 5th in prevalence and 3rd in cancer mortality worldwide. The prognosis of this disease is very poor: the 5-year survival rate was not more than 3–5%. Metastases generally occur in the lung, in the lymph nodes of the abdomen, chest, and neck, in the vertebrae, kidneys, and adrenals. The cases of brain metastasis from hepatocellular cancer are very rare. Overall, the prognosis is very poor for patients with brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma. Nevertheless, solitary brain metastases and good hepatic function are favorable survival criteria; thus, the treatment of this group of patients may lead to their better survival. The paper describes a clinical case of brain metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient receiving the combination treatment involving neurosurgical treatment and targeted therapy. 

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma : Dutch guideline for surveillance, diagnosis and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskens, F. A. L. M.; van Erpecum, K. J.; de Jong, K. P.; van Delden, O. M.; Klumpen, H. J.; Verhoef, C.; Jansen, P. L. M.; van den Bosch, M. A. A. J.; Romero, A. Mendez; Verheij, J.; Bloemena, E.; de Man, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rare in the Netherlands, even though the incidence has increased quite sharply in recent years. Standard treatment options consist of surgery, orthotopic liver transplantation, radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) and systemic therapy with

  12. Paraneoplastic alopecia associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconato, Laura; Albanese, Francesco; Viacava, Paolo; Marchetti, Veronica; Abramo, Francesca

    2007-08-01

    A 15-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat presented with alopecia associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical signs, which had commenced 6 months previously, included loss of appetite, loss of weight, and depression. As reported by the owner, the cat developed alopecia a week before referral. The hair loss was localized to the ventral aspect of the thorax and abdomen, medial aspect of front and hind limbs, and ventral aspect of the tail, and was associated with histological features consistent with paraneoplastic alopecia. At necropsy, multiple hepatic nodules were observed, and subsequent histopathological investigation showed cords and sheets of hepatocyte-like neoplastic cells positive for the hepatocyte marker (Hep Par 1), thereby demonstrating the hepatocellular origin of the tumour, which was diagnosed as a hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report of feline paraneoplastic alopecia associated with hepatocellular carcinoma confirmed by the Hep Par 1 marker.

  13. Percutaneous local therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma impair gastric function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fumihiko Kinekawa; Shigeki Kuriyama; Kazuya Matsuda; Tsutomu Masaki; Kazutaka Kurokohchi; Hirohito Yoneyama; Hideyuki Inoue; Hirohide Kurata; Yoshihito Uchida; Seishiro Watanabe

    2006-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Percutaneous local therapies, such as percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), microwave coagulation and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), are frequently used worldwide for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because of their high effectiveness.

  14. Radiosensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma; Radiosensibilite des cancers du foie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, C.; Quero, L.; Rivera, S. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 1, avenue Claude-Vellefeaux, 75475 Paris (France)

    2011-02-15

    The frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in the western world and the role of radiotherapy is more and more discussed. Classically, hepatocellular carcinoma was considered as a radioresistant tumour: in fact, modern radio-biologic studies, performed on cell lines directly established from patients, showed that hepatocellular carcinoma has the same radiosensitivity than the other epithelial tumours. From clinical studies, its {alpha}/{beta} ratio has been estimated to be around 15 Gy. Radiosensitivity of normal hepatic parenchyma is now well evaluated and some accurate NTCP models are available to guide hepatic irradiation. The biology of hepatocellular carcinoma is also better described: the combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapies will be a promising approach in the near future. (authors)

  15. Pictures of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine; Sempoux; Charles; Balabaud; Paulette; Bioulac-Sage

    2014-01-01

    This practical atlas aims to help liver and non liver pa-thologists to recognize benign hepatocellular nodules on resected specimen. Macroscopic and microscopic views together with immunohistochemical stains illustrate typical and atypical aspects of focal nodular hyperplasia and of hepatocellular adenoma, including hepatocel-lular adenomas subtypes with references to clinical and imaging data. Each step is important to make a correct diagnosis. The specimen including the nodule and the non-tumoral liver should be sliced, photographed and all different looking areas adequately sampled for par-affin inclusion. Routine histology includes HE, trichrome and cytokeratin 7. Immunohistochemistry includes glu-tamine synthase and according to the above results ad-ditional markers such as liver fatty acid binding protein, C reactive protein and beta catenin may be realized to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocel-lular adenoma subtypes. Clues for differential diagnosis and pitfalls are explained and illustrated.

  16. Non‑Azygos Accessory Fissure in Right Upper Lobe Associated with Superior and Inferior Accessory Fissures in Right Lower Lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Jose Eluvathingal Muttikkal; Chunli Deng

    2012-01-01

    Accessory fissures in the lungs are common congenital variations, usually detected as incidental findings in radiographs or CT scan. Accessory fissures can act as an anatomic barrier to the spread of inflammatory or neoplastic disease, as well as due to the variant anatomy, mimic lesions. It is important to recognize the presence of accessory fissures, as they affect surgical planning of pulmonary lobectomy and segmentectomy. Accessory fissure in the right upper lobe other than due to the ano...

  17. BIOCHEMICAL NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF LIVER CIRRHOSIS PATIENTS WITH HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zanatta PORT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Liver cirrhosis patients with hepatocellular carcinoma present nutritional alterations and metabolic disorders that negatively impact the prognosis. Objective The objective is to identify alterations in the metabolism of macro and micronutrients among liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma and their relation to the Child-Turcote-Pugh score and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Methods Analytical transversal study, with 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 48 liver cirrhosis patients. Laboratorial exams were carried out. The existence of an association between the biochemical parameters and the disease severity as well as the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was assessed. Results The metabolic-nutritional profile of liver cirrhosis patients caused by the hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma showed alterations, specifically the lipid (total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, protein (albumin, creatinine and uric acid, iron (transferrin, iron and ferritin saturation, hematocrit and hemoglobin, zinc and B12 vitamin profiles. There is a relation between nutritional biochemical markers and the Child-Turcote-Pugh, as well as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Conclusions Considering the existence of alterations in the metabolism of nutrients in liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma, and also that conventional nutritional assessment methods present limitations for this population, the biochemical laboratorial exams are valid to complement the diagnosis of the nutritional state in a quick and practical manner.

  18. Stem cell research in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengyi SUN; Shi ZUO

    2008-01-01

    The traditional view that adult human liver tumors, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), arise from mature cell types has been challenged in recent dec-ades. The results of several studies suggest that HCC can be derived from liver stem cells. There are four levels of cells in the liver stem cell lineage: hepatocytes, hepatic stem cells/oval cells, bone marrow stem cells and hepato-pancreas stem cells. However, whether HCC is resulted from the differentiation block of stem cells and, moreover, which liver stem cell lineage is the source cell of hepatocarcinogenesis remain controversial. In this review, we focus on the current status of liver stem cell research and their roles in carcinogenesis of HCC, in order to explore new approaches for stem cell therapy of HCC.

  19. Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biomarker Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagi, Cedo M., E-mail: cedo.bagi@pfizer.com; Andresen, Catharine J. [Global Science & Technology, PGRD, Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT 06340 (United States)

    2010-07-07

    The overwhelming need to improve preclinical models in oncology has stimulated research efforts to refine and validate robust orthotopic models that closely mimic the disease population and therefore have the potential to better predict clinical outcome with novel therapies. Sophisticated technologies including bioluminescence, contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been added to existing serum- and histology-based biomarkers to assist with patient selection and the design of clinical trials. The rationale for the use of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, implementation of xenograft and orthotopic animal models and utilization of available biomarkers have been discussed, providing guidelines to facilitate preclinical research for the development of treatments for HCC patients.

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC biomarkers in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Navas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC account for 70 to 85% of primary liver cancer worldwide. SouthEast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa represent the areas with the highest incidence; instead Europe and North America correspond to low incidence areas. The data available for Latin American countries show a low incidence (<3.3/100.000 inhabitants in most of the countries including Colombia. The rate of incidence is <5.6/100.000 in Central America, Peru and Argentina and <10/100.000 in Chile and Brazil.

  1. Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma Responsive to Pembrolizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Phu; Rahal, Ahmad; Kallail, K James

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive liver tumor that occurs with chronic liver disease. Surgical resection is the mainstay of therapy for localized disease whereas therapeutic options for advanced disease are limited. The innovative blockade of immune checkpoints with targeted immunotherapies, such as monoclonal antibodies against programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1), have shown promise in the treatment of solid malignancies. The PD-1 inhibiting antibodies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab prolonged overall survival in randomized trials in metastatic melanoma and advanced non-small cell lung cancer. This is a report of a 75-year-old male patient with metastatic HCC who was initially treated with the standard of therapy sorafenib. After failure of sorafenib therapy, pembrolizumab was started. There was a dramatic response to pembrolizumab with decrease in tumor size and drop in alfa fetoprotein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of metastatic HCC responsive to pembrolizumab after failure of sorafenib.

  2. Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biomarker Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overwhelming need to improve preclinical models in oncology has stimulated research efforts to refine and validate robust orthotopic models that closely mimic the disease population and therefore have the potential to better predict clinical outcome with novel therapies. Sophisticated technologies including bioluminescence, contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been added to existing serum- and histology-based biomarkers to assist with patient selection and the design of clinical trials. The rationale for the use of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, implementation of xenograft and orthotopic animal models and utilization of available biomarkers have been discussed, providing guidelines to facilitate preclinical research for the development of treatments for HCC patients

  3. Combined interventional therapies of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Qian; Gan-Sheng Feng; Thomas Vogl

    2003-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most commonmalignancies in the world, responsible for an estimated one million deaths annually. It has a poor prognosis due to its rapid infiltrating growth and complicating liver cirrhosis.Surgical resection, liver transplantation and cryosurgery are considered the best curative options, achieving a high rate of complete response, especially in patients with small HCC and good residual liver function. In nonsurgery, regional interventional therapies have led to a major breakthrough in the management of unresectable HCC, which include transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave coagulation therapy (MCT), laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), etc. As a result of the technical development of locoregional approaches for HCC during the recent decades,the range of combined interventional therapies has been continuously extended. Most combined multimodal interventional therapies reveal their enormous advantages as compared with any single therapeutic regimen alone,and play more important roles in treating unresectable HCC.

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma:A comprehensive review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa; P; Waller; Vrushak; Deshpande; Nikolaos; Pyrsopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is rapidly becoming one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. With a rising rate, it is a prominent source of mortality. Patients with advanced fibrosis, predominantly cirrhosis and hepatitis B are predisposed to developing HCC. Individuals withchronic hepatitis B and C infections are most commonly afflicted. Different therapeutic options, including liver resection, transplantation, systemic and local therapy, must be tailored to each patient. Liver transplantation offers leading results to achieve a cure. The Milan criteria is acknowledged as the model to classify the individuals that meet requirements to undergo transplantation. Mean survival remains suboptimal because of long waiting times and limited donor organ resources. Recent debates involve expansion of these criteria to create options for patients with HCC to increase overall survival.

  5. Montelukast induced acute hepatocellular liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harugeri A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old male with uncontrolled asthma on inhaled albuterol and formoterol with budesonide was commenced on montelukast. He developed abdominal pain and jaundice 48 days after initiating montelukast therapy. His liver tests showed an increase in serum total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, aspartate aminotranferase, alanine aminotranferase, and alkaline phosphatase. The patient was evaluated for possible non-drug related liver injury. Montelukast was discontinued suspecting montelukast induced hepatocellular liver injury. Liver tests began to improve and returned to normal 55 days after drug cessation. Causality of this adverse drug reaction by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences or Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (CIOMS or RUCAM and Naranjo′s algorithm was ′probable′. Liver tests should be monitored in patients receiving montelukast and any early signs of liver injury should be investigated with a high index of suspicion for drug induced liver injury.

  6. Hepatocellular adenoma: what is new in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Laumonier, Hervé; Laurent, Christophe; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Balabaud, Charles

    2008-09-01

    Patients (85%) with hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) are women taking oral contraceptives. They can be divided into four subgroups according to their genotype/phenotype features. (1) Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha (HNF1alpha) biallelic somatic mutations are observed in 35% of the HCA cases. It occurs in almost all cases in women. HNF1alpha-mutated HCA are most of the time, highly steatotic, with a lack of expression of liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) in immunohistochemistry analyses. Adenomatosis is frequently detected in this context. An HNF1alpha germline mutation is observed in less than 5% of HCA cases and can be associated with MODY 3 diabetes. (2) An activating beta-catenin mutation was found in 10% of HCA. These beta-catenin activated HCAs are observed in men and women, and specific risk factors, such as male hormone administration or glycogenosis, are associated with their development. Immunohistochemistry studies show that these HCAs overexpress beta-catenin (nuclear and cytoplasmic) and glutamine synthetase. This group of tumours has a higher risk of malignant transformation into hepatocellular carcinoma. (3) Inflammatory HCAs are observed in 40% of the cases, and they are most frequent in women but are also found in men. Lesions are characterised by inflammatory infiltrates, dystrophic arteries, sinusoidal dilatation and ductular reaction. They express serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein. In this group, GGT is frequently elevated, with a biological inflammatory syndrome present. Also, there are more overweight patients in this group. An additional 10% of inflammatory HCAs express beta-catenin, and are also at risk of malignant transformation. (4) Currently, less than 10% of HCAs are unclassified. It is hoped that in the near future it will be possible with clinical, biological and imaging data to predict in which of the 2 major groups (HNF1alpha-mutated HCA and inflammatory HCA) the patient belongs and to propose better guidelines in terms of

  7. Salvage therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma with thalidomide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsang-En Wang; Chin-Roa Kao; Shee-Chan Lin; Wen-Hsiung Chang; Cheng-Hsin Chu; Johson Lin; Ruey-Kuen Hsieh

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical benefit of thalidomide in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatoma).METHODS: From March 2000 to July 2002, patients who had advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and failed to or were unsuited for aggressive treatment, were enrolled and took thalidomide 150 to 300 mg/d. All cases were followed till April 2003. Data collection included viral hepatitis, grade of cirrhosis, total dosage of thalidomide, side effect, stage of hepatoma by Okuda and CLIP classification, and prognosis.The subjects were divided into A and B groups, depending on 5 000 mg dosage of thalidomide. Survival time of all cases and in the two subgroups was evaluated.RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients with hepatoma were enrolled,81 men and 18 females with median age 58±14.1 years.Eighty-six percent had viral hepatitis and one case was alcoholism. Hepatoma was diagnosed with histology, alphafetoprotein (aFP) >400 ng/mL, or image examination, there were 30, 33 and 36 cases respectively. At the time of thalidomide therapy, more than 81% had cirrhotic status.Twenty-two patients were in group A (<5 000 mg) with median survival time about 25 days, for 77 cases in group B (≥5 000 mg) the median survival time was about 109 days.Six subjects had partial response. Most adverse effects were skin rush, neuropathy, somnolence, and constipation.CONCLUSION: Several patients responded to thalidomide therapy. As a single drug therapy, thalidomide might not have good therapeutic effect for all cases, but a small ratio of patients had exciting response, the resistance or tumor escape would develop after long-term use. Up to now, no defined facts could be used to predict response. The effect of thalidomide on hepatoma might be associated with the dosage. As salvage therapy, thalidomide has its value.Combination or adjuvant therapy will be the next trial.

  8. Emotional reactions in patients after frontal lobe stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. Methods. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. Results. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024. A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman’s r = -0.297; p = 0.001. Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017. Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.

  9. Abnormal activation of the occipital lobes during emotion picture processing in major depressive disorder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianying Li; Cheng Xu; Xiaohua Cao; Qiang Gao; Yan Wang; Yanfang Wang; Juyi Peng; Kerang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for

  10. Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. VII. Characterization of a novel cocaine binding site identified with [125I]RTI-55 in membranes prepared from human, monkey and guinea pig caudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, R B; Silverthorn, M L; Glowa, J R; Matecka, D; Rice, K C; Carroll, F I; Partilla, J S; Uhl, G R; Vandenbergh, D J; Dersch, C M

    1998-04-01

    [125I]RTI-55 is a cocaine analog with high affinity for dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) transporters. Quantitative ligand binding studies revealed a novel high affinity [125I]RTI-55 binding site assayed under 5-HT transporter (SERT) conditions which has low affinity for almost all classic biogenic amine transporter ligands, including high affinity 5-HT transporter inhibitors such as paroxetine, but which retains high affinity for cocaine analogs. This site, termed SERT(site2) for its detection under 5-HT transporter conditions (not for an association with the SERT) occurs in monkey caudate, human caudate, and guinea pig caudate membranes, but not in rat caudate membranes. SERT(site2) is distinguished from the DA transporter (DAT) and SERT by several criteria, including a distinct ligand-selectivity profile, the inability to detect SERT(site2) in cells stably expressing the cloned human DAT, and insensitivity to irreversible ligands which inhibit [125I]RTI-55 binding to the DAT and SERT. Perhaps the most striking finding about SERT(site2) is that a wide range of representative antidepressant agents have very low affinity for SERT(site2). The affinity of cocaine for this site is not very different from the concentration cocaine achieves in the brain at pharmacological doses. Viewed collectively with the observation that ligands with high affinity for SERT(site2) are mostly cocaine analogs, these data lead us to speculate that actions of cocaine which differ from those of classic biogenic amine uptake inhibitors may be mediated in part via SERT(site2).

  11. Recurrent diarrhea as a manifestation of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Murai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A woman with temporal lobe epilepsy manifesting with repeated episodes of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness is reported. A 63-year-old, right-handed female presented with chief complaints of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness for almost three decades. The first attack occurred in her 30s, and similar attacks repeated several times in a year. Her attacks comprised abrupt abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, sudden emergence of old memories relating to when she had played with her brother in her childhood, and loss of consciousness during defecation. She had no convulsion or automatism and fully recovered in a few minutes. Every time she was transferred to emergency hospital by ambulance, she had examinations such as blood test, head computed tomography, electrocardiogram, abdominal ultrasound, and electroencephalography (EEG, but no specific diagnosis was made. On admission to our hospital, vital signs, neurological examination, and blood tests did not show abnormal findings. During long-term video-EEG monitoring for 40 h, she had no habitual event. Interictal EEG showed intermittent irregular delta waves and sharp regional transients in the left anterio-midtemporal area. Sharp transients were not as outstanding from background activities as to be defined as epileptiform discharges, but they were reproducible in morphology and distribution and appeared not only in sleep but also in wakefulness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was unremarkable. Single-photon emission computed tomography showed a decrease of blood flow in the left frontal and temporal lobes. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—III showed a decline of verbal comprehension. We concluded that the patient was suffering from partial epilepsy originating from the left temporal lobe. Carbamazepine markedly improved her seizures. Temporal lobe epilepsy can manifest with diverse autonomic symptoms and signs. Abdominal sensations often herald the onset of epileptic seizures

  12. Right upper lobe lung cancer: Resection through left anterior mediastinotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Marco; Abu Arab, Walid; Turcotte, Eric; Poulin, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    There is sparse information concerning approaches to metachronous lung cancer in patients who had a previous pneumonectomy for lung carcinoma. We describe the case of a 55-year-old woman who underwent a left pneumonectomy for lung carcinoma. Four years later, a radiological examination revealed a hypermetabolic nodule in the right upper lobe, which was located in the left hemithorax because of right lung hyperinflation and a mediastinal shift to the left. Wedge resection was carried out through a left anterior mediastinotomy. We believe that an anterior mediastinotomy represents a valuable option for the management of recurrent lung cancer after previous surgery. PMID:26124429

  13. "Old" tail lobes provide significant additional substorm power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, V.; Mishin, V. V.; Karavaev, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In each polar cap (PC) we mark out "old PC" observed during quiet time before the event under consideration, and "new PC" that emerges during rounding the old one and expanding the PC total area. Old and new PCs correspond in the magnetosphere to the old and new tail lobes, respectively. The new lobe variable magnetic flux Ψ1 is usually assumed to be active, i.e. it provides transport of the electromagnetic energy flux (Poynting flux) ɛ' from solar wind into the magnetosphere. The old lobe magnetic flux Ψ2 is usually supposed to be passive, i.e. it remains constant during the disturbance and does not participate in the transporting process which would mean the old PC electric field absolute screening from the convection electric field created by the magnetopause reconnection. In fact, screening is observed, but it is far from absolute. We suggest a model of screening and determine its quantitative characteristics in the selected superstorm. The coefficient of a screening is the β = Ψ2/Ψ02, where Ψ02 = const is open magnetic flux through the old PC measured prior to the substorm, and Ψ2 is variable magnetic flux during the substorm. We consider three various regimes of disturbance. In each, the coefficient β decreased during the loading phase and increased at the unloading phase, but the rates and amplitudes of variations exhibited a strong dependence on the regime. We interpreted decrease in β as a result of involving the old PC magnetic flux Ψ2, which was considered to be constant earlier, to the ' transport process of the Poynting flux from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. A weakening of the transport process at the subsequent unloading phase creates increase in β. Estimates showed that coefficient β during each regime and the computed Poynting flux varied manifolds. In general, unlike the existing substorm conception, the new scenario describes an unknown earlier tail lobe activation process during a substorm growth phase that effectively

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  10. Evaluation of S-values and dose distributions for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re in seven lobes of the rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Tianwu; Liu Qian; Zaidi, Habib [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) and Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) and Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland) and Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Gronigen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Rats have been widely used in radionuclide therapy research for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This has created the need to assess rat liver absorbed radiation dose. In most dose estimation studies, the rat liver is considered as a homogeneous integrated target organ with a tissue composition assumed to be similar to that of human liver tissue. However, the rat liver is composed of several lobes having different anatomical and chemical characteristics. To assess the overall impact on rat liver dose calculation, the authors use a new voxel-based rat model with identified suborgan regions of the liver. Methods: The liver in the original cryosectional color images was manually segmented into seven individual lobes and subsequently integrated into a voxel-based computational rat model. Photon and electron particle transport was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate absorbed fractions and S-values for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re for the seven liver lobes. The effect of chemical composition on organ-specific absorbed dose was investigated by changing the chemical composition of the voxel filling liver material. Radionuclide-specific absorbed doses at the voxel level were further assessed for a small spherical hepatic tumor. Results: The self-absorbed dose for different liver lobes varied depending on their respective masses. A maximum difference of 3.5% was observed for the liver self-absorbed fraction between rat and human tissues for photon energies below 100 keV. {sup 166}Ho and {sup 188}Re produce a uniformly distributed high dose in the tumor and relatively low absorbed dose for surrounding tissues. Conclusions: The authors evaluated rat liver radiation doses from various radionuclides used in HCC treatments using a realistic computational rat model. This work contributes to a better understanding of all aspects influencing radiation transport in organ-specific radiation dose evaluation for

  11. Effects of dopamine depletion from the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens septi on the acquisition and performance of a conditional discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T W; Giardini, V; Jones, G H; Reading, P; Sahakian, B J

    1990-05-28

    Three experiments compared the effects of dopamine depletion from the caudate-putamen (CAUD; dorsal striatum) or nucleus accumbens septi (NAS; ventral striatum), or a systemically administered dopamine receptor antagonist (alpha-flupenthixol) on the acquisition and performance of a conditional discrimination task involving temporal frequency. In Expt. 1, rats receiving 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the CAUD were impaired in the acquisition of a visual version of the task, and rats with 6-OHDA lesions of the NAS were not reliably impaired. Even when the rats with CAUD lesions had acquired the discrimination, they were still significantly slower to collect earned food pellets. Both CAUD and NAS lesions reduced a bias to respond to the faster of the two discriminative stimuli. In Expt. 2, rats with 6-OHDA lesions of CAUD were markedly impaired in their accuracy and speed of responding when they had been trained to criterion preoperatively. These effects could not be mimicked in controls by prefeeding (which had only minor effects on performance). Rats with 6-OHDA-induced lesions of the NAS were unimpaired in either visual or auditory discrimination performance, but were slower to extinguish responding than controls. In Expt. 3, alpha-flupenthixol (0.1-0.56 mg/kg, i.p.) produced dose-dependent impairments in both latency to respond and choice accuracy in visual and auditory versions of the task. In conjunction with other results, these data suggest that (1) dopamine receptor blockade and central dopamine depletion can impair discrimination performance under certain conditions (2) dopamine depletion from the ventral and dorsal striatum, respectively, have dissociable effects on behaviour controlled by conditioned reinforcers and discriminative stimuli and (3) the disruption of discrimination performance by dorsal striatal dopamine depletion is probably attributable to several factors. PMID:2114120

  12. Novel assessment of global metabolism by 18F-FDG-PET for localizing affected lobe in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jonah; Houshmand, Sina; Werner, Thomas J; Rubello, Domenico; Alavi, Abass

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel method of global quantitative analysis for use in the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We studied 16 patients diagnosed with TLE who underwent fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (F-FDG-PET) and MRI at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. To quantify temporal lobe hypometabolism, we averaged the mean standardized uptake value across regions of interest (ROIs) encompassing each lobe in its entirety and calculated the metabolic ratios and lateralization indices for each patient on the basis of global measurements. For comparison, we carried out a traditional 'punch biopsy' ROI analysis by averaging the mean standardized uptake value within 1 cm diameter ROIs across select slices. Both techniques were performed twice by the same rater to test intraobserver variability. An expert observer carried out visual analyses of both F-FDG-PET and MRI for reference. The global quantitative analysis identified a seizure focus lateralization in agreement with clinical evaluations for 91% of patients on both trials, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.92 for metabolic ratios and lateralization indices, respectively. The punch biopsy analysis was in agreement for 91 and 82% of patients on respective trials, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 and 0.75. Expert visual analyses carried out on F-FDG-PET and MRI were in agreement for 64 and 9% of patients, respectively. The global quantitative analysis proved to be the most accurate and reliable of the methods tested. This technique has the potential to improve metabolic analysis in TLE and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27092666

  13. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral view confirmed a MLS, which was further corroborated by high resolution computed tomography. Central bronchiectasis was also observed, which prompted a work-up for ABPA. The child met 7/8 major diagnostic criteria for ABPA. She was then initiated on oral prednisolone that resulted in a marked clinical improvement within a fortnight. Radiological clearance occurred at 3 months with inflation of the middle lobe. ABPA presenting with MLS in a child is yet to be reported. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis of ABPA in a child presenting with MLS. This would obviate the invasive investigations usually done to ascertain the cause of MLS.

  14. Emotion recognition in temporal lobe epilepsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Giulia; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    There is increasing interest in the understanding of emotion recognition deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common form of focal epilepsies. There are conflicting reports about impairments for different emotions in right and left temporal lobe epilepsy patients. A systematic review and a narrative synthesis was conducted for studies investigating emotion recognition (ER) in TLE. Embase, MEDLINE, PsychINFO and Pubmed were searched from 1990 to March 2015 and reference lists were reviewed. 996 citations were identified and 43 studies were finally included. ER deficits are consistently observed across studies. A fear recognition deficit is always reported, followed by deficits in sadness and disgust recognition. Deficits are observed across visual and auditory domains. Conflicting evidence is present concerning the severity of ER deficits in right and left TLE. Studies on anterior temporal lobectomy report data similar to that observed in pre-surgical patients. Current evidence supports the conclusion that recognition of negative emotions is commonly impaired in TLE, particularly for fear, and in the visual domain. Future work should focus on more ecologically valid test, on longitudinal studies to assess the role of anterior temporal lobectomy, and to correlate ER measures to social functioning in everyday life.

  15. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral view confirmed a MLS, which was further corroborated by high resolution computed tomography. Central bronchiectasis was also observed, which prompted a work-up for ABPA. The child met 7/8 major diagnostic criteria for ABPA. She was then initiated on oral prednisolone that resulted in a marked clinical improvement within a fortnight. Radiological clearance occurred at 3 months with inflation of the middle lobe. ABPA presenting with MLS in a child is yet to be reported. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis of ABPA in a child presenting with MLS. This would obviate the invasive investigations usually done to ascertain the cause of MLS. PMID:26844222

  16. Natural History of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Antecedents and Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Shukla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy represents the largest group of patients with treatment resistant/medically intractable epilepsy undergoing epilepsy surgery. The underpinnings of common forms of TLE in many instances begin in early life with the occurrence of an initial precipitating event. The first epileptic seizure often occurs after a variable latency period following this event. The precise natural history and progression following the first seizure to the development of TLE, its subsequent resolution through spontaneous remission or the development of treatment resistant epilepsy remain poorly understood. Our present understanding of the role played by these initial events, the subsequent latency to development of temporal lobe epilepsy, and the emergence of treatment resistance remains incomplete. A critical analysis of published data suggest that TLE is a heterogeneous condition, where the age of onset, presence or absence of a lesion on neuroimaging, the initial precipitating event, association with febrile seizures, febrile status epilepticus, and neurotropic viral infections influence the natural history and outcome. The pathways and processes through which these variables coalesce into a framework will provide the basis for an understanding of the natural history of TLE. The questions raised need to be addressed in future prospective and longitudinal observational studies.

  17. Left temporal lobe structural and functional abnormality underlying auditory hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hugdahl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review recent findings from our laboratory that auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia are internally generated speech mis-representations lateralized to the left superior temporal gyrus and sulcus. Such experiences are, moreover, not cognitively suppressed due to enhanced attention to the voices and failure of fronto-parietal executive control functions. An overview of diagnostic questionnaires for scoring of symptoms is presented, together with a review of behavioural, structural and functional MRI data. Functional imaging data have either shown increased or decreased activation depending on whether patients have been presented an external stimulus or not during scanning. Structural imaging data have shown reduction of grey matter density and volume in the same areas in the temporal lobe. The behavioral and neuroimaging findings are moreover hypothesized to be related to glutamate hypofunction in schizophrenia. We propose a model for the understanding of auditory hallucinations that trace the origin of auditory hallucinations to uncontrolled neuronal firing in the speech areas in the left temporal lobe, which is not suppressed by volitional cognitive control processes, due to dysfunctional fronto-parietal executive cortical networks.

  18. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders may afflict children. One problem is the lack of objective data to arrive at a specific clinical diagnosis. Abnormalities in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid have been reported to play an important role in the onset of these disorders. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred to us with the diagnosis of ADHD or autism and reported as having temper problems by their families. These patients were injected with a dose of Tc-99m HMPAO calculated according to patient age and weight and were imaged 1 hour later using a Picker camera with Fan Beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT using 3D as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal images. With the help of surface rendered 3D images with a cut off of 88% (high) and 60-65% (lower value depending on the patient RCBF value), we observed increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children whose parents did not report temper problems. Increase in perfusion to the temporal lobes may indicate an association with oppositional or aggressive behavior that may be amenable to treatment. Brain SPECT may be useful not only in early diagnosis, but also in guiding appropriate therapy

  19. Double discontinuities at the magnetotail plasma sheet-lobe boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Whang

    Full Text Available A double discontinuity is a compound structure composed of a slow shock layer and an adjoining rotational discontinuity layer on the postshock side. We use high-resolution data from Geotail and Wind spacecraft to examine the interior structure within the finite thickness of the discontinuity at the plasma sheet-lobe boundary and found that recognizable MHD structures at the boundary can be stand-alone slow shocks or double discontinuities. The plasma density increases significantly and the magnetic field intensity decreases significantly across the interior of the slow shock layer. Through the rotational layer, the magnetic field rotates about the normal direction of the shock surface, as the plasma density and the magnetic field intensity remain nearly unchanged. The rotational angle can vary over a wide range. We notice that the observations of double discontinuities are no less frequent than the observations of stand-alone slow shocks. Identification of slow shocks and double discontinuities infers that plasma and magnetic field lines continuously move across the boundary surface from the lobe into the plasma sheet, and there is a conversion of magnetic field energy into plasma thermal energy through the slow shock layer. The double discontinuities also allows for a rapid rotation of the postshock magnetic field lines immediately behind the shock layer to accommodate the environment of the MHD flow in the plasma sheet region.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma sheet Space plasma physics (discontinuities; shock waves

  20. Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Múnera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is understood as the retrieval of personal experiences that occurred in specific time and space. To date, there is no consensus on the role of medial temporal lobe structures in AM. Therefore, we investigated AM in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE patients. Twenty TLE patients candidates for surgical treatment, 10 right (RTLE and 10 left (LTLE, and 20 healthy controls were examined with a version of the Autobiographical Interview adapted to Spanish language. Episodic and semantic AM were analyzed during five life periods through two conditions: recall and specific probe. AM scores were compared with clinical and cognitive data. TLE patients showed lower performance in episodic AM than healthy controls, being significantly worst in RTLE group and after specific probe. In relation to semantic AM, LTLE retrieved higher amount of total semantic details compared to controls during recall, but not after specific probe. No significant differences were found between RTLE and LTLE, but a trend towards poorer performance in RTLE group was found. TLE patients obtained lower scores for adolescence period memories after specific probe. Our findings support the idea that the right hippocampus would play a more important role in episodic retrieval than the left, regardless of a temporal gradient.

  1. Forgetting in temporal lobe epilepsy: When does it become accelerated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Anneli; Morris, Robin; Koutroumanidis, Michael; Kopelman, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The notion of 'accelerated long-term forgetting' has often been attributed to disrupted 'late' memory consolidation. Nevertheless, methodological issues in the literature have left this theory unproven, leading some to suggest such findings may be reflective of subtle acquisition or early retention deficits. This study attempts to address such issues, and also to explore which pathophysiological variables are associated with forgetting rates. Eighteen participants with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and eighteen matched controls completed background neuropsychological measurement of immediate and short-delay memory that showed comparable performance, both on verbal and visual tests. Using two novel experimental tasks to measure long-term forgetting, cued recall of verbal and visuospatial material was tested 30 sec, 10 min, one day, and one week after learning. Forgetting of verbal material was found to be progressively faster during the course of a week in the TLE group. For visuospatial memory, participants in the TLE group exhibited faster early forgetting in the first 10 min after learning, as indicated by planned comparisons, with comparable forgetting rates thereafter. Our findings provide evidence for two patterns of disruption to 'early' memory consolidation in this population, occurring either at the initial delay only or continuing progressively through time. Differences in how soon after learning accelerated forgetting was detectable were related to factors associated with greater severity of epilepsy, such as presence of medial temporal lobe sclerosis (MTS) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and use of multiple anti-epileptic agents. PMID:27010834

  2. Role of Percutaneous Microwave Ablation in Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tharwat Sayed *, Sahar M El Fiky*,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with an annual occurrence of one million new cases. An etiologic association between HBV infection and the development of HCC has been established. Hepatitis C virus is also proving an important predisposing factor for this malignancy, the use of minimally invasive Percutaneous ablative technique (e.g. Radiofrequency (RF and Microwave ablation (MW has gained great momentum and because of the drawbacks of RF ablation, several groups have successfully proved the efficacious nature of Microwave ablation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Aim of the Work: The aim of this work is to highlight the role, the principles and the applications of percutaneous Microwave Ablation in Hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: The studied group included 30 patients (25 men and 5 women with hepatocellular carcinoma. All patients underwent microwave ablation for the hepatocellular carcinoma. Results: The results of the procedures will be assessed as regarding sizeand enhancement of the lesion (s on triphasic CT abdomen before the procedure and at the follow up at one month as well as the Alpha fetoprotein levels. Conclusion: MWA technique represents a safe, fast and efficacious way to perform hepatic ablation in patients with HCC. Initial results are encouraging; however, longer follow-up is needed for further classification of our results.

  3. Characteristics and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of complicated febrile convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemoto, K.; Takuji, N.; Kawasaki, J.; Kawai, I.

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the close correlation between complicated febrile convulsions (CFC) and medial temporal lobe epilepsy and to delineate characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were divided into those with a prior episode of CFC (n=52), those with febrile convulsions other than CFC, and those witout either (n=345). Clinical constellations, neuroimaging, drug resistance, and effects of temporal lobectomy of the three gro...

  4. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy after Refractory Status Epilepticus: An Illustrative Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Boyd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE is a relatively newly defined disease entity, where otherwise healthy individuals develop unrelenting seizures that do not respond to conventional anticonvulsant therapy and may require months of therapy with anesthetic drugs. We have described a case of NORSE who subsequently developed mesial temporal lobe sclerosis (MTS and recurrent temporal lobe seizures. We discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms by which refractory seizures may contribute to the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE.

  5. Focal cortical dysplasia of the temporal lobe with late-onset partial epilepsy: serial quantitative MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, J.; Seitz, R.J. [Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf (Germany); Aulich, A. [Department of Radiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Reifenberger, G. [Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kiwit, J.C.W. [Department of Neurosurgery, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Langen, K.J.; Schmidt, D. [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    We describe serial studies of focal cortical dysplasia causing temporal lobe seizures and progressive aphasia in a 54-year-old woman. Initially, MRI volumetry of the temporal lobes showed significant left cortical thickening corresponding to an elevated aminoacid uptake in the left temporoparietal and inferior frontal cortex on SPECT using 3-[{sup 123}I]iodo-{alpha}-methyl-l-tyrosine (IMT). After 1 year there was severe shrinkage of the left temporal lobe, possibly the result of recurrent complex partial seizures. (orig.)

  6. Prognosis and segment-specific nodal spread of primary lung cancer in the right lower lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Tomizawa, Kenji; Suda, Kenichi; Takemoto, Toshiki; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Sakakura, Noriaki; Iwasaki, Takuya; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Sakao, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    Background Although lobe-specific nodal spread of primary lung cancer has been recently described, segment-specific nodal spread remains unclear. We investigated the frequency of hailer and mediastinal lymph node involvement and survival in patients with tumors located in the superior segment (SS) and basal segment (BS) in the right lower lobe. Methods Two hundred and sixty-three patients with primary lung cancer originating in the right lower lobe underwent lobectomy with systematic mediasti...

  7. The morphology of the cephalic lobes and anterior pectoral fins in six species of batoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvany, Samantha; Motta, Philip J

    2013-09-01

    Many benthic batoids utilize their pectoral fins for both undulatory locomotion and feeding. Certain derived, pelagic species of batoids possess cephalic lobes, which evolved from the anterior pectoral fins. These species utilize the pectoral fins for oscillatory locomotion while the cephalic lobes are used for feeding. The goal of this article was to compare the morphology of the cephalic lobes and anterior pectoral fins in species that possess and lack cephalic lobes. The skeletal elements (radials) of the cephalic lobes more closely resembled the radials in the pectoral fin of undulatory species. Second moment of area (I), calculated from cephalic lobe radial cross sections, and the number of joints revealed greater flexibility and resistance to bending in multiple directions as compared to pectoral fin radials of oscillatory species. The cephalic lobe musculature was more complex than the anterior pectoral fin musculature, with an additional muscle on the dorsal side, with fiber angles running obliquely to the radials. In Rhinoptera bonasus, a muscle presumably used to help elevate the cephalic lobes is described. Electrosensory pores were found on the cephalic lobes (except Mobula japonica) and anterior pectoral fins of undulatory swimmers, but absent from the anterior pectoral fins of oscillatory swimmers. Pore distributions were fairly uniform except in R. bonasus, which had higher pore numbers at the edges of the cephalic lobes. Overall, the cephalic lobes are unique in their anatomy but are more similar to the anterior pectoral fins of undulatory swimmers, having more flexibility and maneuverability compared to pectoral fins of oscillatory swimmers. The maneuverable cephalic lobes taking on the role of feeding may have allowed the switch to oscillatory locomotion and hence, a more pelagic lifestyle. PMID:23801572

  8. DUAL POLARIZATION ANTENNA ARRAY WITH VERY LOW CROSS POLARIZATION AND LOW SIDE LOBES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an antenna array adapted to radiate or receive electromagnetic waves of one or two polarizations with very low cross polarization and low side lobes. An antenna array comprising many antenna elements, e.g. more than ten antenna elements, is provided in which...... formation of grating lobes are inhibited in selected directions of the radiation and cross polarization within the main lobe is suppressed at least 30 dB below the main lobe peak value. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the antenna elements of the antenna array comprise probe-fed patches...

  9. Changes in frontal lobe function before and after surgery in patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated neuropsychological function in 18 patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysm who showed good postoperative outcomes. We paid particular attention to frontal lobe function. We also investigated relationships between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and frontal lobe function. Patients were examined using digit span, word fluency (WF), Stroop and trail-making tests to clarify frontal lobe function before and 1-2 months after surgery. We also used the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Raven's colored progressive matrices (RCPM) and revised Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-R) to examine cognitive function. CBF was measured using 133Xe-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before and 1-2 months after surgery. Tests revealed that the patients' postoperative neuropsychological status was improved compared to the preoperative status for MMSE, RCPM and WAIS-R. Among the tests of frontal lobe function, WF results had deteriorated significantly after surgery. Resting CBF in the frontal lobe was significantly decreased. Regional CBF in the frontal lobe was decreased significantly in comparison with values in the parietal and temporal lobes in patients showing deterioration of WF. Deterioration of WF correlated with CBF changes in the frontal lobe. These results suggest that surgery for unruptured cerebral aneurysm exerts detrimental effects on frontal lobe function that may be related to CBF changes. (author)

  10. Panic attack symptoms in a patient with left temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegusa, S; Takahashi, T; Moriya, J; Yamakawa, J; Itoh, T; Kusaka, K; Kawaura, K; Kanda, T

    2004-01-01

    We describe a 56-year-old woman with left temporal lobe epilepsy who developed symptoms of a panic attack. Owing to normal electroencephalography and brain magnetic resonance imaging results, she was initially diagnosed as suffering from panic attacks and treated for anxiety neurosis. The symptoms persisted and she was re-examined in our department. An interictal electroencephalogram showed paroxysmal spike waves in the left mesial temporal lobe region and this was the basis for a diagnosis of left temporal lobe epilepsy. This report suggests that left temporal lobe epilepsy should be considered as the differential diagnosis when patients frequently complain of fear or anxiety. PMID:14997713

  11. Effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe shape characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Steve N H; Chan, Alan H S; Yu, R F

    2012-01-01

    The effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe (effective visual field) shape characteristics was studied using three levels of luminance contrast with combinations of positive and negative polarities. The binocular effective visual field for a detection task, with a peripherally presented target (V) embedded in a homogeneous competing background (Xs), was mapped on 24 imaginary axes passing through the fixation point. The results showed that visual lobes mapped using positive polarity were statistically larger in area, rounder and more regular in shape than those for negative polarity. The medium contrast condition lobes were more symmetric and regular than low contrast condition lobes, and lobe area and perimeter increased with increasing luminance contrast ratio. Under the interaction of positive polarity and high luminance contrast, visual lobes were found to be larger, smoother and rounder. The high level of luminance and contrast however resulted in a higher degree of visual discomfort. The results indicated that positive polarity and contrast of medium (26:1) to high (41:1) levels are possible display settings for better visual lobe characteristics and better anticipated search performance. Practitioner Summary: The effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe shape characteristics was examined with uniform stimulus materials in this study. The results help to identify the optimum display settings for luminance contrast and display polarity to enhance lobe shape characteristics and hence search performance in industrial inspection tasks. PMID:22676836

  12. EPIDEMIOLOGY, ETIOPATHOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vlad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC is among the most common of solid human malignancies, with an annual incidence of 100.000 new cases. The worldwide distribution of HCC is not uniform, the highest rates are found in Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharian Africa. The HCC imcidence in Romania varies between 4-10 cases to 100.000 inhabitants per year. HCC is more likely to develop in men than in women, the sex ratio being approximately 8:1 in high-incidence areas. Chronic hepatitis B virus and C virus have been implicated as important etiologic factors in the development of HCC, being responsable for 80% of the cases. The most of the carcinomas are developped on the cirrhotic liver. A number of other risk factors also are involved in HCC: diabetes mellitus, obesity, chronic ethilism, oral contraceptives, smoking and dietary intake of aphlatoxines. HCC is usually diagnosed at a late stage. The clinical presentation are not typical, suggesting only the basic liver pathology. Ultrasounds, CT- scan and MRI confirm the presence of a mass in the liver. Alfa-fetoprotein (AFP, alfa-fetoprotein L3 fraction and des-gammacarboxiprotrombina (also known as PIVKA II test are considered as serological markers for HCC. The indication of screening is for the patients with liver cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis B and/ or C virus. The level of AFP and liver ultrasounds are mandatory to be done as screening tests to every 6 months to the risk patients.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: Anupdate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Tejeda-Maldonado; Ignacio García-Juárez; Jonathan Aguirre-Valadez; Adrián González-Aguirre; Mario Vilatobá-Chapa; Alejandra Armengol-Alonso; Francisco Escobar-Penagos; Aldo Torre; Juan Francisco Sánchez-ávila; Diego Luis Carrillo-Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the mostcommon malignancies leading to high mortality ratesin the general population; in cirrhotic patients, it isthe primary cause of death. The diagnosis is usuallydelayed in spite of at-risk population screening recommendations,i.e., patients infected with hepatitis B or Cvirus. Hepatocarcinogenesis hinges on a great numberof genetic and molecular abnormalities that lead totumor angiogenesis and foster their disseminationpotential. The diagnosis is mainly based on imagingstudies such as computed tomography and magneticresonance, in which lesions present a characteristicclassical pattern of early arterial enhancement followedby contrast medium "washout" in late venous phase.On occasion, when imaging studies are not conclusive,biopsy of the lesion must be performed to establish thediagnosis. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stagingmethod is the most frequently used worldwide andrecommended by the international guidelines of HCCmanagement. Currently available treatments includetumor resection, liver transplant, sorafenib and locoregionaltherapies (alcoholization, radiofrequencyablation, chemoembolization). The prognosis of hepatocarcinomais determined according to the lesion's stageand in cirrhotic patients, on residual liver function.Curative treatments, such as liver transplant, aresought in patients diagnosed in early stages; patients inmore advanced stages, were not greatly benefitted bychemotherapy in terms of survival until the advent oftarget molecules such as sorafenib.

  14. Hepatocellular Carcinoma-Cause,Treatment and Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-You Tang

    2001-01-01

    In the recent decades, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been found to be increasing in males in some countries. In China, HCC ranked second of cancer mortality since 1990s. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) and dietary aflatoxin intake remain the major causative factors of HCC. Surgery plays a major role in the treatment of HCC, particularly for small HCC. Downstaging unresectable huge HCC to smaller HCC and followed by resection will probably be a new approach for further study. Liver transplantation is indicated for small HCC, however, some issues remain to be solved.Different modes of "regional cancer therapy for HCC" have been tried. Systemic chemotherapy has been disappointing in the past but the future can be promising.Biotherapy, such as cytokines, differentiation inducers,anti-angiogenic agents, gene therapy and tumor vaccine will probably play a role, particularly in the prevention of tumor recurrence. HCC invasiveness is currently the major target of study. Tremendous works have been done at the molecular level, which will provide clues for biomarker of HCC progressionas well as targets for intervention.

  15. Acute myeloid leukemia masquerading as hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zeinah, Ghaith F; Weisman, Paul; Ganesh, Karuna; Katz, Seth S; Dogan, Ahmet; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K; Stein, Eytan M; Jarnagin, William; Mauro, Michael J; Harding, James J

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often diagnosed on the basis of high quality imaging without a biopsy in the cirrhotic liver. This is a case of a 64-year-old Caucasian man with no history of liver disease or cirrhosis that presented with fatigue, weight loss, and abdominal distension and was found to have a large, isolated liver mass with arterial enhancement and portal venous washout on triple-phase computed tomography (CT) suspicious for HCC. The patient was initially referred for a surgical evaluation. Meanwhile, he developed fevers, pancytopenia, and worsening back pain, and a subsequent spinal MRI revealed a heterogeneous bone marrow signal suspicious for metastatic disease. A bone marrow biopsy that followed was diffusely necrotic. A core biopsy of the patient's liver mass was then performed and was diagnostic of acute monocytic-monoblastic leukemia. Findings from peripheral flow cytometry and a repeat bone marrow biopsy were also consistent with this diagnosis, and induction chemotherapy with cytarabine and idarubicin was initiated. This case describes a rare presentation of myeloid sarcoma (MS) as an isolated, hypervascular liver mass that mimics HCC in its radiographic appearance. Due to the broad differential for a liver mass, a confirmatory biopsy should routinely be considered prior to surgical intervention. PMID:27284485

  16. Cancer-associated fibroblasts in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Norio; Araki, Kenichiro; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Shirabe, Ken

    2016-08-14

    The hepatic stellate cells in the liver are stimulated sustainably by chronic injury of the hepatocytes, activating myofibroblasts, which produce abundant collagen. Myofibroblasts are the major source of extracellular proteins during fibrogenesis, and may directly, or secreted products, contribute to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are one of the components of the tumor microenvironment that promote the proliferation and invasion of cancer cells by secreting various growth factors and cytokines. CAFs crosstalk with cancer cells stimulates tumor progression by creating a favorable microenvironment for progression, invasion, and metastasis through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Basic studies on CAFs have advanced, and the role of CAFs in tumors has been elucidated. In particular, for hepatocellular carcinoma, carcinogenesis from cirrhosis is a known fact, and participation of CAFs in carcinogenesis is supported. In this review, we discuss the current literature on the role of CAFs and CAF-related signaling in carcinogenesis, crosstalk with cancer cells, immunosuppressive effects, angiogenesis, therapeutic targets, and resistance to chemotherapy. The role of CAFs is important in cancer initiation and progression. CAFtargeted therapy may be effective for suppression not only of fibrosis but also cancer progression. PMID:27570421

  17. Comprehensive sequential interventional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang; FAN Wei-jun; HUANG Jin-hua; LI Chuan-xing; ZHAO Ming; WANG Li-gang; TANG Tian

    2009-01-01

    Background Since the 1980s, various approaches to interventional therapy have been developed, with the development and achievement of medical imaging technology. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive sequential interventional therapy especially personal therapeutic plan in 53 radical cure patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods From January 2003 to January 2005, a total of 203 patients with HCC received sequential interventional treatment in our hospital. Fifty-three patients achieved radical cure outcomes. Those patients were treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), or high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), sequentially and in combination depending on their clinical and pathological features. PET-CT was used to evaluate, assess, and guide treatment.Results Based on the imaging and serological data, all the patients had a personal therapeutic plan. The longest follow-up time was 24 months, the shortest was 6 months, and mean survival time was 16.5 months.Conclusion Comprehensive sequential interventional therapy especially personal therapeutic plan for HCC play roles in interventional treatment of HCC in middle or advanced stage.

  18. Management of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma afterliver transplant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause ofdeaths in patients with hepatitis B or C, and its incidencehas increased considerably over the past decade and is stillon the rise. Liver transplantation (LT) provides the bestchance of cure for patients with HCC and liver cirrhosis.With the implementation of the MELD exception systemfor patients with HCC waitlisted for LT, the number ofrecipients of LT is increasing, so is the number of patientswho have recurrence of HCC after LT. Treatments forintrahepatic recurrence after transplantation and afterother kinds of surgery are more or less the same, butlong-term cure of posttransplant recurrence is rarelyseen as it is a "systemic" disease. Nonetheless, surgicalresection has been shown to be effective in prolongingpatient survival despite the technical difficulty in resectinggraft livers. Besides surgical resection, different kindsof treatment are also in use, including transarterialchemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, highintensityfocused ultrasound ablation, and stereotacticbody radiation therapy. Targeted therapy and modulationof immunosuppressants are also adopted to treat thedeadly disease.

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a systems biology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Alice D'alessandro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC have different etiology and heterogenic genomic alterations lead to high complexity. The molecular features of HCC have largely been studied by gene expression and proteome profiling focusing on the correlations between the expression of specific markers and clinical data. Integration of the increasing amounts of data in databases has facilitated the link of genomic and proteomic profiles of HCC to disease state and clinical outcome. Despite the current knowledge, specific molecular markers remain to be identified and new strategies are required to establish novel targeted therapies. In the last years, mathematical models reconstructing gene and protein networks based on experimental data of HCC have been developed providing powerful tools to predict candidate interactions and potential targets for therapy. Furthermore, the combination of dynamic and logical mathematical models with quantitative data allows detailed mechanistic insights into system properties. To address effects at the organ level, mathematical models reconstructing the three-dimensional organization of liver lobules were developed. In the future, integration of different modeling approaches capturing the effects at the cellular up to the organ level is required to address the complex properties of HCC and to enable the discovery of new targets for HCC prevention or treatment.

  20. Laser Ablation for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacella, Claudio Maurizio; Francica, Giampiero; Di Costanzo, Giovanni Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and is increasingly detected at small size (liver transplantation, or percutaneous ablation have been proposed. When surgical options are precluded, image-guided tumor ablation is recommended as the most appropriate therapeutic choice in terms of tumor local control, safety, and improvement in survival. Laser ablation (LA) represents one of currently available loco-ablative techniques: light is delivered via flexible quartz fibers of diameter from 300 to 600 μm inserted into tumor lesion through either fine needles (21g Chiba needles) or large-bore catheters. The thermal destruction of tissue is achieved through conversion of absorbed light (usually infrared) into heat. A range of different imaging modalities have been used to guide percutaneous laser ablation, but ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are most widely employed, according to local experience and resource availability. Available clinical data suggest that LA is highly effective in terms of tumoricidal capability with an excellent safety profile; the best results in terms of long-term survival are obtained in early HCC so that LA can be proposed not only in unresectable cases but, not differently from radiofrequency ablation, also as the first-line treatment. PMID:22191028

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Teufel; Arndt Weinmann; Catherine Centner; Anja Piendl; Peter R Galle; Ansgar W Lohse; Stephan Kanzler

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate and confirm the low incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). At present only very few cases of HCC in patients with AIH and definite exclusion of chronic viral hepatitis have been published,suggesting that HCC due to AIH is rare. METHODS: In order to further investigate the incidence of HCC in patients with AIH, we reviewed our large cohort of 278 patients with AIH. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients (32%) were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis, a preneoplastic condition for HCC. We studied a total of 431 patient years of cirrhosis in these patients, an average 4.8 years per patient. During this period none of the patients of our own study cohort developed HCC. However, three patients with HCC due to AIH associated liver cirrhosis were referred to our department for further treatment of HCC. In all three patients chronic viral hepatitis was excluded. CONCLUSION: We conclude that HCC may under rare circumstances develop due to chronic AIH dependent liver cirrhosis. Compared to other causes of liver cirrhosis such as chronic viral hepatitis, alcohol, or hemochromatosis, the incidence of HCC is significantly lower. Pathophysiological differences between AIH and chronic viral hepatitis responsible for differences in the incidence of HCC are yet to be further characterized and may lead to new therapeutic concepts in prevention and treatment of liver cancer.

  2. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma: Focusing onantioxidant therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Miyanishi; Toshifumi Hoki; Shingo Tanaka; Junji Kato

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been investigated in the context ofalcoholic liver injury for many years and shown to be acausal factor of chronic hepatitis C (CHC), nonalcoholicsteatohepatitis (NASH), drug-induced liver injury, Wilson's disease, and hemochromatosis. In CHC, it has beendemonstrated that oxidative stress plays an importantrole in hepatocarcinogenesis. In cases with persistenthepatitis due to failure of hepatitis C virus eradication,or chronic liver disease, such as NASH, the treatment ofwhich remains unestablished, it is important to reduceserum alanine aminotransferase levels and prevent liverfibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma.This also suggests the importance of antioxidanttherapy. Among treatment options where it would beexpected that anti-inflammatory activity plays a rolein their confirmed efficacy for chronic hepatitis, irondepletion therapy, glycyrrhizin, ursodeoxycholic acid,Sho-Saiko-To, and vitamin E can all be consideredantioxidant therapies. To date, however, the ability ofthese treatments to prevent cancer has been confirmedonly in CHC. Nevertheless, anti-inflammatory and antifibroticeffects have been demonstrated in other liverdiseases and these therapies may potentially be effectivefor cancer prevention.

  3. Mast cells and human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabio Grizzi; Barbara Franceschini; Maurizio Chiriva-Internati; Young Liu; Paul L. Hermonat; Nicola Dioguardi

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the density of mast cells (MCs) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to determine whether the MCs density has any correlations with histopathological grading, staging or some baseline patient characteristics.METHODS: Tissue sections of 22 primary HCCs were histochemically stained with toluidine blue, in order to be able to quantify the MCs in and around the neoplasm using a computer-assisted image analysis system. HCC was staged and graded by two independent pathologists. To identify the sinusoidal capillarisation of each specimen 3μm thick sections were histochemically stained with sirius red, and semi-quantitatively evaluated by two independent observers. The data were statistically analysed using Spearman′s correlation and Student′s t-test when appropriate.RESULTS: MCs density did not correlate with the age or sex of the patients, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, or the stage or grade of the HCC. No significant differences were found between the MCs density of the patients with and without hepatitis C virus infection, but they were significantly higher in the specimens showing marked sinusoidal capillarisation.CONCLUSION: The lack of any significant correlation between MCs density and the stage or grade of the neoplastic lesions suggests that there is no causal relationship between MCs recruitment and HCC. However, as capillarisation proceeds concurrently with arterial blood supply during hepatocarcinogenesis, MCs may be considered of primary importance in the transition from sinusoidal to capillary-type endothelial cells and the HCC growth.

  4. [Inspection of guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arii, Shigeki

    2010-04-01

    An evidence-based clinical guideline for diagnosing and treating hepatocellular carcinoma patients was published in 2005, based on 7,118 original English papers(published between 1966-2002)and edited by the executive members of the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (Chief Editor, Professor M. Makuuchi, MD). These were composed of 58 clinical questions which covered prevention, surveillance, diagnosis, surgery, transplantation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chemoembolization and ablation therapy. The surveys investigating the validity and usefulness of this guideline revealed that it is well worked out and considered useful by medical practitioners. This guideline changed the therapeutic strategy of 20% of the experts. However, 43% of experts and 30% of non experts believed that this guideline restricted their medical discretion. Moreover, the percentage of medical practitioners who felt that medical malpractice suits would increase exceeded those who did not. A revised 2009 version was published based on the evaluation of 2,950 original papers (published between 2002-2007). Major revisions were not made, but clinical questions and scientific statements were updated. However, this version of the guideline does not provide clear recommendations in about 40% of the clinical questions because of lack of evidence. The guideline must be utilized based on an appropriate understanding of medical science and medical practice, and not on dogmatism. PMID:20414014

  5. Aflatoxins, hepatocellular carcinoma and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Arvin; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-03-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, primarily affecting populations in the developing countries. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is a known human carcinogen that has been shown to be a causative agent in the pathogenesis of HCC. Aflatoxin can affect a wide range of food commodities including corns, oilseeds, spices, and tree nuts as well as milk, meat, and dried fruit. Many factors affect the growth of Aspergillus fungi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in food. Drought stress is one of the factors that increase susceptibility of plants to Aspergillus and thus aflatoxin contamination. A recent drought is thought to be responsible for finding of trace amounts of aflatoxin in some of the corn harvested in the United States. Although it's too soon to know whether aflatoxin will be a significant problem, since United States is the world's largest corn producer and exporter, this has raised alarm bells. Strict regulations and testing of finished foods and feeds in the United States should prevent a major health scare, and prevent human exposure to deleterious levels of aflatoxin. Unfortunately, such regulations and testing are not in place in many countries. The purpose of this editorial is to summarize the current knowledge on association of aflatoxin and HCC, encourage future research and draw attention to this global public health issue.

  6. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Mean age of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients hasbeen progressively increasing over the last decades andageing of these patients is becoming a real challenge inevery day clinical practice. Unfortunately, internationalguidelines on HCC management do not address thisproblem exhaustively and do not provide any specific recommendation. We carried out a literature search inMEDLINE database for studies reporting on epidemiology,clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of HCCin elderly patients. Available data seem to indicatethat in elderly patients the outcome of HCC is mostlyinfluenced by liver function and tumor stage rather thanby age and the latter should not influence treatmentallocation. Age is not a risk for resection and olderpatients with resectable HCC and good liver functioncould gain benefit from surgery. Mild comorbiditiesdo not seem a contraindication for surgery in agedpatients. Conversely, major resection in elderly, evenwhen performed in experienced high-volume centres,should be avoided. Both percutaneous ablation andtransarterial chemoembolization are not contraindicatedin aged patients and safety profile of these proceduresis acceptable. Sorafenib is a viable option for advancedHCC in elderly provided that a careful evaluation ofconcomitant comorbidities, particularly cardiovascularones, is taken into account. Available data seem tosuggest that in either elderly and younger, treatment isa main predictor of outcome. Consequently, a nihilisticattitude of physicians towards under- or no-treatment ofaged patients should not be longer justified.

  7. Activins and activin antagonists in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alev Deli; Emanuel Kreidl; Stefan Santifaller; Barbara Trotter; Katja Seir; Walter Berger; Rolf Schulte-Hermann; Chantal Rodgarkia-Dara; Michael Grusch

    2008-01-01

    In many parts of the world hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the leading causes of cancer-related mortality but the underlying molecular pathology is still insufficiently understood. There is increasing evidence that activins, which are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of growth and differentiation factors, could play important roles in liver carcinogenesis. Activins are disulphide-linked homo-or heterodimers formed from four different β subunits termed βA, βB, βC, and βE, respectively. Activin A, the dimer of two βA subunits, is critically involved in the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, and tissue architecture in the liver, while the hepatic function of other activins is largely unexplored so far. Negative regulators of activin signals include antagonists in the extracellular space like the binding proteins follistatin and FLRG, and at the cell membrane antagonistic co-receptors like Cripto or BAMBI. Additionally, in the intracellular space inhibitory Smads can modulate and control activin activity. Accumulating data suggest that deregulation of activin signals contributes to pathologic conditions such as chronic inflammation, fibrosis and development of cancer. The current article reviews the alterations in components of the activin signaling pathway that have been observed in HCC and discusses their potential significance for liver tumorigenesis.

  8. Survivin in survival of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Changqing

    2016-09-01

    Survivin is an anti-apoptotic protein belonging to the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. It is involved in the regulation of important physiological and pathological processes in cells and functions to inhibit cell apoptosis and promote cell proliferation. Normally and terminally differentiated tissues are nearly negative for survivin. In contrast, survivin is highly expressed in most human tumor tissues, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The abnormal overexpression of survivin is closely related to the malignant biological behaviors of tumors. During the development and progression of HCC, the high level of survivin expression promotes cancer cell proliferation, inhibits cancer cell apoptosis, induces tumor stromal angiogenesis, reduces the sensitivity of cancer cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and ultimately affects the prognosis of patients with HCC. Survivin expression is regulated by a large number of factors. The latest discovery indicated that the transcription factor octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) enhances the expression of survivin though cyclin D1 (CCND1), which, in part, accounts for tumor cell proliferation, recurrence and metastasis. Survivin plays key roles in HCC, which renders it an ideal target for the treatment of HCC. The present article reviews the research progress on the relationship between survivin and HCC and on the HCC treatment strategies targeting survivin. PMID:26118774

  9. Tumor vaccine against recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Gang Peng; Li-Jiang Liang; Qiang He; Ming Kuang; Jia-Ming Lia; Ming-De Lu; Jie-Fu Huang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of autologous tumor vaccine on recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: Sixty patients with HCC who had undergone curative resection, were randomly divided into HCC vaccine group and control group. Three vaccinations at 2-wk intervals were performed after curative hepatic resection. Delayedtype- hypersensitivity (DTH) test was performed before and after vaccination. Primary endpoints were the time of recurrence.RESULTS: Four patients in control group and 6 patients in HCC vaccine group were withdrawn from the study. The vaccine containing human autologous HCC fragments showed no essential adverse effect in a phase Ⅱ clinical trial and 17 of 24 patients developed a DTH response against the fragments. Three of 17 DTH-positive response patients and 5 of 7 DTH- negative response patients had recurrences after curative resection. After the operation,1-, 2- and 3-year recurrence rates of HCC vaccine groupwere 16.7%, 29.2% and 33.3%, respectively. But, 1-, 2- and3-year recurrence rates of the control group were 30.8%,53.8% and 61.5%, respectively. The time before the first recurrence in the vaccinated patients was significantly longer than that in the control patients (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Autologous tumor vaccine is of promise in decreasing recurrence of human HCC.

  10. Diabetes mellitus and metformin in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Koji; Iwama, Hisakazu; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Tani, Joji; Oura, Kyoko; Tadokoro, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Teppei; Nomura, Takako; Morishita, Asahiro; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Diabetes mellitus, a risk factor for cancer, is also globally endemic. The clinical link between these two diseases has been the subject of investigation for a century, and diabetes mellitus has been established as a risk factor for HCC. Accordingly, metformin, a first-line oral anti-diabetic, was first proposed as a candidate anti-cancer agent in 2005 in a cohort study in Scotland. Several subsequent large cohort studies and randomized controlled trials have not demonstrated significant efficacy for metformin in suppressing HCC incidence and mortality in diabetic patients; however, two recent randomized controlled trials have reported positive data for the tumor-preventive potential of metformin in non-diabetic subjects. The search for biological links between cancer and diabetes has revealed intracellular pathways that are shared by cancer and diabetes. The signal transduction mechanisms by which metformin suppresses carcinogenesis in cell lines or xenograft tissues and improves chemoresistance in cancer stem cells have also been elucidated. This review addresses the clinical and biological links between HCC and diabetes mellitus and the anti-cancer activity of metformin in clinical studies and basic experiments. PMID:27468203

  11. Advances in Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaraprasong, Pongphob; Siramolpiwat, Sith; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent type of malignant liver tumor and a high impact health problem worldwide. The prevalence of HCC is particularly high in many Asian and African countries. Some HCC patients have no symptoms prior to diagnosis and many of them therefore present at late stage and have a grave prognosis. The well-established causes of HCC are chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or alcoholic cirrhosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Staging System remains the most widely used for HCC management guidelines. To date, the treatments for HCC are still very challenging for physicians due to limited resources in many parts of the world, but many options of management have been proposed, including hepatic resection, liver transplantation, ablative therapy, chemoembolization, sora nib and best supportive care. This review article describes the current evidence-based management of HCC with focus on early to advance stages that impact on patient overall survival. PMID:27644603

  12. Acute myeloid leukemia masquerading as hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zeinah, Ghaith F.; Weisman, Paul; Ganesh, Karuna; Katz, Seth S.; Dogan, Ahmet; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K.; Stein, Eytan M.; Jarnagin, William; Mauro, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often diagnosed on the basis of high quality imaging without a biopsy in the cirrhotic liver. This is a case of a 64-year-old Caucasian man with no history of liver disease or cirrhosis that presented with fatigue, weight loss, and abdominal distension and was found to have a large, isolated liver mass with arterial enhancement and portal venous washout on triple-phase computed tomography (CT) suspicious for HCC. The patient was initially referred for a surgical evaluation. Meanwhile, he developed fevers, pancytopenia, and worsening back pain, and a subsequent spinal MRI revealed a heterogeneous bone marrow signal suspicious for metastatic disease. A bone marrow biopsy that followed was diffusely necrotic. A core biopsy of the patient’s liver mass was then performed and was diagnostic of acute monocytic-monoblastic leukemia. Findings from peripheral flow cytometry and a repeat bone marrow biopsy were also consistent with this diagnosis, and induction chemotherapy with cytarabine and idarubicin was initiated. This case describes a rare presentation of myeloid sarcoma (MS) as an isolated, hypervascular liver mass that mimics HCC in its radiographic appearance. Due to the broad differential for a liver mass, a confirmatory biopsy should routinely be considered prior to surgical intervention. PMID:27284485

  13. Repeated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of repeated proton beam therapy for newly developed or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From June 1989 through July 2000, 225 patients with HCC underwent their first course of proton beam therapy at University of Tsukuba. Of them, 27 with 68 lesions who had undergone two or more courses were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Median interval between the first and second course was 24.5 months (range 3.3-79.8 months). Median total dose of 72 Gy in 16 fractions and 66 Gy in 16 fractions were given for the first course and the rest of the courses, respectively. Results: The 5-year survival rate and median survival period from the beginning of the first course for the 27 patients were 55.6% and 62.2 months, respectively. Five-year local control rate for the 68 lesions was 87.8%. Of the patients, 1 with Child-Pugh class B and another with class C before the last course suffered from acute hepatic failure. Conclusions: Repeated proton beam therapy for HCC is safe when the patient has a target in the peripheral region of the liver and liver function is Child-Pugh class A

  14. In Utero Hepatocellular Transplantation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Muñoz-Sáez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work represents a step forward in the experimental design of an in utero hepatocellular transplantation model in rats. We focused on the enrichment optimization of isolated fetal hepatocytes suspension, arranging the surgery methodology of in utero transplantation, monitoring the biodistribution of the transplanted hepatocytes, and assessing the success of the transplants. Rat fetuses have been transplanted at the 17th embryonic day (ED17 with fetal hepatocytes isolated from rats at the end of pregnancy (ED21. We assessed possible differences between lymphocyte population, CD4 positive, CD8 positive, double-positive T-cells, and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukins 4 and 10 (IL4 and IL10 as well. Cellular viability reached the rates of 90–95%. Transplanted groups had a limited success. Transplanted hepatocytes were not able to pass through the hematoplacental barrier. The hepatocytes injected were primarily located in the liver. There was an upward trend in the whole amount of T CD4 and T CD8 cells. There was an increased IL4 in the transplanted groups observed in the pregnant rats. The possibility to induce tolerance in fetuses with a hepatocyte transplant in utero could be a key point to avoid the immunosuppression treatments which must be undergone by transplanted patients.

  15. Senescence and immortality in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Mehmet; Arslan-Ergul, Ayca; Bagislar, Sevgi; Senturk, Serif; Yuzugullu, Haluk

    2009-12-01

    Cellular senescence is a process leading to terminal growth arrest with characteristic morphological features. This process is mediated by telomere-dependent, oncogene-induced and ROS-induced pathways, but persistent DNA damage is the most common cause. Senescence arrest is mediated by p16(INK4a)- and p21(Cip1)-dependent pathways both leading to retinoblastoma protein (pRb) activation. p53 plays a relay role between DNA damage sensing and p21(Cip1) activation. pRb arrests the cell cycle by recruiting proliferation genes to facultative heterochromatin for permanent silencing. Replicative senescence that occurs in hepatocytes in culture and in liver cirrhosis is associated with lack of telomerase activity and results in telomere shortening. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells display inactivating mutations of p53 and epigenetic silencing of p16(INK4a). Moreover, they re-express telomerase reverse transcriptase required for telomere maintenance. Thus, senescence bypass and cellular immortality is likely to contribute significantly to HCC development. Oncogene-induced senescence in premalignant lesions and reversible immortality of cancer cells including HCC offer new potentials for tumor prevention and treatment. PMID:19070423

  16. HGF, MET, and matrix-related proteases in hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar variant, cirrhotic and normal liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedel, Karen E; Tyner, Valerie Zajac; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Michalopoulos, George K; Mars, Wendy M

    2003-01-01

    Fibrolamellar variant is an uncommon subcategory of hepatocellular carcinoma with a better prognostic outcome. Proteinases and growth factors that are involved in the remodeling of extracellular matrix may influence the behavior of cancers. To determine whether these factors contribute to the distinct etiologies of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma and traditional hepatocellular carcinoma, we assayed hepatocyte growth factor, the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, and two hepatocyte growth factor activators, hepatocyte growth factor activator and urokinase-type plasminogen activator, in hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhotic liver and normal liver. In addition, we examined the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, the type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor, plasmin, fibrinogen, and the type IV matrix metalloproteinases. Eighteen hepatocellular carcinomas and 11 fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas were obtained as paraffin embedded sections from the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology. Frozen tissues from a subset of cases (9 hepatocellular carcinomas, 4 fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas, 12 cirrhotic livers and 2 normal livers) were also available for analysis. Antibodies against urokinase-type plasminogen activator, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, hepatocyte growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor receptor were used to analyze immunoperoxidase stained slides from the paraffin blocks. Western blot analyses using antibodies against hepatocyte growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor receptor, phosphotyrosine, hepatocyte growth factor activator, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, fibrinogen and plasmin were performed on membrane-enriched fractions from the frozen tissue, as was collagen zymography for matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. The most notable findings are as

  17. Inhibitory effects of genistein on metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Gu; Cheng-Fang Zhu; Ya-Lei Dai; Qiang Zhong; Bo Sun

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effects of genistein on metastasis of MHCC97-H hepatocellular carcinoma cells and to explore the underlying mechanism.METHODS: MHCC97-H hepatocellular carcinoma cells were exposed to genistein. A cell attachment assay was carried out in a microculture well pre-coated with fibronectin. The invasive activity of tumor cells was assayed in a transwell cell culture chamber, and cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated by a functional assay. In addition, the expression and phosphorylation of FAK were detected by Western blotting. In situ xenograft transplantation of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 12 nude mice and lung metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma was observed.RESULTS: Genistein significantly inhibited the growth of MHCC97-H cells in vitro. Adhesion and invasiveness of MHCC97-H cells were inhibited in a concentrationdependent fashion, and the inhibitory effect of genistein was more potent in the 10 μg/mL and 20 μg/ mL genistein-treated groups. Genistein caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, an S phase decrease, and increased apoptosis. The expression and phosphorylation of FAK in MHCC-97H cells were significantly decreased. In situ xenograft transplantation of hepatocellular carcinoma was also significantly suppressed by genistein. The number of pulmonary micrometastatic foci in the genistein group was significantly lower compared with the control group (12.3 ± 1.8 vs 16.6 ± 2.6, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Genistein appears to be a promising agent in the inhibition of metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Cassini observations of ionospheric plasma in Saturn's magnetotail lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felici, M.; Arridge, C. S.; Coates, A. J.; Badman, S. V.; Dougherty, M. K.; Jackman, C. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Melin, H.; Mitchell, D. G.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Sergis, N.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of Saturn's magnetosphere with the Cassini mission have established the importance of Enceladus as the dominant mass source for Saturn's magnetosphere. It is well known that the ionosphere is an important mass source at Earth during periods of intense geomagnetic activity, but lesser attention has been dedicated to study the ionospheric mass source at Saturn. In this paper we describe a case study of data from Saturn's magnetotail, when Cassini was located at ≃ 2200 h Saturn local time at 36 RS from Saturn. During several entries into the magnetotail lobe, tailward flowing cold electrons and a cold ion beam were observed directly adjacent to the plasma sheet and extending deeper into the lobe. The electrons and ions appear to be dispersed, dropping to lower energies with time. The composition of both the plasma sheet and lobe ions show very low fluxes (sometimes zero within measurement error) of water group ions. The magnetic field has a swept-forward configuration which is atypical for this region, and the total magnetic field strength is larger than expected at this distance from the planet. Ultraviolet auroral observations show a dawn brightening, and upstream heliospheric models suggest that the magnetosphere is being compressed by a region of high solar wind ram pressure. We interpret this event as the observation of ionospheric outflow in Saturn's magnetotail. We estimate a number flux between (2.95 ± 0.43) × 109 and (1.43 ± 0.21) × 1010 cm-2 s-1, 1 or about 2 orders of magnitude larger than suggested by steady state MHD models, with a mass source between 1.4 ×102 and 1.1 ×103 kg/s. After considering several configurations for the active atmospheric regions, we consider as most probable the main auroral oval, with associated mass source between 49.7 ±13.4 and 239.8 ±64.8 kg/s for an average auroral oval, and 10 ±4 and 49 ±23 kg/s for the specific auroral oval morphology found during this event. It is not clear how much of this mass is

  19. Clinical characteristics of patients with benign nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jiyeon Kim,1 Seong Hoon Kim,2 Sung Chul Lim,2 Woojun Kim,2 Young-Min Shon3 1Department of Neurology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan, 2Department of Neurology, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seocho-gu, 3Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Purpose: To evaluate the evolution of nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE-NL in patients treated exclusively with antiepileptic drugs and to elucidate clinical phenotypes related to the prognosis of these patients.Methods: Clinical, radiological, and electroencephalographic (EEG findings in 84 patients with TLE-NL were reviewed. A good response group (GRG and a poor response group (PRG were defined if the duration of their seizure-free period was >1 year, or <1 year, respectively.Results: There were 46 (54.8% patients in the GRG and 38 (45.2% patients in the PRG. The number of antiepileptic drugs administered was significantly lower in the GRG than that in the PRG (1.3±0.8 vs 2.8±1.0, respectively; P<0.05. The GRG had a significantly older age of onset than the PRG and a lower occurrence of initial precipitating events, such as febrile seizures, central nervous system infection, and head trauma (P<0.05. The prevalence of EEG abnormality, presence of aura, generalized seizures, and automatism was less frequently observed in the GRG (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were significantly associated with a poor prognosis (P<0.05.Conclusion: In contrast to the commonly assumed intractability of TLE, we found that more than 54% of patients with TLE-NL achieved a long seizure-free period. Older age at onset of TLE-NL was associated with a better prognosis. However, the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were related to a poor prognosis. Future prospective

  20. Depression in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Eleonora Borges Gonçalves

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the comorbidity of depressive disorders in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. METHOD: We evaluated 25 consecutive patients with refractory TLE (16 women and 9 men, using semi-structured psychiatric interviews, according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10, and the Beck Depression Inventory. RESULTS: Seventeen of 25 patients (68% had depressive disorder: 6 with dysthymia, three with major depressive episodes and 8 with recurrent depressive disorders. Two (8% were diagnosed with mixed anxiety and depression. Only 5 of 17 patients (29.4% were previously diagnosed with depressive disorder and received prior antidepressant treatment. Duration of epilepsy was significantly higher in patients with depressive disorder (p=0.016, but there was no relationship between depression and seizure frequency. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that depressive disorders are common and underdiagnosed in patients with TLE refractory to AEDs. Patients with longer duration of epilepsy are at higher risk of having depression.

  1. Coherent concepts are computed in the anterior temporal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Sage, Karen; Jones, Roy W; Mayberry, Emily J

    2010-02-01

    In his Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein famously noted that the formation of semantic representations requires more than a simple combination of verbal and nonverbal features to generate conceptually based similarities and differences. Classical and contemporary neuroscience has tended to focus upon how different neocortical regions contribute to conceptualization through the summation of modality-specific information. The additional yet critical step of computing coherent concepts has received little attention. Some computational models of semantic memory are able to generate such concepts by the addition of modality-invariant information coded in a multidimensional semantic space. By studying patients with semantic dementia, we demonstrate that this aspect of semantic memory becomes compromised following atrophy of the anterior temporal lobes and, as a result, the patients become increasingly influenced by superficial rather than conceptual similarities.

  2. Memory in children with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Catarina A. Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, memory deficit is not so well understood as it is in adults. The aim of this study was to identify and describe memory deficits in children with symptomatic TLE, and to verify the influence of epilepsy variables on memory. We evaluated 25 children with TLE diagnosed on clinical, EEG and MRI findings. Twenty-five normal children were compared with the patients. All children underwent a neuropsychological assessment to estimate intellectual level, attention, visual perception, handedness, and memory processes (verbal and visual: short-term memory, learning, and delayed recall. The results allowed us to conclude: besides memory deficits, other neuropsychological disturbances may be found in children with TLE such as attention, even in the absence of overall cognitive deficit; the earlier onset of epilepsy, the worse verbal stimuli storage; mesial lesions correlate with impairment in memory storage stage while neocortical temporal lesions correlate with retrieval deficits.

  3. Impaired executive functions in experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Ochai Ramos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The present study aimed to investigate cognitive and behavioural changes consistent with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD -like behavior in male Wistar rats with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Method Male Wistar rats at 25 day of age were submitted to animal model of TLE by pilocarpine injection (350 mg/kg, ip and a control group received saline 0.9%. The animals were continuously video monitored up to the end of experiments. The behavioural tests (open field, elevated plus maze and operant conditioning box started from 60 days postnatal. Results Animals with TLE exhibited elevated locomotor activity, reduced level of anxiety-related behavior, impulsivity and impaired visuospatial working memory. Conclusion Taken as a whole, we concluded that animals with TLE exhibited some cognitive and behavioural changes consistent with ADHD-like behavior.

  4. Accessory liver lobe of the gallbladder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handra-Luca, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    The accessory liver lobe (ALL) of the gallbladder wall is rare, mentioned by Meckel since 1822. We present two cases of ALL occurring in two adult women. The ALLs were diagnosed at microscopic examination of cholecystectomy specimens for lithiasic cholecystitis and were located at the gallbladder body level. They measured 0.5 and 1.1 cm and were pediculated from the gallbladder serosa. Luschka duct complexes were seen in the adjacent subserosa in one of the cases. The main clinical relevance of ALL of the gallbladder resides in the differential diagnosis with a lymph node and in the risk of peroperative hemorragia or bile leakage by sectioning of the connecting blood vessels and/or bile duct. Intraparietal ALL may interfere with dysmotility, possibly resulting in bile stagnation and stone formation. PMID:27147442

  5. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis of the Parietal Lobe: A Rare Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Lara; Moisi, Marc; Rostad, Steven; Umeh, Randle; Zwillman, Michael E; Tubbs, R. Shane; Page, Jeni; Newell, David W.; Delashaw, Johnny B

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old female with a history of breast cancer and hypertension presented with a rare case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) isolated to her left parietal lobe. The patient’s first biopsy was negative for herpes simplex virus (HSV) I/II antigens, but less than two weeks later, the patient tested positive on repeat biopsy. This initial failure to detect the virus and the similarities between HSE and symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) suggests repeat testing for HSV in the presence of ICH. Due to the frequency of patients with extra temporal HSE, a diagnosis of HSE should be more readily considered, particularly when a patient may not be improving and a concrete diagnosis has not been solidified. PMID:27774355

  6. Autism in siblings with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Tomoko; Kumada, Tomohiro; Saito, Keiko; Fujii, Tatsuya

    2013-02-01

    In 1999, Hirose et al. reported a Japanese family with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) associated with a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit mutation (S252L). We followed the siblings of this family, and found that the elder brother had Asperger's disorder without mental retardation (MR) and the younger brother had autistic disorder with profound MR. The clinical epileptic features of the siblings were very similar, and both had deficits in socialization, but their cognitive development differed markedly. It thus seems that epilepsy is the direct phenotype of the S252L mutation, whereas other various factors modulate the cognitive and social development. No patients with ADNFLE have previously been reported to have autism spectrum disorder or profound MR. PMID:22883468

  7. Changes in social emotion recognition following traumatic frontal lobe injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Teresa Martins; Luis Faísca; Francisco Esteves; Cláudia Sim(a)o; Mariline Gomes Justo; Angélica Muresan; Alexandra Reis

    2012-01-01

    Changes in social and emotional behaviour have been consistently observed in patients with traumatic brain injury. These changes are associated with emotion recognition deficits which represent one of the major barriers to a successful familiar and social reintegration. In the present study, 32 patients with traumatic brain injury, involving the frontal lobe, and 41 age- and education-matched healthy controls were analyzed. A Go/No-Go task was designed, where each participant had to recognize faces representing three social emotions (arrogance, guilt and jealousy). Results suggested that ability to recognize two social emotions (arrogance and jealousy) was significantly reduced in patients with traumatic brain injury, indicating frontal lesion can reduce emotion recognition ability. In addition, the analysis of the results for hemispheric lesion location (right, left or bilateral) suggested the bilateral lesion sub-group showed a lower accuracy on all social emotions.

  8. Occipital lobe epilepsy presenting as Charles Bonnet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Vargas, Damaris; Cienki, John J

    2012-11-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome describes visual field or acuity loss with complex hallucinations. This typically occurs in the elderly with preexisting visual impairment. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with acute hemianopsia and intermittent complex hallucinations. A 57-year-old man was referred for visual field loss and hallucinations. Chief complaint was “seeing little heads of people” and a right-sided visual loss. The patient was alert, oriented, and able to repeat and name and had fluent speech. On cranial nerve examination, he had 20/20 visual acuity and right homonymous hemianopsia. The patient had normal laboratory examination and electrocardiogram results. Results of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head with contrast were negative. Standard 30-minute electroencephalography revealed near-continuous epileptiform discharges in the left occipital lobe. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of new-onset seizure presenting as Charles Bonnet syndrome.

  9. Double Lobed Radio Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, W H; Becker, R H; White, R L

    2005-11-10

    We have combined a sample of 44 984 quasars, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 3, with the FIRST radio survey. Using a novel technique where the optical quasar position is matched to the complete radio environment within 450'', we are able to characterize the radio morphological make-up of what is essentially an optically selected quasar sample, regardless of whether the quasar (nucleus) itself has been detected in the radio. About 10% of the quasar population have radio cores brighter than 0.75 mJy at 1.4 GHz, and 1.7% have double lobed FR2-like radio morphologies. About 75% of the FR2 sources have a radio core (> 0.75mJy). A significant fraction ({approx}40%) of the FR2 quasars are bent by more than 10 degrees, indicating either interactions of the radio plasma with the ICM or IGM. We found no evidence for correlations with redshift among our FR2 quasars: radio lobe flux densities and radio source diameters of the quasars have similar distributions at low (mean 0.77) and high (mean 2.09) redshifts. Using a smaller high reliability FR2 sample of 422 quasars and two comparison samples of radio-quiet and non-FR2 radio-loud quasars, matched in their redshift distributions, we constructed composite optical spectra from the SDSS spectroscopic data. Based on these spectra we can conclude that the FR2 quasars have stronger high-ionization emission lines compared to both the radio quiet and non-FR2 radio loud sources. This is consistent with the notion that the emission lines are brightened by ongoing shock ionization of ambient gas in the quasar host as the radio source expands.

  10. [Microtumor presenting with temporal lobe epilepsy--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, M; Jimbo, M; Yamamoto, M; Tanaka, N; Takeyama, E; Kubo, O

    1988-04-01

    A 15-year-old girl was admitted to our clinic on July 16, 1985 with the epilepsy which had been resistant to various anticonvulsant therapies. At the age of 10 years automatism seizure, characterized by purposeless movement of arms and head of which the patient was unaware, began to occur and became as frequent as two to three times each day. From the age of 13 years, there were also grand mal seizures several times a year in spite of medical treatment. She had normal delivery and no history of febrile convulsion. There was no family history of epilepsy or mental disease. When examined on admission, she had normal personality and intelligence. There was no neurological abnormality. She complained of sleepiness and hirsutiness. Fit of automatism occurred two to three times a day during admission, though the blood levels of anticonvulsant drugs such as phenobarbital, phenytoin and carbamazepine reached to therapeutic concentration. EEG examination including infratemporal lead recording showed right temporal spike focus. But all the neuroradiological studies such as skull X-rays, CT, cerebral angiography and magnetic resonance imaging failed to show abnormal finding. Right temporal lobectomy was carried out under general anesthesia on Aug 22, 1985, and anterior two-thirds of the middle and the inferior temporal gyri were resected deeply to anterior hippocampus. To the naked eye, no abnormal finding was noted during the operation. In the surgical specimen, macroscopically nothing abnormal was found. Microscopically, serial sections of the lobe revealed clusters of oligodendroglial cells in cortical to subcortical region of the medial basal part of the temporal lobe.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Helicobacter infection in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Ying Xuan; Ning Li; Xin Qiang; Rong-Rong Zhou; Yong-Xin Shi; Wen-Jie Jiang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Helicobacter species (Helicobacter spp.) could be detected in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue.METHODS: Liver samples from 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed by histopathology were studied. Twenty-two patients with other liver diseases (5 with liver trauma, 7 with cavernous liver hemangioma, 6 with liver cyst and 4 with hepatolithiasis), 25 patients with gastric cancer, 15 with colonic cancer and 15 with myoma of uterus served as controls. Two piceces of biopsy were obtained from each patient. One was cultured for Helicobacter spp. and extraction of DNA, the other was prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in situ hybridization. The samples were cultured on Columbia agar plates with microaerobic techniques. Helicobacter spp. in biopsy from the studied subjects was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with Helicobacter spp. 16S rRNA primers. Amplified products were identified by Southern hybridization and sequenced further. Besides, other genes (vacA, cagA) specific for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) were also detected by PCR. Helicobacter spp. in biopsies was observed by SEM. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to identify the cultured positive Helicobacter spp. The presence of Helicobacter spp. was detected by in situ hybridization to confirm the type of Helicobacter.RESULTS: The positive rate of Helicobacter cultured in HCC and gastric cancer tissue was 10.7% (3/28) and 24%(6/25), respectively. Helicobacter microorganisms were identified further by typical appearance on Gram staining, positive urease test and characteristic colony morphology on TEM. The bacterium was observed in adjacent hepatocytes of the two HCC samples by SEM.The number of cocci was greater than that of bacilli. The bacterium was also found in four gastric cancer samples.PCR showed that the positive rate of HCC and gastric cancer samples was 60.7% and 72% respectively, while the controls were negative

  12. Feasibility of the Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy index (MTAi) and derived methods for measuring atrophy of the medial temporal lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo Bayón, Francisco; Maese, Jesús; Fernandez Oliveira, Aníbal; Mesas, Tamara; Herrera de la Llave, Estibaliz; Álvarez Avellón, Tania; Menéndez-González, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Medial Temporal-lobe Atrophy index (MTAi), 2D-Medial Temporal Atrophy (2D-MTA), yearly rate of MTA (yrRMTA) and yearly rate of relative MTA (yrRMTA) are simple protocols for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in relation to the global brain atrophy. Albeit preliminary studies showed interest of these methods in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD) and correlation with cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD), formal feasibility and validity studies remained pending. As a first step, we aimed to assess the feasibility. Mainly, we aimed to assess the reproducibility of measuring the areas needed to compute these indices. We also aimed to assess the efforts needed to start using these methods correctly. Methods: A series of 290 1.5T-MRI studies from 230 subjects ranging 65–85 years old who had been studied for cognitive impairment were used in this study. Six inexperienced tracers (IT) plus one experienced tracer (ET) traced the three areas needed to compute the indices. Finally, tracers underwent a short survey on their experience learning to compute the MTAi and experience of usage, including items relative to training time needed to understand and apply the MTAi, time to perform a study after training and overall satisfaction. Results: Learning to trace the areas needed to compute the MTAi and derived methods is quick and easy. Results indicate very good intrarater Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for the MTAi, good intrarater ICC for the 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA and also good interrater ICC for the MTAi, 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA. Conclusion: Our data support that MTAi and derived methods (2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRTMA) have good to very good intrarater and interrater reproducibility and may be easily implemented in clinical practice even if new users have no experience tracing the area of regions of interest. PMID:25414666

  13. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andolino, David L., E-mail: dandolin@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Johnson, Cynthia S. [Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Maluccio, Mary [Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Kwo, Paul [Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Tector, A. Joseph [Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Zook, Jennifer; Johnstone, Peter A.S.; Cardenes, Higinia R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2009, 60 patients with liver-confined HCC were treated with SBRT at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center: 36 Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) Class A and 24 CTP Class B. The median number of fractions, dose per fraction, and total dose, was 3, 14 Gy, and 44 Gy, respectively, for those with CTP Class A cirrhosis and 5, 8 Gy, and 40 Gy, respectively, for those with CTP Class B. Treatment was delivered via 6 to 12 beams and in nearly all cases was prescribed to the 80% isodose line. The records of all patients were reviewed, and treatment response was scored according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Local control (LC), time to progression (TTP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier. Results: The median follow-up time was 27 months, and the median tumor diameter was 3.2 cm. The 2-year LC, PFS, and OS were 90%, 48%, and 67%, respectively, with median TTP of 47.8 months. Subsequently, 23 patients underwent transplant, with a median time to transplant of 7 months. There were no {>=}Grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities. Thirteen percent of patients experienced an increase in hematologic/hepatic dysfunction greater than 1 grade, and 20% experienced progression in CTP class within 3 months of treatment. Conclusions: SBRT is a safe, effective, noninvasive option for patients with HCC {<=}6 cm. As such, SBRT should be considered when bridging to transplant or as definitive therapy for those ineligible for transplant.

  14. Targeting cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He AR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiwu Ruth He,1 Daniel C Smith,1 Lopa Mishra2 1Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The poor outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is attributed to recurrence of the disease after curative treatment and the resistance of HCC cells to conventional chemotherapy, which may be explained partly by the function of liver cancer stem cells (CSCs. Liver CSCs have emerged as an important therapeutic target against HCC. Numerous surface markers for liver CSCs have been identified, and include CD133, CD90, CD44, CD13, and epithelial cell adhesion molecules. These surface markers serve not only as tools for identifying and isolating liver CSCs but also as therapeutic targets for eradicating these cells. In studies of animal models and large-scale genomic analyses of human HCC samples, many signaling pathways observed in normal stem cells have been found to be altered in liver CSCs, which accounts for the stemness and aggressive behavior of these cells. Antibodies and small molecule inhibitors targeting the signaling pathways have been evaluated at different levels of preclinical and clinical development. Another strategy is to promote the differentiation of liver CSCs to less aggressive HCC that is sensitive to conventional chemotherapy. Disruption of the tumor niche essential for liver CSC homeostasis has become a novel strategy in cancer treatment. To overcome the challenges in developing treatment for liver CSCs, more research into the genetic makeup of patient tumors that respond to treatment may lead to more effective therapy. Standardization of HCC CSC tumor markers would be helpful for measuring the CSC response to these agents. Herein, we review the current strategies for developing treatment to eradicate liver CSCs and to improve the outcome for patients with

  15. Angiogenesis in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarapurkar Anjali

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Angiogenesis has been well documented in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. As liver cirrhosis is considered preneoplastic condition, the aim of this study was to evaluate the process of angiogenesis using CD 34 as an endothelial cell marker in normal liver, cirrhosis and HCC. Materials and Methods: A total of 111 cases were included in this study, which consisted of 30 cases each of normal liver and cirrhosis that were all autopsy cases. Twenty-one cases of HCC included 10 autopsy specimens, nine surgically resected specimens and two liver biopsies. Remaining were 30 cases of metastasis to the liver, which included 20 autopsy specimens, one surgically resected specimen and nine liver biopsies. The patients were between the age range from 17 to 80 years with 70 males and 11 females. Paraffin-embedded liver sections of all these cases were stained routinely by hematoxylin-eosin stain, while immunohistochemistry for CD 34 was performed for expression of endothelial cells. The positivity of CD 34 staining was evaluated by counting in 10 high-power field, grading was done from 0 to 4 and compared between normal liver, cirrhosis and HCC and metastasis. Results: CD 34 was positive in 16/30 (53.3% cases of cirrhosis, 18/21 (85% cases of HCC and 26 (86.6% of metastasis to the liver. None of the normal liver showed any positivity. Grade 3 to 4 positivity was seen in 4/16 (25% and 13/18 (72% cases of cirrhosis and HCC, respectively. Amongst these, 10 were moderately differentiated, one well differentiated and rest two were fibrolamellar and sarcomatoid variants of HCC. Conclusion: Over expression of endothelial cell marker CD 34 with gradual progression was found from normal liver to cirrhosis to HCC and metastasis. Understanding of this process of angiogenesis might help in the design of efficient and safe antiangiogenic therapy for these liver disorders.

  16. HLA expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadee, A A; Paterson, A; Coplan, K A; Reddy, S G

    1994-08-01

    The present study undertook to investigate the biological significance of human leucocyte antigen expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and to elucidate the role of potential modulating agents on human leucocyte antigen expression. These studies used several hepatic tumour-derived cell lines as in vitro model systems. The cell lines included PLC/PRF/5 (Alexander cell line), Hep3B, HepG2, TONG PHC, HA22T/VGH, HA59T/VGH and Mahlavu. The cell lines K562 and Raji were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. K562, a B lymphoid-derived cell line, was shown to express negligible amounts of human leucocyte antigens, while Raji, an erythromyeloid-derived cell line, expressed both class I and class II human leucocyte antigens as well as their respective invariant chains, beta 2-microglobulin and Ii. Using an ELISA, experiments performed on these cell lines confirmed the natural expression of class I and class II antigens by the HA22T/VGH and HA59T/VGH cell lines, whereas PLC/PRF/5 displayed class II surface antigens only. The effects of modulating agents such as interferon-gamma sodium butyrate and clofazimine on human leucocyte antigen expression were investigated using the HA22T/VGH, HA59T/VGH and TONG PHC cell lines. These agents increased class II and class II human leucocyte antigen expression on HA22T/VGH and TONG PHC cells, but had no effect on the HA59T/VGH cell line. The results suggest a potential use for these agents as modulators of human leucocyte antigen expression by human heptocellular cell lines.

  17. Characteristics and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of complicated febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, K; Takuji, N; Kawasaki, J; Kawai, I

    1998-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the close correlation between complicated febrile convulsions (CFC) and medial temporal lobe epilepsy and to delineate characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were divided into those with a prior episode of CFC (n=52), those with febrile convulsions other than CFC, and those without either (n=345). Clinical constellations, neuroimaging, drug resistance, and effects of temporal lobectomy of the three groups were compared. A close association between CFC and temporal lobe epilepsy was confirmed. The salient features of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC were early age at onset of habitual seizures (about 10 years), the predominance of autonomic auras, and a high incidence of MRI evidence of unilateral medial temporal sclerosis. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with prior CFC had an excellent outcome after surgery, by contrast with an unfavourable response to drug therapy. The surgical results were discouraging in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy without history of any febrile convulsions and without solid brain tumours. These results indicate surgical intervention as the choice of therapy in a substantial number of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of CFC. PMID:9489540

  18. Frontal Lobe Involvement in a Task of Time-Based Prospective Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Craig P.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    Time-based prospective memory (PM) has been found to be negatively affected by aging, possibly as a result of declining frontal lobe (FL) function. Despite a clear retrospective component to PM tasks, the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are thought to play only a secondary role in successful task completion. The present study investigated the role of…

  19. Cerebral metabolic changes (F-18-FDG PET) during selective anterior temporal lobe amobarbital test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N; Hajek, M; Antonini, A; Maguire, P; Muller, S; Valavanis, A; Leenders, KL; Regard, M; Schiess, R; Wieser, HG

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral glucose utilisation using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18-FDG PET) was measured in 4 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy during a selective anterior temporal lobe (TL) amobarbital test (ATLAT) and compared with their baseline values. F-18-FDG was injected intrave

  20. Intermittent torsion of accessory hepatic lobe: An unusual cause of recurrent right upper quadrant pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambhekar Kedar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessory lobe of the liver is a rare congenital anomaly that can undergo torsion and present as an acute surgical emergency. It is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. We report the preoperative utility of CT scan and MRI in the diagnosis and surgical planning of a case of intermittent accessory hepatic lobe torsion.

  1. On the vorticity characteristics of lobe-forced mixer at different configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    mao, R.; Yu, S.C.M.; Zhou, T.; Chua, L.P.

    2009-01-01

    Lobe-forced mixer is one typical example of the passive flow controllers owing to its corrugated trailing edge. Besides the spanwise Kelvin–Helmholtz vortex shedding, streamwise vortices are also generated within its mixing layer. The geometrical configuration of the lobe significantly affects these

  2. Intermittent torsion of accessory hepatic lobe: An unusual cause of recurrent right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accessory lobe of the liver is a rare congenital anomaly that can undergo torsion and present as an acute surgical emergency. It is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. We report the preoperative utility of CT scan and MRI in the diagnosis and surgical planning of a case of intermittent accessory hepatic lobe torsion

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in dementia patients with frontal lobe symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, Mala; Geitung, Jonn-Terje (Dept. of Geriatrics, Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Bergen (Norway)), e-mail: mnaik@broadpark.no; Lundervold, Arvid (Dept. of Biomedicine, Univ. of Bergen (Norway)); Nygaard, Harald (Olaviken Hospital (Norway))

    2010-07-15

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recent MRI technique demonstrating white matter tracts in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease and this method has been used to demonstrate the loss of axonal fibers and myelin and decrease of fiber density in this condition. Purpose: To study a possible correlation between frontal lobe symptoms in patients with dementia and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter/fascicles in the frontal lobes. Material and Methods: The study included 23 patients with dementia and frontal lobe symptoms and 20 controls (10 Alzheimer patients without frontal lobe symptoms and 10 normal controls). Clinical tests and MRI with DTI were performed. FA in subcortical white matter of both the frontal lobes was analyzed and correlated with clinical frontal score tests. Results: We found a significant correlation between frontal score results and reduction in FA in the frontal lobes. The FA in the study group was significantly lower than the FA in the control group. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is a probable correlation between the extent of frontal lobe symptoms and FA in fascicles/white matter tissue in the frontal lobes

  4. Evaluation of the anatomical correlation between biliary branches of the left lobe of the liver and the umbilical portion of the portal vein (UP) by CT with injection of contrast material into biliary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kazuo [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Shinohara, Yasushi; Amano, Hodaka; Okazumi, Shinichi; Asano, Takehide; Isono, Kaichi; Ryu, Munemasa

    1995-12-01

    We analyzed anatomical correlation between biliary trees of the left lobe of the liver and the umbilical portion of the portal vein (UP) by CT with injection of contrast material into biliary tract through the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tube (Cholangio-CT). Cholangio-CT was performed in 27 patients with obstructive jaundice. In 15 cases out of these 27 cases, left lateral superior subsegment branch (B2) and left lateral inferior subsegment branch (B3) originated in the right side of UP and ran in the cranial side of UP. In 6 cases, B2 and B3 arose in the cranial side of UP from the common duct of B2 and B3. In 5 cases, B2 and B3 arose in the left side of UP from the common duct which ran in the cranial side of UP. In one patient, B3 ran in the caudate side of UP. In 10 out of 27 cases, a bile duct branch which originated and ran in the cranial side of UP was depicted. It was not clear whether this branch belonged to medial segment branch or B3. (author).

  5. White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe suggest the side of the seizure foci in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe (WAATL) are sometimes observed on magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Our purpose was to determine whether WAATL could indicate if the seizure foci are ipsilateral on electroencephalograms (EEG) in TLE patients. We reviewed 112 consecutive patients with medically intractable TLE. We compared the side of seizure foci on EEG (preoperative and intraoperative) and MR images. Both loss of gray-white matter demarcation and increased signal intensity changes in the anterior white matter (positive WAATL) were observed in 54 of 112 patients (48.2%) with TLE. WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on preoperative intracranial EEG with subdural electrodes (iEEG) and on intraoperative electrocorticography (ECG) in all the patients. In 47 patients, MR images showed WAATL and focal lesions that were possibly epileptogenic for TLE. In 2 of the 47 patients, the seizure foci on iEEG and ECG were contralateral to the focal lesion; in the remaining 45 patients, the seizure foci on surface EEG (sEEG) and ECG and the focal lesion were on the same side. In three patients, no focal lesions were seen but WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on sEEG and ECG. In four patients, MR images showed focal lesions for which epileptogenicity was questionable, and WAATL on the same side as the seizure foci on EEG. WAATL are clinically useful because they indicate the side of the seizure foci. (orig.)

  6. White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe suggest the side of the seizure foci in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Y.; Yagishita, A. [Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan); Arai, N. [Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Institute, Department of Clinical Neuropathology, Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe (WAATL) are sometimes observed on magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Our purpose was to determine whether WAATL could indicate if the seizure foci are ipsilateral on electroencephalograms (EEG) in TLE patients. We reviewed 112 consecutive patients with medically intractable TLE. We compared the side of seizure foci on EEG (preoperative and intraoperative) and MR images. Both loss of gray-white matter demarcation and increased signal intensity changes in the anterior white matter (positive WAATL) were observed in 54 of 112 patients (48.2%) with TLE. WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on preoperative intracranial EEG with subdural electrodes (iEEG) and on intraoperative electrocorticography (ECG) in all the patients. In 47 patients, MR images showed WAATL and focal lesions that were possibly epileptogenic for TLE. In 2 of the 47 patients, the seizure foci on iEEG and ECG were contralateral to the focal lesion; in the remaining 45 patients, the seizure foci on surface EEG (sEEG) and ECG and the focal lesion were on the same side. In three patients, no focal lesions were seen but WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on sEEG and ECG. In four patients, MR images showed focal lesions for which epileptogenicity was questionable, and WAATL on the same side as the seizure foci on EEG. WAATL are clinically useful because they indicate the side of the seizure foci. (orig.)

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma: perfusion quantification with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taouli, B.; Johnson, R.S.; Hajdu, C.H.; Oei, M.T.H.; Merad, M.; Yee, H.; Rusinek, H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of our study was to report our initial experience with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) for perfusion quantification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and surrounding liver.DCE-MRI of the liver was prospectively performed on 31 patients with HCC (male-female ratio, 26:5; mean ag

  8. Peanut butter consumption and hepatocellular carcinoma in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Hadi Omer, R.

    2001-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world with 80% of cases occurring in developing countries in sub-Saharan regions in Africa, South-East Asia and China. The cancer is highly fatal and survival is generally less than 1 year from diagnosis. Clinical records suggest

  9. Cerebral lipiodol embolism following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral lipiodol embolism (CLE) is an extremely rare complication of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The authors present a case of CLE that occurred after the second hepatic arterial chemoembolization for HCC, and attempt to introduce several plausible mechanisms of CLE, after reporting the clinical and radiological findings and reviewing the medical literature.

  10. The Correlation between Gene Polymorphism and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The association of gene polymorphism and susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been widely studied in recent years. Gene mutations are closely related to HCC. Understanding and measuring the gene mutations are useful to reduce the incidence of HCC and improve its prognosis.

  11. Mechanisms and signiifcance of lipoprotein(a) in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Ting Jiang; Chang-Ping Wu; Ning Xu; Xue-Guang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of plasma apolipoproteins, endogenous lipids and lipoproteins. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common fatal malignant tumors in China and in other Southeast Asian countries. It has been demonstrated that plasma lipid proifles are changed in liver cancer. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE database search was performed to identify relevant articles using the keywords "hepatocellular carcinoma" and "lipoprotein(a)". The search was conducted and research articles were reviewed from 1960 to 2008. RESULTS: Production and homeostasis of lipids, apo-lipoproteins and lipoproteins depend on the integrity of hepatocellular functions, which ensures normal lipid and lipoprotein metabolismin vivo. When hepatocellular injury or liver cancer occurs these processes can be impaired. It has been suggested that plasma levels of apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) and/or lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) may be considered as sensitive markers of hepatic impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma levels of apo(a) and Lp(a) display signiifcant correlations with hepatic status. Most studies demonstrated that the plasma levels of apo(a) and Lp(a) can be considered as an additional clinical index of liver function.

  12. Hepatocellular adenocarcinoma in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    OpenAIRE

    Placke, M E; Roscoe, D E; Wyand, D S; Nielsen, S. W.

    1982-01-01

    A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), shot during the 1978-79 New Jersey hunting season, was presented with an enlarged, multinodular liver and numerous skin growths. The skin lesions were found to be fibromas and the liver tumor was identified as a hepatocellular adenocarcinoma, a rare neoplasm, not only in deer but all wild animals.

  13. Loss of fragile histidine triad protein in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Po Zhao; Xin Song; Yuan-Yuan Nin; Ya-Li Lu; Xiang-Hong Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene protein, Fhit, which is recently thought to be a candidate tumor suppressor. Abnormal expression of fragile histidine triad has been found in a variety of human cancers,but little is known about its expression in human hepatocellular carcinogenesis and evolution.METHODS: Sections of 83 primary human hepatocellular carcionoma with corresponding para-neoplastic liver tissue and 10 normal liver tissue were evaluated immunohistochemically for Fhit protein expression.RESULTS: All normal liver tissue and para-neoplastic liver tissue showed a strong expression of Fhit, whereas 50 of 83(65.0 %) carcinomas showed a marked loss or absence of Fhit expression. The differences of Fhit expression between carcinoma and normal or para-neoplastic liver tissue werehighly significant (P=0.000). The proportion of carcinomas with reduced Fhit expression showed an increasing trend (a) with decreasing differentiation or higher histological grade (P=0.219); (b) in tumors with higher clinical stage Ⅲ and ⅣV (91.3 %, P=0.000), compared with tumors with lower stage Ⅰ and Ⅱ (27.6 %); and (c) in cancers with bigger tumor size (>50 mm) (75.0 %, P=0.017), compared withsmaller tumor size (≤ 50 mm). CONCLUSION: FHIT inactivation seems to be both an earlyand a later event, associated with carcinogenesis andprogression to more aggressive hepatocellular carcinomas.Thus, evaluation of Fhit expression by immunohistochemistryin hepatocellular carcinoma may provide important diagnosticand prognostic information in clinical application.

  14. Systematic review of hepatocellular adenoma in China and other regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Lin; J. van den Esschert; C. Liu; T.M. van Gulik

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a benign liver neoplasm with a risk of spontaneous bleeding and malignant transformation. The aim of this review article is to review all the case reports and case series of patients with HCA from 1998 to 2008 in China and other parts of the world in order to compare

  15. The glucagon test in obstructive and hepatocellular jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Berstock, David A.; Wood, John R.; Williams, Roger,

    1982-01-01

    The plasma glucose response to an intravenous bolus of glucagon was examined in patients with obstructive jaundice, hepatocellular jaundice and in healthy volunteers. Plasma glucose levels were determined before and at 15, 30 and 45 min after glucagon. The glucose response to glucagon differed markedly in the two patient groups with significantly higher plasma glucose values in the obstructive jaundice group.

  16. High immunosuppressive burden in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lugade, Amit A.; Kalathil, Suresh; Miller, Austin; Iyer, Renuka; Thanavala, Yasmin

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of immunosuppressive cells and exhausted effector T cells highlight an important immune dysfunction in advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. These cells significantly hamper the efficacy immunotherapies and facilitate HCC progression. We have recently demonstrated that the multipronged depletion of immunosuppressive cells potentially restores effector T-cell function in HCC.

  17. Superior liver sparing by combined coplanar/noncoplanar volumetric-modulated arc therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: A planning and feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Chiao-Ling; Hsu, Feng-Ming [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jian-Kuen, Wu [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chien-Jang, Wu [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien, E-mail: jasoncheng@ntu.edu.tw [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-01

    Compared with step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (sIMRT) and tomotherapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) allows additional arc configurations in treatment planning and noncoplanar (NC) delivery. This study was first to compare VMAT planning with sIMRT planning, and the second to evaluate the toxicity of coplanar (C)/NC-VMAT treatment in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fifteen patients with HCC (7 with left-lobe and 8 with right-lobe tumors) were planned with C-VMAT, C/NC-VMAT, and sIMRT. The median total dose was 49 Gy (range: 40 to 56 Gy), whereas the median fractional dose was 3.5 Gy (range: 3 to 8 Gy). Different doses/fractionations were converted to normalized doses of 2 Gy per fraction using an α/β ratio of 2.5. The mean liver dose, volume fraction receiving more than 10 Gy (V10), 20 Gy (V20), 30 Gy (V30), effective volume (V{sub eff}), and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) were compared. C/NC-VMAT in 6 patients was evaluated for delivery accuracy and treatment-related toxicity. Compared with sIMRT, both C-VMAT (p = 0.001) and C/NC-VMAT (p = 0.03) had significantly improved target conformity index. Compared with C-VMAT and sIMRT, C/NC-VMAT for treating left-lobe tumors provided significantly better liver sparing as evidenced by differences in mean liver dose (p = 0.03 and p = 0.007), V10 (p = 0.003 and p = 0.009), V20 (p = 0.006 and p = 0.01), V30 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.002), V{sub eff} (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001), and EUD (p = 0.04 and p = 0.003), respectively. For right-lobe tumors, there was no difference in liver sparing between C/NC-VMAT, C-VMAT, and sIMRT. In all patients, dose to more than 95% of target points met the 3%/3 mm criteria. All 6 patients tolerated C/NC-VMAT and none of them had treatment-related ≥ grade 2 toxicity. The C/NC-VMAT can be used clinically for HCC and provides significantly better liver sparing in patients with left-lobe tumors.

  18. Serum tumor markers for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhou; Jia Liu; Feng Luo

    2006-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent malignant tumors and is the second most common cause of cancer death in China. Therefore, it is very important to detect this disease and the recurrence at its earlier period. Serum tumor markers, as the effective method for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma for a long time, could be divided into 4 categories:oncofetal antigens and glycoprotein antigens; enzymes and isoenzymes; genes; and cytokines. Serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker in detecting patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, and has been proven to have capability of prefiguring the prognosis. However, it has been indicated that AFP-L3and DCP excel AFP in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from nonmalignant hepatopathy and detecting small hepatocellular carcinoma. Some tumor markers, such as human cervical cancer oncogene and human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA, have also been indicated to have higher accuracies than AFP. Furthermore, some other tumor markers, such as glypican-3, gamma-glutamyl transferase Ⅱ, alpha-Ⅰ-fucosidase, transforming growth factor-beta1, tumor-specific growth factor, have been indicated to be available supplementaries to AFP in the detection. AFP mRNA has been shown to correlate with the metastasis and recurrence of HCC, and it may be the most useful marker to prefigure the prognosis. Some other markers,such as gamma-glutamyl transferase mRNA, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin-8, could also be used as available prognostic indicators, and the simultaneous determination of AFP and these markers may detect the recurrence of HCC at its earlier period.

  19. Increased nociceptin/orphanin FQ plasma levels in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferenc Szalay; Mónika B Hantos; Andrea Horvath; Peter L. Lakatos; Aniko Folhoffer; Kinga Dunkel; Dalma Hegedus; Kornélia Tekes

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The heptadecapeptide nociceptin alias orphanin FQ is the endogenous agonist of opioid receptor-like1 receptor.It is involved in modulation of pain and cognition. High blood level was reported in patients with acute and chronic pain,and in Wilson disease. An accidental observation led us to investigate nociceptin in hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: Plasma nociceptin level was measured by radioimmunoassay, aprotinin was used as protease inhibitor.Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed by laboratory,ultrasound, other imaging, and confirmed by fine needle biopsy. Results were compared to healthy controls and patients with other chronic liver diseases.RESULTS: Although nociceptin levels were elevated in patients with Wilson disease (14.0±2.7 pg/mL, n=26),primary biliary cirrhosis (12.1±3.2 pg/mL, n=21) and liver cirrhosis (12.8±4.0 pg/mL, n=15) compared to the healthy controls (9.2±1.8 pg/mL, n=29, P<0.001 for each), in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma a ten-fold increase was found (105.9±14.4 pg/mL, n=29, P<0.0001). High plasma levels were found in each hepatocellular carcinoma patient including those with normal alpha fetoprotein and those with pain (104.9±14.9 pg/mL, n=12) and without (107.7±14.5pg/mL, n=6).CONCLUSION: A very high nociceptin plasma level seems to be an indicator for hepatocellular carcinoma. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism and clinical significance of this novel finding.

  20. Risk Analysis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-fang Jia; Meng Su; Miao He; Zhi-hua Yin; Wei Wu; Xue-lian Li; Peng Guan; Bao-sen Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Objective: It is known that chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a main risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To assess the effect of HBV infection and its interaction with other factors on the risk for HCC, a hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Northeast China. Methods: A total of 384 cases with hepatocellular carcinoma and 432 controls without evidence of liver diseases were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected to detect the serum markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and questionnaires about lifestyle and family tumor history were performed in all subjects. Results: The total infection rate of HBV in hepatocellular carcinoma cases was 70.8% and 10.0% in non-liver disease controls. There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.0001) between cases and controls (OR= 22.0; 95%CI:15.0-32.3). Interaction analysis indicated that in HBV chronic carriers with HCV infection or alcohol consumption or family HCC history, the risk for HCC increased (OR=41.1, 95%CI: 20.2-83.9, OR=125.0, 95%CI: 66.5-235.2; OR=56.9, 95%CI: 27.2-119.3 respectively). In addition, hepatitis B history, HCV infection, hepatic cirrhosis and family history of HCC were also potential HCC independent risk factors. Conclusion: We confirmed that HBV is a chief risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma and accounts for 67.7% of all hepatocellular carcinoma in Northeast China. HCV infection, alcohol intake and family history could enhance the risk for HCC in chronic HBV carriers.

  1. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma by Egyptian physicians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahar; M; Hassany; Ehab; F; Abdou; Moustafa; Mohamed; El; Taher; Afaf; Adel; Abdeltwab; Hubert; E; Blum

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the practice of Egyptian physicians in screening patients for hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). METHODS: The study included 154 physicians from all over Egypt caring for patients at risk for HCC. The study was based on a questionnaire with 20 items. Each questionnaire consisted of two parts:(1) personal information regarding the physician(name, age, specialty and type of health care setting); and(2) professional experience in the care of patients at risk for HCC development(screening, knowledge about the cause and natural course of liver diseases and HCC risk). RESULTS: Sixty-eight percent of doctors with an MD degree, 48% of doctors with a master degree or a diploma and 40% of doctors with a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery certificate considered the hepatitis C virus(HCV) genotype as risk factor for HCC development(P < 0.05). Ninety percent of physicians specialized in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology and 67% of physicians in other specialties advise patients to undergo screening for HCV and hepatitis B virus infection as well as liver cirrhosis(P < 0.05). Eighty-six percent of doctors in University Hospitals and 69% of Ministry of Health(MOH) doctors consider HCV infection as the leading cause of HCC in Egypt(P < 0.05). Seventy-two percent of doctors with an MD degree, 55% of doctors with a master degree or a diploma, 56% of doctors with an MBBCH certificate, 74% of doctors in University Hospitals and 46% of MOH hospital doctors consider abdominal ultrasonography as the most important investigation in HCC screening(P < 0.05). Sixty-five percent of physicians in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology and 37% of physicians in other specialties recommend as HCC screening interval of 3 mo(P < 0.05). Seventy-one percent of doctors with an MD degree, 50% of doctors with a master degree or diploma and 60% of doctors with an MBBCH certificate follow the same recommendation.CONCLUSION: In Egypt, physicians

  2. The prognostic molecular markers in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun-Xiu Qin; Zhao-You Tang

    2002-01-01

    The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stillremains dismal, although many advances in its clinicalstudy have been made. It is important for tumor control toidentity the factors that predispose patients to death. Withnew discoveries in cancer biology, the pathological andbiological prognostic factors of HCC have been studied quiteextensively. Analyzing molecular markers (biomarkers) withprognostic significance is a complementary method. A largenumber of molecular factors have been shown to associatewith the invasiveness of HCC, and have potential prognosticsignificance. One important aspect is the analysis ofmolecular markers for the cellular malignancy phenotypeThese include alterations in DNA ploidy, cellularproliferation markers (PCNA, Ki-67, Mcm2, MIB1, MIA, andCSE1L/CAS protein), nuclear morphology, the p53 geneand its related molecule MDM2, other cell cycle regulators(cyclin A, cyclin D, cyclin E, cdc2, p27, p73), oncogenesand their receptors (such as ras, c-myc, c-fms, HGF, c-met, and erb-B receptor family members ), apoptosisrelated factors (Fas and FasL), as well as telomeraseactivity. Another important aspect is the analysis ofmolecular markers involved in the process of cancerinvasion and metastasis. Adhesion molecules (E-cadherin,catenins, serum intercellular adhesion molecule-1, CD44variants), proteinases involved in the clegradation ofextracellular matrix (MMP-2, MMP-9, uPA, uPAR, PAl), aswell as other molecules have been regarded as biomarkersfor the malignant phenotype of HCC, and are related toprognosis and therapeutic outcomes. Tumor angiogenesisis critical to both the growth and metastasis of cancersincluding HCC, and has drawn much attention in recentyears. Many angiogenesis-related markers, such as vascularendothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growthfactor (bFGF), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor( PD-ECGF ), thrombospondin ( TSP ), angiogenin,pleiotrophin, and endostatin (ES) levels, as well asinratumor

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia: Prevention strategy andplanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To review all of epidemiological and etiologicalaspects of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and examinedthe prevention of this disease in Asia.METHODS: We conducted a systematic reviewaccording to the PRISMA guidelines. We were chosenarticles that published previously, from PubMed(MEDLINE), the Cochrane database and Scopus. Thekey words used in this research were as follows: HCCin Asia and the way of prevention of this disease, withno language limitations. We selected those paperspublished before 2014 that we considered to be mostimportant and appropriate. All relevant articles wereaccessed in full text and all relevant materials wasevaluated and reviewed.RESULTS: More than 70% of all new cases of livercancer were diagnosed in Asia, a region that 75% of allthose chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV)in the world. Chronic HBV infection is the main causeof HCC in Asia, where the virus is endemic and verticaltransmissionis common. Japan, Saudi Arabia, Egyptand Pakistan are exception because of high prevalenceof HCV infection in these regions. The prevalence of thiscancer is high in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, ButMiddle Eastern countries are characterized as moderateprevalence rate of HCC region and Central Asia andsome part of Middle Eastern countries are known as lowprevalence rate of HCC. In addition of HBV and HCVthe other factors such as aflatoxin, alcohol, obesity,diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)might be responsible for a low prevalence of HCC inAsian countries. Currently available HCC therapies,chemotherapy, surgical are inefficient, mainly due tousually late diagnosis and high recurrence rates aftersurgical resection, and usually end with treatmentfailure. Liver transplantation also remains as a difficultstrategy in patients with HCC. Thus prevention of HCCby treating and prevention HBV and HCV infection,the major causative agents of HCC, and the other risk factors such as aflatoxin, alcohol, obesity

  4. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders frequently appear in childhood. There is often lack of objective data to support a specific clinical diagnosis. Ultimately it is likely that alterations in production, concentration, storage, release, reuptake and degradation of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid play key roles in the manifestations of mood disorders. We sought to determine if more gross anatomic patterns of regional brain activation in a 'baseline' state might also supply an objective means of verifying the presence of a mood disorder characterized by anger or aggressive behavior. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred for SPECT brain imaging with the diagnosis of an attention deficit disorder or autism. All had been reported as having temper problems on the routine questionnaire completed by the parents prior to SPECT imaging. The patients, who were not sedated, had absolute cerebral blood flow measured by the xenon 133 gas inhalation technique followed by intravenous injection of Tc-99m HMPAO with an administered dose calculated according to patient age and weight. One hour following the injection, high resolution brain SPECT imaging was performed using a Picker triple headed camera with fan beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT studies using 3D volume rendered semi-transparent images with dual cut off windows of 88 percent (high) and 60-65 percent (lower value depending on the patient absolute mean cortical blood flow), as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal sections. The dual window 3D display helped demonstrate increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children with similar clinical diagnoses but whose parents did not report temper problems. These preliminary findings support the proposition that an increase in perfusion to the temporal

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma masquerading as a bleeding gastric ulcer: A case report and a review of the surgical management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johnny CA Ong; Pierce KH Chow; Weng-Hoong Chan; Alex YF Chung; Choon Hua Thng; Wai-Keong Wong

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy worldwide. While bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract (BGIT) has a well known association with HCC, such cases are mainly due to gastric and esophageal varices.BGIT as a result of invasion of the gastrointestinal tract by HCC is extremely rare and is reportedly associated with very poor prognosis. We describe a 67-year-old male who presented with BGIT. Endoscopy showed the site of bleeding to be from a gastric ulcer, but endoscopic therapy failed to control the bleeding and emergency surgery was required. At surgery, the ulcer was found to have arisen from direct invasion of the gastrointestinal tract by HCC of the left lobe. Control of the bleeding was achieved by surgical resection of the HCC enbloc with the lesser curve of the stomach. The patient remains alive 33 mo after surgery. Direct invasion of the gastrointestinal tract by HCC giving rise to BGIT is very uncommon. Surgical resection may offer significantly better survival over non-surgical therapy, especially if the patient is a good surgical candidate and has adequate functional liver reserves. Prognosis is not uniformly grave.

  6. Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus:Assessment Based on Clinical and Computer Tomography Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia,Lizhong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC complicated by portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT have an extremely poor prognosis. It is important to select adequate therapeutic options based on reliable prognostic factors using imaging studies and clinical data. Prognostic factors were analyzed in patients with HCC with PVTT in the first branch or main trunk of the portal vein. From 2000 to 2007, 107 consecutive patients with HCC with PVTT in the major portal vein were reviewed, and diagnostic images and clinical characteristics were retrospectively observed. Thirty-eight possible prognostic factors for survival were analyzed by the log-rank test and multivariate analysis using Coxʼs proportional hazards model. Median overall survival was 14 months following PVTT diagnosis. Survival rates at 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years were 72.1%, 52.6%, 32.6%, and 29.6%, respectively. Independent prognostic factors for longer survival included:patient age <65 years, Child-Pugh classification A/B, PVTT treatment, accumulation of Lipiodol in the PVTT after TACE, initial radical treatment for HCC, HCC located in a single lobe of the liver, and no invasion of HCC to the hepatic vein or bile duct. Survival was associated with liver function, tumor extension, and treatment for HCC and PVTT.

  7. Immunosupression in liver transplant for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Restrepo Restrepo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has turned into a frequent indication for liver transplant. The reports of different series indicate that it represents at least 12% of all liver transplants in Europe. But what kind of inmunosuppression is better in these patients is an unanswered question. Our intension with this review is to give basic information to define which would be the best immunosuppression alternative. There is enough information on the relationship between immunosuppression and cancer, as it is seen in states of primary immunodeficiency or infection with the Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The immune system offers a state of permanent guard to avoid the arousal of neoplasic diseases in immunocompetent patients and from this point of view it has been seen that in immunosuppressed patients there is an association with this condition and the development of lymphoproliferative disorders, which can range from reversible diseases (polyclonal proliferation of B type lymphocytes to the development of a lymphoma and other types of tumors, like the ones observed in skin, genital region or oropharynx. Colon tumors and breast tumors have not been associated with immunosuppression. Immunosuppressive medication takes part in a different manner in the development of tumors, it has been said that steroids that are associated with some tumors, especially those regarding skin, paradoxically have a protective role in the development of lymph tissue tumors.

    It has been said about Azathioprine and Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF that its immunosuppressive effect is an antiproliferative type of immunosuppression, inhibiting the synthesis of purinic nucleotides, especially in lymphocytes. Azathioprine has been involved in the development of hepatic tumors, especially in the era previous

  8. Intrinsic controls on the range of volumes, morphologies, and dimensions of submarine lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelat, A.; Covault, J.A.; Hodgson, D.M.; Fildani, A.; Flint, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    Submarine lobe dimensions from six different systems are compared: 1) the exhumed Permian Fan 3 lobe complex of the Tanqua Karoo, South Africa; 2) the modern Amazon fan channel-mouth lobe complex, offshore Brazil; 3) a portion of the modern distal Za??re fan, offshore Angola/Congo; 4) a Pleistocene fan of the Kutai basin, subsurface offshore Indonesia; 5) the modern Golo system, offshore east Corsica, France; and 6) a shallow subsurface lobe complex , offshore Nigeria. These six systems have significantly different source-to-sink configurations (shelf dimension and slope topography), sediment supply characteristics (available grain size range and supply rate), tectonic settings, (palaeo) latitude, and delivery systems. Despite these differences, lobe deposits share similar geometric and dimensional characteristics. Lobes are grouped into two distinct populations of geometries that can be related to basin floor topography. The first population corresponds to areally extensive but thin lobes (average width 14km??length 35km??thickness 12m) that were deposited onto low relief basin floor areas. Examples of such systems include the Tanqua Karoo, the Amazon, and the Za??re systems. The second population corresponds to areally smaller but thicker lobes (average width 5km??length 8km??thickness 30m) that were deposited into settings with higher amplitude of relief, like in the Corsican trough, the Kutai basin, and offshore Nigeria. The two populations of lobe types, however, share similar volumes (a narrow range around 1 or 2km3), which suggests that there is a control to the total volume of sediment that individual lobes can reach before they shift to a new locus of deposition. This indicates that the extrinsic processes control the number of lobes deposited per unit time rather than their dimensions. Two alternative hypotheses are presented to explain the similarities in lobe volumes calculated from the six very different systems. The first states that the wide range of

  9. On the Origin of Fanaroff-Riley Classification of Radio Galaxies: Deceleration of Supersonic Radio Lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatu, Nozomu; Kino, Motoki; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    We argue that the origin of "FRI/FRII dichotomy"—the division between Fanaroff-Riley class I (FRI) with subsonic lobes and class II (FRII) radio sources with supersonic lobes is sharp in the radio-optical luminosity plane (Owen-White diagram)—can be explained by the deceleration of advancing radio lobes. The deceleration is caused by the growth of the effective cross-sectional area of radio lobes. We derive the condition in which an initially supersonic lobe turns into a subsonic lobe, combining the ram pressure equilibrium between the hot spots and the ambient medium with the relation between "the hot spot radius" and "the linear size of radio sources" obtained from the radio observations. We find that the dividing line between the supersonic lobes and subsonic ones is determined by the ratio of the jet power L j to the number density of the ambient matter at the core radius of the host galaxy \\bar{n}_a. It is also found that the maximal ratio of (L_j/\\bar{n}_a) exists and its value resides in (L_j/\\bar{n}_a)_max≈ 10^{44-47} erg s^{-1} cm^{3}, taking into account considerable uncertainties. This suggests that the maximal value (L_j/\\bar{n}_a)_max separates between FRIs and FRIIs.

  10. Activation on occipital lobe in children with abacus mental calculation training: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: By exploring the activation on occipital lobe in children with and without abacus mental calculation training when they engaged in different calculation tasks with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to identify the possible mechanism of occipital lobe in abacus mental calculation. Methods: fMRI was performed in children trained with and without (sixteen in each group) abacus mental calculation when they engaged in addition, subtraction. multiplication, division, and number-object control judging tasks. The data processing and statistical analysis were performed on SPM 2.0 (statistical parametric mapping 2.0) and the related-brain functional areas were identified. The activation on occipital lobe was observed carefully. The difference in activated areas of occipital lobe was statistically significant between two groups engaged in different tasks of calculations (P<0.01). Result: Bilateral occipital lobe, especially in the cuneus and lingual gyrus, were activated in children trained with abacus mental calculation. The main activated area was lingual gyrus in children without abacus mental calculation. Conclusion: The occipital lobe participates visuospatial processing in the abacus mental calculations. The neuromechanism maybe account for the specific activation in occipital lobe. (authors)

  11. Temporal lobe signs: electroencephalographic validity and enhanced scores in special populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarec, K; Persinger, M A

    1985-06-01

    Internal and external validity tests were completed for an inventory that has been used to infer signs of temporal lobe lability. Strong, positive correlations were reported for a normal (reference) population between the numbers of responses that referred to paranormal experiences (including feelings of a "presence") and separately to religious beliefs and the numbers of spikes per minute within electroencephalographic recordings from the temporal lobe. Numbers of spikes were also correlated with the subjects' scores on the hysteria, schizophrenia, and psychasthenia scales from the MMPI. These clusters of items were not correlated with electrical activity from the occipital lobe (the comparison region). Numbers of responses to control clusters of mundane experiences were not correlated with the temporal lobe measures. A group of student poets scored higher on different subclusters of temporal lobe signs and on the schizophrenia and mania scales of the MMPI than the reference group. For both groups, there were positive correlations between the amount of alpha activity in the temporal lobe only and answers to items such as "hearing inner voices" and "feeling as if things were not real." These results demonstrate that quantitative measures of electrical changes in the temporal lobe are correlated with (or with the report of) specific experiences that are prevalent during surgical or epileptic stimulation of this brain region. PMID:3927256

  12. Hemichorea and dystonia due to frontal lobe meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayyum Rana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors originating from the meninges, also known as meningiomas, have rarely been known to cause parkinsonian symptoms and other movement disorders. Although some cases of AV malformations causing movement disorders have been described in the literature, not much has been reported about meningiomas in this regard. The aim of this case report is to further highlight the importance of brain imaging in patients with movement disorders for even a benign tumor; and also emphasize the need for a careful movement disorder examination because more than one phenomenology of movement disorders may result from the mechanical pressure caused by a tumor. We present a case report of a patient with a heavily calcified right frontal lobe meningioma. Our patient had irregular, involuntary, brief, fleeting and unpredictable movements of her left upper and lower extremities, consistent with chorea. The patient also had abnormal dystonic posturing of her left arm while walking. This case report highlights the importance of brain imaging as well as careful neurological examinations of patients with benign meningiomas. Moreover, it illustrates the remarkable specificity yet clinical diversity of meningiomas in presentation through movement disorders.

  13. Hush sign: a new clinical sign in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Gulnihal; Bilir, Erhan; Erdem, Atilla; Gomceli, Yasemin B; Kurt, G Semiha; Serdaroglu, Ayse

    2005-05-01

    Neurologists have been analyzing the clinical behaviors that occur during seizures for many years. Several ictal behaviors have been defined in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Ictal behaviors are especially important in the evaluation of epilepsy surgery candidates. We propose a new lateralizing sign in TLE originating from the nondominant hemisphere-the "hush" sign. Our patients were 30- and 21-year old women (Cases 1 and 2, respectively). Their epileptogenic foci were localized to the right mesial temporal region after noninvasive presurgical investigations. Case 1 had no cranial MRI abnormality, whereas cranial MRI revealed right hippocampal atrophy in Case 2. These women repeatedly moved their right index fingers to their mouth while puckering their lips during complex partial seizures. We have named this ictal behavior the "hush" sign. Anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy was performed in both patients, and pathological examinations revealed hippocampal sclerosis. The "hush" sign no longer occurred after seizures were controlled. They were seizure free as of 30 and 31 months of follow-up, respectively. We believe that the "hush" sign may be supportive of a diagnosis of TLE originating from the nondominant hemisphere. This sign may occur as a result of ictal activation of a specific brain region in this hemisphere.

  14. Tidal Decay and Roche-Lobe Overflow of Gaseous Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian; Jensen, Emily; Peacock, Sarah; Arras, Phil; Penev, Kaloyan

    2016-10-01

    Many gaseous exoplanets in short-period orbits are on the verge or are in the process of Roche-lobe overflow (RLO). Moreover, orbital stability analysis shows tides can drive many hot Jupiters to spiral inevitably toward their host stars, and the distributions of orbital periods and semi-major axes point to non-negligible orbital decay during the main sequence lifetimes of the host stars. Thus, the coupled processes of orbital evolution and RLO likely shape the observed distribution of close-in exoplanets. However, the exact outcome for an overflowing planet depends on its internal response to mass loss, and the accompanying orbital evolution can act to enhance or inhibit RLO. Applying the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) suite to model RLO, we find that, although the detailed evolution may depend on several properties of the planetary system, it is largely determined by the core mass of the overflowing gas giant. In particular, we find that the orbital expansion that accompanies RLO often stops and reverses at a specific maximum period that depends on the core mass. We suggest that RLO may often strand the remnant of a gas giant near or interior to this orbital period, providing an observational prediction that can corroborate the RLO hypothesis. We conduct a preliminary comparison of this prediction to the observed population of small, short-period planets and find some planets in orbits that may be consistent with this picture.

  15. Hsp60 response in experimental and human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Colangeli, Roberto; Orban, Gergely; Pierucci, Massimo; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Lo Bello, Margherita; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Bucchieri, Fabio; Pomara, Cristoforo; Valentino, Mario; Muscat, Richard; Benigno, Arcangelo; Zummo, Giovanni; de Macario, Everly Conway; Cappello, Francesco; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Macario, Alberto J L

    2015-03-24

    The mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp60 is a ubiquitous molecule with multiple roles, constitutively expressed and inducible by oxidative stress. In the brain, Hsp60 is widely distributed and has been implicated in neurological disorders, including epilepsy. A role for mitochondria and oxidative stress has been proposed in epileptogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here, we investigated the involvement of Hsp60 in TLE using animal and human samples. Hsp60 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, was increased in a rat model of TLE. Hsp60 was also increased in the hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons somata and neuropil and hippocampus proper (CA3, CA1) of the epileptic rats. We also determined the circulating levels of Hsp60 in epileptic animals and TLE patients using ELISA. The epileptic rats showed circulating levels of Hsp60 higher than controls. Likewise, plasma post-seizure Hsp60 levels in patients were higher than before the seizure and those of controls. These results demonstrate that Hsp60 is increased in both animals and patients with TLE in affected tissues, and in plasma in response to epileptic seizures, and point to it as biomarker of hippocampal stress potentially useful for diagnosis and patient management.

  16. Human temporal lobe activation by speech and nonspeech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, J R; Frost, J A; Hammeke, T A; Bellgowan, P S; Springer, J A; Kaufman, J N; Possing, E T

    2000-05-01

    Functional organization of the lateral temporal cortex in humans is not well understood. We recorded blood oxygenation signals from the temporal lobes of normal volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging during stimulation with unstructured noise, frequency-modulated (FM) tones, reversed speech, pseudowords and words. For all conditions, subjects performed a material-nonspecific detection response when a train of stimuli began or ceased. Dorsal areas surrounding Heschl's gyrus bilaterally, particularly the planum temporale and dorsolateral superior temporal gyrus, were more strongly activated by FM tones than by noise, suggesting a role in processing simple temporally encoded auditory information. Distinct from these dorsolateral areas, regions centered in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally were more activated by speech stimuli than by FM tones. Identical results were obtained in this region using words, pseudowords and reversed speech, suggesting that the speech-tones activation difference is due to acoustic rather than linguistic factors. In contrast, previous comparisons between word and nonword speech sounds showed left-lateralized activation differences in more ventral temporal and temporoparietal regions that are likely involved in processing lexical-semantic or syntactic information associated with words. The results indicate functional subdivision of the human lateral temporal cortex and provide a preliminary framework for understanding the cortical processing of speech sounds.

  17. Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childhood autism is a severe developmental disorder that impairs the acquisition of some of the most important skills in human life. Progress in understanding the neural basis of childhood autism requires clear and reliable data indicating specific neuro-anatomical or neuro-physiological abnormalities. The purpose of the present study was to research localized brain dysfunction in autistic children using functional brain imaging. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in 21 primary autistic children and 10 age-matched non autistic children. A statistical parametric analysis of rCBF images revealed significant bilateral temporal hypoperfusion in the associative auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus) and in the multimodal cortex (superior temporal sulcus) in the autistic group (p<0.001). In addition, temporal hypoperfusion was detected individually in 77% of autistic children. These findings provide robust evidence of well localized functional abnormalities in autistic children located in the superior temporal lobe. Such localized abnormalities were not detected with the low resolution PET camera (14-22). This study suggests that high resolution PET camera combined with statistical parametric mapping is useful to understand developmental disorders. (authors)

  18. Memory for emotional material in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múnera, Claudia P; Lomlomdjian, Carolina; Terpiluk, Verónica; Medel, Nancy; Solís, Patricia; Kochen, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Several studies suggest that highly emotional information could facilitate long-term memory encoding and consolidation processes via an amygdala-hippocampal network. Our aim was to assess emotional perception and episodic memory for emotionally arousing material in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who are candidates for surgical treatment. We did this by using an audiovisual paradigm. Forty-six patients with medically resistant TLE (26 with left TLE and 20 with right TLE) and 19 healthy controls were assessed with a standard narrative test of emotional memory. The experimental task consisted of sequential picture slides with an accompanying narrative depicting a story that has an emotional central section. Subjects were asked to rate their emotional arousal reaction to each stimulus after the story was shown, while emotional memory (EM) was assessed a week later with a multiple choice questionnaire and a visual recognition task. Our results showed that ratings for emotional stimuli for the patients with TLE were significantly higher than for neutral stimuli (p=0.000). It was also observed that patients with TLE recalled significantly less information from each slide compared with controls, with a trend to lower scores on the questionnaire task for the group with LTLE, as well as poorer performance on the visual recognition task for the group with RLTE. Emotional memory was preserved in patients with RTLE despite having generally poorer memory performance compared with controls, while it was found to be impaired in patients with LTLE.

  19. Medial temporal lobe roles in human path integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohide Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Path integration is a process in which observers derive their location by integrating self-motion signals along their locomotion trajectory. Although the medial temporal lobe (MTL is thought to take part in path integration, the scope of its role for path integration remains unclear. To address this issue, we administered a variety of tasks involving path integration and other related processes to a group of neurosurgical patients whose MTL was unilaterally resected as therapy for epilepsy. These patients were unimpaired relative to neurologically intact controls in many tasks that required integration of various kinds of sensory self-motion information. However, the same patients (especially those who had lesions in the right hemisphere walked farther than the controls when attempting to walk without vision to a previewed target. Importantly, this task was unique in our test battery in that it allowed participants to form a mental representation of the target location and anticipate their upcoming walking trajectory before they began moving. Thus, these results put forth a new idea that the role of MTL structures for human path integration may stem from their participation in predicting the consequences of one's locomotor actions. The strengths of this new theoretical viewpoint are discussed.

  20. Diffusion tensor imaging in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ai-hong; LI Kun-cheng; YU Chun-shui; WANG Yu-ping; XUE Su-fang

    2006-01-01

    Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive imaging technique for the assessment of theintegrity of cerebral tissues. This study was undertaken to assess the changes of diffusion indices of hippocampalformation (HF) in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE).Methods Fourteen patients with MTLE and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated. Mean diffusivity (MD) andfractional anisotropy (FA) from the symmetrical-voxel sampling regions of the anterior HF were calculated in allsubjects. The MD and FA values were compared across the groups.Results No significant differences of MD and FA values were noted between right and left HF in the controls.In the patient group, MD significantly increased in the HF ipsilateral to the lesioned side [(9.27±1.09)×10-4mm2/s], compared with the values in the contralateral HF [(8.20±0.59)×10-4 mm2/s] (t = 4.479, P = 0.001) andhealthy subjects [(7.58±0.51)×10-4 mm2/s] (P<0.001), but no significant differences were found in FA. Whencompared with the controls, patients had a significantly higher MD inthe contralateral HF (P<0.05), but thedifference in FA was not statistically significant.Conclusions DTI could detect hippocampal abnormality in patients with MTLE. This technique may be helpfulfor preoperative evaluation of such patients.

  1. Memory for emotional material in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múnera, Claudia P; Lomlomdjian, Carolina; Terpiluk, Verónica; Medel, Nancy; Solís, Patricia; Kochen, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Several studies suggest that highly emotional information could facilitate long-term memory encoding and consolidation processes via an amygdala-hippocampal network. Our aim was to assess emotional perception and episodic memory for emotionally arousing material in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who are candidates for surgical treatment. We did this by using an audiovisual paradigm. Forty-six patients with medically resistant TLE (26 with left TLE and 20 with right TLE) and 19 healthy controls were assessed with a standard narrative test of emotional memory. The experimental task consisted of sequential picture slides with an accompanying narrative depicting a story that has an emotional central section. Subjects were asked to rate their emotional arousal reaction to each stimulus after the story was shown, while emotional memory (EM) was assessed a week later with a multiple choice questionnaire and a visual recognition task. Our results showed that ratings for emotional stimuli for the patients with TLE were significantly higher than for neutral stimuli (p=0.000). It was also observed that patients with TLE recalled significantly less information from each slide compared with controls, with a trend to lower scores on the questionnaire task for the group with LTLE, as well as poorer performance on the visual recognition task for the group with RLTE. Emotional memory was preserved in patients with RTLE despite having generally poorer memory performance compared with controls, while it was found to be impaired in patients with LTLE. PMID:26409130

  2. Corpora amylacea in temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Marlise de Castro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal sclerosis (HS is the commonest pathology in epileptic patients undergoing temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Beside, there are an increased density of corpora amylacea (CA founded in 6 to 63% of those cases. OBJECTIVE: verify the presence of CA and the clinical correlates of their occurrence in a consective series of patients undergoing temporal surgery with diagnosis of HS. METHOD: We reviewed 72 hippocampus specimens from January 1997 to July 2000. Student's t test for independent, samples, ANOVA and Tukey test were performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: CA were found in 35 patients (49%, whose mean epilepsy duration (28.7 years was significantly longer than that group of patients without CA (19.5 years, p= 0.001. Besides, when CA were found, duration was also significantly correlated with distribution within hippocampus: 28.7 years with diffuse distribution of CA, 15.4 with exclusively subpial and 17.4 years with distribution subpial plus perivascular (p= 0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings corroborate the presence of CA in patients with HS and suggest that a longer duration of epilepsy correlate with a more distribution of CA in hippocampus.

  3. Hsp60 response in experimental and human temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammazza, Antonella Marino; Colangeli, Roberto; Orban, Gergely; Pierucci, Massimo; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Bello, Margherita Lo; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Bucchieri, Fabio; Pomara, Cristoforo; Valentino, Mario; Muscat, Richard; Benigno, Arcangelo; Zummo, Giovanni; de Macario, Everly Conway; Cappello, Francesco; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Macario, Alberto J. L.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp60 is a ubiquitous molecule with multiple roles, constitutively expressed and inducible by oxidative stress. In the brain, Hsp60 is widely distributed and has been implicated in neurological disorders, including epilepsy. A role for mitochondria and oxidative stress has been proposed in epileptogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here, we investigated the involvement of Hsp60 in TLE using animal and human samples. Hsp60 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, was increased in a rat model of TLE. Hsp60 was also increased in the hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons somata and neuropil and hippocampus proper (CA3, CA1) of the epileptic rats. We also determined the circulating levels of Hsp60 in epileptic animals and TLE patients using ELISA. The epileptic rats showed circulating levels of Hsp60 higher than controls. Likewise, plasma post-seizure Hsp60 levels in patients were higher than before the seizure and those of controls. These results demonstrate that Hsp60 is increased in both animals and patients with TLE in affected tissues, and in plasma in response to epileptic seizures, and point to it as biomarker of hippocampal stress potentially useful for diagnosis and patient management. PMID:25801186

  4. Functional connectivity homogeneity correlates with duration of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Zulfi; Chiang, Sharon; Yeh, Hsiang J; Engel, Jerome; Stern, John M

    2015-05-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is often associated with progressive changes to seizures, memory, and mood during its clinical course. However, the cerebral changes related to this progression are not well understood. Because the changes may be related to changes in brain networks, we used functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to determine whether brain network parameters relate to the duration of TLE. Graph theory-based analysis of the sites of reported regions of TLE abnormality was performed on resting-state fMRI data in 48 subjects: 24 controls, 13 patients with left TLE, and 11 patients with right TLE. Various network parameters were analyzed including betweenness centrality (BC), clustering coefficient (CC), path length (PL), small-world index (SWI), global efficiency (GE), connectivity strength (CS), and connectivity diversity (CD). These were compared for patients with TLE as a group, compared to controls, and for patients with left and right TLE separately. The association of changes in network parameters with epilepsy duration was also evaluated. We found that CC, CS, and CD decreased in subjects with TLE compared to control subjects. Analyzed according to epilepsy duration, patients with TLE showed a progressive reduction in CD. In conclusion, we found that several network parameters decreased in patients with TLE compared to controls, which suggested reduced connectivity in TLE. Reduction in CD associated with epilepsy duration suggests a homogenization of connections over time in TLE, indicating a reduction of the normal repertoire of stronger and weaker connections to other brain regions. PMID:25873437

  5. Benign occipital lobe seizures: Natural progression and atypical evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithika Chary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign occipital seizure syndromes are benign childhood epilepsy syndromes and are mainly of two types, Panayiotopoulos syndrome, an autonomic epilepsy and idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut (ICOE-G including the idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy. Although both these types are categorized as occipital seizures, they are distinct in presentation and management. They can also be tricky to diagnose as visual symptoms may not always be the presenting feature and it is also not very easy to elicit visual hallucinations during history taking. These seizures have a good response to treatment; however, there could be atypical evolution and refractoriness to treatment especially with ICOE-G. We describe three children who presented with visual and non-visual symptoms and the electroencephalography (EEG in all the three cases showed occipital paroxysms. We have emphasized the clues in the clinical history and EEG leading to the diagnosis of these distinct epilepsy syndromes. We have also discussed the natural course of these epilepsy syndromes with some atypical evolution, which clinicians need to be aware of during treatment of these children.

  6. Semantic Processing Impairment in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda G. Jaimes-Bautista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impairment in episodic memory system is the best-known cognitive deficit in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Recent studies have shown evidence of semantic disorders, but they have been less studied than episodic memory. The semantic dysfunction in TLE has various cognitive manifestations, such as the presence of language disorders characterized by defects in naming, verbal fluency, or remote semantic information retrieval, which affects the ability of patients to interact with their surroundings. This paper is a review of recent research about the consequences of TLE on semantic processing, considering neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings, as well as the functional role of the hippocampus in semantic processing. The evidence from these studies shows disturbance of semantic memory in patients with TLE and supports the theory of declarative memory of the hippocampus. Functional neuroimaging studies show an inefficient compensatory functional reorganization of semantic networks and electrophysiological studies show a lack of N400 effect that could indicate that the deficit in semantic processing in patients with TLE could be due to a failure in the mechanisms of automatic access to lexicon.

  7. Temporal lobe epilepsy: Comparison of CT and MR in 100 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of CT and MR was studied in 100 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Axial CT scans were obtained before and after contrast injection. Coronary MR scans were carried out with T1-(SE 400/30, GE 315/14) and T2-weighted sequences (SE 1600/30 + 70). A circumscribed lesion was demonstrated in fifteen patients by CT and in 25 patients by MR. With the exception of a small area of calcification, all lesions seen on CT could also be recognized on MR. Better sensitivity and improved demonstration of the temporal lobes makes MR the method of choice in the diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy. (orig./GDG)

  8. Seizures accelerate forgetting in patients with left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokeit, H; Daamen, M; Zang, H; Janszky, J; Ebner, A

    2001-07-10

    Ten patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy performed a word-position association learning task every 24 hours during video EEG monitoring. On 55 occasions recall performance was tested 30 minutes and 24 hours after the initial learning phase. Patients with left- but not right-sided temporal lobe epilepsy exhibited impaired retention of word position if a seizure had occurred during the preceding 24-hour interval. Seizures may impair the consolidation of memory in patients with left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy beyond the chronic memory deficits caused by the underlying pathology.

  9. Survival Differences by Race/Ethnicity and Treatment for Localized Hepatocellular Carcinoma Within the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Robert J; Corley, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Racial differences among hepatocellular carcinoma survival have been reported, but the etiology behind these disparities remains unclear. Using multi-variable logistic regression analysis, our restrospective cohort study investigated the demographic disparities in survival among localized hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. From 1998 to 2001, 2,776 cases of localized hepatocellular carcinoma were identified. Significant racial/ethnic disparities in overall survival and utilization ...

  10. Application of Proteomics to the Study of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Some Related Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueguo Li; Xin Geng; Weiming Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a malignant tumor causing one of the highest death rates in the world. Viral hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and hepatocirrhosis etc. Are some of the most important causes of hepatocellular carcinoma. With the advent of the post-genomic age, studying carcinoma and some related diseases using the developing technology of proteomics has become a major focus of researchers. This article is a review of the application of proteomics to study hepatocellular carcinoma and some related diseases.

  11. NFκB1 is a suppressor of neutrophil-driven hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, CL; Jurk, D.; Fullard, N.; Banks, P.; Page, A.; Luli, S.; Elsharkawy, AM; Gieling, RG; Chakraborty, JB; Fox, C; Richardson, C.; Callaghan, K.; Blair, GE; Fox, N; Lagnado, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops on the background of chronic hepatitis. Leukocytes found within the HCC microenvironment are implicated as regulators of tumour growth. We show that diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced murine HCC is attenuated by antibody-mediated depletion of hepatic neutrophils, the latter stimulating hepatocellular ROS and telomere DNA damage. We additionally report a previously unappreciated tumour suppressor function for hepatocellular nfkb1 operating via p50:p50 dime...

  12. Clinical Features of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Observation on the Images of MRI Sequence Scanning%肝细胞肝癌临床特征及MRI各序列扫描的图像观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永华; 陈江; 梁志刚; 腾云

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma and to evaluate the characteristics of images and diagnostic value of MRI sequence scanning in hepatocellular carcinoma.Methods The clinical data of 46 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated in our hospital from April 2013 to April 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. After admission, all patients underwent MRI three phase scan and examination and the imaging data were complete. The clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma and the application value of MRI in clinical diagnosis were summarized.Results There were 50 lesions in 46 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, including 23 highly differentiated lesions, 13 moderately differentiated lesions and 14 poorly differentiated lesions; 30 lesions were located in the right lobe of liver and 20 in the left lobe of the liver; T1WI sequence scan showed 36 slightly lower signal, 8 equal signal and 6 slightly higher signal; T2WI sequence showed 44 slightly higher signal, including 4 of the lesions showed higher signal and 6 lesions showed equal signal; DWI sequence showed 30 higher signal, 15 slightly higher signal and 5 equal signal.Conclusion MRI sequence scan has its own advantages in showing the size, internal structure, edge and blood supply of hepatocellular carcinoma lesions. It is of important value in determination of the differentiation degree of hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. It can also show the characteristics of lesion enhancement and micro-morphological characteristics and provide reference for the treatment and prognosis.%目的 分析肝细胞肝癌的临床特征,评估MRI各序列扫描肝细胞肝癌的图像特点及诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析我院自2013年4月-2015年4月收治的46例肝细胞肝癌患者的临床资料,所有患者入院后均接受MRI三期扫描与检查,且影像学资料完整,总结肝细胞肝癌临床特点及MRI在其临床诊断中的应用价值.结果 46

  13. Interleukin-6 levels are increased in temporal lobe epilepsy but not in extra-temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Fallah, Mahdi; Kharazmi, Elham; Peltola, Maria; Peltola, Jukka

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have reported activation of inflammatory cytokines in seizures, but clinical characteristics of epilepsy associated with cytokine activation have not been well established. In this study, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) were measured, and clinical characteristics of epilepsy were assessed in 86 well-evaluated patients with refractory focal epilepsy and in 5 patients with controlled focal epilepsy. Epilepsy was evaluated based on patient histories, electroclinical findings, and high-resolution brain MRI scans. Sixty-three healthy blood donors served as controls. IL-6 concentrations were chronically increased in epilepsy patients (11%) compared with healthy controls (0%) (P = 0.007). Increased levels of IL-6 were more prevalent in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) compared to patients with extra-TLE (P = 0.028). Also the mean and the median serum levels of IL-6 were higher in patients with TLE than in patients with extra-TLE (P = 0.042). Concentrations of IL-1RA were not significantly different in patients compared with controls. Indicated by increased levels of IL-6 in TLE, epilepsy type is important in determining chronic overproduction of cytokines in refractory focal epilepsy. The results may reflect a chronic immunological process in the brain in patients with refractory epilepsy. PMID:19252806

  14. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A. [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Hidaka General Hospital, Wakayama (Japan); Roger, P. [School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-02-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  15. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text:introduction and objectives: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)is the 6th neoplasia in frequency and the 1st cause of death in cirrhotic patients. Today it is one of the main indications for transplantation liver in early stages. The stated goal is to describe our experience in transplant HCC liver by defining epidemiology, imaging, pathological (A P)and variables of prognostic relevance. Methods: A descriptive, observational and retrospective cirrhotic patients with HCC in tracking National Transplant Program Liver of Uruguay in the period 16/06/2009-28/09/2012. For the diagnosis and staging us criteria rely on Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC)and Milan. Results: Epidemiology: 16 patients were evaluated for transplantation for HCC, and there were 2 cases of incidental diagnosis post-transplant (N = 18). 17 were men. The mean age was 57 years. 15 were detected under surveillance program. The most prevalent etiologies were alcohol- and HCV infection. Diagnosis and Staging: All patients underwent three-phase CT, MRI required 9. 10 had single lesion, 6 had 2 or 3 lesions and 2 cases were diagnosed by image. 11 patients met Milan criteria. The average value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)was 225 ng / ml, only in 4 cases was greater than 50 ng / ml. Staging according BCLC: 13 were A, 2 B, 2 C and 1 D. entry to list and transplant: The patient with stage D did not enter. 2 are under evaluation. 13 entered list of which 1 is currently listed, 3 out of list, by progression, 2nd neoplasia and death sepsis. Finally, 9 patients were transplanted for HCC (18 % of the indications for transplantation). The average wait time listed was 45 (0-128)days. Of the 11 patients transplanted with HCC die in block, 1 for sepsis and another relapse. The remaining 8 have not recurred and are alive to date with normal AFP. A P findings, prognostic markers: In 3 had single lesion, 5 had 2 or 3 lesions, and 3 > 3 lesions. Six were within Milan criteria. the total tumor size was > 10 cm in 3

  16. Non-surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma; Prise en charge non chirurgicale du carcinome hepatocellulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle, P. [Service d' hepato-gastroenterologie, hopital de l' Hotel-Dieu, 69 - Lyon (France); Inserm U871 -Oncogenese hepatique et hepatites virales-, 69 - Lyon (France); IFR62 Lyon-Est, universite Lyon 1, 69 - Lyon (France); Mornex, F. [Departement de radiotherapie-oncologie, centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France)

    2010-10-15

    Most of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cannot benefit from surgical therapies. Among non-surgical options, only radiofrequency can challenge surgery for small size tumours. Conformal radiotherapy is likely highly efficient on solitary tumours, but controlled studies are warranted to conclude. Other options are purely palliative. Trans-arterial hepatic chemo-embolization is the goal-standard for multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma and Sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein invasion, leading to modest but significant benefit on survival rates. Yttrium-90 radio-embolization is under evaluation through controlled studies, and could be of major interest for multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma with or without portal venous invasion. (authors)

  17. Clinical characteristics of patients with benign nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Seong Hoon; Lim, Sung Chul; Kim, Woojun; Shon, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the evolution of nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE-NL) in patients treated exclusively with antiepileptic drugs and to elucidate clinical phenotypes related to the prognosis of these patients. Methods Clinical, radiological, and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in 84 patients with TLE-NL were reviewed. A good response group (GRG) and a poor response group (PRG) were defined if the duration of their seizure-free period was >1 year, or <1 year, respectively. Results There were 46 (54.8%) patients in the GRG and 38 (45.2%) patients in the PRG. The number of antiepileptic drugs administered was significantly lower in the GRG than that in the PRG (1.3±0.8 vs 2.8±1.0, respectively; P<0.05). The GRG had a significantly older age of onset than the PRG and a lower occurrence of initial precipitating events, such as febrile seizures, central nervous system infection, and head trauma (P<0.05). The prevalence of EEG abnormality, presence of aura, generalized seizures, and automatism was less frequently observed in the GRG (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were significantly associated with a poor prognosis (P<0.05). Conclusion In contrast to the commonly assumed intractability of TLE, we found that more than 54% of patients with TLE-NL achieved a long seizure-free period. Older age at onset of TLE-NL was associated with a better prognosis. However, the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were related to a poor prognosis. Future prospective studies with a much larger population are warranted. PMID:27555776

  18. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sze-hang LAU; Xin-yuan GUAN

    2005-01-01

    Specific chromosome aberrations are frequently detected during the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Molecular cytogenetic approaches such as comparative genomic hybridization and loss of heterozygosity analyses have provided fruitful information on changes in HCC cases at the genomic level. Mapping of chromosome gains and losses have frequently resulted in the identification of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, respectively. In this review, we summarize some frequently detected chromosomal aberrations reported for hepatocellular carcinoma cases using comparative genomic hybridization and loss of heterozygosity studies. Focus will be on gains of 1q, 8q, and 20q, and losses of 4q,8p, 13q, 16q, and 17p. We then examine the candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressors located within these regions, and explore their possible functions in hepatocarcinogenesis. Finally, the impact of microarray-based screening platforms will be discussed.

  19. Abnormal plasma prothrombin (PIVKA-II) levels in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of abnormal prothrombin, or the protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) in 102 patients with hepatic disorders was measured by an enzyme immunoassay method. The concentration of PIVKA-II in the plasma was elevated in 11 out of 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and also in a patient with hepatoblastoma. There was no correlation between serum alpha-fetoprotein and plasma PIVKA-II levels. The PIVKA-II level was normal in 11 patients who had metastatic carcinoma or cholangiocellular carcinoma. Moreover, benign diseases of the liver did not cause an elevation in PIVKA-II. PIVKA-II might be an useful marker of hepatocellular carcinoma because, like alpha-fetoprotein, its level changes in close relation to the effects of treatment.

  20. Micropolar Lubricant Effects on the Performance of a Two- Lobe Bearing with Pressure Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANYAM SHARMA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Two lobe bearings are commonly used in the high speed rotating machineries industries. The use of two lobe bearings, considered to be more stable than ordinary plain cylindrical bearings. In the upper half the dam is provided and relief track in the lower half. Performance of two lobe pressure dam bearings under micropolarfluid is evaluated. Finite element method is used to solve the modified Reynolds equation. . Fluid film pressures are obtained by solving modified Reynolds equation, thus pressure obtained is used to find performance characteristics of this bearing. Results are obtained for various micropolar parameter like coupling number andnon-dimensional characteristics length. The results show that Two-lobe Pressure dam bearing is superior to twolobe bearing,

  1. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Quantitative MR Volumetry in Detection of Hippocampal Atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Nikdokht; Girard, Holly M.; Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Smith, Michael E.; Magda, Sebastian W.; Lim, Wei Y.; Lee, Roland R.; McDonald, Carrie R.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative MR imaging can enhance standard visual analysis, providing a viable means for translating volumetric analysis into clinical practice and increasing the detection of hippocampal atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy in both community and tertiary care settings.

  2. Temporal lobe epilepsy: a unique window into living human brain epigenetic gene regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Grote, Alexander; Schoch, Susanne; Becker, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    This scientific commentary refers to ‘Differential DNA methylation profiles of coding and non-coding genes define hippocampal sclerosis in human temporal lobe epilepsy’ by Miller-Delaney et al. (10.1093/brain/awu373).

  3. Automated design system for a rotor with an ellipse lobe profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An internal lobe pump (ILP) is suitable for machine tool oil hydraulics, automotive engines, compressors, and various other devices. In particular, the ILP is an essential component of an automotive engine, used to feed lubricant oil through the system. The main components of an ILP are its rotors. The outer rotor is typically characterized by lobes with an elliptical shape, and the inner rotor profile is a conjugate to the outer profile. This paper describes a theoretical analysis of an ILP and the development of an integrated automated system for rotor design. This system is composed of three main modules and has been developed using AutoLISP for the AutoCAD program. The system generates a new lobe profile and automatically calculates flow rate and flow rate irregularity according to the lobe profile generated. Results obtained from the analysis can enable oil pump designers and manufacturers to become more efficient

  4. Pulmonary lobe segmentation based on ridge surface sampling and shape model fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, James C., E-mail: jross@bwh.harvard.edu [Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Surgical Planning Lab, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Laboratory of Mathematics in Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02126 (United States); Kindlmann, Gordon L. [Computer Science Department and Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Okajima, Yuka; Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Díaz, Alejandro A. [Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 and Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Silverman, Edwin K. [Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 and Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Washko, George R. [Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Dy, Jennifer [ECE Department, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Estépar, Raúl San José [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Surgical Planning Lab, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Laboratory of Mathematics in Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02126 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Performing lobe-based quantitative analysis of the lung in computed tomography (CT) scans can assist in efforts to better characterize complex diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While airways and vessels can help to indicate the location of lobe boundaries, segmentations of these structures are not always available, so methods to define the lobes in the absence of these structures are desirable. Methods: The authors present a fully automatic lung lobe segmentation algorithm that is effective in volumetric inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography (CT) datasets. The authors rely on ridge surface image features indicating fissure locations and a novel approach to modeling shape variation in the surfaces defining the lobe boundaries. The authors employ a particle system that efficiently samples ridge surfaces in the image domain and provides a set of candidate fissure locations based on the Hessian matrix. Following this, lobe boundary shape models generated from principal component analysis (PCA) are fit to the particles data to discriminate between fissure and nonfissure candidates. The resulting set of particle points are used to fit thin plate spline (TPS) interpolating surfaces to form the final boundaries between the lung lobes. Results: The authors tested algorithm performance on 50 inspiratory and 50 expiratory CT scans taken from the COPDGene study. Results indicate that the authors' algorithm performs comparably to pulmonologist-generated lung lobe segmentations and can produce good results in cases with accessory fissures, incomplete fissures, advanced emphysema, and low dose acquisition protocols. Dice scores indicate that only 29 out of 500 (5.85%) lobes showed Dice scores lower than 0.9. Two different approaches for evaluating lobe boundary surface discrepancies were applied and indicate that algorithm boundary identification is most accurate in the vicinity of fissures detectable on CT. Conclusions: The

  5. Simultaneous Resection of Disseminated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, Yuki; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Ohira, Gaku; Kanai, Fumihiko; Yokota, Hajime; Motoyama, Tenyu; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Tawada, Akinobu; Miyauchi, Hideaki; Matubara, Hisahiro; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman with abdominal pain and vomiting was admitted to our hospital. Colonoscopy showed an advanced colon cancer that encompassed the entire circumference of the descending colon's lumen. The patient was diagnosed with occlusive ileus associated with the colon cancer. She had been watched for liver cirrhosis due to the hepatitis C virus and received radiofrequency ablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) 6 years previously. Although she exhibited a gradual increase in...

  6. FXR induces SOCS3 and suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Fei; Xu, Zhizhen; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Peng; Huang, Gang; Chen, Shan; Lyu, Xilin; Zheng, Ping; Zhao, Xin; Zeng, Yijun; Wang, Shuguang; He, Fengtian

    2015-01-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is regarded as a vital repressor in the liver carcinogenesis mainly by inhibiting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activity. Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), highly expressed in liver, has an important role in protecting against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it is unclear whether the tumor suppressive activity of FXR involves the regulation of SOCS3. In the present study, we found that activation of FXR by its specific...

  7. Proteomics for the early diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Autor OJS

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of primary cancer has been increasing globally and now-a-days it constitutes the 5th most frequent cancer of humans representing around 5% of all cancers worldwide. Chronic HBV infection assumes greater significance because of its reported association with cirrhosis, and more ominously hepatocellular carcinoma or HCC. Hepatitis B infection constitutes a major global problem with nearl...

  8. Multiple Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising in the Abdominal Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Toru; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Yoichiro; AISU, NAOYA; Tanimura, Syu; Hisano, Satoshi; Kuno, Nobuaki; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomo...

  9. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsukasa,Harushige

    1986-01-01

    Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was measured in liver homogenate obtained from 10 patients with hepatocellular carcinomas. Type IV collagen, the enzyme substrate, was extracted from human placenta with pepsin digestion, and labeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride. The homogenate was preincubated with p-aminophenylmercuric acetate to activate the latent form of the enzyme, and then the enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 by adding a substrate mixture. Referring to previous reports,...

  10. Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Pros and Cons

    OpenAIRE

    Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K.

    2010-01-01

    Among locoregional treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been accepted as the most popular alternative to curative transplantation or resection, and it shows an excellent local tumor control rate and acceptable morbidity. The benefits of RFA have been universally validated by the practice guidelines of international societies of hepatology. The main advantages of RFA include 1) it is minimally invasive with acceptable morbidity, 2) it enables excelle...

  11. Recent Advances in Tumor Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided tumor ablation for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an accepted non-surgical treatment that provides excellent local tumor control and favorable survival benefit. This review summarizes the recent advances in tumor ablation for HCC. Diagnostic imaging and molecular biology of HCC has recently undergone marked improvements. Second-generation ultrasonography (US) contrast agents, new computed tomography (CT) techniques, and liver-specific contrast agents for magnetic r...

  12. Current status of radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K.; Choi, Dongil

    2010-01-01

    Loco-regional treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are important alternatives to curative transplantation or resection. Among them, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is accepted as the most popular technique showing excellent local tumor control and acceptable morbidity. The current role of RFA is well documented in the evidence-based practice guidelines of European Association of Study of Liver, American Association of Study of the Liver Disease and Japanese academic societies. Several ...

  13. Novel Investigations of Flavonoids as Chemopreventive Agents for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Yi Liao; Ching-Chang Lee; Chi-chang Tsai; Chao-Wen Hsueh; Chih-Chiang Wang; I-Hung Chen; Ming-Kai Tsai; Mei-Yu Liu; An-Tie Hsieh; Kuan-Jen Su; Hau-Ming Wu; Shih-Chung Huang; Yi-Chen Wang; Chien-Yao Wang; Shu-Fang Huang

    2015-01-01

    We would like to highlight the application of natural products to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We will focus on the natural products known as flavonoids, which target this disease at different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. In spite of the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in treating HCC, patients with HCC still face poor prognosis because of the nature of multidrug resistance and toxicity derived from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Flavonoids can be found in many vegetables, fruits, ...

  14. Dose response relationship in local radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Chul; Seong, Jin Sil; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Moon, Young Myoung; Song, Jae Seok; Suh, Chang Ok [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    In this study, it was investigated whether dose response relation existed or not in local radiotherapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma. From January 1992 to March 2000, 158 patients were included in present study. Exclusion criteria included the presence of extrahepatic metastasis, liver cirrhosis of Child's class C, tumors occupying more than two thirds of the entire liver, and performance status on the ECOG scale of more than 3. Radiotherapy was given to the field including tumor with generous margin using 6, 10-MV X-ray. Mean tumor dose was 48.2{+-}7.9 Gy in daily 1.8 Gy fractions. Tumor response was based on diagnostic radiologic examinations such as CT scan, MR imaging, hepatic artery angiography at 4-8 weeks following completion of treatment. Statistical analysis was done to investigate the existence of dose response relationship of local radiotherapy when it was applied to the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. An objective response was observed in 106 of 158 patients, giving a response rate of 67. 1%. Statistical analysis revealed that total dose was the most significant factor in relation to tumor response when local radiotherapy was applied to the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Only 29.2% showed objective response in patients treated with dose less than 40 Gy, while 68.6% and 77.1 % showed major response in patients with 40-50 Gy and more than 50 Gy, respectively. Child-Pugh classification was significant factor in the development of ascites, overt radiation induced liver disease and gastroenteritis. Radiation dose was an important factor for development of radiation induced gastroduodenal ulcer. Present study showed the existence of dose response relationship in local radiotherapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Only radiotherapy dose was a significant factor to predict the objective response. Further study is required to predict the maximal tolerance dose in consideration of liver function and non

  15. Controversies in imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma: multidetector CT (MDCT)

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Paul M.; Szklaruk, Janio

    2005-01-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant tumor worldwide and represents the most common primary hepatic neoplasm. Staging criteria are important for appreciation of timely work up of these neoplasms in contradiction with surgical colleagues. This article demonstrates the appearance of HCC on multiphasic, multidetector CT (MDCT) and relates these findings to current staging criteria. The variable appearance on different planes of contrast is critical to appreciate in staging thi...

  16. Mycotoxins are conventional and novel risk biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant disease with poor prognosis. To improve the clinical outcome, early diagnosis of HCC arising from nonviral agents and hepatitis virus is important. Among several etiological factors, mycotoxins defined as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer might be one of the critical risk factors for nonviral HCC. Aflatoxin B1 is the most well-known carcinogenic mycotoxin for HCC, but the role of the other types of mycotoxin rem...

  17. A case report of hepatocellular carcinoma in common hepatic duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chi Sung; Park, In Ae; Choi, Sang Woon; Chung, Jung Kee [YongDeungPo City Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    We experienced a rare case of intraductal (common hepatic duct) hepatocellular carcinoma. Review of the literature disclosed 30 cases or less in which common duct involvement was a predominant clinical feature. Well demarcated, ovoid filling defect mass in CHD without parenchymal tumor mass was noted in ultrasound, PTC and CT study. The liver was cirrhotic, but {alpha}-fetoprotein level was normal. Differential diagnosis especially with Klatskin tumor is important and thought to be possible.

  18. An Analysis of Immunoreactive Signatures in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hong; Jiang Long; Hai Li; Shuhong Chen; Qiqi Liu; Bei Zhang; Xiaomin He; Yan Wang; Hongyi Li; Yimei Li; Tao Zhang; Chenzhen Lu; Hao Yan; Minli Zhang; Qing Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is prevalent worldwide and early diagnosis of HCC is critical for effective treatment and optimal prognosis. Methods: Serum was screened first by immunoproteomic analysis for HCC-related tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Selected TAAs were clinically evaluated retrospectively in patients with HCC, liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and healthy controls. Levels of autoantibody to the selected TAAs were measured by protein microarrays containing pro...

  19. Immune repertoire: A potential biomarker and therapeutic for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingxin; Li, Hongmei; Guan, Yanfang; Huang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The immune repertoire (IR) refers to the sum of B cells and T cells with functional diversity in the circulatory system of one individual at any given time. Immune cells, which reside within microenvironments and are responsible for protecting the human body, include T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. These dedicated immune cells have a characteristic structure and function. T and B cells are the main lymphocytes and are responsible for cellular immunity and humoral immunity, respectively. The T cell receptor (TCR) and B cell receptor (BCR) are composed of multiple peptide chains with antigen specificity. The amino acid composition and sequence order are more diverse in the complementarity-determining regions (including CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3) of each peptide chain, allowing a vast library of TCRs and BCRs. IR research is becoming increasingly focused on the study of CDR3 diversity. Deep profiling of CDR3s using high-throughput sequencing is a powerful approach for elucidating the composition and distribution of the CDR3s in a given sample, with in-depth information at the sequence level. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. To identify novel biomarkers for diagnosis and drug targets for therapeutic interventions, several groups attempted to describe immune repertoire characteristics of the liver in the physiological environment or/and pathological conditions. This paper reviews the recent progress in IR research on human diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma, attempting to depict the relationships between hepatocellular carcinogenesis and the IR, and discusses the possibility of IR as a potential biomarker and therapeutic for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26188280

  20. Gamma Knife Surgery for Brain Metastasis from Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Qingsheng Xu; Pan Wu; Yiping Feng; Ke Ye; Ying Tong; Yongqing Zhou

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors evaluated the results of Gamma knife surgery (GKS) for the treatment of metastatic brain tumors from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS AND RESULTS: The authors conducted a retrospective review of the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in 14 patients with metastatic brain tumors from HCC who underwent GKS. Twelve (85.7%) patients were male. The mean age of the patients was 53±12 years. There were totally 22 brain metastases in 14 patients and 8 patien...

  1. Decreased PCSK9 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Mamatha; Skill, Nicolas; Marcus, Victoria; Deschenes, Marc; Tan, Xianming; Bouteaud, Jeanne; Negi, Sarita; Awan, Zuhier; Aikin, Reid; Kwan, Janet; Amre, Ramila; Tabaries, Sebastien; Hassanain, Mazen; Seidah, Nabil G.; Maluccio, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background The management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited by the lack of adequate screening biomarkers and chemotherapy. In response, there has been much interest in tumor metabolism as a therapeutic target. PCSK9 stimulates internalization of the LDL-receptor, decreases cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes and affects liver regeneration. Thus, we investigated whether PCSK9 expression is altered in HCC, influencing its ability to harness cholesterol metabolism. Methods Thirty-nine...

  2. Post liver transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder mimics recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Poovorawan, Kittiyod; Linlawan, Sittikorn; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Komolmit, Piyawat

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related postliver transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in a patient with post liver transplant which initially presented in a CT scan image mimicking recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Histopathology showed atypical plasma cell-like infiltration, and immunohistochemistry confirmed diagnosis of EBV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Typical imaging from dynamic phases contrast CT scan might not accurately diagnose recurren...

  3. The significance of Brf1 overexpression in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Qian; Xi, Shaoyan; Liang, Jianzhong; Shi, Ganggang; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Yanmei; Levy, Daniel; Zhong, Shuping

    2015-01-01

    Brf1 (TFIIB-related factor 1) plays a crucial role in cell transformation and tumorigenesis. However, the significance of Brf1 expression in human HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma) cases remains to be addressed. In this study, biopsies of human HCC, liver tumor samples of mice and cell lines of normal and tumor liver were utilized to determine the alteration of Brf1 expression using cytological and molecular biological approaches. Brf1 expression is increased in human HCC cases, which is correla...

  4. Targeting cyclin dependent kinase 5 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, Sandra Monika

    2014-01-01

    For a long time cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) was thought to be of exclusive importance in neuronal cells. However, recently increasing evidence suggests a function of Cdk5 in cancer progression. In the present study, we examined the role of Cdk5 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a highly chemoresistant cancer with poor prognosis. Consequently, development of novel targeted therapies for HCC is of paramount clinical importance. Analysis of human HCC patient samples showed an increased exp...

  5. A rare case report: Carcinoma pancreas with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous double malignancies involving different organs are relatively rare and uncommon finding. We report an interesting case of double malignancy in which a patient exhibited synchronous two separate carcinomas, pancreatic and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Patient was a 64-year-old male who presented primarily with symptoms pertaining to the biliary obstruction and ultrasound of abdomen revealing pancreatic head mass. HCC was detected incidentally during the investigations for carcinoma pancreas.

  6. Surgical spacer placement and proton radiotherapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shohei; Komatsu; Yuichi; Hori; Takumi; Fukumoto; Masao; Murakami; Yoshio; Hishikawa; Yonson; Ku

    2010-01-01

    Few potentially curative treatment options exist apart from hepatic resection for patients with huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Proton radiotherapy is a promising new modality which has an inherent antitumor effect against HCC. However, the application of proton radiotherapy for tumors adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract is restricted because the tolerance dose of the intestine is extremely low. A novel two-step treatment was developed with surgical spacer placement and subsequent proton radiotherap...

  7. Molecular therapy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Greten, T.F.; Korangy, F; Manns, M P; Malek, N. P.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy has failed to show a substantial benefit for patients with HCC. Recently, a number of new drugs targeting molecular mechanisms involved in liver cell transformation have entered into clinical trials and led to encouraging results. In this review we summarise this data and point to a number of new compounds, which are currently being tested and can potentially broaden our therapeutic a...

  8. Right ventricular exclusion for hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Shou-Zen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We used for the first time a right ventricular exclusion procedure for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the right ventricle. Our case report shows that this surgical option can be effective as rescue therapy for right ventricular outflow tract obstruction secondary to myocardial metastasis in critically ill patients. Most notably, this technique can prevent inadvertent dislodgement of tumor cells.

  9. Surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with severe intratumoral arterioportal shunt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiromichi; Ishii; Teruhisa; Sonoyama; Shingo; Nakashima; Hiroyuki; Nagata; Atsushi; Shiozaki; Yoshiaki; Kuriu; Hisashi; Ikoma; Masayoshi; Nakanishi; Daisuke; Ichikawa; Hitoshi; Fujiwara; Kazuma; Okamoto; Toshiya; Ochiai; Yukihito; Kokuba; Chohei; Sakakura; Eigo; Otsuji

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that caused a severe arterioportal shunt (APS). A 49-year-old man was admitted to hospital due to esophagogastric variceal hemorrhage and HCC, and underwent endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) and endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS). He was then referred to our hospital. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a lowdensity lesion in the posterior segment of the liver and an intratumoral APS, which caused portal hypertension. Although the patient underwen...

  10. Contemporary Strategies in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Elizabeth Khorsandi; Nigel Heaton

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on a background of chronic liver disease. Liver resection or locoregional ablative therapies may be indicated for patients with preserved synthetic function without significant portal hypertension. Milan criteria were introduced to select suitable patients for liver transplant with low risk of tumor recurrence and 5-year survival in excess of 70%. Currently the incidence of HCC is climbi...

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in a Crohn’s disease patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuaki; Ishida; Shigeyuki; Naka; Hisanori; Shiomi; Tomoyuki; Tsujikawa; Akira; Andoh; Tamio; Nakahara; Yasuharu; Saito; Yoshi-hide; Fujiyama; Mikiko; Takikita-Suzuki; Fumiyoshi; Kojima; Machiko; Hotta; Tohru; Tani; Yoshimasa; Kurumi; Hidetoshi; Okabe

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurring in a patient with Crohn’s disease (CD) without chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis, and review the clinicopathological features of HCC in CD patients. A 37-year-old Japanese man with an 8-year history of CD and a medication history of azathioprine underwent resection of a liver tumor. The histopathology of the liver tumor was pseudoglandular type HCC. In the nonneoplastic liver, focal hepatocyte glycogenosis (FHG) was observed, however, there was...

  12. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Presenting with Obstructive Jaundice during Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Huan-wei Chen; Feng-jie Wang; Jie-yuan Li; Eric C. H. Lai; Wan Yee Lau

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presenting during pregnancy and HCC presenting with obstructive jaundice due to a tumor cast in the biliary tract are very rare. The management of these patients remains challenging. Presentation of Case. A 23-year-old lady presented with obstructive jaundice at 38 weeks of gestation. Investigations showed HCC with a biliary tumor thrombus. She received percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and caesarean section. Right hepatectomy,...

  13. Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ryuichi Kita; Toru Kimura; Hiroki Nishikawa; Yukio Osaki

    2012-01-01

    Transcatheter methods such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) have an important role in the treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, sorafenib, an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, has been found to obtain survival benefits in patients with HCC, leading to major advances in the treatment of advanced HCC. However, it is associated with a low tumor response rate, minimal survival advantage, and high rates of ...

  14. Spatial memory deficits in juvenile rats with pilocarpine induced temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orbán-Kis K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent forms of epilepsy in humans is temporal lobe epilepsy. Characteristic to this form of the disease is the frequent pharmacoresistance and the association with behavioural disorders and cognitive impairment. The objective of our study was to establish the degree of cognitive impairment in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy after an initial epileptogenic exposure but before of the onset of the effect of long-duration epilepsy.

  15. Representation of thermal information in the antennal lobe of leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eRuchty

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Insects are equipped with various types of antennal sensilla, which house thermosensitive neurons adapted to receive different parameters of the thermal environment for a variety of temperature-guided behaviors. In the leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri, the physiology and the morphology of the thermosensitive sensillum coeloconicum (Sc has been thoroughly investigated. However, the central projections of its receptor neurons are unknown. Here we selectively stained the three neurons found in single Sc and tracked their axons into the brain of Atta vollenweideri workers. Each of the three axons terminates in a single glomerulus of the antennal lobe (Sc-glomeruli. Two of the innervated glomeruli are adjacent to each other and are located laterally, while the third one is clearly separated and located medially in the antennal lobe. Using two-photon Ca2+ imaging of antennal lobe projection neurons, we studied where in the antennal lobe thermal information is represented. In the 11 investigated antennal lobes, we found up to 10 different glomeruli in a single specimen responding to temperature stimulation. Both, warm- and cold-sensitive glomeruli could be identified. The thermosensitive glomeruli were mainly located in the medial part of the antennal lobe. Based on the general representation of thermal information in the antennal lobe and functional data on the Sc-glomeruli we conclude that temperature stimuli received by Sc are processed in the medial of the three target glomeruli. The present study reveals an important role of the antennal lobe in temperature processing and links a specific thermosensitive neuron to its central target glomerulus.

  16. Glutamate Imaging (GluCEST) Lateralizes Epileptic Foci in Non-Lesional Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kathryn Adamiak; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Das, Sandhitsu; Stephanie H Chen; Hadar, Peter N.; Pollard, John R.; Lucas, Timothy H.; Shinohara, Russell T.; Litt, Brian; Hariharan, Hari; Elliott, Mark A.; Detre, John A; Reddy, Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    When neuroimaging reveals a brain lesion, drug-resistant epilepsy patients show better outcomes after resective surgery than do the one-third of drug resistant epilepsy patients who have normal brain MRIs. We applied a glutamate imaging method, GluCEST (Glutamate Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer), to patients with non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) based on conventional MRI. GluCEST correctly lateralized the temporal lobe seizure focus on visual and quantitative analysis in all pa...

  17. Remote Hemorrhage in the Cerebellum and Temporal Lobe after Lumbar Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Shotaro Watanabe; Seiji Ohtori; Sumihisa Orita; Kazuyo Yamauchi; Yawara Eguchi; Yasuchika Aoki; Junichi Nakamura; Masayuki Miyagi; Miyako Suzuki; Gou Kubota; Kazuhide Inage; Takeshi Sainoh; Jun Sato; Yasuhiro Shiga; Koki Abe

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar hemorrhage remote from the site of surgery can complicate neurosurgical procedures. However, this complication after lumbar surgery is rare. Furthermore, hemorrhage in both the cerebellum and the temporal lobe after spine surgery is rarer still. Herein we present a case of remote hemorrhage in both the cerebellum and the temporal lobe after lumbar spine surgery. A 79-year-old woman with a Schwannoma at the L4 level presented with low back and bilateral leg pain refractory to conser...

  18. Increased In Vivo Expression of an Inflammatory Marker in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, Jussi; Kreisl, William C; Fujita, Masahiro; Dustin, Irene; Khan, Omar; Appel, Shmuel; Zhang, Yi; Morse, Cheryl; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Theodore, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies and clinical observations suggest that epilepsy is associated with inflammation. Translocator protein (TSPO) (18 kDa), a marker of inflammation, is increased in vitro in surgical samples from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. TSPO can be measured in the living human brain with PET and the novel radioligand 11C-PBR28. In this study, we sought to determine whether in vivo expression of TSPO is increased ipsilateral to the seizure focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

  19. Gangliogliomas: characteristic imaging findings and role in the temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganglioglioma is an uncommon neoplasm of the central nervous system, most frequently seen in the temporal lobe, and usually associated with medically refractory epilepsy in children and young adults. Few reports have considered ganglioglioma-associated epileptogenicity arising in the temporal lobe. The purpose of our study was to define the imaging features of ganglioglioma in the temporal lobe and their relation to the seizure foci revealed by electrocorticograms. We reviewed 24 patients with pathologically confirmed ganglioglioma in the temporal lobe. Computed tomography (CT) images showed gangliogliomas to be isodense (91.7%), and on T1-weighted images (T1-WI) most gangliogliomas (79.2%) were isointense to the gray matter. A cystic lesion was seen in 14 of 24 of the gangliogliomas (58.3%). Mass effects were not seen in any of the ten tumors without cystic components. One patient showed tumor recurrence. Dual pathology was seen in two cases (8.3%). In 23 cases, epileptogenicity was confirmed in the tumors by intraoperative electrocorticogram. The remaining case had no epileptogenicity. A tumor presenting isointensity to gray matter on T1-WI without mass effects in the medial temporal lobe in a young patient with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) might be the characteristic imaging of temporal lobe ganglioglioma. However, such tumors are not always associated with epileptogenicity, even if a ganglioglioma is found in a patient with TLE. The seizure foci may be contralateral to the ganglioglioma. Therefore, we need to investigate the hippocampus, white matter abnormalities of the ipsilateral and contralateral anterior temporal lobe, and other focal lesions closely. (orig.)

  20. The Role of Amygdala in Emotional and Social Functions: Implications for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Cristinzio Perrin, Chiara; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is among the most frequent causes of chronic and drug-resistant seizure disorders. It is typically associated with lesions involving critical limbic structures within the anterior medial temporal lobe, such as the amygdala and hippocampus. While the role of the hippocampus and adjacent cortical regions in memory function is now well established, the role of the amygdala and related brain circuits is still poorly known. The amygdala is a complex neural structure implicat...