WorldWideScience

Sample records for cations sugarcane production

  1. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Gurgel; S.A. FURLAN; S.E.R. MARTINEZ; I.M. MANCILHA

    1998-01-01

    Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improv...

  2. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  3. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production. (author)

  4. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production

  5. Soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period: influence on soil chemical and physical properties and on sugarcane productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Roniram Pereira da Silva; Carolina Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The planting of diversified crops during the sugarcane fallow period can improve the chemical and physical properties and increase the production potential of the soil for the next sugarcane cycle. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the influence of various soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period on soil chemical and physical properties and productivity after the first sugarcane harvest. The experiment was conducted in two areas located in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazi...

  6. Supplementation of sugarcane bagasse with rice bran and sugarcane molasses for shiitake (Lentinula edodes) spawn production

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Ivan Henrique; Monteiro Antonio Carlos; Machado José Octavio; Barbosa José Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the myceliation rate, mycelial vigor and "estimated biomass" of Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, grown on a sugarcane bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses for spawn production. The proportions of rice bran used were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40% (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse) and the sugarcane molasses concentrations tested were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 g/kg (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse plus rice bran). The mycel...

  7. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. GURGEL

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolyzate recovery (in volume is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH showed the best hydrolyzate recovery (87.5%, while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolyzate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolyzate.

  8. Evaluation of sugarcane bagasse acid hydrolysate treatments for xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgel, P.V.; Mancilha, I.M. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos; Furlan, S.A.; Martinez, S.E.R. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    1998-09-01

    Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolysate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolysate recovery (in volume) is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH){sub 3} and NaOH showed the best hydrolysate recovery (87.5%), while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolysate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH){sub 3} and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolysate. (author)

  9. Effect of Gasohol Production on the Sugarcane Industry in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wanida Norasethasopon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect ofgasohol production on sugarcane planting in Thailand. Pure ethanol of99.5 percent concentration is used to replace MTBE (Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether), which is normally used to increase octane number ofgasoline, to blend with gasoline at the rate of 10 percent to produceOctane 95 gasohol. There are several types of raw materials used inethanol production such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, sweet potato, rice, corn, wheat, sweet sorg...

  10. Climate Change and Sugarcane Production: Potential Impact and Mitigation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Duli Zhao; Yang-Rui Li

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important crop for sugar and bioenergy worldwide. The increasing greenhouse gas emission and global warming during climate change result in the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Climate change is expected to have important consequences for sugarcane production in the world, especially in the developing countries because of relatively low adaptive capacity, high vulnerability to natural hazards, and poor forecasting systems ...

  11. Sugarcane for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Production under Ambient Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Md. Amzad

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane is a food-cum-cash-cum-industrial crop with high varietals resistance, anti-erosive and thus helps preserve biodiversity in tropical and subtropical zones. Sustaining sugar requirement as a source of food for an ever-growing world population in the changing ambient environment due to gradual depletion of natural resources, pollution, rising costs, low productivity and expansion of urban communities are some of the major challenges in the present century. Sugarcane and sugar producti...

  12. Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Baggase without Enzymatic Saccharification

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Boopathy; Letha Dawson

    2008-01-01

    Sugarcane processing generates a large volume of bagasse. Disposal of bagasse is critical for both agricultural profitability and environmental protection. Sugarcane bagasse is a renewable resource that can be used to produce ethanol and many other value added products. In this study, we demonstrate that cane processed bagasse could be used to produce fuel grade ethanol without saccharification. A chemical pre-treatment process using alkaline peroxide and acid hydrolysis was applied to re...

  13. Effect of Gasohol Production on the Sugarcane Industry in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanida Norasethasopon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect ofgasohol production on sugarcane planting in Thailand. Pure ethanol of99.5 percent concentration is used to replace MTBE (Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether, which is normally used to increase octane number ofgasoline, to blend with gasoline at the rate of 10 percent to produceOctane 95 gasohol. There are several types of raw materials used inethanol production such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, sweet potato, rice, corn, wheat, sweet sorghum, etc. The popular raw materials used in ethanol production in Thailand are molasses and cassava. Molasses are a by-product of sugar production process. They are the sugarcane residues that can no longer be extracted for more sugar. In many countries including Thailand, molasses are used as raw material to produce ethanol (1 ton of molasses can produce 260 liters of ethanol used in gasohol production. In this research, the researcher found that the problem of excess supply and low price of sugarcane can be solved if gasohol E20 or higher was used to replace the Octane 91 gasoline and Octane 95 gasoline.

  14. Review: Sugarcane production: Impact of climate change and its mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHOK K. SRIVASTAVA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a climatic sensitive crop: therefore, its spatial distribution on the globe is restricted as per the suitability of various climatic parameters. The climate change, though, a very slow phenomenon is now accelerated due to natural, as well as enormous human activities disturbing the composition of atmosphere. The predications of various climatic models for probable rise in temperature, rainfall, sea level show an alarming condition in forthcoming decades. As the sugarcane is very sensitive to temperature, rainfall, solar radiations etc. therefore, a significant effect on its production and sugar yield is expected in future. It is also well known that sugarcane is one of the precious crops of the world and its end products i.e. sugar and ethanol have a continuous growing demand on global level. Hence, the studies related to good production of sugarcane in changing conditions of climate has become one among the front line area of research and is a major concern of scientist’s world over. Advance agronomic measures including development of suitable cane varieties susceptible to changed climatic conditions, land preparation, time and pattern of plantation, weed, disease and pest managements, nutrients managements, proper timing and adequate water management seems to be the affective measures for obtaining high production of crop with good quality juice in future.

  15. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.;

    2015-01-01

    In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...... economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary....

  16. Spittlebug impacts on sugarcane quality and ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Cristina Ravaneli; Débora Branquinho Garcia; Leonardo Lucas Madaleno; Miguel Ângelo Mutton; José Paulo Stupiello; Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the impacts of spittlebug (Mahanarva fimbriolata) attack on sugarcane quality and ethanol production. Technological and microbiological parameters of juice and fermentation process were evaluated in ten fermentation cycles and two harvest seasons. Treatments consisted of different spittlebug stalk damage levels: control, with 100% of apparently healthy stalks; medium, with 15% of damaged or dry stalks (DDS); high, with 30% of DDS; and very high, with...

  17. Spittlebug impacts on sugarcane quality and ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Ravaneli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impacts of spittlebug (Mahanarva fimbriolata attack on sugarcane quality and ethanol production. Technological and microbiological parameters of juice and fermentation process were evaluated in ten fermentation cycles and two harvest seasons. Treatments consisted of different spittlebug stalk damage levels: control, with 100% of apparently healthy stalks; medium, with 15% of damaged or dry stalks (DDS; high, with 30% of DDS; and very high, with 60% of DDS. Spittlebug attack caused significant losses in cane quality, reducing total soluble solids, sucrose content, total reducing sugars, and pH, and increasing total phenolic compounds, and total and volatile juice acidity. The fermentation process was also significantly affected, resulting in lower ethanol content in wine. There was an increase in acetaldehyde concentration in the distillate. The spittlebug attack caused negative impacts on sugarcane quality and fermentation process, and these impacts are stronger in late season harvests.

  18. Sugarcane production under smallholder farming systems: Farmers preferred traits, constraints and genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Tena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder sugarcane production sector is under researched and underdeveloped with limited industrial link and support. The objectives of this study were to assess the current state of sugarcane production, farmers’ perceived production constraints and preferred traits, and to collect germplasm grown by smallholder farmers in southern Ethiopia for strategic breeding and conservation. The study was conducted across 16 administrative zones, 28 districts and 56 peasant associations involving 560 smallholder sugarcane growers in southern Ethiopia using a participatory rural appraisal (PRA approach. Sugarcane genetic resources were collected through structured sampling. Findings from this study indicated that monocropping was identified as the predominant sugarcane farming system. Respondent farmers prioritized drought tolerance (21%, increased cane yield (20%, early maturity (18%, marketability (17%, and high biomass (14% as the top preferred traits of sugarcane. Ninety diverse sugarcane landraces were collected from homesteads of smallholder farmers. Findings from this study would serve as baseline information towards sugarcane research and development emphasising the constraints and preferences of smallholder sugarcane growers in Ethiopia or similar agro-ecologies. This is the first study to report farmers preferred traits and constraints, and genetic resources of sugarcane under smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia.

  19. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  20. AN APPROACH TO FINANCIAL RISK IN A PORTFOLIO FOR PLANNING THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM SUGARCANE

    OpenAIRE

    Thárcylla R.N. Clemente; Adiel Teixeira de Almeida-Filho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brazil's location and tropical weather conditions are favourable cultivating sugarcane, which has led to Brazil being one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The influence of the sugarcane industry on its economy stands out among the indicators of Brazilian economic growth and because the diversified investment when planning the production of products derived from this sector is encouraged. The decision on which derivative (for example, crystal sugar, anhydrous ethanol, or...

  1. Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

    2012-12-01

    The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established

  2. Sugarcane production under smallholder farming systems: Farmers preferred traits, constraints and genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Esayas Tena; Firew Mekbib; Hussein Shimelis; Learnmore Mwadzingeni

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder sugarcane production sector is under researched and underdeveloped with limited industrial link and support. The objectives of this study were to assess the current state of sugarcane production, farmers’ perceived production constraints and preferred traits, and to collect germplasm grown by smallholder farmers in southern Ethiopia for strategic breeding and conservation. The study was conducted across 16 administrative zones, 28 districts and 56 peasant associations involving 56...

  3. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Janke; Athaydes Leite; Marcell Nikolausz; Thomas Schmidt; Jan Liebetrau; Michael Nelles; Walter Stinner

    2015-01-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, an...

  4. How Relevant Has Been the Learning-by-Doing for Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Production?

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Mauricio Núñez

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of several factors in reducing the production costs of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol, including learning-by-doing (LBD), economies of scale, rising factor prices, market competitiveness, and exogenous technological changes. Using the aggregate industry-level data over the period 1975- 2010, we find that the reduction in production costs of sugarcane ethanol was primarily driven by autonomous technological changes and unrelated to LBD. The increase in energy prices r...

  5. Expansion of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil: environmental and social challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Luiz A; Filoso, Solange

    2008-06-01

    Several geopolitical factors, aggravated by worries of global warming, have been fueling the search for and production of renewable energy worldwide for the past few years. Such demand for renewable energy is likely to benefit the sugarcane ethanol industry in Brazil, not only because sugarcane ethanol has a positive energetic balance and relatively low production costs, but also because Brazilian ethanol has been successfully produced and used as biofuel in the country since the 1970s. However, environmental and social impacts associated with ethanol production in Brazil can become important obstacles to sustainable biofuel production worldwide. Atmospheric pollution from burning of sugarcane for harvesting, degradation of soils and aquatic systems, and the exploitation of cane cutters are among the issues that deserve immediate attention from the Brazilian government and international societies. The expansion of sugarcane crops to the areas presently cultivated for soybeans also represent an environmental threat, because it may increase deforestation pressure from soybean crops in the Amazon region. In this paper, we discuss environmental and social issues linked to the expansion of sugarcane in Brazil for ethanol production, and we provide recommendations to help policy makers and the Brazilian government establish new initiatives to produce a code for ethanol production that is environmentally sustainable and economically fair. Recommendations include proper planning and environmental risk assessments for the expansion of sugarcane to new regions such as Central Brazil, improvement of land use practices to reduce soil erosion and nitrogen pollution, proper protection of streams and riparian ecosystems, banning of sugarcane burning practices, and fair working conditions for sugarcane cutters. We also support the creation of a more constructive approach for international stakeholders and trade organizations to promote sustainable development for biofuel

  6. Simulation of milk production by dairy cows fed sugarcane top-based diets with locally available supplements under Indian condition

    OpenAIRE

    Behera, U.K.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Assis, A.G.; France, J

    2005-01-01

    A model of sugarcane digestion was applied to indicate the suitability of various locally available supplements for enhancing milk production of Indian crossbred dairy cattle. Milk production was calculated according to simulated energy, lipogenic, glucogenic and aminogenic substrate availability. The model identified the most limiting substrate for milk production from different sugarcane-based diets. For sugarcane tops/urea fed alone, milk production was most limited by amino acid followed ...

  7. Performance Evaluation of Sweet Sorghum Juice and Sugarcane Molasses for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamipour Mohammad Sadegh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum juice and traditional ethanol substrate i.e. sugarcane molasses were used for ethanol production in this work. At the end of the fermentation process, the sweet sorghum juice yielded more ethanol with higher ethanol concentration compared to sugarcane molasses in all experiments. The sweet sorghum juice had higher cell viability at high ethanol concentrations and minimum sugar concentration at the end of the fermentation process. The ethanol concentration and yield were 8.9% w/v and 0.45 g/g for sweet sorghum in 80 h and 6.5% w/v and 0.37 g/g for sugarcane molasses in 60 h, respectively. The findings on the physical properties of sweet sorghum juice revealed that it has better physical properties compared to sugarcane molasses, resulting to enhanced performance of sweet sorghum juice for ethanol production

  8. Performance Evaluation of Sweet Sorghum Juice and Sugarcane Molasses for Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hatamipour Mohammad Sadegh; Almodares Abbas; Ahi Mohsen; Gorji Mohammad Ali; Jahanshah Qazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Sweet sorghum juice and traditional ethanol substrate i.e. sugarcane molasses were used for ethanol production in this work. At the end of the fermentation process, the sweet sorghum juice yielded more ethanol with higher ethanol concentration compared to sugarcane molasses in all experiments. The sweet sorghum juice had higher cell viability at high ethanol concentrations and minimum sugar concentration at the end of the fermentation process. The ethanol concentration and yield were 8.9% w/v...

  9. Challenges in Bioenergy Production from Sugarcane Mills in Developing Countries: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Colombo; William Ocampo-Duque; Fabio Rinaldi

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide energy policies are moving towards a reduction of fossil fuels’ share in the energy mix and to invest in renewable and green energy sources. Biomass is one of these, and it represents, in the form of sugarcane, a strategic source in Colombia, especially in the Valle del Cauca. In this region, the sugarcane industry is able to convert the energy content of the cane into different energy products, such as ethanol, electricity, and high-pressure steam, which are cogenerated via bagass...

  10. Sustainable Energy Crop Production: A Case Study for Sugarcane and Cassava Production in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Ni, Jianhong; Zhang, Sizhu

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of using biomass as a source of energy in reducing the greenhouse-effect imposed by carbon dioxide emission and relieving energy crisis is a matter of great interest, such as bioethanol production. Nevertheless, the cultivation of dedicated energy crops dose meet with some criticisms (conflict with food security and environmental degradation, for example). Nowadays sugarcane and cassava are regarded as the potential energy crops for bioethanol production. Endowed with natural ...

  11. Microbiological Saccharification and Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naureen Chaudhary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four strains of Bacillus cereus were grown in 5% sugarcane bagasse soaked in water (MI and 2% bagasse, 0.6% yeast extract, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4 and 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comparing of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI (M-II. The bacteria showed good growth in both the media. Then these bacteria were optimized for growth conditions in M-III medium comprising of 2% sucrose, 0.6% yeast, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4, 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comprising of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI. All the four strains grew best at pH 7 and 37°C. Aeration was not required for these bacterial strains. 5% inocula sizes were found optimum for the bacterial isolates except strain No. 23, which yielded best growth with 10% inoculum. After 2nd day of incubation in M-IV medium the bacteria liberated upto 8033 mg/100 mL of total sugar content, which showed reduction in subsequent sampling periods. On the other hand glucose content showed variable response to incubation periods. The strain 11a expressed 1411 mg/100 mL of glucose at 10th day while isolate No. 23 yielded 808 mg/100 mL glucose at 18th day of incubation. Fermentation by ethanologenic yeast of culture fluids saccharification by the isolate 194 and 23 expressed about 0.2 and 1.2% ethanol on 3rd and 7th days, respectively. The bacterial strains were identified as Bacillus cereus based upon their chemical characterization. These isolates appear potential candidates for saccharifying the sugarcane bagasse and production of ethanol employing ethanologenic yeast.

  12. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Combined Production of Electricity and Second Generation Ethanol Based on the Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Flório, D.N.; Junior, S. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a thermoeconomic assessment of an integrated ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse and traditional sugarcane juice is developed and discussed. An integrated distillery, which works with first and second generation ethanol production routes, is modeled and simulated. The thermoeconomic model assumes that the only agricultural input to the processes is the sugarcane itself (straw or other wastes recovered from the field were not considered in the analysis). The analyses are c...

  13. A Survey Report on Sugarcane Production in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang; LI; Yangrui; LI; Yuchi; DENG; Lunwang; WANG; Liu; YANG; Weihua; HUANG; Qiang; LIANG; Ronghua; ZHANG; Guoying; LU; Shijian; HAN; Pingwu; LIU; Changning; LI; Cuifang; YANG

    2014-01-01

    In order to fully understand sugarcane production in Guangxi in 2013,the sample survey combined with data collection and field survey was carried out in sugarcane production areas in Nanning,Hechi,Liuzhou,Chongzuo,Baise and Laibin from May 28 to June 36 in2013. It was found that the sugarcane growing area in Guangxi in 2013 declined compared with that in 2012; the rate of emergence remained the same as previous year,and as for the plant number of plant crop and ratoon crop per hectare,there was a decline of 4000 and 2000 seedlings respectively compared with the figure in 2012; borer damage rate declined on the whole while the incidence of sugarcane smut increased.Due to the growth in the cost of planting,the growers were less enthusiastic for management. According to the findings,the fertilization and sugarcane field management should be accelerated; borer prevention work was also required,so as to reduce borer damage and dieback rate;the planting structure of varieties had to be adjusted and the cultivated area of " Guitang" as a fine sugarcane variety should also be enlarged;meanwhile other active measures needed to be taken to prevent and control the outburst of pest attack in local areas.

  14. Effects of microbial inoculants and amino acid production by-product on fermentation and chemical composition of sugarcane silages

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues; Rodrigo da Costa Gomes; Paula Marques Meyer; Laura Maria Oliveira Borgatti; Fernando Masello Junqueira Franco; Gilson Luiz Alves de Godoy

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation patterns and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages with addition of amino acid production (monosodium glutamate) by-product (APB) and microbial inoculants. Mature sugarcane was chopped and ensiled in laboratory silos (n = 4/treatment) without additives (control) and with APB (10 g/kg), Pioneer 1174® (PIO, 1.0 mg/kg, Lactobacillus plantarum + Streptoccoccus faecium, Pioneer), Lalsil Cana (2.0 mg/kg, Lactobacill...

  15. Emergy efficiency analysis of sugarcane as a raw material for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Leandro da Vitória

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil and its growing importance in the Brazilian economy have been driven by a sharp increase in fuel alcohol production. This increase in fuel alcohol production was accompanied by increasing interest regarding the impacts of fuel crops in Brazil. In this study, regions of sugarcane expansion into deforested areas in the Atlantic Forest were studied by applying the emergy theory and indices. Environmental and economic inputs and the sustainability of the sugarcane production system were evaluated with the emergy method. The transformity (TR was equal to 1.78E+11 seJ kg-1, the yield rate (EYR was equal to 1.30, the investment rate was equal to 3.29, the environmental load rate was equal to 4.33, the renewability rate was equal to 18.77, and the exchange rate was equal to 1.09. The emergy indices of corn, cassava, wheat, and sugarcane (as raw materials for ethanol production were used. In Brazil, sugarcane production for ethanol production was more emergetically sustainable based on the analysed emergy indices.

  16. SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS SUPPORT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCONUT AROMA BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Pessanha da Penha,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the major producers of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum in the world and consequently produces large quantities of waste such as sugarcane bagasse, which can be used as inert support for the production of aroma compounds by SSF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and particle size distribution of sugar cane bagasse, as well as its applicability as support for the production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone by SSF. Analyses were performed in triplicate to evaluate the levels of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and moisture in the waste. Also evaluated were the particle size distribution and morphology structure of the sugarcane bagasse. The aroma compound produced shows that the studied waste can be used for 6PP production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC 4042 by SSF process. By kinetic production of aroma it is concluded that the seventh day of fermentation yielded the largest production of the aroma compound, as published for other studies

  17. Integrated production of sugarcane ethanol and soybean biodiesel: Environmental and economic implications of fossil diesel displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sugarcane sector is responsible for around 4% of the diesel consumption in Brazil. • Soybean biodiesel can reduce the fossil diesel demand in the sugarcane sector. • The local use of biodiesel could reduce logistic problems and environmental burdens. • The sugarcane–soybean integration is likely to improve ethanol life cycle performance. • Fiscal incentives could reduce the economic uncertainties of the integration. - Abstract: The sugarcane industry in Brazil has been considered promising for the production of advanced fuels and bio-based products. However, the sugarcane crop requires high volumes of fossil fuel for cultivation and transport. The use of biodiesel as a diesel substitute could reduce the environmental burdens associated with this high consumption. This work performed a stochastic evaluation of the environmental and economic implications of the integrated production of sugarcane bioethanol and soybean biodiesel, in comparison with the traditional sugarcane-to-ethanol process. The analysis was focused on the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and São Paulo, where this integration would be particularly attractive. The environmental aspects addressed were the fossil energy use and the GHG emissions in a cradle-to-gate approach. The economic analysis comprised the evaluation of the net present value of an incremental cash flow generated by the soybean production and by the adjacent plants of oil extraction and biodiesel. Results indicate that the integrated system is likely to improve the ethanol environmental performance, especially with regard to the fossil energy use. The integration is economically feasible but highly uncertain; however, it could be significantly improved through fiscal incentives to biodiesel producers, founded on the reduction of fossil energy use and on improvements in logistics. In addition, the proposed model may also assist in the design of other integrated systems applied to the sugarcane sector in Brazil

  18. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse using Fermentation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Y C; V. Sanggari

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse using fermentation process and to determine the effect of pH and temperature on bioethanol yield. Enzymes such as alpha- amylase and glucoamylase were used to breakdown the cellulose in sugarcane bagasse. Saccharomyces cerevisiea, (yeast) also was used in the experiment for fermentation. Five samples were prepared at different pH was varied to determine the effects of pH on ethanol yield at 370 C and another five samples w...

  19. AN APPROACH TO FINANCIAL RISK IN A PORTFOLIO FOR PLANNING THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thárcylla R.N. Clemente

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil's location and tropical weather conditions are favourable cultivating sugarcane, which has led to Brazil being one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The influence of the sugarcane industry on its economy stands out among the indicators of Brazilian economic growth and because the diversified investment when planning the production of products derived from this sector is encouraged. The decision on which derivative (for example, crystal sugar, anhydrous ethanol, or hydrous ethanol to produce from raw sugarcane can be modelled as an investment decision in a portfolio decision problem whenever a combination of these products is considered. As to the future price of these commodities, raw sugarcane is considered to be capital that should be invested. Thus, this paper puts forward a decision model which uses concepts from Decision Analysis and Bayesian Risk Analysis that may well assist the process of managing assets in the Brazilian sugarcane industry by considering the financial aspect when compiling a portfolio for planning production.

  20. Quality of sugarcane in productive process of ethanol evaluated by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil as an impurity in sugarcane is a serious problem for the ethanol industry, increasing production and maintenance costs and reducing the productivity. Fe, Hf, Sc and Th determined by INAA were used as tracers to assess the amount of soil in sugarcane from truckloads as well as in the juice extraction process. Quality control tools were applied to results identifying the need for stratification according to soil type and moisture. Soil levels of truckloads had high variability indicating potential for improving cut and loading operations. Samples from the juice extraction process allowed tracking the soil in the mill tandem. (author)

  1. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

  2. The Structure of Technology in Brazilian Sugarcane Production, 1975-87: An Application of a Modified Symmetric Generalized McFadden Cost Function.

    OpenAIRE

    Rask, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Sugarcane-based ethanol has become a primary automotive fuel in Brazil over the past 15 years. Because sugarcane costs are over two-thirds of the costs of ethanol production, the economic efficiency of the renewable petroleum substitute hinges on the structure of technology in sugarcane production. In this paper a modified symmetric generalized McFadden (SGM) cost function for sugarcane is estimated and the presence of technical change and economies of scale are investigated. The original SGM...

  3. Sugarcane productivity correlated with physical-chemical attributes to create soil management zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic importance of sugar cane in Brazil is unquestionable because it is the raw material for the production of ethanol and sugar. The accurate spatial intervention in the management of the crop, resulting zones of soil management, increases productivity as well as its agricultural yields. The spatial and Person's correlations between sugarcane attributes and physico-chemical attributes of a Typic Tropustalf were studied in the growing season of 2009, in Suzanápolis, State of São Paulo, Brazil (20°28'10'' S lat.; 50°49'20'' W long., in order to obtain the one that best correlates with agricultural productivity. Thus, the geostatistical grid with 120 sampling points was installed to soil and data collection in a plot of 14.6 ha with second crop sugarcane. Due to their substantial and excellent linear and spatial correlations with the productivity of the sugarcane, the population of plants and the organic matter content of the soil, by evidencing substantial correlations, linear and spatial, with the productivity of sugarcane, were indicators of management zones strongly attached to such productivity.

  4. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Janke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5–181 Nm3·tonFM−1, mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year.

  5. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Nikolausz, Marcell; Schmidt, Thomas; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5-181 Nm³·tonFM(-1)), mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days) should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year. PMID:26404248

  6. Utilization of pentoses from sugarcane biomass: techno-economics of biogas vs. butanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Dias, Marina O S; Junqueira, Tassia L; Cunha, Marcelo P; Bonomi, Antonio; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents the techno-economics of greenfield projects of an integrated first and second-generation sugarcane biorefinery in which pentose sugars obtained from sugarcane biomass are used either for biogas (consumed internally in the power boiler) or n-butanol production via the ABE batch fermentation process. The complete sugarcane biorefinery was simulated using Aspen Plus®. Although the pentoses stream available in the sugarcane biorefinery gives room for a relatively small biobutanol plant (7.1-12 thousand tonnes per year), the introduction of butanol and acetone to the product portfolio of the biorefinery increased and diversified its revenues. Whereas the IRR of the investment on a biorefinery with biogas production is 11.3%, IRR varied between 13.1% and 15.2% in the butanol production option, depending on technology (regular or engineered microorganism with improved butanol yield and pentoses conversion) and target market (chemicals or automotive fuels). Additional discussions include the effects of energy-efficient technologies for butanol processing on the profitability of the biorefinery. PMID:23748087

  7. Hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology improves digestibility and ethanol production by SSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160-200 deg C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohy...

  8. Simulation of milk production by dairy cows fed sugarcane top-based diets with locally available supplements under Indian condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behera, U.K.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Assis, A.G.; France, J.

    2005-01-01

    A model of sugarcane digestion was applied to indicate the suitability of various locally available supplements for enhancing milk production of Indian crossbred dairy cattle. Milk production was calculated according to simulated energy, lipogenic, glucogenic and aminogenic substrate availability. T

  9. Inequality and agricultural production: Evidence from aggregate agriculture and sugarcane farms in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ngepah, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the determinants of inequality in productivity in South African agriculture and differentiates between small-scale and large-scale farms in the sugarcane sector. The findings suggest that inequality slows down productivity and that land redistribution slightly improves it. Farm type-specific effects reveal that redistribution per se does not lead to higher production, but only improves production for those who farm the land effectively and go on to harvest the crop. Much...

  10. A LCA (life cycle assessment) of the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays one of the most important environmental issues is the exponential increase of the greenhouse effect by the polluting action of the industrial and transport sectors. The production of biofuels is considered a viable alternative for the pollution mitigation but also to promote rural development. The work presents an analysis of the environmental impacts of the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse, taking into consideration the balance of the energy life cycle and its net environmental impacts, both are included in a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) approach. The evaluation is done as a case study of a 100,000 t/y methanol plant, using sugarcane bagasse as raw material. The methanol is produced through the BTL (Biomass to Liquid) route. The results of the environmental impacts were compared to others LCA studies of biofuel and it was showed that there are significant differences of environmental performance among the existing biofuel production system, even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, technology of the biomass conversion. With relation to the result of output/input ratio, the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse showed to be a feasible alternative for the substitution of an amount of fossil methanol obtained from natural gas. -- Highlights: → High and favorable energy ratio value of methanol from bagasse. → Sugarcane production has a low participation on environmental impacts. → The gasification and methanol synthesis can be combined in a biorefinery. → Farming biomass could cause the environmental impact land competition. → The trash of sugarcane can be used successfully in methanol production.

  11. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances of sugarcane ethanol production in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to estimate GHG emissions and energy balances for the future expansion of sugarcane ethanol fuel production in Mexico with one current and four possible future modalities. We used the life cycle methodology that is recommended by the European Renewable Energy Directive (RED), which distinguished the following five system phases: direct Land Use Change (LUC); crop production; biomass transport to industry; industrial processing; and ethanol transport to admixture plants. Key variables affecting total GHG emissions and fossil energy used in ethanol production were LUC emissions, crop fertilization rates, the proportion of sugarcane areas that are burned to facilitate harvest, fossil fuels used in the industrial phase, and the method for allocation of emissions to co-products. The lower emissions and higher energy ratios that were observed in the present Brazilian case were mainly due to the lesser amount of fertilizers applied, also were due to the shorter distance of sugarcane transport, and to the smaller proportion of sugarcane areas that were burned to facilitate manual harvest. The resulting modality with the lowest emissions of equivalent carbon dioxide (CO2e) was ethanol produced from direct juice and generating surplus electricity with 36.8 kgCO2e/GJethanol. This was achieved using bagasse as the only fuel source to satisfy industrial phase needs for electricity and steam. Mexican emissions were higher than those calculated for Brazil (27.5 kgCO2e/GJethanol) among all modalities. The Mexican modality with the highest ratio of renewable/fossil energy was also ethanol from sugarcane juice generating surplus electricity with 4.8 GJethanol/GJfossil.

  12. High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Machado de Castro; Marcela Costa Ferreira; Juliana Cunha da Cruz; Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues Pedro; Daniele Fernandes Carvalho; Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite; Nei Pereira

    2010-01-01

    The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase a...

  13. Efficient and repeated production of succinic acid by turning sugarcane bagasse into sugar and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengcheng; Tao, Shengtao; Zheng, Pu

    2016-07-01

    Here we reported an endeavor in making full use of sugarcane bagasse for biological production of succinic acid. Through NaOH pre-treatment and multi-enzyme hydrolysis, a reducing sugar solution mainly composed of glucose and xylose was obtained from the sugarcane bagasse. By optimizing portions of cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase and pectinase in the multi-enzyme "cocktail", the hydrolysis percentage of the total cellulose in pre-treated sugarcane bagasse can be as high as 88.5%. A. succinogenes CCTCC M2012036 was used for converting reducing sugars into succinic acid in a 3-L bioreactor with a sugar-fed strategy to prevent cell growth limitation. Importantly, cells were found to be adaptive on the sugarcane bagasse residue, offering possibilities of repeated batch fermentation and replacement for MgCO3 with soluble NaHCO3 in pH modulation. Three cycles of fermentation without activity loss were realized with the average succinic acid yield and productivity to be 80.5% and 1.65g·L(-1)·h(-1). PMID:27035471

  14. Influence of siderurgical slag about gaseous changes and production of biomass of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Bastos Madeiros

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was installed in greenhouse, using one of the most representative soils of the state of Ceará, Brazil, for sugarcane crop, a Red-Yellow Argissoil. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of silicon in the gas exchange and production of biomass of sugarcane cultivars in sandy loam soil. It was used a completely randomized in 5x2 factorial scheme with five silicon doses: 0; 2.5; 5.0; 10.0 and 15.0 g per pot-1 of siderurgical slag, two cultivars of sugarcane and four repetitions. The siderurgical slag (calcium and magnesium silicato used containing 11% of soluble SiO2. It was evaluated the silicon level in the leaf, the production of dry matter of the aerial part, the relative growth rate of the plant, the water use efficiency, transpiration and conductance of the leaf. The results showed increase in concentration of Si in leaf with the application of the silicon; practically no influence in growth and physiological characteristics of the plants.Key-words: Argissoil, calcium, greenhouse, sugarcane.

  15. Ionizing Radiation Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass from Sugarcane Bagasse to Production Ethanol Biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 75 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  16. ANALYZING THE PROCESS OF PRODUCTION IN LOGISTICS SUGARCANE MILL: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Tognoli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to present and analyze the physical arrangement of logistics and production process plant in a sugarcane mill, in order to expose the processes involved, analyzing them more deeply and thus collaborate in a more efficient production. The relevance of this presentation is linked to the benefits that the plant and professionals can get through this work, enabling the development of methods and production alternatives. The research method used was case study based on interviews, on-site observation and document analysis, which was very appropriate as it could examine and cross checking. This work will allow a better understanding of the production process of the logistics of the plant in a sugarcane mill and working with suggestions and methods for more efficient production.

  17. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse using Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Wong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse using fermentation process and to determine the effect of pH and temperature on bioethanol yield. Enzymes such as alpha- amylase and glucoamylase were used to breakdown the cellulose in sugarcane bagasse. Saccharomyces cerevisiea, (yeast also was used in the experiment for fermentation. Five samples were prepared at different pH was varied to determine the effects of pH on ethanol yield at 370 C and another five samples were prepared to determine the effect of temperature on ethanol yield, the pH was kept constant at 4.5. The ethanol concentrations were determined by running the samples in High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that at highest ethanol concentration was obtained pH 4.5 and temperature 350C. This indicated that pH 4.5 and 350C was the optimum parameter for the yeast to produce ethanol.

  18. Nitrous oxide emission factors from N-fertilizer in sugarcane production in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, M. V.; Siqueira Neto, M.; Feigl, B. J.; Carvalho, J. L.; Cerri, C. E.; Cerri, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane production is rapidly expanding due to the increase of global demand for ethanol. Concurrently the necessary inputs to culture, especially N-fertilizer, are growing, since N is one of the key element to maintain sugarcane productivity. However, it is known that N-fertilizer is responsible for the largest share of N2O emissions from agricultural soils. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC) estimated that under favorable climatic conditions approximately 1% of the N-fertilizer applied can be emitted as N2O. Our goal was to estimate N2O emission factors from N-fertilizer used in the sugarcane ratoon for ethanol production. A field study was conducted at the Capuava Mill, located in southeastern Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications in a factorial scheme (2 x 2): two N sources (urea and ammonium nitrate), two application rates (80 and 120 kg ha-1), and a control treatment. N2O concentrations were determined by gas chromatography using a Shimadzu© GC-mini. N2O fluxes were calculated from linear regressions of concentration versus incubation time in the soil static chambers. The N2O emission factor of N-fertilizer was calculated according to the methodology described in the Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC). Comparatively, ammonium nitrate emitted 45 to 75% less N2O than urea application. There was no significant difference in N2O emission between the two applied rates of urea. Also the N2O emission factor of ammonium nitrate (0.3×0.2%) was lower than that of urea (1.1×0.4%). Our results indicated that on average the N fertilization of sugarcane plantation has an emission factor of 0.7×0.5% suggesting that N-fertilizer management can be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to improve the sustainability of bioethanol from sugarcane.

  19. Microbial diversity in sugarcane ethanol production in a Brazilian distillery using a culture-independent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ohana Yonara Assis; Souto, Betulia Morais; Tupinambá, Daiva Domenech; Bergmann, Jessica Carvalho; Kyaw, Cynthia Maria; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique; Barreto, Cristine Chaves; Quirino, Betania Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane ethanol production occurs in non-sterile conditions, and microbial contamination can decrease productivity. In this study, we assessed the microbial diversity of contaminants of ethanol production in an industrial facility in Brazil. Samples obtained at different stages were analyzed by pyrosequencing-based profiling of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the fungal internal transcribed spacer region. A total of 355 bacterial groups, 22 archaeal groups, and 203 fungal groups were identified, and community changes were related to temperature changes at certain stages. After fermentation, Lactobacillus and unclassified Lactobacillaceae accounted for nearly 100 % of the bacterial sequences. Predominant Fungi groups were "unclassified Fungi," Meyerozyma, and Candida. The predominant Archaea group was unclassified Thaumarchaeota. This is the first work to assess the diversity of Bacteria, and Archaea and Fungi associated with the industrial process of sugarcane-ethanol production using culture-independent techniques. PMID:25404204

  20. Optimization of media for bioethanol production by Pichia stipitis from sugarcane bagasse pretreated by dilute acid

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Ahi; Mehrdad Azin; Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati; Ebrahim Vasheghani Farahani; Mohsen Nosrati

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Reduction of fossil fuels due to its increasing consumption caused the biofuels production as an important topic, today. Using resources that have not food application was regarded as the second generation biofuels and consisted of lignocelluloses. Since considerable amount of lignocellulosic material are pentoses, utilizing them is important for the production of biofuels. Materials and methods: Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with dilute acid method. Pichia stipitis was us...

  1. Optimization of key factors affecting hydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by a thermophilic anaerobic pure culture

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Zhicheng; Zhu, Muzi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, JuFang; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydrogen is regarded as an attractive future energy carrier for its high energy content and zero CO2 emission. Currently, the majority of hydrogen is generated from fossil fuels. However, from an environmental perspective, sustainable hydrogen production from low-cost lignocellulosic biomass should be considered. Thermophilic hydrogen production is attractive, since it can potentially convert a variety of biomass-based substrates into hydrogen at high yields. Results Sugarcane baga...

  2. Multi-objective Optimization of a Solar Assisted 1st and 2nd Generation Sugarcane Ethanol Production Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Zevenhoven, Ron; Wallerand, Anna Sophia; Queiroz Albarelli, Juliana; Viana Ensinas, Adriano; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Mian, Alberto; Maréchal, François

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol production sites utilizing sugarcane as feedstock are usually located in regions with high land availability and decent solar radiation. This offers the opportunity to cover parts of the process energy demand with concentrated solar power (CSP) and thereby increase the fuel production and carbon conversion efficiency. A plant is examined that produces 1st and 2nd generation ethanol by fermentation of sugars (from sugarcane) and enzymatic hydrolysis of the lignocellulosic residues (bag...

  3. Sugarcane ethanol production in Malawi: Measures to optimize the carbon footprint and to avoid indirect emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane ethanol is considered to be one of the most efficient first-generation biofuels in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The carbon footprint (CF), however, increases significantly when taking into account emissions induced by indirect land-use changes (ILUC). This case study investigates sugarcane ethanol production in the Republic of Malawi, in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA); the research objectives were to identify and quantify direct and indirect emissions and to identify measures to optimize the CF. The CF has been calculated with a life cycle approach and with data obtained from the involved companies; our estimations with regard to ILUC take into account further expansion plans for sugarcane crop production. Under existing production conditions ethanol produced in Malawi leads to GHG emissions expressed as CO2eq of 116 g MJ−1 of ethanol. However, high optimization potentials exist when the vinasse is used as an input for biogas production and the harvesting switches from pre-harvest burning to green harvesting. ILUC induced by prospective sugarcane expansions in the Southern Region will, according to current planning, probably not occur since these expansions are linked to the implementation of a large-scale irrigation project. However if ILUC takes place, high levels of additional CO2 emissions of about 77 g MJ−1 of ethanol are to be expected. Although the case study results are only valid for a specific region, some of the findings, such as the high compensation potential regarding ILUC through investments in irrigation systems, may be transferable to other regions in SSA. - Highlights: • We conducted a case study on sugarcane ethanol production in Malawi and calculated its carbon footprint (CF). • The current CF of sugarcane ethanol produced in the Southern Region in Malawi amounts for 116 g MJ−1 of ethanol. • The usage of vinasse in biogas plants would significantly improve the CF. • Another optimization measure is to switch

  4. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol and palm oil biodiesel joint production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and palm tree (Elaeis guianeensis) are crops with high biofuel yields, 7.6 m3 ha−1 y−1 of ethanol and 4 Mg ha−1 y−1 of oil, respectively. The joint production of these crops enhances the sustainability of ethanol. The objective of this work was comparing a traditional sugarcane ethanol production system (TSES) with a joint production system (JSEB), in which ethanol and biodiesel are produced at the same biorefinery but only ethanol is traded. The comparison is based on ISO 14.040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006, and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado (typical savannah), Cerradão (woody savannah) and pastureland ecosystems were considered. Energy and carbon balances, and land use change impacts were evaluated. The joint system includes 100% substitution of biodiesel for diesel, which is all consumed in different cropping stages. Data were collected by direct field observation methods, and questionnaires applied to Brazilian facilities. Three sugarcane mills situated in São Paulo State and one palm oil refinery located in Para State were surveyed. The information was supplemented by secondary sources. Results demonstrated that fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions decreased, whereas energy efficiency increased when JSEB was compared to TSES. In comparison with TSES, the energy balance of JSEB was 1.7 greater. In addition, JSEB released 23% fewer GHG emissions than TSES. The ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradão, and Degraded Grassland of JSEB was respectively 4, 7.7 and −7.6 years. These are typical land use types of the Brazilian Cerrado region for which JSEB was conceived. -- Highlights: ► LCA of ethanol and biodiesel joint production system. ► Sugarcane based biorefinery assessment in Brazil. ► Original Brazilian LCI data on ethanol and palm oil biodiesel production. ► Biofuel LCA with LUC sensitivity analisis for the Brazilian Cerrado Region.

  5. Sugarcane straw as a feedstock for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Hernández-Pérez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sugarcane straw has become an available lignocellulosic biomass since the progressive introduction of the non-burning harvest in Brazil. Besides keeping this biomass in the field, it can be used as a feedstock in thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. This makes feasible its incorporation in a biorefinery, whose economic profitability could be supported by integrated production of low-value biofuels and high-value chemicals, e.g., xylitol, which has important industrial and clinical applications. Herein, biotechnological production of xylitol is presented as a possible route for the valorization of sugarcane straw and its incorporation in a biorefinery. Nutritional supplementation of the sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as a function of initial oxygen availability was studied in batch fermentation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The nutritional supplementation conditions evaluated were: no supplementation; supplementation with (NH42SO4, and full supplementation with (NH42SO4, rice bran extract and CaCl2·2H2O. Experiments were performed at pH 5.5, 30 °C, 200 rpm, for 48 h in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing either 25 or 50 mL of medium in order to vary initial oxygen availability. Without supplementation, complete consumption of glucose and partial consumption of xylose were observed. In this condition the maximum xylitol yield (0.67 g g-1 was obtained under reduced initial oxygen availability. Nutritional supplementation increased xylose consumption and xylitol production by up to 200% and 240%, respectively. The maximum xylitol volumetric productivity (0.34 g L-1 h-1 was reached at full supplementation and increased initial oxygen availability. The results demonstrated a combined effect of nutritional supplementation and initial oxygen availability on xylitol production from sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate.

  6. Sugarcane straw as a feedstock for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, Andrés Felipe; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane straw has become an available lignocellulosic biomass since the progressive introduction of the non-burning harvest in Brazil. Besides keeping this biomass in the field, it can be used as a feedstock in thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. This makes feasible its incorporation in a biorefinery, whose economic profitability could be supported by integrated production of low-value biofuels and high-value chemicals, e.g., xylitol, which has important industrial and clinical applications. Herein, biotechnological production of xylitol is presented as a possible route for the valorization of sugarcane straw and its incorporation in a biorefinery. Nutritional supplementation of the sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as a function of initial oxygen availability was studied in batch fermentation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The nutritional supplementation conditions evaluated were: no supplementation; supplementation with (NH4)2SO4, and full supplementation with (NH4)2SO4, rice bran extract and CaCl2·2H2O. Experiments were performed at pH 5.5, 30°C, 200rpm, for 48h in 125mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing either 25 or 50mL of medium in order to vary initial oxygen availability. Without supplementation, complete consumption of glucose and partial consumption of xylose were observed. In this condition the maximum xylitol yield (0.67gg(-1)) was obtained under reduced initial oxygen availability. Nutritional supplementation increased xylose consumption and xylitol production by up to 200% and 240%, respectively. The maximum xylitol volumetric productivity (0.34gL(-1)h(-1)) was reached at full supplementation and increased initial oxygen availability. The results demonstrated a combined effect of nutritional supplementation and initial oxygen availability on xylitol production from sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate. PMID:26991282

  7. Fuel ethanol production from sugarcane and corn: Comparative analysis for a Colombian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colombian government has defined the use of bioethanol as a gasoline enhancer to reduce greenhouse gases, gasoline imports, and to boost the rural economy. To meet the projected fuel ethanol demand needed to oxygenate the gasoline in the whole country, the construction of about five additional ethanol production plants is required. For this, a comparative analysis of the technological options using different feedstocks should be performed. In this work, a comparison of the economical and environmental performance of the ethanol production process from sugarcane and corn under Colombian conditions has been carried out. Net present value and total output rate of potential environmental impact were used as the economical and environmental indicators, respectively. Through the integration of these indicators into one index by using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach, sugarcane ethanol process was determined as the best choice for Colombian ethanol production facilities. AHP scores obtained in this study for sugarcane and corn ethanol were 0.571 and 0.429, respectively. However, starchy crops like corn, cassava or potatoes used as feedstock for ethanol production could potentially cause a higher impact on the rural communities and boost their economies if social matters are considered

  8. Biochemical conversion of sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with co-substrates for xylitol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, A F; Costa, I A L; Silva, D D V; Dussán, K J; Villela, T R; Canettieri, E V; Carvalho, J A; Soares Neto, T G; Felipe, M G A

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnological production of xylitol is an attractive route to add value to a sugarcane biorefinery, through utilization of the hemicellulosic fraction of sugarcane straw, whose availability is increasing in Brazil. Herein, supplementation of the sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate (xylose 57gL(-1)) with maltose, sucrose, cellobiose or glycerol was proposed, and their effect as co-substrates on xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was studied. Sucrose (10gL(-1)) and glycerol (0.7gL(-1)) supplementation led to significant increase of 8.88% and 6.86% on xylose uptake rate (1.11gL(-1)h(-1) and 1.09gL(-1)), respectively, but only with sucrose, significant increments of 12.88% and 8.69% on final xylitol concentration (36.11gL(-1)) and volumetric productivity (0.75gL(-1)h(-1)), respectively, were achieved. Based on these results, utilization of complex sources of sucrose, derived from agro-industries, as nutritional supplementation for xylitol production can be proposed as a strategy for improving the yeast performance and reducing the cost of this bioprocess by replacing more expensive nutrients. PMID:26615771

  9. Sugarcane straw as a feedstock for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Felipe Hernández-Pérez; Priscila Vaz de Arruda; Maria das Graças de Almeida Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sugarcane straw has become an available lignocellulosic biomass since the progressive introduction of the non-burning harvest in Brazil. Besides keeping this biomass in the field, it can be used as a feedstock in thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. This makes feasible its incorporation in a biorefinery, whose economic profitability could be supported by integrated production of low-value biofuels and high-value chemicals, e.g., xylitol, which has important industrial ...

  10. Carotenoid production by Rhodotorula rubra cultivated in sugarcane juice, molasses, and syrup

    OpenAIRE

    David Banzatto; Lidyane Aline de Freita; Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2013-01-01

    The Rhodotorularubra biomass and carotenoids production was evaluated in sugarcane juice, molasses, and syrup based media. The effects of media supplementation with urea- nitrogen or the commercial nutrient called Nitrofos KL was also verified. The experimental design used was a completely randomized factorial with 3 substrates (juice, molasses, and syrup) and three supplementations (control, urea, and Nitrofos KL). The results were submitted to variance analysis and Tukey test at 5% probabil...

  11. Comparative analysis for power generation and ethanol production from sugarcane residual biomass in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work compares the technical, economic and environmental (GHG emissions mitigation) performance of power generation and ethanol production from sugarcane residual biomass, considering conversion plants adjacent to a sugarcane mill in Brazil. Systems performances were simulated for a projected enzymatic saccharification co-fermentation plant (Ethanol option) and for a commercial steam-Rankine power plant (Electricity option). Surplus bagasse from the mill would be used as fuel/raw material for conversion, while cane trash collected from the field would be used as supplementary fuel at the mill. For the Electricity option, the sugarcane biorefinery (mill+adjacent plant) would produce 91 L of ethanol per tonne of cane and export 130 kWh/t of cane, while for the Ethanol option the total ethanol production would be 124 L/t of cane with an electricity surplus of 50 kWh/t cane. The return on investment (ROI) related to the biochemical conversion route was 15.9%, compared with 23.2% for the power plant, for the conditions in Brazil. Considering the GHG emissions mitigation, the environmentally preferred option is the biochemical conversion route: the net avoided emissions associated to the adjacent plants are estimated to be 493 and 781 kgCO2eq/t of dry bagasse for the Electricity and Ethanol options, respectively. - Research Highlights: → Power generation would present better profitability than ethanol production from sugarcane residues in Brazil, in the reference scenario adopted here. → The Ethanol option would be able to mitigate more GHG emissions in Brazil. → The economics for the ethanol production technology are more likely to improve in the future.

  12. Thermotolerant and mesophylic fungi from sugarcane bagasse and their prospection for biomass-degrading enzyme production

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Silveira Lamanes dos Santos; Arthur Filipe Sousa Gomes; Emanuele Giuliane Franciscon; Jean Maikon de Oliveira; Milla Alves Baffi

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them,...

  13. Engineering of Bacillus subtilis for the Production of 2,3-Butanediol from Sugarcane Molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Apoorva Nandkumar; Nipanikar-Gokhale, Padmaja; Jain, Rishi

    2016-05-01

    2,3-butanediol is known to be a platform chemical with several potential industrial applications. Sustainable industrial scale production can be attained by using a sugarcane molasses based fermentation process using Bacillus subtilis. However, the accumulation of acetoin needs to be reduced to improve process efficiency. In this work, B. subtilis was genetically modified in order to increase the yield of 2,3-butanediol. Metabolic engineering strategies such as cofactor engineering and overexpression of the key enzyme butanediol dehydrogenase were attempted. Both the strategies individually led to a statistically significant increase in the 2,3-butanediol yields for sugarcane molasses based fermentation. Cofactor engineering led to a 26 % increase in 2,3-butanediol yield and overexpression of bdhA led to a 11 % increase. However, the combination of the two strategies did not lead to a synergistic increase in 2,3-butanediol yield. PMID:26825987

  14. Challenges in Bioenergy Production from Sugarcane Mills in Developing Countries: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Colombo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide energy policies are moving towards a reduction of fossil fuels’ share in the energy mix and to invest in renewable and green energy sources. Biomass is one of these, and it represents, in the form of sugarcane, a strategic source in Colombia, especially in the Valle del Cauca. In this region, the sugarcane industry is able to convert the energy content of the cane into different energy products, such as ethanol, electricity, and high-pressure steam, which are cogenerated via bagasse combustion. In this work, the case of a sucrose and ethanol production plant, which mills ten thousand tons of sugarcane per day, is considered. A tailor-made computational model was developed to assess the energy and material process balances in order to estimate the effect of different operating conditions on cogeneration boilers and turbines, and to optimize the overall process efficiency. The current situation was modeled with good precision from the developed model. Likewise, the concept of “Renewable Efficiency” was introduced to explain the degree of green power, which a process plant is able to produce. Consequently, new innovative solutions and process layouts were proposed in order to increase their renewable efficiency. With the new configurations, a convenient energy surplus of up to 33 MW can be reached, which could be sold in the national electricity grid, representing long-term interesting economic benefits for the company.

  15. Soil exchangeable cations, sugarcane production and nutrient uptake after wastewater irrigation Cátions trocáveis do solo, produção e extração de nutrientes pela cana-de-açúcar após irrigação com água residuária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Marques Pereira Leal

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater irrigation may benefit agricultural crops with water and essential nutrients (mainly nitrogen, also affecting soil chemistry. The effects of effluent irrigation on yield, stalk nutrient uptake and on soil chemistry over 16 months were studied in a sugarcane (Saccharum spp. crop growing on an Oxisol in Lins, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Irrigated plots received 50% of the recommended mineral-N fertilization and 100, 125, 150 or 200% of the crop water demand, while control plots received neither additional N nor water. The high sodium content of effluent resulted in Na inputs as high as 6.2 t ha-1, along with 1497 kg N ha-1 and 628 kg K ha-1. All the effluent plots except the T125 treatment had higher yields (up to 247 t ha-1 than the control (153 t ha-1. Significant amounts of N (up to 597 kg ha-1 and K (up to 546 kg ha-1 were exported by the plant harvest. Additions of nutrients and Na via irrigation were not compensated by stalk growth, causing a low recovery of N, P, Ca, Na, and showing the relative over N fertilization of the crop. Changes in soil pH, H + Al, Ca, Mg and K were small, whereas Na accumulated over time with irrigation. The treated wastewater irrigation is expected to gain increased importance, requiring careful considerations involving the adequate balance between nutritional inputs via irrigation and optimal plant productivity requirements.A irrigação com águas residuárias pode beneficiar as culturas agrícolas com água e nutrientes essenciais (especialmente nitrogênio, afetando também a química do solo. Os efeitos da irrigação por 16 meses com efluente de esgoto na produtividade, extração de nutrientes pelo colmo, e nos atributos químicos do solo, foram estudados em um Latossolo cultivado com cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp., situado em Lins, São Paulo. As parcelas irrigadas receberam 50% do N mineral recomendado e 100, 125, 150 ou 200% da demanda hídrica da cultura, enquanto o controle não recebeu N

  16. Sugarcane and Energycane

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Energycane” is a term that is used to describe sugarcane grown solely for the production of renewable energy. A Type I energycane has somewhat lower sugar content (10-14%) and higher fiber content (14-20%) than a commercial sugarcane cultivar bred for sugar production. In contrast, a Type II energy...

  17. Response Surface Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Molasses by Pichia veronae Strain HSC-22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed I. Hamouda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pichia veronae strain HSC-22 (accession number KP012558 showed a good tolerance to relatively high temperature, ethanol and sugar concentrations. Response surface optimization based on central composite design of experiments predicted the optimal values of the influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses to be as follows: initial pH 5, 25% (w : v initial molasses concentration, 35°C, 116 rpm, and 60 h. Under these optimum operating conditions the maximum bioethanol production on a batch fermenter scale was recorded as 32.32 g/L with 44% bioethanol yield.

  18. Continuous ethanol production using yeast immobilized on sugar-cane stalks

    OpenAIRE

    J. N. de Vasconcelos; C.E. Lopes; F. P. de França

    2004-01-01

    Sugar-cane stalks, 2.0 cm long, were used as a support for yeast immobilization envisaging ethanol production. The assays were conducted in 38.5 L fermenters containing a bed of stalks with 50% porosity. The operational stability of the immobilized yeast, the efficiency and stability of the process, as well as the best dilution rate were evaluated. Molasses from demerara sugar production was used in the medium formulation. It was diluted to obtain 111.75 ± 1.51 g/L without any further ...

  19. Response Surface Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Molasses by Pichia veronae Strain HSC-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Hamed I; Nassar, Hussein N; Madian, Hekmat R; Abu Amr, Salem S; El-Gendy, Nour Sh

    2015-01-01

    Pichia veronae strain HSC-22 (accession number KP012558) showed a good tolerance to relatively high temperature, ethanol and sugar concentrations. Response surface optimization based on central composite design of experiments predicted the optimal values of the influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses to be as follows: initial pH 5, 25% (w : v) initial molasses concentration, 35°C, 116 rpm, and 60 h. Under these optimum operating conditions the maximum bioethanol production on a batch fermenter scale was recorded as 32.32 g/L with 44% bioethanol yield. PMID:26779347

  20. Response Surface Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Molasses by Pichia veronae Strain HSC-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Hamed I.; Nassar, Hussein N.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Abu Amr, Salem S.; El-Gendy, Nour Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Pichia veronae strain HSC-22 (accession number KP012558) showed a good tolerance to relatively high temperature, ethanol and sugar concentrations. Response surface optimization based on central composite design of experiments predicted the optimal values of the influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses to be as follows: initial pH 5, 25% (w : v) initial molasses concentration, 35°C, 116 rpm, and 60 h. Under these optimum operating conditions the maximum bioethanol production on a batch fermenter scale was recorded as 32.32 g/L with 44% bioethanol yield. PMID:26779347

  1. Optimization of media for bioethanol production by Pichia stipitis from sugarcane bagasse pretreated by dilute acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ahi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reduction of fossil fuels due to its increasing consumption caused the biofuels production as an important topic, today. Using resources that have not food application was regarded as the second generation biofuels and consisted of lignocelluloses. Since considerable amount of lignocellulosic material are pentoses, utilizing them is important for the production of biofuels. Materials and methods: Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with dilute acid method. Pichia stipitis was used for the fermentation of released sugars. A L27 Taguchi orthogonal array was considered to optimize the fermentation process and increase the amount of ethanol. The eight factors with three levels considering nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc, sulfur, magnesium, and vitamins sources were considered in this study. Results: The analysis of the results shows that corn steep liquor, ammonium hydrogen phosphate, potassium di-hydrogen phosphate and magnesium sulfate have a significant effect on the production of ethanol, respectively. Confirmation of the optimal conditions shows that ethanol production was increased 97% relative to the mean of the observed results. The yield and productivity during 48 h of the fermentation were reached to 0.26 (g ethanol/g consumed sugar and 0.125g (L.h, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: At the optimum condition the production of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate had higher efficiency relative to previous studies. Results of medium optimization considering cheap resources showed showed an excellent potential toward an economical bioethanol production process.

  2. KOH for enhanced sugarcane bagasse delignification and further production of sugar-rich hydrolyzates by enzymes application

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão, Susana M.; Ladeira, S. A.; Arez, B. F.; Martins, M. L. L.; Roseiro, J. Carlos; Alves, Luís Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is envisaged as an important raw material for bioethanol production due to its low cost and high availability. Sugarcane bagasse (SCB), a fibrous residue of cane stalks left over after crushing and extraction of the juice from sugarcane; it is one of the largest cellulosic agro-industrial by-products. Tons of SCB are produced in Brazil as a waste of sugar and ethanol industries. This lignocellulosic by-product is a potential renewable source for 2G-bioethanol produ...

  3. Modeling of Production and Quality of Bioethanol Obtained from Sugarcane Fermentation Using Direct Dissolved Sugars Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Velazquez-Marti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from sugarcane represents an opportunity for urban-agricultural development in small communities of Ecuador. Despite the fact that the industry for bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil is fully developed, it is still considered expensive as a small rural business. In order to be able to reduce the costs of monitoring the production process, and avoid the application of expensive sensors, the aim of this research was modeling the kinetics of production of bioethanol based on direct measurements of Brix grades, instead of the concentration of alcohol, during the process of cane juice bio-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This avoids the application of expensive sensors that increase the investment costs. Fermentation experiments with three concentrations of yeast and two temperatures were carried out in a laboratory reactor. In each case Brix grades, amount of ethanol and alcoholic degree were measured. A mathematical model to predict the quality and production of bioethanol was developed from Brix grade measurements, obtaining an adjusted coefficient of determination of 0.97. The model was validated in a pilot plant.

  4. Improvement of biotechnological xylitol production by glucose during cultive of Candida guilliermondii in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Danielle Virgínio da Silva; Ismael Maciel de Mancilha; Silvio Silvério da Silva; Maria das Graças de Almeida Felipe

    2007-01-01

    The effect of glucose on xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion by Candida guilliermondii was examined by adding it to sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate medium to obtain different glucose:xylose ratios (1:25, 1:12, 1:5 and 1:2.5). Under experimental conditions, increasing glucose:xylose ratio improved the assimilation of the xylose present in the hydrolysate by yeast, resulting in biomass increase, and in the formation of xylitol and glycerol/ethanol by-products. Maximum values of xylitol yield (0.59 g ...

  5. Response Surface Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Molasses by Pichia veronae Strain HSC-22

    OpenAIRE

    Hamouda, Hamed I.; Nassar, Hussein N.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Salem S. Abu Amr; Nour Sh. El-Gendy

    2015-01-01

    Pichia veronae strain HSC-22 (accession number KP012558) showed a good tolerance to relatively high temperature, ethanol and sugar concentrations. Response surface optimization based on central composite design of experiments predicted the optimal values of the influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses to be as follows: initial pH 5, 25% (w : v) initial molasses concentration, 35°C, 116 rpm, and 60 h. Under these optimum operating conditions the m...

  6. LEAN PRODUCTION ASSESSMENT IN A SUGARCANE AGRIBUSINESS: A CASE STUDY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Guilherme Satolo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian sugarcane agribusiness has emerged as one of the main drivers of the economy; mainly stand out in global scenario as a major producer and exporter of sugar. To make this segment even more competitive it is also necessary to look for constant improvements in its production system. Over the past four decades, Lean Production has been recognized as a management model in efficiency and competitiveness when it comes to the use of a systematic approach and focused on waste elimination. In this scenario this article aims to evaluate the use of philosophy, techniques and tools of Lean Production System in a sugarcane agribusiness in State of São Paulo. A research roadmap developed from the 14 principles of Liker for the implementation of Lean Production was used to conduct an interview, as well as on site visit and observation in order to perform a data triangulation. Within the search results is identified that the organization has a satisfactory performance on Lean principles, especially the support given by the technical and applied tools, which support the processes and problem solving categories.

  7. Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Deepshikha; Singh, Bhanu L; Kumar, Umesh; Shweta

    2010-09-01

    The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30 days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum. This treatment was followed by vermicomposting for 40 days with the native earthworm, Drawida willsi. The combination of both treatments reduced the overall time required for composting to 20 days and accelerated the degradation process of waste by-products of sugar processing industry, thereby producing a nutrient-enriched compost product useful for sustaining high crop yield, minimizing soil depletion and value added disposal of waste materials. PMID:20403689

  8. Increased sugarcane water productivity in Brazil avoids land use change and related environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpare, F. V.; Galdos, M. V.; Kolln, O.; Gava, G.; Franco, H.; Trivelin, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fábio V. Scarparea, Marcelo V. Galdosa, Oriel T. Kollna, Glauber J.C. Gavab, Henrique J. Francoa, Paulo C.O. Trivelinc a Laboratório Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do Bioetanol - CTBE/CNPEM, C.P. 6170, Campinas, SP, 13083-970, Brazil. E-mail: fabio.scarpare@bioetanol.org.br b APTA - Polo Centro Oeste. Rod. SP 304, km 304, CP 66, Jaú, SP, 17201-970, Brazil. c Laboratório de Isótopos Estáveis, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, CENA/USP, C.P. 9, Piracicaba, SP, 13418-900, Brazil. Increasing crop water productivity is a key factor where water is scarce compared with land and other resources. A widespread method for water use assessment is the water productivity (WP) approach which is the ratio between biomass production per unit of water utilized. WP is useful to evaluate water utilization and to identify where and when water can be saved in an irrigation system. Traditionally, field experiments are conducted to quantify and evaluate water management practices in irrigation systems. This field trial was conducted in Jaú - São Paulo State (Lat 22.17° S, Long 48.32° W) during first and second ratoon cycles. Four treatments were appraised; rainfed only (R0); rainfed + 150 kg ha-1 of N (RN); irrigation only (I0) and irrigation + 150 kg ha-1 of N (IN). The subsurface drip irrigation was carried out considering the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) to restore 100% of evapotranspired water. The irrigation frequency was considered the water supply to the soil by precipitation and the atmospheric demand for sugarcane ETc, with a maximum soil storage capacity of 70 mm. Our results point that the WP in irrigated condition was 13% higher than rainfed field whereas for N application, WP reached even higher values, 40%. WP among all treatments showed better results for IN (~28 kg mm-1) followed by RN (~23 kg mm-1); I0 (~16 kg mm-1) and R0 (~15 kg mm-1). Those results are in agreement with some studies which suggest high synergy between water and nitrogen for the

  9. High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Aline Machado; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

    2010-01-01

    The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L(-1)) after 72 hours of process, and further relevant β-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L(-1), resp.). The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50°C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21048871

  10. High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Machado de Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin, by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L−1 after 72 hours of process, and further relevant β-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L−1, resp.. The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50∘C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials.

  11. Continuous ethanol production using yeast immobilized on sugar-cane stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. de Vasconcelos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-cane stalks, 2.0 cm long, were used as a support for yeast immobilization envisaging ethanol production. The assays were conducted in 38.5 L fermenters containing a bed of stalks with 50% porosity. The operational stability of the immobilized yeast, the efficiency and stability of the process, as well as the best dilution rate were evaluated. Molasses from demerara sugar production was used in the medium formulation. It was diluted to obtain 111.75 ± 1.51 g/L without any further treatment. Sulfuric acid was used to adjust the pH value to around 4.2. Every two days Kamoran HJ (10 ppm or with a mixture containing penicillin (10 ppm and tetracycline (10 ppm, was added to the medium. Ethanol yield and efficiency were 29.64 g/L.h and 86.40%, respectively, and the total reducing sugars (TRS conversion was 74.61% at a dilution rate of 0.83 h-1. The yeast-stalk system was shown to be stable for over a 60 day period at extremely variable dilution rates ranging from 0.05 h-1 to 3.00 h-1. The concentration of immobilized cell reached around 109 cells/gram of dry sugar-cane stalk when the fermenter was operating at the highest dilution rate (3.00 h-1.

  12. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Sopa Cansee1,

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a har...

  13. A novel promising Trichoderma harzianum strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex using sugarcane bagasse in natura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Bruno; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is a major producer of agro-industrial residues, such as sugarcane bagasse, which could be used as raw material for microbial production of cellulases as an important strategy for the development of sustainable processes of second generation ethanol production. For this purpose, this work aimed at screening for glycosyl hydrolase activities of fungal strains isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado. Among 13 isolates, a Trichoderma harzianum strain (L04) was identified as a promising candidate for cellulase production when cultured on in natura sugarcane bagasse. Strain L04 revealed a well-balanced cellulolytic complex, presenting fast kinetic production of endoglucanases, exoglucanases and β-glucosidases, achieving 4,022, U.L(-1) (72 h), 1,228 U.L(-1) (120 h) and 1,968 U.L(-1) (48 h) as the highest activities, respectively. About 60% glucose yields were obtained from sugarcane bagasse after 18 hours hydrolysis. This new strain represents a potential candidate for on-site enzyme production using sugarcane bagasse as carbon source. PMID:24349958

  14. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 immobilized on chemically modified sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangping; He, Aiyong; Zhao, Jie; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Min

    2015-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was chemically modified by polyethylenimine (PEI) and glutaraldehyde (GA) and then used as a support to immobilize Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 in the process of butanol production. Compared with batch fermentation using unmodified sugarcane bagasse, 22.3 g/L total solvents were produced by cells immobilized on 4 g/L PEI treated sugarcane bagasse with high solvent productivity of 0.62 g/(L h) and glucose consumption rate of 1.67 g/(L h). Improvement of 14, 43, and 37 % in total solvent titer, solvent productivity and glucose consumption rate was observed, respectively. Enhanced solvent production of 25.14 g/L was obtained when using a high concentration of glucose of 80 g/L. Continuous fermentation was studied using PEI/GA modified sugarcane bagasse as immobilization support with a range of dilution which rates from 0.2 to 2.5 to find an optimal condition. The maximum solvent productivity of 11.32 g/(L h) was obtained at a high dilution rate of 2.0 h(-1). PMID:25694132

  15. Cationization of Alpha-Cellulose to Develop New Sustainable Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Papermaking has been using high quantities of retention agents, mainly cationic substances and organic compounds such as polyamines. The addition of these agents is related to economic and environmental issues, increasing contamination of the effluents. The aim of this work is to develop a cationic polymer for papermaking purposes based on the utilization of alpha-cellulose. The cationization of mercerized alpha-cellulose with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC is governed by a pseudo-second-order reaction. The initial amorphous fraction of cellulose is reacted with CHPTAC until the equilibrium value of nitrogen substitution is reached. Nitrogen is incorporated as a quaternary ammonium group in the polymer. Also, the kinetic constant increased with decreasing crystallinity index, showing the importance of the previous alkalization stage. The use of modified natural polysaccharides is a sustainable alternative to synthetic, nonbiodegradable polyelectrolytes and thus is desirable with a view to developing new products and new processes.

  16. Protein production by Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis in solid state cultivation using sugarcane bagasse as support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pelizer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arthrospira comprises a group of filamentous multicellular cyanobacteria and can be used for animal feed and human food. Solid state fermentation or cultivation (SSF involves the use of a culture medium composed of solid material with given moisture content. No studies have been published about the cultivation of microalgae or cyanobacteria on solid medium. Furthermore, although sugar-cane bagasse is used as source of energy in alcohol distilleries in Brazil, the excess could be a support to photosynthetic microorganism growth. The experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the protein production by Arthrospira platensis under SSF using sugarcane bagasse as support, taking into account the moisture content of the medium, light intensity and inoculum concentration. Moisture was found to have a strong influence on the performance of the process. The best conditions were: moisture of 98.8%; inoculum concentration of 0.15 g biomass·kg wet culture medium−1 and light intensity of 6.0 klx.

  17. A comparison of power generation and ethanol production using sugarcane bagasse from the perspective of mitigating GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power generation and two ethanol production options from sugarcane bagasse were compared at grid emission factors ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent per kWh. The first ethanol production method (EP 1) directly purchased electricity and steam from the grid and the factory, and the second ethanol production method (EP 2) derived the required electricity and steam from the cogeneration system using the sugarcane bagasse as boiler fuel. Data pertaining to GHG emissions from power generation were collected from published studies. A process for ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse was designed, and a simulator was developed to generate the process data using Microsoft Excel. Results show that power generation is the preferential option when the grid emission factors are higher than 0.45 kg CO2 eq/kWh. The EP 1 was advantageous in mitigating the GHG emissions when the grid emission factors were lower than 0.19 kg CO2 eq/kWh, and the EP 2 might be the most environmentally beneficial when the grid emission factors were between 0.19 and 0.45 kg CO2 eq/kWh. It is hoped that these results could be helpful in determining how to best utilize sugarcane bagasse

  18. Increasing efficiency in ethanol production: Water footprint and economic productivity of sugarcane ethanol under nine different water regimes in north-eastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Chico; Antonio D. Santiago; Alberto Garrido

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol production in Brazil has grown by 219% between 2001 and 2012, increasing the use of land and water resources. In the semi-arid north-eastern Brazil, irrigation is the main way for improving sugarcane production. This study aimed at quantifying water consumed in ethanol production from sugarcane in this region using the water footprint (WF) indicator and complementing it with an evaluation of the water apparent productivity (WAP). This way we were able to provide a measure of the crop´...

  19. Application of Ionic Liquid [DMIM]DMP Pretreatment in the Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Widjaja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse is one of lignocellulose materials that can be converted to biofuel. This work was aimed to develop new pretreatment combination methods to process sugarcane bagasse lignocellulose into biofuel (bio-hydrogen. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using NaOH solution in combination with ionic liquid [DMIM]DMP enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis significantly. After the pretreat-ment, the content of cellulose and hemicellulose increased by 29.31% compared to the untreated one. Cellulose and hemicelluloses were used as raw materials to produce reducing sugars, that can be con-verted to bio-hydrogen via fermentation. After being subjected to combined pretreatment processes, the crystalline index of sugarcane bagasse decreased significantly compared to solely NaOH pretratment. This indicates a more amorphous structure of the sugarcane bagasse, which makes it is easier to be hy-drolyzed into reducing sugars. The recovery of cellulose + hemicellulose after pretreatment for 20 min and 120 °C was 92%, and the yield obtained was 0.556 g sugars/g (cellulose + hemicellulose after 12 h and the bio-hydrogen yield was 0.46 mol H2/mol sugars consumed after 48 h fermentation. The use of recycled of ionic liquid showed similar performance compared to the use of fresh ionic liquid. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 21st July 2014; Revised: 15th September 2014; Accepted: 12nd December 2014How to Cite: Widjaja, A., Agnesty, S.Y., Sangian, H.F., Gunawan, S. (2014. Application of Ionic Liquid [DMIM]DMP Pretreatment in the Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse for Biofuel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 70-77. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7143.70-77Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7143.70-77 

  20. Energy expense by logistics within sugarcane's energy production chain : two case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a renewable energy, biofuels are a viable alternative to fossil fuels. This study evaluated the energy expenditures of 2 case studies within the ethanol production chain in Brazil, notably ethanol for road transportation; and baled straw from mechanical harvesting of sugarcane, for electricity cogeneration. For ethanol road transportation, the 2 most commons tanker-trucks were evaluated. For the baled straw, prismatic and cylindrical bales were evaluated along with 3 types of raking. Although the largest vehicle for ethanol transportation consumed more fuel, it expended 12.42 per cent less energy per distance and transported mass. Proportionally, it had lower carbon dioxide emissions. The prismatic baled straw required 19.72 per cent less fuel due to the truck loading capacities of these bales. It was concluded that these results may prove useful when choosing alternatives within energy production systems.

  1. Ethanol from Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Residues - Opportunities for Process Improvement and Production Cost Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Macrelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels, and the increasing demand for fuel ethanol has prompted studies on the use of the lignocellulosic residues of sugarcane, namely bagasse and leaves, as new feedstock. This thesis describes various process designs and the economic feasibility of producing second generation (2G) ethanol from bagasse and leaves via the enzymatic route in an integrated sugarcane biorefinery, where first-generation (1G) ethanol is produced from...

  2. Investigation of uncertainties associated with the production of n-butanol through ethanol catalysis in sugarcane biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas G; Dias, Marina O S; MacLean, Heather L; Bonomi, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the viability of n-butanol production integrated within a first and second generation sugarcane biorefinery. The evaluation included a deterministic analysis as well as a stochastic approach, the latter using Monte Carlo simulation. Results were promising for n-butanol production in terms of revenues per tonne of processed sugarcane, but discouraging with respect to internal rate of return (IRR). The uncertainty analysis determined there was high risk involved in producing n-butanol and co-products from ethanol catalysis. It is unlikely that these products and associated production route will be financially attractive in the short term without lower investment costs, supportive public policies and tax incentives coupled with biofuels' production strategies. PMID:25958148

  3. Enhanced biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by Clostridium thermocellum supplemented with CaCO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing-Qing; Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 was used to degrade sugarcane bagasse (SCB) directly for hydrogen production, which was significantly enhanced by supplementing medium with CaCO3. The effect of CaCO3 concentration on the hydrogen production was investigated. The hydrogen production was significantly enhanced with the CaCO3 concentration increased from 10mM to 20mM. However, with the CaCO3 concentration further increased from 20mM to 100mM, the hydrogen production didn't increase further. Under the optimal CaCO3 concentration of 20mM, the hydrogen production reached 97.83±5.19mmol/L from 2% sodium hydroxide-pretreated SCB, a 116.72% increase over the control (45.14±1.03mmol/L), and the yield of hydrogen production reached 4.89mmol H2/g SCBadded. Additionally, CaCO3 promoted the biodegradation of SCB and the growth of C. thermocellum. The stimulatory effects of CaCO3 on biohydrogen production are mainly attributed to the buffering capacity of carbonate. The study provides a novel strategy to enhance biohydrogen production from lignocellulose. PMID:26356113

  4. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and residue management practices on ammonia emissions from subtropical sugarcane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    mudi, Sanku Datta; Wang, Jim J.; Dodla, Syam Kumar; Arceneaux, Allen; Viator, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from soil is a loss of nitrogen (N) nutrient for plant production as well as an issue of air quality, due to the fact that it is an active precursor of airborne particulate matters. Ammonia also acts as a secondary source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when present in the soil. In this study, the impacts of different sources of N fertilizers and harvest residue management schemes on NH3 emissions from sugarcane production were evaluated based on an active chamber method. The field experiment plots consisting of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN)) and two common residue management practices, namely residue retained (RR) and residue burned (RB), were established on a Commerce silt loam. The NH3 volatilized following N fertilizer application was collected in an impinger containing diluted citric acid and was subsequently analyzed using ion chromatography. The NH3 loss was primarily found within 3-4 weeks after N application. Average seasonal soil NH3 flux was significantly greater in urea plots with NH3-N emission factor (EF) twice or more than in UAN plots (2.4-5.6% vs. 1.2-1.7%). The RR residue management scheme had much higher NH3 volatilization than the RB treatment regardless of N fertilizer sources, corresponding to generally higher soil moisture levels in the former. Ammonia-N emissions in N fertilizer-treated sugarcane fields increased with increasing soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) up to 45-55% observed in the field. Both N fertilizer sources and residue management approaches significantly affected NH3 emissions.

  5. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  6. Development Strategy of Sugarcane Industry in Guangdong Province

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yue-gui; Wu, Jian-tao; Yang, Jun-xian; Li, Qi-Wei; Xie, Jing; Pan, Fang-yin; Wu, Wen-long; Liu, Fu-ye; Deng, Hai-hua; Qi, Yong-wen

    2012-01-01

    Guangdong Province is one of the main producing areas of sugarcane in China, and one of China's three regions with dominant advantage in sugarcane, having good basis and conditions for developing sugarcane industry. In this research, using the SWOT-AHP method, we set 20 assessment indicators (such as the regions with dominant advantage in sugarcane, huge demand for domestic sugar, increased production costs and backward system of sugarcane), to analyze the development strategy of sugarcane in...

  7. Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron in Sugarcane Leaves and Sugar House Products with two common Complexing Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of iron as iron (III) in sugarcane leaves and sugarhouse products were described. The proposed methods involve the complexation of iron (III) in weakly acidic conditions with 5-sulphosalycyclic acid and tiron having respective maximum absorbances at 490 nm and 670 nm. Both the systems obey Lambert and Beer's law in the concentration range 0.5-23 ug/ml. Molar absorptivity, correlation coefficient and Sandell sensitivity values were found to be of 1.7141x10mol cm dm, 0.9998 and 32.5845 ng/cm respectively for iron (III)-5-sulphosalicyclic acid. Whereas the corresponding values were found to be 1.870 x 10 mol cm dm, 0.99903, 29.8553 ng/cm for iron (III)-tiron system. Iron present in sugarcane leaves, sugarcane juice, pressmud, bagasse and also iron in pharmaceutical sample, plant leaves of Murraya coyingi and Moringaoliera was determined as iron (III) by both the methods following the principles of calibration graph method. The results obtained from Iron (III)-5-sulphosalicylic acid were reproducible with acceptable standard deviation 0.021-0.0319 and coefficients of variation 0.2414-1.5978%. Whereas the results of iron (III)-tiron system were also reproducible with standard deviation 0.0912-0.033 and coefficient of variation 0.351-1.756%. For comparison iron present in all the seven samples were also determined separately as iron (II) following the ICUMSA iron (II)-1, 10-phenanthroline official method. The results of total iron as iron (III) obtained by proposed methods were comparable with those of the official method. Therefore, the proposed spctrophotometric methods for determination of iron (III) could be either complimentary or alternative to the ICUMSA official method. Stoichiometry, iron (III) to complexing agents were determined by Job's method and were found to be 1:2 for both the complexes. The stability constant values determined by Job's modified method were found to be 3.2x 10 mol dm and 0.84 x 10

  8. Simulation of integrated first and second generation bioethanol production from sugarcane: comparison between different biomass pretreatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marina O S; da Cunha, Marcelo Pereira; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Bonomi, Antonio; Jesus, Charles D F; Rossell, Carlos E V

    2011-08-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is used as a fuel in conventional bioethanol production, providing heat and power for the plant; therefore, the amount of surplus bagasse available for use as raw material for second generation bioethanol production is related to the energy consumption of the bioethanol production process. Pentoses and lignin, byproducts of the second generation bioethanol production process, may be used as fuels, increasing the amount of surplus bagasse. In this work, simulations of the integrated bioethanol production process from sugarcane, surplus bagasse and trash were carried out. Selected pre-treatment methods followed, or not, by a delignification step were evaluated. The amount of lignocellulosic materials available for hydrolysis in each configuration was calculated assuming that 50% of sugarcane trash is recovered from the field. An economic risk analysis was carried out; the best results for the integrated first and second generation ethanol production process were obtained for steam explosion pretreatment, high solids loading for hydrolysis and 24-48 h hydrolysis. The second generation ethanol production process must be improved (e.g., decreasing required investment, improving yields and developing pentose fermentation to ethanol) in order for the integrated process to be more economically competitive. PMID:20838849

  9. A novel promising Trichoderma harzianum strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex using sugarcane bagasse in natura

    OpenAIRE

    Benoliel, Bruno; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is a major producer of agro-industrial residues, such as sugarcane bagasse, which could be used as raw material for microbial production of cellulases as an important strategy for the development of sustainable processes of second generation ethanol production. For this purpose, this work aimed at screening for glycosyl hydrolase activities of fungal strains isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado. Among 13 isolates, a Trichoderma harzianum strain (L04) was identified as a promising candid...

  10. Solvent extraction of niobium cations with products of nitrobenzene radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolysis of nitrobenzene solution of cobalt(III) dicarbollide, which is used for solvent extraction of cesium from fission products results in enhanced extraction of 95Nb. The isomeric nitrophenols, 2,4-dinitrophenol, p-nitrosophenol and m-aminophenol exhibit antergism towards extraction of niobium cations. Synergistic effect is exhibited by 2,5-dinitrophenol, o-and p-aminophenol, o-nitroaniline and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol which are among the products of two-phase systems with nitrobenzene radiolysis. Two competing processes, complexation of niobium and protonation of ligand, both depending on the ligand benzene ring substituents are discussed. (author) 15 refs.; 4 tabs

  11. Effects of production and market factors on ethanol profitability for an integrated first and second generation ethanol plant using the whole sugarcane as feedstock

    OpenAIRE

    Macrelli, Stefano; Galbe, Mats; Wallberg, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is an attractive feedstock for ethanol production, especially if the lignocellulosic fraction can also be treated in second generation (2G) ethanol plants. However, the profitability of 2G ethanol is affected by the processing conditions, operating costs and market prices. This study focuses on the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) and maximum profitability of ethanol production in an integrated first and second generation (1G + 2G) sugarcane-to-ethanol plant. The feed...

  12. Prospects of sugarcane milling waste utilization for hydrogen production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cane-sugar producing countries also generate sufficient waste (bagasse) that is mostly utilized ''on-site'' as a replacement to coal in specialized boilers. In addition to sugar and molasses, about 25% by-product of the cane milling is bagasse that still retains 2.5% sugar on dry wt. basis.This paper deals with the prospects of bagasse fermentation for hydrogen production. It seems relevant, as India and Brazil are the major sugarcane producers in the world. The results obtained confirm bagasse, annually generated to a tune of 40 Mt (million tons) in India, can be diverted from the conventional burning or composting to fermentative hydrogen production in a cost-effective way. The processing cost of bagasse for hydrogen production (3Nm3) equivalent to 1L petrol is about half. The system optimization for accessibility of polysaccharides in bagasse and the use of genetically efficient bacterial strains for agrowaste-based hydrogen production seems the ideal option for clean energy generation

  13. Enhanced biohydrogen and subsequent biomethane production from sugarcane bagasse using nano-titanium dioxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Omid; Zilouei, Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Nano-titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) under ultraviolet irradiation (UV) followed by dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was used to enhance the production of biohydrogen and biomethane in a consecutive dark fermentation and anaerobic digestion. Different concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1g nanoTiO2/L under different UV times of 30, 60, 90 and 120min were used. Sulfuric acid (2%v/v) at 121°C was used for 15, 30 and 60min to hydrolyze the pretreated bagasse. For acidic hydrolysis times of 15, 30 and 60min, the highest total free sugar values were enhanced by 260%, 107%, and 189%, respectively, compared to samples without nanoTiO2 pretreatment. The highest hydrogen production samples for the same acidic hydrolysis times showed 88%, 127%, and 25% enhancement. The maximum hydrogen production of 101.5ml/g VS (volatile solids) was obtained at 1g nanoTiO2/L and 120min UV irradiation followed by 30min acid hydrolysis. PMID:27208737

  14. Effect of replacement of sugarcane by oilseed press cakes in greenhouse gases and volatile fatty acids production in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenna Nunes Moreira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the production of methane, carbon dioxide, and volatile fatty acids and changes in ruminal pH in vitro with oilseed press cakes inclusion, such as, cottonseed, sunflower, castor bean, moringa and jatropha at four different levels (0, 30, 50 and 70% in replacement to the sugarcane in ruminant feeding using semi-automated in vitro technique. The byproduct that produced less CO2 was cottonseed cake (p = 0.0059. The cakes that produced the least amount of CH4 were moringa at 70% (p < 0.05 and cottonseed at 70% levels (p < 0.0001. The cakes that had the highest increases in VFAs were cottonseed and castor (p < 0.0001. Additionally, greater pH was moringa at 70% and cottonseed at 50% levels (p < 0.0001. The greater acetate concentration was 70% cottonseed cake, propionate concentration with 30% cottonseed and butyrate concentration with 50% moringa in sugarcane replace. At the 70% level, the moringa cake displayed the highest decreases in methane production and reduction in energy loss. At the 50% substitution level, the cottonseed cake is the most suitable replacement for sugarcane in order to reduce the production of greenhouse gases.

  15. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by a Novel Brazilian Pentose Fermenting Yeast Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2: Evaluation of Fermentation Medium

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. F. Antunes; A. K. Chandel; T. S. S. Milessi; J. C. Santos; Rosa, C. A.; da Silva, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Bioconversion of hemicellulosic sugars into second generation (2G) ethanol plays a pivotal role in the overall success of biorefineries. In this study, ethanol production performance of a novel xylose-fermenting yeast, Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2, was evaluated under batch fermentation conditions using sugarcane bagasse (SB) hemicellulosic hydrolysate as carbon source. Dilute acid hydrolysis of SB was performed to obtain sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH). It was co...

  16. Analysis of process steam demand reduction and electricity generation in sugar and ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sugarcane industry represents one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, producing sugar and ethanol for the internal and external markets. Moreover, thermal and electric energy is produced for self-consumption, using sugarcane bagasse as fuel in cogeneration plants. Almost all the sugarcane plants in Brazil are self-sufficient in terms of energy supply and in the last few years some of them have been selling their surplus electricity for the grid. The reduction of process steam requirements and the use of more efficient cogeneration systems are new alternatives to increase the surplus electricity generation. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the steam demand reduction on sugar and ethanol process and alternatives for cogeneration systems in sugarcane plants, aiming at the surplus electricity generation increase

  17. COMPARATIVE ENERGY AND GREENHOUSE GAS ANALYSES BETWEEN SMALL- AND LARGE-SCALE SUGARCANE PRODUCTION IN MAURITIUS

    OpenAIRE

    Kong-Win Chang, James

    2013-01-01

    This study uses energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances to evaluate how the scale of sugarcane cultivation affects the performance of a sugarcane bioenergy system generating exportable electricity from bagasse. Small-, medium-, large- and miller-planter systems, with cane field areas of less than 10 ha, 10 – 42 ha, 42 – 2000 ha, more than 2000 ha respectively, were modelled. Each of them also has different combinations of manual and mechanical agricultural operations, resulting in different ...

  18. Production technology of sugarcane juice and tea wine%蔗汁茶酒发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜毅; 黎庆涛; 潘路路; 王远辉

    2009-01-01

    Taking sugarcane juice and Xishan green tea as materials, the production techniques of sugarcane juice and tea wine was studied.Single factor experiments of the effects of material ratio, pH value, sugar content, inoculation quantity and temperature on chief fermentation were carried out.The optimum chief fermentation conditions of sugarcane juice and tea wine were determined by orthogonal experiments as follows: ratio and temperature 19℃.The product meets the state food qualification and features special flavor, high nutritional components and health function.%以甘蔗汁和广西特产西山绿茶为原料,研究了蔗汁茶酒的发酵工艺.以原料比、pH值、糖度、接种量和温度对发酵过程的影响进行单因素试验,通过正交优化得到蔗汁茶酒的最佳主发酵工艺为:蔗汁:茶汁为1:2、初始pH值3.7、糖度20°Bx、接种量4%、温度19℃.产品达到国家食品要求,风格独特,营养成分高,具有一定保健作用.

  19. A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Sarita C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C.

    Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/ sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 °C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different.

  20. Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane bagasse using steam-explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the production of D-lactic acid from unutilized sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment. The optimal steam pressure for a steaming time of 5 min was determined. By enzymatic saccharification using Meicellase, the highest recovery of glucose from raw bagasse, 73.7%, was obtained at a steam pressure of 20 atm. For residue washed with water after steam explosion, the glucose recovery increased up to 94.9% at a steam pressure of 20 atm. These results showed that washing with water is effective in removing enzymatic reaction inhibitors. After steam pretreatment (steam pressure of 20 atm), D-lactic acid was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC 3534 from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse and washed residue. The conversion rate of D-lactic acid obtained from the initial glucose concentration was 66.6% for the hydrolyzate derived from steam-exploded bagasse and 90.0% for that derived from the washed residue after steam explosion. These results also demonstrated that the hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse (without washing with water) contains fermentation inhibitors and washing with water can remove them.

  1. Development of a novel sequential pretreatment strategy for the production of bioethanol from sugarcane trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavi, Subbiah; Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Gnansounou, Edgard; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    A novel sequential pretreatment strategy using biodiesel industry generated waste glycerol assisted transition metal and alkali pretreatment of sugarcane trash were developed for the production of bioethanol. Various process parameters affecting pretreatment as well as hydrolysis were optimized by adopting a Taguchi design. This novel method was found to be superior when compared to conventional pretreatment strategies like acid and alkali in removing hemicelluloses and lignin and the hydrolyzate is devoid of major fermentation inhibitors like organic acids and furfurals. Physico-chemical changes of the native and the pretreated biomass were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Under optimized hydrolysis conditions 0.796 g of reducing sugar (pentoses and hexoses) per g of dry biomass after saccharification was produced. Fermentation of the non-detoxified hydrolyzate using Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 31.928 g of bioethanol per g of dry biomass with an efficiency of 78.89%. PMID:26318846

  2. Increasing efficiency in ethanol production: Water footprint and economic productivity of sugarcane ethanol under nine different water regimes in north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chico

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production in Brazil has grown by 219% between 2001 and 2012, increasing the use of land and water resources. In the semi-arid north-eastern Brazil, irrigation is the main way for improving sugarcane production. This study aimed at quantifying water consumed in ethanol production from sugarcane in this region using the water footprint (WF indicator and complementing it with an evaluation of the water apparent productivity (WAP. This way we were able to provide a measure of the crop´s physical and economic water productivity using, respectively, the WF and WAP concepts. We studied sugarcane cultivation under nine different water regimes, including rainfed and full irrigation. Data from a mill of the state of Alagoas for three production seasons were used. Irrigation influenced sugarcane yield increasing total profit per hectare and economic water productivity. Full irrigation showed the lowest WF, 1229 litres of water per litre of ethanol (L/L, whereas rainfed production showed the highest WF, 1646 L/L. However, the lower WF in full irrigation as compared to the rest of the water regimes implied the use of higher volumes of blue water per cultivated hectare. Lower water regimes yielded the lowest economic productivity, 0.72 US$/m3 for rainfed production as compared to 1.11 US$/m3 for full irrigation. Since economic revenues are increased with higher water regimes, there are incentives for the development of these higher water regimes. This will lead to higher general crop water and economic productivity at field level, as green water is replaced by blue water consumption.

  3. Issues of Starch in Sugarcane Processing and Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is a sugarcane impurity that adversely affects the quantity and quality of sugar processes and products. The increased production of combine and green harvested sugarcane has increased delivery of starch to sugarcane factories. Starch occurs as granules composed of amylose and amylopectin p...

  4. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. Third quarterly report, December 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A.G.; Allison, W.; Garcia, M.; Ramirez, G.; Chu,T.L.; Velez-Santiago, J.; Smith, L.

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Both complete and incomplete data from the first three quarters of year 3 were reviewed. Candidate screening (for short-rotation grasses) was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Incomplete data indicate that two of the new grasses might be comparable to the NK hybrids in total biomass production and drought tolerance. Sugarcane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 includes: (a) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (b) lxck of response to close spacing; (c) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (d), a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneous hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced.

  5. Recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste in the production of clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, K C P; Gurgel, R F; Holanda, J N F

    2012-06-30

    This work investigates the recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste as a method to provide raw material for clay brick bodies, through replacement of natural clay by up 20 wt.%. Initially, the waste sample was characterized by its chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, particle size, morphology and pollution potential. Clay bricks pieces were prepared, and then tested, so as to determine their technological properties (e.g., linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and tensile strength). The sintered microstructure was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste is mainly composed by crystalline silica particles. The test results indicate that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste could be used as a filler in clay bricks, thus enhancing the possibility of its reuse in a safe and sustainable way. PMID:22387325

  6. Improvement of biotechnological xylitol production by glucose during cultive of Candida guilliermondii in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Danielle Virgínio da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of glucose on xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion by Candida guilliermondii was examined by adding it to sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate medium to obtain different glucose:xylose ratios (1:25, 1:12, 1:5 and 1:2.5. Under experimental conditions, increasing glucose:xylose ratio improved the assimilation of the xylose present in the hydrolysate by yeast, resulting in biomass increase, and in the formation of xylitol and glycerol/ethanol by-products. Maximum values of xylitol yield (0.59 g g-1 and volumetric productivity (0.53 g l-1.h-1 were obtained with glucose:xylose ratio of 1:5, resulting in the higher conversion efficiency (64.3%.O efeito da glicose na bioconversão de xilose em xilitol por Candida guilliermondii foi avaliado em hidrolisado hemicelulósico de bagaço de cana com diferentes relações glicose:xilose (1:25, 1:12, 1:5 and 1:2,5. Sob as condições experimentais, o aumento da relação glicose:xilose favoreceu a assimilação da xilose presente no hidrolisado, resultando em aumento da biomassa celular e aumento da formação de xilitol e dos sub-produtos glicerol e etanol. Os valores máximos do fator de conversão de xilose em xilitol (0,59 g g-1 e da produtividade volumétrica de xilitol (0,53 g l-1.h-1 foram obtidos com a relação glicose:xilose 1:5, resultando na maior eficiência de conversão (64,3%.

  7. Sugarcane cropping and cattle husbandry integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taube-Netto, Miguel; Pinto, Luis Franco de Campos; Castaneda-Ayarza, Juan; Cortez, Luis Augusto B.

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian proposal to replace 5% of gasoline worldwide, mathematical programming and simulation of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production in Brazil, modeling scenario of sugar cane and beef production in Brazil, mathematical modelling of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production, modelling variables and constraints, objective function, optimized results of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production in Brazil, and further potential applications.

  8. Enhanced ethanol production from sugarcane juice by galactose adaptation of a newly isolated thermotolerant strain of Pichia kudriavzevii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhaliwal, S.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Sandhu, S.K.; Nanda, D.; Kumar, D.; Uppal, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    The thermotolerant yeast strain isolated from sugarcane juice through enrichment technique was identified as a strain of Pichiakudriavzevii (Issatchenkiaorientalis) through molecular characterization. The P. kudriavzevii cells adapted to galactose medium produced about 30% more ethanol from sugarcan

  9. Thermotolerant and mesophylic fungi from sugarcane bagasse and their prospection for biomass-degrading enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruna Silveira Lamanes dos; Gomes, Arthur Filipe Sousa; Franciscon, Emanuele Giuliane; Oliveira, Jean Maikon de; Baffi, Milla Alves

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them, three strains were selected as good producers of hemicellulolitic enzymes: A. niger (SBCM3), A. sydowii (SBCM7) and A. fumigatus (SBC4). The best β-xylosidase producer was A. niger SBCM3 strain. This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g). For β-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes presented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g) and 4.0 (573 U/g), respectively. All these crude enzymes presented stability around pH 3.0-8.0 and up to 60 °C, which can be very useful in industrial processes that work at high temperatures and low pHs. These enzymes also exhibited moderate tolerance to ethanol and the sugars glucose and xylose. These similar characteristics among these fungal crude enzymes suggest that they can be used synergistically in cocktails in future studies of biomass conversion with potential application in several biotechnological sectors. PMID:26413077

  10. Thermotolerant and mesophylic fungi from sugarcane bagasse and their prospection for biomass-degrading enzyme production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Silveira Lamanes dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them, three strains were selected as good producers of hemicellulolitic enzymes: A. niger (SBCM3, A. sydowii (SBCM7 and A. fumigatus (SBC4. The best β-xylosidase producer was A. niger SBCM3 strain. This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g. For β-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes presented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g and 4.0 (573 U/g, respectively. All these crude enzymes presented stability around pH 3.0–8.0 and up to 60 °C, which can be very useful in industrial processes that work at high temperatures and low pHs. These enzymes also exhibited moderate tolerance to ethanol and the sugars glucose and xylose. These similar characteristics among these fungal crude enzymes suggest that they can be used synergistically in cocktails in future studies of biomass conversion with potential application in several biotechnological sectors.

  11. Production and characterization of a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid B, from sugarcane juice by Ustilago scitaminea NBRC 32730.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Ishibashi, Yuko; Hirose, Naoto; Wada, Koji; Takahashi, Makoto; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2011-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants excreted by fungal strains. They show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. Ustilago scitaminea NBRC 32730 has been reported mainly to produce a mono-acetylated and di-acylated MEL, MEL-B, from sucrose as sole carbon source. In order to make biosurfactant production more efficient, we focused our attention on the use of sugarcane juice, one of the most economical resources. The fungal strain produced MEL-B at the yield of 12.7 g/L from only sugarcane juice containing 22.4% w/w sugars. Supplementation with organic (yeast extract, peptone, and urea) and inorganic (sodium nitrate and ammonium nitrate) nitrogen sources markedly enhanced the production yield. Of the nitrogen sources, urea gave the best yield. Under optimum conditions, the strain produced 25.1 g/L of MEL-B from the juice (19.3% sugars) supplemented with 1 g/L of urea in a jar fermenter at 25 °C over 7 d. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface-tension at the CMC for the present MEL-B were 3.7×10(-6) M and 25.2 mN/m respectively. On water-penetration scan, the biosurfactant efficiently formed the lamella phase (L(α)) and myelins over a wide range of concentrations, indicating excellent surface-active and self-assembling properties. More significantly, the biosurfactant showed a ceramide-like skin-care property in a three-dimensional cultured human skin model. Thus, sugarcane juice is likely to be effective in glycolipid production by U. scitaminea NBRC 32730, and should facilitate the application of MELs. PMID:21737925

  12. Uniform and variable-rate application of potassium fertilizers in Louisiana sugarcane production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    If sugar and cane yields are to be optimized and profitability improved, it is critical that a sugarcane crop receive the proper levels of plant nutrients. Under-fertilization can result in reduced cane yields, while over-fertilization can reduce sugar recovery. Potassium (K) has been associated wit...

  13. Evaluation of novel xylose-fermenting yeast strains from Brazilian forests for hemicellulosic ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Martiniano, Sabrina E.; Chandel, Anuj K; Soares, Luma C. S. R.; Pagnocca, Fernando C.; da Silva, Sílvio S.

    2013-01-01

    Bioconversion of hemicellulosic hydrolysates into ethanol with the desired yields plays a pivotal role for the overall success of biorefineries. This paper aims to evaluate the ethanol production potential of four native strains of Scheffersomyces shehatae (syn. Candida shehatae) viz. S. shehatae BR6-2AI, CG8-8BY, PT1-1BASP and BR6-2AY, isolated from Brazilian forests. These strains were grown in commercial d-xylose-supplemented synthetic medium and sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate...

  14. Nutritional and productive performance of dairy cows fed corn silage or sugarcane silage with or without additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Felipe Leite de; Rodrigues, João Paulo Pacheco; Detmann, Edenio; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Castro, Marcelo Messias Duarte; Trece, Aline Souza; Silva, Tadeu Eder; Fischer, Vivian; Weiss, Kirsten; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the intake, digestibility, and performance of dairy cows fed corn silage, fresh sugarcane, and sugarcane ensiled in three different forms. Twenty-five Holstein cows at 114 ± 12.6 days in milk (DIM) were used. A randomized block design was adopted, using an arrangement of repeated measures over time. The following treatments were tested: corn silage (CS); fresh sugarcane (FS); sugarcane silage without additives (SCS); sugarcane silage enriched with calcium oxide at 5 g/kg of forage (SCSc); and sugarcane silage enriched with Lactobacillus buchneri at 5 × 10(4) cfu/kg of forage (SCSb). The roughage to concentrate ratio was 60:40 for the CS diet and 40:60 for the sugarcane-based diets. The dry matter intake (DMI) as a function of body weight had a downward trend for the cows fed sugarcane silage, compared with those fed FS. The sugarcane silages had higher digestibilities of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDFap), compared with FS. The use of L. buchneri or calcium oxide improved the diet's digestibility. The use of FS, sugarcane silage, or sugarcane silage with additives had no effects on milk and fat-corrected milk yield, compared to corn silage. Cows fed FS presented lower milk total solids content and had a downward trend for milk fat, compared with cows fed sugarcane-silage diets. Cows fed sugarcane silages produced milk with higher casein stability in the alcohol test than cows fed fresh-sugarcane diet. Sugarcane silage, with or without additives, did not reduce the intake of dairy cows, and the use of additives improved the fiber's digestibility. PMID:26898688

  15. New alternatives for the fermentation process in the ethanol production from sugarcane: Extractive and low temperature fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol is produced in large scale from sugarcane in Brazil by fermentation of sugars and distillation. This is currently considered as an efficient biofuel technology, leading to significant reduction on greenhouse gases emissions. However, some improvements in the process can be introduced in order to improve the use of energy. In current distilleries, a significant fraction of the energy consumption occurs in the purification step – distillation and dehydration – since conventional fermentation systems employed in the industry require low substrate concentration, which must be distilled, consequently with high energy consumption. In this study, alternatives to the conventional fermentation processes are assessed, through computer simulation: low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. The aim of this study is to assess the incorporation of these alternative fermentation processes in ethanol production, energy consumption and electricity surplus produced in the cogeneration system. Several cases were evaluated. Thermal integration technique was applied. Results shown that the ethanol production increases between 3.3% and 4.8% and a reduction in steam consumption happens of up to 36%. About the electricity surplus, a value of 85 kWh/t of cane can be achieved when condensing – extracting steam turbines are used. - Highlights: • Increasing the wine concentration in the ethanol production from sugarcane. • Alternatives to the conventional fermentation process. • Low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. • Reduction of steam consumption through the thermal integration of the processes. • Different configurations of cogeneration system maximizing the electricity surplus

  16. Economic evaluation of alternative irrigation practices for sugarcane production in the Burdekin Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz; Mallawaarachchi, Thilak; Wegener, Malcolm K.; Bristow, Keith L.; Charlesworth, Philip B.; Lisson, Shaun N.

    2001-01-01

    The Burdekin delta in north Queensland is a major irrigation area producing over 35,000 ha of irrigated sugarcane and other crops. This area is unique because it overlies shallow aquifers and relies heavily on groundwater supply for irrigation water. The long-term 'health' of the groundwater systems is therefore critical to the economic and environmental well being of the whole region. The Delta Water Boards are responsible for the management and replenishment of the groundwater systems, and ...

  17. Enhancing biogas production from vinasse in sugarcane biorefineries: Effects of urea and trace elements supplementation on process performance and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes F; Batista, Karla; Silva, Witan; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen, phosphate and trace elements supplementation were investigated in a semi-continuously operated upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system to enhance process stability and biogas production from sugarcane vinasse. Phosphate in form of KH2PO4 induced volatile fatty acids accumulation possibly due to potassium inhibition of the methanogenesis. Although nitrogen in form of urea increased the reactor's alkalinity, the process was overloaded with an organic loading rate of 6.1gCODL(-1)d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 3.6days. However, by supplementing urea and trace elements a stable operation even at an organic loading rate of 9.6gCODL(-1)d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 2.5days was possible, resulting in 79% higher methane production rate with a stable specific methane production of 239mLgCOD(-1). PMID:26873284

  18. Study of Sugarcane Pieces as Yeast Supports for Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Juice and Molasses Using Newly Isolated Yeast from Toddy Sap

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore Babu, Neerupudi; Botcha SATYANARAYANA; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Tamanam RAGHAVA RAO; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

    2012-01-01

    A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment ...

  19. Biorefineries based on coffee cut-stems and sugarcane bagasse: furan-based compounds and alkanes as interesting products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal M, Valentina; Gómez P, Álvaro; Cardona A, Carlos A

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment for a biorefinery based on sugarcane bagasse (SCB), and coffee cut-stems (CCS). Five scenarios were evaluated at different levels, conversion pathways, feedstock distribution, and technologies to produce ethanol, octane, nonane, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). These scenarios were compared between each other according to raw material, economic, and environmental characteristics. A single objective function combining the Net Present Value and the Potential Environmental Impact was used through the Analytic Hierarchy Process approach to understand and select the best configurations for SCB and CCS cases. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic and environmental performance for SCB and CCS is the one that considers ethanol, furfural, and octane production (scenario 1). The global economic margin was 62.3% and 61.6% for SCB and CCS respectively. The results have shown the potential of these types of biomass to produce fuels and platform products. PMID:26280100

  20. Soil carbon stocks in response to management changes due to vinasse application in sugarcane production in southeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Zani, Caio; Simoes Barneze, Arlete; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Brazilian commodities, such as ethanol, are looking for sustainable production to suit the international market demands. Thus, studies about variations in soil carbon (C) stocks on the ethanol production are essential. Researches in relation of land use change are already been developed; however information about management changes on the sugarcane production is needed. According to Six et al. (2004) changing the management to conservationist practices can provide an organic matter accumulation to the soil and in a long-term, can increase the soil C stocks. The vinasse is a waste product of the sugarcane industry fuel which contains potassium and considerable quantities of other mineral nutrients. It is estimated that for each litre of ethanol produced is generated approximately 13 L of vinasse. Nowadays, almost all vinasse is applied to the soil as fertigation (Soares et al., 2009). The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil C stocks after the management change with or without vinasse application into sugarcane production in southeast Brazil. The soil sampling was carried out in a fuel industry located in São Paulo state, on July 2013. This area was always used a conventional management at least 34 years with application of mineral fertilizer. However, in the mid of 1990, one part of this area started to use vinasse as source of potassium in sugarcane production. In view of this, we conducted the experiment in these two areas of conventional management: i) without vinasse and ii) with vinasse application. Soil samples were collected in the nine trenches in each site: three trenches at 1 m soil depth and six mini-trenches up to 0.3 m. Samples were used to calculate the bulk density using the undisturbed method with a steel cylinder. Total C was measured by dry combustion on Carbon Analyzer - LECO® CN 2000®. The results showed that C content was a decrease with an increase soil depth. Soil C stocks for areas without vinasse application and vinasse

  1. Improving bioethanol production from sugarcane: evaluation of distillation, thermal integration and cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demand for bioethanol has grown considerably over the last years. Even though Brazil has been producing ethanol from sugarcane on a large scale for decades, this industry is characterized by low energy efficiency, using a large fraction of the bagasse produced as fuel in the cogeneration system to supply the process energy requirements. The possibility of selling surplus electricity to the grid or using surplus bagasse as raw material of other processes has motivated investments on more efficient cogeneration systems and process thermal integration. In this work simulations of an autonomous distillery were carried out, along with utilities demand optimization using Pinch Analysis concepts. Different cogeneration systems were analyzed: a traditional Rankine Cycle, with steam of high temperature and pressure (80 bar, 510 oC) and back pressure and condensing steam turbines configuration, and a BIGCC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle), comprised by a gas turbine set operating with biomass gas produced in a gasifier that uses sugarcane bagasse as raw material. Thermoeconomic analyses determining exergy-based costs of electricity and ethanol for both cases were carried out. The main objective is to show the impact that these process improvements can produce in industrial systems, compared to the current situation.

  2. TALEN mediated targeted mutagenesis of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in highly polyploid sugarcane improves cell wall composition for production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Je Hyeong; Altpeter, Fredy

    2016-09-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a prime crop for commercial biofuel production. Advanced conversion technology utilizes both, sucrose accumulating in sugarcane stems as well as cell wall bound sugars for commercial ethanol production. Reduction of lignin content significantly improves the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. Conventional mutagenesis is not expected to confer reduction in lignin content in sugarcane due to its high polyploidy (x = 10-13) and functional redundancy among homo(eo)logs. Here we deploy transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) to induce mutations in a highly conserved region of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) of sugarcane. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was validated by pyrosequencing as reliable and inexpensive high throughput method for identification and quantitative characterization of TALEN mediated mutations. Targeted COMT mutations were identified by CE in up to 74 % of the lines. In different events 8-99 % of the wild type COMT were converted to mutant COMT as revealed by pyrosequencing. Mutation frequencies among mutant lines were positively correlated to lignin reduction. Events with a mutation frequency of 99 % displayed a 29-32 % reduction of the lignin content compared to non-transgenic controls along with significantly reduced S subunit content and elevated hemicellulose content. CE analysis displayed similar peak patterns between primary COMT mutants and their vegetative progenies suggesting that TALEN mediated mutations were faithfully transmitted to vegetative progenies. This is the first report on genome editing in sugarcane. The findings demonstrate that targeted mutagenesis can improve cell wall characteristics for production of lignocellulosic ethanol in crops with highly complex genomes. PMID:27306903

  3. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Cansee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a harvesting period of 12 months, a density of 9,387 stems/rai and could produce 14.01 tons/rai including cane top and, leaves and leaf sheaths of 1675.2 and 180 kg/rai. Sugarcane leaf-removal machinery was applied to a small engine power from a grass-cutting machine. A rotate dish applied 4 different materials, tendon string, soft wire, medium wire and sling for sugarcane leaf-removing. The machine was operated at a constant speed. The efficiency of the sugarcane leaf-removal machinery indicated the capacity of sugarcane leaf-removing by area and operation time. Results: The quantity of leaves and leaf sheaths affect the speed of harvest production. Moreover, leaves and leaf sheaths increase the waste material in production and also contaminate the sugar and the sugar production system with clay, sand, and mud from the fields. Traditional methods for sugarcane harvest without removing leaf took 37 h/rai to complete, but sugarcane leaf-removing could reduce the sugarcane harvest process to 11.4 h/rai. Conclusion: The material of the blades in de-leafing machine is crucial to the efficiency of harvest production time. Blades made from poor materials can cause tangling and clogging in the rotator dish, which increases maintenance time. Further developments in sugarcane leaf removal systems will create dramatic improvement in sugarcane production.

  4. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  5. The Large-Scale Sugarcane Stripper with Automatic Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaxiang Lin; Wenjie Yan; Jiaping Lin

    2012-01-01

    This study mainly introduce the large-scale sugarcane stripper with automatic feeding, which including the automatic feeding module, cleaning leaves module, collecting module and control module. The machine is an important part of the segmental type sugarcane harvester, using to solve the highest labor intensity problem of cleaning leaves. Collecting the hilly areas sugarcane and cleaning their leaves, can greatly improve the labor productivity and changing the current mode of sugarcane harvest.

  6. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine Based on Motion Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Dehui

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is a common raw material for sugar, but in the process of machining, there will be suspended solids in the cane juice, in order to process better, the sugarcane should be peeled. Traditional way of peeling is by man, production efficiency is low. In this study, a kind of sugarcane peeling machine was designed based on motion controller, it can realize the automation of input, peeling and output. It can make certain contribution for sugarcane processing.

  7. Alkaline-sulfite pretreatment and use of surfactants during enzymatic hydrolysis to enhance ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Jéssica Faria; Ferraz, André; Aguiar, André

    2016-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a by-product from the sugar and ethanol industry which contains approximately 70 % of its dry mass composed by polysaccharides. To convert these polysaccharides into fuel ethanol it is necessary a pretreatment step to increase the enzymatic digestibility of the recalcitrant raw material. In this work, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by an alkaline-sulfite chemithermomechanical process for increasing its enzymatic digestibility. Na2SO3 and NaOH ratios were fixed at 2:1, and three increasing chemical loads, varying from 4 to 8 % m/m Na2SO3, were used to prepare the pretreated materials. The increase in the alkaline-sulfite load decreased the lignin content in the pretreated material up to 35.5 % at the highest chemical load. The pretreated samples presented enhanced glucose yields during enzymatic hydrolysis as a function of the pretreatment severity. The maximum glucose yield (64 %) was observed for the samples pretreated with the highest chemical load. The use of 2.5 g l(-1) Tween 20 in the hydrolysis step further increased the glucose yield to 75 %. Semi-simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of the pretreated materials indicated that the ethanol yield was also enhanced as a function of the pretreatment severity. The maximum ethanol yield was 56 ± 2 % for the sample pretreated with the highest chemical load. For the sample pretreated with the lowest chemical load (2 % m/m NaOH and 4 % m/m Na2SO3), adding Tween 20 during the hydrolysis process increased the ethanol yield from 25 ± 3 to 39.5 ± 1 %. PMID:26718203

  8. Production, characterization and biological features of bacterial cellulose from scum obtained during preparation of sugarcane jaggery (gur).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Khan, Taous; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Khan, Shaukat; Wahid, Fazli; Park, Joong Kon

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has been given an ample attention due to its high potential for many industrial applications. However, the high cost of production medium has hindered the commercialization of BC. Several efforts have been made to explore cheep, raw and waste sources for BC production. The current study aims at investigating the BC production from a waste source; the scum obtained during preparation of sugarcane jaggery or gur (JS). JS was five-fold diluted with distilled water and used as culturing medium without any additional nutrients. The production of BC was monitored till 10th days of cultivation both at static and shaking culturing conditions. A maximum of 2.51 g/L and 2.13 g/L BC was produced in shaking and static cultures, respectively, after 10 days. The structure features of BC were confirmed through FTIR, XRD and SEM analysis. The chemical structure and physical appearance strongly resembled the BC produced form synthetic media. It was noteworthy that the BC produced from JS showed higher mechanical and thermal properties. The cell adhesion and proliferation capabilities of produced BC were observed that depicted definite animal cell adhesion without any considerable cytotoxicity. Besides providing an economically feasible way for BC production, the high level of physico-mechanical and biological properties insured the importance in medical fields. PMID:26604413

  9. Development Strategy of Sugarcane Industry in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yue-gui; WU Jian-tao; YANG Jun-xian; LI Qi-wei; XIE Jing; PAN Fang-yin; WU Wen-long; LIU Fu-ye; DENG Hai-hua; QI Yong-wen

    2012-01-01

    Guangdong Province is one of the main producing areas of sugarcane in China, and one of China’s three regions with dominant advantage in sugarcane, having good basis and conditions for developing sugarcane industry. In this research, using the SWOT-AHP method, we set 20 assessment indicators (such as the regions with dominant advantage in sugarcane, huge demand for domestic sugar, increased production costs and backward system of sugarcane), to analyze the development strategy of sugarcane industry in Guangdong Province, from strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of sugarcane industrial development in Guangdong Province. The results show that in order to promote the development of sugarcane industry in Guangdong Province, it is necessary to adopt the SO development strategy (relying on its own strengths and using favorable external environment), to achieve the rapid development.

  10. Exploring Broad Genetic Resources Available to Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is used for sugar and energy. It has a high photosynthetic efficiency and is one of the most productive crops globally. Breeders of energycane and sugarcane have overlapping goals in creating cultivars that resist biotic and abiotic stresses. The World Collection of Sugarc...

  11. Studies on the Rapid Expansion of Sugarcane for Ethanol Production in São Paulo State (Brazil) Using Landsat Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Friedrich Theodor Rudorff; Daniel Alves Aguiar; Wagner Fernando Silva; Luciana Miura Sugawara; Marcos Adami; Mauricio Alves Moreira

    2010-01-01

    This study’s overarching aim is to establish the areal extent and characteristics of the rapid sugarcane expansion and land use change in São Paulo state (Brazil) as a result of an increase in the demand for ethanol, using Landsat type remotely sensed data. In 2003 flex fuel automobiles started to enter the Brazilian consumer market causing a dramatic expansion of sugarcane areas from 2.57 million ha in 2003 to 4.45 million ha in 2008. Almost all the land use change, for the sugarcane expansi...

  12. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatments of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marton, J.M.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Almeida e Silva, J.B. [School of Chemical Engineering at Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Biotechnology], Email: jmarcelo@cetesb.sp.gov.br; Pessoa Junior, A. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite), each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it to 5.5 with H

  13. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatment of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Marton

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite, each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it

  14. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugarcane production in U.S. involves either pre-harvest burning or after-harvest burning of the residue. Approximately 70-90% of the dry matter of harvested sugarcane trash is lost through open field burning. This practice has caused considerable concerns over air quality and soil sustainability. We propose an alternative conservation approach to convert the sugarcane residue to biochar and used as soil amendment to conserve carbon and potentially improve soil fertility. In this study, fundamental properties of biochars made from sugarcane residue along with rice residues were tested for agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane and rice harvest residues and milling processing byproducts bagasse and rice husk were converted to biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures and characterized. In general, sugarcane leave biochar contained more P, K, Ca and Mg than sugarcane bagasse biochar. Rice straw biochar had more S, K Ca but less P than rice husk biochar. Both biochars had higher available fraction of total P than that of total K. Sugarcane leave biochar converted at 450oC was dominated with various lignin derived phenols as well as non-specific aromatic compounds whereas bagasse biochar was with both lignin derived phenol and poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Rice straw char was dominated with non-specific aromatic compounds. At 750oC, charred material was dominated with aromatic ethers while losing the aromatic C=C structures. These molecular and surface property differences likely contributed to the difference in water holding capacities observed with these biochars. On the other hand, rice straw biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had no significant effect on rice germination. Soils treated with sugarcane leave/trash biochar significantly enhanced sugarcane growth especially the root length. Treating soil with either sugarcane leave or bagasse char also enhanced soil adsorption capacity of atrazine; a common herbicide used in sugarcane

  15. Production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion: Effect of extractives content, acid catalysis and different fermentation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, P V; Pitarelo, A P; Ramos, L P

    2016-05-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol was carried out using samples of native (NCB) and ethanol-extracted (EECB) sugarcane bagasse. Autohydrolysis (AH) exhibited the best glucose recovery from both samples, compared to the use of both H3PO4 and H2SO4 catalysis at the same pretreatment time and temperature. All water-insoluble steam-exploded materials (SEB-WI) resulted in high glucose yields by enzymatic hydrolysis. SHF (separate hydrolysis and fermentation) gave ethanol yields higher than those obtained by SSF (simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation) and pSSF (pre-hydrolysis followed by SSF). For instance, AH gave 25, 18 and 16gL(-1) of ethanol by SHF, SSF and pSSF, respectively. However, when the total processing time was taken into account, pSSF provided the best overall ethanol volumetric productivity of 0.58gL(-1)h(-1). Also, the removal of ethanol-extractable materials from cane bagasse had no influence on the cellulosic ethanol production of SEB-WI, regardless of the fermentation strategy used for conversion. PMID:26943936

  16. Relationship between physicochemical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse varieties for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienzo, Michel; Tyhoda, Luvuyo; Benjamin, Yuda; Görgens, Johann

    2015-03-25

    The structural and physicochemical characteristics are associated with resistance of plant cell walls to saccharification by enzymes. The effect of physicochemical properties on glucose yield of bagasse from different varieties of sugarcane at low and high enzyme dosages was investigated. The result showed that glucose yield at low enzyme dosage was positively linear correlated with the yield at high enzyme dosage, for both the untreated and pretreated materials. The pretreatment significantly increased the accessibility of substrates by enzyme due to the increase of internal and external surface area. Glucose yield also showed a linear correlation with dye adsorption. However, the increase in glucose yield as a result of pretreatment did not correlate with the increases in crystallinity index and decreases in degree of polymerization. The Principal Component Analysis of infrared data indicated that lignin was the main component that differentiated the varieties before and after pretreatment. These results suggested that the key differences in pretreatment responses among varieties could be mainly attributed to their differences in the internal and external surface area after pretreatment. PMID:25576176

  17. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive) and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  18. Effect of ozonolysis pretreatment parameters on the sugar release, ozone consumption and ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaini, Rodolfo; Barrado, Enrique; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    A L9(3)(4) orthogonal array (OA) experimental design was applied to study the four parameters considered most important in the ozonolysis pretreatment (moisture content, ozone concentration, ozone/oxygen flow and particle size) on ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Statistical analysis highlighted ozone concentration as the highest influence parameter on reaction time and sugars release after enzymatic hydrolysis. The increase on reaction time when decreasing the ozone/oxygen flow resulted in small differences of ozone consumptions. Design optimization for sugars release provided a parameters combination close to the best experimental run, where 77.55% and 56.95% of glucose and xylose yields were obtained, respectively. When optimizing the grams of sugar released by gram of ozone, the highest influence parameter was moisture content, with a maximum yield of 2.98gSUGARS/gO3. In experiments on hydrolysates fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided ethanol yields around 80%, while Pichia stipitis was completely inhibited. PMID:27132222

  19. Evaluation of hydrogen and methane production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates by two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; Lima, Diego Roberto Sousa; Filho, José Gabriel Balena; Adarme, Oscar Fernando Herrera; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Aquino, Sérgio Francisco de

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at optimizing the net energy recovery from hydrogen and methane production through anaerobic digestion of the hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) obtained by desirable conditions (DC) of autohydrolysis pretreatment (AH) of sugarcane bagasse (SB). Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) batch system where the acidogenic phase worked as a hydrolysis and biodetoxification step. This allowed the utilization of more severe AH pretreatment conditions, i.e. T=178.6°C and t=55min (DC3) and T=182.9°C and t=40.71min (DC4). Such severe conditions resulted in higher extraction of hemicelluloses from SB (DC1=68.07%, DC2=48.99%, DC3=77.40% and DC4=73.90%), which consequently improved the net energy balance of the proposed process. The estimated energy from the combustion of both biogases (H2 and CH4) accumulated during the two-stage anaerobic digestion of HH generated by DC4 condition was capable of producing a net energy of 3.15MJ·kgSB(-1)dry weight. PMID:27393834

  20. Simplified process for ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using hydrolysate-resistant Escherichia coli strain MM160.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, C C; Mullinnix, M T; Nieves, I U; Peterson, J J; Hoffman, R W; York, S W; Yomano, L P; Miller, E N; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2011-02-01

    Hexose and pentose sugars from phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse were co-fermented to ethanol in a single vessel (SScF), eliminating process steps for solid-liquid separation and sugar cleanup. An initial liquefaction step (L) with cellulase was included to improve mixing and saccharification (L+SScF), analogous to a corn ethanol process. Fermentation was enabled by the development of a hydrolysate-resistant mutant of Escherichia coli LY180, designated MM160. Strain MM160 was more resistant than the parent to inhibitors (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetate) formed during pretreatment. Bagasse slurries containing 10% and 14% dry weight (fiber plus solubles) were tested using pretreatment temperatures of 160-190°C (1% phosphoric acid, 10 min). Enzymatic saccharification and inhibitor production both increased with pretreatment temperature. The highest titer (30 g/L ethanol) and yield (0.21 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight) were obtained after incubation for 122 h using 14% dry weight slurries of pretreated bagasse (180°C). PMID:21111615

  1. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  2. Use of sugarcane molasses "B" as an alternative for ethanol production with wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 at high sugar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, C L; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Salgado-Cervantes, M A; García, P G Mendoza; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2012-05-01

    Molasses "B" is a rich co-product of the sugarcane process. It is obtained from the second step of crystallization and is richer in fermentable sugars (50-65%) than the final molasses, with a lower non-sugar solid content (18-33%); this co-product also contains good vitamin and mineral levels. The use of molasses "B" for ethanol production could be a good option for the sugarcane industry when cane sugar prices diminish in the market. In a complex medium like molasses, osmotolerance is a desirable characteristic for ethanol producing strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of molasses "B" for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 (a wild-type yeast isolated from sugarcane molasses) using different initial sugar concentrations (70-291 g L(-1)), two inoculum sizes and the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract, urea, and ammonium sulphate to the culture medium. The results obtained showed that the strain was able to grow at 291 g L(-1) total sugars in molasses "B" medium; the addition of nutrients to the culture medium did not produce a statistically significant difference. This yeast exhibits high osmotolerance in this medium, producing high ethanol yields (0.41 g g(-1)). The best conditions for ethanol production were 220 g L(-1) initial total sugars in molasses "B" medium, pH 5.5, using an inoculum size of 6 × 10(6) cell mL(-1); ethanol production was 85 g L(-1), productivity 3.8 g L(-1 )h(-1) with 90% preserved cell viability. PMID:21971607

  3. Investigations on Sugarcane De-Trashing Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joby Bastian, B. Shridar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is the second most important industrial crop in India grown in 4.4 million hectares with an average productivity of about 68 tonnes per hectare (Anon.2013. To mitigate the labour scarcity and ensure timely operations mechanization is a must. Mechanisation will also improve the overall energy use efficiency of sugarcane based farming (Duttamajumder et al. 2011. About 45-48% of the total cost of cultivation is accountable to harvesting operation in manual harvesting. Mechanisation of harvesting operations is imperative in increasing the cost effectiveness of sugarcane production system.

  4. Statistical design and optimization of single cell oil production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by an oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula sp. IIP-33 using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Bandhu, Sheetal; Dasgupta, Diptarka; Akhter, Jawed; Kanaujia, Pankaj; Suman, Sunil K; Agrawal, Deepti; Kaul, Savita; Adhikari, Dilip K; Ghosh, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    Single cell oil production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula sp. IIP-33 was analyzed using a two stage statistical design approach based on Response Surface Methodology. Variables like pentose sugar, (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, yeast extract, pH and temperature were found to influence lipid production significantly. Under optimized condition in a shake flask, yield of lipid was 2.1199 g with fat coefficient of 7.09 which also resembled ~99% similarity to model predicte...

  5. Potential of bagasse production from middle sugarcane cultivars; Potencial de producao de bagaco por cultivares medias de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebre, Antonio Carlos Pereira; Siva Neto, Helio Francisco da; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos Omir; Tasso Junior, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV /UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Tecnologia], E-mail: antoniocplebre8@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    In the search for sustainability a major concern relates to the sugarcane agroindustry waste, and their potential use as an energy source. In this sense, the objective was to identify the production and productivity of bagasse of different sugarcane cultivars, aimed at the completion of the cogeneration of electricity. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP-Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, the number of stems was counted in a meter, obtaining the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by calculating the estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the potential number of people who could benefit from the electricity that would be produced by the combustion of bagasse generated within a system of cogeneration of electricity put in practice by the sugar mills and ethanol distilleries. Cultivars with the best performance IAC91-1099 and CEC 15 who obtained the highest production and productivity of mulch increases the number of people benefited. Cultivars IAC94-4004-5000 and IAC95 showed intermediate results and the cultivars SP81-3250 and RB855536 obtained less satisfactory results. (author)

  6. Mechanistic study on ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Govindarajan; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production. Among the different metal salts used, maximum holocellulose recovery and delignification were achieved with ultrasound assisted titanium dioxide (TiO2) pretreatment (UATP) system. At optimum conditions (1% H2O2, 4 g SCB dosage, 60 min sonication time, 2:100 M ratio of metal salt and H2O2, 75°C, 50% ultrasound amplitude and 70% ultrasound duty cycle), 94.98 ± 1.11% holocellulose recovery and 78.72 ± 0.86% delignification were observed. The pretreated SCB was subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis using 0.25% H2SO4 and maximum xylose, glucose and arabinose concentration obtained were 10.94 ± 0.35 g/L, 14.86 ± 0.12 g/L and 2.52 ± 0.27 g/L, respectively. The inhibitors production was found to be very less (0.93 ± 0.11 g/L furfural and 0.76 ± 0.62 g/L acetic acid) and the maximum theoretical yield of glucose and hemicellulose conversion attained were 85.8% and 77%, respectively. The fermentation was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and at the end of 72 h, 0.468 g bioethanol/g holocellulose was achieved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of pretreated SCB was made and its morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds formed during the pretreatment were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. PMID:26384901

  7. Sugarcane stems as larval habitat for the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans in sugarcane plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H.D. Cançado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, cause losses for livestock producers located near sugarcane mills in Brazil, especially in southern Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane mills are often pointed by local farmers as the primary source of these outbreaks; some mills also joined the farmers in combating the flies. Brazilian beef cattle production has great economic importance in similar level to bio-fuel production as ethanol. In this context, the wide-ranging knowledge on the biology and ecology of the stable fly, including larval habitats and their reproduction sites is extremely important for further development of control programs. This paper aims to report the occurrence and development of S. calcitrans larvae inside sugarcane stems in three municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane stems give protection against bad weather conditions and insecticide application. In this way, for sustainable sugarcane growth specific research concerning this situation should be conducted.

  8. POOR FERTILITY, SHORT LONGEVITY AND LOW ABUNDANCE IN THE SOIL SEED BANK LIMIT VOLUNTEER SUGARCANE FROM SEED

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre, Johann S.; Jai ePerroux; Alex eWhan; Rae, Anne L.; Graham D Bonnett

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a two year period, w...

  9. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre, Johann S.; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L.; Graham D Bonnett

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, w...

  10. Sugarcane Pernicious Organisms Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ There are more than 2000 species of sugarcane pernicious organisms in the world, and over 400species axe in China. In order to make sure the sugarcane pernicious organisms in Hunan, we had a detailed investiga tion in several main sugarcane - producing regions during 1996- 1998.

  11. Optimization of β-Glucosidase, β-Xylosidase and Xylanase Production by Colletotrichum graminicola under Solid-State Fermentation and Application in Raw Sugarcane Trash Saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. R. L. Zimbardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient, low-cost enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic residues is essential for cost-effective production of bioethanol. The production of β-glucosidase, β-xylosidase and xylanase by Colletotrichum graminicola was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Maximal production occurred in wheat bran. Sugarcane trash, peanut hulls and corncob enhanced β-glucosidase, β-xylosidase and xylanase production, respectively. Maximal levels after optimization reached 159.3 ± 12.7 U g−1, 128.1 ± 6.4 U g−1 and 378.1 ± 23.3 U g−1, respectively, but the enzymes were produced simultaneously at good levels under culture conditions optimized for each one of them. Optima of pH and temperature were 5.0 and 65 °C for the three enzymes, which maintained full activity for 72 h at 50 °C and for 120 min at 60 °C (β-glucosidase or 65 °C (β-xylosidase and xylanase. Mixed with Trichoderma reesei cellulases, C. graminicola crude extract hydrolyzed raw sugarcane trash with glucose yield of 33.1% after 48 h, demonstrating good potential to compose efficient cocktails for lignocellulosic materials hydrolysis.

  12. The redox-sensitive cation channel TRPM2 modulates phagocyte ROS production and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Di, Anke; Gao, Xiao-Pei; Qian, Feng; Kawamura, Takeshi; Han, Jin; Hecquet, Claudie; Ye, Richard D; Vogel, Stephen M.; Malik, Asrar B.

    2011-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase activity of phagocytes and its generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for host-defense, but ROS overproduction can also lead to inflammation and tissue injury. Here we report that TRPM2, a non-selective and redox-sensitive cation channel, inhibits ROS production in phagocytic cells and prevents endotoxin-induced lung inflammation in mice. TRPM2-deficient mice challenged with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) showed an increased inflammatory signature and decrea...

  13. Abiotic Limits for Germination of Sugarcane Seed in Relation to Environmental Spread

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre, J. S.; Rae, A. L.; Bonnett, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is a vegetatively propagated crop and hence the production of seed and its fate in the environment has not been studied. The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires a research effort to understand sugarcane reproductive biology. This study contributes to this understanding by defining the abiotic limits for sugarcane seed germination. Using seed from multiple genetic crosses, germination was measured under different light...

  14. Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0

  15. Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Rokhsar Daniel S; Van Sluys Marie-Anne; Bowers John; Wiley Graham; Najar Fares; Chen Cuixia; Tang Haibao; Murray Jan E; Yu Qingyi; Macmil Simone; Roe Bruce; Wang Jianping; Hudson Matthew E; Moose Stephen P; Paterson Andrew H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugar...

  16. Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil

    OpenAIRE

    João Luís Nunes Carvalho; Rafael Otto; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze Trivelin

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crops provide carbon (C) for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon supply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves) and from root system (rhizomes and roots) were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estim...

  17. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Souza; M.-A. Van-Sluys; Vincentz, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Menossi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regul...

  18. 2G ethanol from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sandra Cerqueira; Maehara, Larissa; Machado, Cristina Maria Monteiro; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Background In the sugarcane industry, large amounts of lignocellulosic residues are generated, which includes bagasse, straw, and tops. The use of the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second-generation (2G) ethanol can be a potential alternative to contribute to the economic viability of this process. Here, we conducted a systematic comparative study of the use of the lignocellulosic residues from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass (bagasse, straw, and to...

  19. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cherubin, Maurício R.; Douglas L. Karlen; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Franco, André L. C.; Tormena, Cássio A.; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e...

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  1. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  2. Effect of chemical factors on integrated fungal fermentation of sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production by a white-rot fungus, Phlebia sp. MG-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuong, Le Duy; Kondo, Ryuichiro; De Leon, Rizalinda; Anh, To Kim; Meguro, Sadatoshi; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kamei, Ichiro

    2014-09-01

    Bioethanol production through integrated fungal fermentation (IFF), involving a unified process for biological delignification with consolidated biological processing by the white-rot fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60, was applied to sugarcane bagasse. Initial moisture content of the bagasse was found to affect biological delignification by MG-60, and 75% moisture content was suitable for selective lignin degradation and subsequent ethanol production. Additives, such as basal media, organic compounds, or minerals, also affected biological delignification of bagasse by MG-60. Basal medium addition improved both delignification and ethanol production. Some inorganic chemical factors, such as Fe(2+), Mn(2+), or Cu(2+), reduced bagasse carbohydrate degradation by MG-60 during delignifying incubations and resulted in increased ethanol production. The present results indicated that suitable culture conditions could significantly improve IFF efficiency. PMID:24968109

  3. Screening for Sugarcane Brown Rust in the First Clonal Stage of the Canal Point Sugarcane Breeding Program

    OpenAIRE

    Duli Zhao; R. Wayne Davidson; Miguel Baltazar; Comstock, Jack C.; Per McCord; Sushma Sood

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd.) was first reported in the United States in 1978 and is still one of the great challenges for sugarcane production. A better understanding of sugarcane genotypic variation in response to brown rust will help optimize breeding and selection strategies for disease resistance. Brown rust ratings were scaled from non-infection (0) to severe infection (4) with intervals of 0.5 and routinely recorded for geno...

  4. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn. is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary product of sugarcane juice, but during its processing, various other valuable products are also obtained in an unrefined form, such as, brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery. Sugarcane juice is widely used in India in the treatment of jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. Herein, we have summarized the different phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products. The phytochemistry of sugarcane wax (obtained from the leaves and stalks of sugarcane, leaves, juice, and its products has revealed the presence of various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. The future prospective of some of the sugarcane products has been discussed, which needs a phytopharmacological study and has a great potential to be a valuable medicinal product.

  5. A techno-economic evaluation of the effects of centralized cellulosic ethanol and co-products refinery options with sugarcane mill clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work compares the calculated techno-economic performance for thermochemical and biochemical conversion of sugarcane residues, considering future conversion plants adjacent to sugarcane mills in Brazil. Process models developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory were adapted to reflect the Brazilian feedstock composition and used to estimate the cost and performance of these two conversion technologies. Models assumed that surplus bagasse from the mill would be used as the feedstock for conversion, while cane trash collected from the field would be used as supplementary fuel at the mill. The integration of the conversion technology to the mill enabled an additional ethanol production of 0.033 m3 per tonne of cane for the biochemical process and 0.025 m3 t-1 of cane plus 0.004 m3 t-1 of cane of higher alcohols for the thermochemical process. For both cases, electricity is an important co-product for the biorefinery, but especially for biochemical conversion, with surpluses of about 50 kWh t-1 of cane. The economic performance of the two technologies is quite similar in terms of the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP), at 318 $ m-3 (United States 2007 dollars) for biochemical conversion and 329 $ m-3 for thermochemical conversion. (author)

  6. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by a Novel Brazilian Pentose Fermenting Yeast Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2: Evaluation of Fermentation Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. F. Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of hemicellulosic sugars into second generation (2G ethanol plays a pivotal role in the overall success of biorefineries. In this study, ethanol production performance of a novel xylose-fermenting yeast, Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2, was evaluated under batch fermentation conditions using sugarcane bagasse (SB hemicellulosic hydrolysate as carbon source. Dilute acid hydrolysis of SB was performed to obtain sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH. It was concentrated, detoxified, and supplemented with nutrients in different formulations to prepare the fermentation medium to the yeast evaluation performance. S. shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2 (isolated from Brazilian Atlantic rain forest ecosystem was used in fermentations carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks maintained in a rotator shaker at 30°C and 200 rpm for 72 h. The use of a fermentation medium composed of SBHH supplemented with 5 g/L ammonium sulfate, 3 g/L yeast extract, and 3 g/L malt extract resulted in 0.38 g/g of ethanol yield and 0.19 g L.h of volumetric productivity after 48 h of incubation time.

  7. Short stature and food habits as determining factors for the low productivity of sugarcane labourers in the State of Alagoas, north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florêncio, Telma T; Ferreira, Haroldo S; Cavalcante, Jairo C; Assunção, Monica L de; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2008-03-01

    Undernutrition, especially in the prenatal period and/or until 5 years of age, can cause stunting. Adults with short stature resultant from this process show a series of functional deficits, amongst which is a reduced capacity to do physical work. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the dietary pattern, nutritional status and stature of sugarcane cutters, and to determine possible associations with worker productivity. Sixty-two male sugarcane cutters (18-50 y) were selected randomly from a population of 600 workers from a plantation in Alagoas (Brazil), and classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight according to BMI (BMI = 21.5, 21.5 to = 25 and >25 kg/m2, respectively). Body fat composition (%) was estimated by electrical bioimpedance and dietary intake by the direct weighing of food consumed. Whilst the average productivity was 8.13 ton/day, labourers with normal BMI values were more productive (9.12 ton/dia) and ingested significantly (pintake and age. The tallest individuals (= 170 cm) had higher productivity and tended to have a higher energy intake, whilst those with the shortest stature (= 160 cm), had a significantly lower productivity, however ingested a similar quantity of energy, and tended to have a large accumulation of body fat. Multiple regression analysis identified stature as the parameter most associated with productivity, independent of age and body fat percentage. Productivity of the tallest individuals was 1.87 ton/day higher than that of the shortest individuals. The results emphasise the importance of good nutritional status throughout life for full development of working productivity. PMID:18589570

  8. Expansion Of Sugarcane Production In São Paulo, Brazil: Implications For Fire Occurrence And Respiratory Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, M.

    2008-12-01

    Recent increases in the price of oil have generated much interest in biofuel development. Despite the increasing demand, the social and environmental impacts of large scale adoption of biofuels at both regional and national scales remain understudied, especially in developing economies. Here we use municipality-level data for the state of São Paulo in Brasil to explore the effects of fires associated with sugarcane cultivation on respiratory health of elderly and children. We examined the effects of fires occurring in the same year in which respiratory cases were reported as well as chronic effects associated with long-term cultivation of sugarcane. Across the state, respiratory morbidity attributable to fires accounted for 113 elderly and 317 child cases, approximately 1.8% of total cases in each group. Although no chronic effects of fire were detected for the elderly group, an additional 650 child cases can be attributed to the long term cultivation of sugar cane increasing to 5.4% the percent of children cases that can be attributed to fire. For municipalities with greater than 50% of the land in sugarcane the percentage increased to 15% and 12 % respectively for elderly and children. An additional 209 child cases could also be attributed to past exposure to fires associated with sugarcane, suggesting that in total 38% of children respiratory cases could be attributed to current or chronic exposure to fires in these municipalities. The harmful effects of cane- associated fires on health are not only a burden for the public health system but also for household economies. This type of information should be incorporated into land use decisions and discussions of biofuel sustainability.

  9. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatment of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Marton; M. G. A. Felipe; J. B. Almeida e Silva; A. Pessoa Júnior

    2006-01-01

    Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting...

  10. Fundamental and molecular composition characteristics of biochars produced from sugarcane and rice crop residues and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang Yoon; Dodla, Syam K; Wang, Jim J

    2016-01-01

    Biochar conversion of sugarcane and rice harvest residues provides an alternative for managing these crop residues that are traditionally burned in open field. Sugarcane leaves, bagasse, rice straw and husk were converted to biochar at four pyrolysis temperatures (PTs) of 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, and 750 °C and evaluated for various elemental, molecular and surface properties. The carbon content of biochars was highest for those produced at 650-750 °C. Biochars produced at 550 °C showed the characteristics of biochar that are commonly interpreted as being stable in soil, with low H/C and O/C ratios and pyrolysis fingerprints dominated by aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. At 550 °C, all biochars also exhibited maximum CEC values with sugarcane leaves biochar (SLB) > sugarcane bagasse biochar (SBB) > rice straw biochar (RSB) > rice husk biochar (RHB). The pore size distribution of biochars was dominated by pores of 20 nm and high PT increased both smaller and larger than 50 nm pores. Water holding capacity of biochars increased with PT but the magnitude of the increase was limited by feedstock types, likely related to the hydrophobicity of biochars as evident by molecular composition, besides pore volume properties of biochars. Py-GC/MS analysis revealed a clear destruction of lignin with decarboxylation and demethoxylation at 450 °C and dehydroxylation at above 550 °C. Overall, biochar molecular compositions became similar as PT increased, and the biochars produced at 550 °C demonstrated characteristics that have potential benefit as soil amendment for improving both C sequestration and nutrient dynamics. PMID:26058554

  11. Sugarcane stems as larval habitat for the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) in sugarcane plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo H.D. Cançado; Taciany Ferreira; Eliane M. Piranda; Cleber O. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, cause losses for livestock producers located near sugarcane mills in Brazil, especially in southern Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane mills are often pointed by local farmers as the primary source of these outbreaks; some mills also joined the farmers in combating the flies. Brazilian beef cattle production has great economic importance in similar level to bio-fuel production as ethanol. In this context, the wide-ranging knowledge on the biology a...

  12. High polymorphism in Est-SSR loci for cellulose synthase and β-amylase of sugarcane varieties (Saccharum spp.) used by the industrial sector for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Raphael; Maranho, Rone Charles; Mangolin, Claudete Aparecida; Pires da Silva Machado, Maria de Fátima

    2015-01-01

    High and low polymorphisms in simple sequence repeats of expressed sequence tag (EST-SSR) for specific proteins and enzymes, such as β-amylase, cellulose synthase, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, were used to illustrate the genetic divergence within and between varieties of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and to guide the technological paths to optimize ethanol production from lignocellulose biomass. The varieties RB72454, RB867515, RB92579, and SP813250 on the second stage of cutting, all grown in the state of Paraná (PR), and the varieties RB92579 and SP813250 cultured in the PR state and in Northeastern Brazil, state of Pernambuco (PE), were analyzed using five EST-SSR primers for EstC66, EstC67, EstC68, EstC69, and EstC91 loci. Genetic divergence was evident in the EstC67 and EstC69 loci for β-amylase and cellulose synthase, respectively, among the four sugarcane varieties. An extremely high level of genetic differentiation was also detected in the EstC67 locus from the RB82579 and SP813250 varieties cultured in the PR and PE states. High polymorphism in SSR of the cellulose synthase locus may explain the high variability of substrates used in pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis processes, which has been an obstacle to effective industrial adaptations. PMID:25351629

  13. Use of vinasse and sugarcane bagasse for the production of enzymes by lignocellulolytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mamede Aguiar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this present work, three strains of Pleurotus and Trichoderma reesei were cultivated in media with pre-treated bagasse and vinasse. Cellulolytic and lignolytic activities and biomass production were analyzed. The treatment of the bagasse with 2% H2O2 + 1.5% NaOH + autoclave resulted in a greater fiber breakage increasing the cellulose level up to 1.2 times and decreasing 8.5 times the hemicellulose content. This treatment also resulted in a high lignolytic activity for all cultures utilized. T. reesei produced laccase, peroxidase and manganese-peroxidase in all the treatments, having its manganese-peroxidase activity raging from 1.9 to 4.8 times higher than the basidiomycetes.Recentemente o uso de material lignocelulolítico tem mostrado um importante avanço na produção de biocombustíveis. O bagaço e a vinhaça são resíduos oriundos do processamento da cana de açúcar e contem um alto teor de carbono, que geralmente é usado na co-geração de energia e ração animal. Três linhagens de Pleurotus e um ascomiceto, Trichoderma reesei, foram cultivados em bagaço pré-tratado e vinhaça. As atividades lignolíticas e celulolíticas foram analisadas, tanto quanto a produção de biomassa. Foi observado que o tratamento no bagaço com 2% H2O2 + 1.5% NaOH + autoclave resultou numa maior quebra da fibra, aumentando o teor de celulose em 1.2 vezes mais e diminuiu em 8.5 vezes o conteúdo de hemicelulose. Este tratamento também resultou numa alta atividade lignolítica pelos fungos utilizados. O ascomiceto T. reesei produziu lacase, peroxidase e manganês-peroxidase em todos os tratamentos, tendo uma atividade de manganês-peroxidase variando entre 1.9 a 4.8 vezes mais que nos basidiomicetos.

  14. Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Ghislaine V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value <= 10-10. Gene products belonging to all functional categories related to mitochondrial functions were found and this allowed us to produce an overview of the nuclear genes required for sugarcane mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as providing a starting point for detailed analysis of sugarcane gene structure and physiology.

  15. Use of sugarcane straw ash for zeolite synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro, Thais Vitória da Silva Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of biomass combustion residue is growing nowadays due to constant increasing demands of biomass utilization. The biomass ash produced currently is disposed on agricultural fields. The presence of metals, chlorine, sulphur and other species may have significant impacts on soils and the recycling of soil nutrient. The main challenge is related to the increase of possible applications of this byproduct. Sugarcane straw ash (SCSA was used in a study on synthesis of zeolitic material by alkaline conventional hydrothermal treatment. Different experimental conditions, such as, reaction time, alkali hydroxide concentration and liquid/solid ratio were studied. Raw ash material and synthesis products were characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy powder, X-ray diffraction, cation exchange capacity and scanning electron microscopic. The presence of zeolite hydroxysodalite confirms successful conversion of native SCSA into zeolitic material. Sugarcane straw ash utilization minimizes the environmental impact of disposal problems and further appears as an alternative for the future sustainable large-scale management of biomass ash.

  16. Growing Sugarcane for Bioenergy – Effects on the Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing area of sugarcane is being growing for the production of bioenergy. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil due to the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest. Biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduces risks of groundwater contam

  17. Impact of biotechnology on sugarcane agriculture and industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are nine key issues that can influence the productivity and sustainability of the sugarcane industry. These include land, soil fertility, water, variety, planting density, crop protection, cultural practices, harvesting and processing, and information technology. To all sugarcane farmers, it r...

  18. The redox-sensitive cation channel TRPM2 modulates phagocyte ROS production and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Anke; Gao, Xiao-Pei; Qian, Feng; Kawamura, Takeshi; Han, Jin; Hecquet, Claudie; Ye, Richard D; Vogel, Stephen M; Malik, Asrar B

    2012-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase activity of phagocytes and its generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for host defense, but ROS overproduction can also lead to inflammation and tissue injury. Here we report that TRPM2, a nonselective and redox-sensitive cation channel, inhibited ROS production in phagocytic cells and prevented endotoxin-induced lung inflammation in mice. TRPM2-deficient mice challenged with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) had an enhanced inflammatory response and diminished survival relative to that of wild-type mice challenged with endotoxin. TRPM2 functioned by dampening NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production through depolarization of the plasma membrane in phagocytes. As ROS also activate TRPM2, our findings establish a negative feedback mechanism for the inactivation of ROS production through inhibition of the membrane potential-sensitive NADPH oxidase. PMID:22101731

  19. The redox-sensitive cation channel TRPM2 modulates phagocyte ROS production and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Anke; Gao, Xiao-Pei; Qian, Feng; Kawamura, Takeshi; Han, Jin; Hecquet, Claudie; Ye, Richard D.; Vogel, Stephen M.; Malik, Asrar B.

    2011-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase activity of phagocytes and its generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for host-defense, but ROS overproduction can also lead to inflammation and tissue injury. Here we report that TRPM2, a non-selective and redox-sensitive cation channel, inhibits ROS production in phagocytic cells and prevents endotoxin-induced lung inflammation in mice. TRPM2-deficient mice challenged with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) showed an increased inflammatory signature and decreased survival compared to controls. TRPM2 functions by dampening NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production through depolarization of the plasma membrane in phagocytes. Since ROS also activates TRPM2, our findings establish a negative feedback mechanism inactivating ROS production through inhibition of the membrane potential-sensitive NADPH oxidase. PMID:22101731

  20. Effect of Subsequent Dilute Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis on Reducing Sugar Production from Sugarcane Bagasse and Spent Citronella Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Timung, Robinson; Naik Deshavath, Narendra; Goud, Vaibhav V.; Dasu, Venkata V.

    2016-01-01

    This work was aimed at investigating the effect of process parameters on dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of spent citronella biomass (after citronella oil extraction) and sugarcane bagasse on total reducing sugar (TRS) yield. In acid pretreatment, the parameters studied were acid concentration, temperature, and time. At the optimized condition (0.1 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 120 min), maximum TRS obtained was 452.27 mg·g−1 and 487.50 mg·g−1 for bagasse and citronella, respectively....

  1. Interplay between the cation distribution and production methods in cobalt ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► XANES spectra showed that distribution of Fe3+ and Co2+ ions over A- and B-sites depends on synthesis method. ► XES Co Kβ spectra showed that Co-spin state in SG samples varies with annealing temperature. ► Due to different cation distribution in A- and B-sites, these sample exhibit different values of Ms. ► For samples presenting a similar but small grain size, inversion degree is less in SG than BM samples. ► More Co2+ ions in B-sites results in higher anisotropy, which can result in larger Hc and λs. - Abstract: Microscopic, element selective structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite produced by sol–gel (SG) and by ball milling (BM) methods were studied with X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). All investigated samples exhibit only Fe3+ and Co2+ cations. The relative distribution of the Co2+ and Fe3+ cations in the tetrahedral and octahedral sites depends on the production method of the samples. For the samples presenting a similar but small grain size (2+ in B-sites of SG sample is less than that in BM sample. These results are in agreement with magnetic measurements, which BM samples exhibit smaller saturation magnetization as compared with those obtained for SG samples. Additionally the coercive field and magnetostriction are larger in BM samples. All these magnetic properties are dependent on annealing parameters (temperature and time). However for samples with large grain sizes their magnetic properties become insensitive to production processes.

  2. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  3. Produção de goma xantana obtida a partir do caldo de cana Production of xanthan gum obtained from sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líllian Vasconcellos Brandão

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Goma xantana é um heteroexopolissacarídeo sintetizado por Xanthomonas utilizando glicose ou sacarose como fontes de carbono, além de outros micronutrientes. É de grande aplicação industrial, devido às suas propriedades reológicas. O caldo de cana é rico em nutrientes, podendo ser utilizado como substrato para obtenção de xantana, viabilizando a produção no País pela redução dos custos. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a produção da xantana obtida com diferentes cepas nativas de Xanthomonas em meio de cultivo composto de caldo de cana (XCC e compará-la com os valores obtidos com a sacarose (XS. Foram preparados meios com o mínimo dos requerimentos nutricionais, contendo sacarose ou caldo de cana, suplementados apenas com uréia (0,01% e fosfato (0,1%, fermentados em shaker (28 °C, 250 rpm, 120 horas. A maior produção de xantana foi obtida com a Xanthomonas campestris manihotis e caldo de cana (33,54 g.L-1, valor aproximadamente dez vezes maior que o obtido com a sacarose (3,45 g.L-1. A viscosidade aparente a 25 s-1, 2,0% de goma e 25 °C foi de 99,36 mPa.s para XCC e de 500,43 mPa.s para XS. A biossíntese da xantana a partir do caldo de cana merece peculiar atenção, constituindo-se numa possibilidade promissora para sua produção em larga escala.The xanthan gum is a heteroexopolysaccharide synthesized by Xanthomonas campestris in a culture medium using glucose or sucrose as carbon sources and other nutrients. Due to its rheological properties, it has been contributing for the range of applications in the food industry, pharmaceutical, and tertiary recovery of oil. Sugarcane is rich in nutrients (sugars and minerals and can be used as a substratum for the xanthan production, which can be produced in Brazil due to its cost reduction. The objective of this study was to test the production of the xantana obtained with different culture native of Xanthomonas in medium composed of sugarcane broth (XSC and to compare with

  4. Crescimento e produtividade da cana planta cultivada em diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e de colheita = Sugarcane growth and productivity under different tillage and crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Carlos Huertas Tavares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e de colheita sobre o crescimento e produtividade da cana planta. O experimento foi conduzido em Linhares, Estado do Espírito Santo. Trata-se de um dos ensaios mais antigos no país que investiga os efeitos da Cana crua e queimada. Instalados num Argissolo Amarelo textura arenosa/média, os tratamentos consistiram de parcelas (preparo convencional e cultivo mínimo e subparcelas (Cana crua e Cana queimada. Foi avaliado o crescimento da cultura, o aporte de matéria orgânica e a quantificação do rendimento da cana-de-açúcar. O diâmetro foi maior para o cultivo mínimo, e o perfilhamento foi maior para o preparo convencional. A altura e o perfilhamento foram superiores no corte sem queima. Para produtividade de colmos, os tratamentos nãoapresentaram diferenças significativas. As folhas foram maiores em cultivo mínimo e pontas em Cana crua. O cultivo mínimo propicia, inicialmente, aumento do diâmetro e maior produtividade de folhas na colheita. O perfilhamento é favorecido pelo preparo convencional. A Cana crua não apresentou influência negativa da palhada na rebrota. Após 16 anos de cultivo da cana-de-açúcar com e sem queima do palhiço, observou-se maior produtividade de ponteiros, incrementando o rendimento dos colmos em Cana crua. This study had as its objective to evaluate the effects of different tillage and crop systems on the growth and productivity of sugarcane plants. The experiment was conducted in Linhares, ES. It is one of the oldest assays in the country investigating the effects ofunburned and burned sugarcane. Installed in a Yellow Latosol with sandy/medium texture, the treatments consisted of plots (conventional and minimum tillage and subplots (raw and burned sugarcane. Plant growth, contribution of organic matter and quantification ofsugarcane yield were evaluated. The diameter was larger for minimum tillage, and

  5. Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation processes: Enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, Camila; Cunha, Fernanda M; Badino, Alberto C; Farinas, Cristiane S; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Cellulases and hemicellulases from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger have been shown to be powerful enzymes for biomass conversion to sugars, but the production costs are still relatively high for commercial application. The choice of an effective microbial cultivation process employed for enzyme production is important, since it may affect titers and the profile of protein secretion. We used proteomic analysis to characterize the secretome of T. reesei and A. niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation processes. The information gained was key to understand differences in hydrolysis of steam exploded sugarcane bagasse for enzyme cocktails obtained from two different cultivation processes. The sequential process for cultivating A. niger gave xylanase and β-glucosidase activities 3- and 8-fold higher, respectively, than corresponding activities from the submerged process. A greater protein diversity of critical cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes were also observed through secretome analyses. These results helped to explain the 3-fold higher yield for hydrolysis of non-washed pretreated bagasse when combined T. reesei and A. niger enzyme extracts from sequential fermentation were used in place of enzymes obtained from submerged fermentation. An enzyme loading of 0.7 FPU cellulase activity/g glucan was surprisingly effective when compared to the 5-15 times more enzyme loadings commonly reported for other cellulose hydrolysis studies. Analyses showed that more than 80% consisted of proteins other than cellulases whose role is important to the hydrolysis of a lignocellulose substrate. Our work combined proteomic analyses and enzymology studies to show that sequential and submerged cultivation methods differently influence both titers and secretion profile of key enzymes required for the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. The higher diversity of feruloyl esterases, xylanases and other auxiliary hemicellulolytic enzymes observed in the enzyme

  6. Transcriptome Profiling of Sugarcane Roots in Response to Low Potassium Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Qiaoying Zeng; Qiuping Ling; Lina Fan; Yu Li; Fei Hu; Jianwen Chen; Zhenrui Huang; Haihua Deng; Qiwei Li; Yongwen Qi

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is the most important crop for supplying sugar. Due to its high biomass, sugarcane needs to absorb a large amount of potassium (K) throughout its lifecycle. In South China, a deficiency of K available in soil restricts the production of sugarcane. Increasing the tolerance of sugarcane to low-K will be an effective approach for improving survival of the crop in this area. However, there is little information regarding the mechanism of tolerance to low-K stress in sugarcane. In this s...

  7. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  8. Reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar Growth regulators in the development and productivity of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Henrique Pereira Leite

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de colmos de cana-de-açúcar, resultantes da aplicação de reguladores vegetais no iníco da safra. Ostratamentos consistiram na aplicação de três reguladores vegetais inibidores de crescimento - sulfometuron metil, glifosato e compostos de radicais carboxílicos orgânicos + glifosato - e na maturação natural como testemunha, em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Os maturadores retardam o processo de crescimento em altura das plantas, sem afetar o número e o diâmetro de colmos na colheita, e influenciam de forma e intensidade distintas a ocorrência do florescimento e chochamento. O glifosato proporciona elevados índices de brotação lateral e prejudica a rebrota da soqueira. Os maturadores induzem o aumento do teor de açúcares redutores totais, o que contribui para a melhoria da qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar.The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and productivity of sugarcane, due to plant regulators application at the cropping season beginning. The treatments consisted of three plant growth inhibitors - sulfometuron methyl, glyphosate, and compounds of organic carboxilic radicals + glyphosate - and natural ripening as control, in a randomized block design with five replicates. The ripeners hold up the growth process of plant height, without affecting the number and diameter of stems at harvest, however they influence, in different intensities and ways, the flowering and pith process. Glyphosate provide the largest index of bud sprouting and damage of regrowth of the ratoon cane. The ripeners induce increase in sugar reducer total contents, contributing for the improvement in technological quality of sugarcane.

  9. Saccharification of ozonated sugarcane bagasse using enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 for sugars release and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cassia Pereira, Josiani; Travaini, Rodolfo; Paganini Marques, Natalia; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Bocchini Martins, Daniela Alonso

    2016-03-01

    The saccharification of ozonated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 was studied. Fungal enzymes provided slightly higher sugar release than commercial enzymes, working at 50°C. Sugar release increased with temperature increase. Kinetic studies showed remarkable glucose release (4.99g/L, 3%w/w dry matter) at 60°C, 8h of hydrolysis, using an enzyme load of 10FPU (filter paper unit). FPase and β-glucosidase activities increased during saccharification (284% and 270%, respectively). No further significant improvement on glucose release was observed increasing the enzyme load above 7.5FPUperg of cellulose. Higher dry matter contents increased sugars release, but not yields. The fermentation of hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided glucose-to-ethanol conversions around to 63%. PMID:26773948

  10. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  11. Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Gao, Bin; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Ding, Wenchuan; Zimmerman, Andrew R

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600 degrees C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar was produced from the digested residue (18% by weight) and the raw bagasse (23%) at a similar rate, there were many physiochemical differences between them. Compared to BC, DBC had higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), anion exchange capacity (AEC), hydrophobicity and more negative surface charge, all properties that are generally desirable for soil amelioration, contaminant remediation or wastewater treatment. Thus, these results suggest that the pyrolysis of anaerobic digestion residues to produce biochar may be an economically and environmentally beneficial use of agricultural wastes. PMID:20634061

  12. Biochar and Mill Ash Use as Soil Amendments to Grow Sugarcane in Sandy Soils of South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Campos, O.; Lang, T. A.; Bhadha, J. H.; McCray, M.; Gao, B.; Glaz, B.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The use of agricultural and urban organic residues as amendments provides an option to improve sugarcane production in sandy soils located northwest of the Everglades Agricultural Area, while reducing waste. This study was conducted to determine the effect of mill ash and three biochars on sugarcane yield and sandy soil properties. Mill ash and biochars produced from hardwood yard waste (HY), barn shavings with horse manure (HM), and rice hulls (RH) were incorporated at 1% and 2% (by weight) to sandy soils in a lysimeter experiment. A control without amendment and an often-used commercial practice of mill ash applied at 6% (AS6) were also included. Results showed that RH2 and AS6 produced greater biomass and sucrose yield compared with the control. According to critical nutrient level analysis, RH and AS amendments also resulted in the highest silicon content, which had a positive correlation with increasing sugarcane yield. In addition, RH2 and AS6 increased total phosphorus, Mehlich-3 phosphorus, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) compared with the control. While CEC remained constant with AS2 and AS6 applications, CEC significantly increased over time with RH2. Moreover, higher amendment applications increased soil organic matter compared with the control and did not decrease over time, which suggests a positive influence for long term carbon sustainability and nutrient cycling in sandy soils. Overall, RH2 and AS6 have the most potential to be used as amendments in sandy soils of South Florida due to their positive effects on soil properties, which improved sugarcane yield. However, no negative consequences were found with the application of any other amendment in terms of sugarcane growth and soil quality. Future research should focus on the use of RH and AS amendments on long-term field-scale studies, and the economic feasibility of a single year application on plant and ratoon cane yields.

  13. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Johann S; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L; Bonnett, Graham D

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1 months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment. PMID:26090363

  14. An organic acid-tolerant HAA1-overexpression mutant of an industrial bioethanol strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Takuya; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Ogawa, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Shima, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial contamination is known as a major cause of the reduction in ethanol yield during bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acetate is an effective agent for the prevention of bacterial contamination, but it negatively affects the fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae. We have proposed that the combined use of organic acids including acetate and lactate and yeast strains tolerant to organic acids may be effective for the elimination of principally lactic acid bacterial (LAB) contamination. In a previous study employing laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, we showed that overexpression of the HAA1 gene, which encodes a transcriptional activator, could be a useful molecular breeding method for acetate-tolerant yeast strains. In the present study, we constructed a HAA1-overexpressing diploid strain (MATa/α, named ER HAA1-OP) derived from the industrial bioethanol strain Ethanol Red (ER). ER HAA1-OP showed tolerance not only to acetate but also to lactate, and this tolerance was dependent on the increased expression of HAA1 gene. The ethanol production ability of ER HAA1-OP was almost equivalent to that of the parent strain during the bioethanol production process from sugarcane molasses in the absence of acetate. The addition of acetate at 0.5% (w/v, pH 4.5) inhibited the fermentation ability of the parent strain, but such an inhibition was not observed in the ethanol production process using ER HAA1-OP. PMID:24373204

  15. Formation of [b(n) + 17 + Ag]+ product ions from Ag+ cationized native and acetylated peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbalagan, V; Perera, B A; Silva, A T M; Gallardo, A L; Barber, M; Barr, J M; Terkarli, S M; Talaty, E R; Van Stipdonk, M J

    2002-09-01

    We compared the tandem mass spectra of a range of native and acetylated Ag(+) cationized peptides to determine the influence of the derivatization step on the abundance of the [b(n) + 17 + Ag](+) product ions. Using tripeptides, the smallest for which the mechanisms to generate [b(2) - 1 + Ag](+) and [b(2) + 17 + Ag](+) products are both operative, we found that in most cases acetylation causes an increase in the abundance of the C-terminal rearrangement ion, [b(2) + 17 + Ag](+), relative to the rival N-terminal rearrangement ion, [b(2) - 1 + Ag](+). The presence of a free amino group to bind to the metal ion significantly influences the relative abundances of the product ions. We propose a mechanism for the formation of the [b(n) + 17 + Ag](+) that is based on the formation of a five-membered oxazolidin-5-one and tetrahedral carbon intermediate that may collapse to a peptide upon release of CO and an imine, aided by the fact that the ring formed during C-terminal rearrangement is both a hemiacylal and hemiaminal. We also identified an influence of amino acid sequence on the relative abundances of the [b(n) + 17 + Ag](+) and [b(n) - 1 + Ag](+) product ions, whereby bulky substituents located on the alpha-carbon of the amino acid to the C-terminal side of the cleavage site apparently promote the formation of the [b(n) + 17 + Ag](+) product over [b(n) - 1 + Ag](+) when the amino acid to the N-terminal side of the cleavage site is glycine. The latter ion is the favored product, however, when the bulky group is positioned on the alpha-carbon of the amino acid to the N-terminal side of the cleavage site. PMID:12271434

  16. Mutation Breeding in Sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present position of sugar industry particularly cane sugar production in the world has been discussed. The role of African Countries which can contribute more than the present 11% to world cane sugar production is presented. The breeding methods employed in cane growing court-tries indicate the biparental crossing and selection in F1 has been the major method used to develop varieties. Due to cytogenetical peculiarities, thousands of seedlings are grown to select the desirable genotype. Mutations or sports has been a source of variation for selection in nature. Induced mutations have only enhanced the mutation rate and has enabled the plant breeders to get better variation for selection. Though many mutagens have been used gamma rays have been most effective. Induced mutations for nonflowering, spineless leaf-sheath, higher sugar content, yield md resistance to diseases like smut and downy mildew have been reported. The methods of making mutated tissues express itself have been indicated. Mutation breeding holds out promise in sugarcane in that the basic variety or genotype can be kept intact and a few characters changed as desired by the plant breeder provided proper selection methods are employed. (author)

  17. Greenhouse gases emissions in the production and use of ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: The 2005/2006 averages and a prediction for 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the evaluation of energy balance and GHG emissions in the production and use of fuel ethanol from cane in Brazil for 2005/2006 (for a sample of mills processing up to 100 million tons of sugarcane per year), and for a conservative scenario proposed for 2020. Fossil energy ratio was 9.3 for 2005/2006 and may reach 11.6 in 2020 with technologies already commercial. For anhydrous ethanol production the total GHG emission was 436 kg CO2 eq m-3 ethanol for 2005/2006, decreasing to 345 kg CO2 eq m-3 in the 2020 scenario. Avoided emissions depend on the final use: for E100 use in Brazil they were (in 2005/2006) 2181 kg CO2 eq m-3 ethanol, and for E25 they were 2323 kg CO2 eq m-3 ethanol (anhydrous). Both values would increase about 26% for the conditions assumed for 2020 mostly due to the large increase in sales of electricity surpluses. A sensitivity analysis has been performed (with 2005/2006 values) to investigate the impacts of the huge variation of some important parameters throughout Brazilian mills on the energy and emissions balance. The results have shown the high impact of cane productivity and ethanol yield variation on these balances (and the impacts of average cane transportation distances, level of soil cultivation, and some others) and of bagasse and electricity surpluses on GHG emissions avoidance. (author)

  18. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle reduces production expenses and could increase profitability if yields are not adversely affected. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both ...

  19. PROJECTED COSTS AND RETURNS - SUGARCANE, LOUISIANA, 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Champagne, Lonnie P.; Salassi, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents estimates of costs and returns associated with sugarcane production practices in Louisiana for 1997. It is part of a continuing effort to provide farmers, researchers, extension personnel, lending agencies and others working in agriculture and/or agribusiness timely planning information.

  20. Overexpression of cationic amino acid transporter-1 increases nitric oxide production in hypoxic human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Hongmei; Chen, Bernadette; Chicoine, Louis G.; Nelin, Leif D.

    2011-01-01

    1. The endogenous production of and/or the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is decreased in pulmonary hypertensive diseases. L-arginine (L-arg) is the substrate for NO synthase (NOS). L-arg is transported into cells via the cationic amino acid transporters (CAT), of which there are two isoforms in endothelial cells, CAT-1 and CAT-2.

  1. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Amandeep Singh; Uma Ranjan Lal; Hayat Muhammad Mukhtar; Prabh Simran Singh; Gagan Shah; Ravi Kumar Dhawan

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary produ...

  2. Evaluation of sugarcane laboratory ensiling and analysis techniques

    OpenAIRE

    André de Faria Pedroso; Alexandre Mendonça Pedroso; Waldomiro Barioni Júnior; Gilberto Batista de Souza

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of laboratory-silo type and method of silage extract production, respectively, on sugarcane silage fermentation and recovery of fermentation products. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested and ensiled in three different types of laboratory silos (five replicates): 9.7 × 30 cm PVC tubes with tight lids, equipped or unequipped with Bunsen valves, and 20 L plastic buckets with tight lids and Bunsen valves. Three methods were used to produce silage extract...

  3. Potential for Genetic Improvement of Sugarcane as a Source of Biomass for Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Nam V.; Furtado, Agnelo; Botha, Frederik C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Robert J. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar + fiber) content, and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many dipl...

  4. Potential for genetic improvement of sugarcane as a source of biomass for biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Nam V.; Agnelo eFurtado; Botha, Frederik C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Robert J. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar+fiber) content and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many diploid...

  5. Production of phytotoxic cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides in plant cells using inducible promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Company

    Full Text Available Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, have potent and specific activities against economically important plant pathogenic bacteria. They are also recognized as valuable therapeutics and preservatives. However, highly active BP100 derivatives are often phytotoxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants. Here we demonstrate that production of recombinant phytotoxic peptides in transgenic plants is possible by strictly limiting transgene expression to certain tissues and conditions, and specifically that minimization of this expression during transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants is essential to obtain viable plant biofactories. On the basis of whole-genome transcriptomic data available online, we identified the Os.hsp82 promoter that fulfilled this requirement and was highly induced in response to heat shock. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing moderate yields of severely phytotoxic BP100 derivatives on exposure to high temperature. In addition, a threshold for gene expression in selected tissues and stages was experimentally established, below which the corresponding promoters should be suitable for driving the expression of recombinant phytotoxic proteins in genetically modified plants. In view of the growing transcriptomics data available, this approach is of interest to assist promoter selection for specific purposes.

  6. Production of phytotoxic cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides in plant cells using inducible promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company, Nuri; Nadal, Anna; Ruiz, Cristina; Pla, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, have potent and specific activities against economically important plant pathogenic bacteria. They are also recognized as valuable therapeutics and preservatives. However, highly active BP100 derivatives are often phytotoxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants. Here we demonstrate that production of recombinant phytotoxic peptides in transgenic plants is possible by strictly limiting transgene expression to certain tissues and conditions, and specifically that minimization of this expression during transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants is essential to obtain viable plant biofactories. On the basis of whole-genome transcriptomic data available online, we identified the Os.hsp82 promoter that fulfilled this requirement and was highly induced in response to heat shock. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing moderate yields of severely phytotoxic BP100 derivatives on exposure to high temperature. In addition, a threshold for gene expression in selected tissues and stages was experimentally established, below which the corresponding promoters should be suitable for driving the expression of recombinant phytotoxic proteins in genetically modified plants. In view of the growing transcriptomics data available, this approach is of interest to assist promoter selection for specific purposes. PMID:25387106

  7. The Sugarcane-Biofuel Expansion and Dairy Farmers' Responses in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Andre; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in Sao Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a…

  8. Efficient open fermentative production of polymer-grade L-lactate from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by thermotolerant Bacillus sp. strain P38.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Peng

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is one of the top 30 potential building-block chemicals from biomass, of which the most extensive use is in the polymerization of lactic acid to poly-lactic-acid (PLA. To reduce the cost of PLA, the search for cheap raw materials and low-cost process for lactic acid production is highly desired. In this study, the final titer of produced L-lactic acid reached a concentration of 185 g·L(-1 with a volumetric productivity of 1.93 g·L(-1·h(-1 by using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as the sole carbon source simultaneously with cottonseed meal as cheap nitrogen sources under the open fed-batch fermentation process. Furthermore, a lactic acid yield of 0.99 g per g of total reducing sugars was obtained, which is very close to the theoretical value (1.0 g g(-1. No D-isomer of lactic acid was detected in the broth, and thereafter resulted in an optical purity of 100%, which exceeds the requirement of lactate polymerization process. To our knowledge, this is the best performance of fermentation on polymer-grade L-lactic acid production totally using lignocellulosic sources. The high levels of optically pure L-lactic acid produced, combined with the ease of handling and low costs associated with the open fermentation strategy, indicated the thermotolerant Bacillus sp. P38 could be an excellent candidate strain with great industrial potential for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production from various cellulosic biomasses.

  9. Residual biomass potential of commercial and pre-commercial sugarcane cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is an efficient and sustainable alternative for energy generation compared to non-renewable sources. Currently, during the mechanized harvest process, the straw left in the field can be used in part for the second generation ethanol and increasing the electric energy production. Thus, this study aimed to provide information on the potential for residual biomass cultivars of sugarcane cropping system. This study provides the following information: yield of straw, depending on the calculated leaf area index and the number of tillers per linear meter; primary energy production of several sugarcane genotypes; contribution of dry tops and leaves; biomass yield; and evaluation of fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Preliminary results obtained by researchers of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and reCviews related studies are presented. The results suggest that the production of sugarcane straw content varies according to the cultivars; the greater mass of sugarcane straw is in the top leaves and that the potential for the crude energy production of sugarcane per area unit can be increased using fiber-rich species or species that produce more straw. The straw indexes was shown to be a good indicator and allow the estimation of straw volumes generated in a sugarcane crop. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin composition in sugarcane is distinct among varieties. Therefore, it is possible to develop distinct biomass materials for energy production and for the development of sugarcane mills using biochemical processes and thermal routes.

  10. Feasibility of cultivation of sugarcane in agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Luís Fernando Guedes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's main sugarcane producer and the production system has changed abiding to legal and technical recommendation. In Piracicaba many smallholders grow sugarcane in steep areas. Under such situation, mechanization at harvest makes cultivation impossible. This work assess the viability of agroforestry systems on joining crop production and conservation of natural resources. Soils at 12-20% slope class were identified, tree species which could be cultivated along with sugarcane were selected, and the design of the systems to be adopted was evaluated. Identified area occupies 11,556 ha and the most representative soil types are Typic Kandiuldult and Lithic Hapludoll. The exotic species coconut, eucalyptus, pejibaye and rubber, and eight native species have potential to be grown in contourhedgerows with sugarcane. Initial planting of exotic, domesticated trees is recommended, and gradual introduction of native, non-domesticated species, can be set according to their ecological requirements.

  11. Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Contrasting Sugarcane Varieties Using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lucília M. da Costa; Lidiane L. Barbosa Amorim; Onofre, Alberto V. C.; Luiz J. O. Tavares de Melo; Oliveira, Maria Betânia M.; Reginaldo de Carvalho; Ana M. Benko-Iseppon

    2011-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical crop, responsible for two thirds of the world sugar production, gaining actually importance as a source of biofuel. Drought tolerance is a very important feature considering the actual climate change scenario throughout the world. This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity between sugarcane varieties with contrasting features under drought. For this purpose, twelve ISSR primers were used to characterize nine sugarcane varieties under cultivation in ...

  12. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of Emission Factors through Laboratory Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    João Andrade de Carvalho; Turibio Gomes Soares Neto; José Carlos Santos; Saulo R. Freitas; Rudorff, Bernardo F. T.; Daniela de Azeredo França; Edson Anselmo; Ely Vieira Cortez; Karla Maria Longo

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop for the Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. However, the common practice of pre-harvest burning of sugarcane straw emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the practice of pre-harvest sugarcane burning in the near future, there is still significant environmental damage. Thus, the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due...

  13. The Role of Nitrogen Fertilizers in Sugarcane Root Biomass under Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Otto; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco; Carlos Eduardo Faroni; André Cesar Vitti; Emídio Cantidio Almeida de Oliveira; Renata Alcarde Sermarini; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze Trivelin

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is used worldwide for sugar, ethanol and energy production. In Brazil, the shift from burned to unburned harvest systems resulted in increases in nitrogen fertilization rates, which can impact root architecture and biomass. The expectation is also an increase in sugarcane biomass. The study hypothesized that high N rates applied to sugarcane fields increases root growth and N stored in roots, promoting higher biomass and N accumulated in shoots. Two experiments ...

  14. Sugarcane, sugar and ethanol technlogical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.I.F.; Oliveira, D.R.M.S.; Marin, F.R.; Santos, A.D.; Hanashiro, M.M. [Embrapa Agriculture Informatics, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Vian, C.E.F; Sollero, G.C.; Andrioli, K.G. [Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture/University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work describes Embrapa's (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) pioneer initiative creating an online service which provides sugarcane, sugar and ethanol technological information. Embrapa has developed software tools for structuring Knowledge Trees, management contents, graphic visualization (hyperbolic tree) and it has also developed its own methodologies for organizing information. The Knowledge Tree is designed in the patterns of the productive chain of sugarcane; the sets of data present the main instructions, recommendations and technologies produced by Brazilian public research institutions. It is intended to offer an ample amount of pertinent and relevant technical information - displayed at Embrapa Information Agency website - to many professionals in the sugarcane sector, especially for producers, students and technical support staff. Moreover, it is expected to contribute to the enhancement of the technology transference process to allow competitive gains in Brazilian agri-business and to socialize knowledge - which is the mission of Embrapa in its business. It is still expected to contribute to the diffusion of technological information and the knowledge of sugarcane for the areas of tropical agriculture around the world.

  15. Inoculation of sugarcane with diazotrophic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Schultz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry, a strategic crop in Brazil, requires technological improvements in production efficiency to increase the crop energy balance. Among the various currently studied alternatives, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria proved to be a technology with great potential. In this context, the efficiency of a mixture of bacterial inoculant was evaluated with regard to the agronomic performance and N nutrition of sugarcane. The experiment was carried out on an experimental field of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, using a randomized block, 2 × 3 factorial design (two varieties and three treatments with four replications, totaling 24 plots. The varieties RB867515 and RB72454 were tested in treatments consisting of: inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria, N-fertilized control with 120 kg ha-1 N and absolute control (no inoculation and no N fertilizer. The inoculum was composed of five strains of five diazotrophic species. The yield, dry matter accumulation, total N in the shoot dry matter and the contribution of N by biological fixation were evaluated, using the natural 15N abundance in non-inoculated sugarcane as reference. The bacterial inoculant increased the stalk yield of variety RB72454 similarly to fertilization with 120 kg ha-1 N in the harvests of plant-cane and first ratoon crops, however the contribution of biological N fixation was unchanged by inoculation, indicating that the benefits of the inoculant in sugarcane may have resulted from plant growth promotion.

  16. N-glycosylation in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Ivan G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

  17. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US$1=R$2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. - Research highlights: →The relative cost of ethanol produced in the US and imported from Brazil is shown to depend on currency exchange rate, feedstock costs, and co-product credits. →In 2006-2008, the cost of corn ethanol is estimated to be 15% lower than the cost of imported sugarcane ethanol at US ports. →A carbon pricing policy could affect relative costs in favor of sugarcane ethanol, but only at a high carbon price.

  18. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant for...

  19. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Roma, W. N. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of...... study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products. The...... harvesting and the use of diesel fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agricultural practices; renewable fuel rather than diesel; not washing sugarcane and implementing water recycling systems during the industrial...

  20. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  1. Sugarcane proteomics: An update on current status, challenges, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabas, Leonard; Ramadass, Ashwin; Amalraj, Ramesh Sundar; Palaniyandi, Malathi; Rasappa, Viswanathan

    2015-05-01

    Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops cultivated worldwide for the production of crystal sugar, ethanol, and other related by-products. Unlike other comparable monocots like sorghum, maize, and rice, sugarcane genome by virtue of its polyploidy nature remains yet to be fully deciphered. Proteomics-an established complementary tool to genomics is at its infancy in sugarcane as compared to the other monocots. However, with the surge in genomics research accomplished by next-generation sequencing platforms, sugarcane proteomics has gained momentum. This review summarizes the available literature from 1970 to 2014, which ensures a comprehensive coverage on sugarcane proteomics-a topic first of its kind to be reviewed. We herewith compiled substantial contributions in different areas of sugarcane proteomics, which include abiotic and biotic stresses, cell wall, organelle, and structural proteomics. The past decade has witnessed a paradigm shift in the pace with which sugarcane proteomics is progressing, as evident by the number of research publications. In addition to extensively reviewing the progress made thus far, we intend to highlight the scope in sugarcane proteomics, with an aspiration to instigate focused research on sugarcane to harness its full potential for the human welfare. PMID:25641866

  2. 甘蔗糖蜜酒精生产污垢控制最佳工艺点及污垢控制方法%Optimal Process Points and Methods for Fouling Control in Alcohol Production from Sugarcane Molasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛瑞丰; 方燕; 王双飞; 郭立冬; 陆海勤; 赵日新

    2012-01-01

    选择甘蔗糖蜜酒精生产中蒸馏前多个工艺位点,采用重力分离法(稀释糖液静置、发酵醪底排污、机械离心)与添加化学助剂重力分离法对甘蔗糖蜜酒精生产物料进行除垢处理。测定除垢实验中物料及污垢的理化参数,以表观污垢、钙镁总量、硫酸盐总量为依据评价除垢效果,分析除垢特点。通过各工艺点各种控制方法的表观污垢去除率,进行甘蔗糖蜜酒精生产蒸馏前除垢最佳工艺点和方法的分析,提出甘蔗糖蜜酒精生产污垢控制除垢技术方案。%This paper describes the selection of multiple process points before the distillation stage in alcohol production from sugarcane molasses, use of gravity separation methods (diluted molasses standing settlement, fouling removal at the bottom of the fermentation tank, mechanical centrifugationl) and gravity separation methods with the addition of chemical additives to perform antifouling processing on materials in alcohol production from sugarcane molasses. Physical and chemical parameters such as apparent fouling, total calcium magnesium and total sulfate were measured on materials and fouling to assess fouling removal effectiveness and characteristics. Based on apparent fouling removal rate by various control methods at various process points, optimal process points and methods for fouling removal were analyzed and technical protocols for fouling control and removal in alcohol production from sugarcane molasses were proposed.

  3. Stem juice production of the C4 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)is enhanced by growth at double-ambient CO2 and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four sugarcane cultivars were grown for three months in sunlit greenhouses under [CO2] of 360 (ambient) and 720(doubled) ppm and at temperatures (T) of 1.5 (near ambient) and 6.0C higher than outside ambient T. Leaf area, stem juice, plant biomass, leaf CO2 exchange rate (CER) and activities of PEP ...

  4. Efficient production of aromatic cation radicals by irradiation with visible light. Utilization of 60C as photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Photoinduced electron transfer reactions of fullerenes have of widespread interest because of their potential application in the initiation of chemical processes. The high stability, broad range of visible absorption of 60C as well as the efficient formation and long lifetime of the triplet excited state facilitate its implementation as light harvester. The remarkable ability of the 60C to accept electron have stimulated a number of studies, however, the data concerning the participation of the triplet 60C as electron donor are scarce and formation of 60C+ cation radical has not been detected in photoinduced reactions with strong electron acceptors such as tetracyanoethylene tetracyanoquinodimethane or chloranil. We now report a laser flash photolysis study of triplet 60C quenching by chloranil and demonstrate that addition of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) results in several orders of magnitude increase in reaction rate. The large rate enhancement is attributed to development of a local polar environment by the preferential solvation of chloranil with TFA. 60C+ cation radical and semiquinone radical are clearly identified as reaction products. The quantum yield of radical formation is found to be as high as 0.80 in the presence of 0.5 M TFA indicating that the efficient protonation of the chloranil radical anion, formed in the primary electron transfer, competes effectively with the back electron transfer process. Because of its high oxidation potential (1.76 V vs. SCE in benzonitrile) 60C+ cation radical readily oxidizes aromatic compounds e.g. fluoranthene, naphthalene derivatives in secondary electron transfer process. Therefore, 60C is a very efficient photocatalyst for production of aromatic cation radicals by irradiation with visible light

  5. Stimulation of extracellular invertase production from spent yeast when sugarcane pressmud used as substrate through solid state fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rahul; Kesavapillai, Balakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Efforts were made to utilize the waste/by-product of two agro-process industries namely pressmud from sugar processing industries and spent yeast from distilleries manufacturing ethanol from cane molasses, for the production of microbial invertase. Our experimentation indicated that these two sources could be ideally utilized for the production of invertase through solid substrate fermentation (SSF). SSF with spent yeast had given highest specific activity of 430 U/mg in 72 h of fermentation....

  6. Actinide cation-cation complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The +5 oxidation state of U, Np, Pu, and Am is a linear dioxo cation (AnO2+) with a formal charge of +1. These cations form complexes with a variety of other cations, including actinide cations. Other oxidation states of actinides do not form these cation-cation complexes with any cation other than AnO2+; therefore, cation-cation complexes indicate something unique about AnO2+ cations compared to actinide cations in general. The first cation-cation complex, NpO2+·UO22+, was reported by Sullivan, Hindman, and Zielen in 1961. Of the four actinides that form AnO2+ species, the cation-cation complexes of NpO2+ have been studied most extensively while the other actinides have not. The only PuO2+ cation-cation complexes that have been studied are with Fe3+ and Cr3+ and neither one has had its equilibrium constant measured. Actinides have small molar absorptivities and cation-cation complexes have small equilibrium constants; therefore, to overcome these obstacles a sensitive technique is required. Spectroscopic techniques are used most often to study cation-cation complexes. Laser-Induced Photacoustic Spectroscopy equilibrium constants for the complexes NpO2+·UO22+, NpO2+·Th4+, PuO2+·UO22+, and PuO2+·Th4+ at an ionic strength of 6 M using LIPAS are 2.4 ± 0.2, 1.8 ± 0.9, 2.2 ± 1.5, and ∼0.8 M-1

  7. Health information, treatment, and worker productivity: Experimental evidence from malaria testing and treatment among Nigerian sugarcane cutters

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Andrew; Friedman, Jed; Serneels, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural and other physically demanding sectors are important sources of growth in developing countries but prevalent diseases such as malaria adversely impact the productivity, labor supply, and choice of job tasks among workers by reducing physical capacity. This study identifies the impact of malaria on worker earnings, labor supply, and daily productivity by randomizing the tempora...

  8. Otimização do planejamento hierárquico da produção em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético Optimization of the hierarchical production planning of a cooperative society of sugarcane milling companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Piatti Oiticica de Paiva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético. Esta modelagem considera a relação hierárquica existente entre o planejamento anual da cooperativa e o planejamento tático de safra das usinas cooperadas. No nível de decisão da cooperativa, o modelo indica a meta de produção de cada usina e define a política de estocagem e de atendimento da demanda. No nível de decisão de uma usina cooperada, o modelo possibilita definir a quantidade de cana-de-açúcar colhida, a quantidade transportada por prestador de serviço, a seleção dos processos de produção de açúcar, álcool, melaço e energia elétrica. Para resolver os modelos de programação linear e programação inteira mista envolvidos, utilizou-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um software de última geração de programação matemática. Resultados computacionais obtidos em estudo de caso são apresentados como forma de ilustrar e validar a aplicação.The main concern of this work is related to the presentation of an aggregate production planning model of a cooperative society of sugar and alcohol milling companies. This mathematical model is based on a hierarchical approach between the annual planning problem of the cooperative and the tactical planning horizon of the sugarcane mills. At the cooperative level, the main questions are related to the allocation of production goals to each mill and the management of inventory and dynamic demands. At the milling companies' level, a process selection model aims at helping the decision makers to determine the following: quantity of sugarcane crushed; selection of sugarcane suppliers; selection of sugarcane transport system; and selection of industrial processes used in sugar, alcohol, molasses and energy production. In order to solve the linear and mixed integer mathematical models involved, a modeling language with an

  9. Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís Nunes Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. crops provide carbon (C for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon supply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves and from root system (rhizomes and roots were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estimated. Three trials were carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2006 to 2009. All sites were cultivated with the variety SP81 3250 under the green sugarcane harvest. Yearly, post-harvest sugarcane residues (tops, dry leaves, roots and rhizomes were sampled; weighted and dried for the dry mass (DM production to be estimated. On average, DM root system production was 4.6 Mg ha-1 year-1 (1.5 Mg C ha-1 year-1 and 11.5 Mg ha-1 year-1 (5.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1 of straw. In plant cane, 35 % of the total sugarcane DM was allocated into the root system, declining to 20 % in the third ratoon. The estimate of potential allocation of sugarcane residues to soil organic C was 1.1 t ha-1 year-1; out of which 33 % was from root system and 67 % from straw. The participation of root system should be higher if soil layer is evaluated, a deeper soil layer, if root exudates are accounted and if the period of higher production of roots is considered.

  10. Inequality, Agricultural Production and Poverty: With Focus on Large-scale / Small-scale Sugarcane Farms in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Ngepah, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    International development agencies have renewed interest over agriculture’s pro-poor potentials. South Africa’s agriculture though contributes less than 3% to GDP, has the highest employment per unit of GDP. The sector is sharply divided into small and large farms. Data reveals an increasing land productivity gap between both types of farms. Using data from various sources1, this paper assesses the agricultural production impacts of inequality and land redistribution, first in the whole agric...

  11. A structured approach to target starch solubilization and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial a-amylases have been used for many years ...

  12. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  13. Plasmidic Expression of nemA and yafC* Increased Resistance of Ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180 to Nonvolatile Side Products from Dilute Acid Treatment of Sugarcane Bagasse and Artificial Hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Aiqin; Zheng, Huabao; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysate-resistant Escherichia coli SL100 was previously isolated from ethanologenic LY180 after sequential transfers in AM1 medium containing a dilute acid hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse and was used as a source of resistance genes. Many genes that affect tolerance to furfural, the most abundant inhibitor, have been described previously. To identify genes associated with inhibitors other than furfural, plasmid clones were selected in an artificial hydrolysate that had been treated with a vacuum to remove furfural. Two new resistance genes were discovered from Sau3A1 libraries of SL100 genomic DNA: nemA (N-ethylmaleimide reductase) and a putative regulatory gene containing a mutation in the coding region, yafC*. The presence of these mutations in SL100 was confirmed by sequencing. A single mutation was found in the upstream regulatory region of nemR (nemRA operon) in SL100. This mutation increased nemA activity 20-fold over that of the parent organism (LY180) in AM1 medium without hydrolysate and increased nemA mRNA levels >200-fold. Addition of hydrolysates induced nemA expression (mRNA and activity), in agreement with transcriptional control. NemA activity was stable in cell extracts (9 h, 37°C), eliminating a role for proteinase in regulation. LY180 with a plasmid expressing nemA or yafC* was more resistant to a vacuum-treated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate and to a vacuum-treated artificial hydrolysate than LY180 with an empty-vector control. Neither gene affected furfural tolerance. The vacuum-treated hydrolysates inhibited the reduction of N-ethylmaleimide by NemA while also serving as substrates. Expression of the nemA or yafC* plasmid in LY180 doubled the rate of ethanol production from the vacuum-treated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate. PMID:26826228

  14. ESR/ENDOR study of the guanine cation: Secondary product in 5' -dGMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous ESR studies by Voit and Huttermann of x-irradiated single crystals of 2' deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate have indicated the presence of a radical thought to be formed by deprotonation of the primary base cation at N1. In this study the authors report results of a detailed ESR and ENDOR experiment at 10 K which conflict with the results cited above. One of the radicals detected inhibited two α-proton type couplings. The data analysis shows that one coupling is due to the proton on the extra annular NH/sub 2/ group, while the other is due to the proton bonded to C8

  15. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  16. Direct Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Sugars and Sugarcane Bagasse by a Recombinant Trichoderma reesei Strain HJ48

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Huang; Dong Chen; Yutuo Wei; Qingyan Wang; Zhenchong Li; Ying Chen; Ribo Huang

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei can be considered as a candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microorganism. However, its ethanol yield needs to be improved significantly. Here the ethanol production of T. reesei CICC 40360 was improved by genome shuffling while simultaneously enhancing the ethanol resistance. The initial mutant population was generated by nitrosoguanidine treatment of the spores, and an improved population producing more than fivefold ethanol than wild type was obtained by genome...

  17. Stimulation of extracellular invertase production from spent yeast when sugarcane pressmud used as substrate through solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Kesavapillai, Balakrishnan

    2012-12-01

    Efforts were made to utilize the waste/by-product of two agro-process industries namely pressmud from sugar processing industries and spent yeast from distilleries manufacturing ethanol from cane molasses, for the production of microbial invertase. Our experimentation indicated that these two sources could be ideally utilized for the production of invertase through solid substrate fermentation (SSF). SSF with spent yeast had given highest specific activity of 430 U/mg in 72 h of fermentation. Inoculum percentage of yeast cells on pressmud was optimized as 50% (w/w) with a combination inoculum of spent yeast and fresh cultured yeast at a ratio of 7:3. Crude enzyme was characterized for optimum pH and temperature and maximum activity was recorded at pH 5.0 and at a temperature of 40°C. Impacts of metal ions and detergents on invertase action were studied in which Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Al(3+) and detergents had enhanced the activity of the enzyme whereas Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) inhibited the enzyme activity. Purification of 9.8 folds was obtained by using three phase partition method. PMID:23420549

  18. [Production of knowledge and an inter-sectoral approach vis-à-vis living and health conditions of workers in the sugarcane sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo-Gomez, Carlos

    2011-08-01

    This article presents some dimensions of inter-sectoral action aimed at improving working and living conditions of workers in the sugarcane and alcohol industry. The dynamics of the implementation of certain forms of given intersectoral practices established in a region of the State of São Paulo are analyzed. The important role played by sectors of the Labor Prosecution Office and the Legislative Authority in the articulation of institutional actors and civil society is stressed. They give greater impetus to the work of each public sector responsible for addressing the issues of workers'healthcare. This study was produced from analysis of documents and material provided by institutions and discussion forums with proposals for intervention. The results show that the appropriation of strategic knowledge produced by researchers of the sugarcane industry in the instrumental resources used in legal actions, monitoring and surveillance generates important advances in the health of workers and the environment. PMID:21860934

  19. Carbon balance of sugarcane agriculture on histosols of the everglades agricultural area: review, analysis, and global energy perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels production from crop products and cellulosic by-products, including sugarcane, has received much attention. In Florida, most sugarcane is produced on drained Histosols (organic soils) of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). Subsidence has occurred via microbial oxidation since drainage i...

  20. Productivity and nutritional value varieties of sugarcane under different phosphorus sourcesProdutividade e valor nutricional de variedades de cana-de-açúcar sob diferentes fontes de fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caione

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the expansion of sugarcane in areas that are not traditional in it’s cultivation, there is need of study the management of fertilizer, mainly phosphorus, since it’s the nutrient that most limits the production in the tropics. The aim of this work was to evaluate the productivity and nutritional value of two varieties of sugarcane grown under different phosphorus sources, for three production cycles in North of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial scheme 4x2, with four replications. The sources of phosphorus used were bone meal, Arad phosphate and triple superphosphate at a dose of 100 kg P2O5 ha-1, and a control without nutrient application at planting. The varieties of sugarcane were planted IAC86-2480 and SP79-1011. We evaluated the productivity of dry matter, dry matter content, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent, lignin, cellulose, in vitro digestibility and crude protein of forage. The phosphorus sources provided higher yields during the first cycle of sugarcane and did not cause significant effect on productivity in subsequent cycles. Phosphorus fertilization did not cause significant changes in the nutritional value of sugarcane. The variety IAC86- 2480 showed higher crude protein content in three cycles and higher dry matter yield in the first two cycles, compared to SP79-1011. Regarding the fiber constituents, both showed similar results. Com a expansão da cana-de-açúcar em áreas nas quais não é tradicional seu cultivo, há a necessidade de se estudar o manejo da adubação, principalmente do fósforo, que é o nutriente que mais limita a produção em regiões de clima tropical. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e o valor nutricional de duas variedades de cana-de-açúcar cultivada com diferentes fontes de fósforo, durante três ciclos de produção no Norte do Mato Grosso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em

  1. Development of an analytical method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane and sweet sorghum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Marsha R; Eggleston, Gillian; Gilbert, Audrey; Chung, Yoo Jin

    2016-01-01

    A rapid research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to quantify total, insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar crop products. Several variables affecting starch solubilisation were evaluated, (1) heating method, (2) boiling time, (3) probe ultrasonication time, (4) water loss, (5) concentration, (6) sample colour, and (7) sample. The optimised method solubilises molasses (7%), and raw sugars (12%), 100% satisfactory performance z-scores were also obtained. Total starch values obtained with this method were significantly higher than those measured using other methods presently accepted by the sugar industry. PMID:26212940

  2. Physiology aspects of sugarcane production Aspectos de la fisiología de la producción de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.) Aspectos da fisiologia de produção da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum Officinarum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Eder Victor Braganti Toppa; Cleber Junior Jadoski; Alessandra Julianetti; Tarcisio Hulshof; Elizabeth Orika Ono

    2011-01-01

    The economic yield of sugarcane production is given by sucrose, and non reducing sugars used to make molasses and also fiber, which can be used as an energy source for the plant. The physiological stage of the sugarcane that provides an economic return is maturing, and this can be seen from two different viewpoints: the botanical and physiological. Thus, this study aims to address different aspects of the physiology of the culture of sugar cane in terms of sucrose acc...

  3. Crop rotation biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi effects on sugarcane yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio; Guirado, Nivaldo; Teramoto, Juliana Rolim Salome [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro Sul; Azcon, Rozario [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Granada (Spain). Estacao Experimental de Zaidin; Cantarela, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Solos e Recursos Ambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social], Email: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.br; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Plantas Graniferas

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objective of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapo, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52) but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests. (author)

  4. Photochemical Production of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks; Simultaneous Initiation of Radical and Cationic Polymerization Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Fouassier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose to review the ways to produce, through photopolymerization, interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN based, e.g., on acrylate/epoxide or acrylate/vinylether blends and to outline the recent developments that allows a one-step procedure (concomitant radical/cationic polymerization, under air or in laminate, under various irradiation conditions (UV/visible/near IR; high/low intensity sources; monochromatic/polychromatic sources; household lamps/laser diodes/Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs. The paper illustrates the encountered mechanisms and the polymerization profiles. A short survey on the available monomer systems and some brief examples of the attained final properties of the IPNs is also provided.

  5. Scenarios of suitable areas of sugarcane crops in Brazil regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga-Vicente, A.

    2011-12-01

    The use of ethanol produced from sugarcane presents advantages to face climate changes as adaptation measure (reduce dependency of fossil fuel) and mitigation measure (reduce GHG emissions and captures CO2). Whereas the increasing demand of ethanol production and the importance of the planning in order to meet a future demand, this work aimed to evaluate suitable areas for sugarcane crops in two Brazilian regions in present and in possible climate change conditions. Scenarios were generated considering climatic risk to sugarcane crops (present and based in IPCC projections for changes in temperature and precipitation values); land available and able to cultivation (baseline is actual conditions and the projections consider public policies; urban and protected areas were eliminated; regions that already have sugarcane crops were eliminated) and food security (areas that are used to food production crops were eliminated). Scenarios show areas with potential for expansion of sugarcane crops in the present conditions and the possible changes that could occur in a climate change scenario. The results can be used to drive public policies in ethanol sector.

  6. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício R Cherubin

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI. The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators. Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity; however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC, abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity. Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration and proportional weighting to reflect

  7. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício R; Karlen, Douglas L; Cerri, Carlos E P; Franco, André L C; Tormena, Cássio A; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  8. Species-Specific Detection and Identification of Fusarium Species Complex, the Causal Agent of Sugarcane Pokkah Boeng in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenyue Lin; Shiqiang Xu; Youxiong Que; Jihua Wang; Comstock, Jack C.; Jinjin Wei; McCord, Per H.; Baoshan Chen; Rukai Chen; Muqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pokkah boeng disease caused by the Fusarium species complex results in significant yield losses in sugarcane. Thus, the rapid and accurate detection and identification of the pathogen is urgently required to manage and prevent the spreading of sugarcane pokkah boeng. METHODS: A total of 101 isolates were recovered from the pokkah boeng samples collected from five major sugarcane production areas in China throughout 2012 and 2013. The causal pathogen was identified by morphological...

  9. Effect of sugarcane residue management (mulching versus burning) on organic matter in a clayey Oxisol from southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Razafimbelo, Tantely; Barthès, Bernard; Larré Larrouy, Marie-Christine; De Luca, E. F.; Laurent, Jean-Yves; Cerri, C. C.; Feller, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Changes in residue management may help sustain land productivity, and may have noticeable consequences in the global carbon budget when large areas are involved. The effects of sugarcane residue management on topsoil carbon were assessed in a clayey Oxisol of Brazil, largest world's producer of sugarcane. The carbon concentration of the whole soil and particle-size fractions were determined in a long-duration sugarcane plantation (50 years), with either a pre-harvest residue burning (BUR) or ...

  10. Sugarcane maturity estimation through edaphic-climatic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpari Maximiliano Salles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. grows under different weather conditions directly affecting crop maturation. Raw material quality predicting models are important tools in sugarcane crop management; the goal of these models is to provide productivity estimates during harvesting, increasing the efficiency of strategical and administrative decisions. The objective of this work was developing a model to predict Total Recoverable Sugars (TRS during harvesting, using data related to production factors such as soil water storage and negative degree-days. The database of a sugar mill for the crop seasons 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 was analyzed, and statistical models were tested to estimate raw material. The maturity model for a one-year old sugarcane proved to be significant, with a coefficient of determination (R² of 0.7049*. No differences were detected between measured and estimated data in the simulation (P < 0.05.

  11. Tracking soil transport to sugarcane industry using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil as mineral impurity in sugarcane loads impacts the Brazilian sugar-ethanol industry with rising production and maintenance costs as well as decreased productivity. The mechanical harvesting of sugarcane was conceived as a technology with potential to increase the raw material quality thereby has been gradually replacing manual harvesting throughout the country. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied for determination of soil tracers in order to compare the performance of both harvesting systems in terms of mineral impurities. There were no significant differences in the amount of soil transported to sugarcane industry despite the technological progress aggregated to mechanical harvesting. However, for both harvesting systems there were significant differences on the amount of such mineral impurity between clay and sandy soils. (author)

  12. Discrimination of sugarcane according to cultivar by 1H NMR and chemometric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M.A.; Choze, Rafael; Liao, Luciano M. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Honda, Neli K.; Alcantara, Glaucia B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Several technologies for the development of new sugarcane cultivars have mainly focused on the increase in productivity and greater disease resistance. Sugarcane cultivars are usually identified by the organography of the leaves and stems, the analysis of peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme activities and the total soluble protein as well as soluble solid content. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) associated with chemometric analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for cultivar assessment. Thus, this article describes the potential of chemometric analysis applied to 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) and NMR in solution for the investigation of sugarcane cultivars. For this purpose, leaves from eight different cultivars of sugarcane were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis. The approach shows to be a useful tool for the distinction and classification of different sugarcane cultivars as well as to access the differences on its chemical composition. (author)

  13. Nitrate paradigm does not hold up for sugarcane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Robinson

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production, but surprisingly high N fertilizer applications in main producer countries raise doubt about the sustainability of production and are at odds with a carbon-based crop. Examining reasons for the inefficient use of N fertilizer, we hypothesized that sugarcane resembles other giant tropical grasses which inhibit the production of nitrate in soil and differ from related grain crops with a confirmed ability to use nitrate. The results of our study support the hypothesis that N-replete sugarcane and ancestral species in the Andropogoneae supertribe strongly prefer ammonium over nitrate. Sugarcane differs from grain crops, sorghum and maize, which acquired both N sources equally well, while giant grass, Erianthus, displayed an intermediate ability to use nitrate. We conclude that discrimination against nitrate and a low capacity to store nitrate in shoots prevents commercial sugarcane varieties from taking advantage of the high nitrate concentrations in fertilized soils in the first three months of the growing season, leaving nitrate vulnerable to loss. Our study addresses a major caveat of sugarcane production and affords a strong basis for improvement through breeding cultivars with enhanced capacity to use nitrate as well as through agronomic measures that reduce nitrification in soil.

  14. Life cycle assessment of biofuels from an integrated Brazilian algae-sugarcane biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane ethanol biorefineries in Brazil produce carbon dioxide, electricity and heat as byproducts. These are essential inputs for algae biodiesel production. In this paper, we assessed ethanol's life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy use produced in an integrated sugarcane and algae biorefinery where biodiesel replaces petroleum diesel for all agricultural operations. Carbon dioxide from cane juice fermentation is used as the carbon source for algae cultivation, and sugarcane bagasse is the sole source of energy for the entire facility. Glycerin produced from the biodiesel plant is consumed by algae during the mixotrophic growth phase. We assessed the uncertainties through a detailed Monte-Carlo analysis. We found that this integrated system can improve both the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and the fossil energy use of sugarcane ethanol by around 10% and 50%, respectively, compared to a traditional Brazilian sugarcane ethanol distillery. - Highlights: • A high diesel consumption is associated to the ethanol sugarcane life-cycle. • Sugarcane industry can provide sources of carbon and energy for the algae growing. • The sugarcane-algae integration can improve the ethanol life-cycle performance. • This integration is a promising pathway for the deployment of algae biodiesel. • There are still significant techno-economic barriers associated with algae biodiesel

  15. Advance chromatin extraction enhances performance and productivity of cation exchange chromatography-based capture of Immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Rui; Gagnon, Pete

    2016-07-01

    The impact of host cell-derived chromatin was investigated on the performance and productivity of cation exchange chromatography as a method for capture-purification of an IgG monoclonal antibody. Cell culture supernatant was prepared for loading by titration to pH 6.0, dilution with water to a conductivity of 4mS/cm, then microfiltration to remove solids. DNA content was reduced 99% to 30ppm, histone host cell protein content by 76% to 6300ppm, non-histone host cell protein content by 15% to 321,000ppm, and aggregates from 33% to 15%. IgG recovery was 83%. An alternative preparation was performed, adding octanoic acid, allantoin, and electropositive particles to the harvest at pH 5.3, then removing solids. DNA content was reduced to<1 ppb, histones became undetectable, non-histones were reduced to 24,000ppm, and aggregates were reduced to 2.4%. IgG recovery was 95%. This treatment increased dynamic capacity (DBC) of cation exchange capture to 173g/L and enabled the column to reduce non-histone host proteins to 671ppm. Step recovery was 99%. A single multimodal polishing step further reduced them to 15ppm and aggregates to <0.1%. Overall process recovery was 89%. Productivity at feed stream IgG concentrations of 5-10g/L was roughly double the productivity of a same-size protein A column with a DBC of 55g/L. PMID:27247214

  16. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs.

  17. [(Un)sustainable development of the sugarcane agribusiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Polyana Felipe Ferreira; da Silva, Marcelo Saturnino; dos Santos, Solange Laurentino

    2014-10-01

    In the past few years the sugarcane agribusiness has been experiencing considerable expansion, being presented as a symbol of progress and the most developed industry in the country. In this article, we investigate the myths surrounding this sector of the Brazilian economy, revealing the environmental injustices and suffering experienced by northeastern workers who relocate every year to work in the sugarcane regions. We conducted a methodological study of the specialized literature on the sugarcane agribusiness and its interface with the migration of northeastern workers and the labor conditions and relations to which these individuals are subjected. We also use data from our own research developed in the micro regions of Pajeú in the State of Pernambuco and Princesa Isabel in the State of Paraíba. The data reveal the human and environmental unsustainability of the sugarcane agribusiness, demystifying the sweetness of sugarcane and purity of ethanol produced in Brazil, since this production is strongly influenced by perverse conditions, the social consequences of which have been the destruction of the environment and the flora and fauna, the exploitation of labor and workers in this process marked by illness and, in many cases, death. PMID:25272106

  18. Sugarcane spirit market share simulation: an application of conjoint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Deus Souza Carneiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of packaging and labeling attributes of sugarcane spirit on consumers' behavior by applying the results of conjoint analysis in sugarcane spirit market share simulation. Firstly, a conjoint analysis was performed aiming to estimate the part-worths of each consumer for some sugarcane spirit packaging and labeling attributes. These part-worths were used in the market share simulation using the maximum utility model. It was observed that some packaging and labeling attributes affected consumer's purchase intention and that most consumers showed a similar preference pattern regarding these attributes. These consumers showed preference for the Seleta brand, which was bottled in 700 mL clear glass bottles with a metal screw cap that bore a label illustration unrelated to sugarcane spirit production process and had the information "aged 36 months in oak barrels". This study also showed that conjoint analysis and the use of its results in the market share simulation proved important tools to better understand consumer behavior towards intention to purchase sugarcane spirit.

  19. Certification for sugarcane production processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F. de; Walter, Arnaldo

    2012-07-01

    This chapter concerns with the meaning of certification, sustainability of bioenergy, sustainability initiatives and certification schemes, certification tendencies in Brazil, and the challenge for fulfilling criteria.

  20. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    OpenAIRE

    Alcarde André Ricardo; Walder Júlio Marcos Melges; Horii Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and may influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoc...

  1. Comparative hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane and agave bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Salas, J M; Villa-Ramírez, M S; Veloz-Rendón, J S; Rivera-Hernández, K N; González-César, R A; Plascencia-Espinosa, M A; Trejo-Estrada, S R

    2009-02-01

    Sugarcane and agave bagasse samples were hydrolyzed with either mineral acids (HCl), commercial glucanases or a combined treatment consisting of alkaline delignification followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse yielded a higher level of reducing sugars (37.21% for depithed bagasse and 35.37% for pith bagasse), when compared to metzal or metzontete (agave pinecone and leaves, 5.02% and 9.91%, respectively). An optimized enzyme formulation was used to process sugar cane bagasse, which contained Celluclast, Novozyme and Viscozyme L. From alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse samples, a reduced level of reducing sugar yield was obtained (11-20%) compared to agave bagasse (12-58%). Selected hydrolyzates were fermented with a non-recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum alcohol yield by fermentation (32.6%) was obtained from the hydrolyzate of sugarcane depithed bagasse. Hydrolyzed agave waste residues provide an increased glucose decreased xylose product useful for biotechnological conversion. PMID:19000863

  2. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    OpenAIRE

    Minussi Rosana Cristina; Soares-Ramos Juliana Rocha Lopes; Coelho Jorge Luiz Cavalcante; Silva Daison Olzany

    1998-01-01

    The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL) and polygalacturonase (PG) by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3) in a rotary shaker (150 rpm) for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium pro...

  3. Concoction of Fine Feed From Sugarcane by-Product and Beef Cattle Feeding Evaluation%甘蔗副产物调配精饲料及肉牛饲养评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆鹏; 蚁细苗; 农皓; 常国炜; 韦志坚; 谭文兴; 梁达奉

    2015-01-01

    利用甘蔗副产物废糖蜜、酵母废液粉全部或部分替代价格高且收购难的玉米粉等原料,木薯渣替代啤酒渣作糟渣类饲料,调配肉牛精饲料,同时添加甘蔗副产物甘蔗梢叶、蔗渣作粗饲料进行肉牛饲养试验。根据饲养期间各实验组牛的采食量、日增重情况以及饲料效益核算等方面评价所调配日粮精饲料配方的可行性。实验结果表明,酵母废液粉替代精料中50%的玉米粉时,喂养效果与原精料相当。%In this paper, beef cattle feed was concocted by using sugarcane by-product (molasses, yeast liquid and powder) to substitute all or part of flour mix feed which is expensive and hard to purchase, cassava dregs to substitute beer sludge on the other hand; sugarcane by-products (sugar cane tip leaves, bagasse) was also used to prepare roughage beef cattle feed. The feasibility of the fine feed formulation was evaluated by beef cattle breeding experiment and the cattle feed intake, daily gain and feed efficiency as the evaluating index. The results showed that the concocted feed can achieve commensurate feeding effect with the original fine feed when liquid yeast powder substitute 50% corn flour of fine feed.

  4. 甘蔗副产物调配精饲料及肉牛饲养评价%Concoction of Fine Feed From Sugarcane by-Product and Beef Cattle Feeding Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆鹏; 蚁细苗; 农皓; 常国炜; 韦志坚; 谭文兴; 梁达奉

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, beef cattle feed was concocted by using sugarcane by-product (molasses, yeast liquid and powder) to substitute all or part of flour mix feed which is expensive and hard to purchase, cassava dregs to substitute beer sludge on the other hand; sugarcane by-products (sugar cane tip leaves, bagasse) was also used to prepare roughage beef cattle feed. The feasibility of the fine feed formulation was evaluated by beef cattle breeding experiment and the cattle feed intake, daily gain and feed efficiency as the evaluating index. The results showed that the concocted feed can achieve commensurate feeding effect with the original fine feed when liquid yeast powder substitute 50% corn flour of fine feed.%利用甘蔗副产物废糖蜜、酵母废液粉全部或部分替代价格高且收购难的玉米粉等原料,木薯渣替代啤酒渣作糟渣类饲料,调配肉牛精饲料,同时添加甘蔗副产物甘蔗梢叶、蔗渣作粗饲料进行肉牛饲养试验。根据饲养期间各实验组牛的采食量、日增重情况以及饲料效益核算等方面评价所调配日粮精饲料配方的可行性。实验结果表明,酵母废液粉替代精料中50%的玉米粉时,喂养效果与原精料相当。

  5. Produtividade agrícola de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar em diferentes solos e épocas de colheita Productivity of sugarcane cultivars in different soils and harvesting periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernando Maule

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da cana-de-açúcar é destaque no cenário agrícola do Brasil, sendo cultivada em vários tipos de ambiente (associação de clima e solo. O estudo das respostas dos diferentes cultivares em cada ambiente de produção auxilia a maximizar a exploração econômica da cultura. Neste contexto, três experimentos em blocos completos casualizados com quatro repetições foram delineados para determinar as produtividades de colmos e a pol % cana de nove cultivares de cana-de-açúcar em dois solos: Planossolo mesotrófico textura arenosa/média (PL e Podzólico Vermelho Amarelo mesotrófico textura arenosa/média (PV. Os cultivares foram colhidas em três épocas: maio, agosto e outubro de 1997. As produtividades de colmos foram superiores (PSugarcane is of prime importance in Brazilian agriculture, being cultivated over a range of environments (climate and soil. Studying cultivars responses in different environments helps to improve and maximize the crop economic output. In this context, three experiments were performed in a 9x2 randomized block design with four replicates to assess differences in stalk and the percentage of sucrose of nine sugarcane cultivars growing in two soils, Tipic Kandiaqult (PL and Arenic Kandiudult (PV. The cultivars were harvested during three months (May, August and October/1997. Overall the PV soil permitted higher stalk productivities (P<0.01. The sugarcane cultivars studied in this work showed different stalk produtivities and ripening degrees in the studied environments, which related to the water holding capacities in the two soils, emphasizing the role of environment on stalk and potential sugar productivities.

  6. Compactação do solo de diferentes classes texturais em áreas de produção de cana-de-açúcar Soil compaction of different textural classes in areas of sugarcane production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Paiva de Lima

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a existência de camadas compactadas, em três diferentes classes texturais de solos. O estudo foi desenvolvido em áreas, sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar, da Fazenda Guanabara, localizada no município de Nova Olímpia, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Para coleta dos dados, foi utilizado um penetrômetro de impacto, modelo IAA/Planalsucar, para avaliação da resistência à penetração (RP, em três diferentes classes texturais (Areia Franca, Franco - Argilo- Arenosa e Muito Argilosa. O solo de classe textural franco-argilo-arenosa apresentou os maiores valores de resistência à penetração, entre as três classes. As classes texturais franco-arenosa e muito argilosa comportaram-se de forma semelhante, em todas as camadas. Houve semelhança na resistência à penetração das três classes texturais na camada 0,3-0,4 m.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the existence of compacted layers in three different textural classes located in production areas of sugarcane. The study was conducted in production areas of sugarcane at Fazenda Guanabara, located at municipality of New Olympia, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Data collection was conducted using an impact penetrometer, model IAA/Planalsucar, evaluating the penetration resistance in three different texture (Loam Sandy, Sandy Clay Loam and Clay. Loam Sandy and Clay textures showed the highest penetration resistance. Loam Sandy and Clay textures behaved very similarly in all layers. There were similar values of penetration resistance of the three classes in 0.3-0.4 m layer.

  7. Optimizing hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160-200 deg C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohy...

  8. Lactic acid production by L. curvatus in sugarcane molasses/ Produção de ácido lático por Lactobacillus curvatus em melaço de cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio de Oliveira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is important due to its various applications. The bulk of world lactic acid production is used by the food industry and the rest is used in pharmaceutical, textile, leather, cosmetic and chemical industries. In this work, a 33 incomplete factorial design of the response-surface methodology was used to determine the best concentration of sugarcane molasses, yeast extract and peptone in the culture medium for the development of batch lactic fermentation by Lactobacillus curvatus. The fermentation was carried out at 37 ºC for 48 hours without agitation. The mathematical model given by the responsesurface methodology indicated a concentration of 10% (w/v of sugarcane molasses, 2% (w/v of yeast extract and 4% (w/v of peptone as the best conditions for the composition of culture medium for the lactic acid production by L. curvatus. Under these conditions, lactic acid production was 30,5 g/L, comparable with the result obtained in MRS medium, which produced 32,0g/L of lactic acid. Considering the low cost and high availability of the sugarcane molasses, it was concluded that it represented a good culture medium for lactic fermentation. Sugarcane molasses at 10% (w/v supplemented with yeast extract at 2% (w/v and peptone at 4% (w/v was used in the 3L batch lactic fermentation producing 37,5g/L of lactic acid.A maior parte da produção mundial de ácido lático é utilizada pela indústria de alimentos e o restante em indústrias farmacêutica, têxtil, de couro, cosmética e química. A Metodologia da Superfície de Resposta, planejamento fatorial incompleto 33, foi utilizada para estabelecer as melhores condições, relativas às concentrações, do meio de cultivo contendo melaço de cana-de-açúcar, extrato de levedura e peptona para desenvolvimento da fermentação descontínua por Lactobacillus curvatus. A fermentação se desenvolveu durante 48 horas sob temperatura de 37 ºC. O modelo matemático fornecido pela Metodologia da

  9. Chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by double distillation methodologies in rectifying still

    OpenAIRE

    André Ricardo Alcarde; Paula Araújo de Souza; André Eduardo de Souza Belluco

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by different double distillation methodologies in rectifying still. Fermented sugarcane juice was distilled in rectifying still according to three double distillation methodologies: the methodology used for cognac production; the methodology used for whisky production; and the 10-80-10 percentage composition methodology, referring to the volumes of head, heart and tail of the distillate fractions f...

  10. Utilização de substrato composto por resíduos da agroindústria canavieira para produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo Use of substrate consisting of industrial sugarcane plant residues for production of yellow passion fruit seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Lopes Serrano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Um substrato composto por resíduos da agroindústria canavieira vem sendo utilizado com êxito para a produção de mudas de algumas espécies frutíferas e florestais. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso deste substrato comparando-o com outros recomendados para a produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo. Foram avaliados sete substratos: 1- Bagaço de cana + torta de filtro (3:2; v:v; 2- Bagaço de cana + torta de filtro (3:2; v:v + pulverização foliar semanal com NPK; 3- Bagaço de cana + torta de filtro (3:2; v:v + 7,3 kg m-3 de Osmocote® (14-14-14; 4- Plantmax®; 5- Plantmax® + pulverização foliar semanal com NPK; 6- Plantmax® + 7,3 kg m-3 Osmocote® (14-14-14, e 7- Areia + esterco bovino + vermiculita (1:1:1; v:v:v + NPK. De modo geral, as mudas cultivadas no substrato composto por resíduos da agroindústria canavieira e no substrato comercial, ambos fertilizados com adubo de liberação lenta, foram as que apresentaram melhor estado nutricional, comprovado pelos teores de nutrientes associados ao ótimo crescimento. Portanto, o substrato composto pela mistura bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v fertilizado com 7,3 kg m-3 de Osmocote® (14-14-14 pode ser utilizado para a produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo.A substrate consisting of industrial sugarcane plant residues has been used with success to the production of some fruitful and forest species seedlings. Then, the objective of this research was to evaluate the use of that substrate, comparing it with other substrates recommended to the production of yellow passion fruit seedlings. It was evaluated seven substrates: 1- Sugarcane bagasse + industrial sugarcane plant residues (3:2; v:v; 2- Sugarcane bagasse + industrial sugarcane plant residues (3:2; v:v + NPK foliate spray weekly; 3- Sugarcane bagasse + industrial sugarcane plant residues (3:2; v:v + 7.3 kg m-3 of Osmocote® (14-14-14; 4- Plantmax®; 5- Plantmax® + NPK foliate spray weekly; 6

  11. Neutral products from cation-molecule reactions in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of neutral product analysis for examining ionic reaction pathways from electron impact is described. This approach merges techniques of mass spectrometry with those of radiation chemistry. Comparisons are made between experimental results and predictions based on density-of-states arguments using RRKM microscopic rate coefficients. The importance of examining isomer distributions is stressed with special attention given to the question of the mechanism of bimolecular proton transfer in the gas phase. (author)

  12. Relationships between methods of variety adaptability and stability in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes de Paula, T O; Marinho, C D; Souza, V; Barbosa, M H P; Peternelli, L A; Kimbeng, C A; Zhou, M M

    2014-01-01

    The identification and recommendation of superior genotypes is crucial for the growth of industrial crops, and sugarcane breeding performs a vital role by developing more productive cultivars. The study of genotype x environment interaction has been an essential tool in this process. Thereby, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between methods of adaptability and stability in sugarcane. Data were collected from trials using a randomized block design with three repetitions and 15 clones of sugarcane in nine environments in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methodologies based on analysis of variance, linear regression, multivariate analysis, nonparametric statistics, and mixed model were used. The methods of Lin and Binns, Annicchiarico, and harmonic mean of relative performance of genotypic values (MHPRVG) were similar in their classification of genotypes. The additive main effect and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) and Wricke methods tended to select the most stable genotypes; however, genotypes were less productive, coinciding with the stability parameter of Eberhart and Russell. The MHPRVG method is preferred over the methods of Lin and Binns and Annicchiarico because it includes the concepts of productivity, adaptability, and stability, and it provide direct genetic values of individuals. The use of the MHPRVG and Eberhart and Russell methods is recommended because the combination of these methods is complementary and leads to greater accuracy in the identification of genotypes of sugarcane for different environments. PMID:25036165

  13. Dimensionamento econômico de sistemas de drenagem para a produção de cana-de-açúcar usando o modelo SISDRENA Economic design of drainage systems for sugarcane production using SISDRENA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio N. Duarte

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre as culturas produzidas no Brasil, a cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp possui caráter relevante, econômico e social. Praticamente, toda a cana produzida no Estado de São Paulo é cultivada em condições de sequeiro e o aproveitamento de novas áreas para a sua produção, nas quais há necessidade de drenagem, torna-se importante. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar, por intermédio de um modelo de simulação de produtividades, diferentes espaçamentos entre drenos abertos, variando de 10 a 100 m com intervalo de 10 m implantados em três tipos de solo, com condutividade hidráulica saturada diferente (1,0, 0,5 e 0,1 m d-1. Os espaçamentos que propiciaram maiores rentabilidades econômicas foram 50, 40 e 20 m, respectivamente para os solos de textura franco-argilosa, argilosa e franco-argilo-siltosa.Among the crops produced in Brazil the sugarcane (Saccharum spp assumes a position of economic and social prominence. Practically all the sugarcane produced in the São Paulo State is cultivated under rainfed conditions and the use of new areas for its production becomes important but these areas require drainage. The objective of this work was to evaluate by using a yield simulation model different open drain spacings, varying from 10 to 100 m with intervals of 10 m, implanted in three soil types with different saturated hydraulic conductivity (1,0, 0,5 and 0,1 m d-1. The spacings, which proportionated higher economic benefits were 50, 40 and 20 m, respectively for soils of clay loam, clay and silty clay loam textures.

  14. Low alcohol wine production using immobilized yeast on sugarcane%以甘蔗固定化酵母发酵低醇葡萄酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔艳; 吕文; 刘金福

    2012-01-01

    试验以甘蔗为载体材料,研究了用甘蔗块固定化酵母在低醇贵人香葡萄酒发酵中的表现,检测了其对发酵时间,酒精度,稳定性及发酵批次等的影响,同时定量分析了固定化前后酵母发酵低醇酒在香气成分上变化.结果发现,以甘蔗为载体固定化酵母应用到低醇酒发酵,可以有效地控制低醇葡萄酒的理想酒精度,增加产品的稳定性.而且甘蔗固定化酵母减少了酒中高级醇的含量,增加了低醇葡萄酒的复杂香气和口感.%Effects of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with sugarcane pieces on the fermentation time, alcohol contents, fermentation batches of low alcohol white Italian Riesling wine were studied and the main aroma compounds in wines from free cells and immobilized cells were compared quantitively. The results showed that employing sugarcane for immobilization of yeast cells could effectively control the alcoholicity to an ideal level and improve the stability of the final wine. Application of immobilized yeast cell could decrease concentrations of higher alcohols and improve sensory characteristics of the wine.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Gustavo H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

  16. Feed Technology of Fibrous Sugarcane Residues for Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswandi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundant sugarcane residue during shortage of roughage in dry season gives an opportunity to raise ruminants around sugarcane industries. However, these products are not widely used by farmers due to an assumption that the usage is inefficient and that the feed utilization technology is not widely recognized. Sugarcane fibrous residues (tops, bagasse and pith may be a potential feed component if pre-treated to increase its digestion and consumption by the animal, and/or supplemented by other ingredients to balance nutrients in the rumen as well as those for production purpose. Digestibility can be increased by chemical treatments such as ammoniation and other alkaline treatments, whereas consumption can be increased by physical treatments such as grinding, hammermilling or pelleting. Nutrients that are missing in these fibrous residues can be provided by addition of urea, molasses and minerals for maintenance need, and bypass nutrients (carbohydrates, protein and fats that are digested in the small intestine and available for tissue or milk synthesis. There are three options for development of livestock agribusiness based on fibrous sugarcane residues; however, these require several technologies to optimize the utilization of these residues.

  17. Application of radiation processing to produce biotic elicitor for sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane is the main raw material for production of sugar and ethanol. In Vietnam, it was reported in 1998 that the area for sugar cane growth was about 257,000 ha. Up to now, the biotic elicitor, oligosaccharide has not been used for sugarcane yet. This study has been carried out to investigate the elicitation and the growth promotion effect of irradiated chitosan (oligochitosan) for sugarcane. The field test results indicated that alpha chitosan (shrimp shell) and beta chitosan (squid pen) samples with the content of water soluble oligomer of about 75% and 70% respectively were the most effective. The disease ratio of sugar cane tree-trunk treated with irradiated chitosan before harvesting time decreased to 30-40% compared to non-treated one. In addition, the productivity of sugarcane increased to about 20%. The combination of metal ion (Zn2+, Cu2+) with oligochitosan did not show the synergic elicitation effect. The results revealed that biotic elicitor made from chitosan by radiation degradation method is very promising for field application not only for protection of disease infection but also for growth promotion of plants. It is believed that this biotic elicitor could be used for safe and sustainable development of agriculture. (author)

  18. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant β- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good β-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  19. Air Emissions and Health Benefits from Using Sugarcane Waste as a Cellulosic Ethanol Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, C.; Campbell, E.; Chen, Y.; Carmichael, G.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S.

    2010-12-01

    Brazil, as the largest ethanol exporter in the world, faces rapid expansion of ethanol production due to the increase of global biofuels demand. Current production of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol causes significant air emissions mainly from the open burning phase of agriculture wastes (i.e. sugarcane straws and leaves) resulting in potential health impacts. One possible measure to avoid undesired burning practices is to increase the utilization of unburned sugarcane residues as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol. To explore the benefits of this substitution, here we first apply a bottom-up approach combining agronomic data and life-cycle models to investigate spatially and temporally explicit emissions from sugarcane waste burning. We further quantify the health benefits from preventing burning practices using the CMAQ regional air quality model and the BenMAP health benefit analysis tool adapted for Brazilian applications. Furthermore, the health impacts will be converted into monetary values which provide policymakers useful information for the development of cellulosic ethanol.

  20. Heterologous production and functional and thermodynamic characterization of cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) transporters of mesophilic and hyperthermophilic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Devrishi; Kaur, Jagdeep; Surade, Sachin; Grell, Ernst; Michel, Hartmut

    2012-07-01

    The members of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family transport heavy metal ions and play an important function in zinc ion homeostasis of the cell. A recent structure of an Escherichia coli CDF transporter protein YiiP has revealed its dimeric nature and autoregulatory zinc transport mechanism. Here, we report the cloning and heterologous production of four different CDF transporters, two each from the pathogenic mesophilic bacterium Salmonella typhimurium and from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, in E. coli host cells. STM0758 of S. typhimurium was able to restore resistance to zinc ions when tested by complementation assays in the zinc-sensitive GG48 strain. Furthermore, copurification of bicistronically produced STM0758 and cross-linking experiments with the purified protein have revealed its possible oligomeric nature. The interaction between heavy metal ions and Aq_2073 of A. aeolicus was investigated by titration calorimetry. The entropy-driven, high-affinity binding of two Cd2+ and two Zn2+ per protein monomer with Kd values of around 100 nm and 1 μm, respectively, was observed. In addition, at least one more Zn2+ can be bound per monomer with low affinity. This low-affinity site is likely to possess a functional role contributing to Zn2+ transport across membranes. PMID:22944666

  1. A continuous process for biodiesel production in a fixed bed reactor packed with cation-exchange resin as heterogeneous catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaohui; Zhang, Aiqing; Li, Jianxin; He, Benqiao

    2011-02-01

    Continuous esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) from acidified oil with methanol was carried out with NKC-9 cation-exchange resin in a fixed bed reactor with an internal diameter of 25 mm and a height of 450 mm to produce biodiesel. The results showed that the FFA conversion increased with increases in methanol/oil mass ratio, reaction temperature and catalyst bed height, whereas decreased with increases in initial water content in feedstock and feed flow rate. The FFA conversion kept over 98.0% during 500 h of continuous esterification processes under 2.8:1 methanol to oleic acid mass ratio, 44.0 cm catalyst bed height, 0.62 ml/min feed flow rate and 65°C reaction temperature, showing a much high conversion and operational stability. Furthermore, the loss of sulfonic acid groups from NKC-9 resin into the production was not found during continuous esterification. In sum, NKC-9 resin shows the potential commercial applications to esterification of FFA. PMID:21078550

  2. Productivity of the sugarcane and definition of specific zones of soil management Produtividade da cana-de-açúcar e definição de zonas específicas de manejo do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    Full Text Available The correct spatial intervention in the administration of the plantation, arising from specific areas of soil mapping, can increase your productivity as well as profitability and yields in agriculture. The spatial and Pearson’s relationships between sugarcane attributes and chemical attributes of a Typic Tropustalf were studied in the growing season of 2010, in Suzanápolis, State of São Paulo, Brazil (20°27’33” S lat.; 51°08’05” W long., in order to obtain the attributes that had the best sugarcane productivity relationship. To this end, a geostatistical grid containing 118 sample points was installed for soil and plant data collection in an area of 10.5 ha with the third crop cut. The productivity of sugarcane (PRO represented the attribute of the plant, while the attributes of the soil were: K+, Ca+2, Mg+2 and organic matter at depths of 0-0.20 m and 0.20-0.40 m. Relationships were calculated between the PRO and the attributes of the soil. Semivariograms were adjusted for all attributes, obtaining the respective krigings and the cross-validations. It was also made the cokrigings between the PRO and the soil attributes. The levels of the soil organic matter, for their evident substantial correlations, Sperman’s Rho and spatial, with the productivity of sugarcane, are indicators of two specific areas of soil management strongly associated with the productivity of sugarcane. In such zones this productivity varies between 75.8-94.7 t ha-1 and 101.0-119.9 t ha-1, when the levels of organic matter respectively are 12.7-14.5 g dm-3 (0-0.20 m and 11.8-12.8 g dm-3 (0.20-0.40 m.A correta intervenção espacial na administração da lavoura, decorrente das zonas específicas de manejo do solo, aumenta sua produtividade e a lucratividade agrícola. No ano de 2010, no município de Suzanápolis, no estado de São Paulo (20°27'33'' S lat.; 51°08'05'' W long., foram empregadas correlações (espaciais e de Pearson, entre atributos da cana

  3. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Two Sugarcane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Vicentini; Alexandra Bottcher; Michael Dos Santos Brito; Adriana Brombini Dos Santos; Silvana Creste; Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell; Igor Cesarino; Paulo Mazzafera

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar and first generation ethanol production. Recently, the residue of sugarcane mills, named bagasse, has been considered a promising lignocellulosic biomass to produce the second-generation ethanol. Lignin is a major factor limiting the use of bagasse and other plant lignocellulosic materials to produce second-generation ethanol. Lignin biosynthesis pathway is a complex network and changes in the expression of genes of this pathway have in gener...

  4. Assessment of sugarcane trash for agronomic and energy purposes in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco; Maria Teresa Borges Pimenta; João Luís Nunes Carvalho; Paulo Sérgio Graziano Magalhães; Carlos Eduardo Vaz Rossell; Oscar Antonio Braunbeck; André Cesar Vitti; Oriel Tiago Kölln; João Rossi Neto

    2013-01-01

    Due to new possibilities for using sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) trash for electricity generation, and the production of 2nd generation ethanol and others chemicals, the interest for its recovery has increased. However, the question of how much trash can be removed from sugarcane field still needs to be clarified. This study evaluated the amount of dry matter, nutrients content, structural compounds and efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of the hydrothermal pretreated materials for tops and ...

  5. Iron oxides and quality of organic matter in sugarcane harvesting systems

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Mazza Barbieri; José Marques Júnior; Diego Silva Siqueira; Daniel De Bortoli Teixeira; Alan Rodrigo Panosso; Gener Tadeu Pereira; Newton La Scala Junior

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in working conditions, sustainable production, and competitiveness have led to substantial changes in sugarcane harvesting systems. Such changes have altered a number of soil properties, including iron oxides and organic matter, as well as some chemical properties, such as the maximum P adsorption capacity of the soil. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between iron oxides and the quality of organic matter in sugarcane harvesting systems. For that purpose,...

  6. A feasibility study: can Paraguay learn from the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol program?

    OpenAIRE

    Bradsen, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the feasibility of Paraguay developing a productive sugarcane ethanol sector, by drawing from the Brazilian experience with biofuels. Brazil is clearly a key case for examining whether there are certain lessons which can be extrapolated for other developing countries, such as Paraguay which have the factor endowment conditions to grow sugarcane and use it for the development of an ethanol industry. This study is framed around the following question: to what extent c...

  7. A New Proposal of Cellulosic Ethanol to Boost Sugarcane Biorefineries: Techno-Economic Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Q. Albarelli; Adriano V. Ensinas; Silva, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial simulator Aspen Plus was used to simulate a biorefinery producing ethanol from sugarcane juice and second generation ethanol production using bagasse fine fraction composed of parenchyma cells (P-fraction). Liquid hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies were evaluated. The processes were thermal and water integrated and compared to a biorefinery producing ethanol from juice and sugarcane bagasse. The results indicated that after thermal and water integration, the ev...

  8. Residual biomass potential of commercial and pre-commercial sugarcane cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell; Maximiliano Salles Scarpari; Mauro Alexandre Xavier; Ivan Antônio dos Anjos; Antônio Sampaio Baptista; Cláudio Lima de Aguiar; Daniel Nunes da Silva; Márcio Aurélio Pitta Bidóia; Sandro Roberto Brancalião; José Antônio Bressiani; Marcelo Ferraz de Campos; Paulo Eduardo Martins Miguel; Thiago Nogueira da Silva; Victor Hugo Pavelqueires da Silva; Luciana Oliveira Souza Anjos

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an efficient and sustainable alternative for energy generation compared to non-renewable sources. Currently, during the mechanized harvest process, the straw left in the field can be used in part for the second generation ethanol and increasing the electric energy production. Thus, this study aimed to provide information on the potential for residual biomass cultivars of sugarcane cropping system. This study provides the following information: yield of straw, dep...

  9. Bioelectricity versus bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse: is it worth being flexible?

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan, Felipe F; Filho, Renato Tonon; Pinto, Fabio HPB; Costa, Caliane BB; Cruz, Antonio JG; Giordano, Raquel LC; Giordano, Roberto C

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is the most efficient crop for production of (1G) ethanol. Additionally, sugarcane bagasse can be used to produce (2G) ethanol. However, the manufacture of 2G ethanol in large scale is not a consolidated process yet. Thus, a detailed economic analysis, based on consistent simulations of the process, is worthwhile. Moreover, both ethanol and electric energy markets have been extremely volatile in Brazil, which suggests that a flexible biorefinery, able to switch between 2G...

  10. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS BASE CROP ACREAGE ESTIMATION OF THE SUGARCANE FOR SOLAPUR DISTRICT, MAHARASHTRA

    OpenAIRE

    ANIL S. YEDAGE; R.S.GAVALI; R.R. PATIL

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and faster estimation of crop area is very essential for projecting yearly agriculture production for formulating national budget and deciding agriculture policies. The present investigation deals with the estimation of sugarcane crop acreage of Maharashtra state. The cultivation of sugarcane crop in Maharashtra has been increasing steadily because of the increasing irrigation facilities. In the present study, comparison was carried out between conventional (field data) and remote se...

  11. Physico-chemical and sensorial evaluation of sugarcane spirits produced using distillation residue

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Galvão Tavares Menezes; José Guilherme Lembi Ferreira Alves; Carolina Valeriano; Isabela Costa Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the use of vinasse from cachaça as an ingredient of the fermentation medium for the spirit production. The fermentations were conducted out in three successive batches using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolate. In the first batch, the sugarcane broth was only diluted with distilled water. In the second and third batches, the fermentations were carried out using the cane broth diluted with vinasse from the distillation of the sugarcane wines of ...

  12. Multi-Analytical Approach Reveals Potential Microbial Indicators in Soil for Sugarcane Model Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Diniz, Tatiana Rosa; Braga, Lucas Palma Perez; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Zacarias; Franchini, Julio Cezar; Rossetto, Raffaella; Edwards, Robert Alan; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of organic and inorganic amendments and straw retention on the microbial biomass (MB) and taxonomic groups of bacteria in sugarcane-cultivated soils in a greenhouse mesocosm experiment monitored for gas emissions and chemical factors. The experiment consisted of combinations of synthetic nitrogen (N), vinasse (V; a liquid waste from ethanol production), and sugarcane-straw blankets. Increases in CO2-C and N2O-N emissions were identified shortly after the addi...

  13. Frost Damage Detection in Sugarcane Crop Using Modis Images and Srtm Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudorff, B.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Adami, M.

    2011-12-01

    Brazil is the largest world producer of sugarcane which is used to produce almost equal proportions of either sugar (food) or ethanol (biofuel). In recent years sugarcane crop production has increased fast to meet the growing market demand for sugar and ethanol. This increase has been mainly due to expansion in crop area, but sugarcane production is also subjected to several factors that influence both the agricultural crop yield (tons of stalks/ha) and the industrial yield (kg of sugar/ton of stalks). Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop that experiences major growth during spring and summer seasons with large demands for water and high temperatures to produce good stalk formation (crop yield). The harvest is performed mainly during fall and winter seasons when water availability and temperature should be low in order to accumulate sucrose in the stalks (industrial yield). These favorable climatic conditions for sugarcane crop are found in several regions in Brazil, particularly in São Paulo state, which is the major sugarcane producer in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production. Despite the favorable climate in São Paulo state there is a certain probability of frost occurrence from time to time that has a negative impact on sugarcane crop, particularly on industrial yield, reducing the amount of sugar in the stalks; having consequences on price increase and product shortage. To evaluate the impact of frost on sugarcane crop, in the field, on a state level, is not a trivial task; however, this information is relevant due to its direct impact on the consumer market. Remote sensing images allow a synoptic view and present great potential to monitor large sugarcane plantations as has been done since 2003 in São Paulo state by the Canasat Project with Landsat type images (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/). Images acquired from sensors with high temporal resolution such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) present the

  14. Butanol production employing fed-batch fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum GX01 using alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysed by enzymes from Thermoascus aurantiacus QS 7-2-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zong-Wen; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Zheng-Wu; Liang, Jing-Juan; Du, Liang-Wei; Duan, Cheng-Jie; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SB) is a potential feedstock for butanol production. However, biological production of butanol from SB is less economically viable. In this study, evaluation of eight pretreatments on SB showed that alkali pretreatment efficiently removed lignin from SB while retaining the intact native structure of the released microfibrils. In total, 99% of cellulose and 100% of hemicellulose in alkali-pretreated SB were hydrolysed by enzymes from Thermoascus aurantiacus. The hydrolysate was used to produce butanol in a fed-batch fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. At 60h, 14.17 and 21.11gL(-1) of butanol and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) were produced from 68.89gL(-1) of total sugars, respectively, yielding 0.22 and 0.33gg(-1) of sugars. The maximum yield of butanol and ABE reached 15.4g and 22.9g per 100g raw SB, respectively. This established process may have potential application for butanol production from SB. PMID:27089425

  15. Physiological characterization of sugarcane's endophytic microbial community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anar Janet Rodríguez Cheang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive application of chemical nitrogen fertilisers and pesticides has badly affected the environment. This has led to great interest being shown in studying a crop's native microbial community and its benefit for plants. This paper was thus aimed at characterising sugarcane's endophytic microbial community. 5 sugar cane strains and 50 isolates were used. Gas chromatography was used for measuring nitrogenase activity and the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH on cultures. Indol acetic (IAA production was detected by Dot-Immunobinding and Salkowski's method. These results show that 19 strains and isolates had nitrogenase activity, values ranging from 100 to SOOO/zg/mL; 6 of them produced IAA (values ranging from 1,7 to 2,5 //g/mL: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl-5, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 1-05, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 4-02,17,30 and 305. It was demonstrated that culture medium nutrient sources and pH affected the nitrogenase activity of the strains representing the endophytic community. Key words: endophytic community, sugarcane, nitrogenase activity, indolacetic acid.

  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential from green harvested sugarcane scenarios in São Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is a major sugarcane producer and São Paulo State cultivates 5.5 million hectares, close to 50% of Brazil's sugarcane area. The rapid increase in production has brought into question the sustainability of biofuels, especially considering the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated to the agricultural sector. Despite the significant progress towards the green harvest practices, 1.67 million hectares were still burned in São Paulo State during the 2011 harvest season. Here an emissions inventory for the life cycle of sugarcane agricultural production is estimated using IPCC methodologies, according to the agriculture survey data and remote sensing database. Our hypothesis is that 1.67 million hectares shall be converted from burned to green harvest scenarios up to years 2021 (rate 1), 2014 (rate 2) or 2029 (rate 3). Those conversions would represent a significant GHG mitigation, ranging from 50.5 to 70.9 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (Mt CO2eq) up to 2050, depending on the conversion rate and the green harvest systems adopted: conventional (scenario S1) or conservationist management (scenario S2). We show that a green harvest scenario where crop rotation and reduced soil tillage are practiced has a higher mitigation potential (70.9 Mt CO2eq), which is already practiced in some of the sugarcane areas. Here we support the decision to not just stop burning prior to harvest, but also to consider other better practices in sugarcane areas to have a more sustainable sugarcane based ethanol production in the most dense cultivated sugarcane region in Brazil. -- Highlights: • Different management practices could result in quite different emissions. • Nitrogen fertilizer, pre-harvest burning and diesel were the main emissions sources. • GHG mitigation in sugarcane areas could vary from 50.5 to 70.9 Mt CO2eq up to 2050

  17. Nitrate Paradigm Does Not Hold Up for Sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Nicole; Brackin, Richard; Vinall, Kerry; Soper, Fiona; Holst, Jirko; Gamage, Harshi; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Rennenberg, Heinz; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Schmidt, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N) for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production, but surprisingly high N fertilizer applications in main producer countries raise doubt about the sustainability of production and are at o...

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of different products from the sugarcane industry in Pakistan--part 1: essential elements for nutritional adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Shahida; Ahmad, Shujaat

    2008-01-01

    Jaggery, brown sugar, white sugar, and molasses collected from the local sugarcane industry of Pakistan have been analyzed for essential elements in order to estimate their nutritional adequacy. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine Ca, CI, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn through sequential, short, medium, and long irradiation times. Maximum concentrations for most of these elements were determined in molasses, with lower concentrations determined in jaggery and brown sugar; white sugar contained trace amounts of all essential elements. Contributions to the weekly Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) values for the elements were estimated only for jaggery, brown sugar, and white sugar because molasses in Pakistan is not consumed as a dietary item. Jaggery contributes the highest percentages of Cr, Mg, Mn, and Zn, whereas the highest percentages of Cl, Fe, K, and Na can be acquired from brown sugar. The contribution of white sugar to the weekly RDAs for these elements is negligible, indicating that white sugar is a poor source of the essential elements. However, the introduction of molasses to the diet can contribute to an adequate intake of these elements. PMID:18476354

  19. Analysis of a Modern Hybrid and an Ancient Sugarcane Implicates a Complex Interplay of Factors in Affecting Recalcitrance to Cellulosic Ethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo de Carli Poelking, Viviane; Giordano, Andrea; Ricci-Silva, Maria Esther; Rhys Williams, Thomas Christopher; Alves Peçanha, Diego; Contin Ventrella, Marília; Rencoret, Jorge; Ralph, John; Pereira Barbosa, Márcio Henrique; Loureiro, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Abundant evidence exists to support a role for lignin as an important element in biomass recalcitrance. However, several independent studies have also shown that factors apart from lignin are also relevant and overall, the relative importance of different recalcitrance traits remains in dispute. In this study we used two genetically distant sugarcane genotypes, and performed a correlational study with the variation in anatomical parameters, cell wall composition, and recalcitrance factors between these genotypes. In addition we also tracked alterations in these characteristics in internodes at different stages of development. Significant differences in the development of the culm between the genotypes were associated with clear differential distributions of lignin content and composition that were not correlated with saccharification and fermentation yield. Given the strong influence of the environment on lignin content and composition, we hypothesized that sampling within a single plant could allow us to more easily interpret recalcitrance and changes in lignin biosynthesis than analysing variations between different genotypes with extensive changes in plant morphology and culm anatomy. The syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio was higher in the oldest internode of the modern genotype, but S/G ratio was not correlated with enzymatic hydrolysis yield nor fermentation efficiency. Curiously we observed a strong positive correlation between ferulate ester level and cellulose conversion efficiency. Together, these data support the hypothesis that biomass enzymatic hydrolysis recalcitrance is governed by a quantitative heritage rather than a single trait. PMID:26252208

  20. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%). PMID:26210150

  1. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Crowe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics.

  2. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  3. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  4. Epicoccum nigrum P16, a sugarcane endophyte, produces antifungal compounds and induces root growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léia Cecilia de Lima Fávaro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in Brazil, mainly because of its use in biofuel production. Recent studies have sought to determine the role of sugarcane endophytic microbial diversity in microorganism-plant interactions, and their biotechnological potential. Epicoccum nigrum is an important sugarcane endophytic fungus that has been associated with the biological control of phytopathogens, and the production of secondary metabolites. In spite of several studies carried out to define the better conditions to use E. nigrum in different crops, little is known about the establishment of an endophytic interaction, and its potential effects on plant physiology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report an approach based on inoculation followed by re-isolation, molecular monitoring, microscopic analysis, plant growth responses to fungal colonization, and antimicrobial activity tests to study the basic aspects of the E. nigrum endophytic interaction with sugarcane, and the effects of colonization on plant physiology. The results indicate that E. nigrum was capable of increasing the root system biomass and producing compounds that inhibit the in vitro growth of sugarcane pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum falcatum, Ceratocystis paradoxa, and Xanthomomas albilineans. In addition, E. nigrum preferentially colonizes the sugarcane surface and, occasionally, the endophytic environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work demonstrates that E. nigrum has great potential for sugarcane crop application because it is capable of increasing the root system biomass and controlling pathogens. The study of the basic aspects of the interaction of E. nigrum with sugarcane demonstrated the facultative endophytism of E. nigrum and its preference for the phylloplane environment, which should be considered in future studies of biocontrol using this species. In addition, this work contributes to the knowledge of the interaction of this

  5. Status quo and prospects of smallholders in the Brazilian sugarcane and ethanol sector: Lessons for development and poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Scholtes, Fabian

    2009-01-01

    Along with a growing global ethanol market, investment in the production of sugarcane is growing, targeting new production areas also in Africa. This study addresses the question of how production systems and related value-chains can be created and governed so that they include smallholders in a sustainable manner. Brazil has historical experience with sugarcane and (large-scale) ethanol. The sector is highly concentrated. More recently, however, small ethanol distilleries have come up. The r...

  6. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira; Priscila Hoffmann Carvalho; Hélia Harumi Sato

    2011-01-01

    Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and co...

  7. A search for markers of sugarcane evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bacci Jr, M; de Miranda, V. F. O.; V.G. Martins; A.V.O. Figueira; M.V. Lemos; J.O. Pereira; Marino, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA) region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarc...

  8. Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.121 Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas em relação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0 g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas podendo ser alcançada nessas condições quando comparadas com o crescimento autotrófico.Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be the best substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 times greater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a

  9. Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production = Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be thebest substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 timesgreater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a greater production of biomass andphycobiliproteins can be reached when compared with the autotrophic growth.Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas emrelação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e

  10. Uso de caldo de cana-de-açúcar para produção de levana por Zymomonas mobilis CCT4494 Sugarcane juice use for levan production by zymomonas mobilis CCT4494

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maria Pagane Guereschi Ernandes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A levana é um exopolissacarídeo constituído por unidades de frutose, unidas pó ligações β(2 → 6, sintetizado por vários microrganismos durante a fermentação de um meio de cultura à base de sacarose, extrato de levedura e sais minerais. Este biopolímero possui diversas aplicações tanto na área de alimentos (fixador de cores e sabores, espessante e estabilizante de vários alimentos como também na farmacêutica (substituto de plasma sanguíneo, imunomodulador, anticarcinogênico e hipocolesterolêmico. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, realizar um estudo comparativo da produção de levana a partir de Zymomonas mobilis CCT 4494, utilizando os meios de fermentação sintético e o caldo de cana-de-açúcar, por este ser considerado um substrato de baixo custo comercial para o processo fermentativo, devido a sua abundância e facilidade de obtenção no Brasil. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o caldo de cana-de-açúcar, utilizado como meio de cultura alternativo, é uma matéria-prima adequada para a fermentação por Zymomonas mobilis CCT 4494, pois a sua composição possibilitou a obtenção de rendimentos de levana superiores ou semelhantes às concentrações de sacarose testadas com o meio sintético.Levan is an exopolysaccharide constituted by fructose units, β(2 → 6 linked, synthesized by several microorganisms during fermentation of a culture medium containing sucrose, yeast extract and mineral salts. This biopolymer has various applications as much in food area (colors and flavors fixer, thickener and stabilizer of several foods as in pharmaceutical one (blood plasma replacement, immunomodulator, anticarcinogenic and hypocholesterolemic. The study was aimed at providing a comparative study of the production of levan from Zymomonas mobilis CCT 4494, using fermentation media sinthetic and sugarcane juice as this is considered a low cost substrate for the commercial fermentation process, due to its abundance and easy

  11. Land Suitability Assessment for Sugarcane in "Herois de Caxito" (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baert, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of the soils surrounding the sugarcane plantation at "Herois de Caxito" (7068 ha is assessed. The main goal is to identify land suitability for the enlargement of the present plantation, using FAO land evaluation models (modified to suit Herois de Caxito conditions and GIS. Calculations of the radiationthermal production potential (RPP, land production potential (LPP, irrigation suitability index, and evaluation of the irrigation water quality are done. The water-limited production potential (WPP is found equal to the RPP, because water needs were fully met under irrigation. Maps showing the spatial distribution of the LPP and the suitability for irrigation are generated. The matching of irrigation and fertility indices has shown that, about 40% of the soils with good fertility for sugarcane production present low suitability for irrigation, the main limitations being the very fine texture and the drainage. The available surface water at Herois de Caxito (Dande river is of very good quality for irrigation of sugarcane.

  12. Urea in sugarcane-based diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Magno Ferreira Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of adding four levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 g/kg, as fed of a mixture (9:1 of urea and ammonium sulfate (UAs to sugarcane on feed intake and digestibility, productive performance and metabolism of nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (12.6±0.5 kg/d of milk, 225±90 days in milk were distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares, receiving diets with the same amount of nitrogen (125 g crude protein/kg of dry matter. Concentrate feed was supplied at a ratio of 1 kg for each 3 kg of milk produced. The sugarcane presented 21.9 ºBrix. The level of UAs did not affect intake, total digestibility of diet components, milk production or milk components. Increasing UAs level linearly increased concentration of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, urinary excretion of nitrogen and contribution of non-urea nitrogen in the urinary excretion and linearly reduced milk production/urinary excretion of nitrogen ratio. In spite of the linear increase of PUN with increased urea, the maximum value observed (14.31 mg/dL was below the threshold value of 20 mg/dL, above which reproductive function may be compromised. In diets with sugarcane for dairy cows with production below 15 kg/day, the UAs level may be raised from 0 to 12 g/kg natural matter without impairing performance.

  13. Species-specific detection and identification of fusarium species complex, the causal agent of sugarcane pokkah boeng in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyue Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pokkah boeng disease caused by the Fusarium species complex results in significant yield losses in sugarcane. Thus, the rapid and accurate detection and identification of the pathogen is urgently required to manage and prevent the spreading of sugarcane pokkah boeng. METHODS: A total of 101 isolates were recovered from the pokkah boeng samples collected from five major sugarcane production areas in China throughout 2012 and 2013. The causal pathogen was identified by morphological observation, pathogenicity test, and phylogenetic analysis based on the fungus-conserved rDNA-ITS. Species-specific TaqMan real-time PCR and conventional PCR methods were developed for rapid and accurate detection of the causal agent of sugarcane pokkah boeng. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR assay were also evaluated on a total of 84 isolates of Fusarium from China and several isolates from other fungal pathogens of Sporisorium scitamineum and Phoma sp. and sugarcane endophyte of Acremonium sp. RESULT: Two Fusarium species (F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum that caused sugarcane pokahh boeng were identified by morphological observation, pathogenicity test, and phylogenetic analysis. Species-specific TaqMan PCR and conventional PCR were designed and optimized to target their rDNA-ITS regions. The sensitivity of the TaqMan PCR was approximately 10 pg of fungal DNA input, which was 1,000-fold over conventional PCR, and successfully detected pokkah boeng in the field-grown sugarcane. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study was the first to identify two species, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, that were causal pathogens of sugarcane pokkah boeng in China. It also described the development of a species-specific PCR assay to detect and confirm these pathogens in sugarcane plants from mainland China. This method will be very useful for a broad range of research endeavors as well as the regulatory response and management of sugarcane pokkah boeng.

  14. Greenhouse gas balances and land use changes associated with the planned expansion (to 2020) of the sugarcane ethanol industry in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is expected to increase its sugarcane production in the coming years. Almost 60% of the Brazilian sugarcane production in 2012 was situated in the state of São Paulo, where production is expected to increase further. This paper reports estimated direct land use changes and greenhouse gas balances (including soil carbon stock changes) associated with expanding production of sugarcane-based ethanol in São Paulo state. Geographic information about the location of existing and planned sugarcane mills and existing land use in these locations is used. Almost all of the sugarcane expansion in 2004–2008 took place on roughly equal shares of cropland or pasture land. The locations of the planned mills indicate that most new sugarcane might be planted on cropland unless the sugarcane is sourced from longer distances than has typically been the case. These results confirm that sugarcane expansion does not cause much direct deforestation but contrast with the view that direct competition for prime cropland is generally avoided since sugarcane is mostly planted on extensively used pasture lands. Analyses of greenhouse gas emissions and savings support the view that expansion of sugarcane ethanol in Brazil will likely bring about substantial savings – unless the expansion causes significant emissions associated with indirect land use change. - Highlights: • We model a sugarcane expansion in the state of São Paulo. • The expansion is based on environmental permits allowing new mills to be built. • If old expansion patterns are followed expansion will mainly take place on cropland. • Significant avoided GHG emissions, soil organic C losses from dLUC included

  15. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Two Sugarcane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Renato; Bottcher, Alexandra; Brito, Michael Dos Santos; Dos Santos, Adriana Brombini; Creste, Silvana; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Cesarino, Igor; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar and first generation ethanol production. Recently, the residue of sugarcane mills, named bagasse, has been considered a promising lignocellulosic biomass to produce the second-generation ethanol. Lignin is a major factor limiting the use of bagasse and other plant lignocellulosic materials to produce second-generation ethanol. Lignin biosynthesis pathway is a complex network and changes in the expression of genes of this pathway have in general led to diverse and undesirable impacts on plant structure and physiology. Despite its economic importance, sugarcane genome was still not sequenced. In this study a high-throughput transcriptome evaluation of two sugarcane genotypes contrasting for lignin content was carried out. We generated a set of 85,151 transcripts of sugarcane using RNA-seq and de novo assembling. More than 2,000 transcripts showed differential expression between the genotypes, including several genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. This information can give valuable knowledge on the lignin biosynthesis and its interactions with other metabolic pathways in the complex sugarcane genome. PMID:26241317

  16. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia: ’Forced’ to remain poor?

    OpenAIRE

    Mengistu Assefa Wendimu; Arne Henningsen; Peter Gibbon

    2015-01-01

    Contract farming is often seen as a panacea to many of the challenges faced by agricultural production in developing countries. Given the large heterogeneity of contract farming arrangements, it is debatable whether all kinds of contract farming arrangements offer benefits to participating smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of ...

  17. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  18. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: aralcard@esalq.usp.br; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia

    2003-12-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  19. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO−3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO−3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO−3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m−2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m−2 rather H-78

  20. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the sensory analyses

  1. Elimination of five sugarcane viruses from sugarcane using in vitro culture of axillary bud and apical meristem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures were developed for the in vitro elimination of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV), Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) and Fiji disease virus (FDV) from infected sugarcane. In vitro shoot regeneration, elongation and virus el...

  2. Uso de reguladores de crescimento como potencializadores do perfilhamento e da produtividade em cana-soca Use of plant growth regulators as improvers of tillering and of productivity in sugarcane ratoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de reguladores de crescimento como indutores da maturação em cana-de-açúcar tem sido uma prática agrícola com resultados bem solidificados. Entretanto, o efeito residual desses compostos na cana-soca seguinte é pouco estudado. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar o efeito residual de dois reguladores vegetais, aplicados antes da colheita, na brotação da cana-soca e na produtividade de três genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O ensaio foi realizado na região de Jaú (SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, constituído pela combinação dos genótipos IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 e IAC91-5155, e de três formas de manejos da cultura: sulfometuron-metil, 20 g ha-1; etefon, 480 g i.a. ha-1 e testemunha. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais ocorreu 126 dias antes do corte das touceiras. Foram realizadas avaliações para quantificar o número de perfilhos m-1 aos 0, 90, 180, 270 e 360 dias após o corte; a porcentagem de colmos por metro final em relação à inicial; a massa de 10 colmos, o comprimento e o diâmetro médios dos colmos; a pol e a fibra % cana, os açúcares redutores e total recuperável, e a produtividade de colmos e de açúcar. Concluiu-se que houve efeito estimulante na emergência do perfilhamento até seis meses após o corte. O etefon promoveu maiores produtividades de colmos e de açúcar. Houve diferenças entre genótipos quanto à resposta do comprimento de colmos na cana-soca em relação aos reguladores vegetais. Não houve efeito sobre a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar na cana-soca seguinte.The use of plant growth regulators as ripeners in sugarcane has been an agronomic practice with well solidified results. However, the residual effect of these products over the next ratoon is still not very well studied. This research aimed to evaluate the residual effect of two plant growth regulators, applied before the harvest, in the stool

  3. Organosolv liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse catalyzed by acidic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengjian; Long, Jinxing

    2016-08-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly process is proposed for sugarcane bagasse liquefaction under mild condition using IL catalyst and environmental friendly solvent of ethanol/H2O. The relationship between IL acidic strength and its catalytic performance is investigated. The effects of reaction condition parameters such as catalyst dosage, temperature, time and solvent are also intensively studied. The results show that ethanol/H2O has a significant promotion effect on the simultaneous liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse carbohydrate and lignin. 97.5% of the bagasse can be liquefied with 66.46% of volatile product yield at 200°C for 30min. Furthermore, the IL catalyst shows good recyclability where no significant loss of the catalytic activity is exhibited even after five runs. PMID:27115746

  4. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE SUGARCANE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oranges Cezarino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concern about the environmental degradation and the conditions of life of our planet has increased. An alarm literally sounded relating the environmental problems and the uncertainties of the future. An energy revolution is necessary in face of the climate changes. Nature offers numerous possibilities of energy production and Brazil is in a great position in this scenario. It is the greatest producer, consumer and exporter of ethanol. Analyzing the Brazilian sugarcane industry, it is easy to recognize its historical and economic importance. More than ever, this industry has shown environmental solutions with changes in the energy matrix using ethanol as renewable fuel. It is essential to have the industry development in balance with social and environmental values. Thus, the first step to expand this sector would be to identify the social and environmental impacts of the sugarcane industry. Public policies are also acting on the sector and have a prominent role in the scenario.

  5. Potential to expand sustainable bioenergy from sugarcane in southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Helen K., E-mail: watsonh@ukzn.ac.za [School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X 54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2011-10-15

    The Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa evaluated how bioenergy from sugarcane can support sustainable development and improve global competitiveness in the region. The assessment of six countries with good contemporary potential for expanding sugarcane cultivation described in this paper was part of their analysis. Its principal objective was to identify land where such production will not have detrimental environmental and/or socio-economic impacts. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to interrogate 1 km{sup 2} resolution protected area, land cover, climate, elevation and soil data sets. To avoid detrimental impacts on biodiversity, all categories of protected areas, closed canopy forests and wetlands were excluded. To safeguard food security, all areas under food and/or cash crop production were excluded. Areas unsuitable because of climate, terrain and soil constraints were also excluded. The assessment found that almost 6 million hectares of suitable land is available in these countries, clearly suggesting that 'land' is unlikely to be a limiting factor in harnessing sugarcane's bioenergy potential in the region. However, land identified as such in this study needs to be verified using better resolution, preferably ground, information.

  6. Potential to expand sustainable bioenergy from sugarcane in southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa evaluated how bioenergy from sugarcane can support sustainable development and improve global competitiveness in the region. The assessment of six countries with good contemporary potential for expanding sugarcane cultivation described in this paper was part of their analysis. Its principal objective was to identify land where such production will not have detrimental environmental and/or socio-economic impacts. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to interrogate 1 km2 resolution protected area, land cover, climate, elevation and soil data sets. To avoid detrimental impacts on biodiversity, all categories of protected areas, closed canopy forests and wetlands were excluded. To safeguard food security, all areas under food and/or cash crop production were excluded. Areas unsuitable because of climate, terrain and soil constraints were also excluded. The assessment found that almost 6 million hectares of suitable land is available in these countries, clearly suggesting that 'land' is unlikely to be a limiting factor in harnessing sugarcane's bioenergy potential in the region. However, land identified as such in this study needs to be verified using better resolution, preferably ground, information.

  7. MicroRNAs and drought responses in sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Agustina; Dias, Lara I.; Mattos, Raphael S.; Ferreira, Thaís H.; Menossi, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cu...

  8. MicroRNAs and Drought Responses in Sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Menossi Menossi; Agustina eGentile; Thaís Helena Ferreira; Raphael de Souza Mattos; Lara Isys Dias

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cu...

  9. Precipitation variability and the sugarcane climate demand in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, V. R.; de Avila, A. M. H.; Blain, G.; Zullo, J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the precipitation variability in São Paulo state/Brazil considering the climate demand for high sugarcane productivity. The Brazilian sugarcane and the bioethanol chain are facing an increase demand in response of the biofuel industry expansion. The productivity improvement is the key point to face the challenges about the land expansion in the Brazilian agriculture. The sugarcane phenology is climate dependent even being efficient in the decarboxylation process. The sprouting, growing, yield and the sugar content are determined by the climate. The accumulated rainy days during the pre harvest or more than 180 days of dry period can reduce the sugar content during the maturation process. Daily rainfall time series for the period 1960-2003 from 210 rain gauges at São Paulo state - the major Brazilian producer - are used. We subset the time series in the annual, seasonal, ten-day totals and dry and wet spells analysis. We used the mann- kendall non-parametric test to calculate the trends. The annual, the seasonal totals and the dry and wet spells did not showed a significant change in time. However, the ten-day total analysis in the beginning of the rainy season - i.e. in October - showed an interesting changing pattern - 24% of gauges showed a significant negative trend (p_valueproduction. Also, the October totals showed significant and negative trends (p_value<0.1) for more than 95% of precipitation gauges. These results are strongly indicating a longer dry season in the last twenty years. These changes in the precipitation variability can be related with the instability of the sugarcane market in Brazil in the last years.

  10. Assessment of sugarcane trash for agronomic and energy purposes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to new possibilities for using sugarcane (Saccharum spp. trash for electricity generation, and the production of 2nd generation ethanol and others chemicals, the interest for its recovery has increased. However, the question of how much trash can be removed from sugarcane field still needs to be clarified. This study evaluated the amount of dry matter, nutrients content, structural compounds and efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of the hydrothermal pretreated materials for tops and dry leaves in samples from sugarcane varieties. Tops and dry leaves present differences in nutrients content and moisture. Therefore, the amount of trash to be collected should not be simply based on percentages, but also should take into account the different fractions of the crop residues. For instance, around 80 % of N, P and K were derived from tops. Therein, the environmental indicators of the entire chain of sugarcane could be benefited because more nutrients would be recycled and less mineral fertilizers might be used for sugarcane production if tops are left on the field. Further, the tops have seven times more moisture than dry leaves and higher amounts of extractives (organic compounds of low molecular weight. Moreover, as the result of yield obtained in the pretreatment steps for dry leaves were superior to the tops and the glucose yields obtained in the enzymatic hydrolysis step were similar, it can be predicted that for second generation ethanol production, it is more viable to recover parts of the dry leaves fraction, leaving the tops on the field.

  11. Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    La Scala Newton; Romão Rangel; Panosso Alan; de Figueiredo Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equiv...

  12. Explanatory Variables Associated with the Yield Performance Gap among Small- Medium-and Large-Scale Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Growers at Ubombo Sugar, Big bend, Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbuyazwe M. Dlamini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the ex post facto study was to determine explanatory variables for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum yield among small, medium and large scale-growers at Ubombo Sugar, Swaziland. The target population of the census study was all small-medium-and large-scale-growers, milling their cane at the Big Bend Mill. Data were collected using valid and reliable questionnaires. The findings indicated that large-scale farmers obtained significantly higher yields than small and medium scale-growers. However, sucrose percentage was higher with small-scale than medium and large scale-growers. Production inputs and farming services were available, accessible, and affordable to all groups of sugarcane growers. Sugarcane growers were within the recommended delays in implementing the crucial planting and post harvest operations for sugarcane; and the man-days used per activity per hectare were within recommended practice. Explanatory variables for sugarcane yield were found to be distance between the farm and the mill; hand application of fertilizer man-days per hectare; and labour strength. Distance between the farm and the mill had a significantly negative influence on sugarcane yield. The research failed to reject the research hypothesis that good management and adequate production inputs increases sugarcane yield. The main conclusion was that, those farmers who were furthest from the mill should consider replacing sugarcane with other viable business ventures.

  13. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal α-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit α- dextrin.

  14. Nematode Interactions with Weeds and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus in Louisiana Sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Showler, A. T.; Reagan, T. E.; Shao, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    Weeds did not appear to serve as reservoirs for phytophagous Louisiana sugarcane nematode populations except for Criconemella spp., Meloidogyne spp., Tylenchorhynchus annulatus, and total phytophagous nematode densities were lower on weed-stressed cane and were accompanied by reduced accumulations of free cysteine, proline, and 13 other free amino acids in sugarcane. A significant weed-virus interaction for sugarcane free cysteine accumulation was detected; T. annulatus populations were highl...

  15. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  16. Effects of traffic control on the soil physical quality and the cultivation of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Soares de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sugarcane with intensive use of machinery, especially for harvest, induces soil compaction, affecting the crop development. The control of agricultural traffic is an alternative of management in the sector, with a view to preserve the soil physical quality, resulting in increased sugarcane root growth, productivity and technological quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical quality of an Oxisol with and without control traffic and the resulting effects on sugarcane root development, productivity and technological quality. The following managements were tested: no traffic control (NTC, traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and sugarcane trailer (TC1 and traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and trailer and use of an autopilot (TC2. Soil samples were collected (layers 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m in the plant rows, inter-row center and seedbed region, 0.30 m away from the plant row. The productivity was measured with a specific weighing scale. The technological variables of sugarcane were measured in each plot. Soil cores were collected to analyze the root system. In TC2, the soil bulk density and compaction degree were lowest and total porosity and macroporosity highest in the plant row. Soil penetration resistance in the plant row, was less than 2 MPa in TC1 and TC2. Soil aggregation and total organic carbon did not differ between the management systems. The root surface and volume were increased in TC1 and TC2, with higher productivity and sugar yield than under NTC. The sugarcane variables did not differ between the managements. The soil physical quality in the plant row was preserved under management TC1 and TC2, with an improved root development and increases of 18.72 and 20.29 % in productivity and sugar yield, respectively.

  17. Pré-tratamentos de melaço de cana-de-açúcar e água de maceração de milho para a bioprodução de carotenóides Pretreatment of sugarcane molasses and corn steep liquor for the production of carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the pretreatment of sugarcane molasses (CM and corn steep liquor (CS for the production of carotenoids by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636. The acid pretreatment removed less micronutrients than that with activated carbon and led to high removals of Cu and Mn. Reduction in optical density of the prepared medium and removal of glucose from it were 22% and 7% for CM and 95% and 38% for CS, respectively. Total carotenoids obtained with substrates pretreated with acids (541 mg/L were higher than the results obtained when the medium was treated with activated carbon (208 mg/L.

  18. Comparison of Microwave and Ozonolysis Effect as Pretreatment on Sugarcane Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Eqra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from agricultural residues is one of the promising methods. Pretreatment is the most important step in this type of bioethanol production. In this study, the saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse was investigated after two types of pretreatments including ozone steaming and microwave. Microwave pretreatment was studied with two factors of microwave radiation (170, 450, and 850 w and microwave duration (2, 6, and 10 min. The ozonolysis (ozone steaming pretreatment was surveyed with two factors of moisture content of bagasse (30, 40, and 50% and ozonolysis time (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 hr. After hydrolysis, the Saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse increased to 57.2% and 67.06% with microwave and ozonolysis pretreatments, respectively; compare to 20.85% in non-ozonated bagasse. It can be concluded that the ozonolysis is the most effective pretreatment regarding to saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse.

  19. Phenotype adaptability and stability of sugarcane genotypes in the sugarcane belt of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the agroindustrial performance of 25 sugarcane genotypes adapted to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, within the microregions Mata Norte, Mata Sul, Região Central, Litoral Norte, and Litoral Sul. The variables analyzed were POL tonnage per hectare, sugarcane tonnage per hectare, fiber and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare, using a randomized block design with four repetitions. Combined variance of experiments, genetic parameter estimates, decomposition of the genotype-environment interaction, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotype adaptability and stability were also analyzed. The various genotypes presented great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern to the microregions Centro and Mata Sul of the state of Pernambuco. Genotypes RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB953180, SP81-3250, RB75126, and RB942520 were better in productivity and phenotype adaptability and stability compared to genotypes RB892700, RB943365, SP79-1011, Q138, RB943538, SP78-4764, RB953281, RB943066, RB928064, RB93509, RB72454, RB952675, RB952991, RB943161, RB942898, RB872552, RB952900, and RB942849. These genotypes are recommended as cultivation options in the sugarcane belt in the state of Pernambuco, since they stand out in terms of phenotype adaptability and stability as evaluated using the method by Annicchiarico, Lin and Bins, and the method by Eberhart and Russel. PMID:25177966

  20. Impact of Climate Change on Sugarcane Crop at Regional Scale: A Study with Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shruti, Y.; Gouda, K. C.; P P, N. R.; Bhat, N.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of climate on the growth and yield of sugarcane at the Bagalkot region of Karnataka state in India which generally famous for the sugarcane production in the country. In the present study climate parameters like rainfall, temperature, solar radiation, soil moisture, humidity etc. observed from multi-source observations like remote sensing satellite, NCEP reanalysis, India Meteorological Department (IMD) observations etc. are used to analyze the climate change over the study region in terms of the climatology, inter annual variability and trend analysis of the climate parameters at long term scale. There is a signature of increasing trend in temperature and decreasing trend in the seasonal monsoon rainfall. Impact of drought years on the sugarcane crop has been determined. To quantify the climate change the Land use Land cover (LULC) classification of the region is carried out and the relative changes in different LULC classes are discussed, which shows the agriculture is being decreased in 14 years of the analysis. Then to know the impact of climate parameters and on the sugarcane crop production, the correlation analysis of the climate parameters and sugarcane yield are presented using the real observation and which clearly showed the solar radiation is highly correlated with the sugarcane production compared to other climate parameters (Figure 1). The satellite derived NDVI is used to compute the NDVI Grand Growth Period [∑NDVI(GGP)] and the correlation of it with sugarcane crop yield for the period 2000-2013 and the empirical relation is derived, which can be implemented in future with some weather forecasting models like General Circulation Model (GCM) for the prediction of the sugarcane yield in advance.

  1. Solid-state fermentation for gluconic acid production from sugarcane molasses by Aspergillus niger ARNU-4 employing tea waste as the novel solid support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Vivekanand, V; Singh, Rajesh P

    2008-06-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was evaluated to produce gluconic acid by metal resistant Aspergillus niger (ARNU-4) strain using tea waste as solid support and with molasses based fermentation medium. Various crucial parameters such as moisture content, temperature, aeration and inoculum size were derived; 70% moisture level, 30 degrees C temperature, 3% inoculum size and an aeration volume of 2.5l min(-1) was suited for maximal (76.3 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production. Non-clarified molasses based fermentation media was utilized by strain ARNU-4 and maximum gluconic acid production was observed following 8-12 days of fermentation cycle. Different concentrations of additives viz. oil cake, soya oil, jaggary, yeast extract, cheese whey and mustard oil were supplemented for further enhancement of the production ability of microorganism. Addition of yeast extract (0.5%) was observed inducive for enhanced (82.2 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production. PMID:17881224

  2. Influence of "alternative" C-terminal amino acids on the formation of [b3 + 17 + Cat]+ products from metal cationized synthetic tetrapeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbalagan, V; Silva, A T M; Rajagopalachary, S; Bulleigh, K; Talaty, E R; Van Stipdonk, M J

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dissociation patterns, and in particular the relative abundance of [b(3) + 17 + Cat](+), for peptides with C-termini designed to allow transfer of the -OH required to generate the product ion, but not necessarily as the most favored pathway. Working with the hypothesis that formation of a five-membered ring intermediate, including intramolecular nucleophilic attack by a carbonyl oxygen atom, is an important mechanistic step, several model peptides with general sequence AcFGGX were synthesized, metal cationized by electrospray ionization and subjected to collision-induced dissociation (CID). The amino acid at position X was one that either required a larger ring intermediate (beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and epsilon-amino-n-caproic acid to generate six-, seven- or nine- membered rings, respectively) to transfer -OH, lacked a structural element required for nucleophilic attack (aminoethanol) or prohibited cyclization because of the inclusion of a rigid ring (p- and m-aminobenzoic acid). For Ag(+), Li(+) and Na(+) cationized peptides, our results show that amino acids requiring the adoption of larger ring intermediates suppressed the formation of [b(3) + 17 + Cat](+), while amino acids that prohibit cyclization eliminated the reaction pathway completely. Formation of [b(3) - 1 + Cat](+) from the alkali metal cationized versions was not a favorable process upon suppression or elimination of the [b(3) + 17 + Cat](+) pathway: the loss of H(2)O to form [M - H(2)O + Cat](+) was instead the dominant dissociation reaction observed. Multiple-stage dissociation experiments suggest that [M - H(2)O + Cat](+) is not [b(4) - 1 + Cat](+) arising from the loss of H(2)O from the C-terminus, but may instead be a species that forms via a mechanism involving the elimination of an oxygen atom from an amide group. PMID:15170745

  3. Effect of Acidic Environment (HCL on Concrete With Sugarcane Bagasse Ash As Pozzolona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Rambabu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With increasing demand and consumption of cement, researchers and scientist are in search of developing alternate binders that are eco friendly and contribute towards waste management. The utilization of industrial and agricultural waste produced by industrial processes has been the focus on waste reduction. One of the agro waste sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA which is a fibrous waste product obtained from sugar mills as byproduct is taken for study area. This experimental and analytical study investigates the durability of M35 concrete mix using Ordinary Portland Cement and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as partial replacement in Ordinary Portland Cement. Sugarcane Bagasse Ash was obtained by burning of Sugarcane at 700 to 800 degree Centigrade in sugar refining industry, Bagasse Ash obtained from burning was grounded until the particles passing the 90 micron sieve. The disposal of this material is already causing environmental problems around the sugar factories. In this project objective is to study the influence of partial replacement of Portland cement with sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete subjected to different acidic Environments. The variable factors considered in this study were concrete grade of M35 & curing periods of 28, 60, 90 days of the concrete specimens in 1%, 3%, and 5% of hydrochloric acid in water for curing the specimens. Bagasse ash has been partially replaced in the ratio of 0%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, and 10% by weight.

  4. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of Emission Factors through Laboratory Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Andrade Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for the Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. However, the common practice of pre-harvest burning of sugarcane straw emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the practice of pre-harvest sugarcane burning in the near future, there is still significant environmental damage. Thus, the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess their environmental impact. Nevertheless, the official Brazilian emissions inventory does not presently include the contribution from pre-harvest sugarcane burning. In this context, this work aims to determine sugarcane straw burning emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 μm in the laboratory. Excess mixing ratios for CO2, CO, NOX, UHC (unburned hydrocarbons, and PM2.5 were measured, allowing the estimation of their respective emission factors. Average estimated values for emission factors (g kg−1 of burned dry biomass were 1,303 ± 218 for CO2, 65 ± 14 for CO, 1.5 ± 0.4 for NOX, 16 ± 6 for UHC, and 2.6 ± 1.6 for PM2.5. These emission factors can be used to generate more realistic emission inventories and therefore improve the results of air quality models.

  5. Residual recovery and yield performance of nitrogen fertilizer applied at sugarcane planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe low effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizer (N is a substantial concern that threatens global sugarcane production. The aim of the research reported in this paper was to assess the residual effect of N-fertilizer applied at sugarcane planting over four crop seasons in relation to sugarcane crop yield. Toward this end three field experiments were established in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, during February of 2005 and July of 2009, in a randomized block design with four treatments: 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 of N applied as urea during sugarcane planting. Within each plot, a microplot was established to which 15N-labeled urea was applied. The application of N at planting increased plant cane yield in two of the three sites and sucrose content at the other, whereas the only residual effect was higher sucrose content in one of the following ratoons. The combined effect was an increase in sugar yield for three of the 11 crop seasons evaluated. Over the crop cycle of a plant cane and three ratoon crops, only 35 % of the applied N was recovered, split 75, 13, 7 and 5 % in the plant cane, first, second and third ratoons, respectively. These findings document the low efficiency of N recovery by sugarcane, which increases the risk that excessive N fertilization will reduce profitability and have an adverse effect on the environment.

  6. Emergência e desenvolvimento de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. influenciados por subprodutos da destilação do álcool Emergence and growth of arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. as influenced by alcohol by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.P.M. Azania

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de óleo de fúsel, comparativamente a vinhaça e flegmaça, sobre o desenvolvimento e a composição química de plantas de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB72454, cultivadas simultaneamente em casa de vegetação. As concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v de cada subproduto e a testemunha (água foram aplicadas (numa taxa equivalente a 150 m³ ha-1 no solo dos vasos (22 L, contendo uma planta de cana-de-açúcar (13 cm de altura e 100 sementes de cada planta daninha. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 (três tipos de resíduos e quatro concentrações, e uma testemunha adicional com água. O óleo de fúsel inibiu a emergência de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens e matou a cana-de-açúcar. A vinhaça e a flegmaça prejudicaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento de B. decumbens, bem como o de S. rhombifolia, mas não o da cana-de-açúcar.This research aimed to compare the effects of fusel oil application to those of vinasse and flegmass application on the growth and chemical composition of arrowleaf sida plants (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp., cultivated simultaneously under greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 12.5,25.0,50.0 and 100.0 % (v/v of each by-product and the check treatment (water were applied (rate equivalent to 150 m³ ha-1 to soil on 22 L-pots, containing one sugar-cane plant (13 cm of height, and 100 seeds of each weed. The experimental design was completely randomized , with 13 treatments and 4 repetitions, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (3 by-products and 4 concentrations and an additional check treatment with water. The fusel oil inhibited Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens emergence with no emergence being verified for sugarcane. The vinasse and

  7. Sugarcane molasses and yeast powder used in the Fructooligosaccharides production by Aspergillus japonicus-FCL 119T and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta, Claudia; Cruz, Rubens; de Oliva-Neto, Pedro; Moura, Danilo José Camargo

    2006-12-01

    Different concentrations of sucrose (3-25% w/v) and peptone (2-5% w/v) were studied in the formulation of media during the cultivation of Aspergillus japonicus-FCL 119T and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. Moreover, cane molasses (3.5-17.5% w/v total sugar) and yeast powder (1.5-5% w/v) were used as alternative nutrients for both strains' cultivation. These media were formulated for analysis of cellular growth, beta-Fructosyltransferase and Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) production. Transfructosylating activity (U ( t )) and FOS production were analyzed by HPLC. The highest enzyme production by both the strains was 3% (w/v) sucrose and 3% (w/v) peptone, or 3.5% (w/v) total sugars present in cane molasses and 1.5% (w/v) yeast powder. Cane molasses and yeast powder were as good as sucrose and peptone in the enzyme and FOS (around 60% w/w) production by studied strains. PMID:16835781

  8. Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits.

  9. Exchange of lyotropic series cations by micaceous vermiculite and its weathering products determined by electron microscopy and radiochemical analysis. Final technical report, June 1, 1965-October 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micaceous vermiculite was found to be ubiquitous in soils, sediments, and aerosol mineral dusts and to adsorb fission product ions, particularly 137Cs+ and 90Sr2+. Crystallographic wedge zones (imaged by ultramicrotomy and electron microscopy) in micaceous vermiculite effected tight fixation of Cs+. Lowering of mica layer charge occurred in local areas, electronoscopically imaged by use of blister-swelling cations. Nuclear fission particle tracks of U enhanced translayer diffusion of elements, measured mica layer charge and age. Iron-aluminum hydrous oxide coatings adsorbed divalent cations of the alkaline earth, transition, and heavy metal elements from trace concentrations in the presence of 1 M NaNO3. Global deposition of dust by rainfall accounted for the wide distribution of Cs-fixing micaceous vermiculite in soils. Origin of the dust was traced through a method developed for isolation of fine quartz silt (1 to 10 μm diameter). Mass spectrometry of its 18O/16O isotopic ratios showed distinctly higher (delta18O = 17 to 22%0) and lower (delta18O = 9 to 15%0) ranges in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. This difference was traced to the relative proportions of quartz from low-temperature authigenic (chert) vs igneous-metamorphic origin in the respective latitudes, hinging on trans-equatorial continental drift

  10. Extraction of Theanine from Waste Liquid of Tea Polyphenol Production in Aqueous Two-phase Systems with Cationic and Anionic Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junwei; WANG Yan; PENG Qijun

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of theanine from waste liquid of tea polyphenol production was studied in aqueous surfactant two-phase system (ASTP) with cationic suffactant (CTAB) and anionic surfactant (SDS).Results indicate that the region of ASTP is narrow and there is only a two-phase region of cationic surfactant.The increase in concentrations of NaBr and Na2SO4 are beneficial to the formation of ASTP.Theanine concentration in the bottom phase increases with increasing concentration of theanine,whereas the partition coefficient and extraction rate only change a little when the concentration of theanine is above 0.2 g· L-1.With the increase of SDS concentration,the phase ratio and the partition coefficient decrease,while the extraction efficiency of theanine increases and the concentration of theaninc changes a little in the range from 2.4/7.5 to 2.8/7.2 for SDS/CTAB ratio.The temperature has a notable effect on the concentration of theanine in the bottom phase,partition coefficient and extraction rate of theanine.The increase of waste liquid decreases the phase ratio,increases the concentration and extraction rate of theanine in the bottom phase,since the protein and the saccharide enter the bottom phase with theanine.

  11. Diverse Exopolysaccharide Producing Bacteria Isolated from Milled Sugarcane: Implications for Cane Spoilage and Sucrose Yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton Hector

    Full Text Available Bacterial deterioration of sugarcane during harvesting and processing is correlated with significant loss of sucrose yield and the accumulation of bacterial polysaccharides. Dextran, a homoglucan produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, has been cited as the primary polysaccharide associated with sugarcane deterioration. A culture-based approach was used to isolate extracellular polysaccharide (EPS producing bacterial strains from milled sugarcane stalks. Ribosomal RNA sequencing analysis grouped 25 isolates into 4 genera. This study identified 2 bacterial genera not previously associated with EPS production or sucrose degradation. All isolates produced polysaccharide when grown in the presence of sucrose. Monosaccharide analysis of purified polymers by Gas Chromatography revealed 17 EPSs consisting solely of glucose (homoglucans, while the remainder contained traces of mannose or fructose. Dextranase treatment of polysaccharides yielded full digestion profiles for only 11 extracts. Incomplete hydrolysis profiles of the remaining polysaccharides suggest the release of longer oligosaccharides which may interfere with sucrose crystal formation.

  12. Nutrients of Topsoil for Sugarcane Planting in Xinping County of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiabin; MA; Wanghai; TIAN; Shunfa; LONG; Huazhen; LI; Long; SU; Zhitao; YIN; Yuanyuan; GAO

    2014-01-01

    To provide reference for fertilizer application of sugarcane planting in Xinping County,this paper analyzed nutrient content of topsoil according to the nutrient indicators established in the Second Soil Census. The results show that 51. 76% soil in sugarcane planting area of Xinping County is faintly acid,50. 88% soil has relatively low organic matter,45. 88% soil lacks alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen( N),26. 47% soil lacks phosphorus( P),50. 29% soil lacks potassium( K),37. 14% soil lacks sulfur( S),12. 86% soil lacks magnesium( Mg),10% soil lacks manganese( Mn),and 31. 43% soil lacks zinc( Zn). In the sugarcane production,it is required to pay attention to increase of application of organic fertilizer,to foster soil fertility,supplement boron fertilizer,to keep balance of soil nutrients.

  13. Study of structural modification of sugarcane bagasse employing hydrothermal treatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Jayr; Pimenta, Maria Teresa; Gurgel, Leandro; Squina, Fabio; Souza-Correa, Jorge; Curvelo, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Nowadays, the cellulosic ethanol is an important alternative way to many liquid biofuels using renewable biomass rich in polysaccharides. To be used as feedstock for ethanol production, the bagasse needs to be pretreated in order to expose its main constitutive. The present work proposes the use of different pretreatment processes to better expose the cellulose for hydrolysis and fermentation. In the present paper the sugarcane bagasse was submitted to a hydrothermal pretreatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). An RF microplasma torch was employed as APPs in Ar and Ar/O2 mixing. The bagasse was treated in discharge and post-discharge regions. The position and time of treatment was varied as well as the gas mixture. The quantity of polysaccharides was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. It was observed the release of a fraction of the hemicelluloses in the sugarcane bagasse. Modifications in the surface of the sugarcane fibers were monitored by employing scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Isolation and characterization of pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw in the state of Perlis (Malaysia) is abundant while its utilization is still limited. One of the alternatives for the bagasse and straw utilization is as pulp raw material. This paper reviews on pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw and its suitability for paper production. In this study, the pulp was extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method. The objective of this study was to investigate the cellulose, lignin and silica content of the pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw. For rice straw, the presence of large amount of pentosanes in the pulp and black liquors, which also contain silica were decreased the using of straw in the paper industry. Therefore, formic acid pulping and NaOH treatment are studied to reduce or prevent silica. The isolated pulp samples were further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to investigate their fiber dimensions. (Author)

  15. A novel surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreatment of sugarcane tops for improved enzymatic release of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Kuttiraja, Mathiyazhakan; Preeti, Varghese Elizabeth; Vani, Sankar; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; Binod, Parameswaran

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreatment of sugarcane tops as well as to optimize the effect of various operational parameters on pretreatment and hydrolysis. A novel surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreatment was developed which could effectively remove hemicelluloses and lignin and improve the reducing sugar yield from sugarcane tops. Operational parameters for pretreatment and hydrolysis were studied and optimized. Under optimal hydrolysis conditions, 0.661 g of reducing sugar was produced per gram of pretreated biomass. The structural changes of native and pretreated biomass were investigated by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR). The results indicate that surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreated sugarcane tops can be used as a potential feed stock for bioethanol production. PMID:23069605

  16. Adaptation of Escherichia coli to elevated sodium concentrations increases cation tolerance and enables greater lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianghao; Altman, Ronni; Eiteman, Mark A; Altman, Elliot

    2014-05-01

    Adaptive evolution was employed to generate sodium (Na(+))-tolerant mutants of Escherichia coli MG1655. Four mutants with elevated sodium tolerance, designated ALS1184, ALS1185, ALS1186, and ALS1187, were independently isolated after 73 days of serial transfer in medium containing progressively greater Na(+) concentrations. The isolates also showed increased tolerance of K(+), although this cation was not used for selective pressure. None of the adapted mutants showed increased tolerance to the nonionic osmolyte sucrose. Several physiological parameters of E. coli MG1655 and ALS1187, the isolate with the greatest Na(+) tolerance, were calculated and compared using glucose-limited chemostats. Genome sequencing showed that the ALS1187 isolate contained mutations in five genes, emrR, hfq, kil, rpsG, and sspA, all of which could potentially affect the ability of E. coli to tolerate Na(+). Two of these genes, hfq and sspA, are known to be involved in global regulatory processes that help cells endure a variety of cellular stresses. Pyruvate formate lyase knockouts were constructed in strains MG1655 and ALS1187 to determine whether increased Na(+) tolerance afforded increased anaerobic generation of lactate. In fed-batch fermentations, E. coli ALS1187 pflB generated 76.2 g/liter lactate compared to MG1655 pflB, which generated only 56.3 g/liter lactate. PMID:24584246

  17. Use of Saccharum spontaneum (wild sugarcane) as biomaterial for cell immobilization and modulated ethanol production by thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae VS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Anuj K; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Chandrasekhar, G; Manikyam, A; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2009-04-01

    Saccharum spontaneum is a wasteland weed consists of 45.10+/-0.35% cellulose and 22.75+/-0.28% of hemicellulose on dry solid (DS) basis. Aqueous ammonia delignified S. spontaneum yielded total reducing sugars, 53.91+/-0.44 g/L (539.10+/-0.55 mg/g of substrate) with a hydrolytic efficiency of 77.85+/-0.45%. The enzymes required for hydrolysis were prepared from culture supernatants of Aspergillus oryzae MTCC 1846. A maximum of 0.85+/-0.07 IU/mL of filter paperase (FPase), 1.25+/-0.04 IU/mL of carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase) and 55.56+/-0.52 IU/mL of xylanase activity was obtained after 7 days of incubation at 28+/-0.5 degrees C using delignified S. spontaneum as carbon source under submerged fermentation conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysate of S. spontaneum was then tested for ethanol production under batch and repeated batch production system using "in-situ" entrapped Saccharomyces cerevisiae VS3 cells in S. spontaneum stalks (1 cm x 1 cm) size. Immobilization was confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Batch fermentation of VS3 free cells and immobilized cells showed ethanol production, 19.45+/-0.55 g/L (yield, 0.410+/-0.010 g/g) and 21.66+/-0.62 g/L (yield, 0.434+/-0.021 g/g), respectively. Immobilized VS3 cells showed maximum ethanol production (22.85+/-0.44 g/L, yield, 0.45+/-0.04 g/g) up to 8th cycle during repeated batch fermentation followed by a gradual reduction in subsequent cycles of fermentation. PMID:19114303

  18. An organic acid-tolerant HAA1-overexpression mutant of an industrial bioethanol strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Inaba, Takuya; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka,Koichi; Ogawa, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Shima, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial contamination is known as a major cause of the reduction in ethanol yield during bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acetate is an effective agent for the prevention of bacterial contamination, but it negatively affects the fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae. We have proposed that the combined use of organic acids including acetate and lactate and yeast strains tolerant to organic acids may be effective for the elimination of principally lactic acid bacterial (LAB)...

  19. PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from sugarcane straw left on the soil surface in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, M. V.; Cerri, C. E.; Carvalho, J. L.; Cerri, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the largest exporter of ethanol from sugarcane in the world, burning the dry leaves and tops in order to facilitate the harvest and transportation of the stalks is still a common practice. Burning plant residues causes emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, besides the release of charcoal particles into the atmosphere. Due to a combination of pressure from changes in the public opinion and economical reasons, in Brazil sugarcane harvest is changing from a burned into an unburned system. Since manual harvest of sugarcane without burning is not economically feasible, mechanical harvesters have been developed that can take the stalk and leave the residues on the field, forming a mulch, in a system called green cane management. It is expected that 80% of the cane harvested in the main producing regions in Brazil will be harvested without burning by 2014. The conversion from burning sugarcane to green management of sugarcane will have impacts on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the plant soil system. The green cane management results in the deposition of large amounts of plant litter on the soil surface after harvest, ranging from 10 to 20 tons per hectare, which impact the whole production process of sugarcane, influencing yields, fertilizer management and application, soil erosion, soil organic matter dynamics as well as greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4). From a GHG perspective, the conservation of sugarcane residues prevents emissions from the burning process, may promote carbon sequestration in soils and releases nitrogen during the decomposition process replacing the need for, and GHG emissions from, fossil fuel based nitrogen fertilizer sources. Measurements of soil C and N stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the burned and unburned sugarcane systems and in the sugarcane expansion areas are still scarce. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to quantify the nitrous oxide

  1. Shiitake (lentinula edodes production on a sterilized bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses Produção de shiitake (Lentinula edodes em substrato esterilizado, elaborado à base de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, suplementado com farelo de arroz e melaço de cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Henrique Rossi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed to evaluate the biological efficiency (BE, mean mushroom weight (MMW, mean number of mushroom (MNM and mushroom quality of Shiitake [ Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler] when grown on a sterilized substrate composed by sugarcane bagasse enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses. The proportions of rice bran were 0, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse; and the concentrations of sugarcane molasses were 0, 30 and 60 g/kg (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse plus rice bran. Four flushes were obtained during the production cycle, providing 3 accumulated productions which were used for production analysis. The substrate supplemented with 25 and 30% rice bran yielded the highest BE (98.42 and 99.84%, respectively, about 230 days after spawning and MNM and initially produced a lower MMW than the substrates supplemented with 15 and 20% rice bran. Any amount of rice bran added to the sugarcane bagasse improved mushroom quality, with the best production of marketable mushrooms obtained by the addition of 15% rice bran. The largest amount of sugarcane molasses (60 g/kg increased BE (90.3 and 23.6%, on first and second accumulated productions, respectively and MNM and no quantity affected mushroom quality.Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência biológica (EB, o peso e número médio (PMC e NMC e a qualidade dos cogumelos de Shiitake [ Lentinula edodes (Berk. Peger] cultivado em substrato esterilizado, elaborado à base de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, enriquecido com farelo de arroz e melaço de cana-de-açúcar. As proporções de farelo de arroz usadas foram 0, 15, 20, 25 e 30% (peso seco/peso seco de bagaço e as concentrações de melaço de cana-de-açúcar utilizadas foram 0, 30 e 60 g/kg(peso seco/peso seco de bagaço mais farelo de arroz. Obteve-se quatro colheitas, constituindo três produções acumuladas que foram usadas para as análises de produção. Os substratos

  2. Energetic efficiency of the use of desiccant in sugarcane; Eficiencia energetica do uso de dessecante em cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Gilda B.C.; Ripoli, Tomaz Caetano C.; Romanelli, Thiago L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz(ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: gildacardoso@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Economically, sugarcane is one of the most important crop in Brazil, showing a great perspective of expansion in the cultivated area. In the last few years the sugarcane mechanical harvested area has increased, causing a series of inconveniences for the system of harvest of the sugarcane, such as: the increase in the percentage of extraneous matter and losses of sugarcane and/or fractions in the field. Due the high value invested in the system of harvest of the sugarcane, the desiccant is one of the alternatives used to minimize such inconveniences in the pre harvest. In order to quantify the demand of energy of the system, the present work used a base of energy pointers as tool for the planning process and production of sugarcane in two systems, one with application of desiccant (T1) and the other without (T2). The energy flows of entrance (EE) and exit had been established, allowing the identification of the energy rocking (BE), that quantifies the liquid profit of energy for area. The results had shown that the application of the desiccant resulted in a bigger EE in system T1 (86601.44 MJ ha{sup -1} versus 83345.45 MJ ha{sup -1}). The BE of T2 presented superior in 0.14% in relation the T1 (2241318.57 MJ ha{sup -1} against 2238062.57 MJ ha{sup -1}), indicating that the desiccant presents greater energy consumption. (author)

  3. Model for Predicting Climatic Yield of Sugarcane in Nanning City

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Zhanggui; Li, Guanghai; Liand, Yulian; Yand, Yuhong; Li, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    According to spatial distribution of climate disasters in Nanning City and physiological and ecological indicator demands of sugarcane, with the aid of HJ-1 CCD satellite remote sensing images, basic meteorological data and geographic information data, this paper established the model for predicting climatic yield of sugarcane in Nanning City, to predict total yield of sugarcane in Nanning City. Results indicated that the distribution of sugarcane in Nanning City is greatly influenced by drou...

  4. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Luo; Yong-Bao Pan; Liping Xu; Michael Paul Grisham; Hua Zhang; Youxiong Que

    2015-01-01

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the contro...

  5. Techno-economic analysis of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using a Liquefaction plus Simultaneous Saccharification and co-Fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubicza, Krisztina; Nieves, Ismael U; Sagues, William J; Barta, Zsolt; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2016-05-01

    A techno-economic analysis was conducted for a simplified lignocellulosic ethanol production process developed and proven by the University of Florida at laboratory, pilot, and demonstration scales. Data obtained from all three scales of development were used with Aspen Plus to create models for an experimentally-proven base-case and 5 hypothetical scenarios. The model input parameters that differed among the hypothetical scenarios were fermentation time, enzyme loading, enzymatic conversion, solids loading, and overall process yield. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) varied between 50.38 and 62.72US cents/L. The feedstock and the capital cost were the main contributors to the production cost, comprising between 23-28% and 40-49% of the MESP, respectively. A sensitivity analysis showed that overall ethanol yield had the greatest effect on the MESP. These findings suggest that future efforts to increase the economic feasibility of a cellulosic ethanol process should focus on optimization for highest ethanol yield. PMID:26918837

  6. Comportamento ingestivo, consumo e digestibilidade de nutrientes, produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar com caroço de algodão Feeding behavior, feed intake and digestibility, milk composition and production of cows fed maize silage or sugarcane with whole cottonseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Paula Sousa

    2009-10-01

    and production and feeding behavior. The treatments consisted of maize silage or sugarcane with 0, 7 or 14% of whole cottonseed. In the established forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40, the corn silage treatment was superior for most of parameters evaluated including dry matter intake (20.8 kg/d, milk and fat corrected milk production (25.0 and 27.0 kg/d and daily production of fat and protein (984 and 772 g/d. Sugarcane with 7% of whole cottonseed treatment increased DM intake (17.1 vs. 15.5 kg/d and sugarcane treatments with both 7% and 14% increased the intakes of ether extract (0.41 and 0.59 vs 0.24 kg/dia, non fibrous carbohydrate (7.4 and 7.3 vs 6.7 kg/d and NDT (11.6 and 11.9 vs 10.4 kg/d compared to sugarcane without whole cottonseed treatment. The higher intake of nutrients resulted in increases in milk production (19.7 and 20.6 vs 18.6 kg/d, fat corrected milk production (21.1 and 21.6 vs 18.9 kg/d and daily fat (771 and 781 vs 664 g/d and protein production (602 and 625 vs 565 g/d by the two levels compared to sugarcane without whole cottonseed treatment, respectively. Sugarcane with 14% whole cottonseed treatment presented negative weight variation (-0.22 kg/d, larger period in rumination activity than sugarcane without whole cottonseed, tendency of lower dry matter and nutrient intake than sugarcane with 7% whole cottonseed. By the data presented, the use and recommendation of larger whole cottonseed content diets should be analyzed with care.

  7. Ozone decay on stainless steel and sugarcane bagasse surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Corrêa, Jorge A.; Oliveira, Carlos; Amorim, Jayr

    2013-07-01

    Ozone was generated using dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure to treat sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production. It was shown that interaction of ozone molecules with the pretreatment reactor wall (stainless steel) needs to be considered during bagasse oxidation in order to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. The decomposition coefficients for ozone on both materials were determined to be (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 for stainless steel and (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-7 for bagasse. The results have indicated that ozone decomposition has occurred more efficiently on the biomass material.

  8. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2004 and succeeding crop years are as...

  9. Ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane: isolation of the causal bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M J; Gillaspie, A G; Harris, R W; Lawson, R H

    1980-12-19

    A small coryneform bacterium was consistently isolated from sugarcane with ratoon stunting disease and shown to be the causal agent. A similar bacterium was isolated from Bermuda grass. Both strains multiplied in sugarcane and Bermuda grass, but the Bermuda grass strain did not incite the symptoms of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane. Shoot growth in Bermuda grass was retarded by both strains. PMID:17817853

  10. Using satellite image-based maps to improve sugarcane straw burning emission estimates in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, D.; Longo, K.; Rudorff, B.; Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S. R.; Stockler, R.; Pereira, G.

    2014-12-01

    Since the last decade, the global demand for biofuel production has been increasing every year due to the growing need for energy supply security and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG). Currently, sugarcane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels and Brazil is already the world's largest sugarcane producer, devoting almost 50% of it to ethanol production. The state of São Paulo is the major sugarcane producer in this country, with a cultivated area of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 million hectares were harvested annually from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw burning practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The assessment and monitoring of sugarcane burning impacts are fundamental in order to mitigate the negative impacts of pre-harvest burning and consolidate the environmental benefits of sugarcane ethanol. Although some official inventories created by the Brazilian government have indicated the prevalence of emissions from sugarcane straw burning in total agricultural residue emissions, specific information about emissions of gases and aerosols during pre-harvest burning of sugarcane is still scarce in Brazil. This study aimed to contribute to the improvement of estimates of emissions from sugarcane burning through the use of specific parameters for sugarcane straw burning and a method which has avoided underestimations resulting from the unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. In this investigation, emissions of several air pollutants released by sugarcane burning during the harvest season were estimated through the integrated use of remote sensing based maps of sugarcane burned area and a numerical tool for the state of São Paulo from 2006 to 2011. Average estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1,130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOX, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among annual emissions from this

  11. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammad Suhail

    2014-06-09

    Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70. kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane. © 2014 The Authors.

  12. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Suhail Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%, catalytic activity (13%, cell growth (10% and transport related proteins (6%. A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane.

  13. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Suhail; Khraiwesh, Basel; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Gupta, Ram Sagar; Singh, Jyotsnendra; Duttamajumder, Sanjoy Kumar; Kapur, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane. PMID:25009768

  14. An environmental life cycle assessment comparing Australian sugarcane with US corn and UK sugar beet as producers of sugars for fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane is a highly suitable substrate for the production of bio-products. As well as producing high yields of sugar, much of the plant's fibre is also recovered and used as a source of renewable energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of sugarcane production and processing in Australia was performed to develop an environmental profile of sugarcane as a source of bio-products. The application examined was fermentation products from sugar. The sugarcane results were compared with results for other sugar producing crops - US corn and UK sugar beet - to gauge its relative environmental performance. The results show sugarcane to have an advantage in respect of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions and possibly acidification potential due to its high saccharide yield and the displacement of fossil fuels with surplus renewable energy from cane fibre (bagasse). However Australian sugarcane can exhibit high nitrous oxide emissions, which would reduce greenhouse gas advantages in some regions. For eutrophication, sugar beet provides advantages due to the avoided production of other agricultural crops displaced by the use of beet pulp as an animal feed. The three factors found to have the most influence on the environmental impacts of these agro-industrial systems were the commodities displaced by by-products, agricultural yields, and nitrogen use efficiency. (author)

  15. An environmental life cycle assessment comparing Australian sugarcane with US corn and UK sugar beet as producers of sugars for fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane is a highly suitable substrate for the production of bio-products. As well as producing high yields of sugar, much of the plant's fibre is also recovered and used as a source of renewable energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of sugarcane production and processing in Australia was performed to develop an environmental profile of sugarcane as a source of bio-products. The application examined was fermentation products from sugar. The sugarcane results were compared with results for other sugar producing crops-US corn and UK sugar beet-to gauge its relative environmental performance. The results show sugarcane to have an advantage in respect of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions and possibly acidification potential due to its high saccharide yield and the displacement of fossil fuels with surplus renewable energy from cane fibre (bagasse). However Australian sugarcane can exhibit high nitrous oxide emissions, which would reduce greenhouse gas advantages in some regions. For eutrophication, sugar beet provides advantages due to the avoided production of other agricultural crops displaced by the use of beet pulp as an animal feed. The three factors found to have the most influence on the environmental impacts of these agro-industrial systems were the commodities displaced by by-products, agricultural yields, and nitrogen use efficiency

  16. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Suhail Khan; Basel Khraiwesh; Ganesan Pugalenthi; Ram Sagar Gupta; Jyotsnendra Singh; Sanjoy Kumar Duttamajumder; Raman Kapur

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major gro...

  17. Signal transduction-related responses to phytohormones and environmental challenges in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemerly Adriana S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane is an increasingly economically and environmentally important C4 grass, used for the production of sugar and bioethanol, a low-carbon emission fuel. Sugarcane originated from crosses of Saccharum species and is noted for its unique capacity to accumulate high amounts of sucrose in its stems. Environmental stresses limit enormously sugarcane productivity worldwide. To investigate transcriptome changes in response to environmental inputs that alter yield we used cDNA microarrays to profile expression of 1,545 genes in plants submitted to drought, phosphate starvation, herbivory and N2-fixing endophytic bacteria. We also investigated the response to phytohormones (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. The arrayed elements correspond mostly to genes involved in signal transduction, hormone biosynthesis, transcription factors, novel genes and genes corresponding to unknown proteins. Results Adopting an outliers searching method 179 genes with strikingly different expression levels were identified as differentially expressed in at least one of the treatments analysed. Self Organizing Maps were used to cluster the expression profiles of 695 genes that showed a highly correlated expression pattern among replicates. The expression data for 22 genes was evaluated for 36 experimental data points by quantitative RT-PCR indicating a validation rate of 80.5% using three biological experimental replicates. The SUCAST Database was created that provides public access to the data described in this work, linked to tissue expression profiling and the SUCAST gene category and sequence analysis. The SUCAST database also includes a categorization of the sugarcane kinome based on a phylogenetic grouping that included 182 undefined kinases. Conclusion An extensive study on the sugarcane transcriptome was performed. Sugarcane genes responsive to phytohormones and to challenges sugarcane commonly deals with in the field were identified

  18. Sugarcane bagasse gasification: Global reaction mechanism of syngas evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated using a semi batch reactor. ► Global reaction mechanism combining pyrolysis and gasification reactions is presented. ► High flow rates of syngas supported fragmentation and secondary reactions. ► CO flow rate increased at higher heating rates at the expense of CO2 production. ► At high temperatures merger between pyrolysis and char gasification occurs. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated. A semi batch reactor with a fixed amount of sugarcane bagasse sample placed in steady flow of high temperature steam at atmospheric pressure has been used. The gasification of bagasse was examined at reactor and steam temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The evolution of syngas flow rate and chemical composition has been monitored. The evolution of chemical composition and total flow rate of the syngas has been used to formulate a global reaction mechanism. The mechanism combines pyrolysis reaction mechanisms from the literature and steam gasification/reforming reactions. Steam gasification steps include steam–hydrocarbons reforming, char gasification and water gas shift reactions. Evidence of fragmentation, secondary ring opening reactions and tertiary reactions resulting in formation of gaseous hydrocarbons is supported by higher flow rates of syngas and hydrogen at high heating rates and high reactor temperatures. Increase in carbon monoxide flow rate at the expense of carbon dioxide flow rate with the increase in reactor temperature has been observed. This increase in the ratio of CO/CO2 flow rate confirms the production of CO and CO2 from the competing reaction routes. At 1000 °C gasification a total merging between the pyrolysis step and the char gasification step has been observed. This is attributed to acceleration of char gasification reactions and acceleration of steam–hydrocarbons reforming reactions. These hydrocarbons are the precursors to char

  19. Development and Integration of an SSR-Based Molecular Identity Database into Sugarcane Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bao Pan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane breeding is very difficult and it takes 12 to 14 years to develop a new cultivar for commercial production. This is because sugarcane varieties are highly polyploid, inter-specific hybrids with 100 to 130 chromosomes that may vary across geographical areas. Other obstacles/constraints include the small size of flowers that may not synchronize but may self-pollinate, difficulty in distinguishing hybrids from self progenies, extreme (G × E interactive effect, and potential variety mis-identification during vegetative propagation and varietal exchange. To help cane breeders circumvent these constraints, a simple sequence repeats (SSR-based molecular identity database has been developed at the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Sugarcane Research Unit in Houma, LA. Since 2005, approximately 2000 molecular identities have been constructed for clones of sugarcane and related Saccharum species that cover geographical areas including Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, Thailand, USA (Louisiana, Florida, Texas, and Hawaii, and Venezuela. The molecular identity database is updated annually and has been utilized to: (1 provide molecular descriptors to newly registered cultivars; (2 identify in a timely fashion any mislabeled or unidentifiable clones from cross parents and field evaluation plots; (3 develop de novo clones of energy cane with S. spontaneum cytoplasm; (4 provide clone-specific fingerprint information for assessing cross quality and paternity of polycross; (5 determine genetic relatedness of parental clones; (6 select F1 hybrids from (elite × wild or (wild × elite crosses; and (7 investigate the inheritance of SSR markers in sugarcane. The integration of the molecular identity database into the sugarcane breeding program may improve the overall efficacy of cultivar development and commercialization.

  20. High throughput screening of hydrolytic enzymes from termites using a natural substrate derived from sugarcane bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Lucena Severino A; Lima Leile S; Cordeiro Luís SA; Sant'Anna Celso; Constantino Reginaldo; Azambuja Patricia; Souza Wanderley de; Garcia Eloi S; Genta Fernando A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The description of new hydrolytic enzymes is an important step in the development of techniques which use lignocellulosic materials as a starting point for fuel production. Sugarcane bagasse, which is subjected to pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation for the production of ethanol in several test refineries, is the most promising source of raw material for the production of second generation renewable fuels in Brazil. One problem when screening hydrolytic activities i...

  1. High throughput screening of hydrolytic enzymes from termites using a natural substrate derived from sugarcane bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Lucena, Severino A; Lima, Leile S; Cordeiro, Luís SA; Sant'Anna, Celso; Constantino, Reginaldo; de Azambuja, Patricia; de Souza, Wanderley; Eloi S. Garcia; Fernando A Genta

    2011-01-01

    Background The description of new hydrolytic enzymes is an important step in the development of techniques which use lignocellulosic materials as a starting point for fuel production. Sugarcane bagasse, which is subjected to pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation for the production of ethanol in several test refineries, is the most promising source of raw material for the production of second generation renewable fuels in Brazil. One problem when screening hydrolytic activities is that th...

  2. Aumento na produção de biomassa de levedura em propagador aerado por processo descontínuo e semicontínuo para produção de cachaça Increase in yeast biomass production in batch and semi-continuous aerated propagators in the production of sugarcane spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes

    2013-01-01

    to cells and reduced the levels of ethanol and acids produced. The propagation carried out by the semi-continuous process was more efficient than that with the simple batch system. The use of an agro industrial medium supplemented with a protein source, as usually done in the propagation of yeast for the production of sugarcane spirit, provided the greatest increases in biomass and the best parameters for propagation as compared to a complex medium. These results will contribute to the development of an operational protocol for propagation of the yeast to be used in the production of sugarcane spirit.

  3. Induction and isolation of mutants in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the progress made on the induction of mutations in sugarcane at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, is presented. A description of some of the mutants is given. A few disease-resistant mutants have been obtained. Yield of C.C.S./ha of some of the mutants has surpassed the parent variety. Selection based on individual canes has increased the mutation rate and stability of mutants. Different techniques such as decapitation, closer planting and growing vM1 generation at different N levels have been observed to be promising methods to increase mutation rate. Raising of plants from mutated tissues by in vitro culture seems to be a potential tool in induced mutagenesis in sugarcane. (author)

  4. Cultivating C4 crops in a changing climate: sugarcane in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the next few decades, it is expected that increasing fossil fuel prices will lead to a proliferation of energy crop cultivation initiatives. The environmental sustainability of these activities is thus a pressing issue—particularly when they take place in vulnerable regions, such as West Africa. In more general terms, the effect of increased CO2 concentrations and higher temperatures on biomass production and evapotranspiration affects the evolution of the global hydrological and carbon cycles. Investigating these processes for a C4 crop, such as sugarcane, thus provides an opportunity both to extend our understanding of the impact of climate change, and to assess our capacity to model the underpinning processes. This paper applies a process-based crop model to sugarcane in Ghana (where cultivation is planned), and the São Paulo region of Brazil (which has a well-established sugarcane industry). We show that, in the Daka River region of Ghana, provided there is sufficient irrigation, it is possible to generate approximately 75% of the yield achieved in the São Paulo region. In the final part of the study, the production of sugarcane under an idealized temperature increase climate change scenario is explored. It is shown that doubling CO2 mitigates the degree of water stress associated with a 4 °C increase in temperature. (letter)

  5. Cultivating C4 crops in a changing climate: sugarcane in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Emily; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Verhoef, Anne; Vianna Cuadra, Santiago; Osborne, Tom; Van den Hoof, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    Over the next few decades, it is expected that increasing fossil fuel prices will lead to a proliferation of energy crop cultivation initiatives. The environmental sustainability of these activities is thus a pressing issue—particularly when they take place in vulnerable regions, such as West Africa. In more general terms, the effect of increased CO2 concentrations and higher temperatures on biomass production and evapotranspiration affects the evolution of the global hydrological and carbon cycles. Investigating these processes for a C4 crop, such as sugarcane, thus provides an opportunity both to extend our understanding of the impact of climate change, and to assess our capacity to model the underpinning processes. This paper applies a process-based crop model to sugarcane in Ghana (where cultivation is planned), and the São Paulo region of Brazil (which has a well-established sugarcane industry). We show that, in the Daka River region of Ghana, provided there is sufficient irrigation, it is possible to generate approximately 75% of the yield achieved in the São Paulo region. In the final part of the study, the production of sugarcane under an idealized temperature increase climate change scenario is explored. It is shown that doubling CO2 mitigates the degree of water stress associated with a 4 °C increase in temperature.

  6. Sugarcane biorefineries: Case studies applied to the Brazilian sugar–alcohol industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Advanced system of co-generation improves the energy performance of biorefineries. • Sugarcane straw as additional source of fuel in the biorefinery resulted positive. • The farming and transport of sugarcane cause the main environmental impacts. - Abstract: The use of biomasses is becoming increasingly appealing alternative, to give an partial solution lack of energy, with an ecofriendly approach, having on sugarcane a solid fundament; that receives the new and valuable complement of the innovative concept of the biorefineries it is productive installations, that can be summarized as to reach the higher overall yield from the raw materials, with the lowest environmental impact, at minimum energy input and giving the maximum of the energy output. The biorefinery is the true valuable option of a wide diversification, with by-products like the single cell protein and biogas from the distillery vinasse, new oxidants like methanol, second generation biofuels, biobutanol, etc. In this context this paper presents a study of five different configurations of biorefineries. Each case study being a system based on an autonomous distillery or sugar mill with an annexed distillery and coproduction of methanol from bagasse. The paper includes the use of sugarcane harvest residues (mainly straw) and a BIG–GT plant (Biomass Integrated Gasification–Gas Turbine) as alternatives to fulfill the energy demands of the complex

  7. Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araújo

    2010-06-01

    Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of São Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement. PMID:20163947

  8. Use of Cation Exchange Resins for Production of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} Suitable for the Al-U{sub 3}O{sub 8} Powder Metallurgy Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosley, W.C.

    2001-09-17

    This report describes the production of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powders from three types of cation exchange resins: Dowex 50W, a strong acid, sulfonate resin; AG MP-50, a macroporous form of sulfonate resin; and Bio-Rex 70, a weak acid, carboxylic resin.

  9. Evaluation of relative biological efficiency of additives in sugarcane ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Oliveira Borgatti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding alkalis on the fermentative pattern, aerobic stability and nutritive value of the sugarcane silage. A completely randomized design with 6 additives in two concentrations (1 or 2%, plus a control group, totalizing 13 treatments [(6×2+1] with four replications, was used. The additives were sodium hydroxide (NaOH, limestone (CaCO3, urea (CO(NH22, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, quicklime (CaO and hydrated lime (Ca(OH2. The material was ensiled in 52 laboratory silos using plastic buckets with 12 L of capacity. Silos were opened 60 days after ensiling, when organic acids concentration, aerobic stability and chemical composition were determined. The Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE was calculated by the slope ratio method, using the data obtained from ratio between desirable and undesirable silage products, according to the equation: D/U ratio = [lactic/(ethanol + acetic + butyric]. All additives affected dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber contents and buffering capacity. Except for urea and quicklime, all additives increased the in vitro dry matter digestibility. In general, these additives altered the fermentative pattern of sugarcane silage, inhibiting alcoholic fermentation and improving lactic acid production. The additive that showed the best RBE in relation to sodium hydroxide (100% was limestone (89.4%. The RBE values of urea, sodium bicarbonate and hydrated lime were 49.2%, 47.7% and 34.3%, respectively.

  10. Process integration and pinch analysis in sugarcane industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Adelk de Carvalho; Pinheiro, Ricardo Brant [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: rbp@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2010-07-01

    Process integration techniques were applied, particularly through the Pinch Analysis method, to sugarcane industry. Research was performed upon harvest data from an agroindustrial complex which processes sugarcane plant in excess of 3.5 million metric tons per year, producing motor fuel grade ethanol, standard quality sugar, and delivering excess electric power to the grid. Pinch Analysis was used in assessing internal heat recovery as well as external utility demand targets, while keeping the lowest but economically achievable targets for entropy increase. Efficiency on the use of energy was evaluated for the plant as it was found (the base case) as well as for five selected process and/or plant design modifications, always with guidance of the method. The first alternative design (case 2) was proposed to evaluate equipment mean idle time in the base case, to support subsequent comparisons. Cases 3 and 4 were used to estimate the upper limits of combined heat and power generation while raw material supply of the base case is kept; both the cases did not prove worth implementing. Cases 5 and 6 were devised to deal with the bottleneck of the plant, namely boiler capacity, in order to allow for some production increment. Inexpensive, minor modifications considered in case 5 were found unable to produce reasonable outcome gain. Nevertheless, proper changes in cane juice evaporation section (case 6) could allow sugar and ethanol combined production to rise up to 9.1% relative to the base case, without dropping cogenerated power. (author)

  11. The Selective Separation of Anions and Cations in Nuclear Waste Using Commercially Available Molecular Recognition Technology (MRT) Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izatt, S. R.; Bruening, R. L.; Krakowiak, K. E.; Izatt, R. M.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the use of some of IBC's SuperLig{reg_sign}, MacroLig{reg_sign}, and AnaLig{reg_sign} molecular recognition technology products to effectively and selectively separate and recover cesium, technetium, strontium, and radium from radioactive waste solutions. Distinct advantages are given over conventional separation techniques. Separations are described and results given for the target ions over chemically similar ions often present at much higher concentrations. The separations are performed in solutions of either high or low pH and usually containing high concentrations of salts. Other separations involving components of radioactive and mixed waste are noted.

  12. Damages of spittlebug on sugarcane quality and fermentation process Danos promovidos por cigarrinha-das-raízes na qualidade da cana e processo fermentativo

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Branquinho Garcia; Gisele Cristina Ravaneli; Leonardo Lucas Madaleno; Miguel Angelo Mutton; Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the raw material defines the industrial potential production. The harvest of raw sugarcane promoted a favorable environment for the increase of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål, 1854) pest that affects the plant development. This research was undertaken to evaluate the effects of M. fimbriolata on sugarcane quality and fermentation process. For the technological analysis, four damage levels and two evaluation periods were evaluated, while four fermentation cycles and two evaluation ...

  13. RNA Interference of Endochitinases in the Sugarcane Endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 Reduces Its Fitness as a Biocontrol Agent of Pineapple Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aline S Romão-Dumaresq; Welington Luiz Araújo; Nicholas J Talbot; Thornton, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    The sugarcane root endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 holds enormous potential as a sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides in the control of sugarcane diseases. Its efficacy as a biocontrol agent is thought to be associated with its production of chitinase enzymes, including N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidases, chitobiosidases and endochitinases. We used targeted gene deletion and RNA-dependent gene silencing strategies to disrupt N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase and endochitinase activities of t...

  14. [Surveillance experience in the sugarcane sector: challenges in disrupting the perilous "marathon" of the sugarcane plantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; dos Santos, Simone Alves; da Silva, Alessandro José Nunes; de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz

    2014-12-01

    The sugar-alcohol sector is growing year by year, especially in the state of Sao Paulo where approximately 42.9% of the sugar-ethanol plants are concentrated. The production chain is a subject for concern to public agencies and to civil society by exposing migrant workers to risks arising from the work process. In Sao Paulo, from 2006-2009, Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT) set up two initiatives to address problems related to the housing and working conditions of sugarcane workers. The objective of this article presented in the form of an essay is to analyze the experiences in their context. The methodology used combines document analysis with the perception of the authors who participated in the actions. The experience led to improvements in these conditions and fostered public debate on the conditions of such physically demanding work. The interventions resulted in a definition of sanitary norms and initiatives at the legislative and judicial level, but even the most successful measures failed to attain the organizational targets, especially a production remuneration structure that challenges the traditional action of surveillance and the impacts were weakened due to the fragility of worker representation for the sector. PMID:25388174

  15. Volatilization kinetics of secondary compounds from sugarcane spirits during double distillation in rectifying still Cinética de volatilização de componentes secundários da aguardente de cana-de-açúcar durante dupla destilação em alambique retificador

    OpenAIRE

    André Ricardo Alcarde; Paula Araújo de Souza; André Eduardo de Souza Belluco

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative variation of secondary components plays a key role in the aroma and taste of the sugarcane spirit. The objective of this work was to study the volatilization kinetics of secondary components of sugarcane spirits during double distillation process in a rectifying still to verify the cutoff point in ethanol between "head" and "tail" fractions. Fermented sugarcane juice was distilled in rectifying still according to the methodology used for whisky production. Both distillates fro...

  16. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia. PMID:23021947

  17. The effect of degradation products of strong acidic cation exchange resins on radionuclide speciation: A case study with Ni2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolytic degradation experiments with acidic ion-exchange resins revealed oxalate and an unidentified ligand X to be the most strongly complexing ligands of the degradation products. The influence of these ligands on the Ni speciation in groundwater and cement pore water of a repository is assessed. A complete and reliable thermodynamic database is built for this case study. Missing stability constants are estimated by chemical reasoning. Subsequent sensitivity analyses show whether these species are important or not. The backdoor approach used in this study addresses the following question: What concentrations must the ligand have to significantly influence the Ni speciation? In the case of oxalate, the concentration necessary to complex 90% Ni will never be exceeded within the repository or in its environment due to precipitation of Ca-oxalate solids. Thus, a negative effect of oxalate on Ni speciation and sorption need not be considered in safety assessments. In the case of ligand X, calculations demonstrate that Ni speciation is highly dependent on geochemical conditions and is occasionally ambiguous due to uncertainties in estimated stability constants. Hints are given to deal with these ambiguities in future safety assessment, and further experimental investigations are proposed to decrease uncertainties when necessary

  18. Climate changes and technological advances: impacts on sugarcane productivity in tropical southern Brazil Mudanças climáticas e avanço tecnológico: impactos na produtividade da cana-de-açúcar na região centro-sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Ribeiro Ferreira Gouvêa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The climatic projections for this century indicate the possibility of severe consequences for human beings, especially for agriculture where adverse effects to productivity of crops and to agribusiness as a whole may occur. An agrometeorological model was used to estimate sugarcane yield in tropical southern Brazil, based on future A1B climatic scenarios presented in the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, in 2007. Sugarcane yield was evaluated for 2020, 2050, and 2080 considering the possible impacts caused by changes in temperature, precipitation, sunshine hours and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, as well as technological advances. Increasingly higher temperatures will cause an increase of the potential productivity (PP, since this variable positively affects the efficiency of the photosynthetic processes of C4 plants. Changes in solar radiation and rainfall, however, will have less impact. PP will increase by 15% in relation to the present condition in 2020, by 33% in 2050 and by 47% in 2080. Regarding the actual productivities (AP, the increase observed in PP will compensate for the negative effect of the projected increase in water deficit. AP will increase by 12% in relation to the present condition in 2020, by 32% in 2050 and by 47% in 2080. The increase in sugarcane productivity resulting from the projected scenarios will have important impacts on the sugarcane sector.As projeções climáticas para este século indicam a possibilidade de graves conseqüências para a humanidade, especialmente para a agricultura, com efeitos adversos nas produtividades das culturas e no agronegócio como um todo. Neste estudo, foi utilizado um modelo agrometeorológico para estimar a produtividade da cana-de-açúcar na região de Piracicaba, SP, Brasil, baseado nos cenários futuros do clima A1B, apresentados no quarto relatório do Painel Intergovernamental sobre Mudanças Climáticas, de 2007. A produtividade da cana

  19. The Potential Growth of Sugarcane in Constructed Wetlands Designed for Tertiary Treatment of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina M. R. Mateus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the bioenergy crop Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane as vegetation and mineral wastes for filling in constructed wetlands (CWs designed for the removal of nutrients from wastewater. Four horizontal subsurface flow pilot-scale CWs were monitored during one year: two filled with fragmented limestone and two with clay brick fragments, two planted and two unplanted controls. Sugarcane stalk height, diameter and foliar area were evaluated during the plant-cane cycle along with total phosphorus (TP and total nitrogen (TN removal efficiencies from the wastewater. Sugarcane biomass production was 107 ton/ha for the brick fragments filled CW and 67 ton/ha for the fragmented limestone filled CW. Planted CWs show better nutrient removal efficiencies than the unplanted. Planted CW filled with brick fragments show average efficiencies of 77% ± 4% for TP and 60% ± 12% for TN, and planted CW filled with fragmented limestone 68% ± 3% for TP and 58% ± 7% for TN. Results showed that the use of sugarcane as CW vegetation is a viable alternative to produce a bioethanol raw-material without the use of arable land and irrigation water, while it maintains the wastewater treatment capabilities of CWs.

  20. Cultivar Evaluation and Essential Test Locations Identification for Sugarcane Breeding in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancies across test sites and years, along with the interaction between cultivar and environment, make it difficult to accurately evaluate the differences of the sugarcane cultivars. Using a genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (GGE Biplot software, the yield performance data of seven sugarcane cultivars in the 8th Chinese National Sugarcane Regional Tests were analyzed to identify cultivars recommended for commercial release. Fn38 produced a high and stable sugar yield. Gn02-70 had the lowest cane yield with high stability. Yz06-407 was a high cane yield cultivar with poor stability in sugar yield. Yz05-51 and Lc03-1137 had an unstable cane yield but relatively high sugar yield. Fn39 produced stable high sugar yield with low and unstable cane production. Significantly different sugar and cane yields were observed across seasons due to strong cultivar-environment interactions. Three areas, Guangxi Chongzuo, Guangxi Baise, and Guangxi Hechi, showed better representativeness of cane yield and sugar content than the other four areas. On the other hand, the areas Guangxi Chongzuo, Yunnan Lincang, and Yunnan Baoshan showed strong discrimination ability, while the areas Guangxi Hechi and Guangxi Liuzhou showed poor discrimination ability. This study provides a reference for cultivar evaluation and essential test locations identification for sugarcane breeding in China.

  1. Supercritical steam cycles and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles for sugarcane mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, Luiz Felipe; Burbano, Juan Carlos [Laboratory of Environmental and Thermal Engineering, Polytechnic School - University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 1289 Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); de Oliveira Junior, Silvio [Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Technological University of Pereira, Pereira (Colombia)

    2010-02-15

    Back in 1970s and 1980s, cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills were primarily designed to consume all bagasse, and produce steam and electricity to the process. The plants used medium pressure steam boilers (21 bar and 300 C) and backpressure steam turbines. Some plants needed also an additional fuel, as the boilers were very inefficient. In those times, sugarcane bagasse did not have an economic value, and it was considered a problem by most mills. During the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s, sugarcane industry faced an open market perspective, thus, there was a great necessity to reduce costs in the production processes. In addition, the economic value of by-products (bagasse, molasses, etc.) increased, and there was a possibility of selling electricity to the grid. This new scenario led to a search for more advanced cogeneration systems, based mainly on higher steam parameters (40-80 bar and 400-500 C). In the future, some authors suggest that biomass integrated gasification combined cycles are the best alternative to cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills. These systems might attain 35-40% efficiency for the power conversion. However, supercritical steam cycles might also attain these efficiency values, what makes them an alternative to gasification-based systems. This paper presents a comparative thermoeconomic study of these systems for sugarcane mills. The configurations studied are based on real systems that could be adapted to biomass use. Different steam consumptions in the process are considered, in order to better integrate these configurations in the mill. (author)

  2. Model for Predicting Climatic Yield of Sugarcane in Nanning City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanggui; LAN; Guanghai; LI; Yulian; LIANG; Yuhong; YANG; Xiaoping; LI

    2014-01-01

    According to spatial distribution of climate disasters in Nanning City and physiological and ecological indicator demands of sugarcane,with the aid of HJ- 1 CCD satellite remote sensing images,basic meteorological data and geographic information data,this paper established the model for predicting climatic yield of sugarcane in Nanning City,to predict total yield of sugarcane in Nanning City. Results indicated that the distribution of sugarcane in Nanning City is greatly influenced by drought. In 2010,regions suffered from drought had sugarcane planting area of 346. 20 km2,accounting for 18.88% of the total sugarcane planting area. The influence of frost disaster on distribution of sugarcane in Nanning City is limited. Regions suffered from frost had sugarcane planting area of only 67. 1 km2,taking up 3.75% of the total sugarcane planting area. In 2010,the climatic yield of sugarcane in Nanning City was 8. 8446 million tons. It proved that the prediction accuracy of the model is up to 90%.

  3. Evaluation of sugarcane laboratory ensiling and analysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Faria Pedroso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effects of laboratory-silo type and method of silage extract production, respectively, on sugarcane silage fermentation and recovery of fermentation products. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested and ensiled in three different types of laboratory silos (five replicates: 9.7 × 30 cm PVC tubes with tight lids, equipped or unequipped with Bunsen valves, and 20 L plastic buckets with tight lids and Bunsen valves. Three methods were used to produce silage extracts for pH, ethanol, acetic and lactic acids determination: extraction of silage juice by a hydraulic press and production of water extracts using a stomacher or a blender. Total dry matter loss (231 g/kg DM was not affected by silo type. No interactions between silo type and method of silage extract production were observed for ethanol and organic acids contents in the silages. Interaction between silo type and method of silage extract preparation was detected for pH. Silo type affected ethanol content but did not affect lactic and acetic acids concentration in the silages. Dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and ash were not affected by silo type. The method used to produce silage extracts affected the recovery of all fermentation products analyzed in the silages. Recovery of ethanol and acetic acid was higher when silage extracts were produced using a blender. For lactic acid recovery, the hydraulic press method was superior to the other two methods. Silage fermentation pattern is not affected by silo type, but the method used to produce silage extracts and some characteristics of silos affect the recovery of volatile fermentation products.

  4. Absorption mechanisms for cationic and anionic mineral species on ferric iron polymer hydroxides and oxidation products of ferrous iron in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorbents obtained by hydrolysing the Fe3+, 6H2O ion are made of polymers with aquo (H2O), hydroxo (-OH...) and oxo (...O...) ligands. Radioactive tracers reveal the importance of chemical mechanisms in adsorption phenomena on ferric oxide in aqueous media. Zn2+, Co2+ and Mn2+ cations are exchanged with hydrogen from hydroxo groups. CrO42-, SeO32- and Sb(OH)6- anions form covalent associations in place of iron ligands. The adsorption of hydrolyzed ions results in strong oxygen bridge bonds. In fresh water, Co and Mn participate alone in physical electrostatic adsorption. Iron II oxidation products generate chemical adsorptions. Zn2+ and Sb(OH)6- associate with ferric hydroxides from oxidized Fe2+. 60Co, 54Mn and 51Cr form covalent associations between unpaired 3d iron electrons and the adsorbed element. This process is not predominant with selenium IV or VI reduced to the metallic state or fixed on ferric hydroxide in the selenite form. These conclusions can be applied to pollutant analysis and to water purification and contribute to our understanding of the role of iron in the distribution of oligo-elements in aqueous media. (author)

  5. Production, characterization, and flocculation mechanism of cation independent, pH tolerant, and thermally stable bioflocculant from Enterobacter sp. ETH-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tang

    Full Text Available Synthetic high polymer flocculants, frequently utilized for flocculating efficiency and low cost, recently have been discovered as producing increased risk to human health and the environment. Development of a more efficient and environmentally sound alternative flocculant agent is investigated in this paper. Bioflocculants are produced by microorganisms and may exhibit a high rate of flocculation activity. The bioflocculant ETH-2, with high flocculating activity (2849 mg Kaolin particle/mg ETH-2, produced by strain Enterobacter sp. isolated from activated sludge, was systematically investigated with regard to its production, characterization, and flocculation mechanism. Analyses of microscopic observation, zeta potential and ETH-2 structure demonstrates the bridging mechanism, as opposed to charge neutralization, was responsible for flocculation of the ETH-2. ETH-2 retains high molecular weight (603 to 1820 kDa and multi-functional groups (hydroxyl, amide and carboxyl that contributed to flocculation. Polysaccharides mainly composed of mannose, glucose, and galactose, with a molar ratio of 1:2.9:9.8 were identified as the active constituents in bioflocculant. The structure of the long backbone with active sites of polysaccharides was determined as a primary basis for the high flocculation activity. Bioflocculant ETH-2 is cation independent, pH tolerant, and thermally stable, suggesting a potential fit for industrial application.

  6. Reuteran and levan as carbohydrate sinks in transgenic sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Rolene; Basson, Carin E; Bekker, Jan; Eduardo, Iban; Rohwer, Johann M; Uys, Lafras; van Wyk, Johannes H; Kossmann, Jens

    2012-12-01

    The present study reports the effect of high molecular weight bacterial fructan (levan) and glucan (reuteran) on growth and carbohydrate partitioning in transgenic sugarcane plants. These biopolymers are products of bacterial glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the polymerization of glucose or fructose residues from sucrose. Constructs, targeted to different subcellular compartments (cell wall and cytosol) and driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S: maize-ubiquitin promoter, were introduced into sugarcane by biolistic transformation. Polysaccharide accumulation severely affected growth of callus suspension cultures. Regeneration of embryonic callus tissue into plants proved problematic for cell wall-targeted lines. When targeted to the cytosol, only plants with relative low levels of biopolymer accumulation survived. In internodal stalk tissue that accumulate reuteran (max 0.03 mg/g FW), sucrose content (ca 60 mg/g FW) was not affected, while starch content (<0.4 mg/g FW) was increased up to four times. Total carbohydrate content was not significantly altered. On the other hand, starch and sucrose levels were significantly reduced in plants accumulating levan (max 0.01 mg/g FW). Heterologous expression resulted in a reduction in total carbohydrate assimilation rather than a simple diversion by competition for substrate. PMID:22903192

  7. Food consumption of sugarcane workers' families in the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Messias Muniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the food intake of sugarcane workers' family members. METHODS: The food intake of 159 family members of sugarcane workers from Gameleira, Pernambuco, Brazilian Northeast, was investigated by directly weighing the foods on three non-consecutive days. The percent risk of inadequate macro- and micronutrient intakes was analyzed according to the Reference Dietary Intakes. The macronutrients were analyzed in relation to acceptable distribution intervals. The energy consumed from the various food groups was expressed as a ratio of the total energy intake. RESULTS: The median intake of carbohydrates and proteins remained above the Estimated Average Requirement, and all age groups presented a low risk of inadequate carbohydrate and protein intakes. The median intakes of riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, and iron remained above the Estimated Average Requirement for all age groups, but children aged 1-3 years presented a high percent risk of inadequate iron intake. All age groups presented high percent risk of inadequate zinc, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C intakes. Grains and derivatives had a greater participation in the total energy intake, especially in men aged 19-30 years. The group "milk and dairy products" had a greater participation in the diet of children aged 1-3 years. CONCLUSION: The low percent risk of inadequate carbohydrate and protein intakes in all age groups was opposed to the high risk of inadequate mineral and vitamin intakes, making the population vulnerable to nutritional disorders caused by excess macronutrient intake and inadequate micronutrient intake.

  8. Experimental study of the process of cutting of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass densification has encouraged significant interest around the world as a technique for utilization of agro and forest residues as an energy source, and pellets/briquettes production has grown rapidly in last few years. The cutting process is one of the most important steps for biomass preparation prior densification. This stage helps to homogenize the raw material and therefore facilitate handling, feeding and filling in the briquetting equipment. The aim of this work was to study the behavior of sugarcane bagasse submitted to cutting, as a function of its moisture content, angle of the blade edge and cutting speed. The specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were measure using an experimental facility developed for this series of experiments. An analysis of the results of the full factorial experimental design using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The response surfaces and empirical models for the specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were obtained using statistical analysis system software. Low angle of the blade edge and low moisture content are, in this order, the most important experimental factors in determining a low specific cutting energy and a low peak cutting force respectively. The best cutting conditions are achieved for an angle of blade edge of 20.8° and a moisture content of 10% w. b. The results of this work could contribute to the optimal design of sugarcane bagasse pre-treatment systems. (full text)

  9. Synthesis of cellulose acetate and carboxymethylcellulose from sugarcane straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido, R G; Gonçalves, A R

    2016-11-01

    Sugarcane straw (SCS) is a raw material with high potential for production of cellulose derivatives due to its morphology and structure. The proposal of this work was to synthesize cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from sugarcane straw cellulose, and applied the CA in the preparation of a membrane. The cellulose extraction was carried out in four steps. Firstly, SCS was treated with H2SO4 (10% v/v) followed by NaOH (5% w/v) treatment. Subsequently, a chelating process was performed before ending the extraction process with chemical bleaching using H2O2 (5% v/v). The extracted cellulose was employed in the obtainment of CA and CMC. The CA presented a degree of substitution (DS) of 2.72. Its FTIR spectrum showed that practically all hydroxyl groups were replaced by acetate groups. The membrane synthesized from CA was dense and homogeneous. The presence of small particles on the top and bottom surfaces decreased the mechanical resistance of the membrane. The CMC presented a low DS (0.4) demonstrating the carboxymethylation reaction was not very effective due to the presence of lignin. These results proved that SCS can be utilized in the synthesis of CA and CMC. PMID:27516319

  10. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  11. Efficient Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements of Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with many crops, chlorophyll fluorescence emission is a promising tool for measuring responses of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) to biotic and abiotic stresses. Chlorophyll fluorescence can be easily measured using portable fluorometers. However, several factors should be considered in order to op...

  12. Sugarcane Bagasse Pyrolysis in a Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere with Conventional and Microwave-Assisted Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Bo-Jhih; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  13. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere with conventional and microwave-assisted heating

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Jhih eLin; Wei-Hsin eChen

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  14. Ingestive behavior of lactating cows fed sugarcane and crude glycerin levels on the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Teixeira Costa; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Paulo Bonomo; Eli Santana de Oliveira Rodrigues; Dicastro Dias de Souza; Rodrigo Mateus; Roberio Rodrigues Silva; Alex Rezende Schio

    2014-01-01

    The crude glycerin used as feed for ruminants has drawn attention of the researchers for dealing with environmental aspects. Considering current legislation did not establish how to treat this product, this is a low cost alternative of great amount of a residue of the biodiesel production. In this study we evaluated different crude glycerin levels on ingestive behavior which were studied as the diet of lactating cows fed with sugarcane. The glycerin levels were 0, 4, 8 and 12% of the dry matt...

  15. NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FOR ESTIMATING SUGARCANE BAGASSE CONTENT IN MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD

    OpenAIRE

    Ugo Leandro Belini; Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein; Mario Tomazello Filho Mail; José Carlos Rodrigues; Gilles Chaix

    2011-01-01

    Medium density fiberboard (MDF) is an engineered wood product formed by breaking down selected lignin-cellulosic material residuals into fibers, combining it with wax and a resin binder, and then forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure. Because the raw material in the industrial process is ever-changing, the panel industry requires methods for monitoring the composition of their products. The aim of this study was to estimate the ratio of sugarcane (SC) bagasse to Eucalyptus ...

  16. Harvest managements and cultural practices in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gustavo Quassi de Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of trash from the mechanical harvest of green cane on sugarcane plantations promotes changes in the agricultural management, for example, in the mechanical cultural practices of ratoon cane in-between the rows and nitrogen (N fertilization. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of sugarcane in different harvest systems, associated to the mechanical cultural practices in interrows and N rates. The study was carried out on a sugarcane plantation in Sales Oliveira, São Paulo, Brazil, with the sugarcane variety SP81-3250, on soil classified as Acrudox, in a randomized block design with split-split plots and four replications. The main treatments consisted of harvest systems (harvesting green cane or burnt cane, the secondary treatment consisted of the mechanical cultural practices in the interrows and the tertiary treatments were N rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 160 kg ha-1, using ammonium nitrate (33 % N as N source. The harvest systems did not differ in sugarcane yield (tons of cane per hectare - TCH, but in burnt cane, the pol percent and total sugar recovery (TSR were higher. This could be explained by the higher quantity of plant impurities in the harvested raw material in the system without burning, which reduces the processing quality. Mechanical cultural practices in the interrows after harvest had no effect on cane yield and sugar quality, indicating that this operation can be omitted in areas with mechanical harvesting. The application of N fertilizer at rates of 88 and 144 kg ha-1 N, respectively, increased stalk height and TCH quadratically to the highest values for these variables. For the sugar yield per hectare (in pol %, N fertilization induced a linear increase.

  17. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of bioethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has always been the pioneer in the application of bioethanol as a main fuel for automobiles, hence environmental and economic analyses of the Brazilian ethanol industries are of crucial importance. This study presents a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) on gasoline and ethanol as fuels, and with two types of blends of gasoline with bioethanol, all used in a midsize car. The focus is on a main application in Brazil, sugarcane based ethanol. The results of two cases are presented: base case - bioethanol production from sugarcane and electricity generation from bagasse; future case - bioethanol production from both sugarcane and bagasse and electricity generation from wastes. In both cases sugar is co-produced. The life cycles of fuels include gasoline production, agricultural production of sugarcane, ethanol production, sugar and electricity co-production, blending ethanol with gasoline to produce E10 (10% of ethanol) and E85 (85%), and finally the use of gasoline, E10, E85 and pure ethanol. Furthermore, a life cycle costing (LCC) was conducted to give an indication on fuel economy in both cases. The results show that in the base case less GHG is emitted; while the overall evaluation of these fuel options depends on the importance attached to different impacts. The future case is certainly more economically attractive, which has been the driving force for development in the ethanol industry in Brazil. Nevertheless, the outcomes depend very much on the assumed price for crude oil. In LCC a steady-state cost model was used and only the production cost was taken into account. In the real market the prices of fuels are very much dependent on the taxes and subsidies. Technological development can help in lowering both the environmental impact and the prices of the ethanol fuels. (author)

  18. 甘蔗套种香芋免耕栽培技术应用研究%Sugarcane interplanting taro Cultivation Technology Application Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎德爱

    2014-01-01

    利用甘蔗宿根蔗前期生长缓慢的较大空间,以及前造甘蔗收获后留下的蔗叶,在蔗沟内套种香芋进行免耕栽培。结果表明,香芋产量6010.5kg/hm2,产值达到12021元/hm2,套种香芋地块的甘蔗产量与不套种香芋的甘蔗产量基本持平,既不影响甘蔗产量,又增加了经济收入。%The larger space of slow growth early use of sugarcane ratoon sugarcane, sugarcane leaves before the left and after harvest of sugar-cane, for no til age cultivation in sugarcane interplanting taro trench. The results showed that the yield of 6010.5kg/hm2, taro, output value reached 12021 yuan/hm2, interplanting taro plots of sugarcane yield and not interplanting taro sugar cane production flat, which does not af-fect the sugar cane production, and increase economic income.

  19. BIOMETHANATION OF SUGARCANE WASTEWATER BY ULTRASONIC MEMBRANE ANAEROBIC SYSTEM (UMAS TO PRODUCE METHANE GAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurahman, H. Nour*

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The five largest countries that produce sugar from sugarcane in 2011 were Brazil, Thailand, India, European Union, and China. The demand for sugars nowadays is high, thus, the production of sugar is increasing nowadays, and the sugarcane wastewater increased and caused more pollutions. Therefore, wastewater sugarcane was treated to produce methane by using anaerobic digestion method. But, most of the problem occurs during the treatment process is membrane fouling. Membrane fouling can cause severe flux decline that can affect the quality of the water produced, and the cost to fixed membrane fouling is expensive. Thus, Ultrasonic Membrane Anaerobic System (UMAS is used as alternative overcome this problem. The sugarcane wastewater had to acclimatize for 5 days before running the reactor. The raw value of COD recorded was 9870 mg/L; BOD was 2480.35 mg/L, TSS 1.976 mg/L, and VSS 1.331 mg/L. The pH, pressure, and temperature were kept constant during this experiment with the value 6.5-7.5, 1.5-2.0 bar, and 32OC respectively. After 28 days of experiment, the COD removal efficiency obtained was 95%, BOD removal efficiency was 97% and the methane gas composition obtained was about 75%.The TSS and VSS removal efficiency also reached 99% of removal. Based on the results obtained after 28 days of experiment, UMAS not only can treat high strength wastewater, but also can treat low strength wastewater, avoid membrane fouling and produce methane gas from sugarcane wastewater. Nevertheless, further works are required to provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved to facilitate the development of an optimum system applicable to the industry.

  20. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Caio TCC

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane, next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA and denitrifying (nirK genes, greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil

  1. Ingestive behavior of dairy goats fed increasing levels of sugarcane in replacement of corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Ignacio Lara Canizares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate levels of replacement (0, 33, 67 and 100% of corn silage with fresh sugarcane in dairy-goat diets on the ingestive behavior of these animals. Eight lactating Alpine goats (after lactation peak with a live weight of 51.95±3.29 kg were distributed into two 4 × 4 Latin squares according to their milk production. Animals were placed in individual pens where they received diets ad libitum, twice a day, with a roughage:concentrate ratio of 40:60, during 72 days of experiment. The evaluated variables were time spent feeding (TSF, ruminating (TSR, idle (TSI and chewing (TSC, dry matter intake (DMI, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI, feeding efficiency of dry matter (FEDM and neutral detergent fiber (FENDF, rumination efficiency of dry matter (REDM and neutral detergent fiber (RENDF, number of ruminal boli per day (NRB and number of rumination chews per day (NRC. The different treatments had no effect on TSF or TSR. However, a linear effect was observed on TSC. There was a linear effect on TSI, in which the highest value was observed in the treatment with 0% of sugarcane inclusion. A quadratic effect was observed on dry matter intake, with minimum point of 2.14 kg/day for 68.04% of sugarcane inclusion; however, NDFI was not affected by the different treatments. There was no effect of treatments on FEDM, although a quadratic effect was observed on FENDF, wherein the lowest value was observed in the treatment with 67% of sugarcane inclusion. There was no effect of different levels of corn silage replacement on REDM, RENDF, NRB or NRC. Sugarcane can be replaced with corn silage without changing the times spending on feeding and rumination.

  2. Evaluation of Soil Quality Indicators in Sugarcane Management in Sandy Loam Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.A.C.SANT'ANNA; M.F.FERNANDES; W.M.P.M.IVO; J.L.S.COSTA

    2009-01-01

    An important factor for the sustainability of soils highly susceptible to degradation is the use of monitoring tools that promptly and realistically reflect changes imposed on soil by different cropping systems.To select soil quality indicator variables in sugarcane (Saccharum offcinarum L.) production areas that fulfill the criteria of sensitivity to management practices and between-season consistency in the management discrimination,ten composite soil samples (0-10 cm) were collected in July 2005 (rainy season) and again in March 2006 (dry season) from areas under cultivation of organic sugarcane (OS),green sugarcane (GS),burned sugarcane (BS) and from an adjacent native forest (NF) area at Usina Triunfo,Boca da Mata,Alagoas,Brazil.Microbial biomass-C (MBC),total organic C (TOC),soil enzyme activity expressed as the rate of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis,mean weight diameter of water-stable soil aggregates (MWD),and percentage of water-stable macroaggregates (PWSA) were analyzed.Although MBC and TOC were higher in NF than in the cultivated areas,no differences were observed in these C pools between the three sugarcane systems.The response of FDA to the site management was dependent on the sampling time.In the rainy period,the activity followed the order:NF > OS > GS > BS,whereas in the dry season,only NF differed from the other treatments.Irrespective of the sampling time,MWD and PWSA decreased in the order NF > OS = GS > BS.The variables MWD and PWSA are quite sensitive for discriminating between site management histories regardless the sampling season.

  3. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla P. Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  4. Co-expression network analysis reveals transcription factors associated to cell wall biosynthesis in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Savio Siqueira; Hotta, Carlos Takeshi; Poelking, Viviane Guzzo de Carli; Leite, Debora Chaves Coelho; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Barbosa, Marcio Henrique Pereira; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Souza, Glaucia Mendes

    2016-05-01

    Sugarcane is a hybrid of Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum, with minor contributions from other species in Saccharum and other genera. Understanding the molecular basis of cell wall metabolism in sugarcane may allow for rational changes in fiber quality and content when designing new energy crops. This work describes a comparative expression profiling of sugarcane ancestral genotypes: S. officinarum, S. spontaneum and S. robustum and a commercial hybrid: RB867515, linking gene expression to phenotypes to identify genes for sugarcane improvement. Oligoarray experiments of leaves, immature and intermediate internodes, detected 12,621 sense and 995 antisense transcripts. Amino acid metabolism was particularly evident among pathways showing natural antisense transcripts expression. For all tissues sampled, expression analysis revealed 831, 674 and 648 differentially expressed genes in S. officinarum, S. robustum and S. spontaneum, respectively, using RB867515 as reference. Expression of sugar transporters might explain sucrose differences among genotypes, but an unexpected differential expression of histones were also identified between high and low Brix° genotypes. Lignin biosynthetic genes and bioenergetics-related genes were up-regulated in the high lignin genotype, suggesting that these genes are important for S. spontaneum to allocate carbon to lignin, while S. officinarum allocates it to sucrose storage. Co-expression network analysis identified 18 transcription factors possibly related to cell wall biosynthesis while in silico analysis detected cis-elements involved in cell wall biosynthesis in their promoters. Our results provide information to elucidate regulatory networks underlying traits of interest that will allow the improvement of sugarcane for biofuel and chemicals production. PMID:26820137

  5. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    W. Braide; I. A. Kanu; S.U. Oranusi; S. A. Adeleye

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark) and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk) was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total re...

  6. ANALYSIS OF FARMERS' AGRICULTURAL KNOWLEDGE IN SUGARCANE CULTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Masud; Hossain, M. Delwar

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess farmers' agricultural knowledge in sugarcane cultivation. The specific objectives of the study were to i) describe the selected characteristics of the farmers, ii) determine the extent of farmers agricultural knowledge in sugarcane cultivation, and iii) determine the relationships between the selected characteristics of the farmers and their agricultural knowledge in sugarcane cultivation. Data were collected from a randomly selected 140 farmers th...

  7. Sugarcane Bagasse: A Potential Medium for Fungal Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Arushdeep Sidana; Umar Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, sugarcane industries produce tons of sugarcane bagasse as residual/waste material. This residual material is rich in complex lignocellulosic substances and may be used as a low cost carbon and energy source for the growth of fungal species. The present work was aimed at designing a sugarcane waste-based medium as a substitute for expensive commercial media for growing fungal cultures. Eight species of fungi, namely, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fus...

  8. Use of PVA-gel immobilized cells: a new strategy for biotechnological production of Xylitol from sugarcane bagasse hidrolysate/ Uso de células imobilizadas em gel de PVA: uma nova estratégia para produção biotecnológica de Xilitol a partir de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César dos Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse is one of the most abundant residues in Brazil due to the large number of sugaralcohol industries. This biomass contains a high concentration of carbohydrates, which can be converted into products of high economic value, such as xylitol. Xylitol, a polyol with anticariogenic properties, is similar in sweetening power to sucrose, and has high potential for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Several studies have been carried out to produce xylitol by biotechnological processes. However, there is little information on the use of immobilized cells in these bioprocesses. The objective of this review was to present a new possibility to produce xylitol by biotechnological processes, using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate and immobilized cells in PVA-gel.O bagaço de cana-de-açúcar é um dos resíduos mais abundantes no Brasil devido ao grande número de indústrias sucroalcooleiras. Esta biomassa contém elevado teor de carboidratos, podendo ser utilizada na produção de compostos de interesse econômico como o xilitol. O xilitol é um poliol de cinco carbonos que apresenta poder adoçante semelhante ao da sacarose e propriedades anti-cariogênicas, tendo elevado potencial de uso nas indústrias alimentícias e farmacêuticas. Diversos estudos buscando o desenvolvimento de processos de produção de xilitol por via biotecnológica têm sido realizados, entretanto pouco tem sido escrito sobre a utilização de células imobilizadas no bioprocesso. A presente revisão tem como objetivo apresentar uma possibilidade de produção de xilitol a partir de hidrolisado hemicelulósico de bagaço de canade-açúcar, em sistema com células imobilizadas em gel de álcool polivinílico.

  9. Green GDP of sugarcane industry as sustainability indicator: A case study in Paraná from 2007 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Ribeiro de Albuquerque; Jessé Luís Prange; Bárbara Françoise Cardoso; Pery Francisco Assis Shikida

    2012-01-01

    This paper means to present the Green GDP (Gross Domestic Product) as a measure of sustainability of one sugarcane mill located in the Central region of Paraná, analyzing its evolution from 2007 to 2011. This paper used the fundamental equation of the Green GDP adapting it to its measurement in the sugarcane industry, enabling the use of Green GDP as a sustainability indicator of the activity of the mill under study. Depletion of water resource and environmental degradation of the mill under ...

  10. Impact of mechanization and previous burning reduction on GHG emissions of sugarcane harvesting operations in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Between 1990 and 2009, GHG emissions from sugarcane harvesting were estimated. ► We considered the reduction of pre-burning and increasing use of mechanization. ► GHG emissions of Sao Paulo State passed from 1.053 to 0.639 tonCO2eq/ha. ► The decrease of previous burning reduced 79% of total emissions. -- Abstract: Ethanol production from sugarcane under Brazilian conditions has resulted in positive economic, energetic and environmental indicators, primarily due to a high agro-industrial yield, recycling of by-products and bagasse utilization for power generation. Following the trends of improvement in the overall processes and increasing environmental constraints, the extensive use of labor and previous burning in sugarcane harvesting has been progressively replaced by mechanical harvesting without the need for burning. Currently, this operation is performed in three ways: manual harvesting with previous burning, mechanical harvesting with previous burning, and mechanical harvesting of green sugarcane. Generally, the main reason for use of previous burning in sugarcane fields is the elimination of straw to facilitate manual cutting. However, studies indicate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and, mainly, other pollutants. associated with this practice. In Brazil, specific environmental laws and protocols have established a progressive reduction in previous burning aimed at total elimination in the next decade. In addition, an increase in the use of mechanical harvesting due to high productivity compared with manual cutting has been observed. In this context, this study has estimated the specific GHG emissions (tonCO2eq/ha) in sugarcane harvesting as a function of the simultaneous reduction of previous burning and increase in the use of mechanization. The estimates were applied to the sugarcane harvesting area of the São Paulo State, which is responsible for approximately half of Brazilian production. Considering the period between 1990 and

  11. Soybean silage and sugarcane tops silage on lamb performance

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Aparecida de Lima; Ivana Lícia de Campos Gavioli; Cristina Maria Pacheco Barbosa; Alexandre Berndt; Flávia Maria de Andrade Gimenes; Claudia Cristina Paro de Paz; Eduardo Antonio da Cunha

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of sheep fed with diets consisting of different proportions of soybean silage and sugarcane tip silage. Twenty four lambs from Morada Nova breed were used, with an average age of 75 days and average weight of 16.98±2.62kg. The following diets were evaluated: T1 = 20% sugarcane tops silage + 80% concentrate, T2 = 20% sugarcane tops silage + 30% soybean silage + 50% concentrate, T3 = 20% sugarcane tops silage + 60% soybean silage + 20%...

  12. Edible mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju production on washed and supplemented sugarcane bagasse Produção do cogumelo comestível Pleurotus sajor-caju em bagaço de cana-de-açúcar lavado e suplementado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Moncaio Moda

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju is performed on different composted and pasteurized agricultural residues. The objective of this study was to investigate whether traditional composting and pasteurization processes could be replaced by washed and supplemented (mineral or organic sugarcane bagasse. In one experiment, fresh sugarcane bagasse was immersed in hot water at 80°C for two hours (control or washed in fresh water for one hour using an adapted machine for residue treatment. In another experiment, fresh sugarcane bagasse was washed in fresh water (control, and supplemented with corn grits (organic supplementation, or supplemented with nutrient solution (mineral supplementation. In the first experiment, the washed bagasse presented a average biological efficiency (ABE of 19.16% with 44% contamination, and the pasteurized bagasse presented a ABE of 13.86% with 70% contamination. In the second experiment, corn grits presented the poorest performance, with a ABE of 15.66% and 60% contamination, while supplementation with the nutrient solution presented a ABE of 30.03%, whereas the control of 26.62%. Washing fresh sugarcane bagasse could suppress the pasteurized substrate in Pleurotus sajor-caju production, compensating a reduced ABE with a faster process.Tradicionalmente, o cultivo do Pleurotus sajor-caju é realizado utilizando-se diversos resíduos agrícolas, precedido dos processos de compostagem e pasteurização. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar o processo de pasteurização com a lavagem do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e avaliar formas de suplementação do bagaço, visando aumento na produtividade. No primeiro experimento, os colmos da cana-de-açúcar passaram por moenda para a extração do caldo, sendo em seguida desfibrados. No tratamento controle, o bagaço fresco foi pasteurizado em água a 80°C durante 2 horas e o outro tratamento consistiu na lavagem do bagaço fresco em centrífuga com

  13. Production of biomass, from sugar and protein in function of sugarcane varieties and phosphorous fertilizationProdução de biomassa, de açúcar e de proteína em função de variedades de cana e de adubação fosfatada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Dias Santiago

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane is a fodder that presents nutritional limitations, due to low levels of protein, phosphorus and sulfur; however, the phosphorous fertilization can improve its nutritional quality, because it influences in the absorption and the metabolism of nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study, the accumulation of dry substance from phosphorus and raw protein and the production of sucrose from two sugarcane varieties in function of the phosphorous fertilization in the sugarcane – plant cycle were evaluated. The study was a 2 x 6 factorial, consisted of two sugarcane varieties, RB867515 and RB92579, and six doses of phosphorus: zero, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1 of P, with treatments distributed in blocks at random, with five repetitions. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization in doses equivalent to 100 and 200 kg ha-1 of N and K were also used respectively. The phosphorous fertilization influenced in the accumulation of dry substance and sucrose, having a quadratic effect. There was a linear effect, but discrete, of the doses of P on the concentration of this element in the dry substance, which was not observed for the raw protein concentration. On the other hand, the protein and phosphorus mass were significantly influenced by the fertilization. A cana-de-açúcar é uma forragem que apresenta limitações nutricionais, devido aos baixos teores de proteína, de fósforo e de enxofre, entretanto, a adubação fosfatada pode melhorar sua qualidade nutricional, pois influencia na absorção e no metabolismo do nitrogênio e do fósforo. No presente estudo, avaliaram-se, no ciclo de cana-planta, o acúmulo de matéria seca, de fósforo e de proteína bruta e a produção de sacarose de duas variedades de cana-de-açúcar em função da adubação fosfatada. O estudo foi um fatorial 2 x 6, constituído de duas variedades de cana, RB867515 e RB92579, e seis doses de fósforo: zero, 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 kg ha-1 de P, com os tratamentos distribu

  14. Response of Sugarcane in a Red Ultisol to Phosphorus Rates, Phosphorus Sources, and Filter Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caione, Gustavo; Prado, Renato de Mello; Campos, Cid Naudi Silva; Rosatto Moda, Leandro; de Lima Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Pizauro Júnior, João Martins

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of phosphorus application rates from various sources and in the presence or absence of filter cake on soil phosphorus, plant phosphorus, changes in acid phosphatase activity, and sugarcane productivity grown in Eutrophic Red Ultisol. Three P sources were used (triple superphosphate, Araxa rock phosphate, and Bayovar rock phosphate) and four application rates (0, 90, 180, and 360 kg ha(-1) of P2O5) in the presence or absence of filter cake (7.5 t ha(-1), dry basis). The soil P, the accumulated plant P, the leaf acid phosphatase activity and straw, the stalk productivity, the concentration of soluble solids in the juice (Brix), the juice sucrose content (Pol), and the purity were the parameters evaluated. We found that P applications increased levels of soil, leaf, and juice phosphorus and led to higher phosphorus accumulation and greater stalk and straw productivity. These levels were highest in the presence of filter cake. Acid phosphatase activity decreased with increasing plant phosphorus concentration. Phosphate fertilization did not show effect on sugarcane technological quality. We concluded that P application, regardless of source, improved phosphorus nutrition and increased productivity in sugarcane and, when associated with filter cake, reduced the need for mineral fertilizer. PMID:26078993

  15. Response of Sugarcane in a Red Ultisol to Phosphorus Rates, Phosphorus Sources, and Filter Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Renato de Mello; Campos, Cid Naudi Silva; Rosatto Moda, Leandro; de Lima Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Pizauro Júnior, João Martins

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of phosphorus application rates from various sources and in the presence or absence of filter cake on soil phosphorus, plant phosphorus, changes in acid phosphatase activity, and sugarcane productivity grown in Eutrophic Red Ultisol. Three P sources were used (triple superphosphate, Araxa rock phosphate, and Bayovar rock phosphate) and four application rates (0, 90, 180, and 360 kg ha−1 of P2O5) in the presence or absence of filter cake (7.5 t ha−1, dry basis). The soil P, the accumulated plant P, the leaf acid phosphatase activity and straw, the stalk productivity, the concentration of soluble solids in the juice (Brix), the juice sucrose content (Pol), and the purity were the parameters evaluated. We found that P applications increased levels of soil, leaf, and juice phosphorus and led to higher phosphorus accumulation and greater stalk and straw productivity. These levels were highest in the presence of filter cake. Acid phosphatase activity decreased with increasing plant phosphorus concentration. Phosphate fertilization did not show effect on sugarcane technological quality. We concluded that P application, regardless of source, improved phosphorus nutrition and increased productivity in sugarcane and, when associated with filter cake, reduced the need for mineral fertilizer. PMID:26078993

  16. Response of Sugarcane in a Red Ultisol to Phosphorus Rates, Phosphorus Sources, and Filter Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caione

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of phosphorus application rates from various sources and in the presence or absence of filter cake on soil phosphorus, plant phosphorus, changes in acid phosphatase activity, and sugarcane productivity grown in Eutrophic Red Ultisol. Three P sources were used (triple superphosphate, Araxa rock phosphate, and Bayovar rock phosphate and four application rates (0, 90, 180, and 360 kg ha−1 of P2O5 in the presence or absence of filter cake (7.5 t ha−1, dry basis. The soil P, the accumulated plant P, the leaf acid phosphatase activity and straw, the stalk productivity, the concentration of soluble solids in the juice (Brix, the juice sucrose content (Pol, and the purity were the parameters evaluated. We found that P applications increased levels of soil, leaf, and juice phosphorus and led to higher phosphorus accumulation and greater stalk and straw productivity. These levels were highest in the presence of filter cake. Acid phosphatase activity decreased with increasing plant phosphorus concentration. Phosphate fertilization did not show effect on sugarcane technological quality. We concluded that P application, regardless of source, improved phosphorus nutrition and increased productivity in sugarcane and, when associated with filter cake, reduced the need for mineral fertilizer.

  17. Energy from sugarcane bagasse under electricity rationing in Brazil: a computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the midst of the institutional reforms of the Brazilian electric sectors initiated in the 1990s, a serious electricity shortage crisis developed in 2001. As an alternative to blackout, the government instituted an emergency plan aimed at reducing electricity consumption. From June 2001 to February 2002, Brazilians were compelled to curtail electricity use by 20%. Since the late 1990s, but especially after the electricity crisis, energy policy in Brazil has been directed towards increasing thermoelectricity supply and promoting further gains in energy conservation. Two main issues are addressed here. Firstly, we estimate the economic impacts of constraining the supply of electric energy in Brazil. Secondly, we investigate the possible penetration of electricity generated from sugarcane bagasse. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used. The traditional sector of electricity and the remainder of the economy are characterized by a stylized top-down representation as nested CES (constant elasticity of substitution) production functions. The electricity production from sugarcane bagasse is described through a bottom-up activity analysis, with a detailed representation of the required inputs based on engineering studies. The model constructed is used to study the effects of the electricity shortage in the preexisting sector through prices, production and income changes. It is shown that installing capacity to generate electricity surpluses by the sugarcane agroindustrial system could ease the economic impacts of an electric energy shortage crisis on the gross domestic product (GDP)

  18. Advancements in Anion Exchange Membrane Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, Matthew R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Long, Hai [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Park, Andrew M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pivovar, Bryan S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AME-FCs) are of increasingly popular interest as they enable the use of non-Pt fuel cell catalysts, the primary cost limitation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA) is the standard cation that has historically been utilized as the hydroxide conductor in AEMs. Herein we approach AEMs from two directions. First and foremost we study the stability of several different cations in a hydroxide solution at elevated temperatures. We specifically targeted BTMA and methoxy and nitro substituted BTMA. We've also studied the effects of adding an akyl spacer units between the ammonium cation and the phenyl group. In the second approach we use computational studies to predict stable ammonium cations, which are then synthesized and tested for stability. Our unique method to study cation stability in caustic conditions at elevated temperatures utilizes Teflon Parr reactors suitable for use under various temperatures and cation concentrations. NMR analysis was used to determine remaining cation concentrations at specific time points with GCMS analysis verifying product distribution. We then compare the experimental results with calculated modeling stabilities. Our studies show that the electron donating methoxy groups slightly increase stability (compared to that of BTMA), while the electron withdrawing nitro groups greatly decrease stability in base. These results give insight into possible linking strategies to be employed when tethering a BTMA like ammonium cation to a polymeric backbone; thus synthesizing an anion exchange membrane.

  19. Spectral Angle Mapping Multitemporal Approach in SPOT VEGETATION Time-Series to Detect Sugarcane Areas in São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebman, D. G.; Vicente, L. E.; Garçon, E.; Siqueira, G. B.; Andrade, R. G.; Torresan, F. E.

    2011-12-01

    Increased global demand for biofuels means a huge expansion of new types of farming, especially for ethanol production. In tropical regions, sugarcane constitutes one of the main sources of ethanol and the basis of a new renewable energy matrix which is supported by large investments. In Brazil, the state of São Paulo is responsible for producing approximately 60% of the national sugarcane yield. Remote sensing appears as a useful tool to monitor and map sugarcane and its expansion areas. In this context, the aim of this work was to detect sugarcane areas using NDVI time series. SPOT-Vegetation S-10 NDVI data extracted from red (0.61 - 0.69 μm) and NIR (0.78 - 0.89 μm) bands from January 2004 to December 2010 were stacked, and some class samples were selected to perform Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classification. The endmembers classes chosen were: sugarcane, pasture and forest, with five samples for each class. The samples mean spectra of each class were used as reference spectra in SAM algorithm. Then, sugarcane area mapping was performed using the SAM rule images color composite of sugarcane (red), forest (green) and pasture (blue) classes. The results were influenced by the image's low spatial resolution (1.1 x 1.1 km per pixel), since SAM is very sensitive to the spectral mixture within pixels. Thus, class discrimination could only be determined by checking the spectral behavior of all classes simultaneously, with a color composite image. SAM similarity for the three classes was high throughout the whole image, nonetheless some nuances helped in the identification of sugarcane areas. Areas with high values of sugarcane and the lowest values of pasture coincided with areas of very intense sugarcane occupation mapped by INPE's CANASAT project. Pasture discrimination was not well performed, once this land-use class appears in very fragmented areas mingled with short-cycle crop areas. In general, extensive sugarcane areas were correctly detected using this

  20. Sugarcane brown rust – determining genetic variation in the pathogen and identifying potential novel sources of resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major reason for the withdrawal of sugarcane cultivars from production in is the breakdown of resistance to brown rust caused by Puccinia melanaocephala. Genetic characterization of diversity among races of P. melanocephala would help in breeding for resistance to the pathogen. Breeding for durabl...

  1. Impact of cultivar selection and process optimization on ethanol yield from different varieties of sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin, Yuda; García-Aparicio, Maria P; Görgens, Johann F

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of ‘energycane’ varieties of sugarcane is underway, targeting the use of both sugar juice and bagasse for ethanol production. The current study evaluated a selection of such ‘energycane’ cultivars for the combined ethanol yields from juice and bagasse, by optimization of dilute acid pretreatment optimization of bagasse for sugar yields. Method A central composite design under response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of dilute acid pretreatmen...

  2. Comparison between wet oxidation and steam explosion as pretreatment methods for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Carlos Martín; Marcet, M.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2008-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation and steam explosion pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse were compared with regard to biomass fractionation, formation of by-products, and enzymatic convertibility of the pretreated material. Wet oxidation led to the solubilisation of 82% of xylan and 50% of lignin, and to a...... significantly in steam explosion. This investigation demonstrates the potential of wet oxidation as a promising pretreatment method for enzyme-based bagasse-to-ethanol processes....

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL SCENARIOS TO THE DEMAND FOR SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Franco Paes Leme Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From the first decade of the 2000s, it is clear that there is an increase in discussions involving sustainability, including the bioenergy issue, to which Brazil has drawn the attention due to advances in the ethanol industry. Advances in engine technology reflected new opportunities for this industry and, according to the Ten-Year Energy Plan for 2019 developed by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, there is an expected increase in demand for ethanol of 90% by 2019 (Brazil, 2010. However, new technologies for the conversion and use of sugarcane and the complex context of this industry add uncertainties to this sector. Aiming to discuss and include the uncertainties on the agenda of this industry, this study proposes to elaborate and discuss prospective scenarios to the demand for sugarcane. Four scenarios with different perspectives of technological advance and market development were elaborated and discussed in the conclusion.

  4. Tandem anion and cation exchange solid phase extraction for the enrichment of micropollutants and their transformation products from ozonation in a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Ahmad A; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-06-01

    The presence of organic micropollutants and their transformation products (TPs) from biotic and abiotic processes in aquatic environments is receiving intense public and scientific attention. Yet a suitable sample preparation method that would enable extraction and enrichment of a wide range of such compounds from water is missing. The focus of this paper was to develop an enhanced solid phase extraction (SPE) protocol which enabled isolation of parent compounds and low molecular weight transformation products (that are produced after treatment of water with ozone) from different water matrices. Ten SPE sorbents were evaluated with regard to their ability to extract acidic, neutral, and basic compounds from water at several pH values. Highest recoveries (91-99 %) for all analytes in pure water were obtained by combining strong anion and cation exchangers of two manufacturers in a tandem mode without pH adjustment. Tandem Oasis (MAX+MCX) was finally applied to extract the spiked analytes from tap water, surface water, and several wastewater samples. The efficiency of the used SPE procedure was examined using an optimized liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The occurrence of some of the investigated TPs in environmental water matrices was proven for the first time in this study. Method quantification limits (MQLs) for all compounds ranged from 3.7 to 15.3 ng/L in all matrices. Recoveries (%RE) were between 90 and 110 %. Intraday and interday precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, varied from 0.7 to 5.9 % and 1.8 to 10.3 %, respectively. Matrix effect (%ME) evaluation demonstrated that even complex sample matrices did not show significant ion suppression or enhancement. The applicability of the method was shown during two sampling campaigns at Ruhr river and a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) equipped with an ozonation step after regular

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse pretreated with acid or alkali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Cristina Pietrobon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of enzymatic hydrolysis of acid or alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse for the production of fermentable sugars. The first step consisted of selection of commercial enzymes presenting the highest cellulolytic activities. After selection of four enzymes: HPL, CL, P1 and P4, their performances were tested in the bagasse pretreated with acid and alkali. The sugar content of the hydrolysates was analyzed by anion exchange liquid chromatography. Data showed that the joint action of 0.5% acid pretreatment, 121ºC, 30 minutes and enzyme CL provides the best results, 67.25 g of hexose and 148.13g of pentose per kg of dry bagasse.

  6. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of emission factors through laboratory measurements and quantification of emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo Franca, D.; Maria Longo, K.; Gomes Soares Neto, T.; Carlos dos Santos, J.; Rudorf, B. F.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S.; Vieira Cortez, E.; Stockler S. Lima, R.; S. Gacita, M.; Anselmo, E.; A. Carvalho, J., Jr.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is a relevant crop to Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. São Paulo state is the largest producer of sugarcane in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production in a cultivated area of 4.5 Mha in 2010. Sugarcane harvest practice can be performed either with green harvest or with pre-harvest burning. A "Green Ethanol" Protocol is underway to eliminate the pre-harvest burning practice by 2014 in most of the sugarcane cultivated land in São Paulo state. During the last five years close to 2 Mha were annually harvested with the pre-harvest burning practice. This practice emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the burning practice in the near future there is still a significant environmental damage due to the pre-harvest burning practice of sugarcane. Thus the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess the environmental impact. Presently the official Brazilian emissions inventories do not include the sugarcane pre-harvest burning contribution. Therefore, this work aims to estimate the annual emissions (from 2006 to 2010) associated with pre-harvest sugarcane burning practice in São Paulo state, including the determination of emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 μm. Annual remote sensing based mappings of burned sugarcane fields throughout the harvest season in each crop year made in the context of Canasat Project (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/) were added to the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) in order to estimate trace gases and aerosols emissions. Two laboratory combustion experiments were carried out to determine the emission factors estimation. Samples of different varieties of sugarcane were harvested in dry weather conditions and in distinct sites in the state of São Paulo to assure

  7. High throughput screening of hydrolytic enzymes from termites using a natural substrate derived from sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucena Severino A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The description of new hydrolytic enzymes is an important step in the development of techniques which use lignocellulosic materials as a starting point for fuel production. Sugarcane bagasse, which is subjected to pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation for the production of ethanol in several test refineries, is the most promising source of raw material for the production of second generation renewable fuels in Brazil. One problem when screening hydrolytic activities is that the activity against commercial substrates, such as carboxymethylcellulose, does not always correspond to the activity against the natural lignocellulosic material. Besides that, the macroscopic characteristics of the raw material, such as insolubility and heterogeneity, hinder its use for high throughput screenings. Results In this paper, we present the preparation of a colloidal suspension of particles obtained from sugarcane bagasse, with minimal chemical change in the lignocellulosic material, and demonstrate its use for high throughput assays of hydrolases using Brazilian termites as the screened organisms. Conclusions Important differences between the use of the natural substrate and commercial cellulase substrates, such as carboxymethylcellulose or crystalline cellulose, were observed. This suggests that wood feeding termites, in contrast to litter feeding termites, might not be the best source for enzymes that degrade sugarcane biomass.

  8. The Future Potential of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol with respect to Land Availability and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, D.; Miguez, F.; Bollero, G.; Long, S.

    2014-12-01

    Expanding sugarcane production on the 65.9 mha area identified by Brazilian government can provide a sustainable and low carbon intensive supply of liquid fuel to the world. However, such expansion is also subject to long-term climate changes. Variation in sugarcane yield at policy-relevant spatial and temporal scales can greatly influence the long-term potential of Brazilian. A process-based crop model (BioCro) is parameterized and calibrated for leaf photosynthesis and field productivity. Multi-site validation against observed stem yield of sugarcane cultivar RB72454 suggests that model can predict consistent yield (observed = 0.92 × predicted; R2 = 0.65) over a wide range of soil and environmental conditions in Brazil. Regional simulations based on national soil data and reanalysis climate data suggest that 1.938 petagram (Pg) of stem dry biomass can be harvested annually. Increasing temperature and [CO2] can partially compensate for yield decline due to reduced rainfall in future, by means of greater water use efficiency and rate of photosynthesis. Simulations using five GCMs climate data suggest that average productivity of harvested stem dry biomass may decline from 1.938 Pg year-1 to 1.544 Pg year-1 (1.243-2.066 Pg year-1) by 2045 in the absence of improved cultivars.

  9. The impact of storage conditions on the stability of sugarcane powder biofortified with kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Cecilia Salazar Alzate

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research project was to assess the quality of sugarcane powder, during storage, that had been biofortified with kefir grains (SP+KG. The powder was obtained by spray drying (SD sugarcane concentrate that was previously fermented with kefir grains (KG. Maltodextrin, 20% w/w, was used as a drying additive, and high viability of the microbial consortium (lactobacilli, lactococci and yeast was always sought in order to obtain a functional food enriched with probiotic microorganisms, which facilitate storage and consumption. The product was packed, both vacuum (V and non-vacuum (WV, and stored at 10, 20 and 30°C for 180 days. The results showed significant differences (p < 0.05 in the survival rate of lactobacilli and lactococci for the time, temperature and packaging type (PT factors; however, the yeast showed no significant differences for the PT factor. For the survival of yeast, lactococci and lactobacilli, the best temperature was 10°C and the best packaging type was V. The survival rates reached with these conditions were 62.82% (yeast, 81.22% (lactococci and 87.82% (lactobacilli. In addition, the levels attained in terms of physical and chemical properties defined the quality specifications of the product. The sugarcane matrix is an effective vehicle of components with physiological activity such as the microorganisms present in kefir. This qualifies the product as a potential functional food

  10. Comportamiento productivo y fitosanitario de la nueva variedad de caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp. TUC 95-37 en Tucumán, R. Argentina Productivity and disease tolerance of TUC 95-37, a new sugarcane (Saccharum spp. variety in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto R. Chavanne

    2012-06-01

    avenae. Como la gran mayoría de la variedades de caña de azúcar que se cultivan en el mundo, la variedad TUC 95-37 mostró susceptibilidad al raquitismo de la caña soca (Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli.This paper reveals the results of studies conducted to evaluate the productivity and tolerance to diseases of TUC 95-37, a new sugarcane (Saccharum spp. cultivar obtained and selected by the Sugarcane Breeding Program of Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (Tucumán, Argentina. Data in this work derived from 24 harvests in trials with 18 genotypes, planted according to a completely randomized block design with three repetitions, with replicates at six different sites in Tucumán. TUC 95-37 was assessed at four different crop ages (plant cane, first, second and third ratoons, through the 2002 and 2005 crop seasons. For each variable, age and location, the analysis of variance and comparison of means tests were performed. GGE biplot methodology was used as a graphic tool to identify superior and stable cultivars in different environments. In addition, disease resistance levels were evaluated. Productivity data (crop yield, factory yield percentage in May, and sugar production per ha showed that TUC 95-37 was as productive as LCP 85-384 at most of the crop ages and sites considered. TUC 95-37 turned out to be the best or most productive among genotypes and a very stable variety at plant cane, also ranking as the second best variety, as well as a very stable one, at first and second ratoon ages. However, at third ratoon TUC 95-37 showed lower stability in different environments. As regards its response to diseases, this new cultivar proved to be moderately resistant to brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala, leaf scald (Xanthomonas albilineans, and smut (Sporisorium scitamineum. Nonetheless, TUC 95-37 was moderately susceptible to mosaic (Sugarcane mosaic virus and red stripe (Acidovorax avenae and, as most sugarcane varieties planted in other parts of the world

  11. Gas hold-up and oxygen mass transfer in three pneumatic bioreactors operating with sugarcane bagasse suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperança, M N; Cunha, F M; Cerri, M O; Zangirolami, T C; Farinas, C S; Badino, A C

    2014-05-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a low-cost and abundant by-product generated by the bioethanol industry, and is a potential substrate for cellulolytic enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of air flow rate (QAIR), solids loading (%S), sugarcane bagasse type, and particle size on the gas hold-up (εG) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) in three different pneumatic bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Concentric tube airlift (CTA), split-cylinder airlift (SCA), and bubble column (BC) bioreactor types were tested. QAIR and %S affected oxygen mass transfer positively and negatively, respectively, while sugarcane bagasse type and particle size (within the range studied) did not influence kLa. Using large particles of untreated sugarcane bagasse, the loop-type bioreactors (CTA and SCA) exhibited higher mass transfer, compared to the BC reactor. At higher %S, SCA presented a higher kLa value (0.0448 s−1) than CTA, and the best operational conditions in terms of oxygen mass transfer were achieved for %S 27.0 L min−1. These results demonstrated that pneumatic bioreactors can provide elevated oxygen transfer in the presence of vegetal biomass, making them an excellent option for use in three-phase systems for cellulolytic enzyme production by filamentous fungi. PMID:24078146

  12. Registration of ‘CPCL 99-4455’ Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The objectives of this research were t...

  13. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the reaction of young, recently planted, or recently ratooned sugarcane during spring months. The purpose of this study was to test t...

  14. Sugarcane postharvest residue management in a temperate climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full retention of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) post-harvest residue often reduces subsequent ratoon crop yields in Louisiana. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of different removal methods and removal timings on sugarcane growth and yield and to determine if...

  15. Isolation and screening of glycolipid biosurfactant producers from sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Hirose, Naoto; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Forty-three fungal producers for glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were isolated from leaves and smuts of sugarcane plants. These isolates produced MELs with sugarcane juice as nutrient source. The strains were taxonomically categorized into the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago on the basis of partial sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene. PMID:22972331

  16. Effect of sugarcane molasses extract on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Di; Chen, Ming-Shun; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2016-04-15

    Molasses, the main by-product of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study, sugarcane molasses extract was investigated for its total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant capacity. The experimental total phenolic content was 101.3 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) in 1 g of extract, IC50 of Trolox and sugarcane molasses extract were 125.33 μg/ml and 126.0 μg/ml, respectively. A chemical model system showed that the sugarcane molasses extract effectively reduced the formation of phenylacetaldehyde and the aldol condensation product, meanwhile, the amount of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) also decreased. This could be due to the reaction between the phenolic compounds of sugarcane molasses extract and the carbonyl group of phenylacetaldehyde inhibiting the aldol condensation product formation, and this would suppress the formation of PhIP. A pathway that phenolic compounds inhibited the formation of PhIP is proposed. This pathway also suggested a mechanism for how the sugarcane affects the formation of PHIP. PMID:26617035

  17. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration;Efeitos do processamento termico e da radiacao gama na estabilidade fisico-quimica, microbiologica e sensorial de caldo de cana puro e adicionado de suco de frutas, armazenado sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-07-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the

  18. Comparative study of ammonium and nitrate fertilizers in two soils of Mauritius cropped with sugar-cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of ammonium and nitrate fertilizers in stony and free soils of Mauritius cropped with sugar-cane is being studied in lysimeters placed under low and high rainfall regimes. The results obtained to date indicate that nitrogen moves from the soil into the groundwater mainly in the form of nitrate and that the movement is more pronounced when nitrate fertilizers are used in preference to their ammonium counterparts. The loss of nitrogen by leaching increases with intensity of rainfall but is hindered by an increasingly clayey texture and high cation exchange capacity of the soil. The mobility of the applied nitrogen governs its efficiency of utilization by sugar-cane. While the mobile nitrate is more efficient than ammonium in low-rainfall areas, the opposite is true in the superhumid zones. The recovery of nitrogen by sugar-cane is thus influenced by rainfall, soil properties and the chemical forms of the applied nitrogen. This study also provides circumstantial evidence to the effect that high concentration of nitrate in the natural waters of Mauritius is caused by the low efficiency of nitrogen utilization in soils of a superhumid zone. (author)

  19. A search for markers of sugarcane evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bacci Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2 were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.Com o propósito de determinar a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e membros da subtribo Saccharinae, a região gênica nuclear ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 (ITS: espaçador interno transcrito; 5,8S: DNA ribossomal 5.8S, com alta taxa evolutiva, foi identificada no banco de dados do projeto genoma "Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag" (SUCEST. Uma análise através do método de parcimônia, utilizando esta região e seqüências homólogas de 23 Andropogoneae retiradas da base de dados GenBank, indicou que a cana-de-açúcar é o grupo-irmão de Saccharum sinense. No entanto, devido à pequena quantidade de caracteres

  20. Diversity and evolution of arvenses species in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum in Sancti Spíritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Francisco Blanco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Weeds are the factor that most affects sugarcane yields in Cuba. A planting non-free of weeds within 120 days after planting or harvest loses more than 30 % of agricultural output. It is important to know which are the predominant species in each field to select more effective treatments and the necessary inputs. The work was done with the database of weeds that frequent the cane fields in the province of Sancti Spíritus of two Business Units Base (Uruguay and Melanio Hernandez with all its production units between 2006 and 2013 more 4800 fields, was made through a survey carried out weeds in sugarcane producing units, all this information is processed through software PC Weeds, resulting in the presence of 19 species (2 are very frequent, 4 rare and 13 accidental. As for the frequency of 4 species increase, decrease 10 species and stable 5 species.

  1. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from aqueous solution using sugarcane bagasse as adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the adsorption ability of sugarcane bagasse to remove oil by-products from aqueous solution was evaluated. The objective was treating the contaminated wastewater while enriching the bagasse for its later use as fuel in boilers. Adsorption experiments were carried out in an agitated reactor at room temperature to obtain kinetic curves and adsorption isotherms of gasoline and n-heptane on sugarcane bagasse. The results showed the great potential of bagasse as an adsorbent, since it was able to adsorb up to 99% of gasoline and 90% of n-heptane in solutions containing about 5% of these contaminants. In the adsorption kinetics of gasoline, the equilibrium was reached after just 5 min. This result shows that the adsorption is very favorable. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D-R models did not describe well the adsorption behavior obtained for these systems.

  2. The fate of organic matter in a sugarcane system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to gain a better understanding of organic matter and nutrient turnover in the cultivation of sugarcane. Related processes that involve soil water content, soil bulk density and soil temperature, were included. A comparison was made between the traditional management practice of burning the cane trash before harvest, with the newly recommended practice of leaving the trash on the soil surface after harvest. Results showed great differences in surface-soil temperature and water content between the two management practices. Water balances were not affected, but the dynamics of nitrogen and organic matter in the soil-plant system differed significantly. The sugarcane productivity was, however, not affected by management practice, during the first 3 years of the study. (author)

  3. Physico-chemical and sensorial evaluation of sugarcane spirits produced using distillation residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Galvão Tavares Menezes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the use of vinasse from cachaça as an ingredient of the fermentation medium for the spirit production. The fermentations were conducted out in three successive batches using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolate. In the first batch, the sugarcane broth was only diluted with distilled water. In the second and third batches, the fermentations were carried out using the cane broth diluted with vinasse from the distillation of the sugarcane wines of the first and second batches, respectively at a concentration of 10% (v/v. The spirits were submitted to the physicochemical and sensorial analyses. The results showed that vinasse addition did not affect the fermentation, distillation and chemical-sensorial quality of the beverage. Therefore, the vinasse addition could be an alternative use for that residue.

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by using microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Fong; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to research the catalytic effects on the microwave pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and thus to discuss the reaction performance, product distribution, and kinetic analysis. With the addition of metal-oxides served as catalysts, reaction results such as mass reduction ratio and reaction rate increased, even the maximum temperature decreased. Adding either NiO or CaO slightly increased the production of H2, while adding either CuO or MgO slightly decreased it. The addition of either CaO or MgO enhanced the gaseous production, and either NiO or CuO addition enhanced the liquid production. There could be several secondary reactions such as self-gasification and interactions among the gases originally produced during the pyrolysis stage to alter the composition of gaseous product and the final three-phase product distribution. The catalyst addition slightly increased the activation energy but greatly increased the pre-exponential factor. PMID:23948270

  5. Yield Response to Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Injury in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanweelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2015-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive stem borer of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), and poses a threat against the production of dedicated bioenergy feedstocks in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Jefferson County, TX, to evaluate yield losses associated with E. loftini feeding on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane and sorghum under natural and artificially established E. loftini infestations. Bioenergy sugarcane (energycane) 'L 79-1002' and 'Ho 02-113' and sweet sorghum 'M81E' exhibited reduced E. loftini injury; however, these cultivars, along with high-biomass sorghum cultivar 'ES 5140', sustained greater losses in fresh stalk weight. Negative impacts to sucrose concentration from E. loftini injury were greatest in energycane, high-biomass sorghum, and sweet sorghum cultivars. Even under heavy E. loftini infestations, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, and 'ES 5200' were estimated to produce more ethanol than all other cultivars under suppressed infestations. ES 5200, Ho 02-113, and L 79-1002 hold the greatest potential as dedicated bioenergy crops for production of ethanol in the Gulf Coast region; however, E. loftini management practices will need to be continued to mitigate yield losses. PMID:26453718

  6. Genetic analyses, phenotypic adaptability and stability in sugarcane genotypes for commercial cultivation in Pernambuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed the agro-industrial performance of 22 sugarcane genotypes adaptable to edaphoclimatic conditions in production microregions in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, and we recommended the commercial cultivation of select genotypes. The variables analyzed were as follows: sucrose percentage in cane juice, tonnage of saccharose per hectare (TPH), sugarcane tonnage per hectare (TCH), fiber, solid soluble contents, total recoverable sugar tonnage (ATR), and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare (ATR t/ha). A randomized block design with 4 repeats was used. Combined variance of the experiments, genetic parameter estimates, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotypic adaptability and stability were analyzed using the Annicchiarico and Wricke methods and analysis of variance. Genetic gain was estimated using the classic index and sum of ranks. Genotype selection was efficient for TPH, TCH, and ATR t/ha. Genotypes presented a great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern in Litoral Norte and Mata Sul microregions for TPH and TCH and Litoral Norte and Litoral Sul microregions for ATR t/ha. Genotypes SP78-4764, RB813804, and SP79-101 showed better productivity and phenotypic adaptability and stability, according to the Wricke and Annicchiarico methods. These genotypes can be recommended for cultivation in the sugarcane belt in the State of Pernambuco. PMID:26505357

  7. Genetic Analysis of Diversity within a Chinese Local Sugarcane Germplasm Based on Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Youxiong Que; Yongbao Pan; Yunhai Lu; Cui Yang; Yuting Yang; Ning Huang; Liping Xu

    2014-01-01

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information conten...

  8. Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...

  9. The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Glaucia Mendes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm that covered the main categories and pathways. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs encoding enzymes for hormone (gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathways were found and tissue specificity was inferred from their relative frequency of occurrence in the different libraries. Whenever possible, transducers of hormones and plant peptide signaling were catalogued to the respective pathway. Over 100 receptors were found in sugarcane, which contains a large family of Ser/Thr kinase receptors and also photoreceptors, histidine kinase receptors and their response regulators. G-protein and small GTPases were analyzed and compared to known members of these families found in mammalian and plant systems. Major kinase and phosphatase pathways were mapped, with special attention being given to the MAP kinase and the inositol pathway, both of which are well known in plants.

  10. Regulation of some salt defense-related genes in relation to physiological and biochemical changes in three sugarcane genotypes subjected to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonsawat, Wasinee; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Suwan, Therapatt; Mongkolsiriwatana, Chareerat; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinale L.; Poaceae) is a sugar-producing plant widely grown in tropic. Being a glycophytic species, it is very sensitive to salt stress, and salinity severely reduces growth rate and cane yield. The studies investigating the regulation of salt defense metabolite-related genes in relation to final biochemical products in both susceptible and tolerant genotypes of sugarcane are largely lacking. We therefore investigated the expression levels of sugarcane shaggy-like kinase (SuSK), sucrose transporter (SUT), proline biosynthesis (pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase; P5CS), ion homeostasis (NHX1), and catalase (CAT2) mRNAs, and contents of Na(+), soluble sugar, and free proline in three sugarcane genotypes (A19 mutant, K88-92, and K92-80) when subjected to salt stress (200 mM NaCl). The relative expression levels of salt defense-related genes in salt-stressed plantlets of sugarcane cv. K88-92 were upregulated in relation to salt exposure times when compared with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as housekeeping gene. In addition, final biochemical products, i.e., low Na(+), sucrose enrichment, and free proline accumulation, were evidently demonstrated in salt-stressed plantlets. Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid concentrations, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (F v/F m) in positive check (K88-92) were maintained under salt stress, leading to high net photosynthetic rate (P n) and growth retention (root length, fresh weight, and leaf area). In contrast, photosynthetic abilities in negative check, K92-80, and A19 mutant lines grown under salt stress declined significantly in comparison to control, leading to a reduction in P n and an inhibition of overall growth characters. The study concludes that the genetic background of sugarcane cv. K88-92 may further be exploited to play a key role as parental clone for sugarcane breeding program for salt-tolerant purposes. PMID:25012031

  11. Cation-cation interaction in neptunyl(V) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original manuscript was prepared by Professor N.N. Krot of Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 1997. Saeki tried to translate that into Japanese and to add some new data since 1997. The contents include the whole picture of cation-cation interactions mainly in 5-valence neptunium compounds. Firstly, characteristic structures of neptunium are summarized of the cation-cation bonding in compounds. Secondly, it is mentioned how the cation-cation bonding affects physical and chemical properties of the compounds. Then, characterization-methods for the cation-cation bonding in the compounds are discussed. Finally, the cation-cation interactions in compounds of other actinide-ions are shortly reviewed. (author)

  12. Expected growth of sugarcane industry and impact on the Brazilian economy: 2015 and 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Cinthia Cabral da; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins

    2011-01-01

    The sugarcane sector in Brazil has been achieving large increases in production since the beginning of the 2000s, owing to the deregulation of its two main products: sugar and ethanol. This growth has been driven more by the ethanol production, which grew at a rate of 13% per annum (between 2000 and 2009), than by sugar, which grew at an annual rate of 8% over the same period. Nevertheless, instability in the supply of ethanol is still a problem in the industry. Structural changes, such as th...

  13. Anaerobic digestion of vinasse from sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil from energy, environmental, and economic perspectives: Profit or expense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion of vinasse from Brazilian sugarcane biorefineries was assessed. • Energy from biogas could be used for electricity or vehicular fuel replacement. • Biogas in cogeneration could release bagasse for second-generation ethanol production. • Environmental analysis showed decrease of greenhouse gas emissions and pollutant load. • Diesel replacement was the most economically attractive alternative. - Abstract: The need to improve the sustainability of bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has intensified the search for process energy optimization coupled with the environmental suitability of the generated coproducts and wastes. In this scenario, the anaerobic digestion of vinasse (the most abundant effluent from a sugarcane biorefinery) arises as an interesting alternative because, in addition to promoting the stabilization of organic matter, it also enables energy generation from biogas. In this work, vinasse anaerobic digestion in biorefineries was evaluated in terms of energy, environmental, and economic considerations. The energy potential from vinasse of a single sugarcane biorefinery, which is generally lost due to its application to soil with no treatment, was found to be comparable to the electricity supply demand of a city of approximately 130,000 inhabitants or to the surplus energy from bagasse burning that is exported by some sugarcane mills in Brazil. On a national level, such energy is comparable to the electricity generated by some hydroelectric plants, reaching 7.5% of the electricity generated by the world’s largest hydroelectric plant. When burned in boilers, biogas could be used to stimulate second-generation ethanol production because almost 12% of the bagasse could be released from burning and the biogas used to attenuate the process energy demand. As an alternative fuel, biogas could replace up to 40% of the annual diesel supply in the agricultural operations of a sugarcane biorefinery and still

  14. Expression profiles of sugarcane under drought conditions: Variation in gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Farias de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDrought is a major factor in decreased sugarcane productivity because of the resulting morphophysiological effects that it causes. Gene expression studies that have examined the influence of water stress in sugarcane have yielded divergent results, indicating the absence of a fixed pattern of changes in gene expression. In this work, we investigated the expression profiles of 12 genes in the leaves of a drought-tolerant genotype (RB72910 of sugarcane and compared the results with those of other studies. The genotype was subjected to 80–100% water availability (control condition and 0–20% water availability (simulated drought. To analyze the physiological status, the SPAD index, Fv/Fm ratio, net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs and stomatal transpiration (E were measured. Total RNA was extracted from leaves and the expression of SAMDC, ZmPIP2-1 protein, ZmTIP4-2 protein, WIP protein, LTP protein, histone H3, DNAj, ferredoxin I, β-tubulin, photosystem I, gene 1 and gene 2 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR. Important differences in the expression profiles of these genes were observed when compared with other genotypes, suggesting that complex defense mechanisms are activated in response to water stress. However, there was no recognizable pattern for the changes in expression of the different proteins associated with tolerance to drought stress.

  15. Oxidative enzymes activity in sugarcane juice as a function of the planting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Alcides Marques

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the largest producer of sugarcane in the world, the industrial process transforms this crop into ethanol and/or granulated sugar. Some cultivars exhibit enzymatic browning in the extracted sugarcane juice at levels harmful to the manufacturing process of white granulated sugar. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sugarcane straw used as soil coverage, the use of different planting systems, and treatments with hydrogel polymer on enzymatic activity. The cultivar RB 86 7515 was sampled for 8 months; the first sample was obtained by cutting the upper portion of the stalk at the internode, which was taken to the laboratory for determination of the enzymatic activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. The soil coverage with different forms of straw as well as the planting systems did not change the enzymatic activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. The polyphenoloxidase (PPO activity increased with the use of a polymer due to increased polyphenoloxidase (PPO activity in the groove system. The enzymes studied showed changes in activity during the experimental period. The production of sugar at the end of the season (August to November avoids the periods of highest enzymatic activity.

  16. STRATEGIES FOR NEW INTERNATIONAL VENTURES IN THE BRAZILIAN SUGARCANE INDUSTRY: THE CASE OF ETH BIONERGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carrilho Soares

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify cases of new international ventures in the Brazilian sugarcane industry, specifically as regards ethanol production, i.e., companies that are established from start to have an international profile. The paper explores the case of one such enterprise in the light of the theories addressed. In the last few years, a rising number of companies with this profile have appeared. This runs contrary to the main classical theories of internationalization, which present this process as evolutionary. As for the sugarcane industry, it has expanded considerably in recent years, which led many groups to invest in this segment. This study is a descriptive, qualitative piece of research and is based on the case study of a company recently established in this sector. Analyzing the chosen organization and comparing it to the studied theories, the authors concluded that there is, indeed, a type of organization with the profile of a new international venture. Key-words: Internationalization. New international ventures. Sugarcane industry. Brazil.

  17. Optimal mechanical harvester route planning for sugarcane f ield operations using particle swarm optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woraya Neungmatcha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since current agricultural production systems such as the sugarcane supply system in the sugar industry are developing towards larger and more complicated systems, there is consequently increasing use of agricultural machinery. Even though mechanization can help to increase the sugarcane yield, if the mechanical operation efficiency is low, then higher harvest costs and machinery shortages will occur. Global route planning for mechanical harvesters is one of the most important problems in the field of sugarcane harvesting and transporting operations. Improved efficiency and realistic implementation can be achieved by applying advanced planning methods for the execution of field operations, especially considering the field accessibility aspect. To address this issue, participative research was undertaken with a sugar milling company to produce and implement a mixed integer programming model that represents the mechanical harvester route plan. Particle swarm optimization was applied to find a solution to the model, leading to potential cost savings versus schedules produced manually by the mill officer. The model was also applied to explore regional planning options for a more integrated harvesting and transport system.

  18. Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications.

  19. Physiology aspects of sugarcane production Aspectos de la fisiología de la producción de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. Aspectos da fisiologia de produção da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum Officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Victor Braganti Toppa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The economic yield of sugarcane production is given by sucrose, and non reducing sugars used to make molasses and also fiber, which can be used as an energy source for the plant. The physiological stage of the sugarcane that provides an economic return is maturing, and this can be seen from two different viewpoints: the botanical and physiological. Thus, this study aims to address different aspects of the physiology of the culture of sugar cane in terms of sucrose accumulation, maturation and flowering.

    El rendimiento económico de la caña de azúcar es debido a la producción de sacarose, y de los azúcares no reductores utilizados para hacer melaza y también fibra, que puede ser utilizado como una fuente de energía para la propia usina. La fase fisiológica de la caña de azúcar que resulta en la mayor rentabilidad económica es la maduración, y esta puede ser considerada desde dos puntos de vista diferentes: el botánico y fisiológico. Así, este estudio tiene como objetivo abordar los diferentes aspectos de la fisiología de la cultura de la caña de azúcar en términos de acumulación de sacarosa, la maduración y floración.

    O rendimento econômico da cana-de-açúcar é dado pela produção de sacarose, além de açúcares não redutores utilizados para formar o melaço e também a fibra, que pode ser utilizada como fonte de energia para a própria usina. A fase fisiológica da cana-de-açúcar que proporciona um retorno econômico é a maturação, e esta pode ser considerada sob dois diferentes pontos de vista: O botânico e o fisiológico. Neste sentido, este trabalho tem por objetivo abordar os diferentes aspectos da fisiologia da cultura da cana-de-açúcar em termos de acumulação de sacarose, maturação e florescimento.

  20. Least limiting water range in assessing compaction in a Brazilian Cerrado latosol growing sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainer Gomes Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the south-central region of Brazil, there is a trend toward reducing the sugarcane inter-harvest period and increasing traffic of heavy harvesting machinery on soil with high water content, which may intensify the compaction process. In this study, we assessed the structural changes of a distroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol by monitoring soil water content as a function of the Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR and quantified its effects on the crop yield and industrial quality of the first ratoon crop of sugarcane cultivars with different maturation cycles. Three cultivars (RB 83-5054, RB 84-5210 and RB 86-7515 were subjected to four levels of soil compaction brought about by a differing number of passes of a farm tractor (T0 = soil not trafficked, T2 = 2 passes, T10 = 10 passes, and T20 = 20 passes of the tractor in the same place in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement with three replications. The deleterious effects on the soil structure from the farm machinery traffic were limited to the surface layer (0-10 cm of the inter-row area of the ratoon crop. The LLWR dropped to nearly zero after 20 tractor passes between the cane rows. We detected differences among the cultivars studied; cultivar RB 86-7515 stood out for its industrial processing quality, regardless of the level of soil compaction. Monitoring of soil moisture in the crop showed exposure to water stress conditions, although soil compaction did not affect the production variables of the sugarcane cultivars. We thus conclude that the absence of traffic on the plant row maintained suitable soil conditions for plant development and may have offset the harmful effects of soil compaction shown by the high values for bulk density between the rows of the sugarcane cultivars.