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Sample records for cattle production systems

  1. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)

  2. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: Production systems and genetic diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations in Sri Lanka, which is a small island located below the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a non-descript type mixture of genotypes, and represent more than the half of total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Six distinct indigenous populations (NE, NC, So, No, TK and Th) were investigated for morphological and genetic differences. The respective farming systems were also evaluated to complete the requirement in developing conservation and utilization strategies. The sampling was carried out based on the non-existence of artificial insemination facilities to assure the target populations are indigenous. The six populations were assumed genetically isolated from each other in the absence of nomadic pattern of rearing and regular cattle migration. The farming systems were analyzed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire by single visits to each location. Single visits were practiced, as there is no variation in farming system according to the period of the year. Morphometric measurements were taken during the visit and the genetic variation was assessed within and between five populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers. The farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle are reared as a traditional practice in all the regions of the country under limited or no input situations. Since the low productivity masks its real contribution to the rural livelihood, the level of utilization was confounded within the attributes of respective farming systems. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from 0% to 90% in different regions reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping indigenous cattle. Integration with crop, especially with paddy was the common

  3. Modeling methane emissions by cattle production systems in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Ku Vera, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from livestock is one of the largest sources of methane in Mexico. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a realistic estimate of the national inventory of methane produced by the enteric fermentation of cattle, based on an integrated simulation model, and to provide estimates of CH4 produced by cattle fed typical diets from the tropical and temperate climates of Mexico. The Mexican cattle population of 23.3 million heads was divided in two groups. The first group (7.8 million heads), represents cattle of the tropical climate regions. The second group (15.5 million heads), are the cattle in the temperate climate regions. This approach allows incorporating the effect of diet on CH4 production into the analysis because the quality of forages is lower in the tropics than in temperate regions. Cattle population in every group was subdivided into two categories: cows (COW) and other type of cattle (OTHE), which included calves, heifers, steers and bulls. The daily CH4 production by each category of animal along an average production cycle of 365 days was simulated, instead of using a default emission factor as in Tier 1 approach. Daily milk yield, live weight changes associated with the lactation, and dry matter intake, were simulated for the entire production cycle. The Moe and Tyrrell (1979) model was used to simulate CH4 production for the COW category, the linear model of Mills et al. (2003) for the OTHE category in temperate regions and the Kurihara et al. (1999) model for the OTHE category in the tropical regions as it has been developed for cattle fed tropical diets. All models were integrated with a cow submodel to form an Integrated Simulation Model (ISM). The AFRC (1993) equations and the lactation curve model of Morant and Gnanasakthy (1989) were used to construct the cow submodel. The ISM simulates on a daily basis the CH4 production, milk yield, live weight changes associated with lactation and dry matter intake. The total daily CH

  4. Zebu cattle farming in Sri Lanka: Production systems and reproductive characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) constitute 72.3% of the cattle population in Sri Lanka and consist of indigenous exotic and crosses. Indigenous Zebu cattle were primarily found in the dry and the intermediate zones with the remainder in the wet zone. In the latter two zones the indigenous Zebu have been gradually replaced by dairy-type exotic genotypes. In the dry zone Zebu cattle farming is done as a traditional village system (DTVS) and irrigated settlement system (DISS). The DTVS is the most prevalent system and 24% of small holdings within this system rear cattle. In 91.4% of these households cattle farming is either a primary or secondary occupation. Zebu cattle farming provides a modest income with meat, milk, draught and manure contribution 45%, 34%, 9% and 12%, respectively to the total income. Scarcity of grazing lands, high incidence of crop damages by cattle, an inadequate veterinary service and poor milk collecting network are having adverse effects on the sustainability of the system. The objective of the present study were to assess the distribution, production systems and reproductive patterns of cattle with special reference to indigenous Zebu cattle in traditional management systems. 39 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  5. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia. PMID:26055891

  6. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. F.; Sun, F. F.; Wan, F. C.; Zhao, H. B.; Liu, X. M.; You, W.; Cheng, H. J.; Liu, G. F.; Tan, X. W.; Song, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (pfermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  7. Production standards and the quality of milk and meat products from cattle and sheep raised in sustainable production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović S.; Savić M.; Aleksić S.; Živković D.

    2011-01-01

    Basic principles that inform organic livestock production are reviewed in this paper, with special emphasis on milk and meat production in cattle and sheep. Research findings to date are presented on the impact of various management practices, both organic and conventional, as they effect product yield and quality. The importance of incorporating autochnochous breeds into organic milk and meat production systems is particularly emphasized. Additionally, a g...

  8. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y F; Sun, F F; Wan, F C; Zhao, H B; Liu, X M; You, W; Cheng, H J; Liu, G F; Tan, X W; Song, E L

    2016-05-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (psilage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  9. Neutron activation analysis of zinc in forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages. (author)

  10. Evaluation of mycotoxins contamination in intensive beef cattle production system

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ronchi; P. P. Danieli; U. Bernabucci; A. Sabatini

    2010-01-01

    Feed samples from 15 intensive beef cattle farms located in Northern Italy (provinces of Verona and Mantova) were checked for mycotoxin contamination [aflatoxins (AF), fumonisins (FB), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenol (ZEN)]. Total mixed rations (TMR) resulted positive for AF and FB contamination. Among feedstuffs corn and corn gluten feed were the only responsible of TMR contamination. Level of contamination was positively related to corn moisture content.

  11. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  12. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  13. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liping Ren; Bo Zhou; Fengshua Shi; Xiangxue Xie; Qingxaing Meng

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental) and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan) cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71) were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two...

  14. Prediction of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrabb, G.J.; Hunter, R.A. [CSIRO, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Agriculture

    1999-07-01

    The northern beef cattle herd accounts for more than half of Australia's beef cattle population, and is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions for Australia. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory predictions of methane output from Australian beef cattle are based on a predictive equation developed for British breeds of sheep and cattle offered temperate forage-based diets. However, tropical forage diets offered to cattle in northern Australia differ markedly from temperate forage-based diets used in the United Kingdom to develop the predictive equations. The paper reviews recent respiration chamber measurements of daily methane production for Brahman cattle offered a tropical forage or high grain diet, and compares them with values predicted using methodologies of the Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It is concluded that a reliable inventory of methane emissions for cattle in northern Australia can only be achieved after a wider range of tropical forage species has been investigated. Some opportunities for reducing methane emissions of beef cattle by dietary manipulation are discussed.

  15. Productivity and hay requirements of beef cattle in a Midwestern year-round grazing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovick, N A; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G

    2004-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a replicated (n = 2) Midwestern year-round grazing system's hay needs and animal production compared with a replicated (n = 2) conventional (minimal land) system over 3 yr. Because extended grazing systems have decreased hay needs for the beef herd, it was hypothesized that this year-round system would decrease hay needs without penalizing animal production. In the minimal land (ML) system, two replicated 8.1-ha smooth bromegrass-orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil (SB-OG-BFT) pastures were rotationally stocked with six mature April-calving cows and calves and harvested as hay for winter feeding in a drylot. After weaning, calves were finished on a high-concentrate diet. Six mature April-calving cows, six mature August-calving cows, and their calves were used in the year-round (YR) grazing system. During the early and late summer, cattle grazed two replicated 8.1-ha SB-OG-BFT pastures by rotational stocking. In mid-summer and winter, April- and August-calving cows grazed two replicated 6.1-ha, endophyte-free tall fescue-red clover (TF-RC) and smooth bromegrass-red clover (SB-RC) pastures, respectively, by strip-stocking. In late autumn, spring-calving cows grazed 6.1-ha corn crop residue fields by strip-stocking. Calves were fed hay with corn gluten feed or corn grain over winter and used as stocker cattle to graze SB-OG-BFT pastures with cows until early August the following summer. First-harvest forage from the TF-RC and SB-RC pastures was harvested as hay. Body condition scores of April-calving cows did not differ between grazing systems, but were lower (P < or = 0.03) than those of August-calving cows from mid-gestation through breeding. Preweaning calf BW gains were 47 kg/ha of perennial pasture (P < 0.01) and 32 kg/cow (P = 0.01) lower in the YR grazing system than in the ML system. Total BW gains ofpreweaning calf and grazing stocker cattle were 12 kg/ha of perennial pasture less (P = 0.07), but 27 kg/cow greater (P = 0.02) in

  16. Validation and recovery rates of an indirect calorimetry headbox system used to measure heat production of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A headbox system was constructed at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to determine heat production from dairy cattle using indirect calorimetry. The system was designed for use in a tie-stall barn to allow the animal to be comfortable and was mounted on wheels to transport between animals between s...

  17. Intensification of cattle ranching production systems:Socioeconomic and environmental synergies and risks in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Latawiec, A. E.; Strassburg, B. B. N.; Valentim, J. F.; Ramos, F.; Alves-pinto, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    Intensification of Brazilian cattle ranching systems has attracted both national and international attention due to its direct relation with Amazon deforestation on the one hand and increasing demand of the global population for meat on the other. Since Brazilian cattle ranching is predominantly pasture-based, we particularly focus on pasture management. We summarize the most recurrent opportunities and risks associated with pasture intensification that are brought up within scientific and po...

  18. INTEGRATING RANCH FORAGE PRODUCTION, CATTLE PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS IN RANCH MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreasing cattle stocking densities is one practice that has been suggested to improve surface runoff quality draining into Lake Okeebhobee, Florida. A holistic approach is needed to address both production and economic implications associated with lower animal densities. The objective of this st...

  19. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  20. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus, Simeon I B; Alabi, Peter I; Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Dale, Emma J; Stack, Judy A

    2013-01-01

    Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127) were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Overall, 24 (8.6%) and 16 (5.7%) of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% - 12.6%) and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% - 10.5%) than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% - 4.7%). Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043) and breed (Djali; p = 0.038) were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234), production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208) or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359) was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd. PMID:23905207

  1. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon I.B. Cadmus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  2. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Dale

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  3. Socio-cultural factors determining roles and responsibilities in traditional cattle production systems within rural communities of upper Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-flores, B.; Velasco, G; Loza, S.; Soliman, I.

    2012-01-01

    Livestock, and particularly cattle production, represents one of the main sources of revenue for Upper Egypt rural communities. An understanding of the socio-cultural factors influencing rural communities’ traditional livestock production systems is essential for the formulation and implementation of any intervention strategies willing to preserve and manage animal genetic resources at community-based level. The objective of this study was to identify and understand the socio-cultural factors...

  4. Constraints to cattle production in a semiarid pastoral system in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onono, Joshua Orungo; Wieland, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    Livestock keeping is the mainstay for the pastoral community while also providing social and cultural value. This study ranked main production constraints and cattle diseases that impacted livelihood and estimated herd prevalence, incidence rate, and impact of diseases on production parameters in a semiarid pastoral district of Narok in Kenya. Data collection employed participatory techniques including listing, pairwise ranking, disease incidence scoring, proportional piling, and disease impact matrix scoring and this was disaggregated by gender. Production constraints with high scores for impact on livelihood included scarcity of water (19%), lack of extension services (15%), presence of diseases (12%), lack of market for cattle and their products (10%), and recurrent cycle of drought (9%). Diseases with high scores for impact on livelihood were East Coast fever (ECF) (22%) and foot and mouth disease (FMD) (21%). High estimated incidence rates were reported for FMD (67%), trypanosomosis (28%), and ECF (15%), while contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) had an incidence rate <1%. Milk yield was affected by FMD, ECF, and trypanosomosis, while ECF was the cause of increased mortality. FMD, ECF, CBPP, and brucellosis caused increased abortion, while effect of gender and location of study was not significant. Despite CBPP being regarded as an important disease affecting cattle production in sub-Sahara Africa, its estimated incidence rate in herds was low. This study indicates what issues should be prioritized by livestock policy for pastoral areas. PMID:23417827

  5. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71 were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two imported breeds had higher average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain efficiency. Regarding carcass characteristics, the two imported breeds had higher carcass weight, bone weight, net meat weight, and ribeye area (P<0.001. However, the local breeds had higher (P<0.01 marbling scores than the imported breeds. The imported breeds showed higher economic benefits (P<0.001 than the local breeds. In conclusion, the imported cattle breeds had better growth performance, carcass traits and economic benefits compared with the local cattle breeds at 18.5 months old under the typical Chinese feeding conditions whereas, in this study, the local breeds may have some advantage in terms of meat quality.

  6. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P trekking during migrations (P = 0.0009). This study had shown the burden of CBPP in the two production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria. PMID:26563271

  7. Productive and income contributions of sheep, goat, and cattle, and different diversification schemes in smallholder production systems of Northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra, Edgar Sebastián; Easdale, Marcos Horacio; Giraudo, Celso Gabriel; Bonvissuto, Griselda Luz

    2015-10-01

    Wool production oriented sheep keeping is the most important rural activity in Patagonia, Argentina, followed by goat and at a lower extent cattle production. The existing perception on the smallholder production systems from most decision makers (e.g., policy) is that they are marginal, with low productivity and have negative returns. Since the Argentinean economic scenario has changed drastically in the last decade, the aim of this study was to analyze the economic and productive contribution of different livestock species in smallholdings. The results showed that the post-1990's economic scenario turned most smallholder livestock systems to have positive economic performance, but there were still productive restrictions that limited to fully benefit from these favorable circumstances. Goats were the most profitable livestock due to their higher productive performance, followed by sheep and cattle, with poorer performances. A strong cooperation between the intervention programs and research institutions is recommended to overcome the current production bottlenecks, by focusing on cattle and sheep production systems. PMID:26089256

  8. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU−1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU−1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2–5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120–300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha−1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350–580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high

  9. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing. PMID:14677847

  10. Neutron activation analysis application for determining iron concentration in forage grasses used in intensive cattle production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron is an essential element to the life. It is an important hemoglobin component and it is involved in the transport of oxygen to cells. A deficiency of iron results in an unsuitable synthesis of hemoglobin and a delay in the growth. Iron contents above the tolerable level in animal feed can cause serious damages to the health and the death in extreme cases. The forages are the main source of feed to cattle in grazing. It is known from the literature, that the growth and the nutritious value of the forage are influenced by specie and physiologic age of the plant, soil fertility and environmental conditions. Therefore, an agronomical evaluations of the forages are necessary before to introduce in an intensive cattle production systems to program adequate grazing management. Neutron activation analysis was applied to evaluate the Fe concentration in the main tropical forage grasses used in intensive dairy cattle production systems in Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Iron concentrations were smaller in the rain season than in the dry one. Comparison of results obtained in the analyses of forages with daily requirements of iron in dry matter, showed that the Fe concentration in forages was adequate. (author)

  11. Intensification of cattle ranching production systems: socioeconomic and environmental synergies and risks in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latawiec, A E; Strassburg, B B N; Valentim, J F; Ramos, F; Alves-Pinto, H N

    2014-08-01

    Intensification of Brazilian cattle ranching systems has attracted both national and international attention due to its direct relation with Amazon deforestation on the one hand and increasing demand of the global population for meat on the other. Since Brazilian cattle ranching is predominantly pasture-based, we particularly focus on pasture management. We summarize the most recurrent opportunities and risks associated with pasture intensification that are brought up within scientific and political dialogues, and discuss them within the Brazilian context. We argue that sustainable intensification of pasturelands in Brazil is a viable way to increase agricultural output while simultaneously sparing land for nature. Since environmental degradation is often associated with low-yield extensive systems in Brazil, it is possible to obtain higher yields, while reversing degradation, by adopting practices like rotational grazing, incorporation of legumes and integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems. Technical assistance is however essential, particularly for small- and medium-scale farmers. Sound complementary policies and good governance must accompany these measures so that a 'rebound effect' does not lead to increased deforestation and other adverse social and environmental impacts. It is also important that animal welfare is not compromised. Although the discussion is presented with respect to Brazil, some aspects are relevant to other developing countries. PMID:26263189

  12. Investigation into Possible Differences in Salmonella Prevalence in the Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Cattle Derived from Distinct Production Systems and of Different Breed Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T R; Edrington, T S; Loneragan, G H; Hanson, D L; Malin, K; Ison, J J; Nisbet, D J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research demonstrated significant variation in the prevalence of Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) of feedlot cattle and cull cows, with greater prevalence in feedlot cattle. Therefore, we performed experiments to investigate whether these differences in Salmonella prevalence in subiliac LNs are due to, or influenced by, breed, which in many respects is a proxy for the production system in which the animal is derived. Holstein steers are a by-product of dairy systems, and beef steers are an intended product of commercial beef operations. For the first experiment, Holstein and beef steers originating from the same feedlot and harvested on the same day were sampled. Of the 467 Holstein and 462 beef cattle LNs collected, 62.1% of Holstein and 59.7% of beef cattle samples harbored Salmonella (P = 0.46; qualitative culture), with 51.2 and 48.9% of samples containing quantifiable concentrations (P = 0.49), respectively. The concentration of Salmonella within the LN followed a decreasing trend over the collection period (May to October), averaging 1.4 log CFU/g of LN for both Holstein and beef cattle samples (P = 0.78). In a second experiment, we compared 100% Brahman cattle to their beef cattle counterparts, as we hypothesized that the resistance of Brahman cattle to insects may reduce Salmonella transmission via biting insects. Of the 42 Brahman and 31 beef cattle LNs collected, the concentration of Salmonella within the LN averaged 3.0 log CFU/g for Brahman cattle and 2.9 log CFU/g for beef cattle samples (P = 0.30). Using qualitative culture, we recovered Salmonella from 100% of LNs from Brahman cattle and 97% of beef cattle samples (P = 0.25). Results of this research indicate that the differences observed are not due to breed and are likely a function of age, immune function, or other factors yet to be identified. Understanding which cattle are more likely to harbor Salmonella within LNs will aid in targeting both pre- and postharvest intervention

  13. Eating beef: cattle, methane and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlquist, Åsa K

    2013-01-01

    A number of prominent people have advocated eating less meat or becoming a vegetarian to reduce global warming, because cattle produce the greenhouse gas methane. This raises a number of questions including: what will happen to the grasslands that much of the world's cattle currently graze; how will alternate protein be produced, and what will the greenhouse consequences of that production be? It comes down to production systems. About 70 per cent of the world's agricultural land is grassland, and the only way to produce food from grasslands is to graze ruminants on it. If domesticated animals do not graze the grasslands, native or feral ruminants, which also produce methane, tend to move in. Feeding high quality grain to cattle is much less defensible. Replacing animal protein with plant proteins like soybeans necessitates more cropping land, water, fuel and chemicals being used. A more rational food system would raise cattle on grasslands but not feed them high quality grains. Instead more of the currently grown crop could be devoted to human consumption. PMID:23353606

  14. Evaluation of wolf impacts on cattle productivity and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have initiated and employed an Adaptive Management System (AMS) to document the effects of gray wolves on cattle production systems in Oregon and Idaho. The project has collected information on cattle movement on land in both wolf common and wolf rare areas with GPS collars that record positions ...

  15. A large seroprevalence survey of brucellosis in cattle herds under diverse production systems in northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Hassan M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried out to investigate the status of brucellosis in cattle under various management systems in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, northern Nigeria. Using multi-stage sampling, serum samples of 4,745 cattle from 271 herds were tested using the Rose-Bengal plate-agglutination test (RBPT and positives were confirmed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA. Results Prevalence estimates were calculated by adjusting for sampling weights and where possible for test sensitivity and specificity. Thirty-seven percent of all animals were RBPT positive, and after confirmation with c-ELISA the overall animal-level prevalence, adjusted for sampling weights, was 26.3% (95% CI, 22.1%-31.0%. Of the herds sampled, 210 (77.5%; 95% CI, 68.6%-84.5% had at least one animal positive to both tests; this did not differ significantly between states (P = 0.538. Mean within-herd seroprevalence in positive herds was 30.2% (95% CI, 25.3%-35.1% and ranged from 3.1% to 85.7%. Overall animal-level seroprevalences of 29.2% (95% CI, 22.5%-36.9% n = 1,827, 23.3% (95% CI, 18.9%-28.3% n = 1,870 and 26.7% (95% CI, 18.8%-36.7% n = 1,048 were observed in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, respectively (P = 0.496. A significantly higher seroprevalence was found in males (38.2%; 95% CI, 31.7%-45.2% than in females (24.7%; 95% CI, 20.4%-29.5% (P P P 7 years. Seroprevalence also varied between management systems (P  Conclusion This is the first large study to assess the prevalence of bovine brucellosis over a wide geographic area of northern Nigeria, in a variety of management systems and using accurate tests. The seroprevalence of brucellosis was high, and higher than results of previous studies in northern Nigeria. The pastoral management systems of the traditional Fulanis may be encouraging the dissemination of the disease. Public enlightenment of the farmers about the disease, vaccination and appropriate national

  16. Preferential traits for breeding Nguni cattle in low-input in-situ conservation production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tada, Obert; Muchenje, Voster; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in communal and small-scale Nguni cattle enterprises to determine preferential traits for improvement under low-input cattle breeding programs. Forty-one farmers participated in ranking six specific traits of breeding bulls and cows. Kruskal-Wallis test and ordinal logistic regression were used to determine mean ranks of traits and odds ratios of predictors (enterprise ownership, gender, farmer age, education level, agriculture training) on specified trai...

  17. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  18. Radiation-hygienic supervision in cattle production by application of HACCP system

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Radosav; Kljajić Ranko R.; Vićentijević Mihajlo

    2006-01-01

    In this work is exposed instructive methodology for introducing and conducting HACCP system in intensive livestock production on the example of bullock fattening as a typical representative of intensive breeding. Aim is establishing radiation-hygienic supervision. Attention is focused on the fattened bull calves as a key link in chain of food production. In reference to selection of row materials components necessity in production of concentrated food for fattened bull calves in intensive bre...

  19. Cattle production in agroforestry systems. An analysis on the role of intensification and dependence of subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano, A.J.; Gaspar, P.; Mesias, F.J.; Rosas, J.P.; Escribano, M.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive livestock production systems have faced socio-economic factors (such as the loss of profitability and competitiveness) that have led to modifications in their management and structure. The main changes have been the abandonment of grazing, the increase in the use of external feed, the abandonment of farms, and the intensification of the systems. The dehesa is the consequence of human intervention in the natural Mediterranean forest. Due to this, the conservation of this ecosystem...

  20. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the CAST or CAPN3 gene markers improves meat tenderness in Brahman cattle, with little if any detrimental effects on other meat quality traits. The CAPN1-4751 gene

  1. Life-cycle assessment of the beef cattle production system for the northern great plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Christopher D; Clay, David E; Benning, Jennifer L; Stone, James J

    2013-09-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to estimate the environmental impacts associated with four different U.S. Northern Great Plains (NPG) beef production systems. The LCA model followed a "cradle-to-gate" approach and incorporated all major unit processes, including mineral supplement production. Four distinct operation scenarios were modeled based on production strategies common to the NGP, and a variety of impacts were determined. The scenarios include a normal operation, early weaning of the calf, fast-tack backgrounding, and grassfed. Enteric emissions and manure emissions and handling were consistently the largest contributors to the LCA impacts. There was little variability between production scenarios except for the grassfed, where the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 37% higher due to a longer finishing time and lower finishing weight. However, reductions to GHG emissions (15-24%) were realized when soil organic carbon accrual was considered and may be a more realistic estimate for the NGP. Manure emissions and handing were primary contributors to potential eutrophication and acidification impacts. Mitigation strategies to reduce LCA impacts, including diet manipulation and management strategies (i.e., treatment of manure), were considered from a whole-systems perspective. Model results can be used for guidance by NGP producers, environmental practitioners, and policymakers. PMID:24216416

  2. Farm-level Economic Evaluation of Net Feed Efficiency in Australia’s Southern Beef Cattle Production System: A Multi-period Linear Programming Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alford, Andrew R.; Griffith, Garry R.; Cacho, Oscar J.

    2003-01-01

    Selection of beef cattle for increased net feed efficiency is a current major focus for research. At present the trait seems to be more apparent in Australia’s southern beef production system which is dominated by mixed farming enterprises. Farm-level evaluation of net feed efficiency should take account of the farming system for which it is proposed along with the dynamic nature of genetic selection. Gross margin, linear programming and multi-period linear programming approaches to evaluatio...

  3. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 1. Growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Experiments were conducted concurrently at 2 locations to quantify effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass traits of Brahman cattle. Cattle were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds based on their genotype for commercially available calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Genotypes for mu-calpain gene markers (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined and included in statistical analyses. The New South Wales (NSW) herd was composed of 82 heifers and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. The Western Australia (WA) herd was composed of 173 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. One-half of the cattle at each site were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant (HGP: Revalor-H) during grain finishing. Cattle were backgrounded at pasture for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. Individually, or in combination with each other and with CAPN1-4751 status, CAST and CAPN3 status had no significant (all P > 0.05) effects on BW, growth, feed efficiency, or temperament traits. The only significant effect of CAST or CAPN3 on carcass characteristics was a small increase in rib fat with increasing number of favorable CAST alleles (P = 0.042) in the WA herd. There were no significant interactions (all P > 0.05) between the markers, or between the markers and sex or HGP treatment apart from CAST x HGP for area of the M. longissimus lumborum (P = 0.024) in the NSW experiment. Favorable CAST or CAPN3 alleles appear unlikely to have detrimental effects on growth, efficiency, temperament, or carcass characteristics of Brahman cattle; however, some effects evident for CAPN1 status indicate the need for further production studies on effects of these markers. Overall, the findings of the present study indicate that calpain-system gene markers are

  4. Estimation of tsetse challenge and its relationship with trypanosomosis incidence in cattle kept under pastoral production systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, B; Irungu, P; Nyamwaro, S O; Murilla, G; Kitala, P; Gathuma, J; Randolph, T F; McDermott, J

    2008-08-17

    In an on-farm trial conducted amongst the Maasai pastoralists in Nkuruman and Nkineji areas of Kenya between April 2004 and August 2005 designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a synthetic tsetse repellent technology, we assessed the relationship between tsetse challenge and trypanosomosis incidence in cattle. Six villages were used in each area. Each of these villages had a sentinel cattle herd that was screened for trypanosomosis on monthly basis using buffy coat technique. Animals found infected at each sampling were treated with diminazene aceturate at 7 mg kg(-1) body weight. Treatments administered by the owners over the sampling intervals were recorded as well. Tsetse flies were trapped at the time of sampling using baited stationary traps and apparent tsetse density estimated as flies per trap per day (FTD). A fixed proportion (10%) of the flies was dissected and their infection status determined through microscopy. Blood meals were also collected from some of the flies and their sources identified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tsetse challenge was obtained as a product of tsetse density, trypanosome prevalence and the proportion of blood meals obtained from cattle. This variable was transformed using logarithmic function and fitted as an independent factor in a Poisson model that had trypanosomosis incidence in the sentinel cattle as the outcome of interest. The mean trypanosomosis incidence in the sentinel group of cattle was 7.2 and 10.2% in Nkuruman and Nkineji, respectively. Glossina pallidipes was the most prevalent tsetse species in Nkuruman while G. swynnertoni was prevalent in Nkineji. The proportions of tsetse that had mature infections in the respective areas were 0.6 and 4.2%. Most tsetse (28%) sampled in Nkuruman had blood meals from warthogs while most of those sampled in Nkineji (30%) had blood meals from cattle. A statistically significant association between tsetse challenge and trypanosomosis incidence was obtained only

  5. Range Beef Cattle Productivity in Southern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga, Mouslim A.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-six range beef cattle ranches in southern Utah were surveyed by personal interview to obtain production data. The data were used to characterize the level of production efficiency in terms of calving rate, weaning rate, weaning weight, and net weaning weight in these operations; and to identify factors associated with differences in productivity. The data revealed that productive efficiency was generally lower than the potential. Mean calving rate of cows exposed for breeding was...

  6. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  7. Tick loads in Bos taurus cattle grazing in two contrasting production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Salazar B; Rolando Barahona-Rosales; María-Solange Sánchez P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To relate the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick loads on cows grazing either in intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS) (Lucerna) or in grass pastures associated with sugarcane plantations (La Isabela). Materials and methods. Tick counts were performed on 27 Lucerne breed animals that were in different physiological states, six of which were grazing on forage grass paddocks associated with commercial sugarcane plantations and the remain...

  8. Quality Risk and Profitability in Cattle Production: A Multivariate Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Belasco, Eric J; Schroeder, Ted C.; Goodwin, Barry K.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates quality, production, and price risk within the context of overall profit variability in fed cattle production. The approach used offers a flexible way to estimate a large system of equations with more than three jointly related censored outcomes. Trade-offs between quality and yield grade levels and production measures, such as average daily gain and feeding efficiency, are evaluated. Simulation procedures are used to assess the impact of quality risk on overall profit va...

  9. Southern Section Interdisciplinary Beef Cattle Symposium: Forage and co-product systems for stockers in the South: have fundamental shifts in markets changed the optimal system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, D L; Prevatt, J W

    2013-01-01

    Stockering calves in the southern United States has been an economically viable enterprise for decades. Historically, the system that yielded the best opportunity for profitability was to purchase lightweight calves (130 kg to 220 kg) in autumn, add 100 to 200 kg of BW gain, and sell them in the spring. In most years, the value of the BW gain was worth more than the cost of BW gain in this system. With the exponential price increases in feed, fuel, and fertilizer during 2008 and the significant increase in cattle prices, it is prudent to assess the potential for continued profitability in this segment of the beef industry. Evaluation of 37 grazing experiments indicated that the forage systems most likely to result in inexpensive costs of BW gain for stocker calves involve tall fescue with legumes or ryegrass with small grains. Even with increased input prices, these systems still yield economical BW gain for stocker calves. Likewise, many diets can be blended to produce ADG of 1 kg using co-products that are abundant across the South. With many of these co-products, the most important performance factor in determining their value is G:F. In several experiments, DMI has exceeded 3% of BW in stocker calves, and the resulting G:F has been less than desirable. Several experiments have reported G:F of 0.13 to 0.16, resulting in economical BW gain, whereas some experiments have reported G:F as low as 0.09, which could result in BW gain that costs more to produce than it is worth. From 1979, the value of BW gain for stocker calves in Alabama has averaged US$1.05/kg. However, in the last 3 yr, the value of BW gain has risen to $2.32/kg. Fundamental shifts in feed, fuel, and fertilizer prices experienced in the United States between 2005 and 2010 have markedly changed the amount of capital needed to purchase several hundred stocker calves and to provide adequate feedstuffs for BW gain. However, the value of BW gain associated with producing feeder calves from those stockers

  10. Improvement of beef cattle genetics provided increasing sustainability of beef cattle production and protein consumption in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rural innovation research and development (R and D) in beef cattle genetics, biotechnology, climate science and production systems, supported profitable and sustainable beef cattle production in Thailand. Department of Livestock Development (DLD) undertakes R and D to achieve continuous improvement in genetics, production technologies to improve productivity, profitability and sustainability of beef cattle production and quality of products. Efficiencies were achieved through improvements in genetics, nutrition and grazing management, use of information, meat science, and reduction in ruminant methane production. This function was essential to maintain long-term production competitiveness and achieve sustained economic growth in rural Thailand, where the beef cattle production was the important livestock production, accounting for 36.99% of the value of livestock production in Thailand. Molecular, quantitative genetics, and biotechnology tool were being combined in the development of genetic improvement. In 2006, beef meat was imported 1,842.53 thousand tons (0.41% of all consumption, 120.84 baht/kg). For the big size cattle, such as Tak cattle, Kabinburi cattle (Thai synthetic breeds by DLD, Tak = 62.5 Charoles-Brahman, Kabinburi = 50 Simental- Brahman), and cross breed cattle, they were in fattening period for 6-12 month. Fattening group, they were raised for restaurant, hotel, super market, and steak house. Data were collected from 2 parts: 1) 354 cattle of experimental trial in DLD part, and 2) 492 fattening cattle of small holders in Tak province and Nakorn Pathom province during October 2004-September 2007. Data collecting was separated into 2 parts (performance data and reference). Data were adjusted by group location month and year to analyze for growth, carcass performance and economic performances). There were 5 breeds of fattening beef cattle: 1) Thai Native, 2) Thai Brahman, 3) Kabinburi, 4) Tak, and 5) Tajima-Native. The first group was around 41

  11. Cattle Candidate Genes for Meat Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile a summary of the most important candidate genes for meat production. The studied genes were: GH, GHR, MSTN, MyoD family, leptin, IGF, TG5, SCD, DGAT and STAT5A. Growth hormone (GH) is involved in physiological processes of growth and metabolism. Growth hormone receptor (GHR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for meat production in cattle. Myostatin is a significant marker. It affects the amount of muscle, reduces marbling and elevate meat tendern...

  12. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in an integrated soybean-beef cattle production system under different grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Mari Assmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grazing intensity on the decomposition of cover crop pasture, dung, and soybean residues, as well as the C and N release rates from these residues in a long-term integrated soybean-beef cattle system under no-tillage. The experiment was initiated in 2001, with soybean cultivated in summer and black oat + Italian ryegrass in winter. The treatments consisted of four sward heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, plus an ungrazed area, as the control. In 2009-2011, residues from pasture, dung, and soybean stems and leaves were placed in nylon-mesh litter bags and allowed to decompose for up to 258 days. With increasing grazing intensity, residual dry matter of the pasture decreased and that of dung increased. Pasture and dung lignin concentrations and C release rates were lower with moderate grazing intensity. C and N release rates from soybean residues are not affected by grazing intensity. The moderate grazing intensity produces higher quality residues, both for pasture and dung. Total C and N release is influenced by the greater residual dry matter produced when pastures were either lightly grazed or ungrazed.

  13. The suitability for organic cattle beef production of mixed farming systems in the highlands of north east Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Jaime; Rodrigues, M. A.; Sousa, Fernando Ruivo de; Bernardo, Adelino; Pires, João; Cabanas, J.E.; Resendes, Hugo; Ferreira, Maria; Silva, Infância; Moreira, Nuno

    2005-01-01

    Two beef cattle farms (Farm 1 – “Barrosã” breed – Montalegre and Farm 2 – “Mirandesa” breed – Vinhais) were monitored for a year (autumn 2002-03) – Farm activities, inputs, outputs, yields components and flows were recorde

  14. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease. PMID:27156223

  15. QTL mapping for production traits in Czech Fleckvieh cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejickova, J; Stipkova, M; Sahana, Goutam;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find QTL for milk production traits in Czech Fleckvieh cattle on chromosomes 6, 7, 11, 14, and 23 where QTL were previously identified in other dairy cattle populations. Sixteen grandsire families were genotyped for 38 microsatellite markers on the selected...... associated with milk production traits appeared on other studied chromosomes (BTA6, BTA7, BTA11, and BTA23). This first QTL search on five chromosomes in Czech Fleckvieh population showed several suggestive QTL that can be promising for further studies and contribute to better understanding of genetics of...... milk production in the Czech Fleckvieh cattle....

  16. The Welfare of Cattle kept for Beef Production

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare,

    2001-01-01

    Content: 1) Introduction 2) State of the Industry 3) Hosing Systems 4) Behaviour of Cattle 5)Effect of Housing on the Welfare of the Animals 6) the effects of Management on Cattle Welfare 7)Futere Research Needed 8) Conclusions 9) Recommodations 10) References 11) Acknowledgements

  17. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: I. Estimation of model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    Breed parameters for a computer model that simulated differences in the composition of empty-body gain of beef cattle, resulting from differences in postweaning level of nutrition that are not associated with empty BW, were estimated for 17 biological types of cattle (steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds [Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise] mated to Hereford and Angus dams). One value for the maximum fractional growth rate of fat-free matter (KMAX) was estimated and used across all breed types. Mature fat-free matter (FFMmat) was estimated from data on mature cows for each of the 17 breed types. Breed type values for a fattening parameter (THETA) were estimated from growth and composition data at slaughter on steers of the 17 breed types, using the previously estimated constant KMAX and breed values for FFMmat. For each breed type, THETA values were unique for given values of KMAX, FFMmat, and composition at slaughter. The results showed that THETA was most sensitive to KMAX and had similar sensitivity to FFMmat and composition at slaughter. Values for THETA were most sensitive for breed types with large THETA values (Chianina, Charolais, and Limousin crossbred steers) and least sensitive for breed types with small THETA values (purebred Angus, crossbred Jersey, and Red Poll steers).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7607999

  18. Reducing Methane Emissions from Cattle Production in Central Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Rolfe, John

    2002-01-01

    Beef cattle contribute about 7% of national greenhouse gas emissions through the release of methane into the atmosphere. Cattle in northern Australia produce more methane per unit of beef produced because of tropical (C4) grasses and slower average growth rates. In this paper the level of emissions from different herds and some strategies to reduce emissions are modelled. The results indicate that few options exist to reduce methane emissions without reducing beef production. The opportunity ...

  19. Growth characteristics, reproductive performance, and evaluation of their associative relationships in Brangus cattle managed in a Chihuahuan Desert production system1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Nevarez, P; Bailey, D W; Bailey, C C; VanLeeuwen, D M; Enns, R M; Silver, G A; DeAtley, K L; Thomas, M G

    2010-05-01

    Balancing growth and reproductive performance in beef cattle managed in desert environments is challenging. Our objectives were to 1) evaluate trends in growth and reproductive traits, and 2) assess associative relationships between growth characteristics and reproductive performance in a Brangus herd managed in a Chihuahuan Desert production system from 1972 to 2006. Data were from bull (n = 597) and heifer calves (n = 585; 1988 to 2006) and cows (n = 525; repeated records of cows, n = 2,611; 1972 to 2006). Variables describing the growth curve of each cow were estimated using a nonlinear logistic function (each cow needed 6 yr of data). Mixed-effect models and logistic regression were used to analyze trends across years in growth and reproductive traits (both continuous and categorical). For continuous traits of calves, a slight cubic response (P Brangus herd managed in the Chihuahuan Desert. Opposing relationships were observed among measures of cow size and fertility; as growth curves shifted toward earlier maturity, measures of reproductive performance suggested that fertility improved. PMID:20154157

  20. Clitoria ternatea, The Alternative Shrub Legume for Cattle and Corn Integration System in Timor Island

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Nulik

    2009-01-01

    Cattle and maize play important roles in the dryland faming systems in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province, contributing to the farmers’ income, social status, and the regional food security and sources of income. However, the productivity of both commodities is low because of several problems. Lack of feed supply and management knowledge has contributed to the low cattle productivity, while lack of cultivation knowledge and the use of low productivity local maize hav...

  1. Implicit prices of traits of indigenous cattle - Implications for sustainable livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Both revealed and stated preference approaches were employed to determine the values attached to the different features of indigenous cattle in central Ethiopia. For the revealed preference analysis a hedonic model was employed to examine the determinants of cattle prices in the primary rural markets of central Ethiopia. Transaction level data of cattle farmers and farmer-traders were used in the analyses. Data collected in rural markets to identify cattle price determinants result in estimates with standard errors that are mostly heteroscedastic. We employed SHM estimations to account for heteroscedastic errors. The empirical estimation of revealed preferences showed that market place, seasonal differences, sex and function based classification of cattle, body size, and age were very important factors influencing the market prices cattle sellers receive. The significance of the characteristics of animals in influencing prices paid for the animals reveals the importance of the preferences for traits in the decision-making process related to buying and selling of cattle. These preferences at the farmers and farmer-traders levels are the ones that matter most in shaping up the diversity of animals kept at farm level. This diversity of the cattle genetic resources is essential for generating or identifying best-suited breeds of cattle in the context of the livelihood objectives of the target community. Thus, the cattle breeding strategies and activities should duly consider the preferences expressed through the prices paid for animals in such markets, where the cattle keepers are the main sellers and buyers. For the stated preference analysis the study employed choice experiments (CE) and random parameters logit to elicit and analyze cattle trait preferences of buyers in the semi-subsistence livelihood systems of rural central Ethiopia. The results of the cows CE revealed that in areas where livestock serve multitude of purposes and where the production and

  2. ADOPTION OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN STOCKER CATTLE PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Rachel J.; Damona G. Doye; Lalman, David L.; Peel, Derrell S.; Raper, Kellie Curry

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies current production and management practices of Oklahoma stocker cattle producers and analyzes factors affecting the adoption of best management practices (BMPs) using chi-square analysis. Results reveal that factors influencing the adoption of BMPs are operation size, dependency upon income from the operation, and specialization in stocker production.

  3. Labour in Swedish intensive beef cattle production

    OpenAIRE

    Bostad, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Red veal and young bull production are the two main intensive beef finishing systems in Sweden and utilise practically all male calves from the dairy and suckler cow herds. This thesis examined labour input and physical working conditions in the two systems in order to identify factors influencing these parameters. Data collection was mainly based on questionnaires, complemented by observations and interviews on farm visits, and related to the most common work tasks performed during diffe...

  4. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: III. Biological efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    Methods were developed and incorporated into a previously published computer model to predict ME intake and calculate biological efficiencies in terms of grams of empty BW (EBW) and fat-free matter (FFM) gained/megacalorie of ME consumed from weaning to slaughter. Efficiencies were calculated for steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG, and slaughtered at 300 kg carcass weight, small or greater degree of marbling, and 28% carcass fat. Backgrounding systems were high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, and low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d, and 0 d backgrounding. The high ADG finishing system was more biologically efficient than the low ADG finishing system, and generally backgrounding systems were less biologically efficient than direct finishing after weaning (0 d backgrounding). Large-framed breeds were more efficient at the constant carcass weight and carcass fatness end point, and breeds that achieved the marbling end point at low levels of carcass fatness were more efficient at this end point. Some small-framed breeds gained EBW more efficiently but gained FFM less efficiently than some of the large-framed breeds. Variation in efficiency between genotypes was greatest with 0 d backgrounding and decreased in the other backgrounding systems. PMID:7608001

  5. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: II. Carcass composition, retail product, and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    A computer simulation model was used to characterize the response in carcass composition, retail product, and quality of steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, and finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG. The backgrounding systems were a high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, a medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, a low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d and 0 d backgrounding. For specific genotype x production system combinations, results showed that carcasses of compensating steers may be either leaner, not different in fatness, or fatter than carcasses of steers put on a finishing diet directly after weaning. Systems in which steers gained a greater proportion of the final slaughter weight over long durations of growth restriction resulted in leaner carcasses. There were 12 common production systems in which 13 of the genotypes produced a carcass with a maximum of 28% fat or with a marbling score of 11 or greater. These results suggest sire breeds used to produce these steers can be used over a wide range of nutritional and management environments, and that a mixed group of steers can be fed and managed similarly from weaning to slaughter to produce a carcass with a specified composition, retail product, or quality. PMID:7608000

  6. CATTLE AS ASSETS: ASSESSMENT OF NON-MARKET BENEFITS FROM CATTLE IN SMALLHOLDER KENYAN CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ouma, Emily Awuor; Obare, Gideon A.; Staal, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses data from a survey of two hundred and fifty cattle households in three cattle keeping systems; intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems to estimate the value of non-market, socio-economic benefits of cattle in Kenya. These benefits of cattle keeping are of special importance in developing countries, where financial markets function poorly and opportunities for risk management through formal insurance generally absent. However, when estimating the total contribution of l...

  7. Production and environmental impact of dairy cattle production in Denmark 1900–2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Aaes, Ole; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2015-01-01

    emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) per kg product has been evaluated for the Danish dairy cattle sector based on historic information. Typical farms representing the average situation for Danish dairy cattle farms and land required for feed supply was modeled for the situation in: (A) 1920 – representing a......Cattle production during the last century has changed dramatically in Western Europe, including Denmark, with a steady increase in production per animal and in herd and farm size. The effect of these changes on total production, herd efficiency, surplus of nitrogen (N) at herd and farm level and...

  8. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.;

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking...... are of high or low efficiency. mRNA will be extracted from liver biopsies samples for RNA-sequencing which will be performed on the Illumina HiSeq2500. Blood samples will be collected for genotyping and plasma. Plasma will be extracted from the blood for analysis of glucose, NEFA, β...

  9. Subsidies and Cattle Production in the Amazon: An Economic Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, Emily A.; Catherine HALBRENDT; Sherbourne, Jennifer; Gempesaw, Conrado

    1992-01-01

    Cattle production has been a major source of agricultural deforestation in Brazil's Amazon rainforest. Brazilian credit subsidies have been blamed for speeding cattle expansion and thus deforestation. A stochastic coefficients regression approach was used to quantify the effects of credit subsidies and world prices on cattle numbers in five Amazon rigions for the 1963-83 period. Results show that cattle production has been positively correlated to both prices and credit. Elasticities show tha...

  10. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  11. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production. PMID:27173954

  12. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.

  13. Preliminary Results for Ways to Increase Meat Production in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Popa; Dorina Cotarlea; Doina Sprinjean

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and quantity of meat production in cattle in the ICDM Cristian institute and two private farms, Beef Technology and Artificial Insemination was applied. Artificial Insemination was performed with semen from bulls of meat breeds (Charolaise, Bleu Belge, Aberdeen Angus). The average daily gains obtained were between 0.40-1.30 kg / head / day, varying based on race, sex, technology applied, etc.

  14. Inbreeding on productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cruz Reis Filho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and to evaluate the effects of inbreeding on productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Single-trait animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters and solutions for inbreeding coefficients for milk (milk 305-d, fat (fat 305-d, protein (protein 305-d, lactose (lactose 305-d, and total solids (TS 305-d yield up to 305 days of lactation, days in milk (DIM, age at first calving (AFC and calving intervals (CI. The mean inbreeding coefficient was 2.82%. The models with linear and quadratic effects of inbreeding coefficients fitted the data better than the models without or with only linear effect of inbreeding coefficient for all traits. The increase in inbreeding coefficient caused several losses in productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Estimates of heritability for milk 305-d, fat 305-d, protein 305-d, lactose 305-d, TS 305-d, DIM, AFC, and CI were 0.28, 0.27, 0.22, 0.21, 0.22, 0.17, 0.20, and 0.10, respectively. It is possible to achieve genetic progress in productive traits (especially in milk 305-d and fat 305-d and age at first calving in dairy Gyr cattle through selection.

  15. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuaki Sugiura; Takashi Onodera

    2008-01-01

    To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and ...

  16. The role of geographical labelling in inserting extensive cattle systems into beef marketing channels. Evidence from three Spanish case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ramos, Almudena; Bardají Azcaráte, Isabel; Atance Muñiz, Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    The beef cattle sector is adapting to increasing demand-side requirements. Customers are looking for a differentiated product of constant quality in a market that is beginning to be dominated by major distribution companies. In this background, mechanisms to differentiate production are being implemented to co-ordinate both production and marketing processes and integrate livestock farmers into the commercial system. Extensive cattle systems carry an important weight in Spain because of their...

  17. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer. PMID:26341827

  18. Resistome diversity in cattle and the environment decreases during beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Dettenwanger, Adam; Cook, Shaun; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale E; Gow, Sheryl P; McAllister, Tim A; Yang, Hua; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant determinants (ARDs) can be transmitted from livestock systems through meat products or environmental effluents. The public health risk posed by these two routes is not well understood, particularly in non-pathogenic bacteria. We collected pooled samples from 8 groups of 1741 commercial cattle as they moved through the process of beef production from feedlot entry through slaughter. We recorded antimicrobial drug exposures and interrogated the resistome at points in production when management procedures could potentially influence ARD abundance and/or transmission. Over 300 unique ARDs were identified. Resistome diversity decreased while cattle were in the feedlot, indicating selective pressure. ARDs were not identified in beef products, suggesting that slaughter interventions may reduce the risk of transmission of ARDs to beef consumers. This report highlights the utility and limitations of metagenomics for assessing public health risks regarding antimicrobial resistance, and demonstrates that environmental pathways may represent a greater risk than the food supply. PMID:26952213

  19. Productivity and carcass characteristics of pure and crossbred Chinese Yellow Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G H; Liu, L; Xiu, X L; Jian, H M; Wang, L Z; Sun, B Z; Tong, B S

    2001-08-01

    The carcass characteristics of 334 Chinese Yellow Cattle, and their Simmental and Limousin crosses, were investigated in abattoirs in Hebei and Sandong provinces of China. The overall slaughter age was 4.8±2.2 years at a mean liveweight of 527.28±77.0 kg. Mean ages and liveweights for Yellow Cattle and its crosses were, respectively, 5.29±2.03 and 2.85±1.71 years and 519.43±78.7 and 563.13±56.8 kg. Carcass weights varied considerably and, consequently, so did subcutaneous fat depths and dressing percentages. Overall, mean carcass weights, subcutaneous fat depths and, dressing percentages and eyemuscle areas were 283.9±64.1 kg, 14.0±8.0 mm, 54.0±4.0%, and 62.7 ±13.3 cm(2), respectively. Compared with pure Yellow Cattle, the crosses were slaughtered at younger age, and had larger live and carcass weights, higher dressing percentages, less subcutaneous fat depth and bigger eyemuscle areas. It is concluded that crossbreeding can significantly improve Yellow Cattle' meat productivity, however feeding systems need to be improved and an appropriate grading system developed to improve beef production and quality in China. PMID:22062425

  20. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn S Donkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of

  1. Present situation and future challenges of beef cattle production in Italy and the role of the research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at describing the current features and the future challenges of the beef cattle production systems in Italy. The first part of the article analyzes the main domestic production systems of veal calves and more adult beef cattle in terms of farm size and location, housing structures, feeding plans and cattle genotypes. The second part is address towards the analysis of a set of issues related to the current systems of production which could become important critical points in the short future. Potential solutions to reduce the environmental impact of the beef farms, to improve the animal welfare and to limit the import of foreign young livestock to be finished in our fattening units are proposed and discussed in the light of the more recent advances of the scientific research.

  2. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified. PMID:18681794

  3. DERMATITIS DIGITALIS GREAT PROBLEM OF MODERN CATTLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Hadzic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dermatitis digitalis is an extremely contagious disease of cattle hooves multicausal etiology, which soon turns into a problem of the whole herd. It significantly decreases the milk, which may be in the global market economy can seriously undermine the competitiveness of producers who do not suppressed adequately. Analysis of data collected in 2013. and 2014th year coincides with the findings from the literature that bacterial causes of dermatitis digitalis in conditions of high temperature and humidity raised the number of infected animals in the warm period of the year. The most economical way to control this disease is constant zoohygienic implementation of measures and procedures: Hygiene herd at the prescribed level, proper design and construction of the reservoir, the proper design of the ventilation facility and strict implementation measures of disinfection and hoof bearing animals. The most effective way suppression diseases and hoof it to reduce the losses caused by the conditions of intensive livestock production that preventive measures and procedures as well as raising the level of biotechnology thinking of all employees in cattle production, while curative repair problems in patients with animals but does not eliminate losses manufacturer.

  4. Illegal Use of Clenbuterol in Cattle Production in México

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Valladares-Carranza; Rómulo Bañuelos-Valenzuela; Silvia D. Peña-Betancourt; Valente Velázquez-Ordoñez; Yadira Velázquez-Armenta; Alejandro Nava-Ocampo

    2014-01-01

    Slaughtered cattle (n = 582) from México State were bled for a serological screening of clenbuterol residues, using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clenbuterol residues were found in a total of 153/582 (26.2%) sera analysed. These results reinforced the assumption of the illegal use of clenbuterol in cattle production in México; therefore, routine screening examinations in slaughtered cattle were strongly advised considering the toxic potential for humans.

  5. PRODUCTIVITY AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF LOCAL CATTLE IN CIAMIS-WEST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    N. Hilmia; R.R Noor; C Sumantri; R. E.Gurnadi; R. Priyanto

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the productivity and genetic diversity of local cattle in Ciamis West Java based on DNA microsatellite, in order to provide the basic information for its rearing, conservation and development. Eighteen of local cattle were kept for 58 days by feeding concentrates and rice straw. The measured parameters were weekly body weight as well as carcass percentage. The percentage of comparing carcass was taken from PO, Bali and crossbred cattle from local ...

  6. PRODUCTIVITY AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF LOCAL CATTLE IN CIAMIS-WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hilmia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the productivity and genetic diversity of local cattle in Ciamis West Java based on DNA microsatellite, in order to provide the basic information for its rearing, conservation and development. Eighteen of local cattle were kept for 58 days by feeding concentrates and rice straw. The measured parameters were weekly body weight as well as carcass percentage. The percentage of comparing carcass was taken from PO, Bali and crossbred cattle from local cattle with Limousin, Simmental, Brahman and Angus cattle. Data were analyzed using Excel software and SAS (2004. Blood samples were taken from two subpopulations i.e., 46 and 52 samples from Tambaksari and Cijulang areas, respectively. Other DNA samples were collected from Bali, PO, Limousin, Simental, Brahman and Angus cattle. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis were analyzed using 3 microsatellite loci, that were INRA35, HEL9 and BM2113. The genotyping data were analyzed using POPGENE.32 program, while phylogenetic trees were analyzed by MEGA 4. Average daily gain (ADG of local cattle in Ciamis was 0.62±0.23 kg/head/day with a carcass percentage was 51.62±1.80%. The carcasses percentage of local cattle in Ciamis was not significantly different from those of Bali, PO, and crossbred cattle. The genetic diversity of local cattle in Ciamis was categorized in the medium level, the diversity of local cattle in Tambaksari subpopulation was higher than in Cijulang subpopulation. Local cattle in Ciamis had a closer genetic distance with the PO cattle.

  7. Factors influencing the reproduction and production performance of the Nguni cattle ecotypes in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Sónia Maria Ataíde; Fair, Michael Denis; Scholtz, Michiel Matthys; Neser, Frederick Wilhelm Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the reproductive and productive performance of Nguni cattle distributed among 11 farms in four regions of South Africa. Only data of registered Appendix A to Stud Proper Nguni animals from the Agricultural Research Council of South Africa’s database were used. Data were collected from 2061 dams and 3285 calves between 1990 and 2009. Overall means for age at first calving (AFC) and calving intervals (CI) were 33.79 ± 4.90 months and 400.29 ± 78.70 days, respectively. Dry season-born heifers had lower AFC than wet season-born heifers. Dry seasons 4 and wet seasons 1 had lower CI than seasons 2 and 3, indicating that conceptions take place between December and May. Average growth weights of calves were 24.87 ± 3.13, 151.91 ± 21.09, 169.25 ± 23.68 and 237.96 ± 27.34 kg at birth (BW), weaning (WW), 12 months (YW) and 18 months of age, respectively. BW was higher in dry seasons 4 and wet seasons 1; WW and YW were higher in dry than in wet seasons. This is the first study demonstrating that performance of Nguni cattle is influenced by ecological regions of the dam’s origin, year-season of birth/calving, breeder’s management, parity and herdbook status, confirming that environment-genotype interactions influence the performance of Nguni cattle in southern Africa. This stimulated a follow-up study on the use of geographic information systems to specifically identify factors influencing the reproductive and productive performance of Nguni cattle in southern Africa. PMID:26466944

  8. Productivity of Thai Brahman and Simmental-Brahman crossbred (Kabinburi) cattle in central Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonprong, S.; Choothesa, A.; Sribhen, C.; Parvizi, N.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2008-05-01

    The productivity of the new crossbred cattle Kabinburi (K) was compared to that of Thai Brahman (TB) using 756 production records from K cattle and 1,316 production records from TB cattle kept at three locations in Thailand. The data were analyzed for the effect of breeds and locations. The ambient temperature, the humidity, the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) and the rainfall of the three locations were different. Lamphayaklang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (LP) had the highest rainfall/year followed by Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (NK), and Prachinburi Livestock Breeding Station (PC). Kabinburi cattle had a higher bodyweight at birth as well as at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than TB cattle. Furthermore, K heifers gave birth to their first calf at a younger age and had a shorter calving interval than TB cows. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP had significantly higher bodyweight at 400 and 600 days than the animals kept at NK, but bodyweight at birth and 600 days of age were not significantly different. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP were younger at first calving and had a shorter calving interval than the animals kept at NK. K cattle kept at NK were heavier at birth and at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than the animals kept at PC. Furthermore, Kabinburi cows kept at NK were younger at first calving ( P < 0.01), but the calving interval was not different between the two groups kept at NK or PC.

  9. PRODUCTIVITY AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF LOCAL CATTLE IN CIAMIS-WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hilmia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the productivity and genetic diversity of local cattle inCiamis West Java based on DNA microsatellite, in order to provide the basic information for its rearing,conservation and development. Eighteen of local cattle were kept for 58 days by feeding concentratesand rice straw. The measured parameters were weekly body weight as well as carcass percentage. Thepercentage of comparing carcass was taken from PO, Bali and crossbred cattle from local cattle withLimousin, Simmental, Brahman and Angus cattle. Data were analyzed using Excel software and SAS(2004. Blood samples were taken from two subpopulations i.e., 46 and 52 samples from Tambaksariand Cijulang areas, respectively. Other DNA samples were collected from Bali, PO, Limousin, Simental,Brahman and Angus cattle. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis were analyzed using 3microsatellite loci, that were INRA35, HEL9 and BM2113. The genotyping data were analyzed usingPOPGENE.32 program, while phylogenetic trees were analyzed by MEGA 4. Average daily gain (ADGof local cattle in Ciamis was 0.62±0.23 kg/head/day with a carcass percentage was 51.62±1.80%. Thecarcasses percentage of local cattle in Ciamis was not significantly different from those of Bali, PO, andcrossbred cattle. The genetic diversity of local cattle in Ciamis was categorized in the medium level, thediversity of local cattle in Tambaksari subpopulation was higher than in Cijulang subpopulation. Localcattle in Ciamis had a closer genetic distance with the PO cattle.

  10. Breeding objectives for a Nellore cattle rearing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Victor Damasceno Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to define the traits that should be included as breeding objectives for Nellore cattle, according to simulations with a bio-economic model for rearing systems. The economic values (EVs of the traits were calculated as the differences between the profits due to an increased performance of 1% in each trait, with the others traits remaining constant. To determine the impact of each selection on the revenue system, two scenarios were simulated based on the traits being selected. In the first scenario, the adopted selection criteria were: weaning weight (WW, weaning rate (WR, yearling weight (YW, and mature cow weight (MCW. In the second scenario, the cumulative productivity (CP of dams was used as an indirect evaluation of the performance of calves, with all the other traits included, except WW. In the first scenario, an EV of R$ 1.44 kg-1 was obtained for WW. In the second scenario, an EV of R$ 2.91 kg-1 was obtained for CP. The trait with the highest EV in both scenarios was WR, which enhanced the profits by R$ 3.21 for each 1% increased performance. The meat price paid to the producer is the factor with the greatest impact on the EVs of all examined traits.

  11. What we can make of the cattle sector production in favor of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plan for agricultural residues management is composed of a group of activities that leads to adapt residues production to crops and animal needs and improve and maintain soil quality. This article proposes some stages that should be taken into account to conceive, construct and put to work system of residual water treatment in a cattle enterprise. These stages can be overlapped, or even, inverted in some cases. With the establishment of these tasks, farmers are led to a more efficient management of their resources and to a reduction of the pollution in the farms

  12. The Kinetics of Methane Production from Co-digestion of Cattle Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Zh.K. Bakhov; K.U. Korazbekova; K.M. Lakhanova

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the kinetics of methane production from co-digestion of liquid manure from cattle with the addition of winemaking waste, food waste and biowaste was investigated in order to describe and evaluate methanogenesis in terms of growth curve of methanogenic bacteria. Experiments were carried out in «Hohenheim» biogas yield testing system at the temperature of 37°C. The cumulative methane yield was 0.330±0.038, 0.277±0.041, 0.148±0.013 and 0...

  13. Analysis of small-scale biogas utilization systems on Ontario cattle farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of biogas through the anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and its subsequent use in the generation of electricity on larger farms in Ontario is currently economically attractive. This is a result of the Ontario Feed-In Tariff (FIT) program, which provides incentivized rates for the production of electricity from biogas. Although larger farms can take advantage of the higher rates for electricity, there are substantially more smaller farms for which individually designed and engineered biogas systems would be prohibitively expensive. By employing the concept of modular biogas plants, this analysis evaluates the economics of small-scale biogas utilization systems. Dairy farms with at least 33 animals and beef farms with at least 78 animals can operate economically attractive biogas systems. This analysis shows that approximately 9000 additional Ontario cattle farms would be able to take advantage of the FIT program, which would add 120 MWe of renewable energy capacity to the Ontario electrical grid. (author)

  14. Cattle tick vaccines: many candidate antigens, but will a commercially viable product emerge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Felix D; Miller, Robert J; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2012-05-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is arguably the world's most economically important external parasite of cattle. Sustainable cattle tick control strategies are required to maximise the productivity of cattle in both large production operations and small family farms. Commercially available synthetic acaricides are commonly used in control and eradication programs, but indiscriminate practices in their application have resulted in the rapid evolution of resistance among populations in tropical and subtropical regions where the invasive R. microplus thrives. The need for novel technologies that could be used alone or in combination with commercially available synthetic acaricides is driving a resurgence of cattle tick vaccine discovery research efforts by various groups globally. The aim is to deliver a next-generation vaccine that has an improved efficacy profile over the existing Bm86-based cattle tick vaccine product. We present a short review of these projects and offer our opinion on what constitutes a good target antigen and vaccine, and what might influence the market success of candidate vaccines. The previous experience with Bm86-based vaccines offers perspective on marketing and producer acceptance aspects that a next-generation cattle tick vaccine product must meet for successful commercialisation. PMID:22549026

  15. Produtividade e Eficiência Biológica de Sistemas de Recria e Engorda de Gado de Corte no Rio Grande de Sul Productivity and Biological Efficiency of Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle Systems in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Beretta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas, por meio de simulações, a produtividade e a eficiência de sistemas de produção de gado de corte no Rio Grande do Sul, diferindo na idade de abate (IA dos novilhos (54, 42, 36, 30, 24 e 18 meses, IA54, IA42, IA36, IA30, IA24 e IA18, respectivamente, ou nos pesos de compra e venda (sistemas especializados na recria desde 150 a 250 kg - R1, recria de 250 a 350 kg - R2 ou engorda desde 350 a 450 kg -R3. Foi utilizado um modelo estático determinístico, representando os sistemas em equilíbrio. O manejo alimentar foi caracterizado para cada sistema com base em dados bibliográficos, conforme a IA estabelecida, enquanto os sistemas R1, R2 e R3 foram avaliados somente em campo nativo. Houve uma resposta em produtividade de tipo quadrático à redução na IA, atingindo o menor valor (65 kg/ha no sistema IA54 e o maior no IA18 (343 kg/ha. O custo energético por quilo de peso vivo produzido aumentou em 1,19 Mcal EM/kg a cada mês a mais na IA. Associada à redução da IA, a proporção de pastagens melhoradas cresceu até 68% da área de pastejo, possibilitando um aumento paralelo da carga e do ganho médio diário. A diminuição do peso de compra e venda dos animais, para um mesmo ganho total de peso vivo, aumentou a produtividade das empresas (R1=113; R2=81; R3=63 kg/ha, demonstrando ser a especialização na produção uma alternativa de melhoria em sistemas dependentes exclusivamente do campo nativo.A static deterministic model was used to evaluate productivity and efficiency of growing and finishing beef steers systems in Rio Grande do Sul State differing at steers slaughter age (IA: 54, 42, 36, 30, 24 and 18 months (IA54, IA42, IA36, IA30, IA24 e IA18, respectively, or in market live weight for buying and sale (cattle growing systems from 150 to 250 kg -R1, from 250 to 350 kg -R2, or finishing cattle from 350 to 450 kg -R3. Feeding management was described for each system based on published reports according to IA, while

  16. Tipologia de sistemas de produção bovina com ênfase na ocorrência de ectoparasitoses Typology of beef cattle production systems related to ectoparasitosis frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Funck Teixeira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para identificar, por meio da utilização de procedimentos de pesquisa diagnóstica, características dos sistemas de produção relacionadas à ocorrência de ectoparasitos. Foram aplicadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas em 62 propriedades, cujos dados foram analisados por procedimentos estatísticos multivariados. Observou-se maior importância da área das propriedades, do manejo de pastagens e da freqüência de visitas do proprietário ao seu estabelecimento. O método utilizado, a época e a freqüência das aplicações de carrapaticidas destacaram-se entre as medidas de controle de ectoparasitoses. Os resultados reafirmaram a importância dos procedimentos de pesquisa diagnóstica como ferramenta de identificação de problemas técnicos e econômicos de sistemas de produção e de representação de sua diversidade, subsídios indispensáveis para o desenvolvimento de trabalhos experimentais mais coerentes com a realidade produtiva do estado.This study was carried out to identify, by using diagnostic research procedures, characteristics of production systems related to the occurrence of ectoparasites. Data of semi-structuralized interviews in 62 farms were analyzed by multivariate statistical procedures. Greater importance was observed for the property area, pasture management and the frequency of the property visits to his establishment. The used method, the season and the frequency of the applications of tick pesticides differed among the control types of ectoparasites. The results reaffirmed the importance of the research diagnostic procedures as tool of identification of economic and technician problems of production systems and representation of its diversity, indispensable subsidies for the development of more coherent experimental works with the productive reality of the state.

  17. Crop-Cattle Integrated Farming System: An Alternative of Climatic Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munandar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated farming system is one of the alternatives for climatic change mitigation. This paper reports the application of corn-cattle based integrated farming system in Agrotechno Park Center of Palembang, and discusses its impact on CO2 fixation and the reduction of methane emissions. The study was based on the data of the first 6 yr from 2003 until 2009. The CO2 fixed in the soil and plants was determined based on the content of organic C which was multiplied by the index of 3.67. The methane gas produced by Balinese cattle and its dung was observed and modified into feed rations. The results showed that soil organic C increased from 40.80 tons C/ha in the 1st yr to 66.40 tons C/ha in the 6th yr. In addition, there was organic C fixation equivalent to 93.95 tons of CO2e. Corn biomass increased from 6.67 tons/ha to 18.66 tons/ha, equivalent to an increase in the fixation of atmospheric CO2e as much as 19.80 tons CO2e/ha. The supplementation of 60%-80% grass fodder with concentrate lowered the concentration of methane gas in cattle breathing by 28.7%, from 617 ppm to 440 ppm, while the methane emissions from cattle manure decreased by 31%, from 1367 mL/head/d to 943 mL/head/d. Installing a bio digester that generates biogas served to accommodate methane gas emissions from cattle dung and used it for bioenergy. Composting reduced the formation of methane gas from cattle manure through a regular process of turning over that gives aeration and forms aerobic condition in the heap of cattle dung. Recycling produces a variety of organic products that store carbon for a longer period of time and slowed the conversion of organic C into CO2. This study showed that the diverse activities of an integrated crop-cattle farming could be an alternative solution to climatic change mitigation.

  18. Social behaviour of cattle in tropical silvopastoral and monoculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Améndola, L; Solorio, F J; Ku-Vera, J C; Améndola-Massiotti, R D; Zarza, H; Galindo, F

    2016-05-01

    Silvopastoral systems can be a good alternative for sustainable livestock production because they can provide ecosystem services and improve animal welfare. Most farm animals live in groups and the social organization and interactions between individuals have an impact on their welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the social behaviour of cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) in a silvopastoral system based on a high density of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) combined with guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus), star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and some trees; with a monoculture system with C. nlemfuensis, in the region of Merida, Yucatán. Eight heifers in each system were observed from 0730 to 1530 h each day for 12 consecutive days during the dry season and 12 consecutive days during the rainy season. The animals followed a rotation between three paddocks, remaining 4 days in each paddock. The vegetation was characterized in the paddocks of the silvopastoral system to estimate the average percentage of shade provided. To make a comparison between systems, we used a t test with group dispersion, and Mann-Whitney tests with the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviours. We assessed differences in linearity and stability of dominance hierarchies using Landau's index and Dietz R-test, respectively. The distance of cows with respect to the centroid of the group was shorter, and non-agonistic behaviours were 62% more frequent in the intensive silvopastoral system than in the monoculture one. Heifers in the silvopastoral system had a more linear and non-random dominance hierarchy in both seasons (dry season: h'=0.964; rainy season: h'=0.988), than heifers in the monoculture system (dry season: h'=0.571, rainy season: h'=0.536). The dominance hierarchy in the silvopastoral system was more stable between seasons (R-test=0.779) than in the monoculture system (R-test=0.224). Our results provide the first evidence that heifers in the

  19. Avaliação da produção de leite em bovinos utilizando diferentes sistemas de climatização Evaluation of the production in dairy cattle in different climatization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perissinotto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou a eficiência térmica de diferentes sistemas de arrefecimento evaporativo; aspersão (TA e nebulização (TN, conjugados com a ventilação forçada, quanto à melhoria do microclima interior das instalações e na resposta produtiva dos animais. O estudo foi realizado numa vacaria em sistema de estabulação livre localizada no interior de São Paulo/Brasil, tendo sido utilizado 10 animais da raça Holstein Freisian por tratamento. A recolha de dados efectuou-se, durante 21 dias consecutivos. No interior da vacaria recolheram-se os dados climáticos, em cada tratamento, e calculou-se o Índice de Temperatura e Humidade (THI. Os sistemas de arrefecimento avaliados não diferiram estatisticamente ao longo do período de estudo. Os sistemas só foram accionados quando a temperatura ambiente ultrapassou os 24 ºC. Ambos os tratamentos (TA e TN mantiveram um ambiente com condições temohigrométricas acima das recomendadas pela literatura. O consumo alimentar foi semelhante em ambos tratamentos, porém, o sistema de arrefecimento por aspersão (TA promoveu um aumento na produção de leite de 8%, relativamente ao sistema por nebulização (TN.This study evaluated the thermal efficiency of different systems of evaporative cooling; sprinkling (TA and fogging (TN, conjugated with the forced ventilation, in the improvement of the internal microclimate of the installations and in the productivity of dairy cattle. The study it was carried through a cow house provided with free-stall system in the interior of Sao Paulo/Brasil.Ten animals of Holstein Frisian breed per treatment were used. Collection of data occurred in November of 2003 during 21 consecutive days. Outside and inside climatic data in each treatment were recorded and the Index of Temperature and Humidity (THI was calculated. The system of evaporative cooling evaluate had not differed with relation to the climatic variables. Both systems (TA and TN had kept an

  20. Genetic evaluation of retail product percentage in Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D H; Enns, R M; Rumph, J M; Pollak, E J

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters required for genetic evaluation of retail product percentage (RPP) in Simmental cattle. Carcass weight (HCW), subcutaneous fat thickness (FAT), longissimus muscle area (REA) and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPH) records were available to compute RPP on steers (n = 5171) and heifers (n = 1400) from the American Simmental Association database; animals were sired by 561 Simmental bulls and out of 5886 crossbred dams. Genetic parameters were estimated using residual maximal likelihood and a four trait animal model for the components of RPP including fixed harvest contemporary group effects, random animal genetic effects, and a linear covariate for age at harvest. Heritability estimates were 0.51 +/- 0.05, 0.36 +/- 0.05, 0.46 +/- 0.05, and 0.18 +/- 0.05 for HCW, FAT, REA and KPH respectively. Non-zero genetic correlations were estimated between HCW and REA (rg = 0.51 +/- 0.06) and between REA and FAT (rg = -0.43 +/- 0.08), but other genetic correlation estimates among the component traits were low. As a linear function of its components, heritability and genetic correlations involving RPP were estimated using index methods. The heritability estimate for RPP was 0.41, and genetic correlations were -0.17, -0.83, 0.67, and 0.01 with HCW, FAT, REA and KPH respectively. Therefore, RPP was strongly associated with muscle and fat deposition, but essentially independent of carcass weight and internal body cavity fat. Genetic evaluation of RPP would be straightforward using multiple trait index methods and genetic regression, although the inclusion of KPH would be of marginal value. PMID:18254821

  1. Thai indigenous cattle production provided a sustainable alternative for the benefit of small-scale farmers, healthy food and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Thailand, there were 5.66 million indigenous cattle and 1.76 million of their crosses. Farmers raised these cattle integrated with crop and fish in livestock-crop-fish integrated farming systems. These farming systems are in small scales for efficient utilization of available resources and for maximisation of production of diversified products per unit area to increase the income of the farmers and enhance food production. Thai indigenous cattle meat have more specific nutrient that are beneficial for consumers, such as omega 3, omega 6, and CLA. Furthermore, farmers use cattle manures as fertilizer for crop production, production of plankton for the fish and biogas/electric power used in the household. Additionally, Thai indigenous cattle are used for draught power. Consequently, Thai indigenous cattle increased food production and there was minimal cattle waste on farms thus, we could keep the environment clean and green. Performance data, meat quality, compost production, biogas production, and draught animal and reference were collected from 103 smallholder farmers in the northern part of Thailand, northeastern, central and southern parts of Thailand during October 2005 to September 2007. Growth and reproductive performance: Thai indigenous cattle had various skin and hair colour such as red, light brown, black, piebald, and only Kow-Lamphun cattle in northern part of Thailand, orange-pink skin and white hair colour. Their navels were not slackened but attached to the belly. Their dewlaps were also not slacken. The average birth weight was 19.6 kg and the weaning weight at 200 d of age was 137.96 kg. They had good characteristics of heat tolerance, disease resistance, and high fertility traits. They were the main red-meat source for consumers. Thai indigenous cattle were main source of red meat for consumption in Thailand. They produced high Omega 3 and Omega 6 in red meat, so their meat was the main source of protein and healthy food.Other utility of Thai

  2. Productive and reproductive performance of cattle in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions of management system, environment and genotype are discussed and the importance of the selection of the optimum system and the appropriate genotype for the economic and environmental climate is emphasized. Productivity is indicated as a function of yield, fertility and survival rate; realistic estimates of all three parameters must be considered when planning livestock development. Intensive, semi-intensive and extensive milk producing systems are briefly discussed in this context. It is suggested that research workers should have a firm understanding of the most valid systems in their areas so that the solution of problems limiting production can be given research priority. It is finally emphasized that the estimates of yield, fertility and survival rate are not constants and will change with increases in the knowledge of animal health, nutrition and forage plant breeding, while the most appropriate system will also change with this new knowledge and with changes in costs of production and market price. (author)

  3. Breed diversification in south western Uganda: characterisation of a new cattle farming system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to increasing land pressure due to rapidly growing population, growing demand for livestock products in urban centres and new land policies which encourage individual land ownership in Uganda, pastoralists rearing the long horned Ankole cattle in south western Uganda have now become sedentary and less dependent on communal grazing systems. Crossbreeding of Ankole cattle with the Holstein Friesian for increased milk production is taking place at a very fast rate. A new production system in which pure bred Ankole and crosses of Ankole with Holstein Friesian are reared in separate herds on one farm has now emerged in the area. As part of a programme evaluating the ecological and economic sustainability of breeding in pastoral systems, a survey of sixteen farmers selected from three sub-counties in Kiruhura District in south west Uganda was undertaken. Two sets of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the farmers. Set one was administered at the beginning of the study in April 2007, while set two was administered on a monthly basis for a period of 12 months. In addition, production data from the animals was collected monthly. Results show that crossbreeding is taking place with no defined programme, farmers still have an attachment to the Ankole cattle and that the most important challenges to the production system are insufficient pasture during the dry season and livestock diseases. The crossbreeds produce significantly more milk than the Ankole and have higher live weights. There is need to formulate appropriate breeding programmes for the farmers and to develop guidelines for suitable stocking densities. (author)

  4. Clinical state, reproductive and productive indices of cattle in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987 specialists of Scientific and Technical Centre of RIA ''Pripyat'' carry out investigations of physiological and cytogenetic state of cattle at an experimental vivarium at the 30-km Chernobyl zone. The animals are represented by ones endured the Chernobyl accident at the closest zone and their generation, and by animals carried inside the zone after 1990. The first animals got about 130 Gy on thyroid gland, 2.5 Gy on whole body and 10-11 Gy on gastro-intestinal tract. Some health decline of them were observed in 1987-1988. During last 5 years of the research the most indices of cattle state, as well as productivity and reproduction, are in physiological norm limits. Since 1989 yearly calves of three generation have got from all suffered cows. Decrease of chromosome aberrations frequency to total population level has been showed. Some data testify of tension existence in hemopoietic and antioxidantic systems of organism. Nevertheless, until now there is no unique opinion of origin nature of the found atypical features. In the report numerous data of hematological, biochemical, hormonal, cytogenetic features of the animals have been presented and discussed

  5. Estimation of rumen microbial protein production from urinary purine derivatives in zebu cattle and water buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were conducted in order to develop equations for predicting rumen microbial protein production for indigenous Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle and swamp buffaloes in Malaysia, using urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion rates. Endogenous PD excretion rates determined by a fasting procedure for KK cattle and swamp buffalo were 275 and 370 μmol/kg W0.75/day, respectively. Urinary PD excretion rate per kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) for KK cattle was higher than that for swamp buffalo, reconfirming the earlier findings. Glomerular filtration rate, allantoin and uric acid tubular load and PD re-absorption rate for swamp buffalo were generally higher than those for KK cattle. However, due to the large variations among animals within species, these parameters were not significantly different between species. Nevertheless, the higher PD reabsorption in swamp buffalo provides support for the earlier postulation that the lower urinary PD excretion rate of swamp buffalo was due to their higher recycling of plasma PD as compared to KK cattle. Labelled 8-14C uric acid was used to estimate the ratio of renal to non-renal PD excretion. The recovery rates of the radioactive tracer via the renal route for both species were much lower than values reported previously for unlabelled PD for European cattle. (author)

  6. Thai pigs and cattle production, genetic diversity of livestock and strategies for preserving animal genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kesinee Gatphayak

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation of livestock production in Thailand, genetic diversity and evaluation, as well as management strategies for animal genetic resources focusing on pigs and cattle. Sustainable conservation of indigenous livestock as a genetic resource and vital components within the agricultural biodiversity domain is a great challenge as well as an asset for the future development of livestock production in Thailand.

  7. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  8. Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    McClurkin, A W.; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R

    1984-01-01

    Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate ...

  9. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Donkin, Shawn S.

    2008-01-01

    Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental ...

  10. Role of cattle and local feed resources on the sustainability of a coconut cattle integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    due to overgrazing by animals with out supplementation. Depletion of soil and herbage nitrogen in T3 stimulated conservation of nitrogen through recirculation within the animal. It was also estimated that each coconut palm received 141 kg of fresh dung /year in T3 and 146 kg/year in T4 along with 66.6 kg/urine /year in T3 and 69.6 kg/yr in T4. The dung and urine could totally replace nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers applied to coconuts. Also it could reduce the potassium fertilizer applied to coconut by 85% in T3 and 88% in T4 and magnesium fertilizer applied by 85% in T3 and 88% by T4. There was a marked increase (P < 0.05) in live weight gains of cattle recording 688 g/d for heifers in T4 and 349 g/d for heifers in T3. Heifers fed supplements were in oestrus significantly earlier and at a higher body weight than those fed on natural herbage only. Thus fairly evenly matched initial ages and live weights of T3 (145.5 ± 2.4) and T4 (144.2 ± 2.9) groups, respectively differed significantly in favour of T4 at first oestrus. Heifer fed supplements calved significantly earlier than the heifers fed only natural herbage. An additional benefit of the integrated system was the improvement (P < 0.05) of coconut and copra yield per palm in grazed plots over monoculture plots, especially in T4 plots with animals receiving supplements. Soil nitrogen content also increased (P < 0.05) in grazed plots (T3 - 0.964% and T4 -1.004%) plots as compared to monoculture plots (T1-0.839%, T2-0.859%) demonstrating further benefits on cattle integration. Results suggest that supplementation of tree fodder and low cost concentrate to heifer's grazed natural herbage under coconut alleviated seasonal feed shortages and improved cattle and coconut performance, which contributed to sustainability of the integrated system. Further investigations, would show the actual benefits with the passage of time. (author)

  11. Targeting cattle-borne zoonoses and cattle pathogens using a novel trypanosomatid-based delivery system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Adam Mott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.

  12. Considerations on Cattle Stock and Cow Fresh Milk Production in the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Popescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the evolution of cattle stock and cow milk production in order to point out the main trends and differences between the EU-27 member states in the period 2004-2008. The data collected from FAO Stat, 2010 have been processed calculating the fixed basis index, average annual rhythm index and also the share of each EU state in cow milk production at the EU and world level.The main trends in the EU concerning cow milk sector are the continuous decrease in cattle stock, the increase of cow milk yield under the conditions of keeping a constant milk production and also milk production per capita. In 2008, the EU-27 was raising 90,478 thou cattle, and produced 149,388 thou tons cow fresh milk. The EU -27 is placed on the 5th position for number of cattle and on the 1st position for cow milk production, producing 25.8 % of world production. The largest milk producers in the EU-27 are Germany, France, United Kingdom, Poland, Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Ireland, Romania and Denmark, whose contribution to the EU productions is 82.82 %.

  13. Cattle temperament: persistence of assessments and associations with productivity, efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; Robinson, D L; Ferguson, D M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Greenwood, P L

    2011-05-01

    Relationships between temperament and a range of performance, carcass, and meat quality traits in young cattle were studied in 2 experiments conducted in New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA), Australia. In both experiments, growth rates of cattle were assessed during backgrounding on pasture and grain finishing in a feedlot. Carcass and objective meat quality characteristics were measured after slaughter. Feed intake and efficiency during grain finishing were also determined in NSW. Brahman (n = 82 steers and 82 heifers) and Angus (n = 25 steers and 24 heifers) cattle were used in the NSW experiment. In NSW, temperament was assessed by measuring flight speed [FS, m/s on exit from the chute (crush)] on 14 occasions, and by assessing agitation score during confinement in the crush (CS; 1 = calm to 5 = highly agitated) on 17 occasions over the course of the experiment. Brahman (n = 173) and Angus (n = 20) steers were used in the WA experiment. In WA, temperament was assessed by measuring FS on 2 occasions during backgrounding and on 2 occasions during grain feeding. At both sites, a hormonal growth promotant (Revalor-H, Virbac, Milperra, New South Wales, Australia) was applied to one-half of the cattle at feedlot entry, and the Brahman cattle were polymorphic for 2 calpain-system markers for beef tenderness. Temperament was not related (most P > 0.05) to tenderness gene marker status in Brahman cattle and was not (all P > 0.26) modified by the growth promotant treatment in either breed. The Brahman cattle had greater individual variation in, and greater correlations within and between, repeated assessments of FS and CS than did the Angus cattle. Correlations for repeated measures of FS were greater than for repeated assessments of CS, and the strength of correlations for both declined over time. Average FS or CS for each experiment and location (NSW or WA × backgrounding or finishing) were more highly correlated than individual measurements, indicating

  14. Thai indigenous cattle production provide a sustainable alternative for the benefit of smallscale farmers, healthy food, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Thailand, there are 5.66 million Thai indigenous cattle and their crossbred derivatives (1.76 million cows). The Department of Livestock Development (DLD) has a policy to conserve and use Thai indigenous cattle as the genetic base for establishing and developing new breeds of beef cattle. The objectives of this study were to study the production performance, carcass quality, healthy food production, economic potential, and environmental impacts of four breeds of Thai indigenous cattle (Kow-Lamphun, Kho-Esarn, Kho-Lan, and Kho-Chon cattle). Data were collected from two studies: i) 1 220 cattle from an experimental trial in DLD part, and ii) 390 cattle kept by smallholders in Northern, Northeastern, Central, and Southern parts of Thailand between October 2004 and September 2008. Data were adjusted by group, location, month, and year to analyse for the above parameters. Kho-Lan and Kho-Esarn cattle had the highest weaning weight and preweaning daily weight gains while Kow-Lamphun cattle had the highest Omega 3 (8.98%) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) levels in their meat (0.02%), and produced the highest net incomes (306 915.80 Baht/y). Through the conservation and use policies of the DLD, Thai indigenous cattle provided various advantages for farmers, consumers, and environment. (author)

  15. Atributos físicos do solo em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob plantio direto Soil physical attributes in integrated cattle raising-crop production system under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastrângello Enívar Lanzanova

    2007-10-01

    üência de pastejo (P28 ou à ausência de pastejo (SP, observaram-se as maiores taxas de infiltração de água no solo.Soil compaction is one of the most important reasons for decrease in crop yield. The impact of animal trampling on integrated beef cattle raising-crop production systems were studied to evaluate the changes in soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, soil resistance to penetration and soil water infiltration. The field experiment was carried out in Jari, in the mid- plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Three management systems of winter pastures (black oat; Avena strigosa Schreber + ryegrass; Lolium multiflorum Lam. were studied under different grazing frequencies: (1 No grazing (NG, (2 grazing every 28 days (G28 and (3 grazing every fourteen days (G14. The summer crops soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. or corn (Zea mays L., as antecedent crop in rotation to the winter pastures, were also studied to measure the increasing or decreasing effects on compaction by animal trampling. The greatest effects of animal trampling were concentrated in the top soil layer (0 to 0.05 m, but under the highest grazing frequency (G14 macroporosity was reduced down to the 0.10-0.15 m layer. The soil resistance to penetration had peaks of 2.61 and 2.49 MPa in the G28 and G14 treatments, respectively, in the 0.05-0.08 layer. In the ungrazed areas the values remained lower, around 1.66 MPa. Soil water infiltration was significantly affected by animal trampling and by the previous summer crop. In the case of corn area, the soil was less sensitive to cattle trampling, unlike in the areas following soybean, where the highest grazing frequency (G14 reduced the water infiltration rates. Soybean induced higher values of macroporosity in the evaluated soil layers; when related with lower beef cattle density or ungrazed pastures, the rates of water infiltration and accumulated infiltration were higher.

  16. Prospective application of farm cattle manure for bioenergy production in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Eliseu [CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000 Vila Real (Portugal); Mantha, Vishveshwar [CIDESD, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro (Portugal); Rouboa, Abel [CITAB-UTAD/Dept.of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, PA 19104-6391 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Biogas is a promising renewable fuel, which can be produced from a variety of organic raw materials and used for various energetic purposes, such as heat, combined heat and power or as a vehicle fuel. Biogas systems implementation are, therefore, subjected to several support measures but also to several constraints, related with policy measures on energy, waste treatment and agriculture. In this work, different policies and policy instruments, as well as other factors, which influence a potential expansion of Portuguese biogas systems are identified and evaluated. The result of this analysis shows that the use of the cattle manure for biogas production is still far from its potential. The main reason is the reduced dimension of the Portuguese farms, which makes biogas production unfeasible. Various options are suggested to increase or improve biogas production such as co-digestion, centralized plants and modular plants. Horizontal digesters are the most suitable for the typical Portuguese plant size and have the advantage of being also suitable for co-digestion due to the very good mixing conditions. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion due to a more robustness, stability and lower energy consumption should be the choice. The recent increase in the feed-in tariffs for the electricity production based on anaerobic digestion biogas is seen as a political push to this sector. (author)

  17. Prospective application of farm cattle manure for bioenergy production in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas is a promising renewable fuel, which can be produced from a variety of organic raw materials and used for various energetic purposes, such as heat, combined heat and power or as a vehicle fuel. Biogas systems implementation are, therefore, subjected to several support measures but also to several constraints, related with policy measures on energy, waste treatment and agriculture. In this work, different policies and policy instruments, as well as other factors, which influence a potential expansion of Portuguese biogas systems are identified and evaluated. The result of this analysis shows that the use of the cattle manure for biogas production is still far from its potential. The main reason is the reduced dimension of the Portuguese farms, which makes biogas production unfeasible. Various options are suggested to increase or improve biogas production such as co-digestion, centralized plants and modular plants. Horizontal digesters are the most suitable for the typical Portuguese plant size and have the advantage of being also suitable for co-digestion due to the very good mixing conditions. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion due to a more robustness, stability and lower energy consumption should be the choice. The recent increase in the feed-in tariffs for the electricity production based on anaerobic digestion biogas is seen as a political push to this sector. (author)

  18. Comparing Carbon and Water Footprints for Beef Cattle Production in Southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley G. Ridoutt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stand-alone environmental indicators based on life cycle assessment (LCA, such as the carbon footprint and water footprint, are becoming increasingly popular as a means of directing sustainable production and consumption. However, individually, these metrics violate the principle of LCA known as comprehensiveness and do not necessarily provide an indication of overall environmental impact. In this study, the carbon footprints for six diverse beef cattle production systems in southern Australia were calculated and found to range from 10.1 to 12.7 kg CO2e kg−1 live weight (cradle to farm gate. This compared to water footprints, which ranged from 3.3 to 221 L H2Oe kg−1 live weight. For these systems, the life cycle impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water use were subsequently modelled using endpoint indicators and aggregated to enable comparison. In all cases, impacts from GHG emissions were most important, representing 93 to 99% of the combined scores. As such, the industry’s existing priority of GHG emissions reduction is affirmed. In an attempt to balance the demands of comprehensiveness and simplicity, to achieve reliable public reporting of the environmental impacts of a large number of products across the economy, a multi-indicator approach based on combined midpoint and endpoint life cycle impact assessment modelling is proposed. For agri-food products, impacts from land use should also be included as tradeoffs between GHG emissions, water use and land use are common.

  19. Milk production on smallholder dairy cattle farms in Southern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Vo

    2011-01-01

    Dairy production is a rather new and not a traditional system in Vietnam. It is mainly based on smallholder dairy farms. The general aim of the studies in this thesis was to improve milk production on smallholder dairy farms in Southern Vietnam and also to create a foundation that could be used in the advisory service or/and in further research for better milking management routines. Studies were done to cover the specific objectives of this thesis. The studies were designed to identify the p...

  20. EVALUACIÓN ECONÓMICA DE SISTEMAS DE RECRÍA-ENGORDA CON GANADO HEREFORD PARA LA PRECORDILLERA ANDINA DE LA VIII REGIÓN Economic evaluation of beef cattle production systems with Hereford cattle in the Andean foothills of the VIII Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron económicamente tres sistemas de recría-engorda para la precordillera andina basados en trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum y suplementación invernal con heno (TS; trébol subterráneo y suplementación invernal con heno y avena grano (TC, y trébol subterráneo en mezcla con trébol encarnado (Trifolium incarnatum, trébol subterráneo con festuca (Festuca arundinacea y alfalfa (Medicago sativa más suplementación invernal con heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense y avena (Avena sativa grano (VE. Se utilizaron terneros Hereford enteros de 197 kg PV inicial y 6,3 meses de edad promedio, saliendo de los sistemas con 385 kg PV promedio entre los 14 y 16 meses de edad. Los sistemas se proyectaron a tamaños de 25, 50 y 200 ha de praderas. La estructura de costos consideró costos variables (CV y fijos (CF. Los precios utilizados correspondieron a abril de 2001. La rentabilidad sin CF varió entre 17,1% en TS y 23,4%, en VE. Al incluir el CF la rentabilidad disminuyó en todos los sistemas con valores que fluctuaron entre 1,2 y 18,5% en TS y VE, respectivamente. La rentabilidad de los sistemas según tamaño varió entre -0,1% en sistema TS/predio 25 ha, único con rentabilidad negativa, y 19,17% en la combinación sistema VE/predio 200 ha. Los indicadores económicos fueron mayores en los sistemas TC y VE. Se presentó una mayor influencia del CF en la rentabilidad de los predios de tamaños menores. El sistema VE resultó siempre con margen neto positivo cuando se sensibilizó por precio de compra de terneros, precio de venta de toritos, costo de alimentación y porcentaje de mortalidad de terneros.Three beef cattle production systems were economically evaluated for the Andean foothills based on subterraneum clover (Trifolium subterraneum and hay supplementation during winter (TS; subterraneum clover with winter supplementation of hay and oats (TC; and subterraneum clover in a mix with crimson clover (Trifolium

  1. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

    2012-05-01

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and current research on the use of RFI in lactating dairy cattle are discussed, as well as opportunities to improve production efficiency of dairy

  2. Biogas production from cattle manure by anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to deal with the energy shortage problem, we are searching for more alternative energy resources especially renewable or sustainable. Biogas is one of the solutions in dealing with the energy shortage problem. Biogas is a type of energy resources derives from organic matter during the process called anaerobic digestion. The biogas produced is mainly consisting of methane and carbon dioxide. In this research, diluted cattle manure (1:1 ration with water) was inoculated with palm oil mill (POME) activated sludge at the ratio of 1:5 and placed in a 10 liter bioreactor. The temperature and pH in the bioreactor was regulated at 6.95 and 53 degree Celsius, respectively to enhance the anaerobic digestion process. Parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total solid, volatile solid, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), methane (CH4) and the volume of biogas generated was monitored for effectiveness of the treatment of cattle manure via anaerobic digestion. The total volume of biogas produced in this study is 80.25 liter in 29 days while being able to treat the COD content up to 52 %. (author)

  3. Resilience and vulnerability of beef cattle production in the southern great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate variability and periodic drought is a defining characteristic of the Southern Great Plains. Beef cattle production, based on a variety of crop, pasture, and native rangeland forages, is the most important economic commodity in this region and dominates the agricultural landscape. Press cov...

  4. Nitrous oxide production by fungi isolated from cattle-disturbed upland soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirout, Jiří; Šimek, Miloslav; Elhottová, Dana

    Dundee : British Mycological Society, 2009. s. 27. [The Fungal Cell. 01.09.2009-04.09.2009, Dundee] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : nitrous oxide production * fungi * cattle-disturbed upland soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Biological water contamination in some cattle production fields of Argentina subjected to runoff and erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Celio I Chagas; Filipe B. Kraemer; Oscar J. Santanatoglia; Marta Paz; Juan Moretton

    2014-01-01

    Grain production has displaced livestock to marginal lands in most of the productive regions in Argentina since 1990. In the fertile Rolling Pampa region, extensive cattle production has been concentrated in lowlands subjected to flooding, salt excess, erosion and sedimentation processes but also in some feedlots recently located in sloping arable lands prone to soil erosion. We studied the concentration of microbiological contamination indicators in runoff water and sediments accumulated in ...

  6. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Petrina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P P P P P P P Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  7. Selection criteria and breeding objectives in improvement of productivity of cattle and buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding objectives for improving the productivity of or conserving particular breeds or genetic groups of livestock depend upon many factors. Among these factors are the agro-climatic conditions of the area of inhabitation (including endemic diseases), agricultural and livestock systems in vogue, availability of feedstuffs - including crop by-products, herd size, marketing structure and locally available animal genetic resources, socio-cultural and economic level of the livestock owners, available infrastructure and facilities, desire and capabilities of farmers and the political and administrative will of the state to bring about change in animal productivity to improve the living standard of livestock farmers. The religious sentiments of some populations attached with animals, especially cows, shall also not be ignored in defining breeding objectives. In addition, breeding objectives must not only consider the present status of these factors, but also take into consideration the future needs for quantity and quality of animal products. As the generation intervals of livestock, particularly of cattle and buffaloes is quite long, the impact of breeding plans are not expected to be realized for several years, by which time the requirements may be different

  8. Methane and carbon dioxide production from simulated anaerobic degradation of cattle carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► This study evaluates methane and carbon dioxide production after land burial of cattle carcasses. ► Disposal of animal mortalities is often overlooked in evaluating the environmental impacts of animal production. ► we quantify annual emissions from cattle carcass disposal in the United States as 1.6 Tg CO2 equivalents. - Abstract: Approximately 2.2 million cattle carcasses require disposal annually in the United States. Land burial is a convenient disposal method that has been widely used in animal production for disposal of both daily mortalities as well as during catastrophic mortality events. To date, greenhouse gas production after mortality burial has not been quantified, and this study represents the first attempt to quantify greenhouse gas emissions from land burial of animal carcasses. In this study, anaerobic decomposition of both homogenized and unhomogenized cattle carcass material was investigated using bench-scale reactors. Maximum yields of methane and carbon dioxide were 0.33 and 0.09 m3/kg dry material, respectively, a higher methane yield than that previously reported for municipal solid waste. Variability in methane production rates were observed over time and between reactors. Based on our laboratory data, annual methane emissions from burial of cattle mortalities in the United States could total 1.6 Tg CO2 equivalents. Although this represents less than 1% of total emissions produced by the agricultural sector in 2009, greenhouse gas emissions from animal carcass burial may be significant if disposal of swine and poultry carcasses is also considered.

  9. A 660-Kb Deletion with Antagonistic Effects on Fertility and Milk Production Segregates at High Frequency in Nordic Red Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Sahana, Goutam; Charlier, Carole; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Karim, Latifa; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander; Panitz, Frank; Pedersen, Gert Aamand; Schulmann, Nina; Georges, Michel; Vilkki, Johanna; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Druet, Tom

    The spectacular increase in productivity of dairy cattle has been accompanied by a decline in fertility. It is assumed that this reduction is due to the negative energy balance of high producing cows. We herein describe the dissection of a fertility QTL in Nordic Red cattle to a 660-Kb deletion o...

  10. Genetic Relationships under Different Management Systems and their Consequences for Dairy Cattle Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Fuerst-waltl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in breeding and management resulted in a considerable increase of production traits in Austrian dairy cattle. Besides, low input systems were also established. Possible genotype by environment interactions (G x E and genetic antagonisms dependent on production level might indicate the need for separate breeding programmes for dairy farms differing in management intensity. Thus, G x E and genetic correlations (ra between milk yield and selected fitness traits were estimated for Upper Austrian Fleckvieh cattle under high and low production levels. Data of the current herdbook cow population and their dams were extracted. Two data sets were selected based on the herd average of milk; extensive (≤6,000 kg herd average and intensive (≥9,000 kg herd average farms. Yield deviations were used for the analysis of yield traits, functional longevity, reproduction traits and milking speed; raw data were used for somatic cell count (SCC. For yield deviations, a model including the effects year of birth (fixed and animal (genetic, random was applied, while a model close to the routine evaluation was run for SCC. The lowest ra between extensive and intensive farms was found for protein yield (ra = 0.89 while ra values close to unity were found for all functional traits. Genetic antagonisms between milk yield and functional traits were stronger in intensive systems, however, standard errors were large. Currently, separate breeding programmes for different management intensities do not seem to be necessary.

  11. Animal Health and Productivity Status of Cattle After The Eruption of Mount Merapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Merapi from October 26th to November 6th, 2010 has affected social life and environment around the Merapi. The eruption has caused destruction of land and water resources, plants, death of animals and human casualities. The lava, dust and stones released from the eruption of Merapi had caused residential destruction, casualities, agricultural land and plants destruction, and contamination of water. The eruption has directly affected 4 districts including Sleman (Yogyakarta, Magelang, Boyolali and Klaten (Central Java categorized as Disaster Risk Area (DRA. The purpose of this assessment is to analyse the impacts of Merapi eruption in animal health and productivity in particular for dairy and beef cattle. A total of 2.828 heads of cattle was reported died during the eruption of Merapi, and 1.962 heads died at the time of eruption and 36 heads at the arrival on evacuation areas. Animal that found died including 423 heads of beef cattle (0.13% and 2.405 heads of dairy cattle (3.2%. Clinical sains noted after the eruption were reduction of milk production, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, respiratory disturbances, mastitis and collapse. The main problems for livestock were reduction of milk production, collapse of dairy milk corporation activities and contamination of water resources. Other than dairy cattle mortality, the reduction of milk production may be caused by subclinical mastitis and environmental distress due to temperature and noise of eruption for few days. The subclinical mastitis should be further investigated to establish rehabilitation programme for dairy milk agribussiness activity in particular around the DRA of Merapi.

  12. Effect of Dietary Monensin or Chlortetracycline on Methane Production from Cattle Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Varel, V. H.; Hashimoto, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    Wastes from feedlot cattle fed finishing diets containing either monensin, chlortetracycline, or no antibiotic were investigated as substrates for methane production. We used continuously mixed anaerobic fermentors with 3-liter working volumes at 35 and 55°C; these fermentors were fed once per day. Within a few days after waste from animals fed monensin was added, the volume of methane produced began to decrease in the 55°C fermentors. After 9 days of daily feeding, methane production was sev...

  13. Correlations of visual scores, carcass traits, feed efficiency and retail product yield in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Cancian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of visual scores (VS and ultrasound (US for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to evaluate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US and feed efficiency (FE, carcass weight (HCW, dressing percentage (DP and retail product yield (RPY in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male, 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST] were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old and finishing phases (21-month old. Visual scores of conformation (C, precocity (P and muscling (M were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT, rump fat thickness (URFT and ribeye area (UREA were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F ratio and residual feed intake (RFI were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle

  14. Enhancing Soil Productivity Using a Multi-Crop Rotation and Beef Cattle Grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürklü, Songül; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production systems that include complimentary plant, soil and animal interaction contribute to sustainability. In sustainable livestock systems integrated with crop production, the soil resource is impacted positively. The goal of this research was to maximize beef cattle and crop economic yield, while improving the soil resource by increasing soil organic matter (SOM) and subsequently seasonal soil nitrogen fertility over a 5-year period (2011-2015). Each experimental crop field used in the study was 1.74 ha. Small-seeded crops were planted using a JD 1590 No-Till drill. Corn (C) and sunflowers (SF) were planted using a JD 7000 No-Till planter. The cropping sequence used in the study was SF, hard red spring wheat (HRSW), fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (T-HV), spring harvested for hay/mid-June seeded 7-species cover crop (CC; SF, Everleaf Oat, Flex Winter Pea, HV, Winfred Forage Rape, Ethiopian Cabbage, Hunter Leaf Turnip), C (85-day var.), and field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF were harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC were harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers grazed PBY and unharvested C before feedlot entry, and after weaning, gestating cows grazed CC. Seasonal soil nitrogen fertility was measured at 0-15, 15-30, and 30-61 cm depths approximately every two weeks from June to October, 2014. The regression illustrating the relationship between SOM and average seasonal available mineral nitrogen shows that for each percentage increase in SOM there is a corresponding N increase of 1.47 kg/ha. Nitrogen fertilizer applications for the 5-year period of the study were variable; however, the overall trend was for reduced fertilizer requirement as SOM increased. At the same time, grain, oilseed, and annual forage crop yields increased year over year (2011-2015) except for the 2014 crop year, when above average precipitation delayed seeding and early frost killed the C and SF crops prematurely

  15. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef. PMID

  16. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product...... but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks....... Here the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case...

  17. Avaliação produtiva e econômica de sistemas de produção bovina em pastagens de capim-elefante Productive and economic evaluation of cattle production systems on elephant-grass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.C. Peres

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho produtivo de novilhas manejadas em capim-elefante com suplementação alimentar e estudou-se a viabilidade econômica dos sistemas de produção. Utilizaram-se novilhas Holandês-Zebu com idade média de 17 meses e peso médio de 215±8kg, distribuídas nos seguintes sistemas de produção: SP1 - sem suplementação; SP2 - suplementadas com ração concentrada; e SP3 - suplementadas com leguminosa Stylosanthes guianensis, cv. Mineirão. Foram utilizadas 22 novilhas sendo 12 distribuídas nos três sistemas e as demais utilizadas como animais de equilíbrio em função da quantidade de forragem disponível. Os ganhos de peso médio diário foram 429±18g, 624±23g e 535±8g para SP1, SP2 e SP3, e os ganhos de peso diário por área de 2,38; 3,46 e 1,43kg/ha/dia, para SP1, SP2 e SP3, respectivamente. A taxa interna de retorno obtida foi 29,6%, 30,1% e 10,5% para SP1, SP2 e SP3, respectivamente. O preço de venda das novilhas foi o fator de maior impacto no desempenho econômico dos sistemas de produção.Productive and economic performance of heifers grazing elephant-grass pastures under different production systems were evaluated. Twenty-two Holstein-Zebu heifers, 17-month-old and averaging 215kg of live weight, were used. The animals were managed on elephant-grass pastures under three production systems: PS1 - without supplementation; PS2 - supplemented with concentrate feeds; and PS3 - supplemented with Stylosanthes guianensis, cv. Mineirão pasture. Twelve heifers were used as testers and 10 heifers were used as "put-and-take". The average daily gains were 429±18g, 624±23g and 535±8g for animals on PS1, PS2 and PS3, respectively. The total daily gains per hectare were 2.38, 3.46 and 1.43kg, for animals on PS1, PS2 and PS3, respectively. The calculated internal rates of return were 29.6%, 30.1% and 10.5% for PS1, PS2 and PS3, respectively. The sale price of heifers had the largest impact on the economic performance of

  18. Large-scale production in Pichia pastoris of the recombinant vaccine Gavac against cattle tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, M; Enríquez, A; Ramos, E; Cabrera, D; Dandie, H; Soto, A; Falcón, V; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1997-03-01

    A gene coding for the Bm86 tick protein was recently cloned, expressed in Pichia pastoris and shown to induce an inmunological response in cattle against ticks. Moreover, the Gavac vaccine (Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba), which contains this recombinant protein, has proved to control the Boophilus microplus populations under field conditions. This paper reviews the development and large-scale production of this vaccine, the efficacy of the resulting product and the strategy followed in designing its production plant. The production plant fulfills biosafety requirements and GMP. PMID:9141213

  19. Effects of nitrogen deposition and cattle grazing on productivity, invasion impact, and soil microbial processes in a serpentine grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasari, J.; Hernandez, D.; Selmants, P. C.; Keck, D.

    2010-12-01

    In recent decades, human activities have vastly increased the amount of biologically available nitrogen (N) in the biosphere. The resulting increase in N availability has broadly affected ecosystems through increased productivity, changes in species composition, altered nutrient cycles, and increases in invasion by exotic plant species, especially in systems that were historically low in N. California serpentine grasslands are N-limited ecosystems historically dominated by native species including several threatened and endangered plants and animals. Cattle grazing has emerged as the primary tool for controlling the impact of nitrophilic exotic grasses whose increased abundance has paralleled the regional traffic-derived increase in atmospheric N deposition. We examined the interactive effects of cattle grazing and N deposition on plant community composition, productivity, invasion resistance, and microbial processes in the Bay Area's largest serpentine grassland to determine the efficacy of current management strategies as well as the biogeochemical consequences of exotic species invasion. In the first two years of the study, aboveground net primary productivity decreased in response to grazing and increased in response to nitrogen addition. However, contrary to our hypotheses the change in productivity was not due to an increase in exotic species cover as there was little overall effect of grazing or N addition on species composition. Microbial activity was more responsive to grazing and N. Potential net N mineralization rates increased with N addition, but were not affected by grazing. In contrast, soil respiration rates were inhibited by grazing, but were not affected by N addition; suggesting strong carbon-limitation of soil microbial activity, particularly under grazing. Site differences in soil depth and grazing intensity were often more important than treatment effects. We suspect that the unusually dry conditions in the first two growing seasons inhibited

  20. A 660-Kb deletion with antagonistic effects on fertility and milk production segregates at high frequency in Nordic Red cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Sahana, Goutam; Charlier, Carole;

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cattle, the widespread use of artificial insemination has resulted in increased selection intensity, which has led to spectacular increase in productivity. However, cow fertility has concomitantly severely declined. It is generally assumed that this reduction is primarily due...

  1. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    OpenAIRE

    Igino Andrighetto; Giulio Cozzi; Barbara Contiero; Marta Brscic; Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1) Housing systems and facilities; 2) Health and cleanlines...

  2. Design of Information System for Milking Dairy Cattle and Detection of Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A novel information system for detecting mastitis in dairy cattle and managing their milking processes in the milking parlor is designed. The system comprises three major subsystems—the mastitis detection device, the information display device, and the cloud database. The mastitis detection device can detect and evaluate the degree of mastitis immediately before the milking operations are carried out. The information display device shows information on the health of the dairy cattle obtained ...

  3. Molecular Survey of Toxoplasma gondii in Sheep, Cattle and Meat Products in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province, Southwest of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Azizi; Behrouz Shiran; Arash Borjian Boroujeni; Milad Jafari

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide spread disease. The present study examined the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among animals of edible meat (cattle and sheep) in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province (Southwest of Iran) in 2012. Furthermore, we attempted for the first time to identify this parasite from the meat products in the province. Methods The tongue, brain, femur muscle and liver of 50 sheep and 70 cattle as well as 50 samples of meat products were selected and collected ...

  4. Aspects of productivity of traditionally managed Barotse cattle in the Western Province of Zambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Klink, van der, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditionally managed livestock is important because of the provision of draught power and manure, the provision of security and investment possibilities, for the provision of meat and milk, and for social purposes (eg. brideprice, gifts). In the Western Province of Zambia, cattle are the only livestock of significance. The soils of the province virtually entirely consist of Kalahari sands, that are not very suitable for crop production, but with a good suitability for ...

  5. Database of cattle candidate genes and genetic markers for milk production and mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ogorevc, J; Kunej, T; Razpet, A; Dovc, P

    2009-01-01

    A cattle database of candidate genes and genetic markers for milk production and mastitis has been developed to provide an integrated research tool incorporating different types of information supporting a genomic approach to study lactation, udder development and health. The database contains 943 genes and genetic markers involved in mammary gland development and function, representing candidates for further functional studies. The candidate loci were drawn on a genetic map to reveal positio...

  6. Cattle productivity on smallholder farms in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the traditional cattle production systems in the Western Highlands of Cameroon was carried out between August 1994 and September 1997. Fifty two cows selected from 14 farms in 4 locations were monitored monthly. Data were collected on calf and dam weight, dam's body condition, milk offtake and forage quality. Reproductive performance was monitored by measuring progesterone levels in milk sampled weekly. Crude protein content of grazed pastures rose from 12.5% in July to 14.5% in October and declined steadily to reach 4.5% in February. With such a decline in forage quality during the dry season, cows are unable to obtain their nutrient needs, thus productivity was low. Body condition score declined from medium (5.6) at calving to upper low (4.5) 4 months after the initiation of milk offtake. Body weight of cows decreased by nearly 14% during the same period. The interval between calving to first progesterone rise, calving to conception, and inter-calving intervals were 172 ± 116, 185 ± 106 and 448 ± 86 days, respectively. Milk offtake averaged 1.29 ± 0.44 kg/cow/day for a lactation length of 10.5 months. A significant effect of season was detected in milk offtake (P <0.001), body condition score (P <0.05), body weight of cows (P <0.05), intervals from calving to first progesterone rise (P <0.05), calving to conception (P <0.05) and inter-calving interval (P <0.01). Supplementary feeding during the dry season and early lactation to cover the nutrient requirements of the cows in the traditional production system of Western Highlands of Cameroon is recommended and forms the purpose of the second part of this study which is now underway. (author)

  7. Influence of Supporting Agrarian Policy Measures onto Increase of Cattle Production in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Ćejvanović

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bosnia and Herzegovina has a deficit of most agricultural products, and that is why it is compelled to import significant quantities of food. In order to increase the degree of self sufficiency, particularly for those products that have good potentials for production growth, creators of agrarian policy try to apply different agrarian policy measures for stimulation of agricultural production growth. One production with good potential is cattle production, i.e. production of milk and meat, for which Bosnia and Herzegovina has significant development potentials, and for whose advancement there have been provided different supporting measures. This paper presents the possible application of the cost-benefit analysis in evaluation of efficiency for some supporting agrarian policy measures adopted in order to improve the cattle production in Bosnia and Herzegovina . The cost-benefit analysis was completed for the six year period, taking into account the productive period of bought heifer. The analysis includes economic and financial parameters (inflows and outflows, which annual amounts were discounted to the present values by utilization of the average social discount rate, in order to put all annual amounts at the same trend of calculation and to account for opportunity capital costs as well.

  8. Constraints and efficiency of cattle marketing in semiarid pastoral system in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onono, Joshua Orungo; Amimo, Joshua Oluoch; Rushton, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Livestock keeping is regarded as a store of wealth for pastoralists in Kenya, besides their social and cultural functions. The objective of this study was to prioritize constraints to cattle marketing in a semiarid pastoral area of Narok in Kenya and to analyze efficiency of cattle marketing in transit markets located in Garissa, Kajiado and Narok counties. Primary data collection from traders was done through participatory interviews and market surveys, while time series market price data were obtained from secondary sources. Five focus group interviews were organized with a total of 61 traders in markets from Narok County, while a total of 187 traders who purchased cattle from transit markets provided data on a number of cattle purchased, purpose of purchase, buying prices and mode of transport. Market performance was analyzed through trader's market share, gross margins, Gini coefficient and coefficient of correlation between time series price data. The marketing constraints which were ranked high included lack of market for meat, trekking of cattle to markets, lack of price information and occurrence of diseases. About 10 % of traders purchased over 50 % of cattle which were supplied in markets, revealing a high concentration index. Further, a gross marketing margin per cattle purchased was positive in all markets revealing profitability. Moderate correlation coefficients existed between time series market price data for cattle purchased from Ewaso Ngiro and Mulot markets (r = 0.5; p  0.05). The integration of markets, occurrence of diseases and trekking of cattle to markets are factors which may increase a risk of infectious disease spread. These results call for support of disease surveillance activities within markets in pastoral areas so that farms and systems which are connected are protected from threats of infectious diseases. PMID:25700674

  9. Suplementacion de minerales en la produccion bovina – Mineral supplementation for cattle production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcesio Salamanca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe hace una revisión de las deficiencias de minerales en los suelos y su relación con la planta y el animal, evidencias en las pajas nativas de la sabana inundable del Departamento de Arauca, de la importancia de los minerales en la alimentación bovina, de algunos resultados de investigación y de las convicciones productivas al suplementar a los bovinos con sales mineralizadas SummaryA review of mineral deficiencies in soils and its relation to plant and animal evidence in the native straw flooded savanna of the Department of Arauca, the importance of mineral in the diet of cattle, some results research and belief productive to supplement the cattle with mineral salts.

  10. Effects of CSN3 and LGB gene polymorphisms on production traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério A. Curi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the CSN3/HinfI and LGB/HaeIII gene polymorphisms in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups, and to determine the effects of these polymorphisms on growth and carcass traits in these animals, which are submitted to an intensive production model. Genotyping was performed on 79 Nelore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu and 275 crossbred cattle originating from the crosses of Simmental (n = 30 and Angus (n = 245 sires with Nelore females. Body weight, weight gain, dressing percentage, longissimus dorsi area and backfat thickness were fitted using the GLM procedure, and least square means of the genotypes were compared by the F test. The results showed that the CSN3/HinfI and LGB/HaeIII polymorphisms did not have any effect on growth or carcass traits (p > 0.05.

  11. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L

    2013-03-01

    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria. PMID:23076819

  12. Breed diversification in southwestern Uganda: Characterization of a new cattle farming system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new production system in which pastoral communities are becoming more sedentary and are keeping different genotypes (Holstein-Friesians or their crosses and pure Ankole) is emerging in South Western Uganda. In this system the Ankole, cattle are being crossed with Holstein-Friesian and the two genotypes are being kept in separate herds on the same farm. This is in response to the rapidly growing population, new land policies that favour individual land ownership high demand of livestock products in the urban centres and improved rural infrastructure. As part of a larger research program that aims at evaluating the ecological and economic sustainability of the new pastoral systems, a survey was undertaken of sixteen farmers selected from 3 sub-counties in Kiruhura District in South West Uganda. Two sets of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the farms. The 1st set was administered at the beginning of the study in April 2007, and the 2nd one was administered on a monthly basis for a period of the last 12 months. On each farm visit performance traits such as milk yield (MY), heart girth measurement (HG) and Body Condition Score (BCS) of the animals were recorded. Comparative MY, BCS and body weight performance for mature cows for the different genotypes are considered here. because the crossbreds gave them more marketable milk, while the Ankole provides security in case diseases or prolonged drought affected the crossbreds. Another group (19.9%) stated that they still prefer to keep Ankole cattle besides the crosses because they are hardy, while others (13.3%) stated that they kept Ankole for beef production because they were easier to sell off for this purpose and the crosses for milk production. Another 13.3% stated that the crossbreds were kept for income through milk sales and Ankole were kept for cultural reasons. Different reasons were given for rearing the animals in separate herds: (i) to control breeding (ii) Ankole

  13. National Genetic Evaluation (System) of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, B; Choi, T; Kim, S.; Oh, S.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Hanwoo (Also known as Korean native cattle; Bos taurus coreanae) have been used for transportation and farming for a long time in South Korea. It has been about 30 yrs since Hanwoo improvement began in earnest as beef cattle for meat yield. The purpose of this study was to determine the trend of improvement as well as to estimate genetic parameters of the traits being used for seedstock selection based on the data collected from the past. Hanwoo proven bulls in South Korea are currently selec...

  14. Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M

    2014-01-01

    Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance

  15. Biogas production by anaerobic co-digestion of cattle slurry and cheese whey

    OpenAIRE

    Comino, Elena; Riggio, Vincenzo Andrea; Rosso, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Biogas yield of mixtures of cattle slurry and cheese whey, rates of production of methane, removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were investigated at 35 C. Stable biogas production of 621 l/kg volatile solids at a hydraulic retention time of 42 days in a mixture containing 50% slurry and whey was obtained. The concentration of methane in the biogas was around 55%. Maximum removal efficiencies for COD and BOD5 were 82% and 90%, respectively. A ...

  16. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of...

  17. Effects of probiotic bacteria at different concentrations on production of immunomodulatory antibodies against rabies virus in vaccinated cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Maria Bottino Vizzotto-Martino; Cristina Cecilia Augusto Vella Bonancéa; Thaís Cristina de Souza Geroti; Neuza Maria Frazati-Gallina; Paulo Eduardo Pardo; Hermann Bremer-Neto

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of supplementation with a combination of probiotic microorganisms, added at different concentrations to the mineral mixture, on the production of serum antibodies against rabies virus in cattle vaccinated with a single dose of rabies vaccine. Forty-two male Nellore cattle, aged 12 months, were randomly divided into three groups (n = 14): the control group (CG) received 70 grams of mineral mixture/animal/day; and the 2 gram probiotic group (G2P) and 8 gram prob...

  18. Physiological level production of antigen-specific human immunoglobulin in cloned transchromosomic cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Sano

    Full Text Available Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (hIGH and kappa-chain (hIGK germline loci (named as κHAC are capable of producing functional hpAbs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, are homozygously inactivated (double knockouts or DKO. However, B lymphocyte development in these Tc cattle is compromised, and the overall production of hpAbs is low. Here, we report the construction of an improved HAC, designated as cKSL-HACΔ, by incorporating all of the human immunoglobulin germline loci into the HAC. Furthermore, for avoiding the possible human-bovine interspecies incompatibility between the human immunoglobulin mu chain protein (hIgM and bovine transmembrane α and β immunoglobulins (bIgα and bIgβ in the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR complex, we partially replaced (bovinized the hIgM constant domain with the counterpart of bovine IgM (bIgM that is involved in the interaction between bIgM and bIgα/Igβ; human IgM bovinization would also improve the functionality of hIgM in supporting B cell activation and proliferation. We also report the successful production of DKO Tc cattle carrying the cKSL-HACΔ (cKSL-HACΔ/DKO, the dramatic improvement of B cell development in these cattle and the high level production of hpAbs (as measured for the human IgG isotype in the plasma. We further demonstrate that, upon immunization by tumor immunogens, high titer tumor immunogen-specific human IgG (hIgG can be produced from such Tc cattle.

  19. Valorization of indigenous dairy cattle breed through salami production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglio, Raimondo; Francesca, Nicola; Maniaci, Giuseppe; Corona, Onofrio; Alfonzo, Antonio; Giosuè, Cristina; Di Noto, Annamaria; Cardamone, Cinzia; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Portolano, Baldassare; Alabiso, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the research was to produce salami manufactured with meat of three different commercial categories of bovine breed: cow on retirement, beef and young bull. A total of six experimental productions, at small-scale plant, were carried out with and without starter culture inoculums. The evolution of physico-chemical parameters in all trials followed the trend already registered for other fermented meat products. Several LAB species were found during process with different levels of species diversity and frequency of isolation among inoculated (mainly Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus) and uninoculated (mainly Enterococcus devriesei, Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus sakei) trials. Enterobacteriaceae were found at very low levels during the entire ripening period and no pathogenic bacteria were found in any samples. The multivariate analysis showed that starter inoculums and meat affected significantly the physico-chemical and the microbiological composition of salami. The sensory analysis evidenced the highest overall acceptability was displayed by salami produced with meat from cow on retirement. PMID:26735574

  20. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  1. In vitro study of the biochemical origin and production limits of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2001-12-01

    Livestock odors are closely correlated to airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are a complex mixture of carbon-, sulfur-, and nitrogen-containing compounds produced primarily during the incomplete anaerobic fermentation of animal manure by microorganisms. Volatile fatty acids, alcohols, and aromatic ring compounds comprise a substantial fraction of VOC, yet very little is known about their biochemical origin and environmental factors controlling their production. The anaerobic production of fermentation products and consumption of substrates (CP, starch, and nonstarch carbohydrate) were analyzed in slurries of fresh ( 1 d) cattle manure over several weeks. Ethanol, acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactate, and H2 were the major products of fermentation. Aged cattle manure produced twice the concentration of VFA during incubation produced by the fresh manure (P manures. Production of VFA from fresh manure was inhibited when the pH fell below 4.5. It is likely that the presence of calcareous soil, which has a high buffering capacity, and lactate-consuming microorganisms minimized acidification in the aged manure slurries. Low starch content limited VFA production in the aged manure. Starch was the likely biochemical source for fermentation products in both manures based on the strong negative correlations between fermentation product and starch content (r = -0.944 and -0.773) and ratio of fermentation products produced to starch consumed (r = 0.64 and 0.72) for fresh and aged manure, respectively. Nonstarch carbohydrate served an indeterminate role in the production of fermentation products. Nonstarch carbohydrate decreased by 4.7 and 23.4 g/L in the fresh and aged manure, respectively, whereas the starch content decreased by 18.6 and 22.4 g/L in the fresh and aged manure, respectively. The concentration of CP did not change, which suggests a balance between protein consumption and new bacterial biomass production. We conclude that the

  2. Possibilities for converting conventional cattle production to the organic model in the Grijalva River Basin, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nahed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities for converting conventional cattle production to the organic model were evaluated in the Grijalva River Basin, Mexico, and possible interventions were identified. A multi-criteria organic livestock conversion index (OLCI with 10 indicators comprising 35 variables was used. Information was obtained through participatory workshops, direct observation, and interviews to 91 farmers of 11 different communities in the municipalities of Mazapa de Madero (n = 17, Huitiupán (n = 30, and Tacotalpa (n = 44. Results show higher OLCI values in Mazapa (56.8% and Tacotalpa (56.7% than in Huitiupán (49.0%. The production units evaluated show: (i limitations with respect to indicators ecological weed control in pastures and crops, veterinary prevention and treatment, food safety, and ecological management, and (ii strengths to reach the organic standards are: feed management, sustainable pasture management, soil fertilization, ecological pest and disease control in pastures and crops, breeds and reproduction, and animal well-being. In order to revert the future scenario of conventional livestock production and to transition to organic cattle raising, it is necessary to: (1 train and advice farmers regarding ecological production techniques and management, principally with respect to the limitations pointed out, and (2 implement a policy for development of livestock raising with specific functional and structural changes.

  3. Biological water contamination in some cattle production fields of Argentina subjected to runoff and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio I. Chagas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain production has displaced livestock to marginal lands in most of the productive regions in Argentina since 1990. In the fertile Rolling Pampa region, extensive cattle production has been concentrated in lowlands subjected to flooding, salt excess, erosion and sedimentation processes but also in some feedlots recently located in sloping arable lands prone to soil erosion. We studied the concentration of microbiological contamination indicators in runoff water and sediments accumulated in depressions along the tributary network from these lands devoted to cattle production. The aims of this work were: (i to gather a reliable set of data from different monitoring periods and scales, (ii to search for simple and sensible variables to be used as indicators for surface water quality advising purposes and (iii to corroborate previous biological contamination conceptual models for this region. Concentration of pollution indicators in these ponds was related to mean stocking rates from nearby fields and proved to depend significantly on the accumulated water and sediments. Viable mesophiles and total coliforms were found mainly attached to large sediments rather than in the runoff water phase. Seasonal sampling showed that the time period between the last significant runoff event and each sampling date regarding enterococci proved to be a sensible variable for predicting contamination. Enterococci concentration tended to increase gradually until the next extraordinary runoff event washed away contaminants. The mentioned relationship may be useful for designing early warning surface water contamination programs regarding enterococci dynamics and other related microbial pollutants as well.

  4. Mixed grazing systems benefit both upland biodiversity and livestock production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21(st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. METHODS: Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management 'systems' we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. RESULTS CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit

  5. Effect of Temperature and Retention Time on Methane Production from Beef Cattle Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Varel, V. H.; Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y R

    1980-01-01

    The effect of temperature and retention time on the rate of methane production from waste of beef cattle fed a finishing diet was investigated by using continuously mixed 3-liter working volume anaerobic fermentors. The temperatures ranged from 30 to 65°C with 5°C increments between fermentors. The fermentors were fed once per day with 6% volatile solids (organic matter). Retention time for each temperature was varied from 18 to 2.5 days. After 3-volume turnovers, samples were obtained on 4 c...

  6. Biophysical and economic water productivity of dual-purpose cattle farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraïri, M T; Benjelloun, R; Karrou, M; Ates, S; Kuper, M

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzes key factors influencing water productivity in cattle rearing, particularly in contexts characterized by water scarcity. This was done through year-round monitoring of on-farm practices within five smallholder farms located in the Saïss area (northern Morocco). The on-farm monitoring protocol consisted of characterizing: (i) volumes of water used for fodder production and distinguished by source (rainfall, surface irrigation and groundwater), (ii) virtual water contained in off-farm feed resources, (iii) total forage biomass production, (iv) dietary rations fed to lactating cows and their calves and (v) milk output and live weight gain. Findings reveal a mean water footprint of 1.62±0.81 and 8.44±1.09 m3/kg of milk and of live weight gain, respectively. Groundwater represented only 13.1% and 2.2% of the total water used to get milk and live weight gain, respectively, while rainfall represented 53.0% and 48.1% of the total water for milk and live weight gain, respectively. The remaining water volumes used came from surface irrigation water (7.4% for milk and 4.0% for live weight gain) and from virtual water (26.5% for milk and 44.7% for live weight gain). The results also revealed a relatively small gross margin per m3 of water used by the herd, not exceeding an average value of US $ 0.05, when considering both milk and live weight. Given the large variability in farm performances, which affect water productivity in cattle rearing throughout the production process, we highlight the potential for introducing a series of interventions that are aimed at saving water, while concurrently improving efficiency in milk production and live weight gain. These interventions should target the chain of production functions that are implemented throughout the process of water productivity in cattle rearing. Moreover, these interventions are of particular importance given our findings that livestock production depends largely upon rainfall, rather than

  7. GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF CORN IN FUNCTION OF THE APPLICATION OF CATTLE MANURE AND BIOFERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio da Silva Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of 9 quantities of cattle manure (Q1 = 0 kg / pit, Q2= 1.0 kg / hill, Q3 = 2.0 kg / hill, Q4 = 3.0 kg/hill, Q5 = 4,0kg/pit, Q6=5.0kg/hill, Q7 =6.0kg/hill,; Q8 =7.0kg/hill, Q9 = 8.0kg/hill and 5 doses of biofertilizer (D1 = 0 mL / plant / time, D2 = 30 mL / plant / time, D3 = 60 mL / plant / time, D4 = 90 mL / plant / time, D5 = 120 mL / plant / time, growth and the productivity of maize. The experimental design was to randomized blocks, 45 treatments in a factorial scheme 9x5, with 4 replications, and planted 2 plants per plot in each repetition, totaling 360 experimental plants. The growth and production of corn were not affected significantly when it was applied to 8 kg of cattle manure pit in the foundation of fertilization, growth and production of corn were not affected significantly when applications were made 5 of biofertilizer in fertilization coverage in dosages up to 120mL/plant/time.

  8. EVALUATION OF SELECTED EFFECTS ON MILK PRODUCTION AND FERTILITY IN HOLSTEIN DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš FREJLACH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The breeding of dairy cattle, in terms of investment and operating costs, is the most demanding sector of livestock production. In terms of importance for agricultural enterprises and all of society, in most EU Member States and the Czech Republic it is one of the major agrarian sectors. Milk production in the Czech Republic has been an important source of income for farmers. For this reason, it is important to ensure an adequate level of milk production in dairy cattle herds and the resulting profit of the enterprise. At the present time in the Czech Republic, it is difficult to ensure profitability in dairy farming because input costs have a continuously rising trend, as compared to the price of milk, which is very unstable. The evaluation of selected indicators of milk yield and fertility in dairy herds is an important tool for evaluating the economics and the level of the breeding. The highest milk yield in kilograms during the first lactation was attained by dairy cows that calved at the age of 27 to 29 months (9,335 kg of milk. When utilizing the DOUBLE OVSYNCH synchronization protocol, the average calving interval was 412 days, and a higher conception rate after first insemination (43% was found as compared to the nationwide average in the Czech Republic (34.2%.

  9. Mapping the impact of crossbreeding in smallholder cattle systems in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tri Satya Mastuti Widi, Tri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In response to increasing demand for meat, Indonesia’s government has been implementing crossbreeding with European beef breeds to improve the meat production of local cattle. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the benefits and consequences of cr

  10. [Grounds for using cattle as one of reference organisms in the system of environmental protection from radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budarkov, V A

    2009-01-01

    Taking into consideration the basic principles of environmental protection from radiation as stated in Publication 91 of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), we suggest cattle to be included into fauna reference species group. The choice is based upon cattle being a typical representative of specific ecosystems and may serve as an informative biological indicator and comparable with humans for its susceptibility to radiation effects. Cattle will receive some higher radiation doses as compared to humans due to its habitat, also earlier determined physiological and radiation constants for cattle are available. Furthermore, there are some data for the effects of radiation levels more than 10 times as higher than the natural ones upon cattle reproductive function and leucosis infection. Using cattle as one of reference organisms will not complicate considerably the systems for environmental protection against radiation as compared to the ones existing now, that will just modify and supplement them. PMID:19507686

  11. Productive and reproductive behavior of three herd of Cebu cattle of the Magdalena Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The productive and reproductive behavior of 3 herd of cattle is studied of Cebu cattle located in Savannah of Torres, Giron and Lebrija to the northwest of Santander, with heights of 118 to 160 m.s.n.m, temperatures of 25 to 27 centigrade degrees, relative humidity of 65 to 80 percent and plane topography with waves and acid soil. The exploitation system evolved from the continuous shepherding in native prairies to the rotational with improved prairies and mineral supplementation. The system of it mounts it was continuous and oscillate among 35 cows/bull to the beginning and 25-30 cows/bull at the end. Due to the location and different handling, the 3 herds were analyzed independently. 1, 1843 observations were analyzed to measure the interval between childbirths and 478 for the weight to the birth and the weaning (270 days). An analysis was used by minimum squares with unequal subclasses. The weight to the weaning was adjusted by covariance, due to the dispersion of the age to the weaning. For the natality rate they were processed and they analyzed for high X to the 2 3175 herds. The prevalence of infectious illnesses of the reproduction was studied in 156 blood samples and it was analyzed by the pattern 1 of Cavanzo. The intervals among childbirths for the herds 1, 2 and 3 were: 466 days (C V same 24 percent), 458 days (C V same 29 percent) and 513 days (C V same 31 percent), respectively. When studying the effect of the month of the childbirth on the interval among childbirths, the months of low precipitation (December to March and July) they diminished the interval the bull it also influenced in the duration of the interval among childbirths; in all the herds, the effect of the reproducer increased or it diminished the interval significantly. In the herd 1, the weight average to the birth was of 32 but or less 1.9 kg and the males weighed 3.8 kg more that the females. The weight to the weaning was of 219.4 but or less 16.9 kg (C V similar to 8.0 percent) and it

  12. Anti-cattle tick vaccines: Many candidate antigens, but will a commercially viable product emerge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an invited paper from the editor-in-chief of International Journal for Parasitology who requested a Current Opinion manuscript to discuss the status of anti-cattle tick vaccine research. Arguably the world's most significant arthropod pest of cattle, control of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus...

  13. Perspectives of Using Ultra-Fine Metals as Universal Safe BioStimulators to Get Cattle Breeding Quality Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, S.

    2015-11-01

    We have conducted investigations of ultra-fine metals biological activity with lab non-pedigree white rats, rabbits breed “Soviet chinchilla” and cattle young stock of the black and white breed as the most widely spread in the central part of Russia. One can see the possibility of using microelements of ultra-fine iron, cobalt and copper as cheap, non-toxic and highly effective biological catalyst of biochemical processes in the organism that improve physiological state, morphological and biochemical blood parameters increasing activity of the experimental animals’ ferment systems and their productivity and meat biological value. We have proved the ultra-fine powders safety when adding them to the animals’ diet.

  14. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. ► Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. ► Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. ► Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. ► Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2–1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH4/kg VSfeed for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 °C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20–28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 °C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  15. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranon, E., E-mail: emara@uniovi.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University Institute of Technology of Asturias, Campus of Gijon, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Castrillon, L.; Quiroga, G.; Fernandez-Nava, Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University Institute of Technology of Asturias, Campus of Gijon, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Gomez, L.; Garcia, M.M. [Zero Emissions Technology, 41018 Seville (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2-1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH{sub 4}/kg VS{sub feed} for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 Degree-Sign C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20-28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 Degree-Sign C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  16. "Mirandês" cattle breed: systems and practices of the farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Fragata, António; Sousa, Fernando Ruivo de

    1993-01-01

    Over the centuries, the mirandesa breed has been very useful! as traction animal and meat production. The latter, and in relation to other national breeds, their productive capacity occupies the first position and is famous for the quality of "posta mirandesa", a very special and appreciated dish by the rich gastronomy in the Northeast of Portugal. In spite of erosion suffered in the last decades, the ''mirandês'' cattle breed still has an important economi...

  17. Diversity of forage system work and adoption of intensive techniques in dairy cattle farms of Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    HOSTIOU, Nathalie; Dedieu, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    Forest ecosystems of Brazilian Amazonia are cleared to allow livestock production. Deforestation contributes significantly to climate change and losses of biodiversity. Degradation by scrubs reduces pasture productivity after a few years, thus leading farmers to deforest new areas. For this reason, sustaining cultivated pastures is of major importance for cattle farms. Intensive pasture management techniques have been proposed to the farmers, with little success so far. Our hypothesis is that...

  18. The Use Of Feed Technology Of Local Based Source To Support The Productivity Of Beef Cattle In West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buharman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of feed technology of local based sources to support beef cattle productivity is the key of the successful PSDS/K program in 2014. In 2009, the cattle population in West Sumatra was about 492,272 heads, and the population growth during 2005 – 2009 was about 6.1 percent per year are the growth of cattle slaughtered for local consumption was around 11.0 percent or about 86,028 heads/year. The rate of population growth is much lower than the target of PSDS/K 2014 which around 12.5 percent. The source of feedstuffs come from native grass and by product of agro-industry. These agro-industry by products such as rice, maize, cassava, palm oil, cacao, coffee by products have big potential for feed which account for supporting 1.75 to 2.1 million animal unit. These by-products mostly used for feed supplement by simple process technology. The role of institution like LM3 and SMD can be optimized to support local feed supply which available on location either for local cattle consumption or for commercial use.

  19. Análise econômica de sistemas de produção com bovinocultura de leite da depressão central do Rio Grande do Sul Economic analysis of production systems of dairy cattle farms in central Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nunes Portela

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido junto às unidades de produção familiar (UPFs associadas à Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria (COOPROL RS, com o objetivo de identificar o desempenho econômico e os sistemas de produção existentes entre as mesmas. Foram coletadas as informações de 53 propriedades, sendo identificados os seguintes sistemas de produção: a leite e arroz com tração animal (TA e superfície agrícola útil (SAU média de 30ha; b leite e arroz com tração mecanizada (TM e SAU média de 54ha; c leite e hortigranjeiros com TA e SAU média de 20ha; d leite e hortigranjeiros com TM e SAU média de 50ha; e leite e bovinos de corte com TA e SAU média de 40ha; f leite e bovinos de corte com TA e SAU média de 308ha; g leite e bovinos de corte com TM e SAU média de 80ha; h leite estreme com TA e SAU média de 2 ha; i leite estreme com TM e SAU média de 45ha. Os sistemas A, B, C, F, H e I apresentam um desempenho econômico por unidade de trabalho homem (UTH superior ao salário mínimo regional, enquanto os sistemas D, E e G apresentam desempenho abaixo deste indicador.This work was developed in family production units (UPFs, associated to a co-operative society, the Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria (COOPROL RS. The goal was to identify the economical performance and the different systems of production used by the UPFs. The information was obtained from 53 farms, and among them the following production systems were identified: a Milk associated to rice crops, with animal traction (AT and an average of 30ha of tillable area (TA; b Milk associated to rice crops with mechanical traction (MT and TA=54ha; c Milk associated to olericulture with AT and TA= 20ha; d Milk associated to olericulture with MT and TA= 50ha; e Milk associated to beef cattle with AT and TA= 40ha; f Milk associated to beef cattle with AT and TA= 308ha; g Milk associated to beef cattle with MT and TA= 80 ha; h Milk with AT

  20. ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS FACTORS IN ORDER TO ENHANCE PRODUCTIVITY AND INCOME OF DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS IN CENTRAL JAVA - INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isbandi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This survey aims were to determine the potency of dairy cattle development, and to find the relationship among of various factors to improve productivity and income of dairy cattle farmers. Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districts were taken as study location. Total respondents were 495 farmers, in which 225 farmers were members of the Village Unit Cooperative (VUC, 180 farmers were member of Various Business Cooperative (VBC and 90 farmers were member of Farmer Group Association (FGA. Primary data were obtained through interviews with farmers and secondary data were obtained from related institution. Descriptive and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM analysis were used in the study. Based on LQ (Location Quotiens analysis, dairy cattle in Central Java was potential to be developed. The LQ value of Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districs were 4.57, 7.68 and 0.46, respectively, with 4.24 on average. The dairy cattle farmer income was IDR 1.024.095/month with an average of scale ownership lactation cattle was 2.7 head/farmer. Model Goodness of Fit of SEM was fit with the SEM requirement. The productivity was influenced significantly (P<0.01 by environmental, economic, institutional, and social factors. Dairy cattle farmer income were influenced highly significant (P<0.01 by technical and institutional factors (P<0.05 of the income. These results indicated that the role of technical factors, social, economic, institutional and business environment needs to be considered in order to increase business productivity and farmer incomes.

  1. Effect of daily milk production on the economic impact of mastitits in cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Alves Demeu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to analyze and quantify the effect of daily productivity per animal on the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle herds. A simulation study was conducted using the CU$TO MASTITE computational program. Dairy herds with an average production of 10, 20 and 30 liters of milk/day were considered. As preventive measures, expenses with mastitis incidence monitoring (culture and antibiogram, somatic cell count in the tank and somatic cells count per animal, pre and post dipping, vaccination, and treatment of dry cows were computed. Treatments of clinical cases, which corresponded to 7% of all lactating cows, were considered as curative measures. The impact of mastitis was estimated as total losses (reduction in production and milk disposal during treatment and antibiotic withdrawal period plus expenses with prevention and treatment of clinical cases. An increase in daily productivity per animal reduced the economic impact of mastitis. Higher productivity was associated with lower economic impact values, per liter of commercialized milk, due to optimization of the products and materials used per animal, reducing operating expenses. The expenses with preventive treatment corresponded to a maximum of 13.5% of economic impact. This percentage was lower than the economic impact of expenses with curative treatment. These results demonstrate the advantages of investing in preventive treatment, which will contribute to reduce the economic impact of mastitis.

  2. A genome wide association study for milk production traits in Danish Jersey cattle using a 50K SNP chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, M D; Sahana, G; Christiansen, F B;

    2010-01-01

    QTL for milk production traits in Danish Jersey cattle were mapped by a genome-wide association analysis using a mixed model. The analysis incorporated 1,039 bulls and 33,090 SNP, and resulted in 98 detected combinations of QTL and traits on 27 BTA. These QTL comprised 30 for milk index, 50 for fat...

  3. Short communication: Impact of the intensity of milk production on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in Portuguese cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the relationship between the intensity of milk production for a wide range of Portuguese commercial cattle farms and NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from manure management and enteric fermentation. A survey was carried out at 1471 commercial dairy cattle farms (Holstein-Friesian and the NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions at each stage of manure management were estimated as well as CH4 losses from enteric fermentation. Gaseous emissions were estimated by a mass flow approach and following the recommendations of IPCC guidelines. The manure management and enteric fermentation in a typical Portuguese cattle farm contributes with 7.5±0.15 g N/L milk produced as NH3 and 1.2±0.22 kg CO2 equivalent per litre of milk as GHG. Increasing milk production will significantly reduce NH3 and GHG emissions per litre of milk produced. It can be concluded that a win-win strategy for reducing NH3 and GHG emissions from dairy cattle farms will be the increase of milk production on these farms. This goal can be achieved by implementing animal breeding programs and improving feed efficiency in order to increase productivity.

  4. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle using five loci related to milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirón J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from five protein-coding loci related to dairy production were used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of six Creole cattle breeds: Argentine (n = 230, Patagonian (n = 25; "Saavedreño" (n = 140, "Chaqueño Boliviano" (n = 30, "Yacumeño" (n = 27, and "Chusco" (n = 11. kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, growth hormone and prolactin were measured by PCR-RFLP, while alphaS1-casein was typed by PCR-ASO. The results are discussed, focusing on: historical origin, recent differentiation and selection events, Zebu gene introgression, and population structure. This work shows that: (i For the studied genes, the observed gene frequency profiles of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds were close to the data reported for Iberian breeds and for other South-American Creole cattle breeds which are historically related; (ii although Zebu gene introgression has been reported at the studied loci, these breeds seem to be far from the Zebu gene frequency profiles; and (iii the Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle showed significant levels of subdivision, but each population has maintained its degree of genetic variability.

  5. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  6. Climate, Cattle Rearing Systems and African Animal Trypanosomosis Risk in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaïla; Sangaré, Mamadou; Bengaly, Zakaria; Akoudjin, Massouroudin; Belem, Adrien M. G.; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2012-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan countries infested by tsetse flies, African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is considered as the main pathological constraint to cattle breeding. Africa has known a strong climatic change and its population was multiplied by four during the last half-century. The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of production practices and climate on tsetse occurrence and abundance, and the associated prevalence of AAT in Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Four ...

  7. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  8. Production of Transgenic Korean Native Cattle Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein Using a FIV-Based Lentiviral Vector Injected into MII Oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Nan Xu; Joon-Ho Yoon; Dae-Hwan Ko; Teoan Kim; Nam-Hyung Kim; Sang-Jun Uhm; Bon-Chul Koo; Mo-Sun Kwon; Ji-Yeol Roh; Jung-Seok Yang; Hyun-Yong Choi; Young-Tae Heo; Xiang-Shun Cui

    2013-01-01

    The potential benefits of generating and using transgenic cattle range from improvements in agriculture to the production of large quantities of pharmaceutically relevant proteins.Previous studies have attempted to produce transgenic cattle and other livestock by pronuclear injection and somatic cell nuclear transfer,but these approaches have been largely ineffective; however,a third approach,lentivirus-mediated transgenesis,has successfully produced transgenic livestock.In this study,we generated transgenic (TG) Korean native cattle using perivitelline space injection of viral vectors,which expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) systemically.Two different types of lentiviral vectors derived from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)carrying EGFP were injected into the perivitelline space of MII oocytes.EGFP expression at 8-cell stage was significantly higher in the FIV group compared to the HIV group (47.5% ± 2.2% v.s.22.9% ± 2.9%).Eight-cell embryos that expressed EGFP were cultured into blastocysts and then transferred into 40 heifers.Ten heifers were successfully impregnated and delivered 10 healthy calves.All of these calves expressed EGFP as detected by in vivo imaging,PCR and Southern blotting.In addition,we established an EGFP-expressing cell line from TG calves,which was followed by nuclear transfer (NT).Recloned 8-cell embryos also expressed EGFP,and there were no differences in the rates of fusion,cleavage and development between cells derived from TG and non-TG calves,which were subsequently used for NT.These results illustrate that FIV-based lentiviruses are useful for the production of TG cattle.Moreover,our established EGFP cell line can be used for additional studies that involve induced pluripotent stem cells.

  9. Factors affecting the milk production of dairy cattle in northern rural areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Begum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted to observe the factors affecting the productive performance of dairy cattle from northern rural areas of Bangladesh during July and September 2013. Data of 105 cows, 85 (80.95% from local and 20 (19.05% cows from cross breed, were randomly selected for the study. A binary logistic regression, expressed by odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, was done to determine the association of daily milk production categorized into ≤ 2 and > 2 liters (L, based on median, with the significant explanatory variables of body weight, age at first calving, lactation period, vitamin use, type of floor and milking person. The result demonstrated that the probability of milk production of >2 L was 6.16, 4.5, 20.65 and 5.7 times higher from the with animal body weight of >140 kg, age at first calving of >36 m, lactation period of >8 m and vitamin use than that of body weight of 140 kg, age at first calving of ≤36 m, lactation period of ≤ 8 m, and not vitamin used respectively. The chance of milk production of > 2 L was 0.25 and 0.22 times lower for mud floor, and owner milking than that of brick floor and gowala (professional milking person respectively.

  10. Application of a microfluidic sperm sorter to in vitro production of dairy cattle sex-sorted embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingchun; Zhu, Sibing; He, Xianjing; Sun, Rui; He, Qianyu; Gan, Yi; Liu, Shengjun; Funahashi, Hiroaki; Li, Yanbing

    2016-04-15

    Viable sperm from sex-sorted semen without centrifugal treatment was separated by a microfluidic sperm sorter (MFSS) for IVF to improve in vitro embryo production of dairy cattle. The MFSS was originally developed to isolate motile human sperm by two laminar flows in the micro-channel (there are four chambers in an MFSS. Chamber A is the inlet for semen, chamber B is the inlet for the medium, chamber C is the exit chamber for motile sperm, and chamber D is the outlet for nonmotile sperm). Sex-sorted sperm were adjusted to 1 × 10(7) spermatozoa/mL (2 million cells/dose, sperm motility was 30% above after thawing). In a first experiment, diluted sex-sorted semen was mixed with modified Medium199(mM199) containing 5-mM caffeine for 5 minutes, resulting in variations in sperm concentration and quality parameters at chambers A, C, and D. In a second experiment, medium containing sperm from three MFSS chambers was collected and mitochondrial activity of the sperm was determined by flow cytometry, the relative activity of sperm mitochondria in chamber C (1.56 ± 0.03) was the highest in three observation areas (P competence of fertilized oocytes to the blastocyst stage was also higher in the MFSS-IVF system (40.12% ± 2.61%) than the modified standard IVF technique (24.55% ± 4.54%). These results demonstrate that a short coculture of dairy cattle oocytes with isolated motile sex-sorted spermatozoa gradually accumulated in the MFSS device improves the efficiencies of normally produced fertilized embryos and blastocyst formation. PMID:26768540

  11. Estimation of economic values in three breeding perspectives for longevity and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolahad Shadparvar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy farms in Tehran province. The EVs were estimated at farm level for three breeding perspectives (maximized profit, minimized costs, and economic efficiency and two restrictions in production system (fixed herd size and fixed total input. The average absolute EVs on profit perspective and herd size restriction for milk, fat, and protein yields (based on $/kg and longevity ($/month were 0.11, 0.89, -0.20, and 6.20, respectively. The average absolute EVs under minimized costs per unit of product interest for milk, fat, protein yields and longevity were -0.30, -3.43, 0.88 and -20.40, respectively. The average absolute EVs under maximized economic efficiency for milk, fat and protein yields and longevity were 0.34, 2.73, -0.99 and 36.33, respectively. Relative emphasis for three production traits and longevity were 59.7, 14.3, -3.0 and 23.1, respectively. The comparison of the proposed Iranian index with those countries where most of the semen and embryos are imported points out that developing a national selection index to improve cow profitability and optimum generic trends is necessary. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the influence of milk payment changes on EVs was the greatest as its influence on fat and protein EVs is substantial. EVs for milk and fat yields, with respect to price changes (milk, feed and non-feed, were the least sensitive and most sensitive, respectively.

  12. Construction and Operation of a Ventilated Hood System for Measuring Greenhouse Gas and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjing Zhao; Mitloehner, Frank M.; Yuee Pan; Place, Sara E.

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary We describe the construction and operation of a unique system for measuring gaseous emissions that arise from the rumen and metabolism of cattle. This system allows for the collection of high quality data that can be used to improve emission inventories at the regional and national level. Additionally, the system can be used to test various emission mitigation techniques. Abstract Recent interest in greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants, such as cattle, has spawned a need for...

  13. The cumulative methane production from dairy cattle slurry can be explained by its volatile solid, temperature and length of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamoto, Takuji; Nakamura, Megumi; Nekomoto, Kenji; Hoshiba, Shinji; Minato, Keiko; Nakayama, Motoo; Osada, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    In order to refine the national estimate of methane emission from stored cattle slurry, it is important to comprehend the basic characteristics of methane production. Two dairy cattle slurries were obtained from livestock farms located in Hokkaido (a northern island) and Kyushu (a southern island). The slurries were diluted with water into three levels: undiluted, three times diluted, and 10 times diluted. Three hundred mL of the slurries were put into a bottle with a headspace volume of 2.0 L, which was filled with nitrogen gas and then sealed by butyl rubber. Four levels of temperature were used for incubation: 35, 25, 15 and 5 °C. The time course of the cumulative methane production per volatile solid (VS) was satisfactorily expressed by an asymptotic regression model. The effect of dilution on the methane production per VS was not distinctive, but that of temperature was of primary importance. In particular, higher temperature yields a higher potential production and a shorter time when the cumulative production reaches half of the potential production. The inclusive and simple models obtained in this study indicate that the cumulative methane production from stored cattle slurry can be explained by VS, temperature and length of storage. PMID:26387490

  14. Systemic productivity must complement structural productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lavie, René-Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Linguistic productivity is not just structural productivity (the making of assemblies), it also contains 'systemic productivity' (the productive placement within pluridimensional paradigms). An occurrential, dynamic model provides a cognitively founded explanation of systemic productivity.

  15. A single nucleotide polymorphism in NEUROD1 is associated with production traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, P S N; Tizioto, P C; Malago, W; do Nascimento, M L; Cesar, A S M; Diniz, W J S; de Souza, M M; Lanna, D P D; Tullio, R R; Mourão, G B; de A Mudadu, M; Coutinho, L L; de A Regitano, L C

    2016-01-01

    Feed efficiency and carcass characteristics are late-measured traits. The detection of molecular markers associated with them can help breeding programs to select animals early in life, and to predict breeding values with high accuracy. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the functional and positional candidate gene NEUROD1 (neurogenic differentiation 1), and investigate their associations with production traits in reference families of Nelore cattle. A total of 585 steers were used, from 34 sires chosen to represent the variability of this breed. By sequencing 14 animals with extreme residual feed intake (RFI) values, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NEUROD1 were identified. The investigation of marker effects on the target traits RFI, backfat thickness (BFT), ribeye area (REA), average body weight (ABW), and metabolic body weight (MBW) was performed with a mixed model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. SNP1062, which changes cytosine for guanine, had no significant association with RFI or REA. However, we found an additive effect on ABW (P ≤ 0.05) and MBW (P ≤ 0.05), with an estimated allele substitution effect of -1.59 and -0.93 kg0.75, respectively. A dominant effect of this SNP for BFT was also found (P ≤ 0.010). Our results are the first that identify NEUROD1 as a candidate that affects BFT, ABW, and MBW. Once confirmed, the inclusion of this SNP in dense panels may improve the accuracy of genomic selection for these traits in Nelore beef cattle as this SNP is not currently represented on SNP chips. PMID:27420997

  16. Treatment of cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater and the reuse of sludge for biodiesel production by microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Manzoni Maroneze; Juliano Smanioto Barin; Cristiano Ragagnin de Menezes; Maria Isabel Queiroz; Leila Queiroz Zepka; Eduardo Jacob-Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors are a potential technological development that can convert organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus of wastewaters into a biomass suitable for energy production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors in the secondary treatment of cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater and the reuse of microalgal sludge for biodiesel production. The experiments were performed in a bubble column bioreactor using the microalgae ...

  17. Production of transgenic cattle highly expressing human serum albumin in milk by phiC31 integrase-mediated gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Lan, Hui; Shao, Minghao; Yu, Yuan; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic cattle expressing high levels of recombinant human serum albumin (HSA) in their milk may as an alternative source for commercial production. Our objective was to produce transgenic cattle highly expressing HSA in milk by using phiC31 integrase system and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The mammary-specific expression plasmid pIACH(-), containing the attB recognition site for phiC31 integrase, were co-transfected with integrase expression plasmid pCMVInt into bovine fetal fibroblast cells (BFFs). PhiC31 integrase-mediated integrations in genome of BFFs were screened by nested inverse PCR. After analysis of sequence of the PCR products, 46.0% (23/50) of the both attB-genome junction sites (attL and attR) were confirmed, and four pseudo attP sites were identified. The integration rates in BF3, BF11, BF19 and BF4 sites were 4.0% (2/50), 6.0% (3/50), 16.0% (8/50) and 20.0% (10/50), respectively. BF3 is located in the bovine chromosome 3 collagen alpha-3 (VI) chain isomer 2 gene, while the other three sites are located in the non-coding region. The transgenic cell lines from BF11, BF19 and BF4 sites were used as donors for SCNT. Two calves from transgenic cells BF19 were born, one died within a few hours after birth, and another calf survived healthy. PCR and Southern blot analysis revealed integration of the transgene in the genome of cloned calves. The nested reverse PCR confirmed that the integration site in cloned calves was identical to the donor cells. The western blotting assessment indicated that recombinant HSA was expressed in the milk of transgenic cattle and the expression level was about 4-8 mg/mL. The present study demonstrated that phiC31 integrase system was an efficient and safety gene delivery tool for producing HSA transgenic cattle. The production of recombinant HSA in the milk of cattle may provide a large-scale and cost-effective resource. PMID:26198751

  18. Utilization of geothermal energy for methane production for J. A. Albertson Land and Cattle Company. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    The feasibility of an integrated system to utilize a geothermal resource for a bioconversion plant. This integrated facility would use the manure from approximately 30,000 head of feedlot cattle as a feedstock for an anaerobic digestion plant. The findings on engineering design, geological assessment, environmental, economic, and institutional requirements of the proposed project are summarized. (MHR)

  19. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of productivity traits on the first three lactations in Gyr cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albuquerque Maria do Socorro Maués

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Records of Gyr cows selected for milk production were obtained from the National Gyr Dairy Cattle Breeding Program (Embrapa/CNPGL and analyzed, in order to estimate genetic parameters for the first three lactations and to verify the effects of some environmental factors on milk production from 1979 to 1994. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML with an animal model and a group of fixed effects that included classes of herd, year, season and age at calving. Milk production means and standard deviations were 2,183 kg, 707 kg; 2,682 kg, 762 kg and 2,638 kg, 851 kg, for first, second, and third lactations, respectively. Heritability estimates were 0.20, 0.12, and 0.19 for first, second, and third lactations, respectively, and repeatability was 0.44. Genetic correlation estimates were: 0.68 between first and second lactations, 0.84 between first and third lactations and 1.0 between second and third lactations. Results confirm other research for specialized dairy breeds and firmly suggest that even in breeds of Indian origin the best time to make selection decisions is during the first lactation.

  20. Participatory diagnosis and prioritization of constraints to cattle production in some smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatikobo, P; Choga, T; Ncube, C; Mutambara, J

    2013-05-01

    A participatory epidemiological study was conducted to identify and prioritize constraints to livestock health and production on smallholder farms in Sanyati and Gokwe districts of Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to 294 randomly selected livestock owners across the two districts. Livestock diseases (29% of the respondents), high cost of drugs (18.21%), weak veterinary extension (15.18%), inadequate grazing (13.60%), inadequate water (13.54%), and livestock thefts (10.44%) were the major livestock health and production constraints identified. The number of diseases reported varied (Psheep and goats, domestic chicken, donkeys, and guinea fowls, respectively. Seven (19.4%) of the 36 diseases including rabies and foot and mouth disease were those listed by the OIE. Thirty-four percent of the respondents rated bovine dermatophilosis as the most important livestock disease. Respondents rated, in descending order, other diseases including tick borne diseases (21%); a previously unreported disease, "Magwiriri" or "Ganda renzou" in vernacular (14%); mastitis (11%); parafilariosis (11%); and blackleg (9%). Cattle skin samples from "Magwiriri" cases had Besnoitia besnoiti parasites. Overall, this study revealed factors and diseases that limit livestock production in Zimbabwe and are of global concern; in addition, the study showed that the skin diseases, bovine dermatophilosis and besnoitiosis, have recently emerged and appear to be spreading, likely a consequence of ectoparasite control demise in smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe over the last 15 years. PMID:23149306

  1. Climate change, cattle herd vulnerability and food insecurity : adaptation through livestock diversification in the Borana pastoral system of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Megersa Bati, Bekele

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is one of the dominant drivers of changing patterns in precipitation, rise in temperature and increasing frequency of extreme weather events that present a major challenge to livestock production in arid and semi-arid environments. In the Borana region of southern Ethiopia, the resulting reduction in the resilience of rangelands and heavy cattle losses associated with recurrent droughts pose serious challenges to cattle pastoralism. This study aimed at investigating regional ma...

  2. Measurement and mitigation of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical grazing systems: a perspective from Australia and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, A; Tomkins, N W

    2013-06-01

    The growing global demand for food of animal origin will be the incentive for countries such as Australia and Brazil to increase their beef production and international exports. This increased supply of beef is expected to occur primarily through on-farm productivity increases. The strategies for reducing resultant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be evaluated in the context of the production system and should encompass a broader analysis, which would include the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon sequestration. This paper provides an insight into CH4 measurement techniques applicable to grazing environments and proposed mitigation strategies, with relevance to the production systems that are predominant in grazing systems of Australia and Brazil. Research and technology investment in both Australia and Brazil is aimed at developing measurement techniques and increasing the efficiency of cattle production by improving herd genetics, utilization of the seasonal feed-base and reducing the proportion of metabolizable energy lost as CH4. Concerted efforts in these areas can be expected to reduce the number of unproductive animals, reduce age at slaughter and inevitably reduce emission intensity (EI) from beef production systems. Improving efficiency of livestock production systems in tropical grazing systems for Australia and Brazil will be based on cultivated and existing native pastures and the use of additives and by-products from other agricultural sectors. This approach spares grain-based feed reserves typically used for human consumption, but potentially incurs a heavier EI than current intensive feeding systems. The determination of GHG emissions and the value of mitigation outcomes for entire beef production systems in the extensive grazing systems is complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. It is fortunate that governments in both Australia and Brazil are supporting ongoing research activities. Nevertheless, to achieve

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER???S ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING BEEF CATTLE WASTE ON INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Agustina; M Ali, Hikmah; J. A. Syamsu1

    2014-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER???S ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING BEEF CATTLE WASTE ON INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS Agustina Abdullah 1*), J. A.Syamsu 1) dan Hikmah M.A 1) 1) Faculty of Animal Agriculture, Hasanuddin University. * Corresponding author : Jl.Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10 Tamalanrea, Makassar - 90245 South Sulawesi. Email address : ABSTRACT Integrated farming systems of beef cattle with paddy is the best strategy to improve the op...

  4. Efecto del pastoreo sobre la resistencia mecánica del suelo en sistemas de producción bajo siembra directa continua Impact of cattle grazing on soil mechanical resistance in production systems under continuous no-till

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo R Krüger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del estudio fueron: a caracterizar la variación de la resistencia mecánica a la penetración (RST de la capa de suelo de 0 a 20 cm en dos rotaciones con y sin pastoreo directo y b establecer su relación con el contenido de agua del suelo (W. El estudio se realizó sobre un Hapludol típico del sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, sobre secuencias basadas en girasol y trigo. Se estudiaron dos tratamientos: a Agrícola, que no incluyó pastoreo y b Mixta que incorporó un cultivo de avena pastoreado por novillos de 350 a 400 kg (25 cabezas/ha previo al girasol. Se determinaron RST y W en diez fechas de muestreo. Luego del pastoreo de avena, la RST de Mixta fue mayor que la de Agrícola en toda la capa, con picos en 2,5-7,5 cm. Ajustada a un W de 190 g kg-1, la RST de Agrícola mostró una tendencia lineal ligeramente creciente en el tiempo; la RST Mixta ajustó a un modelo cuadrático con tendencia a estabilizarse en valores cercanos a 2,5 MPa. Mixta presentó además un segundo nivel de variación relacionado con las fechas de muestreo: la RST luego del pastoreo de avena fue mayor que al final del ciclo avena-girasol-trigo. La disminución se atribuyó a una recuperación de la bioporosidad por efecto de las raíces de los cultivos. Las RST observadas fueron cercanas o mayores a las críticas para la penetración de las raíces en el 20 y 50% de las fechas de muestreo para Agrícola y Mixta, respectivamente.The objectives of this study, were: a to characterize the soil mechanical penetration resistance (RST variation in the 0 to 20 -cm depth of two rotation treatments with and without cattle grazing and b to determine the RST relationship with soil water content (W. The experiment took place on a Typic Haplustoll in SW Buenos Aires province, on sunflower-wheat based rotations. Treatments included: a 100 % cash-crop rotation with no cattle grazing and b Mixed rotation, including an oat forage crop with direct grazing by 350

  5. Heifer fertility and carry over consequences for life time production in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S

    2014-05-01

    The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as

  6. Invited review: The use of distillers products in dairy cattle diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Garcia, A D

    2009-12-01

    Distillers grains with solubles (DGS) is the major coproduct of ethanol production, usually made from corn, which is fed to dairy cattle. It is a good protein (crude protein, CP) source (>30% CP) high in ruminally undegradable protein (approximately 55% of CP) and is a good energy source (net energy for lactation of approximately 2.25 Mcal/kg of dry matter). The intermediate fat concentration (10% of dry matter) and readily digestible fiber (approximately 39% neutral detergent fiber) contribute to the high energy content in DGS. Performance was usually similar when animals were fed wet or dried products, although some research results tended to favor the wet products. Diets can contain DGS as partial replacement for both concentrates and forages, but DGS usually replaces concentrates. Adequate effective fiber was needed to avoid milk fat depression when DGS replaced forages in lactating cow diets. Nutritionally balanced diets can be formulated that contain 20% or more of the diet dry matter as DGS. Such diets supported similar or higher milk production compared with when cows were fed traditional feeds. Although DGS can constitute more than 30% of diet dry matter, gut fill may limit dry matter intake and production in diets with more than 20% wet DGS and that also contain other moist feeds. The fiber in DGS, which often replaces high-starch feeds, does not eliminate acidosis but minimizes its problems. Distillers solubles, which are often blended with distillers grains to provide DGS, can be fed separately as condensed corn distillers solubles. Other distillers coproducts besides DGS such as high-protein distillers grains, corn germ, corn bran, and low-fat distillers grains are becoming available. PMID:19923586

  7. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  8. Genomic Characterisation and Polymorphism Analysis of Candidate Genes for Milk Production Traits and Association Studies in Three Cattle Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Seefried, Franz Reinhold

    2008-01-01

    In the past decades, various mapping experiments resulted in the detection of several markers affecting milk production traits on bovine chromosome 6. The aim of this study was to identify causative polymorphisms of milk traits using a multiple breed approach. Six selected candidate genes on chromosome 6 in cattle were characterised and screened for polymorphisms. Following this, 50 polymorphisms were genotyped in sires of German Brown, Fleckvieh and German Holstein for investigation in assoc...

  9. Estimates of genetic parameters for visual scores and their correlation with production and reproductive traits in Brahman cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Tássia Souza Bertipaglia; Luis Orlando Duitama Carreño; Carlos Henrique Cavallini Machado; Cristiana Andrighetto; Ricardo da Fonseca

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of visual scores of body structure, precocity and muscularity with production (body weight at 18 months and average daily gain) and reproductive (scrotal circumference) traits in Brahman cattle in order to determine the possible use of these scores as selection criteria to improve carcass quality. Covariance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using an animal model that included contemporary group as...

  10. Continuing Discontinuities: Local and State Perspectives on Cattle Production and Water Management in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Manzungu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1885 when the modern state of Botswana was founded until the discovery of significant mineral deposits in 1967, one year after independence, the livestock industry, particularly cattle production, played a significant role in the country’s economy. Today there are concerns about how the livestock industry, because of its importance to many rural households, and its potential to diversify the mineral-dominated economy, can be revived. In recognition of the country’s semi-arid climate, the government has promoted a policy of developing water sources for livestock watering. The state has acknowledged the policy has largely been ineffective, but continues to implement it. This paper attempts to explain this paradox by examining state and local perspectives in the management of water and related resources in the Botswana part of the Limpopo river basin. The discontinuities between the local inhabitants and state practitioners are analyzed within the wider physical social, political, and economic landscape. We ascribe the continued implementation of an ineffective policy to modernisation claims.

  11. Performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, as practiced in Kiambu and Nyandarua district of Central Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author)

  12. Ruminant production systems in developing countries: Resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruminant production systems are discussed with specific reference to the resource utilization required to support them. Particular focus is placed on the main production resources (animals and feeds) and their underutilization. The ruminant animals include buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and camels. With the exception of cattle and sheep, their numbers in developing countries account for between 94 and 100% of total world population. Their biological attributes, including inherent characteristics, feeding behaviour and metabolism, are summarized. The extent and availability of feed resources are considered; resources include permanent pastures, crop residues, agroindustrial by-products and non-conventional feeds. The prevailing ruminant production systems are classified into three main categories: extensive systems, systems incorporating arable cropping (roadside, communal and arable grazing systems; tethering and cut-and-carry feeding), and systems integrated with tree cropping. Their genesis and endurance with patterns of crop production and farming systems are discussed. Integrated systems, involving animals and tree crops, are potentially important. Prevailing ruminant production systems are unlikely to change in the foreseeable future, unless there are major shifts in resource use and the proposed new systems are demonstrably superior. Factors likely to influence future ruminant production systems are market requirements, available feed resources and growth in human populations. Two associated strategies for improvement are proposed: increased priority to buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels, consistent with their potential contribution to meat, milk and fibre supplies and draught power; and more complete utilization of the available feed ingredients and increased feed supplies

  13. Investigation of major cattle production constraints in Kembata Tambaro zone of Southern Ethiopia using participatory epidemiology methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayele, Birhanu; Tigre, Worku; Deresa, Benti

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia has enormous livestock resources from which rural households derive their livelihoods. A cross-sectional study based on participatory appraisal methods was conducted in Kembata Tambaro zone to assess major constraints to livestock production and major diseases of cattle and their treatment options. Four districts were selected purposively for this study, and 18 peasant associations were randomly sampled from the selected districts. Focus group discussion, semistructured interviews, simple ranking and scoring, proportional piling, pairwise ranking, and matrix scoring were the participatory epidemiological tools used in the study. Feed and free grazing land shortages and diseases were found to be the major constraints to cattle production in the area. Mastitis was ranked as the most serious disease of cattle. Modern veterinary treatments are used alongside traditional herbal remedies. Matrix scoring showed strong agreement between focus groups in identifying the major diseases using their indicators (clinical signs). Hence, it was concluded that indigenous knowledge complemented with participatory methods and approaches allow community and field researchers to jointly study specific livestock problems and help identify appropriate solutions. PMID:26477032

  14. Production objectives and breeding goals of Sahiwal cattle keepers in Kenya and implications for a breeding programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilatsia, Evans D; Roessler, Regina; Kahi, Alexander K; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Zárate, Valle

    2012-03-01

    The Sahiwal breed has been used for upgrading the East African Zebu (EAZ) for improved milk production and growth performance in the southern rangelands of Kenya. Main users of this breed are Maasai pastoralists. Until now, there has been no deliberate effort to understand why these pastoralists specifically prefer to keep Sahiwal genetic resources as well as which traits are considered important by them and what is the underlying reason for this. However, this information is regarded vital for further development of the breed. A survey was conducted between May and October 2009 among Maasai pastoralists in Kajiado and Narok counties in the Southern part of Kenya, and private ranches and government farms to identify production objectives and breeding goals of Sahiwal cattle producers. Sahiwal genetic resources were mainly kept for domestic milk production and for revenue generation through milk sales and live animals. To a limited extent, they were kept for breeding and also for multiple objectives that included insurance against risks and social functions. Production aims were influenced to varying extents by various household and farmer characteristics. Sahiwal cattle and their crosses were generally perceived to be better with respect to productive traits and fertility traits when compared to the EAZ. However, the EAZ was rated higher with respect to adaptation traits. The breeding objective traits of primary importance were high milk yield and big body size, good reproductive efficiency and relatively good adaptation to local production conditions. Performance and functional traits are important breeding goals that play a major role in fulfilling the multiple production objectives. This forms the basis for the optimisation of a breeding programme for sustainable utilisation to meet the needs of Sahiwal cattle producers. PMID:21796425

  15. Morphological characterization ofMadura Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiadi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characterization of Madura cattle in Madura islands was done as an input for "action plans" of national animals genetic resources management according to the global system ofFAO. Assessments were done in Sumenep District and Pamekasan District, East Java. According to the body measurements, Madura cattle can be classified as a small to medium type with withers height of about 120 cm. Because of potential productivity in the limitation of environmental resources, Madura cattle can be classified as a "superior" cattle . Body measurements of Madura cattle in the present study were relatively the same with those of 50 years ago, indicating that there is no breeding improvement activities except natural selection . The variability of body measurements is relatively narrow . Improving productivity by outbreeding is needed . To conserve the unique germ plasm of the Indonesian genotype, such as Madura cattle and a possibility to improve their productivity by a complete prevention of cross breeding in the Madura islands needs further evaluation .

  16. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and in the Po Valley in particular, the beef cattle farms are mainly finishing units characterised by animals kept at high density in multiple pens and fed high starch diets. Under these rearing conditions the limited space allowance is one of the most important issues impairing animal welfare. Other risk factors for poor welfare related to the housing structures are type of floor, space at the manger, number of water dispensers and lack of specific moving and handling facilities. Microclimatic conditions can be critical especially during the summer season when cattle can experience heat stress. The feeding plan adopted in the Italian beef farms may be another factor negatively affecting the welfare of these animals due to the low content of long fibre roughage which increases the risk of metabolic acidosis. In the veal calf rearing systems there has been a mandatory introduction of the new system of production according to the European Council Directives 91/629/EEC and 97/2/EC. Farms had to adopt group housing and to provide calves with an increasing amount of fibrous feed in addition to the all-liquid diet. Despite this specific legislation, several risk factors for calves’ welfare can still be identified. Some of them are related to the housing system (type of floor, air quality, feed and water supply equipment and lack of loading facilities and some others to the feeding plan (type and amount of roughage, quality of milk replacers. Recent studies have

  17. Improvement of zebu cattle productivity in the Sahel region: Feed supplementation on smallholder farms in peri-urban Dakar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two studies were conducted in the peri-urban area of Dakar to collect baseline information on feeding, milk production, reproduction, body weight and body condition (Phase I), and to examine the influence of supplementation with local by-products on productive and reproductive parameters of indigenous cattle in traditional smallholder farms (Phase II). Baseline data collected from smallholder farms between 1994 and 1996 indicated delayed first calving, long calving intervals, decreasing body condition score (BCS) and body weight and low milk yields as major problems associated with cattle productivity in the region. Fertility was related to forage availability; animals showed high fertility after the rainy season and low fertility during the dry season. Supplementation during the critical period of the dry season using agro-industrial by-products (brewer's grains, molasses, groundnut cake, oyster shell and salt) had beneficial effects on productivity. Supplementation reduced loss in body weight and body condition, maintained milk yield and growth rate of the calves during the dry season and reduced length of 'days open' and the calving interval. (author)

  18. Genetic variability and population structure in loci related to milk production traits in native Argentine Creole and commercial Argentine Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    C.D. Golijow; G. Giovambattista; M.V. Rípoli; F.N. Dulout; M.M. Lojo

    1999-01-01

    Many cattle breeds have been subjected to high selection pressure for production traits. Consequently, population genetic structure and allelic distribution could differ in breeds under high selection pressure compared to unselected breeds. Analysis of k-casein, aS1-casein and prolactin gene frequencies was made for Argentine Creole (AC) and Argentine Holstein (AH) cattle herds. The calculated FST values measured the degree of genetic differentiation of subpopulations, depending on the varian...

  19. Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

  20. Crossbreeding in Dairy Cattle: A Danish Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M K; Norberg, E; Pedersen, J;

    2008-01-01

    The value of crossbreeding in livestock species has been known for a long time; it has been used heavily within beef cattle, pig, and poultry production systems for several decades. This has not been the case for dairy production but lately there has been increased interest in crossbreeding dairy...

  1. Inbreeding effects on postweaning production traits, conformation, and calving performance in Irish beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Kearney, J F; MacHugh, D E; Berry, D P

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of inbreeding on carcass quality, growth rate, live conformation measures, and calving performance in purebred populations of Charolais, Limousin, Simmental, Hereford, and Angus beef cattle using data from Irish commercial and pedigree herds. Variables analyzed are reflective of commercial farming practices. Inbreeding was included in a linear mixed model as either a class variable or a linear continuous variable. Nonlinear effects were nonsignificant across all traits. Inbred animals had decreased carcass weight and less carcass fat. The effects of inbreeding were more pronounced in the British beef breeds. Effects for carcass weight ranged from -0.87 kg (Charolais) to -1.90 kg (Hereford) per 1% increase in inbreeding. Inbred Charolais and Hereford animals were younger at slaughter by 3 and 5 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding, whereas the effect of inbreeding on age at slaughter differed significantly with animal sex in the Limousin and Angus breeds. Inbred Limousin and Angus heifers were younger at slaughter by 5 and 7 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding. Continental animals were more affected by inbreeding for live muscling and skeletal conformational measurements than the British breeds; inbred animals were smaller and narrower with poorer developed muscle. Calf inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Charolais, Simmental, and Hereford animals. The effects were dependent upon dam parity and calf sex; however, where significant, the association was always unfavorable. Dam inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Limousin and Hereford animals. Effects differed by parity in Limousins. Inbred first-parity Angus dams had a greater incidence of dystocia. Although the effects of inbreeding were some-times significant, they were small and are unlikely to make a large financial effect on commercial beef production in Ireland. PMID

  2. Design of a Fuzzy Expert Based System for Diagnosis of Cattle Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Catherine Agbonifo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI is the core of computing research that makes machine to mimic the intelligence of a man. Intelligent means less of user interaction and automated adaptation to changing environment. When compared to other primitive techniques used in the past, AI has been highly efficient in knowledge acquisition in diverse areas of application. In the light of this, the paper focuses on intelligent technique of determining the possible diseases that affect the life of cattle. Hence, fuzzy expert technique is proposed for the diagnosis of the Antrax, Babesiosis, Blackleg and Epizootic Hemorrrhapic diseases. The result generated by the system was sufficient to demonstrate its performance.

  3. Effects of wolves on elk and cattle behaviors: implications for livestock production and wolf conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Laporte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many areas, livestock are grazed within wolf (Canis lupus range. Predation and harassment of livestock by wolves creates conflict and is a significant challenge for wolf conservation. Wild prey, such as elk (Cervus elaphus, perform anti-predator behaviors. Artificial selection of cattle (Bos taurus might have resulted in attenuation or absence of anti-predator responses, or in erratic and inconsistent responses. Regardless, such responses might have implications on stress and fitness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared elk and cattle anti-predator responses to wolves in southwest Alberta, Canada within home ranges and livestock pastures, respectively. We deployed satellite- and GPS-telemetry collars on wolves, elk, and cattle (n = 16, 10 and 78, respectively and measured seven prey response variables during periods of wolf presence and absence (speed, path sinuosity, time spent head-up, distance to neighboring animals, terrain ruggedness, slope and distance to forest. During independent periods of wolf presence (n = 72, individual elk increased path sinuosity (Z = -2.720, P = 0.007 and used more rugged terrain (Z = -2.856, P = 0.004 and steeper slopes (Z = -3.065, P = 0.002. For cattle, individual as well as group behavioral analyses were feasible and these indicated increased path sinuosity (Z = -2.720, P = 0.007 and decreased distance to neighbors (Z = -2.551, P = 0.011. In addition, cattle groups showed a number of behavioral changes concomitant to wolf visits, with variable direction in changes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest both elk and cattle modify their behavior in relation to wolf presence, with potential energetic costs. Our study does not allow evaluating the efficacy of anti-predator behaviors, but indicates that artificial selection did not result in their absence in cattle. The costs of wolf predation on livestock are often compensated considering just the market value of the animal killed

  4. Process-based Modeling of Ammonia Emission from Beef Cattle Feedyards with the Integrated Farm Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, Heidi M; Rotz, C Alan; Hafner, Sasha D; Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) volatilization from manure in beef cattle feedyards results in loss of agronomically important nitrogen (N) and potentially leads to overfertilization and acidification of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, NH is involved in the formation of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), which can affect human health. Process-based models have been developed to estimate NH emissions from various livestock production systems; however, little work has been conducted to assess their accuracy for large, open-lot beef cattle feedyards. This work describes the extension of an existing process-based model, the Integrated Farm Systems Model (IFSM), to include simulation of N dynamics in this type of system. To evaluate the model, IFSM-simulated daily per capita NH emission rates were compared with emissions data collected from two commercial feedyards in the Texas High Plains from 2007 to 2009. Model predictions were in good agreement with observations and were sensitive to variations in air temperature and dietary crude protein concentration. Predicted mean daily NH emission rates for the two feedyards had 71 to 81% agreement with observations. In addition, IFSM estimates of annual feedyard emissions were within 11 to 24% of observations, whereas a constant emission factor currently in use by the USEPA underestimated feedyard emissions by as much as 79%. The results from this study indicate that IFSM can quantify average feedyard NH emissions, assist with emissions reporting, provide accurate information for legislators and policymakers, investigate methods to mitigate NH losses, and evaluate the effects of specific management practices on farm nutrient balances. PMID:25603064

  5. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085

  6. Effects of supplementing urine treated rice straw with concentrates on productivity and methane emissions of Ongole crossbred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattle were fed rice straw treated with urine (1 kg urine/1 kg DM rice straw, and kept in the container for a week) ad libitum and a concentrate mixture (50:50) of wheat bran and beer cake. One group of cattle (C25, four animals) was fed the concentrate at 25% of estimated dry matter intake (DMI) at 3% of body weight, while the other four cattle (C75) received concentrate at 75% of estimated DMI for a period of six weeks. Daily DMI, methane (CH4) production and live weight gain (LWG) were measured. Dry matter intakes were similar in both groups (6.72 kg/d and 7.59 kg/d), but LWG of C75 (1.07 kg/d) was higher (P < 0.05) than that of C25 (0.47 kg/d). Methane production was similar in both groups (219.3 L/d vs 240.4 L/d and 29.29L/kg DMI vs 35.15 L/kg DMI for C25 and C75 respectively). However, when calculated per kg LWG, CH4 production was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of C25 (205.8 L/kg LWG and 967.2 L/kg LWG, respectively). The results suggest that better feeding not only increases productivity but also leads to significant mitigation of CH4 emissions. Feeding management should therefore be considered for controlling CH4 emissions in the animal industry. (author)

  7. Cattle owners' perceptions of African bovine trypanosomiasis and its control in Busia and Kwale Districts of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machila, Noreen; Wanyangu, Samuel W; McDermott, John; Welburn, Susan C; Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark C

    2003-04-01

    A study using a structured questionnaire was conducted in Busia District, Western Kenya and Kwale District, Coastal Kenya to obtain qualitative and quantitative information from 256 cattle owners about their production systems, their perceptions of the diseases encountered in their cattle, the drugs used, and other measures adopted to control trypanosomiasis in cattle. The predominant production system was mixed crop-livestock with farmers owning 2-11 local cattle on holdings between 2 and 5 ha. Approximately 15% of disease episodes in cattle were perceived to be trypanosomiasis, although the farmers' ability to make diagnoses was limited in that over half of the diagnoses were inconsistent with the clinical signs described. Drugs were generally obtained from agro-veterinary shops, and the farmers themselves administered slightly more than half of these. One third of drug treatments given to sick cattle were trypanocides, but over half of these trypanocidal treatments were given to cattle believed to have diseases other than trypanosomiasis. PMID:12711100

  8. The economics of Raramuri Criollo versus British crossbred cattle production in the Chihuahuan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary research indicates Raramuri Criollo cattle may range significantly further and forage in areas where traditional breeds rarely venture. They are thought to impose a lighter environmental footprint compared to their mainstream British crossbred counterparts. These small-frame animals are ...

  9. Cattle production on small holder farms in East Java, Indonesia : II Feeds and feeding practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marjuki,; Zemmelink, G.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.

    2000-01-01

    A survey on feeding practices was conducted with thirty-one cattle farmers belonging to three categories: households without land and no income from agricultural labour (Class 100;10 farms), households without land but deriving considerable income from agricultural labour (Class 101;10 farms), and h

  10. Nitrous oxide production by micromycetes isolated from soils under cattle overwintering husbandry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirout, Jiří; Šimek, Miloslav; Elhottová, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2013), s. 427. ISSN 2040-4700. [Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture Conference (GGAA 2013) /5./. 23.06.2013-26.06.2013, Dublin] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP504/12/P752 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nitrous oxide * micromycetes * soils * cattle overwintering husbandry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. Nitrous oxide productivity of soil fungi along a gradient of cattle impact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirout, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, October (2015), s. 155-163. ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP504/12/P752 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil * fungi * nitrous oxide * selective inhibition * cattle overwintering * oxygen availability Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.929, year: 2014

  12. Milk production responses to dietary stearic acid vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-03-01

    Effects of stearic acid supplementation on feed intake and metabolic and production responses of dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (32.2 to 64.4 kg/d) were evaluated in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (142±55 d in milk) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to treatment sequence. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with stearic acid (SA; 98% C18:0) or control (soyhulls). The diets were based on corn silage and alfalfa and contained 24.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 25.1% starch, and 17.3% crude protein. Treatment periods were 21 d with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Compared with the control, SA increased dry matter intake (DMI; 26.1 vs. 25.2 kg/d) and milk yield (40.2 vs. 38.5 kg/d). Stearic acid had no effect on the concentration of milk components but increased yields of fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d), protein (1.19 vs. 1.14 kg/d), and lactose (1.96 vs. 1.87 kg/d). The SA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM; 40.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d) but did not affect feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI, 1.55 vs. 1.53), body weight, or body condition score compared with the control. Linear interactions between treatment and level of milk yield during the covariate period were detected for DMI and yields of milk, fat, protein, lactose, and 3.5% FCM; responses to SA were positively related to milk yield of cows. The SA treatment increased crude protein digestibility (67.4 vs. 65.5%), tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility (43.6 vs. 42.3%), decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (56.6 vs. 76.1%), and did not affect organic matter digestibility. Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was only 13.3% for total FA and 8.2% for C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1. Low estimated digestibility of the SA supplement was at least partly responsible for the low FA yield response

  13. Defining product service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2002-01-01

    , company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We...... example, a factor 20 improvement in our environmental performance. One attempt, however, has recently emerged, which combines the product as an artefact with the service that the product provides to the user. Through the combination of these two facets, the company retains ownership of the physical...... artefact and instead provides what the customer really wants the actual functionality from the product. This enables a series of potential improvements to the product´s performance throughout its lifecycle. The ideal of product service system (PSS) development is that all three stakeholder groups customer...

  14. Belle II production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  15. Improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Mzuzu milk shed area in Malawi: Constraints and possible interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out in the Mzuzu milk shed area in Northern Malawi, to identify major constraints to dairy cattle production systems prevailing in the area (Phase I) and develop a sustainable feed supplementation intervention (Phase II) based on tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban for increasing milk production. Phase I of the study revealed that the major constraint to increasing productivity was poor nutrition related to the fluctuating supply of quality and quantity of feed. Body weights of cows averaged 301 ± 81.3 kg and ranged from 189 to 550 kg whereas the body condition score (BCS, on 1-9 scale) averaged 5.73 ± 1.35 and ranged from 2.00 to 9.00. Average milk production was 6.1 ± 5 kg/d and ranged from 1.5 to 19.0 kg/d. Post-partum reproductive status varied considerably. Cows consumed 10.6 ± 6.2 kg/day of roughage and 2.96 ± 1.45 kg/day of concentrates. The quality of the feeds was moderate. Roughages contained 1.56 ± 0.12% N while concentrates contained 1.88 ± 0.04% N. Poor reproductive management and prevalence of internal parasites were also identified as constraints. The intervention (Phase II) based on supplementation with tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban significantly (P <0.05) improved the performance of dairy cows. Cows supplemented with tree legume leaves showed significantly higher body weights (368 ± 65.5 vs 348.7 ± 59.2 kg) and BCS (6.3 ± 0.9 vs 5.3 ± 1) compared to their counterparts receiving a supplement according to the present management practice. Daily milk yields of cows on the experimental diet averaged 8.6 ± 3.2 kg whereas those on control diet averaged 5.4 ± 1.7 kg. Significant differences in milk yields between the two groups of cows could have been due to higher dry matter intake from the supplementary diet. Cows on experimental diet consumed 3.5 ± 1.2 kg of supplementary feed as compared to 2.2 ± 0.7 kg by cows on the control diet. (author)

  16. Effects of probiotic bacteria at different concentrations on production of immunomodulatory antibodies against rabies virus in vaccinated cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maria Bottino Vizzotto-Martino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of supplementation with a combination of probiotic microorganisms, added at different concentrations to the mineral mixture, on the production of serum antibodies against rabies virus in cattle vaccinated with a single dose of rabies vaccine. Forty-two male Nellore cattle, aged 12 months, were randomly divided into three groups (n = 14: the control group (CG received 70 grams of mineral mixture/animal/day; and the 2 gram probiotic group (G2P and 8 gram probiotic group (G8P received 70 grams of mineral mix/animal/day with 2 and 8 grams added, respectively, of a combination of probiotic microorganisms (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium thermophilum and Bifidobacterium longum. Individual antibody titers were determined using a neutralization in cell-based rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT technique. One-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA was used with contrasts using the Tukey method to determine whether the experimental groups differed within each time point, and the paired t-test was used to determine whether differences occurred between time points within each group. The level of significance was set at 5%. There were statistically significant differences between the mean serum concentrations of the CG and G8P groups at 30 and 60 days after the first vaccination, and at 60 days, 100% of the animals maintained minimum titers of protective antibodies only in the G8P group. There was also improvement in the production of antibodies in the G2P group compared with the CG after 30 and 60 days, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, increasing doses of probiotic added to the mineral mix beneficially affected the rabies humoral immune response, as determined by serum antibodies, and enabled the maintenance of minimum protective titers for a longer period in previously vaccinated cattle.

  17. IRON CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL, PASTURE AND BLOOD PLASMA OF BEEF CATTLE REARED IN SUCKLING COWS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Pavlík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows system.

  18. ATLAS production system

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Golubkov, Dmitry; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Wenaus, Torre; Padolski, Siarhei

    2016-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS production system called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager which used by thousands of physicists to analyze the data remotely, with the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, across a more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criterias, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteering computers. Besides jobs definition Production System also includes flexible web user interface, which implements user-friendly environment for main ATLAS workflows, e.g. simple way of combining different data flows, and real-time monitoring, optimised for using with huge amount of information to present. We present an overview of the ATLAS Production System major components: job and task definition, workflow manager web user i...

  19. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. H.; Manoj, K.; Pramod, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross) from all districts (n=11) of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB), anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62), 24.61% (n=48), 14.35% (n=28), and 11.25% (n=22), respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%), prolapse (1.53%), endometritis (4.61%), and pyometra (6.66%) were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility. PMID:27284229

  20. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Khan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross from all districts (n=11 of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195 were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62, 24.61% (n=48, 14.35% (n=28, and 11.25% (n=22, respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%, prolapse (1.53%, endometritis (4.61%, and pyometra (6.66% were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility.

  1. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Communod

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05; the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curves with the exception of curves from spring calving cows. Only 74.5% of lactations with an adjusted R2 >0.75 showed a standard curve, with low persistence (7.7%, high value of d at peak (103 d and peak production of 20.18 kg of milk. Moreover, 100 milk samples (40 to 220 d of lactation were submitted to a granulometric survey by laser scatter technique in order to evaluate the dimensions of fat globules; then milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography, and desaturase indexes were determined. Cabannina cows showed small fat globules with high specific surface. Furthermore mean diameter of milk fat globules decreased during lactation then rose. Milk fat contained high levels of cis-MUFA, and high desaturase indexes. In conclusion, the low size of Cabannina cattle orients for a limited meat production. Instead milk production has a higher economic potential, aimed at cheese production and human nutrition.

  2. Development of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by......This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by...

  3. Acidosis ruminal en bovinos lecheros: implicaciones sobre la producción y la salud animal - Ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle: implications for animal health and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granja Salcedo, Yury Tatiana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acidosis ruminal es un importante problema en la producción de bovinos alimentados con dietas ricas en concentrados, especialmente en vacas de alta producción lechera.AbstractRuminal acidosis is a major problem in the production of cattle fed diets rich in concentrates, especially in cows of high milk production.

  4. Odorant production and persistence of generic E. coli in manure slurries from cattle fed 0, 20, 40, and 60% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol production from corn removes starch and concentrates the remaining nutrients including CP and minerals. When WDGS are fed to cattle in place of corn, CP and minerals exceed dietary needs. This may increase N emission, P run-off, and odor production. Crossbred steers (n = 160; 434 kg) were...

  5. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain. PMID:12549566

  6. Beef cattle on semi-natural grasslands - production of meat and nature conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Hessle, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Beef production is performed in varying systems, with or without grazing, but the common goal is to obtain high-quality carcasses. Semi-natural grasslands are characterized by specific flora and fauna and they are dependent on grazing management to be maintained. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate factors influencing nature conservation, animal performance and meat quality in beef production using semi-natural grasslands in summer. In a first study, effects of breed and season on foraging...

  7. The effect of production system and age on levels of iron, taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q(10), and creatine in beef muscles and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchas, R W; Busboom, J R

    2005-08-01

    Samples of longissimus (LL) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles from Angus-cross heifers finished either on a high-concentrate ration in Washington, USA, (US cattle, n=15) or on pasture in New Zealand (NZ cattle, n=16) were assessed for composition characteristics. Half of the NZ cattle were of a similar age to the US cattle (NZAge) and half were of a similar weight (NZWt). Iron concentration was higher in TB (20.9 vs. 17.5μgg(-1); Pcarnosine, creatine and creatinine, as expected for a muscle with a more aerobic metabolism. These differences were magnified for the even more aerobic cheek muscle. Differences between the two NZ groups were small, but muscles from the US cattle contained less taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q(10), and creatinine. Reasons for these differences in various meat components for similar cattle from different production systems are not clear. PMID:22063884

  8. Improving the productivity of cattle in sub-tropical environments: Effects of cross-breeding on age and live weight at puberty in Zebu, European and Zebu X European heifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the evolutionary adaptation of cattle to a particular environment the frequency of genes that confer desirable traits is increased at the expense of undesirable genes. Accordingly, in the temperate climates of Europe evolution has favoured cattle with high genetic potentials for growth and reproduction, whilst in the harsher tropical and sub-tropical environments, inherent potentials for productive characteristics are low but resistance to stresses such as heat, feed shortages, and endo- and ecto-parasites is high. Information on the relative genetic merits of different breeds of cattle can be exploited through cross-breeding, which relies on heterosis, to produce animals that have the complement of productive and adaptive traits that is considered desirable for different tropical and sub-tropical production systems. For example, crossing Brahman (Bos indicus, tropically-adapted) with Hereford-Shorthorn (Bos taurus, temperate) results in F1 offspring that have high resistance to tropical stresses and high genetic potentials for growth and reproduction. The F1 shows higher productivity than either parent genotype over a wide range of environments. This includes increased growth rate, earlier age at puberty and increased lifetime fertility. Heterosis is progressively lost through inter-breeding; however, this can be substantially reduced by reciprocal cross-breeding and the formation of multi-breed synthetics which retain a high degree of hybrid vigour with inter-breeding. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Production management system of ecosafety agricultural products

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Denysenko

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with suggestions for improving the production management system of ecosafety agricultural products according to international standards in the sphere of quality and environmental protection. The production management algorithm of ecosafety products, including methodological and application platform of forming of administrative decisions has been suggested.

  10. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  11. Effect of inoculum addition modes and leachate recirculation on anaerobic digestion of solid cattle manure in an accumulation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Mashad, H.M.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Zeeman, G.; Bot, G.P.A.; Lettinga, G.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of both leachate recirculation (at 40 and 50 °C) and the mode of inoculum addition (at 50 °C) on the performance of a non-mixed accumulation (i.e. fed batch) system treating solid cattle wastes was investigated, using laboratory scale reactors at a filling time of 60 days. A relatively hi

  12. System biology approach to detect and assign biological functions and regulator genes to feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandre, Pâmela; Kogelman, Lisette; Santana, Miguel; Eler, Joanir; Kadarmideen, Haja; Fukumasu, Heidge

    The objective of this study was to use a system biology approach to identify biological mechanisms involved on feed efficiency in Nellore cattle and its possible regulator genes. Two modules of co-expressed and highly inter-connected genes correlated to feed efficiency were identified as well as ...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED CATTLE GENOMICS KNOWLEDGE BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minja Zorc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology approaches being applied to animal breeding represent an opportunity to derive greater benefits from animal production systems. The increasingly detailed investigations in systems biology have led to a large amount of data dispersed over various sources; therefore, a centralized knowledge base is in demand. In this study, we have integrated cattle genomics data of heterogeneous sources and types and developed a bioinformatics tool to study genotype-phenotype associations in cattle: http://integromics-time.com/integromics-database/. The tool enables revealing genomic overlaps within trait-associated loci and identification of potential functional candidates. It might be also used as a tool for planning genotype– phenotype research in cattle.

  14. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  15. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  16. Valuing Fed Cattle Using Objective Tenderness Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...

  17. Treatment of cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater and the reuse of sludge for biodiesel production by microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Manzoni Maroneze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors are a potential technological development that can convert organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus of wastewaters into a biomass suitable for energy production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors in the secondary treatment of cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater and the reuse of microalgal sludge for biodiesel production. The experiments were performed in a bubble column bioreactor using the microalgae Phormidium sp. Heterotrophic microalgal bioreactors removed 90 % of the chemical oxygen demand, 57 % of total nitrogen and 52 % of total phosphorus. Substantial microalgal sludge is produced in the process (substrate yield coefficient of 0.43 mg sludge mg chemical oxygen demand−¹, resulting in a biomass with high potential for producing biodiesel (ester content of more than 99 %, cetane number of 55, iodine value of 73.5 g iodine 100 g−¹, unsaturation degree of ~75 % and a cold filter plugging point of 5 ºC.

  18. An ELISA for the evaluation of gamma interferon production in cattle vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Tittarelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA implemented for the detection of gamma interferon (g-interferon production in cattle vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 are presented. A purified protein fraction derived from RB51 (RB51 brucellin has been used as antigenic stimulus for whole blood. The test was evaluated for 300 days in ten heifers vaccinated at calfhood with 10 × 109 colony-forming units of RB51 and in five control heifers. All animals came from officially brucellosis-free herds. Vaccinated animals started to give positive results from day 17 post vaccination (pv until day 239 pv. All vaccinated animals gave a positive reaction at least once (with a stimulation index exceeding 2.5. Nevertheless, if sampling on day 20 pv is excluded (90% of vaccinated animals gave positive results, the sensitivity of the test varies from 20% to 70%, with a 40% average. A stimulation index over 2.5 was also recorded in three control animals. The results suggest that the g-interferon test is not suitable for the detection of cattle vaccinated with RB51, either at the individual or at the herd level.

  19. Use of gamma radiation in the production of vaccines against cattle tick fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sri Lanka both Babesiosis bigemina and Babesiosis bovis are present. These parasites cause considerable economic losses among susceptible Bos. Taurus (European) cattle. Control of Babesiosis is by four main methods-management, tick control, chemotherapy and immunization. A vaccine containing Co-60 irradiated B. bigemina to immunize calves in state forms was used. The aims of the study was to produce a vaccine that would be both protective and safe so that vaccination could be extended to small former units as well. Experimental data and results are given

  20. Interval between first dose and booster affected antibody production in cattle vaccinated against rabies

    OpenAIRE

    A. Albas; O. L. Fontolan; P. E. Pardo; H. Bremer Neto; A. Sartori

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we compared the levels of neutralizing antibodies induced by inactivated rabies vaccine in cattle by using three alternative immunization procedures. Forty-five bovines (breed nelore) were then organized in three groups (A, B and C, with 15 animals/group). Group A received only one vaccine dose at day zero and Group B received the first dose at day zero and then another dose at day 30 (early booster). Group C was also immunized with two doses; however, the booster was postponed...

  1. Methane Production by Fermentor Cultures Acclimated to Waste from Cattle Fed Monensin, Lasalocid, Salinomycin, or Avoparcin

    OpenAIRE

    Varel, V. H.; Hashimoto, A. G.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms to ferment waste from cattle fed monensin, lasalocid, or salinomycin to methane was determined. Continuously mixed anaerobic fermentors with 3-liter working volumes at 55°C were used; fermentors were fed once per day. Initially, all fermentors were fed waste without antibiotics at 6% volatile solids (VSs, organic matter) and a 20-day retention time (RT) for 60 days. Waste from animals fed monensin, lasalocid, or salinomycin at 29, 20, and 16.5 mg per kg of feed, ...

  2. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  3. Factors affecting the reproductive performance of Bunaji cattle under different pastoral management systems in the Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of management on the productivity of Bunaji cattle were investigated on 6 farms using 38 post-partum cows and 8 heifers. General information obtained on management of the farms indicated differences in managements practices between farms. The screening of the animals in the various farms for blood and endo-parasites showed that some of the farms had problems of helminthiasis and fascioliasis. Uterine involution was complete within 25 days of calving in all post-partum cows. Intervals from calving to ovulation and conception were different between farms. The conception rates for all farms over a period of 730 days ranged from 60 to 100%. A higher percentage of heifers on farm A reached puberty at an earlier age than those in farm B. It was concluded that management affects reproductive performance and thus productivity of Bunaji cattle, with nutrition and disease being the major contributing factors. (author). 10 refs, 7 tabs

  4. Interval between first dose and booster affected antibody production in cattle vaccinated against rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Albas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the levels of neutralizing antibodies induced by inactivated rabies vaccine in cattle by using three alternative immunization procedures. Forty-five bovines (breed nelore were then organized in three groups (A, B and C, with 15 animals/group. Group A received only one vaccine dose at day zero and Group B received the first dose at day zero and then another dose at day 30 (early booster. Group C was also immunized with two doses; however, the booster was postponed until day 180 after the first dose (delayed booster. Blood samples were withdrawn at days zero (before the first dose and 30, 210, 390, and 540 after the beginning of immunization and the antibody titers were evaluated by mouse neutralization test. The protocol used to immunize Group C (booster at day 180 was clearly more efficient. In this group, antibody levels were higher and also remained higher for longer periods in comparison with the other two groups. These results show that booster timing significantly affected antibody levels. Therefore, programs addressed to control this disease in cattle should consider not only the use of a booster but also its administration time.

  5. Inclusion of crude glycerin with different roughages changes ruminal parameters and in vitro gas production from beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimari Regina Paschoaloto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The increasing availability of crude glycerin from biodiesel production has generated great stock in the industries. To solve this problem, crude glycerin is being used as an energy source to replace corn in livestock diets. This study evaluated the effects of the association of crude glycerin (10% on DM of diets with different roughages in Nellore cattle diets on ruminal pH and ammonia, degradability, digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, and greenhouse gas production. Six ruminally cannulated Nellore steers were assigned to a 6×6 Latin square design. The following treatments were evaluated: Hydrolyzed Sugarcane associated or not with crude glycerin, Corn Silage associated or not with crude glycerin or Tifton-85 Hay associated or not with crude glycerin. Association of crude glycerin with roughages did not affect the rumen ammonia concentration and pH and dry matter intake, but reduced the intake of NDF for diets with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane and Corn Silage and reduced the digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, EE, CNF and starch and decreased the effective degradation at the rate of 8% h-1 for diets with Tifton-85 Hay. The association crude glycerin with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane reduced the production of CH4 and CO2 in mL g-1 of DM. The inclusion of crude glycerin affects differently nutrient utilization in diets with Corn Silage, Hydrolyzed Sugarcane or Tifton-85 hay. Moreover, promotes mitigation of greenhouse gases in diets with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane. Association of crude glycerin with Corn Silage in Nellore cattle diets showed better conditions of ruminal fermentation and utilization of nutrients.

  6. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  7. PCR detection of seven virulence and toxin genes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from Danish pigs and cattle and cytolethal distending toxin production of the isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Nielsen, E.M.; Scheutz, F.;

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of seven virulence and toxin genes, and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) production of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates from Danish pigs and cattle. Methods and Results: The presence of the cadF, ceuE, virB11, flaA, cdtA, cdtB, cdtC and the cdt gene cluster...

  8. Optimizing productivity, herd structure, environmental performance, and profitability of dairy cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Cabrera, V E

    2015-04-01

    This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793 kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net

  9. Utilizing genotype x environment interactions for improving the productivity of cattle in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genotype x environment interactions occur because genotypes differ both in their inherent levels of productivity, which determine the maximum levels of productivity that are possible, and in their resistance to environmental stresses, which governs the proportion of that maximum which is actually expressed. The major environmental stresses considered are climatic factors, external parasites, internal parasites, diseases and variations in the quantity and quality of feed available. Improvements in productivity depend either on increasing the inherent levels of resistance while enhancing or maintaining the existing levels of inherent productivity, or on modifying the environment to control the stresses to enable a higher proportion of the inherent levels of productivity to be manifested. In extensive grazing systems the depressing effects of high air temperatures, humidity and solar radiation can best be reduced through the use of genotypes of high heat resistance. Controlling parasites and parasite-borne diseases by chemotherapy is limited by a number of factors. Prospects for the success of an immunological approach to the control of disease organisms through the use of improved vaccination methods and by the use of resistant genotypes are analysed. Ways of developing genotypes that have high resistance are discussed. The most intractable problem is the quantity and quality of the available feed. The possible role of supplementary feeding with non-protein N, rumen-soluble S and other minerals in increasing productivity is considered by comparing the responsiveness of different genotypes to these supplements under controlled conditions. Manipulating growth rates through use of growth promotants and metabolic depressants is compared with the potential advantages associated with use of genotypes that have an inherent ability to achieve the same result. The role of various strategies to improve fertility is discussed in relation to the genotype x environment

  10. Molecular value predictions: associations with beef quality, carcass, production, behavior, and efficiency phenotypes in Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, P L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Pethick, D W; Robinson, D L

    2013-12-01

    Data from 2 previously published experiments, New South Wales (NSW; n = 161) and Western Australia (WA; n = 135), were used to test molecular value predictions (MVP), generated from commercially available gene markers, on economically important traits of Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle. Favorable tenderness MVP scores were associated with reduced shear force values of strip loin (LM) steaks aged 7 d from Achilles-hung carcasses (P ≤ 0.06), as well as steaks aged 1 (P ≤ 0.08) or 7 d (P ≤ 0.07) from carcasses hung from the pelvis (tenderstretch). Favorable tenderness MVP scores were also associated with improved consumer tenderness ratings for strip loin steaks aged 7 d and either Achilles hung (P ≤ 0.006) or tenderstretched (P ≤ 0.07). Similar results were observed in NSW for rump (top butt; gluteus medius) steaks, with favorable tenderness MVP scores associated with more tender (P = 0.006) and acceptable (P = 0.008) beef. Favorable marbling MVP scores were associated with improved (P ≤ 0.021) marbling scores and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the NSW experiment, despite low variation in marbling in the Brahman cattle. For the WA experiment, however, there were no (P ≥ 0.71) relationships between marbling MVP and marbling scores or IMF content. Although residual (net) feed intake (RFI) was not associated (P = 0.63) with the RFI (feed efficiency) MVP, the RFI MVP was adversely associated with LM tenderness and acceptability of 7-d-aged Achilles-hung carcasses in NSW (P ≤ 0.031) and WA (P ≤ 0.037). Some other relationships and trends were noted between the MVP and the other traits, but few reached statistical significance, and none were evident in both experiments. Results from this study provide evidence to support the use of the tenderness MVP. The value of the marbling MVP, which was associated with marbling in only 1 herd, warrants further evaluation; however, there appears to be no evidence to support use of the RFI MVP in Brahman cattle. PMID

  11. Productivity and technical efficiency of suckler beef production systems: trends for the period 1990 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Roulenc, M; Troquier, C; Bébin, D

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 23 years (1990 to 2012), French beef cattle farms have expanded in size and increased labour productivity by over 60%, chiefly, though not exclusively, through capital intensification (labour-capital substitution) and simplifying herd feeding practices (more concentrates used). The technical efficiency of beef sector production systems, as measured by the ratio of the volume value (in constant euros) of farm output excluding aids to volume of intermediate consumption, has fallen by nearly 20% while income per worker has held stable thanks to subsidies and the labour productivity gains made. This aggregate technical efficiency of beef cattle systems is positively correlated to feed self-sufficiency, which is in turn negatively correlated to farm and herd size. While volume of farm output per hectare of agricultural area has not changed, forage feed self-sufficiency decreased by 6 percentage points. The continual increase in farm size and labour productivity has come at a cost of lower production-system efficiency - a loss of technical efficiency that 20 years of genetic, technical, technological and knowledge-driven progress has barely managed to offset. PMID:26577645

  12. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.

    2016-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed by Orbital Technologies Corp. to be a simple, easily stowed, and high growth volume yet low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to growing vegetables in space, Veggie can support a variety of experiments designed to determine how plants respond to microgravity, provide real-time psychological benefits for the crew, and conduct outreach activities. Currently, Veggie provides the largest volume available for plant growth on the ISS.

  13. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  14. West African cattle breeds characterizations: Review of CIRDES genetic works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The improvement of domestical animal breeds productivity or the animal genetic diversity maintenance to allow breeders to select animals or to create new breeds in order to adapt to environmental modifications, new diseases and societies needs, requires first a detailed inventory and, secondly, a genetic characterization of domestic animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clear; visual parameters are often used even if these procedures are subjective. So it is necessary to complete this phenotypic approach by a genomic one in order to contribute to an efficient characterization. At CIRDES, a regional center for subhumid livestock research and development, these studies have been conducted during the past ten years. They permitted (i) to describe the cattle phenotypic traits and their geographical localization and to highlight the breeds threatened with extinction, (ii) to determine zebu introgression level in taurine trypanotolerant cattle (iii) to identify specific alleles of different cattle breeds, and (iv) to quantify the importance of Robertson translocation in livestock production. Data collection has been realized using a bibliography study, completed by investigations in seven countries of West Africa. Blood collection has been also done for an analysis of 4 categories of genome markers (11 blood group systems, 3 blood protein loci, microsatellites and chromosomes). According to phenotypic description and to the conceptions of autochtone human population, 13 local cattle breeds have been identified: Ndama, Kouri, the group Baoule-Somba, the group Lagoon cattle, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu peuhl soudanien, zebu Gobra, and their crossbreds (Zebu x Ndama and Zebu x West African Shorthorns). Nine exotic breeds have been also identified: American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown

  15. Application of syndromic surveillance on routinely collected cattle reproduction and milk production data for the early detection of outbreaks of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Anouk; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; Marceau, Alexis; Madouasse, Aurélien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine; Welby, Sarah; Wever, Paul; van Schaik, Gerdien

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of routinely collected reproductive and milk production data for the early detection of emerging vector-borne diseases in cattle in the Netherlands and the Flanders region of Belgium (i.e., the northern part of Belgium). Prospective space-time cluster analyses on residuals from a model on milk production were carried out to detect clusters of reduced milk yield. A CUSUM algorithm was used to detect temporal aberrations in model residuals of reproductive performance models on two indicators of gestation length. The Bluetongue serotype-8 (BTV-8) epidemics of 2006 and 2007 and the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) epidemic of 2011 were used as case studies to evaluate the sensitivity and timeliness of these methods. The methods investigated in this study did not result in a more timely detection of BTV-8 and SBV in the Netherlands and BTV-8 in Belgium given the surveillance systems in place when these viruses emerged. This could be due to (i) the large geographical units used in the analyses (country, region and province level), and (ii) the high level of sensitivity of the surveillance systems in place when these viruses emerged. Nevertheless, it might be worthwhile to use a syndromic surveillance system based on non-specific animal health data in real-time alongside regular surveillance, to increase the sense of urgency and to provide valuable quantitative information for decision makers in the initial phase of an emerging disease outbreak. PMID:26732291

  16. Evaluation of bovine chemerin (RARRES2 gene variation on beef cattle production traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Lindholm-Perry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A previous study in cattle based on >48,000 markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI in steers (P<0.008. Chemerin is an adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans, representing a strong candidate gene potentially underlying the observed association. To evaluate whether the bovine chemerin gene is involved in feed intake, 16 markers within and around the gene were tested for association in the same resource population. Eleven were nominally significant for ADFI (P<0.05 and two were significant after Bonferroni correction. Two and five SNP in this region were nominally significant for the related traits of average daily gain (ADG and residual feed intake (RFI, respectively. All markers were evaluated for effects on meat quality and carcass phenotypes. Many of the markers associated with ADFI were associated with hot carcass weight (HCW, adjusted fat thickness (AFT, and marbling (P<0.05. Marker alleles that were associated with lower ADFI were also associated with lower HCW, AFT, and marbling. Markers associated with ADFI were genotyped in a validation population of steers representing 14 breeds to determine predictive merit across populations. No consistent relationships for ADFI were detected. To determine whether cattle feed intake or growth phenotypes might be related to chemerin transcript abundance, the expression of chemerin was evaluated in adipose of 114 heifers that were siblings of the steers in the discovery population. Relative chemerin transcript abundance was not correlated with ADFI, ADG, or RFI, but associations with body condition score and yearling weight were observed. We conclude that variation in the chemerin gene may underlie observed association in the resource population, but that additional research is required to determine if this variation is widespread among breeds and to develop robust markers with predictive merit across

  17. Multibreed genome wide association can improve precision of mapping causative variants underlying milk production in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Raven, Lesley-Ann; Cocks, Benjamin G.; Hayes, Ben J

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS) in most cattle breeds result in large genomic intervals of significant associations making it difficult to identify causal mutations. This is due to the extensive, low-level linkage disequilibrium within a cattle breed. As there is less linkage disequilibrium across breeds, multibreed GWAS may improve precision of causal variant mapping. Here we test this hypothesis in a Holstein and Jersey cattle data set with 17,925 individuals with records ...

  18. Construction and Operation of a Ventilated Hood System for Measuring Greenhouse Gas and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjing Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants, such as cattle, has spawned a need for affordable, precise, and accurate methods for the measurement of gaseous emissions arising from enteric fermentation. A new head hood system for cattle designed to capture and quantify emissions was recently developed at the University of California, Davis. The system consists of two head hoods, two vacuum pumps, and an instrumentation cabinet housing the required data collection equipment. This system has the capability of measuring carbon dioxide, methane, ethanol, methanol, water vapor, nitrous oxide, acetic acid emissions and oxygen consumption in real-time. A unique aspect of the hoods is the front, back, and sides are made of clear polycarbonate sheeting allowing the cattle a full range of vision during gas sampling. Recovery rates for these slightly negative pressure chambers were measured ranging from 97.6 to 99.3 percent. This system can capture high quality data for use in improving emission inventories and evaluating gaseous emission mitigation strategies.

  19. Construction and Operation of a Ventilated Hood System for Measuring Greenhouse Gas and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Sara E; Pan, Yuee; Zhao, Yongjing; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants, such as cattle, has spawned a need for affordable, precise, and accurate methods for the measurement of gaseous emissions arising from enteric fermentation. A new head hood system for cattle designed to capture and quantify emissions was recently developed at the University of California, Davis. The system consists of two head hoods, two vacuum pumps, and an instrumentation cabinet housing the required data collection equipment. This system has the capability of measuring carbon dioxide, methane, ethanol, methanol, water vapor, nitrous oxide, acetic acid emissions and oxygen consumption in real-time. A unique aspect of the hoods is the front, back, and sides are made of clear polycarbonate sheeting allowing the cattle a full range of vision during gas sampling. Recovery rates for these slightly negative pressure chambers were measured ranging from 97.6 to 99.3 percent. This system can capture high quality data for use in improving emission inventories and evaluating gaseous emission mitigation strategies. PMID:26486626

  20. Technical note: Evaluation of a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and activity in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, B; Mang, A V; Cook, N; Orsel, K; Timsit, E

    2015-08-01

    Behavioral observations are important to detect illness in beef cattle. However, traditional observation techniques are time and labor intensive and may be subjective. The objective was to validate a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and activity in beef cattle (Fedometer [FEDO]; ENGS, Rosh Pina, Israel). Sixteen steers (initial BW ± SD = 326 ± 46 kg) were fitted with data loggers (FEDO) on their left front leg and housed in a pen with a feedbunk equipped with an antenna emitting an electromagnetic field that reached 30 ± 2 cm in front of the feedbunk. Feedbunk attendance (duration of visit and frequency of meals) measured by FEDO was compared with live observations (27 observational periods lasting between 72 and 240 min; mean 126 min). Lying time and frequency of lying bouts were compared with previously validated accelerometers fitted to the hind leg (10 steers equipped for 10 to 12 d; HOBO Pendant G Acceleration Data Logger [HOBO]; Onset Computer Corporation, Pocasset, MA). Step counts were compared with video recordings (15 observations for 6-min intervals in 6 steers). Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), accounting for repeated measures, and limits of agreement were computed. Comparison between FEDO and observed time at the feedbunk yielded a CCC of 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-0.99). All 68 meal events observed were recorded by FEDO. However, FEDO recorded 4 meal events during the 27 observational periods that were not observed. Lying time measured by HOBO and FEDO were highly correlated (CCC = 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99). However, frequency of lying bouts measured by FEDO was only moderately correlated to HOBO (CCC = 0.71; 95% CI 0.63-0.77); FEDO underestimating the number of lying bouts (on average, 0.4 fewer bouts per 6 h). Step count by FEDO was moderately correlated to video observations (CCC = 0.75; 95% CI 0.49-0.89); FEDO overestimating the number of steps (on average, 5 more steps per 6 min). In conclusion, the FEDO

  1. Milk Production in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiumei Ji; Tsam You; Zhang Oiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes milk production and livestock production in Tibet.Some information of market demand has also been presented.There has been very little information published in Tibetan journals on production and nutrition of cattle.This review provides a brief introduction to feeding systems and feeding resources.Many studies on milk production have been done in isolation,and do not go beyond the basic and practical level.Compared with dairy cattle research in other parts of China,large gaps in knowledge still exist in cattle production science,particularly related to nutrition,and systems approaches for the development of a dairy industry.

  2. A new molecular approach to assess the occurrence of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle and products thereof: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chiesa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sarcocystis consists of more than 200 species. Those protozoa are characterised by a biological cycle composed by two obligatory hosts, definitive and intermediate. Apart from being possibly pathogenic for the intermediate host, a number of authors consider the intestinal sarcocystosis a minor zoonotic disease. Humans, in fact, can act as definitive host for two sarcosporidian species, S. suihominis e S. hominis, being infected through the consumption of raw or undercooked pig and bovine meat, respectively. Other two species could parasitise cattle: S. cruzi and S. hirsuta, having canids and felids as definitive hosts, respectively. The three species differentiate from each other in dimensions and cystic wall morphology, this latter being the basis for taxonomical studies. In 2010, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA highlighted the absence of reliable methods for epidemiological studies on the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in animals and products thereof. On this basis, the present study has been developed a new molecular method for the identification of Sarcocystis in bovine meat. For the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR protocol, a set of samples of bovine meat from cattle (N=15, slaughtered at the didactic abattoir at the Veterinary Faculty of Turin University, has been collected, sequenced and used as reference samples during the study. A second set of samples (N=29, gathered from the same abattoir (N=12 and from abattoirs of Piedmont region (N=17, has been used for applicability tests. The overall positive rate for Sarcocystis spp. in our samples has been 91% (40/44, with S. cruzi representing the species with higher rates (68%, followed by S. hominis (43% and S. hirsuta (2%. Based on the results of specificity and applicability tests performed in this study, the newly developed protocol proved to be reliable and suitable for epidemiologic purposes.

  3. Comparison of Metabolic Network between Muscle and Intramuscular Adipose Tissues in Hanwoo Beef Cattle Using a Systems Biology Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun-Jeong Lee; Hye-Sun Park; Woonsu Kim; Duhak Yoon; Seongwon Seo

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationship between muscle and adipose tissues plays a major role in determining the quality of carcass traits. The objective of this study was to compare metabolic differences between muscle and intramuscular adipose (IMA) tissues in the longissimus dorsi (LD) of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) using the RNA-seq technology and a systems biology approach. The LD sections between the 6th and 7th ribs were removed from nine (each of three cows, steers, and bulls) Hanwoo beef cattle (carc...

  4. Toyota production system

    OpenAIRE

    Gmenta, Marian

    2008-01-01

    Teoretická část práce rozebírá problematiku štíhlého podniku, resp. štíhlé výroby, dále základní metody, systémy a přístupy užívané v Toyota production system (TPS).Praktická část popisuje jejich implmentaci v konkrétním podniku z oblasti automobilového průmyslu a nabízí návrhy řešení problému spojených se zaváděním TPS.

  5. Utilization of beef from different cattle phenotypes to produce a guaranteed tender beef product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, G G; Gentry, J G; Allen, D M; Miller, M F

    2004-04-01

    Cattle (n = 303) were visually selected from four feed yards to represent six phenotypes (English [EN; n = 50], 3/4 English-1/4 Brahman [ENB; n = 52], 1/2 English-1/2 Exotic [ENEX; n = 56], 1/2 English-1/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [ENEXB; n = 47], 3/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [EXB; n = 49], and 1/2 Exotic-1/4 English-1/4 Brahman [EXENB; n = 49]). Carcasses were processed at a commercial beef packing facility, and strip loins were collected after 48-h chilling. Strip loins were aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C and frozen at -20 degrees C for 3 to 5 d before three 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations and sensory evaluations. Phenotype EN had the highest (P yield grade, whereas carcasses originating from phenotype EXB had lower (P yield grades than all other phenotypes except ENEX. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among phenotypes for mean WBSF values or sensory panel ratings for initial and sustained tenderness, initial and sustained juiciness, beef flavor characteristics, and overall mouthfeel. More than 90% of steaks from carcasses of all phenotypes had WBSF values less than 3.6 kg when cooked to an internal cooked temperature of 70 degrees C. Results from this study indicated that all phenotypes represented in this study could be managed to produce tender beef. PMID:15080342

  6. Dexamethasone-induced eosinopenia is associated with lower progesterone production in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, H; Rodler, D; Ulbrich, S E; Sinowatz, F; Berisha, B; Meyer, H H D; Schams, D

    2013-02-01

    Eosinophilic cells accumulate in the capillaries of the bovine Graafian follicle shortly before ovulation and in the early developing corpus luteum (CL). Suppressing the migration of these eosinophilic cells by dexamethasone allowed us to evaluate their possible function in the CL development. Brown Swiss cows (n = 10) were randomly subdivided into two groups (n = 5). Every group was used once as control group and once as experimental group with two oestrous cycles between each treatment. Eighteen hours (h) after oestrus synchronization, dexamethasone or saline was given. Ovulation was induced 24 h later with gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Another injection of dexamethasone or saline was given 12 h later. Eosinophilic cells in the blood were counted daily until day 7 after the first dexamethasone injection. The collection of ovaries took place at days 1, 2 and 5. Gene expression, protein concentration and location of angiogenic factors, chemokines, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and eosinophilic cells were studied. No eosinophilic cells were found in the CL of the treatment group. Blood progesterone decreased significantly in the dexamethasone group from day 8 to 17. The protein concentration of FGF2 increased significantly in CL tissue at day 2 and VEGFA decreased. Local IGF1 gene expression in the CL was not regulated. We assume from our data that the migration of eosinophilic cells into the early CL is not an essential, but an important stimulus for angiogenesis during early CL development in cattle. PMID:22621206

  7. Estimates of repeatability and heritability of productive and reproductive traits in a herd of Jersey cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of the repeatability and heritability of 19 measures of performance in Jersey cows were obtained using an animal model with a relationship matrix and a derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood algorithm. The data consisted of 935 records for 374 cows by 69 sires over the period 1969-1987. The estimates were similar to those obtained by ordinary least squares methods reported for the same data set and in other studies, but had smaller error variances. A likelihood ratio test showed agreement between these heritability estimates and those in the literature. The heritability estimates of milk, fat, protein, lactose-mineral, solids-not-fat, and total solids yields were about 0.25; for the corresponding percentages, and for the protein to fat and solids-not-fat to fat ratios, the estimates were 0.50. Heritability estimates were 0.10 or less for the time from parturition to first breeding and for three measures of somatic cell counts. These estimates of heritability in a dairy cattle population in a subtropical environment were not different from those of populations in temperate climates.

  8. Microbial enhancement of compost extracts based on cattle rumen content compost - characterisation of a system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Karuna; Shrestha, Pramod; Walsh, Kerry B; Harrower, Keith M; Midmore, David J

    2011-09-01

    Microbially enhanced compost extracts ('compost tea') are being used in commercial agriculture as a source of nutrients and for their perceived benefit to soil microbiology, including plant disease suppression. Rumen content material is a waste of cattle abattoirs, which can be value-added by conversion to compost and 'compost tea'. A system for compost extraction and microbial enhancement was characterised. Molasses amendment increased bacterial count 10-fold, while amendment based on molasses and 'fish and kelp hydrolysate' increased fungal count 10-fold. Compost extract incubated at 1:10 (w/v) dilution showed the highest microbial load, activity and humic/fulvic acid content compared to other dilutions. Aeration increased the extraction efficiency of soluble metabolites, and microbial growth rate, as did extraction of compost without the use of a constraining bag. A protocol of 1:10 dilution and aerated incubation with kelp and molasses amendments is recommended to optimise microbial load and fungal-to-bacterial ratio for this inoculum source. PMID:21752637

  9. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Mongolian indigenous cattle populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock production plays an important role in Mongolian economy. Over the last decade it has contributed to around 80-90% of the gross domestic agricultural products and to 30% of the revenues generated from exportations. Cattle is one of the five traditional and most important livestock species of Mongolia together with horse, sheep, goat and camel. Out of a total of 1.57 millions Mongolian cattle, 1.55 millions supposedly belong to three indigenous Bos taurus cattle breeds, namely Mongol, Selenge and Khalkhun Golun, all herded under extensive pastoral systems. Indigenous Mongolian cattle are generally small but look sturdy and strong. They have a well-off coat of hair, solid forward looking shoulders and short stubby snouts, and they are used for meat, milk and transport. Beef production contributes to 30% of the total meat supply in Mongolia. The Mongol breed is by the far the commonest with 1.53 million animals and it is found almost throughout the country. The Selenge breed, found in Selenge province and numbering 9000 heads, was developed in middle of the 20th century by crossing the Kazakh Whiteheaded with the local Mongol cattle. The Khalkhun Golun breed was developed from local Mongol cattle and it is distributed in Eastern and Suhbaatar provinces with about 10,000 heads. Until now, to the best of our knowledge, only a single population of Mongolian cattle has been studied with microsatellite DNA markers and no information is available on the genetic relationship between the Mongolian indigenous cattle breeds. In this study, we collected samples from two populations of the Mongol cattle (sampled at Ikhtamir soum in North Hangay province and Tsogt soum in Govi Altay province) and one population of the Khalkhun Golun cattle (sampled at Tumentsogt soum in Suhbaatar province). Samples were characterised with nine microsatellite markers MGTG4B, ILSTS005, ILSTS006, ILSTS008, ILSTS023, ILSTS028, ILSTS036, ILSTS050 and ILSTS103. To assess the genetic diversity

  10. Changeability of production management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenraad, M. S.; Wortmann, J. C.; Olhager, J; Persson, F

    2007-01-01

    Modem production management systems consist of transaction processing systems and decision enhancement systems. A clear example of two such components are an ERP systems and APS systems. These systems are often standard software systems, and therefore suitable for many different situations. This pap

  11. Models for Estimating Genetic Parameters of Milk Production Traits Using Random Regression Models in Korean Holstein Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C. I.; Alam, M.; Choi, T. J.; Choy, Y. H.; Choi, J. G.; Lee, S. S.; Cho, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to estimate genetic parameters for milk production traits of Holstein cattle using random regression models (RRMs), and to compare the goodness of fit of various RRMs with homogeneous and heterogeneous residual variances. A total of 126,980 test-day milk production records of the first parity Holstein cows between 2007 and 2014 from the Dairy Cattle Improvement Center of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in South Korea were used. These records included milk yield (MILK), fat yield (FAT), protein yield (PROT), and solids-not-fat yield (SNF). The statistical models included random effects of genetic and permanent environments using Legendre polynomials (LP) of the third to fifth order (L3–L5), fixed effects of herd-test day, year-season at calving, and a fixed regression for the test-day record (third to fifth order). The residual variances in the models were either homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (15 classes, HET15; 60 classes, HET60). A total of nine models (3 orders of polynomials×3 types of residual variance) including L3-HOM, L3-HET15, L3-HET60, L4-HOM, L4-HET15, L4-HET60, L5-HOM, L5-HET15, and L5-HET60 were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC) and/or Schwarz Bayesian information criteria (BIC) statistics to identify the model(s) of best fit for their respective traits. The lowest BIC value was observed for the models L5-HET15 (MILK; PROT; SNF) and L4-HET15 (FAT), which fit the best. In general, the BIC values of HET15 models for a particular polynomial order was lower than that of the HET60 model in most cases. This implies that the orders of LP and types of residual variances affect the goodness of models. Also, the heterogeneity of residual variances should be considered for the test-day analysis. The heritability estimates of from the best fitted models ranged from 0.08 to 0.15 for MILK, 0.06 to 0.14 for FAT, 0.08 to 0.12 for PROT, and 0.07 to 0.13 for SNF according to days in milk of first

  12. Models for Estimating Genetic Parameters of Milk Production Traits Using Random Regression Models in Korean Holstein Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C I; Alam, M; Choi, T J; Choy, Y H; Choi, J G; Lee, S S; Cho, K H

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to estimate genetic parameters for milk production traits of Holstein cattle using random regression models (RRMs), and to compare the goodness of fit of various RRMs with homogeneous and heterogeneous residual variances. A total of 126,980 test-day milk production records of the first parity Holstein cows between 2007 and 2014 from the Dairy Cattle Improvement Center of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in South Korea were used. These records included milk yield (MILK), fat yield (FAT), protein yield (PROT), and solids-not-fat yield (SNF). The statistical models included random effects of genetic and permanent environments using Legendre polynomials (LP) of the third to fifth order (L3-L5), fixed effects of herd-test day, year-season at calving, and a fixed regression for the test-day record (third to fifth order). The residual variances in the models were either homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (15 classes, HET15; 60 classes, HET60). A total of nine models (3 orders of polynomials×3 types of residual variance) including L3-HOM, L3-HET15, L3-HET60, L4-HOM, L4-HET15, L4-HET60, L5-HOM, L5-HET15, and L5-HET60 were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC) and/or Schwarz Bayesian information criteria (BIC) statistics to identify the model(s) of best fit for their respective traits. The lowest BIC value was observed for the models L5-HET15 (MILK; PROT; SNF) and L4-HET15 (FAT), which fit the best. In general, the BIC values of HET15 models for a particular polynomial order was lower than that of the HET60 model in most cases. This implies that the orders of LP and types of residual variances affect the goodness of models. Also, the heterogeneity of residual variances should be considered for the test-day analysis. The heritability estimates of from the best fitted models ranged from 0.08 to 0.15 for MILK, 0.06 to 0.14 for FAT, 0.08 to 0.12 for PROT, and 0.07 to 0.13 for SNF according to days in milk of first

  13. Comparative Analysis and Tendencies in the Development of the Cattle Market in the Conditions of the Quota System in the EU Countries and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Georgiev

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of recreating of the basic herds of the farm animals and the improvement of their breedconstitution, which has already begun in Bulgaria, is a prerequisite for the providing of more, and of betterquality, meat and milk for the needs of the domestic market, as well as for making the sector morecompetitive on the international markets. The purpose of the research concerned comparative analysis andtendencies in the development of the cattle market in the conditions of the quota system in the EU countriesand Bulgaria.One of the reasons for the decrease of the quantity of exported cattle and veal meat is that there isshortage of resources in the manufacturing industry, which to a great extent limits the export with thepurpose of satisfying the needs of the inner market.This quota will give Bulgaria the chance to export for the EU 2000 t. with zero customs tax.Although Bulgaria cannot make use of this opportunity for the moment, as there is not approved factory forproduction of meat to be exported to EU, we think that it as a good opportunity. It could be stimulating or thecompanies to take a step in this direction.The calculations show that after the countries of Central and Eastern Europe join the EU, theproduction of meat in the EU will increase by 20%. This however, will not lead to flooding of the marketbecause an increase of the income of the joining countries is expected, with a resulting increase ofconsumption. On the other hand, an increase of the export of meat and meat products is expected for thetraditional markets in Russia.The advantages of the quota system which is being introduced in Bulgaria, as part of the agrarianpolicy of the EU, directed at preventing of overproduction at the market, can be structured as follows:Providing guaranteed prices for the cattle products; Imposing financial sanctioned at exceeding theproduction quota; Opportunity for introducing two-stage quotas – a high price for the production for the

  14. The Impact of Kappa Casein Gene Polymorphism on Milk Components and Other Productive Performance Traits of Chinese Holstein Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Hamza1, 2, Z. P.Yang1*, X. L. Wang1, R. J. Chen1, H. T. Wu1 and A. I. Ibrahim3

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism of kappa casein gene (κ-Cn at exon 5 in 259 Chinese Holstein cattle was investigated using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation (PCR-SSCP technique, to verify its effect on milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, total solids (TS and solids not fat (SNF content and influence of other factors such as parity and season of calving; aiming at utilizing it as a genetic aid in selection to improve the quality of production of this herd. A 218 bp fragment containing exon 1V of kappa casein gene was amplified by PCR and SSCP was applied to identify the structural gene polymorphism of κ-Cn. General linear model (GLM was used to analyze differences between genotypes. The results indicated that κ-Cn genotypes significantly (P0.05 on TS and SNF. However, cows with genotype TT showed higher fat and protein contents (3.89 and 3.50%, respectively than those of genotypes CC and TC (3.62 and 3.66% for fat; 3.35 and 3.36 % for protein, respectively. Except for lactose content; parity had no effect on milk components. Also, the results disclosed that season of calving did not affect (P>0.05 milk composition. This study indicated that the κ-Cn genetic variants may be used as a genetic aid through increasing the frequency of desired genotypes to improve the quality of production of this herd.

  15. Detection of genetic variants affecting cattle behaviour and their impact on milk production: a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Juliane; Brand, Bodo; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Graunke, Katharina L; Langbein, Jan; Knaust, Jacqueline; Kühn, Christa; Schwerin, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Behaviour traits of cattle have been reported to affect important production traits, such as meat quality and milk performance as well as reproduction and health. Genetic predisposition is, together with environmental stimuli, undoubtedly involved in the development of behaviour phenotypes. Underlying molecular mechanisms affecting behaviour in general and behaviour and productions traits in particular still have to be studied in detail. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study in an F2 Charolais × German Holstein cross-breed population to identify genetic variants that affect behaviour-related traits assessed in an open-field and novel-object test and analysed their putative impact on milk performance. Of 37,201 tested single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), four showed a genome-wide and 37 a chromosome-wide significant association with behaviour traits assessed in both tests. Nine of the SNPs that were associated with behaviour traits likewise showed a nominal significant association with milk performance traits. On chromosomes 14 and 29, six SNPs were identified to be associated with exploratory behaviour and inactivity during the novel-object test as well as with milk yield traits. Least squares means for behaviour and milk performance traits for these SNPs revealed that genotypes associated with higher inactivity and less exploratory behaviour promote higher milk yields. Whether these results are due to molecular mechanisms simultaneously affecting behaviour and milk performance or due to a behaviour predisposition, which causes indirect effects on milk performance by influencing individual reactivity, needs further investigation. PMID:26515756

  16. Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock are an important and integral part of most farming systems in Africa. Recent nutritional research has demonstrated the possibility of substantial increases in the productivity of milk-producing animals fed poor quality roughages through small alterations to the feed base. In some cases, improvements have been demonstrated at the farm level: milk yield has increased, body condition of the animals has improved and age at puberty and the interval between calvings have been reduced. These advances have been brought about by the addition of critical nutrients to the diet, e.g. nitrogen or minerals for the rumen micro-organisms or rumen non-degradable protein or all of these. The introduction of improved feeding practices such as strategic supplementation using locally available feed resources (e.g. tree legume leaves, brewers waste, fish waste, multinutrient blocks, etc.) will not only enhance milk production but will also introduce a sustainable fanning practice that will ensure a continuous supply of milk and milk products to local populations. To introduce effective supplementation there is a need to identify the nutrient or combination of nutrients that are the limiting factors for achieving optimum rumen fermentative digestion of the basal diet or the efficiency of utilization of the major products of digestion. In many of the dairying systems operating in Africa this is far from easy, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in effectively measuring feed intake and selection and the efficiency with which the nutrients absorbed are used for productive purposes. In order to circumvent these difficulties it may be possible to measure biochemical indicators in the cows themselves that provide an assessment of nutrient status. The specific objectives of the co-ordinated research project (CRP) were to: - btain baseline information on production and reproductive parameters using a comprehensive survey, progesterone radioimmunoassay and clinical

  17. Improving the productivity of smallholder dairy cattle in peri-urban Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reported was conduced in two Phases. In Phase I, a sample survey was conducted in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania, to gather information on smallholder farming activities. Fifty-two smallholder farmers provided information on the existing livestock production systems and related family activities, including constraints to dairy production in the area. During Phase II, 24 smallholder farmers keeping a total of 65 cows participated in a field trial aimed at investigating the suitability of a farm formulated concentrate (FC) as a dry season supplement. Phase I survey results showed that 49% of smallholder farmers practised zero grazing (ZG), while 34.5% of farmers practised partial grazing (PG). Zero grazed cows received an estimated 28.2 ± 7.6 kg cut grass per cow/d, while PG cows received 8.1 ± 1.1 kg cut grass per cow/d, in addition to 6-9 h grazing. The average herd size per farm unit was 4.8 and 5.3 cows for W and PG farms, respectively. 27.3% of farms maintained mature bulls. All cows received around 2.4 ± 1.3 kg/cow/d of a supplement, based mainly on maize bran, during milking in two equal amounts. In addition to natural pastures, feed resources included crop by-products, green fodder, crop residues, minerals and other non-conventional feeds such as brewer's waste. Thus, it appeared that farmers rarely supplemented their animals with good protein concentrates and as a result animals often experienced protein deficiency during the dry season. Supplementation with 0.8 kg of FC comprising of maize bran (70%), cottonseed cake (28%) and minerals (2%), per litre of milk produced, during the dry season in Phase II, improved milk yield (34%), and maintained body condition (2.8-3.1). In relation to reproductive performance post-partum anoestrus period was reduced from 86.3 ± 6.6 to 71.2 ± 5.3 days and calving to conception from 102.4 ± 5.1 to 80.4 ± 4.7 days. Feeding 0.8 kg FC per litre of milk was cost effective if there was an increase in

  18. Evaluation of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks as a feed supplement for cattle production and as a carrier for anthelmintic medication in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairy and beef production in Myanmar is expanding, due to increasing demands from a growing population but animal productivity, is often low due to inadequate nutritional resources. The benefits of feeding different formulations of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) to dairy and beef cattle were investigated before attempting to transfer this feed supplementation technology to farmers. Several studies indicated that supplementation with UMMB resulted in increased milk production, improved live-weight gain and intake of the available feeds, Supplementation with UMMB was cost effective with a cost : benefit ratio of more than 1 : 2. In addition, supplementation with UMMB resulted in a substantial reduction in the calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval and the number of services per conception. The time to first oestrus for dairy heifers was also reduced. UMMB will, therefore, have a substantial impact on dairy and beef cattle production once this technology is passed on to farmers. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites is frequently a problem in cattle production in tropical areas where commercial anthelmintics are not often used due to their high cost and/or unavailability. Three local herbal remedies, leaves of Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia and Anona squamosa were assessed for their anthelmintic efficacy. All three plants reduced faecal worm egg counts of infected cattle after weekly bolus doses for at least two weeks. Comparison of bolus doses with A. comosus or M. charantia with albendazole showed similar levels of efficacy (94%) in reducing faecal worm egg counts. Assessment of these plants after inclusion in UMMB showed similar efficacy (>79%) to UMMB containing fenbendazole (89%) and suggests further work be conducted to confirm dose rates and benefits of treatment before introduction for on-farm application. (author)

  19. Bio-fuel co-products in France: perspectives and consequences for cattle food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of bio-fuels goes along with that of co-products which can be used to feed animals. After having recalled the political context which promotes the development of renewable energies, this document aims at giving an overview of the impact of bio-fuel co-products on agriculture economy. It discusses the production and price evolution for different crops

  20. Inclusion systems and amalgamated products of product systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat , B. V. Rajarama; Mukherjee, Mithun

    2009-01-01

    Here we generalize the concept of spatial tensor product, introduced by Skeide, of two product systems via a pair of normalized units. This new notion is called amalgamated tensor product of product systems, and now the amalgamation can be done using a contractive morphism. Index of amalgamation product (when done through units) adds up for normalized units but for non-normalized units, the index is one more than the sum. We define inclusion systems and use it as a tool for index computations...

  1. The genetic architecture of climatic adaptation of tropical cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Prayaga, Kishore C; Chan, Eva K F; Johnston, David J; Hawken, Rachel J; Fordyce, Geoffry; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Goddard, Michael E; Burrow, Heather M; Henshall, John M; Lehnert, Sigrid A; Barendse, William

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world. Tropical cattle production, a mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropical diseases. In these systems European cattle suffer significant stock loss, and the cross breeding of taurine x indicine cattle is unpredictable due to the dilution of adaptation to heat and tropical diseases. We explored the genetic architecture of ten traits of tropical cattle production using genome wide association studies of 4,662 animals varying from 0% to 100% indicine. We show that nine of the ten have genetic architectures that include genes of major effect, and in one case, a single location that accounted for more than 71% of the genetic variation. One genetic region in particular had effects on parasite resistance, yearling weight, body condition score, coat colour and penile sheath score. This region, extending 20 Mb on BTA5, appeared to be under genetic selection possibly through maintenance of haplotypes by breeders. We found that the amount of genetic variation and the genetic correlations between traits did not depend upon the degree of indicine content in the animals. Climate change is expected to expand some conditions of the tropics to more temperate environments, which may impact negatively on global livestock health and production. Our results point to several important genes that have large effects on adaptation that could be introduced into more temperate cattle without detrimental effects on productivity. PMID:25419663

  2. The genetic architecture of climatic adaptation of tropical cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio R Porto-Neto

    Full Text Available Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world. Tropical cattle production, a mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropical diseases. In these systems European cattle suffer significant stock loss, and the cross breeding of taurine x indicine cattle is unpredictable due to the dilution of adaptation to heat and tropical diseases. We explored the genetic architecture of ten traits of tropical cattle production using genome wide association studies of 4,662 animals varying from 0% to 100% indicine. We show that nine of the ten have genetic architectures that include genes of major effect, and in one case, a single location that accounted for more than 71% of the genetic variation. One genetic region in particular had effects on parasite resistance, yearling weight, body condition score, coat colour and penile sheath score. This region, extending 20 Mb on BTA5, appeared to be under genetic selection possibly through maintenance of haplotypes by breeders. We found that the amount of genetic variation and the genetic correlations between traits did not depend upon the degree of indicine content in the animals. Climate change is expected to expand some conditions of the tropics to more temperate environments, which may impact negatively on global livestock health and production. Our results point to several important genes that have large effects on adaptation that could be introduced into more temperate cattle without detrimental effects on productivity.

  3. Identification of CNV and QTL for productive and functional traits in dairy cattle using dense SNP chips

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnato, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The thesis identify CNV structural variants as possible markers for genomic selection and identify QTL regions for Fatty Acid Content in the Italian Brown Swiss population. Additionally it maps the QTL for mastitis resistance in the Valdostana Red Pied cattle.

  4. Effects of Cooling and Supplemental Bovine Somatotropin on Milk Production relating to Body Glucose Metabolism and Utilization of Glucose by the Mammary Gland in Crossbred Holstein Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siravit Sitprija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The low milk yield and shorter persistency of lactation of dairy cattle is the major problem for the dairy practices in the tropics. High environmental temperatures and rapid decline of plasma growth hormone level can influence milk production. Regulation of the milk yield of animals is mainly based on the mechanisms governing the quantity of glucose extracted by the mammary gland for lactose biosynthetic pathways. The mechanism(s underlying the effects of cooling and supplemental bovine somatotropin on milk production relating to body glucose metabolism and intracellular metabolism of glucose in the mammary gland of crossbred Holstein cattle in the tropics have not been investigated to date. Approach: Ten crossbred 87.5% Holstein cows were divided into two groups of five animals each. Animals were housed in Normal Shade barn (NS as non-cooled cows and cows in the second group were housed in barn which was equipped with a two Misty-Fan cooling system (MF as cooled cows. Supplementation of recombinant bovine Somatotropin (rbST (POSILAC, 500 mg per cow were performed in both groups to study body glucose metabolism and the utilization of glucose in the mammary gland using a continuous infusion of [3-3H] glucose and [U- 14C] glucose as markers in early, mid and late stages of lactation. Results: Milk yield significantly increased in both groups during supplemental rbST with a high level of mammary blood flow. Body glucose turnover rates were not significant different between cooled and non-cooled cows whether supplemental rbST or not. The glucose taken up by the mammary gland of both non-cooled and cooled cows increased flux through the lactose synthesis and the pentose cycle pathway with significant increases in NADPH formation for fatty acid synthesis during rbST supplementation. The utilization of glucose carbon incorporation into milk appeared to increase in milk lactose and milk triacylglycerol but not for

  5. A determination and comparison of urease activity in feces and fresh manure from pig and cattle in relation to ammonia production and pH changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Dai

    Full Text Available Ammonia emission from animal production is a major environmental problem and has impacts on the animal health and working environment inside production houses. Ammonia is formed in manure by the enzymatic degradation of urinary urea and catalyzed by urease that is present in feces. We have determined and compared the urease activity in feces and manure (a urine and feces mixture from pigs and cattle at 25°C by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To obtain accurate estimates of kinetic parameters Vmax and K'm, we used a 5 min reaction time to determine the initial reaction velocities based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN concentrations. The resulting Vmax value (mmol urea hydrolyzed per kg wet feces per min was 2.06±0.08 mmol urea/kg/min and 0.80±0.04 mmol urea/kg/min for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. The K'm values were 32.59±5.65 mmol urea/l and 15.43±2.94 mmol urea/l for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. Thus, our results reveal that both the Vmax and K'm values of the urease activity for pig feces are more than 2-fold higher than those for cattle feces. The difference in urea hydrolysis rates between animal species is even more significant in fresh manure. The initial velocities of TAN formation are 1.53 mM/min and 0.33 mM/min for pig and cattle manure, respectively. Furthermore, our investigation shows that the maximum urease activity for pig feces occurs at approximately pH 7, and in cattle feces it is closer to pH 8, indicating that the predominant fecal ureolytic bacteria species differ between animal species. We believe that our study contributes to a better understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in manure and provides a basis for more accurate and animal-specific prediction models for urea hydrolysis rates and ammonia concentration in manures and thus can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rates from animal production.

  6. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998

  7. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  8. Products in fusion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henke, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the notion of a product of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction....

  9. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP in PPARGC1A Gene Associates Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Alim§, Yipeng Fan§, Yan Xie, Xiaoping Wu, Dongxiao Sun*, Yi Zhang, Shengli Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Qin Zhang and Lin Liu1

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to find out possible associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of PPARGC1A gene and milk production traits. In the current study, one SNP at g.85330C>T position was identified in 9th intron of PPARGC1A gene through pooled DNA sequencing. The identified SNP was genotyped using MALDI-TOF MS technique in 752 individuals from the Chinese Holstein cattle breed. The frequency of C allele at position g.85330C>T was more frequent in our population (0.69, followed by the T allele (0.31. From the association results, significant differences were found between PPARGC1A genotypes in the protein concentration and protein yield. Heterozygous cows with CT genotype at the g.85330C>T locus showed the highest protein yield, with more than 4.18 kg compared with homozygous cows with TT genotype; homozygous CC cows were found at intermediate position. In case of protein percentage, homozygous cows with TT genotype were significantly greater than heterozygous CT cows, with a difference of about 0.012%; CC cows were found in lowest position. The allele substitution results demonstrated that g.85330C>T-C allele decreased protein yield (1.23kg and protein percentage (0.016%. This result clearly indicated that g.85330C>T-T allele increased protein percentage and protein yield.

  10. Estimates of genetic parameters for visual scores and their correlation with production and reproductive traits in Brahman cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Souza Bertipaglia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of visual scores of body structure, precocity and muscularity with production (body weight at 18 months and average daily gain and reproductive (scrotal circumference traits in Brahman cattle in order to determine the possible use of these scores as selection criteria to improve carcass quality. Covariance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using an animal model that included contemporary group as fixed effect. A total of 1,116 observations of body structure, precocity and muscularity were used. Heritability was 0.39, 043 and 0.40 for body structure, precocity and muscularity, respectively. The genetic correlations were 0.79 between body structure and precocity, 0.87 between body structure and muscularity, and 0.91 between precocity and muscularity. The genetic correlations between visual scores and body weight at 18 months were positive (0.77, 0.57 and 0.59 for body structure, precocity and muscularity, respectively. Similar genetic correlations were observed between average daily gain and visual scores (0.60, 0.57 and 0.48, respectively, whereas the genetic correlations between scrotal circumference and these scores were low (0.13, 0.02, and 0.13. The results indicate that visual scores can be used as selection criteria in Brahman breeding programs. Favorable correlated responses should be seen in average daily gain and body weight at 18 months. However, no correlated response is expected for scrotal circumference.

  11. Pregnancy Loss in Dairy Cattle: Relationship of Ultrasound, Blood Pregnancy-Specific Protein B, Progesterone and Production Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, G; Kastelic, J P; Abonyi-Tóth, Z; Gábor, P; Endrődi, T; Balogh, O G

    2016-08-01

    Objectives were to determine associations between percentage pregnancy loss (PPL) in dairy cattle and: (i) pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonography; (ii) pregnancy diagnosis by serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations, with or without serum progesterone concentrations; and (iii) production and environmental factors. This study included 149 822 pregnancy diagnoses conducted over 13 years in Holstein-Friesian cows in Hungarian dairy herds. The following were determined: PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by transrectal ultrasonography 29-42 days after artificial insemination (AI; n = 11 457); PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by serum PSPB 29-35 days after AI (n = 138 365); and PPL and its association with serum progesterone concentrations, PSPB and production/environmental variables. The definition of PPL was percentage of cows initially diagnosed pregnant based on ultrasonography or PSPB, but not pregnant when examined by transrectal palpation 60 -70 days after AI. The PPL was lower (p 1.1 ng/ml) was lowest (15.0%), whereas cows with low concentrations of both PSPB and progesterone (0.6-1.1 and <2 ng/ml, respectively) had the highest PPL (76.3%; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, PPL was higher in cows with advanced parity and with high milk production, when ambient temperatures were high, although body condition score (BCS) had no effect on PPL. Finally, there were no significant associations between serum PSPB and environmental temperatures or number of post-partum uterine treatments. PMID:27198072

  12. Improving the prediction of methane production and representation of rumen fermentation for finishing beef cattle within a mechanistic model

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, JL; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; Archibeque, S; Benchaar, C; Beauchemin, KA; Nkrumah, JD; France, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prediction of methane emissions from finishing beef cattle using an extant mechanistic model with pH-independent or pH-dependent volatile fatty acid (VFA) stoichiometries, a recent stoichiometry adjustment for the use of monensin, and adaptation of the underlying model structure, to see if prediction improvements could be made for beef cattle. The database used for independent evaluation of methane predictions consisted of 74 animal means from six stu...

  13. Is crossbreeding of cattle beneficial for mixed farming systems in Central Java?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widi, T.S.M.; Udo, H.M.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    From 1980s onwards, Indonesia's government has been implementing crossbreeding with European beef breeds through artificial insemination to improve the beef performance of local cattle, in response to the increasing demand for meat. Crossbreeding is promoted and implemented throughout the country, r

  14. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the...... thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  15. Typology of Product Configuration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Edwards, Kasper; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Many organisations are moving from mass production to mass customization. Product configuration systems (PCS) are increasingly seen as an interesting option for firms who wish to pursue a strategy with a high degree of product variance while retaining a low cost of specifying the product. To become...... more specific in relation to how product configuration systems can support mass customization, it is necessary to understand how different product configuration systems can be classified, and how these differ. This paper presents a typology of product configuration systems based on the five kinds of...... knowledge needed for the configuration task. Lastly, we discuss the implementation and use-related issues that can be derived from the typology....

  16. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Eythorsdottir, Emma

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...

  17. Production effects related to mastitis and mastitis economics in dairy cattle herds

    OpenAIRE

    Seegers, Henri; Fourichon, Christine; Beaudeau, François

    2003-01-01

    Mastitis is the most prevalent production disease in dairy herds world-wide and is responsible for several production effects. Milk yield and composition can be affected by a more or less severe short-term depression and, in case of no cure, by a long-acting effect, and, sometimes, an overlapping effect to the next lactation. Summary values in the literature for losses of milk production were proposed at 375 kg for a clinical case (5% at the lactation level) and at 0.5 kg per 2-fold increase ...

  18. Production and physiological responses of heat-stressed lactating dairy cattle to conductive cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perano, Kristen M; Usack, Joseph G; Angenent, Largus T; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this research was to test the effectiveness of conductive cooling in alleviating heat stress of lactating dairy cows. A conductive cooling system was built with waterbeds (Dual Chamber Cow Waterbeds, Advanced Comfort Technology Inc., Reedsburg, WI) modified to circulate chilled water. The experiment lasted 7 wk. Eight first-lactation Holstein cows producing 34.4±3.7kg/d of milk at 166±28 d in milk were used in the study. Milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI), and rectal temperature were recorded twice daily, and respiration rate was recorded 5 times per day. During wk 1, the cows were not exposed to experimental heat stress or conductive cooling. For the remaining 6 wk, the cows were exposed to heat stress from 0900 to 1700h each day. During these 6 wk, 4 of the 8 cows were cooled with conductive cooling (experimental cows), and the other 4 were not cooled (control cows). The study consisted of 2 thermal environment exposures (temperature-humidity index mean ± standard deviation of 80.7±0.9 and 79.0±1.0) and 2 cooling water temperatures (circulating water through the water mattresses at temperatures of 4.5°C and 10°C). Thus, a total of 4 conductive cooling treatments were tested, with each treatment lasting 1 wk. During wk 6, the experimental and control cows were switched and the temperature-humidity index of 79.0±1.0 with 4.5°C cooling water treatment was repeated. During wk 7, waterbeds were placed directly on concrete stalls without actively cooling the water. Least squares means and P-values for the different treatments were calculated with multivariate mixed models. Conductively cooling the cows with 4.5°C water decreased rectal temperature by 1.0°C, decreased respiration rate by 18 breaths/min, increased milk yield by 5%, and increased DMI by 14% compared with the controls. When the results from the 2 cooling water temperatures (4.5°C and 10°C circulating water) were compared, we found that the rectal temperature from 4.5

  19. Effects of multi-nutrient feed supplement in beef cattle on methane production, manure quality and rice yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the experiments was to determine the effect of a multi-nutrient feed supplement (MFS) on methane production, and the effect of processing on animal waste to produce compost to improve crop production. Methane is one of the gases that contribute towards global warming and a significant proportion of global methane is produced by rumen fermentation and the breakdown of animal waste. The first of the integrated experimental program carried was the effect of the additional MFS in corn leaf silage with concentrate diet compared to MFS in a low quality of basal diet (rice straw) with a concentrate in beef cattle. Rumen fermentation products including methane gas production were measured along with digestibility, and DLWG. The second phase of the experiment involved the measurement of manures for the nutrient content of the compost and the effect of compost applications on rice yield. The results of the Experiment 1 showed that MFS supplementation increase dry matter digestibility by 15.6%, feed consumption by 7.5%, DLWG by 200% and improve the feed conversion ratio by 187%. The enhanced nutrition improved microbial populations and decreasing methane product from 88.0 to 21.7 mM. The result of the in vitro study found that the feed commonly supplied by farmers to their animal could be improved by the use of MFS with methane production decreasing from 42 ml to 25 ml. An in vivo experiment using the same rations showed an increase of 5.9, 11.4, 6.6, 4.6, 26.4% in DM consumption, CP consumption, GE consumption, DM digestibility and DLWG, respectively, and improving feed efficiency by 21.3%. N total content of compost derived from control and MFS feeding treatments without and with improved manure management was 168, 156, 150 and 146 g/day. Compost application to paddy rice also increased rice yields 76.5% for dried rice harvesting, and 67.4% for dried rice milling. (author)

  20. Genetic variability and population structure in loci related to milk production traits in native Argentine Creole and commercial Argentine Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golijow C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cattle breeds have been subjected to high selection pressure for production traits. Consequently, population genetic structure and allelic distribution could differ in breeds under high selection pressure compared to unselected breeds. Analysis of k-casein, aS1-casein and prolactin gene frequencies was made for Argentine Creole (AC and Argentine Holstein (AH cattle herds. The calculated FST values measured the degree of genetic differentiation of subpopulations, depending on the variances of gene frequencies.The AC breed had considerably more variation among herds at the aS1-casein and k-casein loci. Conservation strategies should consider the entire AC population in order to maintain the genetic variability found in this native breed.

  1. Matching genotype with the environment using an indigenous cattle breed: Introduction of Borana cattle from southern Ethiopia into the lowlands of north-western Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastoral, agro-pastoralism and transhumanance cattle production systems are important determinants of livelihoods in the semi-arid areas of north-western, southern and eastern parts of Ethiopia. The highlands are important for mixed crop-livestock enterprise, while the arid to semi-arid lowlands, that occupy 61% of the land area, are dominated by livestock production. The livestock species and breeds in these production systems have been traditionally selected, over millennia, to adapt to the challenges of the agro-ecologies. This initiative was undertaken in the arid to semi-arid lowlands of Metema district, which shares a 60 Km border with the Sudan, in North Gondar Zone of Amhara Region. The total area of the district is 440,000 ha, and 72% is covered with forest and rangeland, while 23.6% is cultivated. The cattle population is estimated at 136,910. Sesame-livestock followed by cotton-livestock production are the dominant farming systems. Although the Gumuz people are native in the district, most of the land is occupied by settlers from the highlands of Amhara and Tigray Regions. As a result, the dominant cattle population is the highland Zebu (mainly Fogera cattle breed crossed with other highland Zebu) brought by the highlanders. Rutana and Felata cattle breeds constitute a smaller proportion of the total cattle population. As a result, there is a mismatch between the cattle genotype and the environment. The major problems associated with cattle production are diseases and biting flies, water shortage, heat stress, long distance to watering points and grazing areas. Cattle production is therefore, characterized by high pre-weaning calf mortality (35-40%), slow growth rates, low fertility and calving rates, low milk yield and carcass weight. Breeding is entirely based on natural mating, and farmers' selection is based on milk yield, body conformation and colour; with considerations to disease resistance, heat tolerance and draft power potential. Table I

  2. The production performance of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle in West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahyudin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The production performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in West Java was evaluated in two areas, Cisarua district (Bogor and Tanjungsari district (Sumedang. In Cisarua the evaluation was made on 175 cows with different stage of lactation (2 - 11 months. Feed offered, both forage and concentrate, milk production and chess girth were measured from each animal for 24 h only. Date of calving, date of service and stage of pregnancy were recorded by interviewing the farmers . In Tanjungsari the study was conducted on 102 postpartum cows . Milk production and chess girth were measured at the beginning of the study and then once a month (morning and afternoon milking for 3 months. Milk production was 3,700 1 and 3,400 1 per lactation with declining rate of 0 .03 and 0 .05 1/d for Cisarua and Tanjungsari area respectively. The ratio of concentrate : forage consumption was 1 and 1 .4 in Cisarua and in Tanjungsari respectively, and the ratio was reduced as milk production declined . The efficiency of conversion of feed ME to milk yield was approximately the same (0.12 1/MJ in both location . The proportion of cows lost weight in Cisarua during the first three months was lower (46 % as compared to that in Sumedang (77 %. Approximately 68 % of the population have conception rate (CR > 50 % , the remaining should be culled, 24 % have low CR and 8 % have days open > 150 days . From 61 cows observed, 71 % and 21% have a projected calving interval of 12 months and 13 - 14 months respectively . It can be concluded that milk production and reproduction efficiency of Holstein'cows in West Java are considered low.

  3. Interrelationships among Production and Clinical Disease in Dairy Cattle: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Hollis N.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence is presented in order to answer two questions. The first question is: “Does high milk production put a cow at increased risk of disease?” The answer to this question seems to be “maybe” for milk fever, but “no” for most other common diseases (veterinary-assisted dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, cystic ovary, ketosis, left displaced abomasum, and mastitis). The second question is: “Is low milk production a consequence of disease?” For most diseases the answer is a cautious “yes”. PMID:17422802

  4. Interrelationships among Production and Clinical Disease in Dairy Cattle: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erb, Hollis N.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence is presented in order to answer two questions. The first question is: “Does high milk production put a cow at increased risk of disease?” The answer to this question seems to be “maybe” for milk fever, but “no” for most other common diseases (veterinary-assisted dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, cystic ovary, ketosis, left displaced abomasum, and mastitis). The second question is: “Is low milk production a consequence of disease?” For most diseases the answer is ...

  5. Quantification of antimicrobial consumption in adult cattle on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium, and associations with udder health, milk quality, and production performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Dewulf, J; De Vliegher, S

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify the (compound-specific) antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in adult cattle in a convenience sample of Flemish dairy herds. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained between 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of the ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. Herds were stratified by DDDA into low-, medium-, and high-consuming herds to study the AMC per route of administration, and associations with parameters reflecting udder health, milk quality, and production performances were examined. The average ATI in adult dairy cattle for all compounds was 20.78 DDDA (per 1,000 cow-days). Large variation existed between herds (ranging from 8.68 to 41.62 DDDA). Fourth-generation cephalosporins were used most (4.99 DDDA), followed by penicillins (3.70 DDDA) and third-generation cephalosporins (2.95 DDDA). The average ATI of the critically important antimicrobials for human health (i.e., third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones according to the World Organisation for Animal Health classification) was somewhat lower than the average ATI of the other antimicrobials (8.59 and 12.18 DDDA, respectively). The average ATI for intramammary treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis, for dry-cow therapy, and for systemically administered antimicrobials was 6.30, 6.89, and 7.44 DDDA, respectively. In low-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used for dry-cow therapy, whereas in high-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used as injectable or intramammary mastitis therapy. The incidence rate of treated mastitis was positively associated with ATI. Herds that applied blanket dry-cow therapy tended to have a higher ATI than herds in which cows were selectively dried off with long-acting antimicrobials. The ATI decreased with an increasing prevalence of primiparous cows. PMID:26778315

  6. The effect of supplementation level of concentrate feeding (25 vs. 75%) on rice straw treated with urine on Ongole Crossbred cattle productivity and methane emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The study to increase productivity while reducing methane emission on beef cattle was carried out by using eight Ongole Crossbred cattle (age 1.5 year, live-weight 240 kg). They were fed rice straw treated with urine (1 L urine for 1 kg DM rice straw) and concentrate feeding composed of wheat bran (CP 15%) and beer cake (CP 24%) at a ratio of 50:50. The cattle were grouped into two for feeding treatments. First group of cattle was allowed concentrate feeding at 25% (C25) of estimated dry matter intake (DMI) at 3% of body weight, while the other group was given concentrate feeding at 75% (C75) of estimated DMI. Daily intake of dry matter (DMI), methane production and live-weight gain (LWG) were measured. Methane measurement was done using Facemask method, which was performed for 10 minutes at 3-hour intervals over two days. The results showed that, higher-level concentrate (C75) resulted in higher daily live weight gain (LWG) (P = 0.0145) than that in C25, even tough the DMI of both treatments were similar. The better LWG in C75 than of C25 is caused by the better nutrients intake in C75, especially in protein and Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) (P = 0.0017). Protein intake in C75 was higher (P = 0.0002) than that in C25, being 1.19 and 0.80 kg/d, respectively. Similarly, TDN intake in C75 was higher (P = 0.0017) than that in C25, being 5.77 and 4.39 kg/d, respectively. The protein intake was playing an important role in growth and development of the Ongole Crossbred cattle, while TDN fulfilled an energy requirement of cattle. This result also showed that Ongole Crossbred cattle have a high potential as beef cattle by LWG over 1 kg/d. This obtained LW was higher than that previously reported, being 0.62 kg/d by 70% concentrate (composed of wheat bran and rice bran at 50:50). In addition, many studies reported the low productivity of Ongole Crossbred cattle, ranged at 0.4-0.6 kg/d. Daily total methane production (L/d) in C75 and C25 was similar, being 219

  7. Recent Trends in the Production and Trade of Cattle Beef and Pigs in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alister; Harrison, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Thai economy has experienced rapid changes in the underlying factors that determine demand for meat and livestock products. GDP growth has remained at over 8% over the last decade and has not fallen below 5% in the last 30 years. Incomes have grown at a faster rate than other ASEAN countries and the development of a new urban-based middle class has stimulated a westernisation of tastes and preferences (Sindelar, 1996; Hassalls & Associates, 1996). These changes have, in some cases, stimul...

  8. Nitrogen metabolism and protozoa production rate in cattle fed on diet containing protected protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen metabolism and protozoa production rate using 14C-choline as marker were studied on 9 adult male crossbred (Tharparker x Brown Swiss) rumen fistulated animals divided into 3 groups (A, B and C). All the animals were fed concentrate mixture and wheatstraw. However, groundnut cake (GNC) in concentrate mixture was untreated in group A, 50 per cent formaldehyde treated in group B and 100 per cent formaldehyde treated in group C. Although, DM intake was similar in these groups but water intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in control group. Total-N, ammonia-N and blood urea were significantly lower in group B and C as compared to group A. Apparent CP digestibility was not affected by addition of formaldehyde treated GNC at 50 and 100 per cent levels. However, N balances increased significantly (P<0.05) due to addition of protected protein in diet. Protozoal pool as well as production rate were significantly (P<0.01) decreased due to formaldehyde treatment of GNC protein. Thus addition of formaldehyde treated GNC in diets decreased ammonia and protozoa production but increased N retention in groups B and C. (author). 27 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Bacterial stress enrichment enhances anaerobic hydrogen production in cattle manure sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Dae-Yeol; Hansen, Conly L

    2006-10-01

    Methodology was evaluated to selectively enrich hydrogen-producing species present in biological sludge produced during organic wastewater treatment. The influence of bacterial stress enrichment on anaerobic hydrogen-producing microorganisms was investigated in batch tests using serum bottles. Enrichment conditions investigated included application of acute physical and chemical stresses: wet heat, dry heat and desiccation, use of a methanogen inhibitor, freezing and thawing, and chemical acidification with and without preacidification of the sludge at pH 3. For each enrichment sample, cultivation pH value was set at an initial value of 7. After application of selective enrichment (by bacterial stress), hydrogen production was significantly higher than that of untreated original sludge. Hydrogen production from the inocula with bacterial stress enrichment was 1.9-9.8 times greater when compared with control sludge. Chemical acidification using perchloric acid showed the best hydrogen production potential, irrespective of preacidification. Enhancement is due to the selective capture of hydrogen-producing sporeformers, which induces altered anaerobic fermentative metabolism. PMID:16525779

  10. Evolution of carbon sequestration in tropical grassland, ecological processes and farm practices in Amazonian cattle systems.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The humid tropics have seen a considerable expansion in ruminant farming since the 1970s (at present 25% of the world’s ruminant stock). This situation is often criticized for its negative environmental impacts: deforestation, loss of biodiversity, greenhouse gas (GHG) production (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide). The increase of direct emissions from the agriculture sector (17%) mostly occur in emerging countries like Brazil (IPCC, 2007). Although ruminant production systems are viewe...

  11. The change of sowing structure as a strategy for improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Saša Z.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of sowing structure on family farm competiveness using the model of family farm directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle in the conditions of unchanged estate size. Applying a partial budget analysis, it was examined whether the decision on buying alfalfa hay or mercantile maize on the market and changing the sowing structure was economically justified and under what conditions using additional procedure of sensitive analysis. Applying this approach, it was investigated to what extent that decision contributed to improving the family farm profitability. The results of the conducted research show that the decision on buying mercantile maize mainly contributes to improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle compared with the decision on buying alfalfa hay. It is the consequence of the fact that buying mercantile maize on the market will enable sowing structure changes, that is, buying mercantile maize will make the area free, which according to some conservative estimations, can be used for the production of sufficient amounts of alfalfa and silage maize for fattening of additional 19 head, whereas buying alfalfa hay will make the area free, which can be used for production of sufficient amounts of mercantile and silage maize for fattening of additional 6 head. In addition, it is shown that more rational way of organizing family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle can additionally use available land resources and in that way increase profitability and improve competitiveness.

  12. Using CR1aa versus KSOM as the culture medium for in vitro embryo production of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Triwulaninngsih

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This research has been conducted at the laboratory of in vitro fertilization in the Department of Animal Science University of Wisconsin, USA. These embryos can be used for improving genetic value of Indonesian cattle. Oocytes were matured in TCM- 199 medium (in 5% CO2 incubator and at 390C enriched with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH 10 μl/ml, oestradiol 17 β 1μl/ml and 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS. The oocytes were fertilized in vitro with motile sperm and incubation between sperm and oocytes in fertilization medium Tyroide Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP for 20 hours. All zygotes were cultured in CR1aa (n=1549 medium versus modification of protein-free pottasium simplex optimized medium (KSOM (n=675 up to blastocyst stage and were fed FCS 5 μl/50 μl medium on day 6, as treatment A and B respectively. Data were analyzed by completely randomized design with SAS program. Percentages of cleavage, morula, blastocyst, expanded blastocyst, unfertilized and degenerated ova in this study were 91.4% vs 75.6 %; 75.6% vs 58.9%; 61.5% vs 38.5%; 31.2% vs 5.1%, 8.6% vs 24.4%, 15.7% vs 8% which were significantly different (P<0.01 for treatment CR1aa and KSOM respectively. Based on this study, CR1aa medium is better culture medium than KSOM for efficient in vitro production (IVP of bovine embryos.

  13. Genetic factors influencing milk production traits in Lithuanian dairy cattle breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Pečiulaitienė, Nijolė; Miceikienė, Ilona; Mišeikienė, Ramutė; Krasnopiorova, Natalija; Kriauzienė, Janina

    2007-01-01

    394 unrelated Lithuanian dairy cows (Lithuanian Black & White 109, Lithuanian Red 168, Lithuanian Light Grey 68 and Lithuanian White Backed 49) were evaluated to test the influence of milk protein genotypes milk to production and milk composition traits. Milk protein genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the RFLP method. The results showed a positive effect of the BB genotype of kappa-casein on milk fat and protein content, however, this genotype had a negative effect o...

  14. Experimental infection in cattle: kinetics of production of IgM and IgG against bovine cysticercosis and inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Paola Meneguete dos Guimarães-Peixoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that affects humans in their adult form (taeniasis and its larval is found inserted in the musculature of infected cattle (cysticerci. It is still not entirely clear how animal immune response against infection occurs, being the comprehension of this process necessary for the enhancement of diagnostic capacity and disease prevention. This work aimed to evaluate the evolution of the immune response in experimentally infected cattle, compared with findings in cell response by optical microscopy. Nine animals were infected at a rate of 120,000 eggs of Taenia saginata. Five of the animals were similar in the kinetics of antibody production against cysticerci, with maximal levels of IgG and IgM. The other four animals showed an immune response different from the majority, with two of them showing delayed response to infection by cysticerci while the others apparently did not have initial contact with antigens secreted by cysticerci. Regarding the cellular response, it was found that, in lesions of viable cysticerci, inflammatory cells predominated, whereas in nonviable cysticerci there were tissue repair cells in the most part, being possible to notice that the amount of migratory calcareous corpuscles are related to the death stage of the parasite. These findings are important for the understanding immune response of cattle infected with cysticercosis.

  15. Relationships among heifer traits, early-life productive traits, and lifetime productivity within Angus and Simmental female cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, José Aurélio Garcia

    1992-01-01

    Data from 946 Angus and 351 Simmental females were used to quantify relationships between calfhood and early-life traits of females with fertility in the fust two breeding seasons, and with calf production in the fITst, in three and in eleven years of life. These traits were used to develop pre· diction equations for fertility using logistic regression methodology. For productive performance, three methodologies were compared: least squares, ridge regression and principal componen...

  16. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picasso, V.D.; Modernel Hristoff, P.D.; Becona, G.; Salvo, L.; Gutierrez, L.; Astigarraga, L.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs

  17. DRY NONHEATED ANAEROBIC BIOGAS FERMENTATION USING AGED BEEF CATTLE MANURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogas production at beef cattle feedlots is hard to justify because of the large amounts of dilution water required and the high cost to design and operate conventional water-based digestion systems. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of producing biogas us...

  18. The genetic architecture of climatic adaptation in tropical cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world in the future. Tropical cattle production, an important mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by conditions of heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropica...

  19. Association Study between Lead and Zinc Accumulation at Different Physiological Systems of Cattle by Canonical Correlation and Canonical Correspondence Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pb pollution from automobile exhausts around highways is a persistent problem in India. Pb intoxication in mammalian body is a complex phenomenon which is influence by agonistic and antagonistic interactions of several other heavy metals and micronutrients. An attempt has been made to study the association between Pb and Zn accumulation in different physiological systems of cattles (n = 200) by application of both canonical correlation and canonical correspondence analyses. Pb was estimated from plasma, liver, bone, muscle, kidney, blood and milk where as Zn was measured from all these systems except bone, blood and milk. Both statistical techniques demonstrated that there was a strong association among blood-Pb, liver-Zn, kidney-Zn and muscle-Zn. From observations, it can be assumed that Zn accumulation in cattles' muscle, liver and kidney directs Pb mobilization from those organs which in turn increases Pb pool in blood. It indicates antagonistic activity of Zn to the accumulation of Pb. Although there were some contradictions between the observations obtained from the two different statistical methods, the overall pattern of Pb accumulation in various organs as influenced by Zn were same. It is mainly due to the fact that canonical correlation is actually a special type of canonical correspondence analyses where linear relationship is followed between two groups of variables instead of Gaussian relationship.

  20. Association Study between Lead and Zinc Accumulation at Different Physiological Systems of Cattle by Canonical Correlation and Canonical Correspondence Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Partha; Das, Pradip Kumar; Mondal, Seema Sarkar; Karmakar, Sougata; Mazumdar, Debasis

    2010-10-01

    Pb pollution from automobile exhausts around highways is a persistent problem in India. Pb intoxication in mammalian body is a complex phenomenon which is influence by agonistic and antagonistic interactions of several other heavy metals and micronutrients. An attempt has been made to study the association between Pb and Zn accumulation in different physiological systems of cattles (n = 200) by application of both canonical correlation and canonical correspondence analyses. Pb was estimated from plasma, liver, bone, muscle, kidney, blood and milk where as Zn was measured from all these systems except bone, blood and milk. Both statistical techniques demonstrated that there was a strong association among blood-Pb, liver-Zn, kidney-Zn and muscle-Zn. From observations, it can be assumed that Zn accumulation in cattles' muscle, liver and kidney directs Pb mobilization from those organs which in turn increases Pb pool in blood. It indicates antagonistic activity of Zn to the accumulation of Pb. Although there were some contradictions between the observations obtained from the two different statistical methods, the overall pattern of Pb accumulation in various organs as influenced by Zn were same. It is mainly due to the fact that canonical correlation is actually a special type of canonical correspondence analyses where linear relationship is followed between two groups of variables instead of Gaussian relationship.

  1. Beef Cattle Farms’ Conversion to the Organic System. Recommendations for Success in the Face of Future Changes in a Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Escribano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dehesa is a remarkable agroforestry system, which needs the implementation of sustainable production systems in order to reduce its deterioration. Moreover, its livestock farms need to adapt to a new global market context. As a response, the organic livestock sector has expanded not only globally but also in the region in search for increased overall sustainability. However, conversions to the organic system have been commonly carried out without analyzing farms’ feasibility to do so. This analysis is necessary before implementing any new production system in order to reduce both the diversity of externalities that the variety of contexts leads to and the vulnerability of the DDehesa ecosystem to small management changes. Within this context and in the face of this gap in knowledge, the present paper analyzes the ease of such conversions and the farms’ chances of success after conversion in the face of global changes (market and politics. Different aspects (“areas of action” were studied and integrated within the Global Conversion Index (GCI, and the legal requirement for European organic farming, organic principles, future challenges for ruminants’ production systems, as well as the lines of action for the post-2013 CAP (Common Agricultural Policy and their impacts on the beef cattle sector were taken into account. Results revealed that farms must introduce significant changes before initiating the conversion process, since they had very low scores on the GCI (42.74%, especially with regard to health and agro-ecosystem management (principle of Ecology. Regarding rearing and animal welfare (principle of justice/fairness, farms were close to the organic system. From the social point of view, active participation in manufacturing and marketing of products should be increased.

  2. Production Systems and Supplier Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Acosta, Isabel; Pilkington, Alan; Barnes, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a combined multi-phase supplier selection model. The process repeatedly revisits the criteria and sourcing decision as the development process continues. This enables a structured adoption of product and production system innovation from strategic suppliers, where...... previously the literature purely focuses on product innovation or cost reduction. Design/methodology/approach: The authors adopted an embedded researcher style, inductive, qualitative case study of an industrial supply cluster comprising a focal automotive company and its interaction with three different...

  3. Prevalence and Characterization of Theileria and Babesia Species in Cattle under Different Husbandry Systems in Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhanguzi Dennis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 363 cattle taken from six sub counties of Kashaari county were tested for presence of Theileria and Babesia species using reverse line blot hybridization assay (RLB. The prevalences of Theileria and Babesia species were found to be 19.8% (CI = 95%, 15.7-23.9% and 0.6% (CI = 95%, -0.2-1.4% respectively with at least 68% (CI = 95%, 63.2-72.8 dually infected with more than one Theileria sp. Theileria sp. detected include; T. parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, T. vilifera, T. buffeli, T. spp. (sable, T. spp. (buffalo and T. bicornis at 24% (CI = 95%, 19.6-28.4% , 18.4% (CI = 95%, 14.4-22.4%, 14% (CI = 95% , 10.4-17.6% , 13.7% (CI = 95%, 10.2-17.2%, 12.6% (CI = 95%, 9.2-16.0%, 10.4% (CI = 95%, 7.26-13.54%, 4.4% (CI = 95%, 2.3-6.5% and 3.8% (CI = 95%, 1.8-5.8% respectively. The prevalences of different Theileria and Babesia species among different cattle age groups, breeds, management systems and sub county of origin are presented and discussed. A 2.5 times risk of infection associated with cross bred cattle (OR = 2.5, 95% CI; 1.44-4.49 compared to that of local and exotic breeds was observed on logistic regression. Regardless of type of cattle breed; rate of acaracide application, restriction of calf movement, restricted grazing (paddocking and zero grazing were the most important parameters that determined the risk of infection with TBs. RLB detected infections in animals which were negative by Theileria and Babesia Genera specific PCR. Such animals had low parasitem ia that could not be detected by such non species-specific PCR. RLB is therefore a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool that should be adopted in tick-borne hemoparasite epidemiological studies in Uganda.

  4. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J.; Rooke, John A.; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    FCR and RFI) (P < 0.05) and greater CH4 emissions (P = 0.017). In conclusion, agitated temperament and higher stress responsiveness is detrimental to productivity. A greater stress response is associated with a reduction in feed intake that may both increase the efficiency of consumed feed and the ratio of CH4 emissions/unit of feed. Therefore, temperament and stress response should be considered when designing strategies to improve efficiency and mitigate CH4 emissions in beef cattle. PMID:27379246

  5. The system Around the Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

          The design discipline has traditionally focused on products physical aspects, giving for granted that the context of services, infrastructures and technology will support the product life. A systemic perspective would revise such a focus, in order to project design competences over systemic...... aspects usually neglected by designers. This perspective shift is a challenge for designers, who have very efficient methods and tools to handle physical aspects of product design, but need to define an ?operative paradigm? to operate in a systemic context. An operative paradigm consists of a set of tools...... and methods to handle immaterial aspects such as time sequences, actors? role and logical links in a product service system (PSS). Tools and methods can be borrowed from other disciplinary contexts, their relevance, though, derives from their adaptation to this specific study area: designing in a...

  6. Induction of the acrosome reaction test to in vitro estimate embryo production in Nelore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Costa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of induction of the acrosome reaction (AR test as a parameter to in vitro estimate embryo production (IVP in Nelore breed and the AR pattern by the Trypan Blue/Giemsa (TB stain were evaluated. Frozen semen samples from ten Nelore bulls were submitted to AR induction and were also evaluated for cleavage and blastocyst rates. The treatments utilized for AR induction were: control (TALP medium, TH (TALP medium + 10μg heparin, TL (TALP medium + 100μg lysophosphatidylcholine and THL (TALP medium + 10μg heparin + 100μg lysophosphatidylcholine. Sperm acrosomal status and viability were evaluated by TB staining at 0 and after 4h incubation at 38°C. The results obtained for AR presented a significant difference (P<0.05 in the percentage of acrosome reacted live sperm after 4h of incubation in the treatments that received heparin. The cleavage and blastocyst rates were 60% and 38% respectively and a significant difference was observed among bulls (P<0.05. It was founded a satisfactory model to estimate the cleavage and blastocyst rates by AR induction test. Therefore, it can be concluded that the induction of the AR test is a valuable tool to predict the IVP in Nelore breed.

  7. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....

  8. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Mila; Dimitrijević Vladimir; Trailović Ružica; Vegara Mensur; Dimitrijević Blagoje; Bečkei Žolt; Petrujkić Branislav; Cojkić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties). Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest im...

  9. Improving the prediction of methane production and representation of rumen fermentation for finishing beef cattle within a mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; Archibeque, S.; Benchaar, C.; Beauchemin, K.; Nkrumah, D.J.; France, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prediction of methane emissions from finishing beef cattle using an extant mechanistic model with pH-independent or pH-dependent VFA stoichiometries, a recent stoichiometry adjustment for the use of monensin, and adaptation of the underlying model structure,

  10. Soil pH and earthworms affect herbage nitrogen recovery from solid cattle manure in production grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashid, M.I.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Corral Nunez, G.A.; Brussaard, L.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Long term use of inorganic fertilisers and reduced organic matter inputs have contributed to acidification of agricultural soils. This strongly affects the soil dwelling fauna and nutrient mineralisation. Organic fertilisers such as solid cattle manure (SCM) resurge as an option to overcome this aci

  11. Vaccination of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis BCG by a combination of systemic and oral routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddle, Bryce M; Denis, Michel; Aldwell, Frank E; Martin Vordermeier, H; Glyn Hewinson, R; Neil Wedlock, D

    2008-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine delivered to calves by the subcutaneous (s.c.) or by the oral route in a formulated lipid matrix has been previously shown to induce similar levels of protection against bovine tuberculosis. The current study was aimed at determining whether a combination of delivering BCG by s.c. and oral routes would enhance levels of protection, compared to only one route of vaccination. Forty calves were randomly divided into four groups (10/group). Calves were vaccinated with 10(6)colony forming units (CFU) of BCG Pasteur by the s.c. route or orally with 10(9)CFU BCG incorporated into a lipid formulation. One group received a combination of BCG administered by both the s.c. and oral routes and a non-vaccinated group served as a control. The two groups of calves that received s.c. BCG produced strong IFN-gamma responses in whole blood cultures stimulated with bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) 3 weeks after vaccination. Cattle vaccinated just with oral BCG in a lipid matrix produced a strong IFN-gamma response 8 weeks after vaccination, and peaking at 11 weeks after vaccination. All calves were challenged by the intratracheal route with M. bovis 15 weeks after vaccination and were euthanized and necropsied to assess protection at 17 weeks following challenge. BCG given s.c. or orally induced significant and comparable levels of protection against the virulent challenge. Vaccination of cattle by a combination of s.c./oral routes did not enhance protection beyond that achieved by s.c. or oral vaccination alone. We conclude that vaccination of cattle with BCG by a combination of routes has no beneficial additive effects, compared to a single s.c. administration of BCG or BCG given orally in a lipid formulation. PMID:18439875

  12. Economic analysis of Red Chittagong Cattle farming system in some selected areas of Chittagong district

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, M A; M.A Kashem; J. U. Ahmed; Hossain, M.

    2010-01-01

    The study was carried out in 5 Upazilas under Chittagong district with a view to analyze the present socio-economic status of RCC farming practices on 100 RCC rearers (Potiya, Raujan, Chandanaish, Anowara and Satkania Upazila). The study showed that, about 39.00 percent of RCC farm owners were landless, 31.00 percent were small and marginal farmers, 17.00 percent were medium and 13.00 percent were large farmers according to their landholding sizes. The cost of rearing RCC per cattle per year ...

  13. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that is cheap and easily accessible for the farmers. The crop livestock systems innovation through the zero waste approach need to be implemented to yield the zero cost cattle raising system. The cow calf operation system will only be run sustainable if the feed cost and the use of external inputs can be minimized. The program need to be integrated by the grower and fattening (finisher activities. The grower cattle activities, such as run by the Center Village Cooperation in East Nusa Tenggara could afford the farmers participation and had a significant contribution to the farmers’ household. The success of an introduction program is largely determined by the involvement of the farmers in the very beginning based on the local indigenous technology. There is a need to empower the farmers group based on the cooperative principles to increase bargaining power, information accessibility and communication effectiveness. This effort will also simultaneously conducted with the policy support on accessibility of micro finance through the agriculture credit scheme.

  14. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P meat. PMID:26292792

  15. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    OpenAIRE

    Lovince Asimwe; Abiliza Kimambo; Germana Laswai; Louis Mtenga; Martin Weisbjerg; Jorgen Madsen; John Safari

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 +/- 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary treatments namely hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and maize meal with molasses (MMMO). Ad ...

  16. Modeling European ruminant production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kipling, Richard P.; Bannink, André; Bellocchi, Gianni; Dalgaard, Tommy; Fox, Naomi J.; Hutchings, Nicholas J.; Kjeldsen, Chris; Lacetera, Nicola; Sinabell, Franz; Topp, Cairistiona F.E.; Oijen, van Marcel; Virkajärvi, Perttu; Scollan, Nigel D.

    2016-01-01

    Ruminant production systems are important producers of food, support rural communities and culture, and help to maintain a range of ecosystem services including the sequestering of carbon in grassland soils. However, these systems also contribute significantly to climate change through greenhouse

  17. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Rasali Hakim Matondang; C. Talib

    2015-01-01

    Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried ou...

  18. Milk production responses to a change in dietary starch concentration vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary starch concentration on yield of milk and milk components were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n=32; 115±22 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (28 to 62kg/d) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to a treatment sequence. Treatments were diets containing 30% dry ground corn (CG) or 30% soyhulls (SH) on a DM basis. Diets containing corn silage and alfalfa silage were formulated to contain 16% crude protein, 24% forage neutral detergent fiber, and either 27 or 44% neutral detergent fiber and 30 or 12% starch for CG and SH, respectively. Cows were fed a diet intermediate to the treatments during a preliminary 14-d period. Treatment periods were 28 d with measurements taken throughout the period for energy calculations and the final 5 d used for data and sample collection for production variables. Compared with SH, CG increased dry matter intake, and yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, and energy-corrected milk, as well as milk protein concentration. Treatment did not affect milk fat concentration. Yield of de novo synthesized and preformed milk fatty acids increased with CG. Treatment interacted with level of preliminary milk production for several response variables (yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, energy-corrected milk, and 3.5% fat-corrected milk). Compared with SH, the CG treatment increased energy-corrected milk in higher-producing cows with a lesser response to CG as milk yield decreased. The CG treatment increased milk:feed compared with the SH treatment, but not body weight or body condition score. In conclusion, higher-producing cows benefited from the high-starch diet, and lower-producing cows were able to maintain production when most of the starch was replaced with nonforage fiber. PMID:25981075

  19. Mycotoxins in pathophysiology of cattle diet

    OpenAIRE

    Mašić Zoran; Adamović Milan; Đilas Sandra M.; Mihaljev Željko A.

    2003-01-01

    Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also pres...

  20. The system around the product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    The design discipline has traditionally focused on products’ physical aspects, giving for granted that the context of services, infrastructures and technology will support the product life. A systemic perspective would revise such a focus, in order to project design competences over systemic...... aspects usually neglected by designers. This perspective shift is a challenge for designers, who have very efficient methods and tools to handle physical aspects of product design, but need to define an ‘operative paradigm’ to operate in a systemic context. An operative paradigm consists of a set of tools...... and methods to handle immaterial aspects such as time sequences, actors’ role and logical links in a product service system (PSS). Tools and methods can be borrowed from other disciplinary contexts, their relevance, though, derives from their adaptation to this specific study area: designing in a...

  1. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

  2. New perspectives and opportunities for improving reproduction in dual purpose cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, cattle raised under the tropical conditions of the lowland tropics have been dedicated to beef production. However, in the last years, considerable interest has been given to milk production. Hence, the logical step has been the development of dual purpose cattle, thus avoiding losing the income generated by the sale of beef. This concept is particularly important, as the introduction of specialised dairy breeds has mainly proved an unsatisfactory solution to increase milk production in the area. Dual purpose systems, however, have been limited due to poor reproductive performance and are facing considerable dilemmas such as: a) degree of heterosis needed in the cattle for optimal production and adaptability to the tropics; b) suitable management systems, i.e. dual purpose cattle where the main income is beef and milk production is just an added bonus, or conversely, where milk is the main income for the farmer; c) insufficient economical resources of the farmer, those with only subsistence levels as opposed to farmers with certain investment capacity; d) choice of breeding systems, artificial insemination versus natural mating; e) implementation of feeding practices, capacity to implement strategic supplementation in contrast to cattle raised almost exclusively at pasture; and f) adequate marketing of dairy products in the tropics. These considerations related to the strength and weaknesses of dual systems are discussed in this review. (author)

  3. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME. Overall, our review and analyses suggested that there is a strong linear

  4. Index computation for amalgamated products of product systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Mithun

    2011-01-01

    The notion of amalgamation of product systems has been introduced in [7] which generalizes the concept of Skeide product, introduced by Skeide, of two product systems via a pair of normalized units. In this paper we show that amalgamation leads to a setup where a product system is generated by two subsystems and conversely whenever a product system is generated by two subsystems, it could be realized as an amalgamated product. We parameterize all contractive morphism from a ...

  5. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Marie J. Haskell; John A Rooke; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body ...

  6. Feeding high-moisture corn instead of dry-rolled corn reduces odorous compound production in manure of finishing beef cattle without decreasing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibeque, S L; Miller, D N; Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L

    2006-07-01

    We hypothesized that feeding steers ground high-moisture ensiled corn (HMC) in lieu of dry-rolled corn (DRC) would reduce the amount of starch being excreted in the manure and the associated odorous compound production. One hundred forty-eight crossbred steers (363 +/- 33 kg of BW) were fed a DRC-or HMC-based diet in a feeding trial, and 8 Charolais-sired steers (447 +/- 22 kg of BW) were used in a nutrient balance study. Steers fed HMC tended to have a slightly lower DMI (P = 0.09), ADG (P = 0.06), and yield grade, but G:F, final HCW, and quality grade did not differ (P > or = 0.23) between treatments. Compared with feeding DRC, feeding HMC decreased (P = 0.02) starch intake from 5,407 to 4,846 g/d, decreased (P or = 0.55). In manure slurries incubated for 35 d with soil and water, total VFA concentration was lower (P < 0.01) in manure from steers fed HMC (1,625 micromol/g of DM) compared with steers fed DRC (3,041 micromol/g of DM). Lower initial (d 0) starch concentrations and greater initial pH was also observed in the slurries from the HMC manure. By d 3 of slurry incubation, there was an increase (P < 0.01) in free glucose and l-lactic acid in the DRC slurries but not in the HMC slurries. During manure incubation, alcohol and VFA content increased (P < 0.01) and pH declined, but to a lesser extent (P < 0.01) in the HMC slurries. However, branched-chain VFA increased more (P < 0.01) in the HMC slurries than in the DRC slurries. These data suggest that feeding HMC instead of DRC decreased fecal starch and production of some potentially odorous compounds in a finishing cattle system but had little impact on animal productivity. PMID:16775061

  7. Research on hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen is closely watched for environmental issues in recent years. In this research, hydrogen production systems and production techniques are widely investigated, and selected some hydrogen production process which have high validity for FBR system. Conclusions of the investigation are shown below. (1) Water-electrolysis processes and steam reform processes at low temperatures are already realized in other fields, so they well be easily adopted for FBR system. FBR system has no advantage when compared with other systems, because water-electrolysis processes can be adopted for other electricity generation system. On the other hand, FBR system has an advantage when steam reforming processes at low temperatures will be adopted, because steam reforming processes at 550-600degC can't be adopted for LWR. (2) Thermochemical processes will be able to adopted for FBR when process temperature will be lowered and material problems solved, because their efficiencies are expected high. Radiolysis processes which use ray (for example, gamma rya) emitted in reactor can be generate hydrogen easily, so they will be able to be adopted for FBR if splitting efficiency will be higher. Further investigation and R and D to realize these processes are considered necessary. (author)

  8. GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY: A MODERN APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE DAIRY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. DUNEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly presents several applications of the geospatial technology as a method to maximize the efficiency of the dairy farm management. The experiment was carried out at Negraşi dairy farm in Târgovişte Plain. A functional farm production and mapping program for detailed farm management information system with several modules: mapping, forage stock, feed forecaster, individual cattle database, fuel consume for field operations and farm inputs database was developed for handheld computers with GPS navigation. Such portable information tools might help the decision making process, the development of ideo-types or in the exploration of land use options to support the policy makers at eco-regional level, the management staff at farm level and various other applications in dairy farms.

  9. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  10. Effect of livestock production on the economic efficiency of irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogić Petar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effect of livestock production on the economic efficiency of investments in irrigation projects. The study was based on a model focused on field crop/livestock production using the data of crop yields in field crop production with or without irrigation, financial results of cattle fattening and milk production and the input and output price relationship. The influence of livestock production on the economic effects of irrigation system utilization was evaluated using the indices of economic efficiency of investments - internal rate of return, net present value and pay-back period. The data on the amount of investments required for the construction of the irrigation system, economic benefit achieved by optimizing production under both irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, with and without livestock production were used to determine these indices.

  11. Magnesium Oxide Induced Metabolic Alkalosis in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogilvie, T. H.; Butler, D G; Gartley, C J; Dohoo, I R

    1983-01-01

    A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic (magnesium sulphate). Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide (MgO) product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4).

  12. Molecular and parasitological study of cryptosporidium isolates from cattle in ilam, west of iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mahami Oskouei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important parasitic infections in human and animals. This study was designed for survey on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in farms of Ilam, west of Iran, using parasitology method and genotyping by Nested PCR-RFLP.Fecal samples of 217 cattle were collected fresh and directly from the rectum of cattle. All of the samples were examined by microscopic observation after staining with modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN. Genomic DNA extracted by using EURx DNA kit. A Nested PCR-RFLP protocol amplifying 825 bp fragment of 18s rRNA gene conducted to differentiate species and genotyping of the isolates using SspI and VspI as restriction enzymes.The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle using both methods is 3.68%. Most of the positive cattle were calves under six months. Species diagnosis carried out by digesting the secondary PCR product with SspI that C. parvum generated 3 visible bands of 448, 247 and 106 bp and digested by VspI restriction enzyme generated 2 visible bands of 628 and 104bp. In this investigation all of the positive samples were Cryptosporidium parvum.C. parvum (bovine genotype detected in all positive cattle samples in Ilam, west of Iran. The results of the present study can help for public health care systems to prevention and management of cryptosporidiosis in cattle and the assessment of cattle cryptosporidiosis as a reservoir for the human infection.

  13. Effects of nutritional supplementation and genotype on milk production and fertility of lactating dairy cattle under tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutrition has a profound influence on milk production and reproductive performance of ruminants. Insufficient intake of energy, protein and minerals is associated with suboptimal reproductive performance resulting in delayed ovulation and reduced conception rates. Lactating cows are in a state of negative energy balance because energy required for milk production and body functions exceed energy ingested. However, the relationships of nutritional dynamics and reproduction are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine effects of nutrition on milk production and fertility in lactating cattle. Forty in-calf cows comprising of 20 Friesian and Sahiwal were selected and upon calving they were randomly assigned to 5 dietary groups consisting of concentrate supplementation at the rate of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 kg fed twice per day after grazing for 24 weeks post partum. Each treatment comprised of 8 cows of 4 Friesian and 4 Sahiwal. Pastures and concentrates were analyzed using proximate analysis to determine nutrient composition. Milk and blood samples were collected biweekly for determination of composition using infrared spectroscopy and progesterone using radioimmunoassay respectively. Cow parameters recorded included milk yield and composition (fat, protein, solids not fat and density). Reproductive data included days from calving to luteal activity as indicated by progesterone profiles (>3nm/L), days to 1st insemination and conception to first service. Data was analyzed by SAS using GLM procedure. Breed, treatment, breed by treatment, parity, and weight of cow significantly affected milk yield. Heavier cows produced more milk with a mean increase of 0.2 kg for each increase in weight. Mean milk yields were different (P < 0.05) at 69.7 ± 1.75 and 47.9 ± 1.4 L for Friesian and Sahiwal cows respectively. Treatment 4 had the highest mean milk yield per week (P < 0.05) in both breeds averaging 88 and 55 L for Friesians and Sahiwal respectively where

  14. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Haroldo HR; Carvalheiro, Roberto; O’Brien, Ana M Pérez; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; do Carmo, Adriana S; Schenkel, Flávio S; Sölkner, Johann; McEwan, John C; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Cole, John B; da Silva, Marcos VGB; Queiroz, Sandra A; Tad S. Sonstegard; Garcia, José Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to accelerate genetic improvement of production and fertility in this breed. We present the first results of the implementation of genomic prediction in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population. Methods Influential bulls were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine HD chip in order to assess genomic predictive ability for weight and carcas...

  15. Evaluating the cost implications of a radio frequency identification feeding system for early detection of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, Barbara; Manns, Braden J; Barkema, Herman W; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S; Dorin, Craig; Orsel, Karin

    2015-03-01

    New technologies to identify diseased feedlot cattle in early stages of illness have been developed to reduce costs and welfare impacts associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). However, the economic value of early BRD detection has never been assessed. The objective was to simulate cost differences between two BRD detection methods during the first 61 d on feed (DOF) applied in moderate- to large-sized feedlots using an automated recording system (ARS) for feeding behavior and the current industry standard, pen-checking (visual appraisal confirmed by rectal temperature). Economic impact was assessed with a cost analysis in a simple decision model. Scenarios for Canadian and US feedlots with high- and low-risk cattle were modeled, and uncertainty was estimated using extensive sensitivity analyses. Input costs and probabilities were mainly extracted from publicly accessible market observations and a large-scale US feedlot study. In the baseline scenario, we modeled high-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 20% within the first 61 DOF in a feedlot of >8000 cattle in Canada. Early BRD detection was estimated to result in a relative risk of 0.60 in retreatment and 0.66 in mortality compared to pen-checking (based on previously published estimates). The additional cost of monitoring health with ARS in Canadian dollar (CAD) was 13.68 per steer. Scenario analysis for similar sized US feedlots and low-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 8% were included to account for variability in costs and probabilities in various cattle populations. Considering the cost of monitoring, all relevant treatment costs and sale price, ARS was more costly than visual appraisal during the first 61 DOF by CAD 9.61 and CAD 9.69 per steer in Canada and the US, respectively. This cost difference increased in low-risk cattle in Canada to CAD 12.45. Early BRD detection with ARS became less expensive if the costs for the system decreased to less than CAD 4.06/steer, or if the underlying true

  16. Contrasting Effects of Cattle Grazing Intensity on Upland-Nesting Duck Production at Nest and Field Scales in the Aspen Parkland, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Warren

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Aspen Parkland of Canada is one of the most important breeding areas for temperate nesting ducks in North America. The region is dominated by agricultural land use, with approximately 9.3 million ha in pasture land for cattle grazing. However, the effects of using land for cattle grazing on upland-nesting duck production are poorly understood. The current study was undertaken during 2001 and 2002 to investigate how nest density and nesting success of upland-nesting ducks varied with respect to the intensity of cattle grazing in the Aspen Parkland. We predicted that the removal and trampling of vegetation through cattle grazing would reduce duck nest density. Both positive and negative responses of duck nesting success to grazing have been reported in previous studies, leading us to test competing hypotheses that nesting success would (1 decline linearly with grazing intensity or (2 peak at moderate levels of grazing. Nearly 3300 ha of upland cover were searched during the study. Despite extensive and severe drought, nest searches located 302 duck nests. As predicted, nest density was higher in fields with lower grazing intensity and higher pasture health scores. A lightly grazed field with a pasture score of 85 out of a possible 100 was predicted to have 16.1 nests/100 ha (95% CI = 11.7–22.1, more than five times the predicted nest density of a heavily grazed field with a pasture score of 58 (3.3 nests/100 ha, 95% CI = 2.2–4.5. Nesting success was positively related to nest-site vegetation density across most levels of grazing intensity studied, supporting our hypothesis that reductions in vegetation caused by grazing would negatively affect nesting success. However, nesting success increased with grazing intensity at the field scale. For example, nesting success for a well-concealed nest in a lightly grazed field was 11.6% (95% CI = 3.6–25.0%, whereas nesting success for a nest with the same level of nest-site vegetation in a heavily

  17. Alert Systems for production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2005-01-01

    We present a new methodology for detecting faults and abnormal behavior in production plants. The methodology stems from a joint project with a Danish energy consortium. During the course of the project we encountered several problems that we believe are common for projects of this type. Most...... system operation, i.e., it does not rely on information about the possible faults. We illustrate the proposed method using real-world data from a coal driven power plant as well as simulated data from an oil production facility....

  18. Performance and ruminal metabolism in beef cattle in grazing system in the dry period of year receiving virginiamycin in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Fernandes Ferreira; Juliano José de Resende Fernandes; João Teodoro Pádua; Ubirajara Oliveira Bilego; Marcos Antônio Sales Lima; Aldi Fernandes de Souza França; Elis Aparecido Bento; Leonardo Guimarães Oliveira; Danilo Grandini

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of including virginiamycin (VM) in two levels, the proteinenergy supplement for growing beef cattle diet with the tropical grass base in the dry season. Three treatments were evaluated: control treatment, only Mineral Supplement ME - Production - F.10 proteinenergy (SPE); 100 virginiamycin treatment (VM 100) + SPE 108 mg (Phigrow®) VM / animal / day and treatment virginiamycin 200 (200 MV) + SPE 216 mg (Phigrow®) VM / animal / day. The variables analyz...

  19. The association between calfhood bovine respiratory disease complex and subsequent departure from the herd, milk production, and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Aaron P; Larson, Robert L; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Bartle, Steven J; Thomson, Daniel U

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency of calfhood producer-identified bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in Holstein replacement heifers on 1 large farm and determine associations between development of BRDC at ≤ 120 days of age (BRDC120) with milk production estimate, calving interval, and risk of departure from the herd (DFH). DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. ANIMALS 14,024 Holstein heifer calves born on 1 farm. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from herd management records. Cox proportional hazard and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations for variables of interest (BRDC120 status, demographic data, and management factors) with DFH, milk production estimate, and calving interval. RESULTS Except for the year 2007, animals identified as having BRDC120 were 1.62 to 4.98 times as likely to leave the herd before first calving, compared with those that did not have this designation. Calves identified as having BRDC prior to weaning were 2.62 times as likely to have DFH before first calving as those classified as developing BRDC after weaning. Cows identified as having BRDC120 were 1.28 times as likely to have DFH between the first and second calving as were other cows. The BRDC120 designation was associated with a 233-kg (513-lb) lower 305-day mature equivalent value for first lactation milk production, but was not associated with longer or shorter calving intervals at maturity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dairy cattle identified as having BRDC120 had increased risk of DFH before the first or second calving and lower first-lactation milk production estimates, compared with results for cattle without this finding. Further investigation of these associations is warranted. PMID:27135672

  20. Sustained reduction in methane production from long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol to a beef cattle diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) to a beef cattle diet results in a sustained reduction in enteric CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated heifers (637 ± 16.2 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments: Control (0 g/d of NOP) and NOP (2 g/d of NOP). Treatments were mixed by hand into the total mixed ration (60% forage, DM basis) at feeding time. Feed offered was restricted to 65% of ad libitum DMI (slightly over maintenance energy intake) and provided once per day. The duration of the experiment was 146 d, including an initial 18-d covariate period without NOP use; a 112-d treatment period with NOP addition to the diet, divided into four 28-d time intervals (d 1 to 28, 29 to 56, 57 to 84, and 85 to 112); and a final 16-d recovery period without NOP use. During the covariate period and at the end of each interval and the end of the recovery period, CH4 was measured for 3 d using whole animal metabolic chambers. The concentration of VFA was measured in rumen fluid samples collected 0, 3, and 6 h after feeding, and the microbial population was evaluated using rumen samples collected 3 h after feeding on d 12 of the covariate period, d 22 of each interval within the treatment period, and d 8 of the recovery period. Average DMI for the experiment was 7.04 ± 0.27 kg. Methane emissions were reduced by 59.2% when NOP was used (9.16 vs. 22.46 g/kg DMI; P beef cattle caused a sustained decrease of methanogenesis, with no sign of adaptation, and that these effects were reversed once NOP addition was discontinued PMID:26020199

  1. Availability Analysis of A Cattle Feed Plant Using Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Garg

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A matrix method is used to estimate the probabilities of complex system events by simplematrix calculation. Unlike existing methods, whose complexity depends highly on the systemevents, the matrix method describes the general system event in a simple matrix form.Therefore, the method provides an easy way to estimate the variation in system performancein terms of availability with respect to time.Purpose- The purpose of paper is to compute availability of cattle feed plant .A Cattle feedplant consists of seven sub-systems working in series. Two subsystems namely mixer andpalletiser are supported by stand-by units having perfect switch over devices and remainingfive subsystems are subjected to major failure.Methodology/approach- The mathematical model of Cattle feed plant has been developedusing Markov birth – death Process.The differential equations are solved using matrix methodand a C-program is developed to study the variation of availability with respect to time.Findings- The study of analysis of availability can help in increasing the production andquality of cattle feed. To ensure the system performance throughout its service life, it isnecessary to set up proper maintenance planning and control which can be done afterstudying the variation of availability with respect to time.

  2. Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Milk Production and Lactation Pattern in an Ethiopian Multibreed Dairy Cattle Population

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyohannes, Gebregziabher; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Elzo, Mauricio A.; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for lactation milk yield (LY), lactation length (LL), average milk yield per day (YD), initial milk yield (IY), peak milk yield (PY), days to peak (DP) and parameters (ln(a) and c) of the modified incomplete gamma function (MIG) in an Ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset was composed of 5,507 lactation records collected from 1,639 cows in three locations (Bako, Debre Zeit and Holetta) i...

  3. Radical production in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes our effort to develop a metric for radiation exposure that is more fundamental than adsorbed dose and upon which a metric for exposure to chemicals could be based. This metric is based on the production of radicals by the two agents. Radicals produced by radiation in biological systems commonly assumed to be the same as those produced in water despite the presence of a variety of complex molecules. This may explain why the extensive efforts to describe the relationship between energy deposition (track structure) and molecular damage to DNA, based on the spectrum of radicals produced, have not been successful in explaining simple biological effects such as cell killing. Current models assume that DNA and its basic elements are immersed in water-like media and only model the production and diffusion of water-based radicals and their interaction with DNA structures; these models lack the cross sections associated with each macro-component of DNA and only treat water-based radicals. It has been found that such models are not realistic because DNA is not immersed in pure water. A computer code capable of simulating electron tracks, low-energy electrons, energy deposition in small molecules, and radical production and diffusion in water like media has been developed. This code is still in at a primitive stage and development is continuing. It is being used to study radical production by radiation, and radical diffusion and interactions in simple molecular systems following their production. We are extending the code to radical production by chemicals to complement our PBPK modeling efforts. It therefore has been developed primarily for use with radionuclides that are in biological materials, and not for radiation fields

  4. A questionnaire survey of the management and use of anthelmintics in cattle and antelope in mixed farming systems in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Madzingira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia to eland (Taurotragus oryx occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n =8 did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6 routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7 % and antelope species (54.5 %. The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4 followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important.

  5. Systemic and local anti-Mullerian hormone reflects differences in the reproduction potential of Zebu and European type cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anja Stojsin-; Mahboubi, Kiana; Costa, Nathalia N; Gillis, Daniel J; Carter, Timothy F; Neal, Michael S; Miranda, Moyses S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (Pl AMH), follicular fluid AMH (FF AMH) and granulosa cell AMH transcript (GC AMH) levels and their relationships with reproductive parameters in two cattle subspecies, Bos taurus indicus (Zebu), and Bos taurus taurus (European type cattle). Two-dimensional ultrasound examination and serum collection were performed on Zebu, European type and crossbreed cows to determine antral follicle count (AFC), ovary diameter (OD) and Pl AMH concentration. Slaughterhouse ovaries for Zebu and European type cattle were collected to determine FF AMH concentrations, GC AMH RNA levels, AFC, oocyte number, cleavage and blastocyst rate. Additionally GC AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) RNA level was measured for European type cattle. Relationship between AMH and reproductive parameters was found to be significantly greater in Zebu compared to European cattle. Average Pl AMH mean±SE for Zebu and European cattle was 0.77±0.09 and 0.33±0.24ng/ml respectively (p=0.01), whereas average antral FF AMH mean±SE for Zebu and European cattle was 4934.3±568.5 and 2977.9±214.1ng/ml respectively (pcattle. Levels of GC AMHR2 RNA in European cattle were correlated to oocyte number (p=0.01). Crossbred animals were found more similar to their maternal Zebu counterparts with respect to their Pl AMH to AFC and OD relationships. These results demonstrate that AMH reflects differences between reproduction potential of the two cattle subspecies therefore can potentially be used as a reproductive marker. Furthermore these results reinforce the importance of separately considering the genetic backgrounds of animals when collecting or interpreting bovine AMH data for reproductive performance. PMID:26898391

  6. Toxicopathology and immunotoxicology of multiple exposures to diesel and crude oils in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subchronic toxicology of crude and refined petroleum in cattle was examined during the course of a large study in which 40 cattle were gavaged with potable water, winter diesel fuel and crude oil for a period of up to 48 days. Blood samples for clinicopathologic parameters were collected weekly. The cattle were necropsied 22 days following the last dose. Representative tissues were taken from all organ systems for histopathology. It was shown that repeated oral exposure to petroleum products resulted in significant changes in the clinicopathologic and immunopathologic parameters of the cattle without producing significant macro- or microscopic tissue lesions. The liver was a target organ for subchronic crude and diesel toxicity. 5 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  7. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  8. Management systems in production operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cullen Enquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster in the U.K. North Sea recommended that an operator should formally present it's company Management System and demonstrate how safety is achieved throughout the life cycle of a platform, from design through operation to abandonment. Brunei Shell Petroleum has prepared a corporate level Safety Management System. As part of Safety Case work, the corporate system is being extended to include the development of specific Management Systems with particular emphasis on offshore production operations involving integrated oil and gas facilities. This paper will describe the development of Management Systems, which includes an intensive Business Process Analysis and will comment upon it's applicability and relationship to ISO 9000. The paper will further describe the applicability and benefits of Management Systems and offer guidance on required effort. The paper will conclude that development of structured Management Systems for safety critical business processes is worthwhile but prioritization of effort will be necessary. As such the full adoption of Management Systems will be directional in nature

  9. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P beef cattle. PMID:27379246

  10. Chemical production processes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E; Muzatko, Danielle S; White, James F; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-04-21

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  11. Chemical production processes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2014-06-17

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  12. Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyabutr, N.; Chanpongsang, S.; Suadsong, S.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33°C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28°C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher ( P IGF-1), but plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T4) levels tended to be lower in non-cooled animals. This study suggests that low cooling temperature accompanied by high humidity influences a galactopoietic effect, in part through increases in ECF, blood volume and plasma volume in association with an increase in DMI, which partitions the distribution of nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Cooled animals were unable to maintain high milk yield as lactation advances even though a high level of body fluids was maintained during long-term cooled exposure. The decline in milk yield, coinciding with a decrease in net energy for lactation as lactation advances, could be attributed to a local change within the mammary gland.

  13. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken L. Smith; Marc E. Leveque

    2005-05-31

    The report herein is a summary of the work performed on three projects to demonstrate hydrocarbon drilling and production methods applicable to deep and ultra deepwater field developments in the Gulf of Mexico and other like applications around the world. This work advances technology that could lead to more economic development and exploitation of reserves in ultra-deep water or remote areas. The first project is Subsea Processing. Its scope includes a review of the ''state of the art'' in subsea components to enable primary production process functions such as first stage liquids and gas separation, flow boosting, chemical treatment, flow metering, etc. These components are then combined to allow for the elimination of costly surface production facilities at the well site. A number of studies were then performed on proposed field development projects to validate the economic potential of this technology. The second project involved the design and testing of a light weight production riser made of composite material. The proposed design was to meet an actual Gulf of Mexico deepwater development project. The various engineering and testing work is reviewed, including test results. The third project described in this report encompasses the development and testing of a close tolerance liner drilling system, a new technology aimed at reducing deepwater drilling costs. The design and prototype testing in a test well are described in detail.

  14. Multi-product, multi-level product control system analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Popplewell, Keith

    1980-01-01

    Several techniques are applicable to the modelling of production and inventory control systems. In this thesis discrete linear control theory is examined as a method of modelling multi-product, multi-level systems. These systems are categorised and a general discrete linear control model is used to determine system stability and to predict system responses to specific patterns of input information. The response of the system to random variability in input or other system variable is also show...

  15. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G;

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 +/- 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary......) and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were determined on M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum aged for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Steers fed on HFMO diet had higher (P < 0.05) nutrient intake (86.39 MJ/d energy; 867 g/d CP), weight gain (919 g/d) and half carcass weight (75.8 kg) than those fed other...

  16. Studies on the utilization of non-protein nitrogen and agricultural by-products as feed for native cattle in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straw-bran-manure silage (SBMS), chopped rice straw or alkali treated straw pellets were added to a basal diet for growing native steers. The SBMS diet yielded the best results for feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, digestibility and costs. Feeding SBMS to lactating Holsteins resulted in a higher feed intake than a corn silage based diet. Milk production and the chemical composition of milk were not influenced by SBMS. The level of moisture in SBMS influenced the microbial population and the contents of lactic and butyric acids in silage. The optimum level of moisture in SBMS was 50% at which harmful microorganisms, such as Coliform and Salmonella, disappeared within 20 d of fermentation. The major Lactobacillus in the fermentation of SBMS was identified as Lactobacillus casei subspecies alatosus. Straw-bran-manure silage can be regarded as a safe and economical roughage for the native cattle and lactating dairy cows. (author)

  17. Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries: Characteristics, potential and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries are discussed with reference to type of systems, their characteristics, potential, and opportunities for improvement. Three types of dairy systems are identified and described: smallholder systems, smallholder co-perative dairy production systems, and intensive dairy production systems. The first two systems are by far the most important, and are associated with increasing intensification. Buffaloes are especially important in South Asia, but elsewhere dairy production mainly involves Holstein-Friesian cross-bred cattle. Dairy goats are important in some countries, but are generally neglected in development programmes. The expansion and intensification of peri-urban dairy production is fuelled by increased demand for milk with associated problems of milk handling and distribution, hygiene and environmental pollution. The major constraints to production are inter alia, choice of species, breeds and availability of animals; feed resources and improved feeding systems; improved breeding, reproduction, and animal health care; management of animal manure, and organised marketing, and market outlets. These constraints provide major opportunities and challenges for research and development to increase dairy production, efficient management of natural resources, and improved livelihoods of poor farmers. Specific areas for research are identified, as also the need of a holistic focus involving interdisciplinary research and integrated natural resource management, in a shared partnership between farmers and scientists that can demonstrate increased productivity and sustainable production systems. Suggestions for performance indicators for such systems are indicated. (author)

  18. A simulation-based approach for evaluating and comparing the environmental footprints of beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Isenberg, B J; Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Pollak, E J

    2013-11-01

    A methodology was developed and used to determine environmental footprints of beef cattle produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, NE, with the goal of quantifying improvements achieved over the past 40 yr. Information for MARC operations was gathered and used to establish parameters representing their production system with the Integrated Farm System Model. The MARC farm, cow-calf, and feedlot operations were each simulated over recent historical weather to evaluate performance, environmental impact, and economics. The current farm operation included 841 ha of alfalfa and 1,160 ha of corn to produce feed predominately for the beef herd of 5,500 cows, 1,180 replacement cattle, and 3,724 cattle finished per year. Spring and fall cow-calf herds were fed on 9,713 ha of pastureland supplemented through the winter with hay and silage produced by the farm operation. Feedlot cattle were backgrounded for 3 mo on hay and silage with some grain and finished over 7 mo on a diet high in corn and wet distillers grain. For weather year 2011, simulated feed production and use, energy use, and production costs were within 1% of actual records. A 25-yr simulation of their current production system gave an average annual carbon footprint of 10.9±0.6 kg of CO2 equivalent units per kg BW sold, and the energy required to produce that beef (energy footprint) was 26.5±4.5 MJ/kg BW. The annual water required (water footprint) was 21,300±5,600 L/kg BW sold, and the water footprint excluding precipitation was 2,790±910 L/kg BW. The simulated annual cost of producing their beef was US$2.11±0.05/kg BW. Simulation of the production practices of 2005 indicated that the inclusion of distillers grain in animal diets has had a relatively small effect on environmental footprints except that reactive nitrogen loss has increased 10%. Compared to 1970, the carbon footprint of the beef produced has decreased 6% with no change in the energy footprint, a 3% reduction

  19. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2004-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2003 through September, 2004. At the end of the last technical progress report, the subsea processing aspects of the work program had been dropped due to the lack of commercial opportunity within ConocoPhillips, and the program had been redirected towards two other promising deepwater technologies: the development and demonstration of a composite production riser, and the development and testing of a close-tolerance liner drilling system. This report focuses on these two technologies.

  20. Use of a Marker Organism To Model the Spread of Central Nervous System Tissue in Cattle and the Abattoir Environment during Commercial Stunning and Carcass Dressing

    OpenAIRE

    D.J. Daly; Prendergast, D M; Sheridan, J. J.; Blair, I. S.; McDowell, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Due to concerns about a link between variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and similar prion protein-induced disease in cattle, i.e., bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), strict controls are in place to exclude BSE-positive animals and/or specified risk materials including bovine central nervous system (CNS) tissue from the human food chain. However, current slaughter practice, using captive bolt guns, may induce disruption of brain tissues and mobilize CNS tissues into the bovine ci...

  1. Prevalence of leptospirosis in dairy cattle from small rural production units in Toluca Valley, State of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, L L; Garcia, R C; Diaz, C O; Valdez, R B; Carmona, G C A; Velazquez, B L G

    2008-12-01

    In order to know the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in stabled dairy cattle, a study was conducted from 2004 to 2006 in which 416 sera were tested using a microscopic agglutination test conducted on microplates. A collection of culture reference antigens, each representing a serogroup, was used for these tests. Results showed that 10.33% (43) of the animals had antibody titers ranging from 1:100 to 1:1600. The main serovars detected in these tests were L. interrogans serovar hardjo and L. interrogans serovar canicola. It is important to note that these serovars represent a high risk for transmission to other susceptible animal species, between individuals, and to human health. This serological survey provides useful information establishing the presence or absence of these serovars in this type of herd. The range of antigens used in this study included serovars representative of all common serogroups. PMID:19120231

  2. Product Architecture as a Coordination System (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    OKUNO (FUJIWARA) Masahiro; Watanabe, Yasunori

    2006-01-01

    Baldwin and Clark (2000) brought the substantial attention to the concept of product architecture. This concept, particularly the concept of module architecture, defines a product system as a "coordination system," taking the viewpoint that a product system is an object that is used by human users or developed by human developers. In this paper, product architecture is defined as a design concept for a product system that calls for complex part-to-part coordination in order to fulfill the use...

  3. Impacts of climate change and climate variability on the competitiveness of wheat and beef cattle production in Emerald, north-east Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, S M; McKeon, G M; Meinke, H; Entel, M; Flood, N

    2001-09-01

    Emerald, north-east Queensland, is at the northern margin of the wheat cropping region of Australia. The Emerald region was previously used predominantly for grazing beef cattle; however, cropping has developed in importance over the past 30 years. We use historical climate records (1890-1998) to simulate and compare wheat yields, grass production and live-weight gain (LWG) over time. The cropping expansion from the 1970s to the early 1990s has occurred in a unique period in the 108-year record with the highest average wheat yields, lowest wheat yield variability and the greatest relative productivity of wheat production against grass production. If this window of opportunity is a result of long-term climate variability, then cropping is likely to decline in the region as conditions return to those experienced earlier in the record. If this increase is related to climate change, then cropping is likely to persist in the region with productivity maintained at current levels particularly through the yield-enhancing effects of increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, this persistence will be influenced by the frequencies of El Niño conditions that may increase with global warming. The high relative productivities experienced over the past few decades have probably biased producers' expectations, and applications for drought support need to take into account the longer-term perspective provided by this analysis. Nevertheless, the last 6 years have the lowest simulated mean LWG production on the record. The identification of poor production periods depended on the production element being addressed and the timescale involved. PMID:11697663

  4. Predicting the effect of anthelmintic treatment on milk production of dairy cattle in Canada using an Ostertagia ostertagi ELISA from individual milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Dohoo, Ian; Sanchez, Javier; Sithole, Fortune; Keefe, Gregory; Stryhn, Henrik

    2013-08-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes, such as Ostertagia ostertagi and several species of Cooperia, are ubiquitous in temperate climates and have been shown to have detrimental effects on production in adult dairy cattle. A published meta-analysis demonstrated that overall, producers lose approximately 0.35 kg of milk per parasitized cow per day. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have the ability to quantify nematode infections in cattle, and thus, could be used to estimate the amount of milk production loss due to differing levels of parasitism at the individual cow level. ELISA results from individual cow milk samples were used to predict milk production response following a randomized anthelmintic treatment in a large field trial. To increase statistical power, the data collected from this field trial was pooled with data from two other published field trials to form an individual patient data meta-analysis (IPDMA). The ability to predict the effect of anthelmintic treatment on milk production depends on the level of parasitism quantified by an ELISA measuring milk antibodies against O. ostertagi, and reported as optical density ratios (ODRs). Therefore, the estimates from the interaction between ODR and treatment on milk production were used to determine how well the ODR predicted the response of the treatment. It was anticipated that the relationship between milk production and ODR was unlikely to be linear, so fractional polynomials were applied to the continuous ODR values. The interaction in the field trial showed a trend (p=0.138) toward a beneficial treatment effect when the individual ODR values, measured in late lactation and using Svanovir(®), were greater than 0.12. When individual data from two other similar studies were included in an IPDMA, the interaction terms became statistically significant (p=0.009) indicating that there is a beneficial treatment effect when ODR values are slightly elevated. A graph was used to demonstrate the treatment

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF RURAL SUBSISTENCE SMALL HOLDER LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF NWFP, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Khan and R. H. Usmani

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the rural mountainous areas of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan to characterize small holder’s subsistence livestock production system. Livestock farmers (n=82 were interviewed in 16 villages of Batagram and Mansehra districts. The farmers were keeping on an average 4 buffalos, 1 cattle, 12 sheep or 13 goats per household. More than 94% farmers were keeping 4 buffaloes per household as compared to only 40% keeping 1 or 2 cattle. Buffaloes were main dairy animals producing 7.9 liters of milk/day or 2370 liters per lactation of 300 days. Local non-descript cows were producing only 2.5 liters of milk per day. Animals of all species were found to be underfed, as they depended mostly on self growing local grasses for grazing. Only milking animals were offered some concentrates in the form of cottonseed cake and wheat bran. Milk was mostly consumed at the household level or converted into butter oil. Age at first calving and calving interval of buffaloes were longer than those of cows. Incidence of livestock diseases was high in the area. Major diseases in cattle and buffaloes were haemorrhagic septicaemia and internal parasites. Pleuropneumonia and parasitism were major disease problems in small ruminants. It was estimated that gross profit averaged Rs. 32475 per buffalo, Rs. 3320 per sheep and Rs. 5314 per goat per year. Gross margin for cattle was negative and the farmers were sustaining a loss of Rs. 1960 per cow per year. Keeping in view the poor production environments, the overall performance of animals was encouraging and offered considerable scope for improvement.

  6. Traditional vs modern: role of breed type in determining enteric methane emissions from cattle grazing as part of contrasting grassland-based systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland and extensive (upland production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity. Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d-1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d-1; P<0.001, leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d-1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d-1; P<0.001. While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg-1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg-1 LWG; P<0.001. Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location.

  7. Traditional vs modern: role of breed type in determining enteric methane emissions from cattle grazing as part of contrasting grassland-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mariecia D; Fleming, Hannah R; Moorby, Jon M

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland) and extensive (upland) production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross) and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black) when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity) and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity). Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d-1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d-1; P<0.001), leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d-1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d-1; P<0.001). While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG) were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg-1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg-1 LWG; P<0.001). Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location. PMID:25259617

  8. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  9. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma Diwyanto; Atien Priyanti

    2008-01-01

    Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that i...

  10. Incidence and economic impact of rabies in the cattle population of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibat, Tariku; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-08-01

    Rabies is a viral disease that can cause fatal encephalomyelitis both in animals and humans. Although incidences of the disease in cattle have been reported, insight in the economic impact of the disease in livestock remains limited. By affecting cattle in subsistence systems, rabies may have extensive economic impacts at household and country levels, in addition to the effects on human health. This study presents estimates of the direct economic impact of rabies at herd level in two representative subsistence cattle-farming systems in Ethiopia, the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems. The economic impacts were assessed by a structured questionnaire administered to 532 cattle-owning households. These households were selected from four districts within two administrative zones; each zone representing a cattle production system. Rabies incidence rates of 21% and 11% at herd level were calculated for the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems, respectively. The incidence rate at cattle level was the same in both systems., i.e. 2%. Herd-level incidence rates were higher in the mixed crop-livestock system than in the pastoral system (PUSD per year for the mixed-crop livestock system, and at 52 USD per year for the pastoral system; whereas in affected herds the average losses per year were 228 USD (range 48-1016 USD) in the mixed crop-livestock system, and 477 USD (range 173-1140 USD) in the pastoral system. The average herd-level economic losses were not significantly different between the farming systems; however once the herd was affected, the losses were significantly higher for the pastoral system than for the mixed crop-livestock system (P<0.01). The losses due to rabies in cattle are relatively high for pastoral households, due to their complete dependency on livestock for their livelihoods. Although the current estimates only account for the direct losses resulting from cattle mortality, the estimates already indicate the potential

  11. COMPETITIVENESS OF THE BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION CHAIN IN THE STATE OF TOCANTINS, BRAZIL COMPETITIVIDADE DA CADEIA PRODUTIVA DA CARNE BOVINA NO ESTADO DO TOCANTINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Firmino Araújo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this paper is to discuss and analyze the beef cattle chain competitiveness in the State of Tocantins, Brazil, based on some indicators and using as parameters three Brazilian states, which present the largest slaughtering and beef cattle production volume numbers: Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo. The beef cattle chain, in Tocantins, depicts a formation process scenery and, as compared to the other three mentioned states, a still low competitive performance. The detailed examination of the present situation points out that, in all segments studied (livestock production, slaughtering/processing, distribution, and consumption, the indexes indicate a necessity of efforts to reach development factors that bring competitiveness and that will allow the Tocantins results to approach the national sector leaders.

    KEY-WORDS: Beef cattle chain; competitiveness; Tocantins.

    O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a competitividade do sistema agroindustrial da carne bovina do Tocantins, com base em alguns direcionadores, tendo como parâmetro as tr

  12. Practical applications of trace minerals for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, T R; Yasui, T

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace

  13. On cluster systems of tensor product systems of Hilbert spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Mithun

    2015-01-01

    It is known that the spatial product of two product systems is intrinsic. Here we extend this result by analyzing subsystems of the tensor product of product systems. A relation with cluster systems is established. In a special case, we show that the amalgamated product of product systems through strictly contractive units is independent of the choices of the units. The amalgamated product in this case is isomorphic to the tensor product of the spatial product of the two and the type I produc...

  14. Incidence and persistence of zoonotic bacterial and protozoan pathogens in a beef cattle feedlot runoff control vegetative treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Elaine D; Woodbury, Bryan L; Nienaber, John A; Eigenberg, Roger A; Thurston, Jeanette A; Wells, James E

    2007-01-01

    Determining the survival of zoonotic pathogens in livestock manure and runoff is critical for understanding the environmental and public health risks associated with these wastes. The occurrence and persistence of the bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter spp. in a passive beef cattle feedlot runoff control-vegetative treatment system were examined over a 26-mo period. Incidence of the protozoans Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. was also assessed. The control system utilizes a shallow basin to collect liquid runoff and accumulate eroded solids from the pen surfaces; when an adequate liquid volume is attained, the liquid is discharged from the basin onto a 4.5-ha vegetative treatment area (VTA) of bromegrass which is harvested as hay. Basin discharge transported E. coli O157, Campylobacter spp., and generic E. coli into the VTA soil, but without additional discharge from the basin, the pathogen prevalences decreased over time. Similarly, the VTA soil concentrations of generic E. coli initially decreased rapidly, but lower residual populations persisted. Isolation of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from VTA samples was infrequent, indicating differences in sedimentation and/or transport in comparison to bacteria. Isolation of generic E. coli from freshly cut hay from VTA regions that received basin discharge (12 of 30 vs. 1 of 30 control samples) provided evidence for the risk of contamination; however, neither E. coli O157 or Campylobacter spp. were recovered from the hay following baling. This work indicates that the runoff control system is effective for reducing environmental risk by containing and removing pathogens from feedlot runoff. PMID:17965390

  15. Brief Introduction to Compulsory Product Certification System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ What is Compulsory Product Certification System? Compulsory Product Certification System is a kind of product qualifying assessment system which implements under laws and regulations by states in order to protect life security of human, animals and plants as well as environmental protection and national security.

  16. Generalised glycogenosis in Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, B M; Healy, P J; Fraser, I R; Nieper, R E; Whittle, R J; Sewell, C A

    1981-05-01

    Generalised glycogenosis was diagnosed in Brahman cattle on 4 Queensland properties on the basis of clinical observations and pathological and biochemical findings. The disease presented as a problem of ill-thrift and poor growth rate in calves which eventually showed nervous signs. Histologically there was vacuolation in the cells of the central nervous system, heart and muscular tissues. Biochemical assay of liver and blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a deficiency of alpha-glucosidase. Parents of affected calves had approximately half the alpha-glucosidase activity of that found in normal cattle. PMID:6945845

  17. Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyabutr, N; Chanpongsang, S; Suadsong, S

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33 degrees C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28 degrees C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher (P water intakes were lower (P levels for triiodotyronine (T(3)) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T(4)) levels tended to be lower in non-cooled animals. This study suggests that low cooling temperature accompanied by high humidity influences a galactopoietic effect, in part through increases in ECF, blood volume and plasma volume in association with an increase in DMI, which partitions the distribution of nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Cooled animals were unable to maintain high milk yield as lactation advances even though a high level of body fluids was maintained during long-term cooled exposure. The decline in milk yield, coinciding with a decrease in net energy for lactation as lactation advances, could be attributed to a local change within the mammary gland. PMID:18427839

  18. Product Configuration Systems - Implications for Product Innovation and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2004-01-01

    configurations. However, costs are but one parameter on which firms compete and firms must continually innovate new and develop existing products. This paper presents original empirical insights on implementation and use of product configuration systems in a number of Danish industrial firms. The paper discusses...... the organisational changes associated with PCS and how this affects product innovation and development. The paper begins by introducing product configuration systems, which are then placed in context to the firm as a process technology which coordinate different processes: product development, order......Product Configuration Systems (PCS) is a step in the direction of mass customization in the sense that PCS allows a firm to significantly lower the unit cost of configuration. Thus PCS is a valuable technology for lowering operating costs while retaining a high number of possible product...

  19. Cholistan and Cholistani Breed of Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq, H. A. Samad*, F. Sher1, M. Asim1 and M. Arif Khan2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholistan, once a green and prosperous land with the source of water being the ancient Hakra River, was also the cradle of great Hakra Valley Civilization. It is sprawled at an area of 26,000 Km2, located between the latitudes 27º42´and 29º45´North and longitudes 69º52´and 75º24´East. The bioclimatic system of Cholistan falls under the category of “tropical desert” with very scanty rainfall. Geomorphologically, the soils of Cholistan are a complex blend of river alluvium and Aeolin sands. Based on topography, type of soil and vegetation, this desert is divided into two geomorphic regions: the Lesser Cholistan (the Northern 7,770 Km² region and the Greater Cholistan (the Southern 18,130 Km² region. The primary source of water is rainfall which is utilized through natural depressions or man-made ponds called “Tobas” and “Dahars.” The secondary source is underground water which is brackish and salty and not fit for human/animal consumption. Two livestock production systems prevail under pastoralism in Cholistan viz. transhumanie and nomadic. Despite an uncertain, unpredictable rainfall, low humidity and extremes in temperatures, Cholistan has long been famous for raising different breeds of livestock, contributing a significant share to national milk, meat and wool output. The total livestock population estimated during 2006 was 12,09528, out of which 47% were cattle. Cholistani cattle are considered to be ancestor of the Sahiwal and are a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant breed. Preliminary data on some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows maintained at Govt. Livestock Station, Jugait Peer, Bahawalpur during the period 2005 to 2009 revealed the avergae values for the productive traits i.e. lactation length, lactation yield, dry period, service period and fat percentage in milk as 165 days, 1235 liters, 155 days, 121 days and 4.8%, respectively. Similarly, the average values for reproductive traits i.e. age at

  20. Impact of global warming on beef cattle production cost in Brazil Impacto do aquecimento global no custo de produção de carne bovina no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenilza de Alencar Nääs

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is affecting agribusiness in its economic aspects. Therefore, the prediction of the evolution of Brazilian beef cattle production cost was made using the IPCC forecast scenario for global warming. The methodology consisted of two steps: (i the development of a fuzzy model that estimated the grazing land capacity (RP decrease risk as a function of the changes in the average total rain index, air temperature and increase in extension of the dry season; and (ii the design of an algorithm for predicting the decrease in production as function of the RPfuzzy model, that results in the impact in beef cattle productivity, and consequent increase in production costs. Historical environmental data from important producing counties in the Cerrado were organized and a set of fuzzy Gaussian functions were developed, and three possible settings (optimistic, medium and pessimistic were considered. The decrease in beef cattle productivity was estimated using the losses in production due to the increase in air temperature and vulnerability of pasture capacity. The boundary settings for the total increase of production cost scenario used the number of animals per area of grazing land, the adoption of grain supplement and its future scenario; and the result output function pointed to a threshold within a variation from an increase in production cost of 80% (optimistic to 160% (pessimistic. Under the optimistic scenario the total cost of Brazilian beef cattle production in the Cerrado became near to US$ 2.88 kg-1, while in the pessimistic scenario this cost reached US$ 4.16 kg-1, challenging the international competitiveness of this economic segment.O aquecimento global afeta o agronegócio em seus aspectos econômicos. Foi feita previsão daevolução do custo de produção de carne bovina brasileira usando a predição de aquecimento global do IPCC. A metodologia consistiu de duas etapas: (i o desenvolvimento de modelo fuzzy que estimou o risco de

  1. Mycotoxins in pathophysiology of cattle diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also presented Fumonisin B1 and B2. The work also describes preventive possibilities and protection of animal health from the effects of mycotoxins.

  2. Abundance and fate of antibiotics and hormones in a vegetative treatment system receiving cattle feedlot runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative treatment systems (VTS) have been developed and built as an alternative to conventional holding pond systems for managing run-off from animal feeding operations. Initially developed to manage runoff nutrients via uptake by grasses, their effectiveness at removing other runoff contaminant...

  3. A social-ecological systems framework for food systems research: accommodating transformation systems and their products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham R. Marshall

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems (SES framework was developed to support communication across the multiple disciplines concerned with sustainable provision and/or appropriation of common-pool resources (CPRs. Transformation activities (e.g. processing, distribution, retailing in which value is added to resource units appropriated from CPRs were assumed in developing the framework to be exogenous to the SES of focal concern. However, provision and appropriation of CPRs are nowadays often closely integrated with the market economy, so significant interdependence exists between many CPR provision/appropriation activities and the activities in which appropriated resource units are transformed into the products ultimately marketed. This paper presents a modified version of the SES framework designed to better account for transformation activities in order to be more suitable for diagnosing those sustainability problems where it is inappropriate to define all such activities as exogenous to the SES of focal concern. The need for such modification was identified in a research project examining the challenges faced by Cambodian cattle-owning smallholders in accessing value chains for premium-priced beef. Hence the immediate focus was on strengthening the SES framework’s value for facilitating a multi-disciplinary diagnostic approach to food system research projects of this kind. The modified SES framework’s potential in this respect was illustrated by a preliminary application that drew on literature reviewed for the Cambodian project. Significant further potential exists in using the modified framework as a foundation from which to develop a version that is suitable for application to SESs in which transformation systems are appropriately represented as endogenous. Maintaining consistency with the standard SES framework will enable communication to occur more effectively between food system researchers and CPR scholars more generally.

  4. Variance components and genetic parameters for milk production and lactation pattern in an ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyohannes, Gebregziabher; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Elzo, Mauricio A; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for lactation milk yield (LY), lactation length (LL), average milk yield per day (YD), initial milk yield (IY), peak milk yield (PY), days to peak (DP) and parameters (ln(a) and c) of the modified incomplete gamma function (MIG) in an Ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset was composed of 5,507 lactation records collected from 1,639 cows in three locations (Bako, Debre Zeit and Holetta) in Ethiopia from 1977 to 2010. Parameters for MIG were obtained from regression analysis of monthly test-day milk data on days in milk. The cows were purebred (Bos indicus) Boran (B) and Horro (H) and their crosses with different fractions of Friesian (F), Jersey (J) and Simmental (S). There were 23 breed groups (B, H, and their crossbreds with F, J, and S) in the population. Fixed and mixed models were used to analyse the data. The fixed model considered herd-year-season, parity and breed group as fixed effects, and residual as random. The single and two-traits mixed animal repeatability models, considered the fixed effects of herd-year-season and parity subclasses, breed as a function of cow H, F, J, and S breed fractions and general heterosis as a function of heterozygosity, and the random additive animal, permanent environment, and residual effects. For the analysis of LY, LL was added as a fixed covariate to all models. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using average information restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The results indicated that all traits were affected (p<0.001) by the considered fixed effects. High grade B×F cows (3/16B 13/16F) had the highest least squares means (LSM) for LY (2,490±178.9 kg), IY (10.5±0.8 kg), PY (12.7±0.9 kg), YD (7.6±0.55 kg) and LL (361.4±31.2 d), while B cows had the lowest LSM values for these traits. The LSM of LY, IY, YD, and PY tended to increase from the first to the fifth parity. Single

  5. Optimizing Stocking Rate for Maximum Return to Wheat-cattle Enterprise Using Model Simulation and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing dual-purpose wheat is complex because of the tradeoff relationship between cattle (Bos taurus) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. Stocking rate (SR) and planting date are the key decision variables of the dual systems. The objective was to develop decision support information th...

  6. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cattle with abomasal displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, K; Turgut, K

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate haemostatic function in cattle with abomasal displacement (AD) and to reflect the occurrence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Ten adult cattle with left displacement of abomasum (LDA) (group I), 10 adult cattle with right displacement of abomasum with volvulus (RDA) (group II) and 10 clinically healthy adult cattle (control group) were used as material. Numbers of platelets (PLT) and coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), serum fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs), fibrinogen) were measured before the surgical treatment of cattle with LDA and RDA. APTT was prolonged only in group II compared with the control and group I (pcattle in group I and three cattle in group II had at least three abnormal coagulation profiles, which reflect the occurrence of DIC. These cattle died after surgical treatment. The two cattle with LDA had abnormal APTT, FDPs and PLT values; three cattle with RDA had abnormal APTT, PT, TT, FDPs and PLT values. APTT (5 cases), FDPs (5 cases) and thrombocytopenia (5 cases) were the three most common abnormal tests on coagulation profile in the cattle with LDA and RDA. The results of the study indicate that cattle with AD had a spectrum of haemostatic dysfunction and that DIC was a significant risk factor for mortality. PMID:15727292

  7. Adaptive traits of indigenous cattle breeds: The Mediterranean Baladi as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtay, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review. PMID:26025652

  8. Hemochromatosis in Salers cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J K; Smith, B P; Maas, J; Lane, V M; Anderson, B C; Graham, T W; Pino, M V

    1994-01-01

    Two 2-year-old Salers cattle from different herds raised on pasture were evaluated for retarded growth and diarrhea. Increase of liver enzyme activities and prolonged sulfobromophothalein (BSP) half life (T1/2) indicated liver disease with impaired liver function. Histopathologic examination of liver biopsies revealed a micronodular cirrhosis with marked deposition of hemosiderin in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and arterioles. Transferrin saturation (TS) and liver iron content were markedly increased, consistent with a diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Both animals were euthanatized due to deterioration in their condition. Necropsy findings included hepatomegaly and hemosiderin accumulation in the liver, lymph nodes, pancreas, spleen, thyroid, kidney, brain and other glandular tissue. Continued surveillance of the second herd (serum iron, total iron binding capacity [TIBC], unsaturated iron binding capacity [UIBC], and TS), identified a heifer as a hemochromatosis suspect in a subsequent generation. Liver biopsies from that animal revealed the same histopathologic changes as the previous 2 animals, and similar increases in liver iron content (8,700 ppm, normal range 45 to 300 ppm). The 3 affected cattle were all products of line breeding programs and shared a common ancestor. The absence of dietary iron loading in conjunction with the histopathologic and metabolic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of primary hemochromatosis. The reported disease is similar to idiopathic hemochromatosis in human beings in which there is a hereditary defect in iron metabolism. PMID:8046672

  9. Reproductive disorder studies using radioimmunoassay (RIA) progesterone on dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two intensive systems of husbandry practices, Garut West Java and Yogyakarta Central Java, were chosen for this study. Both areas have been voluntarily made into a pilot farm for the application of RIA progesterone to improve reproductive performance. Five dairy cattle from Garut West Java, which according to Health Extension and Artificial Insemination Technicians anamneses and according to farmers who own the animal, were showing reproductive failure and were selected from those cattle for the study. Other fifteen dairy cattle from Yogyakarta area, with anamneses of having low reproductive performance, were also selected for this study. Milk progesterone sample were collected twice a week for five consecutive weeks period of time to follow the biological reproductive status of every animal, while samples from dairy cattle at Yogyakarta were collected three times post Artificial Insemination (AI) services, as according to Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) procedure, to monitor the failure of AI, success rate of AI, and ovarian activities of the cattle. Result of the study in Garut shows that RIA progesterone indicates that animals need special treatments and most AI failed due to lack of historical information of the dairy cows. RIA progesterone leads to a suggestion that it can be use as a tool to monitor the reproductive disorder, as the recommendation made for those cows to anticipate reproductive disorder overcome the problems. Similar result found in Yogyakarta, which almost 50% of the observed animals failed to AI due to miss-estrus detection. Furthermore, from the RIA for milk progesterone, information of the reproductive disorder figures can be drawn and early suggestion could be made to anticipate losses. Overall, beside the reproductive historical record, RIA progesterone is important tool to be applied in the animal husbandry system in Indonesia as to improve the herd productivity and has an economical value to reduce operational cost

  10. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  11. Production System Design for Multiple Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Christensen, Irene

    Production systems enabling both cost efficiency and flexibility in terms of high product variation are explored. The study follows an explorative longitudinal field study approach. The database consists of three large global corporations, each consisting of several companies producing household ......-outs, worker skills, integration of distribution channels, after sales service and degree of servitization. Three production system design principles called VXY emerge....

  12. Product/Service-System Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Gall, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Product/service-systems’ (PSS) are innovation strategies where instead of focusing on the value of selling physical products, one focuses on the value of the utility of products and services throughout the product’s life period. This approach enables companies to provide customers with offerings...... that continuously deliver value and create a strong competitive advantage. PSS attempts to transcend the old industrial credo that value is embedded in products and the consideration of ‘cost-quality-time’ relates to the physical artefact. While there is increasing interest in PSS, limited research has...

  13. Agro-industrial by-products as roughage source for beef cattle: Chemical composition, nutrient digestibility and energy values of ensiled sweet corn cob and husk with different levels of Ipil – Ipil leaves.

    OpenAIRE

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to determine the nutritive value of agro-industrial by-products and nutrient digestibility of ensiled sweet corn cob and husk with different levels of Ipil - Ipil leaves (Leucaena leucocephala). Four native cattle were assigned by Latin Square Design to receive all dietary treatments in four experimental periods i.e. ensiled sweet corn cob and husk (ESCH), ensiled sweet corn cob and husk + 10 % Ipil - Ipil leaves (ESCH + 10% IL), ensiled sweet corn cob and husk...

  14. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed...

  15. Mapping cattle trade routes in southern Somalia: a method for mobile livestock keeping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempia, S; Braidotti, F; Aden, H H; Abdulle, M H; Costagli, R; Otieno, F T

    2010-12-01

    The Somali economy is the only one in the world in which more than half the population is dependent on nomadic pastoralism. Trade typically involves drovers trekking animals over long distances to markets. A pilot approach for mapping trade routes was undertaken, using the Afmadow to Garissa routes in southern Somalia. The methodology included conducting a workshop with traders to gather preliminary information about the most-used routes and general husbandry practices and training selected drovers to collect data about key features along the routes, using hand-held global positioning system (GPS) devices, radio collar GPS and pictorial data forms. Collected data were then integrated into geographic information systems for analysis. The resultant spatial maps describe the Afmadow to Garissa routes, the speed of livestock movement along these routes and relevant environmental and social features affecting this speed. These data are useful for identifying critical control points for health screening along the routes, which may enable the establishment of a livestock certification system in nomadic pastoral environments. PMID:21309449

  16. Promising system for selecting healthy in vitro-fertilized embryos in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Somfai, Tamás; Inaba, Yasushi; Hirayama, Muneyuki; Yamanouchi, Tadayuki; Matsuda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Shuji; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Kobayashi, Eiji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Conventionally, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) bovine embryos are morphologically evaluated at the time of embryo transfer to select those that are likely to establish a pregnancy. This method is, however, subjective and results in unreliable selection. Here we describe a novel selection system for IVF bovine blastocysts for transfer that traces the development of individual embryos with time-lapse cinematography in our developed microwell culture dish and analyzes embryonic metabolism. The system can noninvasively identify prognostic factors that reflect not only blastocyst qualities detected with histological, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis but also viability after transfer. By assessing a combination of identified prognostic factors--(i) timing of the first cleavage; (ii) number of blastomeres at the end of the first cleavage; (iii) presence or absence of multiple fragments at the end of the first cleavage; (iv) number of blastomeres at the onset of lag-phase, which results in temporary developmental arrest during the fourth or fifth cell cycle; and (v) oxygen consumption at the blastocyst stage--pregnancy success could be accurately predicted (78.9%). The conventional method or individual prognostic factors could not accurately predict pregnancy. No newborn calves showed neonatal overgrowth or death. Our results demonstrate that these five predictors and our system could provide objective and reliable selection of healthy IVF bovine embryos. PMID:22590579

  17. Promising system for selecting healthy in vitro-fertilized embryos in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Sugimura

    Full Text Available Conventionally, in vitro-fertilized (IVF bovine embryos are morphologically evaluated at the time of embryo transfer to select those that are likely to establish a pregnancy. This method is, however, subjective and results in unreliable selection. Here we describe a novel selection system for IVF bovine blastocysts for transfer that traces the development of individual embryos with time-lapse cinematography in our developed microwell culture dish and analyzes embryonic metabolism. The system can noninvasively identify prognostic factors that reflect not only blastocyst qualities detected with histological, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis but also viability after transfer. By assessing a combination of identified prognostic factors--(i timing of the first cleavage; (ii number of blastomeres at the end of the first cleavage; (iii presence or absence of multiple fragments at the end of the first cleavage; (iv number of blastomeres at the onset of lag-phase, which results in temporary developmental arrest during the fourth or fifth cell cycle; and (v oxygen consumption at the blastocyst stage--pregnancy success could be accurately predicted (78.9%. The conventional method or individual prognostic factors could not accurately predict pregnancy. No newborn calves showed neonatal overgrowth or death. Our results demonstrate that these five predictors and our system could provide objective and reliable selection of healthy IVF bovine embryos.

  18. Environmental and Public Health Issues of Animal Food Products Delivery System in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opara Maxwell Nwachukwu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on livestock movement, animal food products processing facilities, meat inspection methods, official meat inspection records and distribution and marketing systems for processed products in Imo state, Nigeria needed for policy development interventions in the sector are not fully understood. The primary data generated with the aid of personal interviews, field observations and secondary data obtained from records accumulated by the department of veterinary services Imo state from 2001 to 2004 were used to investigate the environmental and public health issues of animal food products delivery system in state. Majority of trade animals supplied to the state originated from the northern states of the country and were brought in with trucks by road. Only two veterinary control posts served the whole state thus resulting in non-inspection and taxing of a large proportion of trade animals. Official record of trade animals supplied to the state from 2001 to 2004 ranged from 45000 – 144000 for cattle, 23000 – 96000 for goats and 11000 – 72000 for sheep per annum, with supplies increasing steadily across the years. Official slaughter points in the state were principally low-grade quality slaughter premises consisting of a thin concrete slab. Meat handling was very unhygienic with carcasses dressed beside refuse heaps of over 2 years standing. Carcasses were dragged on the ground and transported in taxi boots and open trucks. Meat inspection at these points was not thorough because of stiff resistance of butchers to carcass condemnation. Official meat inspection records for the state from 2001 to 2004 revealed that overall totals of 159,000 cattle, 101,000 goats and 67,000 sheep were slaughtered. This accounted for about 56, 57 and 57% shortfall of cattle, goat and sheep respectively supplied to the state and represents the volume of un-inspected animals during the study period. Fascioliasis and tuberculosis were the most common

  19. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J.; Carriquiry, Miguel; Dong, Fengxia; Du, Xiaodong; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Martin, Pamela A.; Mulik, Kranti

    2012-06-01

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally.

  20. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

  1. System for quantitative measurements of methane emission from dairy cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Johannes, Maike; Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    quantitative measurements of methane, based on the principles for an open circuit system for indirect calorimetry. The chambers are transparent (polycarbonate) and open in the bottom, the inlet air is coming from the barn, and air-condition is a simple radiator to cool and condense for dehumidifying the......, water bowl and draining of urine and faeces. The air flow out of the chambers can be controlled individually by a motor controller. The outlet is in the top of the chambers through a filter box to reduce the dust content before the flow meter (Teledyne Hastings, delivered by Columbus instruments, Ohio...

  2. System for quantitative measurements of methane emission from dairy cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Johannes, Maike;

    , water bowl and draining of urine and faeces. The air flow out of the chambers can be controlled individually by a motor controller. The outlet is in the top of the chambers through a filter box to reduce the dust content before the flow meter (Teledyne Hastings, delivered by Columbus instruments, Ohio...... quantitative measurements of methane, based on the principles for an open circuit system for indirect calorimetry. The chambers are transparent (polycarbonate) and open in the bottom, the inlet air is coming from the barn, and air-condition is a simple radiator to cool and condense for dehumidifying the...

  3. Lifetime productivity of dairy cows in smallholder farming systems of the Central highlands of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, M C; Herrero, M; Van Wijk, M T; Hemerik, L; De Ridder, N; Giller, K E

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of lifetime productivity is sensible to target interventions for improving productivity of smallholder dairy systems in the highlands of East Africa, because cows are normally not disposed of based on productive reasons. Feeding strategies and involuntary culling may have long-term effects on productive (and therefore economic) performance of dairy systems. Because of the temporal scale needed to evaluate lifetime productivity, experimentation with feedstuffs in single lactations is not enough to assess improvements in productivity. A dynamic modelling approach was used to explore the effect of feeding strategies on the lifetime productivity of dairy cattle. We used LIVSIM (LIVestock SIMulator), an individual-based, dynamic model in which performance depends on genetic potential of the breed and feeding. We tested the model for the highlands of Central Kenya, and simulated individual animals throughout their lifetime using scenarios with different diets based on common feedstuffs used in these systems (Napier grass, maize stover and dairy concentrates), with and without imposing random mortality on different age classes. The simulations showed that it is possible to maximise lifetime productivity by supplementing concentrates to meet the nutrient requirements of cattle during lactation, and during early development to reduce age at first calving and extend productive life. Avoiding undernutrition during the dry period by supplementing the diet with 0.5 kg of concentrates per day helped to increase productivity and productive life, but in practice farmers may not perceive the immediate economic benefits because the results of this practice are manifested through a cumulative, long-term effect. Survival analyses indicated that unsupplemented diets prolong calving intervals and therefore, reduce lifetime productivity. The simulations with imposed random mortality showed a reduction of 43% to 65% in all productivity indicators. Milk production may be

  4. Automation System Products and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rintala, Mikko; Sormunen, Jussi; Kuisma, Petri; Rahkala, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Automation systems are used in most buildings nowadays. In the past they were mainly used in industry to control and monitor critical systems. During the past few decades the automation systems have become more common and are used today from big industrial solutions to homes of private customers. With the growing need for ecologic and cost-efficient management systems, home and building automation systems are becoming a standard way of controlling lighting, ventilation, heating etc. Auto...

  5. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1 on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Papa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1 of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P, Limousine(L, Kianina(C, Sharole(Sh and Markixhana(M on meat production increasing on small scale farms. To carried out this objective, two study methods were used: (i The survey - 284 small scale farms was observed in the Albanian coastal field and (ii Comparative essay of fattening calves (F1 in semi intensive small scale farm condition - 32 calves, F1 crosses of Holstein cows with above mentioned meat breeds were put in fattening in semi intensive small scale farm condition. 6 Holstein breed (H calves of 3-4 months age was used as control group. The feeding of animals was based on forages produced in farm: corn silage 30 % D.M, fresh alpha-alpha and its hay. 35 % of dry matter requirements were supplied by bought concentrate feedstuffs with 15 % crude protein on dry matter bases. The fattening period lasted 8 months . The average daily body weight increasing for each crosses and control group were respectively 889g (PxH, 998g (LxH, 850g (KxH, 1010g( ChxH, 953g (MxH and 702g (HxH. Multivariate analyses according to a linear model with constant factors ( genotype, sex, genotype x sex and covariance “live body weight in the beginning of experiment” showed that: (i The effect of crossbreds on average daily gain is evident under the small-scale farms conditions, also, (ii The average daily gain increases with 23 -38 % , depending on the type of crosses, (iii The crosses of dairy cattle with Limousine and Sharole result as most effective. The differences between F

  6. Determination of Microbial Nitrogen Production by Using Urinary Allantoin and Blood Metabolite Concentrate in Growing Brahman Cattle Fed the Different Proportion of Roughage and Concentrate in Diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of microbial nitrogen synthesis by using urinary allantoin and blood metabolite for evaluating the efficiency of feed utilization, in this study was conducted by using four Brahman bulls (about 1 year old). Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 fixed diets of four combinations of pineapple fibre (P) and concentrate (C) in the proportions, on dry matter basis of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.04(P60:C40), 0.4:0.6(P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The experiment was designed as a 4x4 Latin square design The Results showed that increasing in the proportion of concentrate linearly increased the rumen microbial nitrogen production (p<0.001), the concentrations of Insulin and urea-N in plasma and the concentration of urea-N in the urine, but not affected on the concentrations of glucose and creatinine in plasma. In conclusion, the using of allantoin urinary associated with blood metabolite can evaluate the accuracy in evaluation of feed utilization in Brahman cattle

  7. Effects of breed and nutrition on the productive traits of beef cattle in South East Brazil: Part 2-Tissue distribution and carcase composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, G A; de Felicio, P E

    1982-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series recording the effects of breed and nutrition on the productive traits of Nelore, Guzerá, Charolais and Canchim cattle in south-east Brazil. Significant treatment variations were recorded in carcase bone weights but differences in meat to bone ratios were not sufficiently marked to demonstrate that bone might grow at the expense of muscle when animals are maintained on particularly severe nutritional regimes. A simple carcase weight to length ratio was shown to be highly correlated with total bone proportion but not with yield of saleable meat. Recovery of total saleable meat was only marginally and not significantly affected by breed but was significantly affected by treatment. The increased levels of fatness in the carcases of the zebu and, in particular, all animals finished in feedlot, that affected the yield of saleable meat, was also thought to be responsible for the decreased recovery of first quality meat in these carcases. In general, tissue differences were more noticeable between treatments than between breeds and reflected the varying nutritional status of the animals pre-slaughter. PMID:22054702

  8. Evaluation of Various Packaging Systems on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme, and Oxidation and Color Stabilities in Sliced Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) Beef Loin during Chill Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of various packaging systems, vacuum packaging (VACP), medium oxygen-modified atmosphere packaging (50% O2/20% CO2/30% N2, MOMAP), MOMAP combined with vacuum skin packaging (VSP-MOMAP), high oxygen-MAP (80% O2/20% CO2/0% N2, HOMAP), and HOMAP combined with VSP (VSP-HOMAP), on the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and oxidation and color stabilities in sliced Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef loin were investigated at 4°C for 14 d. Higher (p

  9. Effects of stocking rates on gastrointestinal nematode infection levels in a goat/cattle rotational stocking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Maurice

    2013-11-15

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are increasingly resistant to anthelmintic drugs worldwide, so integrated control methods are more and more needed for the sustainability of small ruminant farming. Such methods rely on knowledge in epidemiology, physiology, and genetics. Ecological studies have highlighted the effect of host density on parasite populations, and in the humid tropics, rotational grazing systems were designed according to the survival of GIN free-living stages. This study aimed to assess the effects of mixed stocking and host stocking rate on host GIN infection level. Four groups of 15-17 Creole male kids were raised on irrigated pasture from weaning (about 3 months) until the age of 7 months, at four partial stocking rates (pSR): 100% (control), 75% (G75), 50% (G50), and 25% (G25) of the total stocking rate of the pasture. The last three groups were associated with weaned Creole heifers to obtain the same overall stocking rate as the control. Animals grazed in a 'leader' goat and 'follower' cattle design: the G25, G50, and G75 paddocks were split into six plots; each plot was grazed by goats for 1 week and by heifers the following week. The pasture then rested for 4 weeks before the animals were returned for a new grazing sequence. Five control plots were grazed rotationally for 1 week, and rested for 4 weeks. This design was repeated three times a year for a total of 10 repetitions. Average faecal egg counts (FEC) decreased according to a power function of the pSR: FEC=1829pSR(3.7). The observed death rate decreased significantly with the pSR (27.6%, 16.4%, 11.9%, and 12.2%). The kids grew faster in G25 (51 g d(-1)) than in G50 (43 g d(-1)) and G75 or control (32 g d(-1), p<0.05). Heifers were not significantly infected with GIN and grew normally (about 0.48 kg d(-1)). Reducing the pSR by associating a non-host species in a rotational stocking system may be a very promising component of integrated GIN control, at least for the humid tropics. PMID

  10. Mudular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper

    modular product families and the interacting assembly system.   The thesis reviews extant theory and provides various classifications and discussions guided by the overall theme of product modularity and assembly systems. The empirical system analysis, based upon a longitudinal single case study......, articulates a system model incorporating both structural and performance elements. The extensive and detailed case analysis provides the necessary insight into the specific variables associated with the complex configuration of modular products and assembly systems.   Based upon the system model a number of...

  11. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Luis E; Strathe, Anders B; Fadel, James G; Casper, David P; Kebreab, Ermias

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture has a key role in food production worldwide and it is a major component of the gross domestic product of several countries. Livestock production is essential for the generation of high quality protein foods and the delivery of foods in regions where animal products are the main food source. Environmental impacts of livestock production have been examined for decades, but recently emission of methane from enteric fermentation has been targeted as a substantial greenhouse gas source. The quantification of methane emissions from livestock on a global scale relies on prediction models because measurements require specialized equipment and may be expensive. The predictive ability of current methane emission models remains poor. Moreover, the availability of information on livestock production systems has increased substantially over the years enabling the development of more detailed methane prediction models. In this study, we have developed and evaluated prediction models based on a large database of enteric methane emissions from North American dairy and beef cattle. Most probable models of various complexity levels were identified using a Bayesian model selection procedure and were fitted under a hierarchical setting. Energy intake, dietary fiber and lipid proportions, animal body weight and milk fat proportion were identified as key explanatory variables for predicting emissions. Models here developed substantially outperformed models currently used in national greenhouse gas inventories. Additionally, estimates of repeatability of methane emissions were lower than the ones from the literature and multicollinearity diagnostics suggested that prediction models are stable. In this context, we propose various enteric methane prediction models which require different levels of information availability and can be readily implemented in national greenhouse gas inventories of different complexity levels. The utilization of such models may reduce errors

  12. Comparação de sistemas de avaliação de dietas para bovinos no modelo de produção intensiva de carne. II - Creep feeding Comparison of diet evaluation systems for cattle in an intensive beef production model. II - Creep-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Marques de Brito

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 29 bezerros lactentes da raça Canchim com 55 dias de idade e peso corporal médio de 107 kg, que receberam suplemento alimentar durante a estação chuvosa, visando avaliar o desempenho proporcionado pelos ajustes nutricionais recomendados por diferentes sistemas de avaliação de dietas. Os suplementos, à base de milho em grão moído, farelo de algodão e farelo de soja, seguiram as recomendações do Sistema de Proteína Metabolizável (MP, do Sistema de Proteína e Carboidratos Líquidos de Cornell (CNCPS e do Sistema de Proteína Digestível no Intestino (PDI, para possibilitar o mais elevado ganho de peso corporal possível, conforme indicação de cada sistema de ajuste. O ganho diário de peso corporal não diferiu entre os tratamentos CNCPS, MP e PDI, com médias de 1,0 kg/cab. para cada um dos três tratamentos estudados. Foram estimadas as diferenças de peso corporal à desmama, em relação a um lote testemunha sem suplementação, para que o creep-feeding proporcionasse rentabilidades líquidas de 0; 0,6; 1,2; e 6% ao mês, encontrando-se valores de 15,5; 27,1; 17,1; e 15,9 para o CNCPS; 27,9; 17,6; 16,4; e 28,7 para o MP; e 18,1; 20,4; 35,6; e 22,5 em kg/cab. para o sistema PDI. Concluiu-se que os suplementos avaliados pelos sistemas proporcionaram resultados de desempenho animal compatíveis com os estimados.Twenty-nine suckling Canchim calves averaged 107 kg of body weight and 55 days of age were fed with supplement during the wet season, in order to evaluate the performance provided by nutritional adjustments recommended by different systems of evaluation of diets. Supplements were composed of grounded corn grain, cottonseed meal and soybean meal, in agreement with the recommendations of the Metabolizable Protein System (MP; Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS; and Intestine Digestible Protein System (PDI, for the highest possible body weight gain, according to indications of each adjustment

  13. Ecological Assessment and Improvement for Agricultural Production Systems of Households in Cropping and Pasture Transition Zone of Northern China%北方农牧过渡带农户农业生产系统模式的生态评价和改良研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊江文; 梁飚

    2002-01-01

    Six households agricultural production systems were defined based on investigating and analyzing production situation of households in 3 geo-economic districts in transition zone of cropping and pasture(Chifeng, Inner Mongolia).Three production systems, e.g., pasture-pig system, cropping-cattle fattening system and agro-animal husbandry system,were selected through ecological assessment. The improved suggestion for the systems was provided according to existing problems of these systems.

  14. PLM system support for modular product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf;

    2015-01-01

    (PDM) and product lifecycle management (PLM) systems offer support by automating and managing some of the operational complexity of modular design activities. PLM system tools are used for handling a variety of product definitions, to manage workflow of development activities, and to measure relational...... properties such as cost and performance. Companies often use a PLM tool for management of CAD files, documents, and drawings, but they do not take advantage of the full potential of the PLM system to support the development activities of modular product designs. The key result of this paper is the...... description of an empirical tested approach using a visual product architecture representation in combination with a PLM system to support the development of a product family of products. The results from the study encompass new PLM capabilities for handling multiple product structures, visualising multiple...

  15. Biogas from cattle manure as an alternative energy source

    OpenAIRE

    Castrillón Peláez, Leonor; Fernández Nava, Yolanda; Marañón Maison, María Elena; Ormaechea, P.; Quiroga, G.; S. Valero

    2009-01-01

    Research into alternative renewable energy sources is a global objective aimed at sustaining the current standard of living in developed countries. Biogas production offers a very promising option for generating renewable energy. Asturias, a region in the north of Spain, has a large population of dairy cattle. The industrialization of cattle farming in the region has led to surplus manure, around 696400 t/year. The objective of this research was to study the co-digestion of cattle manure with...

  16. Response of cattle grazing on pasture on olfactory stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Fiebigerová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on responses of cattle on olfactory stimuli. The investigation was conducted on Experimental Station for Fodder Production, Animal Nutrition and Dairy Science – Gut Grunschweige, Eiting, Germany, belonging to Munich Technican University. Animals were bred in farm conditions on pasture and there were observed 2 herds of Limousine cattle. The objective of this paper was to determine whether cattle respond to different smells in terms of motivation conflict between...

  17. Robust Medical Isotope Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The success of this theoretical undertaking provided confidence that the behavior of new and evolving designs of fissile solution systems may be accurately estimated. Scaled up versions of SUPO, subcritical acceleratordriven systems, and other evolutionary designs have been examined.

  18. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, L M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. PMID:26830740

  19. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kiggundu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9% while average age of respondents was 42.5 years. Farmers allocated more land (P<0.05 to organic pineapple production compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues as major dairy cattle feed resources while only 19% reported using elephant grass. Banana peels (25.1% and sweet potato vines (24.7% were the most important crop residues fed to cattle. Farmers reported high cost of concentrates and scarcity of feeds as their biggest challenges in dairy cattle production. Of the respondents, 51.4% conserved feed for their cattle as fodder banks. As a coping strategy to feed shortages, majority (42.9% of farmer scavenged for feed resources from both organic certified and nonorganic neighbouring farms which is contrary to organic livestock farming standards. It was, therefore, concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long term strategy to address feed challenges for organic livestock farmers.

  20. Soil physical quality in crop-livestock systems in a beef cattle-rearing pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cassante de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop-livestock systems (CLS using no-tillage systems have been used to reform and recover degraded pastures, allowing farmers greater profitability and improving soil health. In an experiment with the purpose to evaluate four models of CLS in rearing of cows Nellore, comparing them with the rebuilds performed in permanent pasture, soil physical attributes of quality (density-Db, microporosity-Mi and diameter weighted aggregates-DWA were evaluated in three soil layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm six years after implantation.  The experiment was located in the Research Unity of São José do Rio Preto/APTA, in an Ferrasol, texture sandy/medium. The 26 ha-area was divided into 24 plots, distributed according to a randomized block design, with four replications and six treatments: (T1 permanent pasture with moderate fertilization (application of 45 kg of N/ha/year; (T2 permanent pasture with fertilizer intensive (90 kg of N/ha/year divided into two applications, and four CLS models with fertilization equal to the second treatment: (T3 one year of maize followed by two pasture; (T4 one year of corn and one of pasture, (T5 two consecutive years of corn followed by a pasture and (T6 two consecutive years of corn followed by two years of pasture. The goal was to provide information to identify environmental gains of CLS models with their long-term use. Changes were observed in the size and shape of the aggregates and the presence of roots in the aggregates. Permanent pastures (T1 and T2 form larger aggregates, at right angles, with fewer roots, while aggregates in the soil managed with CLS (T3 to T6 aggregates are smaller, rounder, with more roots and more darkened color. These observations are supported by the DWA aggregates, since the permanent pasture treatments (T1 and T2 showed higher values when compared to soils with CLS. Regarding the soil layers, there was higher aggregate stability in the surface layer (0-10 and 10-20 cm due to the higher input

  1. On the History of Cattle Genetic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Felius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.

  2. Methanol production method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    1984-01-01

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  3. Product/Service-System Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Gall, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    in the design and development aspects of PSS. The objective of this paper is to explore how a global manufacturing company is developing an offering to their customers that is focused on the utility of their products throughout their life time. The paper describes the process of how a company is shifting from...... of their products. This process of re-defining the value of what the company is actually offering to its customers is seen as a key element in PSS development. PSS development is expected to expand conventional product development in new directions, such as new activities, roles and responsibilities, knowledge...... and competencies, and value network relationships. The implications of this are discussed in relation to the company’s development approach....

  4. Evolvable Production Systems: Mechatronic Production Equipment with Evolutionary Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Antonio; Onori, Mauro; Neves, Pedro; Barata, José

    Current major roadmapping efforts have all clearly underlined that true industrial sustainability will require far higher levels of systems' autonomy and adaptability. In accordance with these recommendations, the Evolvable Production Systems (EPS) has aimed at developing such technological solutions and support mechanisms. Since its inception in 2002 as a next generation of production systems, the concept is being further developed and tested to emerge as a production system paradigm. Characteristically, Evolvable systems have distributed control, and are composed of intelligent modules with embedded control. A concerted effort is being exerted through European research projects in collaboration with manufacturers, technology/equipment suppliers, and universities. After introducing EPS, this paper presents current developments and applications.

  5. Mars Integrated Propellant Production System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Integrated Mars In-Situ Propellant Production System (IMISPPS) is an end-to-end system that will produce rocket propellant on Mars from CO2 in the Martian...

  6. 不同种牛粪干发酵产气特性比较试验研究%Experimental study on the characteristics of gas production from dry anaerobic digestion of different kinds of cattle manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝其丽; 汤晓玉; 王文国; 潘科; 胡启春

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,comparative dry fermentation experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of cattle manure species on daily gas production,cumulative gas production and methane content. The results showed that the speed of start-up performance from fastest to slowest were cow manure, buffalo manure, cattle manure in sequence, while as to the cumulative gas production and average volume gas productivity from highest to lowest, they were buffalo manure,cattle manure,cow manure in sequence. The compositions of gas produced from dry fermentation of these three cattle manures were approximately similar. The methane content produced from fermentation of buffalo manure was higher than that from other two manures. Generally speaking, the effect of gas production from buffalo manure was better than that from cattle manure and cow manure. This paper provides reference for feedstocks selection in future related research or biogas engineering design.%采用干发酵技术处理3种不同种类的牛粪,比较了各种牛粪发酵的日产气量、累计产气量和产甲烷比例的差异.结果表明,相对于水牛粪和黄牛粪,奶牛粪干发酵产气的启动更快;累计产气量和平均容积产气率均以水牛粪为最高,黄牛粪次之,奶牛粪最低;3种牛粪干发酵过程中的产甲烷比例变化趋势大体上相似,在发酵初期由低到高逐渐增加,之后趋于平稳,其中水牛粪的产甲烷比例相对于奶牛粪和黄牛粪略高;总体来看,水牛粪干发酵的产气效果优于奶牛粪和黄牛粪,这为以后的相关研究或沼气工程设计中的原料选取提供了参考.

  7. Assessing product service systems (PSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; McAloone, Tim C.; Neugebauer, Line

    We apply a management tool to classify different integrated PSS within the context of Danish maritime industry. We investigate how a firm should organize its operations to manage the transition from being a manufacturing to a servitizing company, and to provide a guideline for strategic positioning...... and planning of the balance between product sales and service activities....

  8. System of Natural Health Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Paoletti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The safety of vitamin K antagonists (VKA use can be compromised by many popular herbal supplements taken by individuals. The literature reports that 30% of warfarin-treated patients self-medicates with herbs. Possible interactions represent an health risk. We aimed to identify all herbs-oral anticoagulants interactions collected in the Italian database of suspected adverse reactions to “natural health” products. Methods. The Italian database of spontaneous reports of suspected adverse reactions to natural products was analyzed to address herb-VKAs interactions. Results. From 2002 to 2009, we identified 12 reports with 7 cases of INR reduction in patients treated with warfarin (n=3 and acenocoumarol (n=4, and 5 cases of INR increase (all warfarin associated. It was reported 8 different herbal products as possibly interacting. Discussion. Our study confirms the risk of interactions, highlighting the difficulty to characterize them and their mechanisms and, finally, prevent their onset. The reported data underline the urgent need of healthcare providers being aware of the possible interaction between natural products and VKA, also because of the critical clinical conditions affecting patients. This is the first step to have the best approach to understand possible INR alterations linked to herb-VKA interaction and to rightly educate patients in treatment with VKA.

  9. Effect of feeding diet containing protected protein on volatile fatty acids production rate and passage rate of digesta in crossbred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve crossbred rumen fistulated male cattle were divided into 3 groups (A,B and C). All the animals were fed concentrate mixture according to their requirement and wheat straw ad lib. However, ground nut cake (GNC) of concentrate mixture in group A (0 per cent), B (50 per cent) and C (100 per cent) were treated with formaldehyde. Dry matter intake and digestibility of proximate principles and fibre were similar in 3 groups. TVFA (total volatile fatty acids) content in rumen fluid was 8.92 ± 0.31, 8.87 ± 0.06 and 9.40 ± 0.48 m mol/100 SRL (P > 0.05) in groups A, B and C, respectively. Molar percentage of acetate and propionate were not affected by treatment. On the other hand, molar percentage of butyrate was significantly lower in group C. Production rate of volatile fatty acids was 10.48 ± 0.57, 9.70 ± 0.51 and 9.19 ± 0.35 mol/day (P > 0.05) in groups A, B and C, respectively. While flow rate of liquid digesta was significantly lower in group B and C than in group A, passage rate of solid digesta was not affected due to protected protein in diet. However, passage rate of solid digesta as per cent of total DM in rumen at zero hour was significantly higher in animals fed protected protein. Thus, the incorporation of formaldehyde treated protein in diet decreased the VFA production and outflow of liquid digesta but did not affect (P > 0.05) the passage rate of solid digesta and digestibility coefficients of various nutrients. (author). 28 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Evaluation of energy efficiency of climatization system in dairy cattle free-stall; Avaliacao da eficiencia energetica de sistemas de climatizacao em galpoes tipo 'free-stall' para confinamento de bovinos leiteiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perissinoto, Mauricio [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural. Setor de Construcoes Rurais], Email: mperissi@esalqusp.br; Moura, Daniella Jorge de; Lima, Karla Andrea Oliveira de; Mendes, Angelica Signor [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola; Matarazzo, Soraia Vanessa

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this research was the evaluation of the economical efficiency, in relation to water and energy expenses, of two different evaporative cooling systems, misting and sprinkler, associated with forced ventilation. The study was carried out in a commercial dairy cattle farm located in a small city of Sao Paulo State. The experimental period was twenty-eight consecutive days of November 2003. For the economical analysis of each system of climatization the cost with electrical energy and water expended in each system was considered and also the feeding consumption. The sprinkling cooling system presented a greater consumption of water and energy than the misting system. Even those treatments promoting similar feed intake (the difference was 3.0 kg DM.animal{sup -1}.month{sup -1}), the sprinkling system associated to forced ventilation led to an increase (18.0 liters.animal{sup -1}.month{sup -1}) of 3% in milk production. As consequence, it was observed an increase of 5,8% in total month profit in relation to misting system. (author)

  11. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang;

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  12. Observed benefits from product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders; Mortensen, Niels Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...

  13. The Effect of Culture Condition on Type 5 Capsular Polysaccharide Production of Staphylococcus aureus from Diary Cattle%培养条件对奶牛金葡菌5型荚膜多糖产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正涛; 张乃生; 刘庆涛; 杨琦; 尹荣兰

    2008-01-01

    [Objective]The effect of different culture conditions on type 5 capsular polysaccharide production of Staphylococcus aureus from diary cattle was studied to provide simple way for CP production and preparation and laid foundation for carrying out new polysaccharide vaccine research.[Method]Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from milk sample of sick dairy cattle and capsular polysaecharide serotypes were identified.Type 5 capsular polysaccharide was cultured on BHI,solid columbia and med110 culture media.Glucose and lactose were taken as carbon sources for every culture media in solid and liquid state.Therefore 9 different culture conditions were taken to study the effect of cuhure conditions on capsular polysaccharide production.[Result]Different culture conditions indicated that compared with columbia culture media,BHI culture media could decline capsular polysaccharide production and mod110 culture media could increase capsular polysaccharide production.While for same culture media,solid culture media was better for capsular polysaccharide production,meanwhile,taken lactose as carbon source could increase capsular polysaccharide production.

  14. Concoction of Fine Feed From Sugarcane by-Product and Beef Cattle Feeding Evaluation%甘蔗副产物调配精饲料及肉牛饲养评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆鹏; 蚁细苗; 农皓; 常国炜; 韦志坚; 谭文兴; 梁达奉

    2015-01-01

    利用甘蔗副产物废糖蜜、酵母废液粉全部或部分替代价格高且收购难的玉米粉等原料,木薯渣替代啤酒渣作糟渣类饲料,调配肉牛精饲料,同时添加甘蔗副产物甘蔗梢叶、蔗渣作粗饲料进行肉牛饲养试验。根据饲养期间各实验组牛的采食量、日增重情况以及饲料效益核算等方面评价所调配日粮精饲料配方的可行性。实验结果表明,酵母废液粉替代精料中50%的玉米粉时,喂养效果与原精料相当。%In this paper, beef cattle feed was concocted by using sugarcane by-product (molasses, yeast liquid and powder) to substitute all or part of flour mix feed which is expensive and hard to purchase, cassava dregs to substitute beer sludge on the other hand; sugarcane by-products (sugar cane tip leaves, bagasse) was also used to prepare roughage beef cattle feed. The feasibility of the fine feed formulation was evaluated by beef cattle breeding experiment and the cattle feed intake, daily gain and feed efficiency as the evaluating index. The results showed that the concocted feed can achieve commensurate feeding effect with the original fine feed when liquid yeast powder substitute 50% corn flour of fine feed.

  15. 呼伦贝尔市农林区奶牛生产条件研究%Research of Dairy Cattle Production Condition in Agricultural and Forestry Area in Hulunbeir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 刘玉良; 穆怀彬

    2013-01-01

    Dairy cattle production is one of animal husbandry economic development components in Hulunbeir. The exploration of its development control elements is significant for this industry. The research investigated the main factors related to dairy cattle production in agricultural and forestry area in Hulunbeir. The results showed that in urban suburbs, the advantages are dairy price and good market while the disadvantage is the feed price. The combination of agriculture and animal husbandry is a benefit in rural agricultural area. In rural forestry area, the advantageous factors are combining grazing with captivity while the disadvantageous factor is dairy price. Enhancing the impact of country dairy cattle industry cooperative is beneficial for promoting dairy cattle industry intensive development.%奶牛生产是呼伦贝尔市农林区农牧业经济发展构件之一,探索奶牛生产发展的控制因素具有重要意义.通过对内蒙古呼伦贝尔市农林区与奶牛生产相关的主要因素进行调查研究发现,在城镇郊区有利因素为牛奶价格和销售渠道好,而制约因素为饲料成本价格;乡村农区的有利因素为农牧结合;乡村林区的有利因素为放养结合、饲料资源丰富,而制约因素为牛奶价格.加强农村奶牛业合作社的作用,有利于促进奶牛业规模化发展.

  16. 甘蔗副产物调配精饲料及肉牛饲养评价%Concoction of Fine Feed From Sugarcane by-Product and Beef Cattle Feeding Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆鹏; 蚁细苗; 农皓; 常国炜; 韦志坚; 谭文兴; 梁达奉

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, beef cattle feed was concocted by using sugarcane by-product (molasses, yeast liquid and powder) to substitute all or part of flour mix feed which is expensive and hard to purchase, cassava dregs to substitute beer sludge on the other hand; sugarcane by-products (sugar cane tip leaves, bagasse) was also used to prepare roughage beef cattle feed. The feasibility of the fine feed formulation was evaluated by beef cattle breeding experiment and the cattle feed intake, daily gain and feed efficiency as the evaluating index. The results showed that the concocted feed can achieve commensurate feeding effect with the original fine feed when liquid yeast powder substitute 50% corn flour of fine feed.%利用甘蔗副产物废糖蜜、酵母废液粉全部或部分替代价格高且收购难的玉米粉等原料,木薯渣替代啤酒渣作糟渣类饲料,调配肉牛精饲料,同时添加甘蔗副产物甘蔗梢叶、蔗渣作粗饲料进行肉牛饲养试验。根据饲养期间各实验组牛的采食量、日增重情况以及饲料效益核算等方面评价所调配日粮精饲料配方的可行性。实验结果表明,酵母废液粉替代精料中50%的玉米粉时,喂养效果与原精料相当。

  17. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  18. NDSI products system based on Hadoop platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Jiang, He; Yang, Xiaoxia; Geng, Erhui

    2015-12-01

    Snow is solid state of water resources on earth, and plays an important role in human life. Satellite remote sensing is significant in snow extraction with the advantages of cyclical, macro, comprehensiveness, objectivity, timeliness. With the continuous development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data access to the trend of multiple platforms, multiple sensors and multiple perspectives. At the same time, in view of the remote sensing data of compute-intensive applications demand increase gradually. However, current the producing system of remote sensing products is in a serial mode, and this kind of production system is used for professional remote sensing researchers mostly, and production systems achieving automatic or semi-automatic production are relatively less. Facing massive remote sensing data, the traditional serial mode producing system with its low efficiency has been difficult to meet the requirements of mass data timely and efficient processing. In order to effectively improve the production efficiency of NDSI products, meet the demand of large-scale remote sensing data processed timely and efficiently, this paper build NDSI products production system based on Hadoop platform, and the system mainly includes the remote sensing image management module, NDSI production module, and system service module. Main research contents and results including: (1)The remote sensing image management module: includes image import and image metadata management two parts. Import mass basis IRS images and NDSI product images (the system performing the production task output) into HDFS file system; At the same time, read the corresponding orbit ranks number, maximum/minimum longitude and latitude, product date, HDFS storage path, Hadoop task ID (NDSI products), and other metadata information, and then create thumbnails, and unique ID number for each record distribution, import it into base/product image metadata database. (2)NDSI production module: includes

  19. Product service systems for household waste prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Gottberg, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Waste prevention is the prioritized waste management option within EU waste policy. There is however a scarcity of research on and policy measures for waste prevention. Improved resource productivity in consumption practices may prevent waste. Literature suggests that Product Service Systems (PSS, ‘a marketable set of products and services capable of jointly fulfilling a user’s needs’ (Goedkoop et al. 1999)) have potential for increased resource productivity compared with self-...

  20. Improvement in genetic evaluation of female fertility in dairy cattle using multiple-trait models including milk production traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Madsen, P; Lund, M S;

    2010-01-01

    rate within 56 d after first service) were analyzed using single- and multiple-trait sire models including 1 or 3 production traits. Model stability was evaluated by correlation between EBV from 2 sub-data sets (DATAA and DATAB). Model predictive ability was assessed by the correlation between EBV from...

  1. Volatile organic compound flux from manure of cattle fed diets differing in grain processing method and co-product inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odor emissions from livestock production have become increasingly important in the past decade. Odors derived from animal feeding operations are caused by odorous VOC emitted from the mixture of feces and urine, as well as feed and silage which may be experiencing microbial fermentation. Distiller...

  2. Product Configuration Systems and Consequences for Productivity and Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Product Configuration Systems (PCS) are systems to produce quotations to potential buyers of the products an enterprise produces. Typically the products are complex and will first be produced according to specific needs from the customers. From twelve case studies in Danish industry with informat......Product Configuration Systems (PCS) are systems to produce quotations to potential buyers of the products an enterprise produces. Typically the products are complex and will first be produced according to specific needs from the customers. From twelve case studies in Danish industry with...... informations about expected and realised costs and benefits in implemented PCS's we have the following results: the three highest aggregated scoring expected benefits are: 1)improved quality in specifications, 2)lower turnaround time, and 3)using less resources.The results achieved are in accordance with...... expectations. A problem is that costs in several cases are unknown or very uncertain. But in cases where they are known there are economic arguments in favour of the PCS....

  3. Utilisation of the buffy coat technique and an antibody-detection ELISA as tools for assessing the impact of trypanosomosis on health and productivity of N'Dama cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    significantly lower mean PCV values and daily weight gain in comparison with animals negative for antibodies and/or parasites. A significant positive correlation was observed between Ab-ELISA PP values and PCV in the 160 animals positive for trypanosomal antibodies. Moreover, in these cattle, daily weight gain was positively correlated with PCV value. In experimentally infected cattle, a more severe effect of trypanosome infection was noticed in T. congolense infected N'Dama in comparison with animals infected with T. vivax, as assessed by lower PCV values and daily weight gain in the former. In conclusion, the sensitivity and specificity of the T. vivax antibody detection assay appears to be satisfactory. Conversely, performance of the T. congolense Ab-ELISA needs to be improved. Trypanosoma vivax infection had limited impact on health and productivity of N'Dama cattle in both field and experimental studies. Therefore, it is recommended that selection for trypanotolerance should be based on the ability of N'Dama cattle to control the effects of T. congolense rather than T. vivax infections. (author)

  4. Observed benefits from product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Thuesen, Christian

    This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...... systems in industry companies and partly to assess if the objectives suggested are appropriate for describing the impact of product configuration systems and identifying other possible objectives. The empirical study of the com-panies also gives an indication of more overall performance indicators being...

  5. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2003-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2002 through September, 2003. At the end of the second technical progress report, the ConocoPhillips opportunities to apply subsea processing in the Gulf of Mexico had been exhausted, and an alternative site was identified in Norway. This was a non-ConocoPhillips operated field, and the subsea processing was proposed as a phased development approach with 2-phase separation at the field, and then gas and liquids exported via pipeline to remote platform locations for processing. Although the unrisked economics were quite favorable, the risked economic evaluation compelled the operator to develop the field with the more conventional and proven Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) option. Work on the subsea processing was suspended at this time. Discussions with DOE regarding two other step-change deepwater technologies ensued. One was an effort to develop a light-weight, high pressure composite production riser. A field demonstration of the design would then be performed by deploying a limited number of composite joints in a Gulf of Mexico deepwater development. The other was to begin the process of taking drilling with casing technology to the deepwater. This is called, ''close-tolerance liner drilling''. It was agreed that both technologies should be pursued, and the work began. During this reporting period, the initial production riser design had been completed and preliminary test sample components were being fabricated. Regarding the liner drilling, the sub-contractors were selected, the design basis was agreed and designs progressed towards meeting a projected first quarter, 2004 onshore test program.

  6. Environmental issues for intensive biomass production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of IEA Bioenergy Task XII Activity 4.2 'Environmental Issues' was to evaluate environmental sustainability of intensive biomass systems and develop guidelines to ensure environmental soundness of such systems. Eight countries participated in the work: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, New Zealand, Sweden, U.S.A. and U.K. During the period 1995-1997, collaborators have: evaluated environmental sustainability of intensive biomass production systems; assessed environmental sustainability of utilizing biosolids, e.g., wastewater sludge and wood ash, and effluents, to increase productivity of conventional and short rotation forestry systems; and evaluated and developed environmental guidelines for deployment of bioenergy production systems. The forestry and bioenergy industrial sectors were active participants in all Activity field study tours and workshops. This paper reviews achievements of Task XII Activity 4.2 and suggests where future international collaboration is required to achieve sustainable forestry bioenergy production systems 62 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  7. Effect of temperature and pH on the kinetics of methane production, organic nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the batch anaerobic digestion process of cattle manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, E. [Consultores Ambientales (CONAM), Havanna (Cuba); Borja, R. [Instituto de la Grasa (C.S.I.C.)., Sevilla (Spain); Weiland, P. [Institute of Technology, Federal Research Center of Agriculture (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany); Travieso, L. [Departamento de Estudios sobre Contaminacion Ambiental (DECA-CNIC), Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas (CNIC), La Habana (Cuba); Martin, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Cordoba (Spain)

    2000-03-01

    A study of the effect of temperature and pH on the kinetics of methane production and organic nitrogen and phosphorus degradation in the anaerobic digestion process of cattle manure was carried out. Two laboratory-scale batch completely mixed reactors, operating at 35 C (mesophilic temperature), and other two, operating at 60 C (thermophilic temperature) were used. For each temperature selected, the influent pH values were 7.6 (initial pH of the waste used) and 7.0. The apparent kinetic constants of the biomethanization process increased 2.3 times when the initial pH of the influent was increased from 7.0 to 7.6 at mesophilic temperature. The values found at thermophilic temperature were similar. The kinetic constants of methane production decreased 2.6 and 7.2 times when the operating temperature increased from 35 C to 60 C for the experiments carried out at initial pH of 7.0 and 7.6, respectively. The methane yield coefficient (l CH{sub 4} STP/g VS removed) also decreased when the temperature increased from 35 C to 60 C for the two initial pH values studied. This behaviour agreed with the major inhibition level observed at thermophilic temperature as a result of the higher organic nitrogen removal and ammonia nitrogen production observed at 60 C. Specifically, the specific rate constants for organic nitrogen removal and ammonia nitrogen production increased 3.6 and 12 times when the temperature was increased from 35 C to 60 C for the experiments carried out at initial pH values of 7.0 and 7.6, respectively. In the same way, the values of the kinetic constant for phosphorus removal were 44% and 80% higher than those obtained at 35 C for the two initial pH values above-mentioned, respectively. Finally, the experimental values of organic nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were reproduced with deviations equal to or less than 10% and 15% in every case, respectively. (orig.)

  8. Economics of early weaning in Northern Great Plains beef cattle production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early weaning is a management option for producers to consider during extended droughts. Early removal of the calf from its dam reduces forage needs of the cow-calf enterprise and has been found to improve BW gain and pregnancy rates in the cow herd. However, early weaning may not always be economi...

  9. Toyota production system beyond large-scale production

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, Taiichi

    1998-01-01

    In this classic text, Taiichi Ohno--inventor of the Toyota Production System and Lean manufacturing--shares the genius that sets him apart as one of the most disciplined and creative thinkers of our time. Combining his candid insights with a rigorous analysis of Toyota's attempts at Lean production, Ohno's book explains how Lean principles can improve any production endeavor. A historical and philosophical description of just-in-time and Lean manufacturing, this work is a must read for all students of human progress. On a more practical level, it continues to provide inspiration and instruction for those seeking to improve efficiency through the elimination of waste.

  10. Clinical Productivity System - A Decision Support Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Casey C

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a data-driven clinical productivity system that leverages Electronic Health Record (EHR) data to provide productivity decision support functionality in a real-world clinical setting. The system was implemented for a large behavioral health care provider seeing over 75,000 distinct clients a year. Design/methodology/approach: The key metric in this system is a "VPU", which simultaneously optimizes multiple aspects of clinical care. The resulting mathematical value of clinical productivity was hypothesized to tightly link the organization's performance to its expectations and, through transparency and decision support tools at the clinician level, affect significant changes in productivity, quality, and consistency relative to traditional models of clinical productivity. Findings: In only 3 months, every single variable integrated into the VPU system showed significant improvement, including a 30% rise in revenue, 10% rise in clinical percentage, a...

  11. Mars oxygen production system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  12. Manual of good practices for welfare: a proposal for dairy cattle on pasture in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Mendonça Pinto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Debate on ethics in animal production started in 1960s. Since that time, discussion on animal welfare (AW has taken large proportions, where laws and specific rules were created in some countries. Also, this issue has been considered a major subject, and discussed in different levels such as academic, business and social spheres. Although there is a lot of information and good practice manuals for livestock production, information is still limited so that animal welfare practices can be adopted on farms effectively. Currently, the development of protocols that can assess the level of AW in properties is a reality. For dairy cattle in intensive systems, the Welfare Quality® protocol evaluates and addresses critical points so that improvement might be implemented. However, little information exists for dairy cattle in extensive systems. Thus, based on covering actions directed by the animal welfare management, behavior, nutrition, health, facilities, transportation, and human resource management, a proposal for dairy cattle on pasture in Brazil aims to provide and to disseminate good AW practices for dairy cattle on pasture. Hence, a welfare manual for good practices was created, which describes the actions and strategies to best promote the AW in this livestock production.

  13. Smallholders, Agrarian Reform, and Globalization in the Brazilian Amazon: Cattle versus the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritaumaria Pereira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder farming in the Brazilian Amazon has changed markedly over the last few decades, following a pervasive swing to cattle production observed across the basin. These changes have brought opportunities for accumulating a modicum of wealth that were not available in the early stages of colonization. At the same time, they have reconfigured livelihood systems away from diversified agriculture to a strong engagement with the cattle economy. They are also exposing smallholders to new forms of exploitation by transnational corporations, seeking to pass risk upstream to less powerful economic agents who provide inputs to production, such as calves. The case of Southeastern Pará provides a natural laboratory for investigating such phenomena, which the article considers through the presentation of data from field research conducted in the region over the past decade. Here, agrarian reform efforts have been particularly intense, and social movements have often espoused a green rhetoric in favor of diversified agriculture, even though smallholders show little interest in anything but cattle. Household level incentives promote Amazonia’s emergent cattle economy, demonstrating how global production networks have reached into the basin, where production relations between smallholders provisioning calves to large ranching operations often resemble what has been referred to in the literature as “contract farming” land grabs, given the exploitive terms of trade.

  14. Production of income and energy using cattle excrete. Farming projects MDL; Produciendo ingresos y energia utilizando excretas pecuarias. Proyectos MDL agropecuarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernan, Mateus [AGCERT, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The Mexican Farming Sector has a great potential to help solve the worldwide problems caused by greenhouse effect gases (GEI). The Kyoto Protocol is an instrument created to reduce the greenhouse effect gases (GEI) and it also is the fundament of the AgCert project -which consists in applying own financial resources to develop technological options that contribute to the reduction of greenhouse effect gases in cattle productive facilities and to use the income to economically support the producers. In this document it is described the way in which the biodigestor was installed, demonstrating that the MDL for farming projects is a tool to reduce the discharges of greenhouse effect gases. It also demonstrates that technologies and processes can be applied systematically to reduce the emissions of the GEI, bringing along environmental and economic benefits. [Spanish] El Sector Agropecuario Mexicano tiene un gran potencial para ayudar a resolver los problemas mundiales causados por los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI). El protocolo de Kyoto es un instrumento creado para reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y tambien es el fundamento del proyecto AgCert, el cual consiste en aplicar recursos financieros propios para desarrollar opciones tecnologicas que contribuyan a la reduccion de gases efecto invernadero en instalaciones productivas pecuarias y emplear los ingresos para apoyar economicamente a los productores. En este documento se describe la manera en que se llevo acabo la instalacion del biodigestor, demostrando que el MDL para proyectos agropecuarios es una herramienta para reducir emisiones de gases efecto invernadero, y que se pueden aplicar sistematicamente tecnologias y procesos que reduzcan las emisiones de los GEI, trayendo consigo beneficios ambientales y economico.

  15. Haplotypes that include the integrin alpha 11 gene are associated with tick burden in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunch Rowan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infestations on cattle by the ectoparasite Boophilus (Rhipicephalus microplus (cattle tick impact negatively on animal production systems. Host resistance to tick infestation has a low to moderate heritability in the range 0.13 - 0.64 in Australia. Previous studies identified a QTL on bovine chromosome 10 (BTA10 linked to tick burden in cattle. Results To confirm these associations, we collected genotypes of 17 SNP from BTA10, including three obtained by sequencing part of the ITGA11 (Integrin alpha 11 gene. Initially, we genotyped 1,055 dairy cattle for the 17 SNP, and then genotyped 557 Brahman and 216 Tropical Composite beef cattle for 11 of the 17 SNP. In total, 7 of the SNP were significantly (P P P Conclusions These analyses confirm the location of a QTL affecting tick burden on BTA10 and position it close to the ITGA11 gene. The presence of a significant association in such widely divergent animals suggests that further SNP discovery in this region to detect causal mutations would be warranted.

  16. Cattle grazing and vegetation succession on burned sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited information on the effects of cattle grazing to longer-term plant community composition and productivity following fire in big sagebrush steppe. This study evaluated vegetation response to cattle grazing over seven years (2007-2013) on burned Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia triden...

  17. NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...

  18. Genetic diversity in mazandaranian native cattle: a comparison with Holstein cattle, using ISSR marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, S; Azari, M A; Hasani, S; Khanahmadi, A; Rostamzadeh, J

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate genetic diversity in Mazandaranian native cattle population comparised to the Holstein breed, using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker. A total of 175 animals, including 71 native and 104 cattle of Holstein breed were screened. The extraction of DNA samples were carried out, using modified salting out method. A 19-mer oligonucleotide, (GA)9C, was used as primer in PCR reactions. The PCR products showed 15 different fragments with length ranged from 120 to 1600 bp in the two breeds.. Genetic variation indexes, including effective number of alleles, Shannon index, Nei's gene diversity and standard genetic distance were estimated, using POPGene software. Generally, the estimated genetic variation indexes showed low levels of diversity in the two breeds. However, Nei's gene diversity and Shannon index estimation was observed almost two folds in native cattle compared to Holstein breed. Less levels of diversity in Holstein cattle may be because of applying intensive selection programs. Conversely, native cattle have been less affected by selection. Therefore, it seems that Mazandaranian native cattle probably are better for breeding programs than Holstein cattle. Results showed that ISSR Markers are reliable and can be used in genetic diversity investigations. PMID:19634477

  19. Combining mouse mammary gland gene expression and comparative mapping for the identification of candidate genes for QTL of milk production traits in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shani Moshe

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found segregating quantitative trait loci (QTL for milk production traits in different dairy cattle populations. However, even for relatively large effects with a saturated marker map the confidence interval for QTL location by linkage analysis spans tens of map units, or hundreds of genes. Combining mapping and arraying has been suggested as an approach to identify candidate genes. Thus, gene expression analysis in the mammary gland of genes positioned in the confidence interval of the QTL can bridge the gap between fine mapping and quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN determination. Results We hybridized Affymetrix microarray (MG-U74v2, containing 12,488 murine probes, with RNA derived from mammary gland of virgin, pregnant, lactating and involuting C57BL/6J mice in a total of nine biological replicates. We combined microarray data from two additional studies that used the same design in mice with a total of 75 biological replicates. The same filtering and normalization was applied to each microarray data using GeneSpring software. Analysis of variance identified 249 differentially expressed probe sets common to the three experiments along the four developmental stages of puberty, pregnancy, lactation and involution. 212 genes were assigned to their bovine map positions through comparative mapping, and thus form a list of candidate genes for previously identified QTLs for milk production traits. A total of 82 of the genes showed mammary gland-specific expression with at least 3-fold expression over the median representing all tissues tested in GeneAtlas. Conclusion This work presents a web tool for candidate genes for QTL (cgQTL that allows navigation between the map of bovine milk production QTL, potential candidate genes and their level of expression in mammary gland arrays and in GeneAtlas. Three out of four confirmed genes that affect QTL in livestock (ABCG2, DGAT1, GDF8, IGF2 were over expressed in the

  20. Investigation of cattle methane production and emission over a 24-hour period using measurements of δ13C and δD of emitted CH4 and rumen water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, R. S.; Tyler, S. C.; Kurihara, M.; Yagi, K.

    2001-07-01

    We have conducted a series of experiments to determine the effects different diets, including the addition of unsaturated fatty acids, had on isotopic signatures of CH4 emissions from dairy cattle. Measurements of emitted δ13CH4, δ13CO2, and δD-CH4 were made on gases collected over a 24-hour period from animal chambers containing individual Holstein cows. Some measurements of δD-H2O from samples collected directly from the rumen were also made. We observed variation in δ13CH4 values with time after feeding and a correlation in δ13C between emitted gases and diet. The average δ13CH4 value, which includes all samples of emitted gases, was -70.6±4.9‰ (n = 57). Measurements of δD-CH4 over the 24-hour sampling period had an average value of -357.8±15.0‰ (n = 56). These δD measurements are among the lightest reported for CH4 produced by cattle. Our cattle data indicate that hydrogen incorporated into the CH4 produced by CO2 reduction in high H2 concentration environments is fractionated to a greater degree than that incorporated in systems with relatively low H2 conditions, such as wetlands. Our results support bacterial studies that have demonstrated large hydrogen fractionation in high H2 concentration systems during methanogenesis.